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Sample records for cell differentiation shedding

  1. Rigid matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Gosau, Martin; Küpper, Kevin; Möhl, Christoph; Brockhoff, Gero; Reichert, Torsten E; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ettl, Tobias; Morsczeck, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Stem cell fate can be induced by the grade of stiffness of the extracellular matrix, depending on the developed tissue or complex tissues. For example, a rigid extracellular matrix induces the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), while a softer surface induces the osteogenic differentiation in dental follicle cells (DFCs). To determine whether differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells is supported by similar grades of extracellular matrices (ECMs) stiffness, we examined the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Cell proliferation of SHED was significantly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a muscle-like stiffness. A dexamethasone-based differentiation medium induced the osteogenic differentiation of SHED on substrates of varying mechanical stiffness. Here, the hardest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the softest stiffness. In conclusion, our study showed that the osteogenic differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells SHED and DFCs are not supported by similar grades of ECM stiffness. Copyright © 2012 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of decellularized matrices derived from periodontal ligament stem cells and SHED on the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Zhu, Shaoyue; Xu, Jianguang; Yuan, Changyong; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-04-01

    A major bottleneck to the therapeutic applications of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are their limited proliferative capacity ex vivo and tendency to undergo senescence. This may be partly due to the sub-optimal in vitro culture milieu, which could be improved by an appropriate extracellular matrix substratum. This study therefore examined decellularized matrix (DECM) from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), as potential substrata for DPSC culture. Both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM promoted rapid adhesion and spreading of newly-seeded DPSC compared to bare polystyrene (TCPS), with vinculin immunocytochemistry showing expression of more focal adhesions by newly-adherent DPSC cultured on DECM versus TCPS. Culture of DPSC on SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM yielded higher proliferation of cell numbers compared to TCPS. The qRT-PCR data showed significantly higher expression of nestin by DPSC cultured on DECM versus the TCPS control. Osteogenic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced by culturing on PDLSC-DECM and SHED-DECM versus TCPS, as demonstrated by alizarin red S staining for mineralized calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase assay and qRT-PCR analysis of key osteogenic marker expression. Hence, both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM could enhance the ex vivo culture of DPSC under both non-inducing and osteogenic-inducing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the differentiation potential of neural crest derived progenitor cells from apical papilla (dNC-PCs) and stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) into mineralising cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosau, Martin; Götz, Werner; Felthaus, Oliver; Ettl, Tobias; Jäger, Andreas; Morsczeck, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Recently, cells from the apical papilla of retained human third molars (dental neural crest-derived progenitor cells, dNC-PCs) have been isolated and characterised as multipotent progenitor cells. Nonetheless, molecular processes during differentiation into mineralising cells are still unknown. This study evaluated the osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation of dNC-PCs under in vitro conditions and compared these cells with already known odontoblast precursor cells (dental stem cells from exfoliated human deciduous teeth, SHED). The differentiation of dNC-PCs and SHED under in vitro conditions was verified by Alizarin red staining (mineralisation), alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteogenic/odontogenic markers (RT-PCRs). The genome wide expression-profiles were investigated with Affymetrix DNA-microarrays and the cell migration with a gel spot cell migration assay. In our study dNC-PCs differentiated like SHED in mineralising cells. The expression of odontoblast markers suggested that dNC-PCs and SHED differentiated into different types of odontoblasts. This supposition was supported by genome wide gene expression profiles of dNC-PCs and SHED after cell differentiation. Typical biological processes of undifferentiated cells, for example "mitosis", were regulated in dNC-PCs. In SHED biological processes like "response to wounding" or "cell migration" were regulated, which are associated with replacement odontoblasts and their precursors. Moreover, a gel-spot assay revealed that SHED migrated faster than dNC-PCs. Our results suggest that dNC-PCs are precursors for primary odontoblasts, whereas SHED differentiate into replacement odontoblasts. These different odontogenic differentiation potentials of dNC-PCs and SHED have to be considered for cellular therapies and tissue engineering approaches in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physicochemical Control of Adult Stem Cell Differentiation: Shedding Light on Potential Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    osteoblasts, and that the microfilament -based biomechanical remodeling and [Ca2+]i oscillation are inti- mately connected. MSCs can differentiate down the...transfected to transiently suppress the ERM 8 Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology -Actin microfilaments and stress fibers -Focal contacts including...membrane with microfilaments but also are now known to regulate signaling. Of particular interest are their interaction with Rho-A. The role of Rho- A

  5. Secretome analysis to elucidate metalloprotease-dependent ectodomain shedding of glycoproteins during neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumagari, Kazuya; Shirakabe, Kyoko; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Fuminori; Ishihama, Yasushi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2017-02-01

    Many membrane proteins are subjected to limited proteolyses at their juxtamembrane regions, processes referred to as ectodomain shedding. Shedding ectodomains of membrane-bound ligands results in activation of downstream signaling pathways, whereas shedding those of cell adhesion molecules causes loss of cell-cell contacts. Secreted proteomics (secretomics) using high-resolution mass spectrometry would be strong tools for both comprehensive identification and quantitative measurement of membrane proteins that undergo ectodomain shedding. In this study, to elucidate the ectodomain shedding events that occur during neuronal differentiation, we establish a strategy for quantitative secretomics of glycoproteins released from differentiating neuroblastoma cells into culture medium with or without GM6001, a broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitor. Considering that most of transmembrane and secreted proteins are N-glycosylated, we include a process of N-glycosylated peptides enrichment as well as isotope tagging in our secretomics workflow. Our results show that differentiating N1E-115 neurons secrete numerous glycosylated polypeptides in metalloprotease-dependent manners. They are derived from cell adhesion molecules such as NCAM1, CADM1, L1CAM, various transporters and receptor proteins. These results show the landscape of ectodomain shedding and other secretory events in differentiating neurons and/or during axon elongation, which should help elucidate the mechanism of neurogenesis and the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niel, Guillaume; D'Angelo, Gisela; Raposo, Graça

    2018-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of cell-derived membranous structures comprising exosomes and microvesicles, which originate from the endosomal system or which are shed from the plasma membrane, respectively. They are present in biological fluids and are involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are now considered as an additional mechanism for intercellular communication, allowing cells to exchange proteins, lipids and genetic material. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern extracellular vesicle biology is essential to shed light on the physiological and pathological functions of these vesicles as well as on clinical applications involving their use and/or analysis. However, in this expanding field, much remains unknown regarding the origin, biogenesis, secretion, targeting and fate of these vesicles.

  7. Shed-blood-separation and cell-saver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The postoperative systemic inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still an undesirable side-effect after cardiac surgery. It is most likely caused by blood contact with foreign surfaces and by the surgical trauma itself. However, the recirculation of activated shed...... of a cell-saver (TNF-α ng/l post-ECC 10 min: 9.5±3.5 vs. 19.7±14.5, p

  8. The xenoestrogens biphenol-A and nonylphenol differentially regulate metalloprotease-mediated shedding of EGFR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola-Muñoz, Paulina; Li, Xue; Maretzky, Thorsten; McIlwain, David R; Mak, Tak W; Reyes, Juan G; Blobel, Carl P; Moreno, Ricardo D

    2018-03-01

    The xenoestrogens bisphenol-A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) are endocrine disruptors used in the plastic polymer industry to manufacture different products for human use. Previous studies have suggested a role of these compounds in the shedding of signaling molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of BPA and NP on the sheddase ADAM17 and its newly discovered regulators iRhom1 and iRhom2 in the release of EGFR-ligands. We report that BPA and NP can stimulate the release of the ADAM17-substrates HB-EGF and TGF-α. In cells lacking ADAM17 (Adam17 -/- mEFs) BPA-stimulated release of HB-EGF, but not TGF-α, was strongly reduced, whereas NP-stimulated shedding of HB-EGF and TGF-α was completely abolished. Inactivation of both ADAM17 and the related ADAM10 (Adam10/17 -/- mEFs) completely prevented the release of these substrates. In the absence of iRhom1, BPA- or NP-stimulated release of HB-EGF or TGF-α was comparable to wild-type control mEFs, conversely the BPA-induced release of HB-EGF was abolished in iRhom2 -/- mEFs. The defect in shedding of HB-EGF in iRhom2 -/- mEF cells could be rescued by overexpressing iRhom2. Interestingly, the NP-stimulated release of HB-EGF was not affected by the absence of iRhom2, suggesting that NP could potentially activate both ADAM10 and ADAM17. We tested this hypothesis using betacellulin (BTC), an EGFR-ligand that is a substrate for ADAM10. We found that NP, but not BPA stimulated the release of BTC in Adam17 -/- , iRhom2 -/- , or iRhom1/2 -/- , but not in Adam10/17 -/- cells. Taken together, our results suggest that BPA and NP stimulate the release of EGFR-ligands by differentially activating ADAM17 or ADAM10. The identification of specific effects of these endocrine disruptors on ADAM10 and ADAM17 will help to provide a better understanding of their roles in cell signaling and proinflammatory processes, and provide new potential targets for treatment of reproductive or

  9. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with theprogenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic andstochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a ...

  10. Epidermal differentiation during ontogeny and after hatching in the snake Liasis fuscus (Pythonidae, Serpentes, Reptilia), with emphasis on the formation of the shedding complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibardi, L; Thompson, M B

    2003-04-01

    Differentiation and localization of keratin in the epidermis during embryonic development and up to 3 months posthatching in the Australian water python, Liasis fuscus, was studied by ultrastructural and immunocytochemical methods. Scales arise from dome-like folds in the skin that produce tightly imbricating scales. The dermis of these scales is completely differentiated before any epidermal differentiation begins, with a loose dermis made of mesenchymal cells beneath the differentiating outer scale surface. At this stage (33) the embryo is still unpigmented and two layers of suprabasal cells contain abundant glycogen. At Stage 34 (beginning of pigmentation) the first layers of cells beneath the bilayered periderm (presumptive clear and oberhautchen layers) have not yet formed a shedding complex, within which prehatching shedding takes place. At Stage 35 the shedding complex, consisting of the clear and oberhautchen layers, is discernible. The clear layer contains a fine fibrous network that faces the underlying oberhautchen, where the spinulae initially contain a core of fibrous material and small beta-keratin packets. Differentiation continues at Stage 36 when the beta-layer forms and beta-keratin packets are deposited both on the fibrous core of the oberhautchen and within beta-cells. Mesos cells are produced from the germinal layer but remain undifferentiated. At Stage 37, before hatching, the beta-layer is compact, the mesos layer contains mesos granules, and cells of the alpha-layer are present but are not yet keratinized. They are still only partially differentiated a few hours after hatching, when a new shedding complex is forming underneath. Using antibodies against chick scale beta-keratin resolved at high magnification with immunofluorescent or immunogold conjugates, we offer the first molecular confirmation that in snakes only the oberhautchen component of the shedding complex and the underlying beta cells contain beta-keratin. Initially, there is

  11. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  12. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell ...

  13. Differentiation and cancer in the mammary gland: shedding light on an old dichotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Rønnov-Jessen, L; Weaver, V M

    1998-01-01

    ; Lynch, 1995; Sachs, 1996; Sledge, 1996). The review is divided into a theoretical background for human breast differentiation and a discussion of recent experimental results in our laboratories with differentiation of breast epithelial cells. In the theoretical background, in situ markers...... know that this is the case for epithelial as well as fibroblastic cells, and that interaction with ECM is crucial for such regulation. Indeed, ECM and integrins are emerging as the central regulators of differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer (Boudreau et al., 1995; Boudreau and Bissel, 1996; Werb et al...... in these parameters has evolved along with an increasing understanding of the molecular composition of the ECM, and of the molecular basis of the classical findings that normal cell--in contrast to tumor cells--are anchorage dependent for survival and growth (Folkman and Moscona, 1978; Hannigan et al., 1996). We now...

  14. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic andstochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-knownin dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibitingspecific features in its ...

  15. Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Robinson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3, a member of the picornavirus family and enterovirus genus, causes viral myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis in humans. We genetically engineered a unique molecular marker, "fluorescent timer" protein, within our infectious CVB3 clone and isolated a high-titer recombinant viral stock (Timer-CVB3 following transfection in HeLa cells. "Fluorescent timer" protein undergoes slow conversion of fluorescence from green to red over time, and Timer-CVB3 can be utilized to track virus infection and dissemination in real time. Upon infection with Timer-CVB3, HeLa cells, neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs, and C2C12 myoblast cells slowly changed fluorescence from green to red over 72 hours as determined by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometric analysis. The conversion of "fluorescent timer" protein in HeLa cells infected with Timer-CVB3 could be interrupted by fixation, suggesting that the fluorophore was stabilized by formaldehyde cross-linking reactions. Induction of a type I interferon response or ribavirin treatment reduced the progression of cell-to-cell virus spread in HeLa cells or NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3. Time lapse photography of partially differentiated NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3 revealed substantial intracellular membrane remodeling and the assembly of discrete virus replication organelles which changed fluorescence color in an asynchronous fashion within the cell. "Fluorescent timer" protein colocalized closely with viral 3A protein within virus replication organelles. Intriguingly, infection of partially differentiated NPSCs or C2C12 myoblast cells induced the release of abundant extracellular microvesicles (EMVs containing matured "fluorescent timer" protein and infectious virus representing a novel route of virus dissemination. CVB3 virions were readily observed within purified EMVs by transmission electron microscopy, and infectious virus was identified within low-density isopycnic

  16. Coxsackievirus B exits the host cell in shed microvesicles displaying autophagosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Scott M; Tsueng, Ginger; Sin, Jon; Mangale, Vrushali; Rahawi, Shahad; McIntyre, Laura L; Williams, Wesley; Kha, Nelson; Cruz, Casey; Hancock, Bryan M; Nguyen, David P; Sayen, M Richard; Hilton, Brett J; Doran, Kelly S; Segall, Anca M; Wolkowicz, Roland; Cornell, Christopher T; Whitton, J Lindsay; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Feuer, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a member of the picornavirus family and enterovirus genus, causes viral myocarditis, aseptic meningitis, and pancreatitis in humans. We genetically engineered a unique molecular marker, "fluorescent timer" protein, within our infectious CVB3 clone and isolated a high-titer recombinant viral stock (Timer-CVB3) following transfection in HeLa cells. "Fluorescent timer" protein undergoes slow conversion of fluorescence from green to red over time, and Timer-CVB3 can be utilized to track virus infection and dissemination in real time. Upon infection with Timer-CVB3, HeLa cells, neural progenitor and stem cells (NPSCs), and C2C12 myoblast cells slowly changed fluorescence from green to red over 72 hours as determined by fluorescence microscopy or flow cytometric analysis. The conversion of "fluorescent timer" protein in HeLa cells infected with Timer-CVB3 could be interrupted by fixation, suggesting that the fluorophore was stabilized by formaldehyde cross-linking reactions. Induction of a type I interferon response or ribavirin treatment reduced the progression of cell-to-cell virus spread in HeLa cells or NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3. Time lapse photography of partially differentiated NPSCs infected with Timer-CVB3 revealed substantial intracellular membrane remodeling and the assembly of discrete virus replication organelles which changed fluorescence color in an asynchronous fashion within the cell. "Fluorescent timer" protein colocalized closely with viral 3A protein within virus replication organelles. Intriguingly, infection of partially differentiated NPSCs or C2C12 myoblast cells induced the release of abundant extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) containing matured "fluorescent timer" protein and infectious virus representing a novel route of virus dissemination. CVB3 virions were readily observed within purified EMVs by transmission electron microscopy, and infectious virus was identified within low-density isopycnic iodixanol

  17. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    Typical manufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%; and 14% efficiency is the bare minimum for achieving a profit. In work performed at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley, CA, 5 10-486-577 1)--a US Department of Energy national laboratory that conducts unclassified scientific research and is managed by the University of California--scientist Scott McHugo has obtained keen insights into the impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from polycrystalline silicon. The solar cell market is potentially vast, according to Berkeley Lab. Lightweight solar panels are highly beneficial for providing electrical power to remote locations in developing nations, since there is no need to build transmission lines or truck-in generator fuel. Moreover, industrial nations confronted with diminishing resources have active programs aimed at producing improved, less expensive solar cells. 'In a solar cell, there is a junction between p-type silicon and an n-type layer, such as diffused-in phosphorous', explained McHugo, who is now with Berkeley Lab's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. 'When sunlight is absorbed, it frees electrons, which start migrating in a random-walk fashion toward that junction. If the electrons make it to the junction; they contribute to the cell's output of electric current. Often, however, before they reach the junction, they recombine at specific sites in the crystal' (and, therefore, cannot contribute to current output). McHugo scrutinized a map of a silicon wafer in which sites of high recombination appeared as dark regions. Previously, researchers had shown that such phenomena occurred not primarily at grain boundaries in the polycrystalline material, as might be expected, but more often at dislocations in the crystal. However, the dislocations themselves were not the problem. Using a unique heat treatment technique, McHugo performed electrical measurements to investigate the material

  18. Criticality in cell differentiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrani Bose

    2017-11-09

    Nov 9, 2017 ... diverse as ecosystems, financial markets, population biology and complex diseases (Scheffer et al. 2009, 2012). Similar studies on the signatures of regime .... and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult tissues. (Semrau and van Oudenaarden 2015). Cell differentiation occurs when the undifferentiated ...

  19. Prolonged Shedding of Human Coronavirus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Risk Factors and Viral Genome Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Chikara; Greninger, Alexander L; Waghmare, Alpana A; Kuypers, Jane M; Shean, Ryan C; Xie, Hu; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stevens-Ayers, Terry L; Jerome, Keith R; Englund, Janet A; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Recent data suggest that human coronavirus (HCoV) pneumonia is associated with significant mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Investigation of risk factors for prolonged shedding and intrahost genome evolution may provide critical information for development of novel therapeutics. We retrospectively reviewed HCT recipients with HCoV detected in nasal samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HCoV strains were identified using strain-specific PCR. Shedding duration was defined as time between first positive and first negative sample. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors for prolonged shedding (≥21 days). Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was conducted when ≥4 samples with cycle threshold values of Genome changes were consistent with the expected molecular clock of HCoV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. An investigation of the shedding of macromolecules from the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous release, or shedding, of cell surface components into the extracellular medium may be important in the determination of several features of the cancer cell phenotype. The release of macromolecules from the Erhlich mouse ascites tumor cell was studied under a variety of experimental conditions to elucidate the origin and the underlying mechanisms of release. The extrinsic macromolecules are a diverse group with apparent molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 400,000 daltons. External labeling of the cell surface with tritiated 4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2-disulfonic acid ([ 3 H]H 2 DIDS) reveals a slow loss of labeled components at 4 degrees C, while at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C an initial rapid loss is followed by a slower release. In vitro metabolic labeling with [1- 14 C]-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-[2- 3 H]-mannose and various [ 3 H]-L-amino acids results in the appearance of labeled macromolecules in the medium suggesting tumor, not mouse, origin. These data suggest that the extrinsic macromolecules originate from the cell surface. Macromolecules are shed by a temperature and pH sensitive process. These results suggest that a limited proteolytic digestion, or sublethal autolysis, of the cell surface may occur in this system. The macromolecules shed by the Ehrlich cell originate from the surface and are probably released by sublethal autolysis, direct secretion and a passive process

  1. Banking stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED): saving for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vipin; Arora, Pooja; Munshi, A K

    2009-01-01

    Tooth derived cells are readily accessible and provide an easy and minimally invasive way to obtain and store stem cells for future use. Banking ones own tooth-derived stem cells is a reasonable and simple alternative to harvesting stem cells from other tissues. Obtaining stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) is simple and convenient, with little or no trauma. Every child loses primary teeth, which creates the perfect opportunity to recover and store this convenient source of stem cells--should they be needed to treat future injuries or ailments and presents a far better alternative to simply discarding the teeth or storing them as mementos from the past. Furthermore, using ones own stem cells poses few, if any, risks for developing immune reactions or rejection following transplantation and also eliminates the potential of contracting disease from donor cells. Stem cells can also be recovered from developing wisdom teeth and permanent teeth. Individuals have different opportunities at different stages of their life to bank these valuable cells. It is best to recover stem cells when a child is young and healthy and the cells are strong and proliferative. The purpose of this review is to discuss the present scenario as well as the technical details of tooth banking as related to SHED cells.

  2. Shedding of APP limits its synaptogenic activity and cell adhesion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ronny; Schilling, Sandra; Soba, Peter; Rupp, Carsten; Hartmann, Tobias; Wagner, Katja; Merdes, Gunter; Eggert, Simone; Kins, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and has essential synapse promoting functions. Synaptogenic activity as well as cell adhesion properties of APP presumably depend on trans-cellular dimerization via its extracellular domain. Since neuronal APP is extensively processed by secretases, it raises the question if APP shedding affects its cell adhesion and synaptogenic properties. We show that inhibition of APP shedding using cleavage deficient forms of APP or a dominant negative α-secretase strongly enhanced its cell adhesion and synaptogenic activity suggesting that synapse promoting function of APP is tightly regulated by α-secretase mediated processing, similar to other trans-cellular synaptic adhesion molecules. PMID:25520622

  3. [Effect of trastuzumab on tumor cell lines shedding high or low level of HER-2 ECD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Yun; Yang, Wei; Li, Jin-Feng; Sun, Su-Lian; Shou, Cheng-Chao

    2007-02-01

    To examine the effect of trastuzumab on cell proliferation, colony formation and changes of HER-2 proteins in human breast cancer cell line SKBR3 and human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 cells which overexpress p185 HER-2 but shed high or low HER-2 extracellular domain (ECD) levels. SKBR3 cells and SKOV3 cells were treated with or without trastuzumab. Cell number and the rate of colony formation were calculated. Western blot analysis was used to detect p185 HER-2, HER-2 ECD and phospho-HER-2. Two-site ELISA assay was used for the detection of HER-2 ECD. Trastuzumab inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and decreased or eliminated the levels of two uncharacterized phospho-proteins (molar weight about 90 000 and 40 000) in SKBR3 cells shedding high level of HER-2 ECD expression. These responses were not observed in SKOV3 cells shedding low level of HER-2 ECD expression. But total p185, phospho-p185 and phospho-p95 proteins did not appear to change in SKBR3 and SKOV3 cells after treatment with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab reacts not only with proteolytic cleavage HER-2 ECD containing HER-2 ECD I , II , III and IV subdomains of p185 HER-2 extracellular domain, but also with the secreted autoinhibitor p68/ECD III a specifying 340 residues, identical to subdomains I and II from the extracellular domain of p185 HER-2, followed by a unique C-terminal sequence of 79 aa encoded by intron 8, which suggested that there may be a trastuzumab binding site on p68/ECD III a protein. Comparing with HER-2 ECD levels of the same number of SKBR3 cells, there was no significant decrease of HER-2 ECD shedding level after treatment with or without trastuzumab for 4 days in serum-free medium. Antitumor effects of trastuzumab may be related to the two uncharacterized phospho-p90 and/or phospho-p40 proteins. There is probably a trastuzumab epitope on p68/ECD III a. The decrease of HER-2 ECD levels may be positively correlated with the number of SKBR3 cells.

  4. Comparison of glycolipid shedding in non-transformed and virus-transformed non-producer mouse sarcoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparyan, N.G.; Yogeeswaran, G.

    1987-01-01

    In order to examine glycolipid (GL) turnover and shedding, and their potential significance in immunosuppression during malignant growth, they have compared the biological properties and GL of nontransformed B-3T3 and its virus transformants. In vitro generation time, soft agar clonogenicity and in vivo tumorigenic and metastatic potential defined their malignancy in the following order: K3T3Cl.6>K3T3Cl.12>KB521>MSV85Cl.3>3T3. Metabolic labeling with 3 H-galactose was utilized to distinguish serum-GL from cell-GL and shed-GL. 1) Successive periods of 24 hr. labeling during log-growth phase showed a good correlation between cell-GL, shed-GL and serum dependency. 2) A 48 hr. steady-state labeling during mid-log phase defined that shed-GL were evident in 100K xg sedimentable vesicle (6-15%) and membrane fragments/micelle forms (14-46%). Although there was no selectivity in shed-GL patterns as detected by TLC, metastatic K3T3Cl.6 cells shed more GL in membrane vesicular form. 3) Analysis of acid-soluble cytoplasmic precursor-pool and corresponding cell glycans showed that increase in transport, metabolism and shedding were all related to cellular growth. 4) Cell death contribution to shed GL, analyzed by incorporation and release of 3 H-thymidine, was found to be a minor factor

  5. Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and shedding induced by growth factors are cell and compound specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Eloah R; Nohara, Angela S; Mataveli, Fábio D; de Matos, Leandro L; Nader, Helena B; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida S

    2007-02-01

    The interactions between growth factors and sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) have been extensively studied. The aim of this study is to investigate if growth factors would show specificity of action on the synthesis and shedding of sulphated GAG, using two different cell lines: endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The cells were grown in the presence or absence of growth factors: EGF, FGF2, VEGF121, VEGF165. Transfection assays were also performed using recombinant pcDNA3.1, containing VEGF165 cDNA. In order to analyse the different types of GAG the cells were metabolically labelled with [(35)S]-sulphate. At low doses, VEGF121 was the only growth factor able to increase both the synthesis and secretion of heparan sulphate (HS) in endothelial cells. Over expression of VEGF165 stimulated HS synthesis in both cells. The combined results showed that growth factors affect GAG synthesis in a cell specific and dose dependent manner.

  6. A High-Resolution Proteomic Landscaping of Primary Human Dental Stem Cells: Identification of SHED- and PDLSC-Specific Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Taraslia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental stem cells (DSCs have emerged as a promising tool for basic research and clinical practice. A variety of adult stem cell (ASC populations can be isolated from different areas within the dental tissue, which, due to their cellular and molecular characteristics, could give rise to different outcomes when used in potential applications. In this study, we performed a high-throughput molecular comparison of two primary human adult dental stem cell (hADSC sub-populations: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs. A detailed proteomic mapping of SHEDs and PDLSCs, via employment of nano-LC tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS revealed 2032 identified proteins in SHEDs and 3235 in PDLSCs. In total, 1516 proteins were expressed in both populations, while 517 were unique for SHEDs and 1721 were exclusively expressed in PDLSCs. Further analysis of the recorded proteins suggested that SHEDs predominantly expressed molecules that are involved in organizing the cytoskeletal network, cellular migration and adhesion, whereas PDLSCs are highly energy-producing cells, vastly expressing proteins that are implicated in various aspects of cell metabolism and proliferation. Applying the Rho-GDI signaling pathway as a paradigm, we propose potential biomarkers for SHEDs and for PDLSCs, reflecting their unique features, properties and engaged molecular pathways.

  7. A High-Resolution Proteomic Landscaping of Primary Human Dental Stem Cells: Identification of SHED- and PDLSC-Specific Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraslia, Vasiliki; Lymperi, Stefania; Pantazopoulou, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Papassideri, Issidora S; Basdra, Efthimia K; Bei, Marianna; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G; Tsangaris, George Th; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Anastasiadou, Ema

    2018-01-05

    Dental stem cells (DSCs) have emerged as a promising tool for basic research and clinical practice. A variety of adult stem cell (ASC) populations can be isolated from different areas within the dental tissue, which, due to their cellular and molecular characteristics, could give rise to different outcomes when used in potential applications. In this study, we performed a high-throughput molecular comparison of two primary human adult dental stem cell (hADSC) sub-populations: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs) and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs). A detailed proteomic mapping of SHEDs and PDLSCs, via employment of nano-LC tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS) revealed 2032 identified proteins in SHEDs and 3235 in PDLSCs. In total, 1516 proteins were expressed in both populations, while 517 were unique for SHEDs and 1721 were exclusively expressed in PDLSCs. Further analysis of the recorded proteins suggested that SHEDs predominantly expressed molecules that are involved in organizing the cytoskeletal network, cellular migration and adhesion, whereas PDLSCs are highly energy-producing cells, vastly expressing proteins that are implicated in various aspects of cell metabolism and proliferation. Applying the Rho-GDI signaling pathway as a paradigm, we propose potential biomarkers for SHEDs and for PDLSCs, reflecting their unique features, properties and engaged molecular pathways.

  8. Isolation and morphology of Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal; Manogaran, Thanaletchumi; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Wahab, Rohaya Megat Abdul

    2016-11-01

    Dental pulp is a tissue obtained from pulp chamber of deciduous and permanent tooth which contain stem cells. Stem cell isolation procedure is performed to obtain cells from tissue using enzymatic digestion. The aim of this study is to isolate and observe the morphology of stem cells during passage 0 and passage 3. Dental pulp from deciduous and permanent tooth was enzymatically digested using collagenase Type I and cells obtained were cultured in DMEM-KO that contains 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution and 0.001× GlutaMax®. During culture, cell morphology was observed under the microscope on day 3, 16 and 33 and captured using cellB software. Giemsa staining was conducted on cells at passage 3. Cells attached at the bottom of the flask on day 3 and started forming small colonies. Cells became confluent after approximately 4 weeks. Both Stem Cells from Deciduous Tooth (SHED) and Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSC) exhibited fibroblast-like morphology during passage 0 and passage 3. Meanwhile, Giemsa staining at passage 3 revealed single intact nucleus surrounded by fibroblastic cytoplasm structure. It can be concluded that SHED and hDPSC showed consistent fibroblast-like morphology throughout culture period.

  9. Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Ritu; Johnson, Michael S; Pokharel, Deep; Krishnan, S Rajeev; Bebawy, Mary

    2017-02-06

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment of distant immune cells. These findings

  10. Allogeneic stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED for the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth: Two case reports of a novel biologic alternative treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madu Ghana Shyam Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are the pluripotent cells that have the capacity to differentiate into other specialized cells. Recently, many experiments have been conducted to study the potentiality of stem cells in the tissue regeneration. We report two cases treated utilizing stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in the management of periapical lesions in permanent teeth. Two normal human deciduous teeth from children, 7‒8 years of age, were collected to isolate stem cells. Two patients, one with periapical pathology alone and the other with periapical lesion along with an open apex in young permanent teeth, were selected for the study. After initial debridement of the root canals, homing of SHED was carried out and the access cavity was sealed using glass-ionomer cement. Clinical examination after 7 days, 30 days, 90 days, 180 days and 365 days revealed no symptoms. Closure of open apex and periapical tissue healing were observed radiographically at one-month review and maintained until 365-day review. Positive response to electric pulp testing was recorded for the treated teeth from the 3- to 12-month follow-ups. The treated cases demonstrated complete resolution of periapical radiolucency in a span of 30 days, which was faster than the conventional methods. SHED could be considred effective in treating the periapical lesions and open apex in permanent teeth.

  11. Hypoxia increases tumor cell shedding of MHC class I chain-related molecule: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, D Robert; Hu, Nianping; Sheikhi, Abdol Karim; Chung, Eugene; Frederiksen, Lisa J; Pross, Hugh; Graham, Charles H

    2008-06-15

    The MHC class I chain-related (MIC) molecules play important roles in tumor immune surveillance through their interaction with the NKG2D receptor on natural killer and cytotoxic T cells. Thus, shedding of the MIC molecules from the tumor cell membrane represents a potential mechanism of escape from NKG2D-mediated immune surveillance. Tumor hypoxia is associated with a poor clinical outcome for cancer patients. We show that hypoxia contributes to tumor cell shedding of MIC through a mechanism involving impaired nitric oxide (NO) signaling. Whereas hypoxia increased MIC shedding in human prostate cancer cells, activation of NO signaling inhibited hypoxia-mediated MIC shedding. Similar to incubation in hypoxia, pharmacologic inhibition of endogenous NO signaling increased MIC shedding. Parallel studies showed hypoxia-mediated tumor cell resistance to lysis by interleukin 2-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and NO-mediated attenuation of this resistance to lysis. Inhibition of NO production also led to resistance to PBL-mediated lysis. Interference of MIC-NKG2D interaction with a blocking anti-MIC antibody abrogated the effect of hypoxia and NO signaling on tumor cell sensitivity to PBL-mediated lysis. Finally, continuous transdermal delivery of the NO mimetic glyceryl trinitrate (7.3 mug/h) attenuated the growth of xenografted MIC-expressing human prostate tumors. These findings suggest that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment contributes to resistance to immune surveillance and that activation of NO signaling is of potential use in cancer immunotherapy.

  12. A mouse model of pathological small intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and shedding induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The gut barrier, composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs held together by tight junctions, prevents the entrance of harmful microorganisms, antigens and toxins from the gut lumen into the blood. Small intestinal homeostasis is normally maintained by the rate of shedding of senescent enterocytes from the villus tip exactly matching the rate of generation of new cells in the crypt. However, in various localized and systemic inflammatory conditions, intestinal homeostasis can be disturbed as a result of increased IEC shedding. Such pathological IEC shedding can cause transient gaps to develop in the epithelial barrier and result in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been implicated in the pathogenesis of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. We have therefore developed a murine model to study this phenomenon, because IEC shedding in this species is morphologically analogous to humans. IEC shedding was induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in mice deficient in TNF-receptor 1 (Tnfr1−/−, Tnfr2 (Tnfr2−/−, nuclear factor kappa B1 (Nfκb1−/− or Nfĸb2 (Nfĸb2−/−. Apoptosis and cell shedding was quantified using immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3, and gut-to-circulation permeability was assessed by measuring plasma fluorescence following fluorescein-isothiocyanate–dextran gavage. LPS, at doses ≥0.125 mg/kg body weight, induced rapid villus IEC apoptosis, with peak cell shedding occurring at 1.5 hours after treatment. This coincided with significant villus shortening, fluid exudation into the gut lumen and diarrhea. A significant increase in gut-to-circulation permeability was observed at 5 hours. TNFR1 was essential for LPS-induced IEC apoptosis and shedding, and the fate of the IECs was also dependent on NFκB, with signaling via NFκB1 favoring cell survival and

  13. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I.

    2016-01-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. PMID:27022018

  14. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I

    2016-06-03

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Shedding of CD9 antigen into cerebrospinal fluid by acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Y; Ochiai, H; Shimizu, K; Azuma, E; Kamiya, H; Sakurai, M

    1990-07-01

    The accurate identification of small numbers of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presents a diagnostic problem in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We demonstrated that soluble CD9 antigen was shed into CSF obtained from children with ALL, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which used the activity of CD9 antigen to bind the Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) and a monoclonal antibody, SJ-9A4, simultaneously. Using RCA1/SJ-9A4 ELISA, CD9 antigen was detectable in CSF but not in plasma from 12 cases of CD9+ ALL in central nervous system (CNS) relapse. However, CD9 antigen was not released into CSF from 11 cases of CD9- ALL with CNS involvement, 136 cases of CD9+ ALL in complete remission (CR), 29 cases of CD9- ALL in CR, or 21 cases of aseptic meningitis. Interestingly, the levels of CD9 antigen were elevated in CSF from 7 of 10 CD9+ ALL patients without cytologically proven CNS involvement at diagnosis, with subsequent return to undetectable levels after initial induction chemotherapy was begun. In addition, sequential analysis of CSF from a 5-year-old boy with CD9+ ALL in CNS relapse showed that levels of CD9 antigen correlated well with the number of leukemic cells in CSF. Serial quantitative analysis of CD9 antigen in CSF could be useful to detect the proliferation of residual leukemic cells before the clinical manifestation.

  16. Shedding of leukemia-associated P24 antigen by lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Y; Ochiai, H; Shimizu, K; Azuma, E; Kamiya, H; Sakurai, M

    1987-12-01

    We report the development of a unique enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which makes possible the detection of leukemia-associated P24 antigen, utilizing its ability to bind the Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) and a monoclonal antibody, SJ-9A4 simultaneously. Using the RCA1/SJ-9A4-ELISA, P24 antigen, as few as 50 X 10(3) cells from a common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (C-ALL) cell line could be detected. The presence of D-galactose gave complete and specific inhibition of P24 antigen binding to RCA1. Matched concentrations of D-glucose and D-sucrose had no effect on binding. The release of the P24 antigen into the culture medium by a C-ALL cell line maintained at 37 degrees C could be detected; however, no P24 antigen was present in the culture medium when the cells were maintained at 4 degrees C. Sequential analysis of the culture medium for soluble P24 antigen revealed that release of the P24 antigen associated with cell growth. Molecular sieve chromatography of concentrated culture medium indicated that shed P24 antigen was eluted in the macromolecule fraction. P24 antigen was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of four patients with P24 positive ALL at the time of relapse of the central nervous system (CNS) and was undetectable while in complete remission. The CSF from three patients with P24 negative ALL and three patients with aseptic meningitis had no detectable activity.

  17. The Vast Universe of T Cell Diversity: Subsets of Memory Cells and Their Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandus, Camilla; Usatorre, Amaia Martínez; Viganò, Selena; Zhang, Lianjun; Romero, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    The T cell receptor confers specificity for antigen recognition to T cells. By the first encounter with the cognate antigen, reactive T cells initiate a program of expansion and differentiation that will define not only the ultimate quantity of specific cells that will be generated, but more importantly their quality and functional heterogeneity. Recent achievements using mouse model infection systems have helped to shed light into the complex network of factors that dictate and sustain memory T cell differentiation, ranging from antigen load, TCR signal strength, metabolic fitness, transcriptional programs, and proliferative potential. The different models of memory T cell differentiation are discussed in this chapter, and key phenotypic and functional attributes of memory T cell subsets are presented, both for mouse and human cells. Therapeutic manipulation of memory T cell generation is expected to provide novel unique ways to optimize current immunotherapies, both in infection and cancer.

  18. Differentiation of Drosophila glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Sofia; Neuert, Helen; Klämbt, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Glial cells are important constituents of the nervous system and a hallmark of these cells are their pronounced migratory abilities. In Drosophila, glial lineages have been well described and some of the molecular mechanisms necessary to guide migrating glial cells to their final target sites have been identified. With the onset of migration, glial cells are already specified into one of five main glial cell types. The perineurial and subperineurial glial cells are eventually located at the outer surface of the Drosophila nervous system and constitute the blood-brain barrier. The cortex glial cells ensheath all neuroblasts and their progeny and reside within the central nervous system. Astrocyte-like cells invade the neuropil to control synaptic function and ensheathing glial cells encase the entire neuropil. Within the peripheral nervous system, wrapping glial cells ensheath individual axons or axon fascicles. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on how differentiation of glial cells into the specific subtypes is orchestrated. Furthermore, we discuss sequencing data that will facilitate further analyses of glial differentiation in the fly nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mitochondria in aging cell differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palková, Zdena; Váchová, Libuše

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2016), s. 1287-1288 ISSN 1945-4589 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mitochondria * cell differentiation * retrograde signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.867, year: 2016

  20. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  1. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech

    2015-01-01

    embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. The cells on collagen I substrates displayed different morphology and gene expression during differentiation as assessed...... by time lapse studies compared to cells on the other tested substrates. Global gene expression analysis showed that cells differentiated on collagen I were largely similar to cells on fibronectin after completed differentiation. Collectively, the data suggest that collagen I induces a more rapid...... and consistent differentiation of stem cells to definitive endoderm. The results shed light on the importance of extracellular matrix proteins for differentiation and also points to a cost effective and easy method to improve differentiation....

  2. Comparative Analysis of Proliferation and Differentiation Potentials of Stem Cells from Inflamed Pulp of Deciduous Teeth and Stem Cells from Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells isolated from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs are highly capable of proliferation and differentiation, and they represent good cell sources for mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC- mediated dental tissue regeneration, but the supply of SHEDs is limited. A previous study found that stem cells could be isolated from inflamed tissues, but it is unknown whether primary dental pulp diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis might contain stem cells with appropriate tissue regeneration capacity. In this study, we aimed to isolate stem cells from both inflamed pulps of deciduous teeth (SCIDs and SHEDs from Chinese children and to compare their proliferation and differentiation potentials. Our results showed that SCIDs were positive for cell surface markers, including CD105, CD90, and CD146, and they had high proliferation ability and osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials. There was no significant difference in proliferation and differentiation potentials between SCIDs and SHEDs. The mRNA of inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, was expressed at similar levels in SCIDs and SHEDs, but SCIDs secreted more TNF-α protein. In conclusion, our in vitro results showed that SCIDs have proliferation and differentiation potentials similar to those of SHEDs. Thus, SCIDs represent a new potentially applicable source for MSC mediated tissue regeneration.

  3. Regulators of Tfh cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Motiram Jogdand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The follicular helper T (Tfh cells help is critical for activation of B cells, antibody class switching and germinal center formation. The Tfh cells are characterized by the expression of CXCR5, ICOS, PD-1, Bcl-6, and IL-21. They are involved in clearing infections and are adversely linked with autoimmune diseases and also have a role in viral replication as well as clearance. Tfh cells are generated from naïve CD4 T cells with sequential steps involving cytokine signaling (IL-21, IL-6, IL-12, activin A, migration and positioning in the germinal center by CXCR5, surface receptors (ICOS/ICOSL, SAP/SLAM as well as transcription factor (Bcl-6, c-Maf, STAT3 signaling and repressor miR155. On the other hand Tfh generation is negatively regulated at specific steps of Tfh generation by specific cytokine (IL-2, IL-7, surface receptor (PD-1, CTLA-4, transcription factors Blimp-1, STAT5, T-bet, KLF-2 signaling and repressor miR 146a. Interestingly, miR 17-92 and FOXO1 acts as a positive as well as a negative regulator of Tfh differentiation depending on the time of expression and disease specificity. Tfh cells are also generated from the conversion of other effector T cells as exemplified by Th1 cells converting into Tfh during viral infection. The mechanistic details of effector T cells conversion into Tfh are yet to be clear. To manipulate Tfh cells for therapeutic implication and or for effective vaccination strategies, it is important to know positive and negative regulators of Tfh generation. Hence, in this review we have highlighted and interlinked molecular signaling from cytokines, surface receptors, transcription factors, ubiquitin Ligase and miRNA as positive and negative regulators for Tfh differentiation.

  4. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  5. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  6. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  7. Th1 cytokine-induced syndecan-4 shedding by airway smooth muscle cells is dependent on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiahui; Khalil, Najwa; Tesarik, Candice; Vanapalli, Karunasri; Yaputra, Viki; Alkhouri, Hatem; Oliver, Brian G G; Armour, Carol L; Hughes, J Margaret

    2012-04-01

    In asthma, airway smooth muscle (ASM) chemokine secretion can induce mast cell recruitment into the airways. The functions of the mast cell chemoattractant CXCL10, and other chemokines, are regulated by binding to heparan sulphates such as syndecan-4. This study is the first demonstration that airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) from people with and without asthma express and shed syndecan-4 under basal conditions. Syndecan-4 shedding was enhanced by stimulation for 24 h with the Th1 cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ (IFNγ), nor the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. ASMC stimulation with IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFNγ (cytomix) induced the highest level of syndecan-4 shedding. Nonasthmatic and asthmatic ASM cell-associated syndecan-4 protein expression was also increased by TNF-α or cytomix at 4-8 h, with the highest levels detected in cytomix-stimulated asthmatic cells. Cell-associated syndecan-4 levels were decreased by 24 h, whereas shedding remained elevated at 24 h, consistent with newly synthesized syndecan-4 being shed. Inhibition of ASMC matrix metalloproteinase-2 did not prevent syndecan-4 shedding, whereas inhibition of ERK MAPK activation reduced shedding from cytomix-stimulated ASMC. Although ERK inhibition had no effect on syndecan-4 mRNA levels stimulated by cytomix, it did cause an increase in cell-associated syndecan-4 levels, consistent with the shedding being inhibited. In conclusion, ASMC produce and shed syndecan-4 and although this is increased by the Th1 cytokines, the MAPK ERK only regulates shedding. ASMC syndecan-4 production during Th1 inflammatory conditions may regulate chemokine activity and mast cell recruitment to the ASM in asthma.

  8. Inhibiting avian influenza virus shedding using a novel RNAi antiviral vector technology: proof of concept in an avian cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Lyndsey M; Wilusz, Jeffrey; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Fruehauf, Johannes; Magnuson, Roberta; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Triantis, Joni; Landolt, Gabriele; Salman, Mo

    2016-03-01

    Influenza A viruses pose significant health and economic threats to humans and animals. Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) are a liability to the poultry industry and increase the risk for transmission to humans. There are limitations to using the AIV vaccine in poultry, creating barriers to controlling outbreaks and a need for alternative effective control measures. Application of RNA interference (RNAi) techniques hold potential; however, the delivery of RNAi-mediating agents is a well-known obstacle to harnessing its clinical application. We introduce a novel antiviral approach using bacterial vectors that target avian mucosal epithelial cells and deliver (small interfering RNA) siRNAs against two AIV genes, nucleoprotein (NP) and polymerase acidic protein (PA). Using a red fluorescent reporter, we first demonstrated vector delivery and intracellular expression in avian epithelial cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated significant reductions in AIV shedding when applying these anti-AIV vectors prophylactically. These antiviral vectors provided up to a 10,000-fold reduction in viral titers shed, demonstrating in vitro proof-of-concept for using these novel anti-AIV vectors to inhibit AIV shedding. Our results indicate this siRNA vector technology could represent a scalable and clinically applicable antiviral technology for avian and human influenza and a prototype for RNAi-based vectors against other viruses.

  9. Decellularized extracellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes endothelial differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Xu, Jianguang; Zhu, Shaoyue; Yuan, Changyong; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-04-01

    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mucosal HSV-2 specific CD8+ T-cells represent containment of prior viral shedding rather than a correlate of future protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Tisdell Schiffer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is largely unknown why certain infected hosts shed Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2 more frequently and have more severe disease manifestations than others. One idea is that different density or functional capacity of tissue resident effector memory CD8+ T-cells between infected persons may explain phenotypic variability. To generate hypotheses for contrasting shedding patterns in different infected hosts, a spatial mathematical model was employed to evaluate the effects of variability in tissue resident effector memory CD8+ T-cell response, and HSV-2 replication and spread, on viral shedding rate. Model simulations suggest that high levels of CD8+ T-cells in the mucosa do not necessarily indicate a protective phenotype but rather an effective response to recent shedding. Moreover, higher CD8+ T-cell expansion rate and lower viral replication rate, which correlate with better short-term control, may have only a minor impact on long term shedding rates. Breakthrough shedding occurs under all sets of model parameter assumptions, because CD8+ T-cell levels only surpass a protective threshold in a minority of genital tract mucosal micro-regions. If CD8+ T-cell levels are artificially increased using an immunotherapeutic approach, better control of shedding is predicted to occur for at least a year. These results highlight the complex co-dependent relationship between HSV-2 and tissue resident CD8+ lymphocytes during the course of natural infection.

  11. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Pakiza

    2016-12-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural changes induced by proteins such as ARC and Cofilin among others in the case of synaptic modification. In this study we used the generalized polarization (GP) property of fluorescent probe Laurdan using two-photon microscopy to determine membrane fluidity as a function of time and for various cell lines. A low GP value corresponds to a higher fluidity and a higher GP value is associated with a more rigid membrane. Four different cell lines were monitored such as hN2, NIH3T3, HEK293 and L6 cells. As expected, NIH3T3 cells have more rigid membrane at earlier stages of their development. On the other hand neurons tend to have the highest membrane fluidity early in their development emphasizing its correlation with plasticity and the need for this malleability during differentiation. This study sheds light on the involvement of membrane fluidity during neuronal differentiation and development of other cell lines.

  12. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  13. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...

  14. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20% enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  15. Microparticle Shedding by Erythrocytes, Monocytes and Vascular Smooth Muscular Cells Is Reduced by Aspirin in Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Padró, Teresa; Vilahur, Gemma; Peña, Esther; Ybarra, Juan; Pou, Jose M; Badimon, Lina

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an enhanced risk for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence is increasing. Diabetes induces metabolic stress on blood and vascular cells, promoting platelet activation and vascular dysfunction. The level of vascular cell activation can be measured by the number and phenotype of microparticles found in the circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a platelet-inhibitory dose of aspirin on the number and type of microparticles shed to the circulation. Forty-three diabetic patients were enrolled in the study and received a daily dose of 100mg of aspirin for 10 days to cover the average platelet life-span in the circulation. Before and after the intervention period, circulating microparticles were characterized and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 1 diabetic patients had about twice the number of tissue factor-positive circulating microparticles (derived both from platelets and monocytes) and endothelial-derived E-selectin positive microparticles than type 2 diabetic patients. Aspirin therapy significantly inhibited platelets since cyclooxygenase 1 derived thromboxane generation levels were reduced by 99%. Microparticles derived from erythrocytes, activated monocytes, and smooth muscle cells were significantly reduced after 10 days of aspirin administration. These results indicate that: a) vascular and blood cells in type 1 diabetic patients are exposed to more sustained stress shown by their specific microparticle origin and levels; b) aspirin therapy inhibits vascular wall cell activation and microparticle shedding, and c) the effects of aspirin are similar in type 1 and 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Vertebrate Protein Dead End Maintains Primordial Germ Cell Fate by Inhibiting Somatic Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Thebing, Theresa; Yigit, Sargon; Pfeiffer, Jana; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Bandemer, Jan; Ruckert, Christian; Rathmer, Christin; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Stehling, Martin; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Seggewiss, Jochen; Raz, Erez

    2017-12-18

    Maintaining cell fate relies on robust mechanisms that prevent the differentiation of specified cells into other cell types. This is especially critical during embryogenesis, when extensive cell proliferation, patterning, and migration events take place. Here we show that vertebrate primordial germ cells (PGCs) are protected from reprogramming into other cell types by the RNA-binding protein Dead end (Dnd). PGCs knocked down for Dnd lose their characteristic morphology and adopt various somatic cell fates. Concomitantly, they gain a gene expression profile reflecting differentiation into cells of different germ layers, in a process that we could direct by expression of specific cell-fate determinants. Importantly, we visualized these events within live zebrafish embryos, which provide temporal information regarding cell reprogramming. Our results shed light on the mechanisms controlling germ cell fate maintenance and are relevant for the formation of teratoma, a tumor class composed of cells from more than one germ layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell-cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells.

  18. KLK5 induces shedding of DPP4 from circulatory Th17 cells in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titli Nargis

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Our study provides mechanistic insights into the molecular interaction between KLK5 and DPP4 as well as CD4+ T cell derived KLK5 mediated enzymatic cleavage of DPP4 from cell surface. Thus, our study uncovers a hitherto unknown cellular source and mechanism behind enhanced plasma DPP4 activity in T2DM.

  19. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Kirby, Brian J; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell–cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells. (paper)

  20. Ketogenesis contributes to intestinal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Rychahou, Piotr; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21 Waf1 ). Conversely, knockdown of the ketogenic mitochondrial enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) attenuated spontaneous differentiation in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Overexpression of HMGCS2, which we found is localized specifically in the more differentiated portions of the intestinal mucosa, increased the expression of CDX2, thus further suggesting the contributory role of HMGCS2 in intestinal differentiation. In addition, mice fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated increased differentiation of intestinal cells as noted by an increase in the enterocyte, goblet and Paneth cell lineages. Moreover, we showed that either knockdown of mTOR or inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin increases the expression of HMGCS2 in intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible cross-talk between mTOR and HMGCS2/βHB signaling in intestinal cells. In contrast, treatment of intestinal cells with βHB or feeding mice with a ketogenic diet inhibits mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Together, we provide evidence showing that HMGCS2/βHB contributes to intestinal cell differentiation. Our results suggest that mTOR acts cooperatively with HMGCS2/βHB to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

  1. Transcriptomic signatures shaped by cell proportions shed light on comparative developmental biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pantalacci, S.; Gueguen, L.; Petit, C.; Lambert, A.; Peterková, Renata; Sémon, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, feb (2017), s. 29 ISSN 1474-760X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : comparative transcriptomics * developmental biology * transcriptomic signature Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 11.908, year: 2016

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis toxins trigger receptor shedding from gypsy moth midgut cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algimantas P. Valaitis

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the Cry1 insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) begins with the processing of these proteins in the larval gut. After proteolytic activation, the Bt toxins bind to specific midgut receptors and insert into the membrane of the gut epithelial cells, causing insect death.

  3. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  4. Activation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pravin J; Banerjee, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and exhibit two main characteristics that define stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation. MSCs can migrate to sites of injury, inflammation, and tumor. Moreover, MSCs undergo myofibroblast like differentiation, including increased production of α-SMA in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), a growth factor commonly secreted by tumor cells to evade immune surveillance. Based on our previous finding hMSCs become activated and resemble carcinoma-associated myofibroblasts upon prolonged exposure to conditioned medium from MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that keratinocyte conditioned medium (KCM) induces differentiation of MSCs to resemble dermal myofibroblast like cells using immunofluorescence techniques demonstrating punctate vinculin staining, and F-actin filaments.

  5. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  6. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  7. Shedding light on the elusive role of endothelial cells in cytomegalovirus dissemination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Sacher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is frequently transmitted by solid organ transplantation and is associated with graft failure. By forming the boundary between circulation and organ parenchyma, endothelial cells (EC are suited for bidirectional virus spread from and to the transplant. We applied Cre/loxP-mediated green-fluorescence-tagging of EC-derived murine CMV (MCMV to quantify the role of infected EC in transplantation-associated CMV dissemination in the mouse model. Both EC- and non-EC-derived virus originating from infected Tie2-cre(+ heart and kidney transplants were readily transmitted to MCMV-naïve recipients by primary viremia. In contrast, when a Tie2-cre(+ transplant was infected by primary viremia in an infected recipient, the recombined EC-derived virus poorly spread to recipient tissues. Similarly, in reverse direction, EC-derived virus from infected Tie2-cre(+ recipient tissues poorly spread to the transplant. These data contradict any privileged role of EC in CMV dissemination and challenge an indiscriminate applicability of the primary and secondary viremia concept of virus dissemination.

  8. Differential gene expression profiling of human adipose stem cells differentiating into smooth muscle-like cells by TGFβ1/BMP4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elçin, Ayşe Eser; Parmaksiz, Mahmut; Dogan, Arin; Seker, Sukran; Durkut, Serap; Dalva, Klara; Elçin, Yaşar Murat, E-mail: elcinmurat@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    Regenerative repair of the vascular system is challenging from the perspectives of translational medicine and tissue engineering. There are fundamental hurdles in front of creating bioartificial arteries, which involve recaputilation of the three-layered structure under laboratory settings. Obtaining and maintaining smooth muscle characteristics is an important limitation, as the transdifferentiated cells fail to display mature phenotype. This study aims to shed light on the smooth muscle differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hASCs). To this end, we first acquired hASCs from lipoaspirate samples. Upon characterization, the cells were induced to differentiate into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using a variety of inducer combinations. Among all, TGFβ1/BMP4 combination had the highest differentiation efficiency, based on immunohistochemical analyses. hSM-like cell samples were compared to hASCs and to the positive control, human coronary artery-smooth muscle cells (hCA-SMCs) through gene transcription profiling. Microarray findings revealed the activation of gene groups that function in smooth muscle differentiation, signaling pathways, extracellular modeling and cell proliferation. Our results underline the effectiveness of the growth factors and suggest some potential variables for detecting the SM-like cell characteristics. Evidence in transcriptome level was used to evaluate the TGFβ1/BMP4 combination as a previously unexplored effector for the smooth muscle differentiation of adipose stem cells. - Highlights: • Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) were isolated, characterized and cultured. • Growth factor combinations were evaluated for their effectiveness in differentiation using IHC. • hASCs were differentiated into smooth muscle (SM)-like cells using TGF-β1 and BMP4 combination. • Microarray analysis was performed for hASCs, SM-like cells and coronary artery-SMCs. • Microarray data was used to perform hierarchical clustering and interpretation

  9. Notch 1 impairs osteoblastic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaudone, Maria; Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Priest, Leah; Delany, Anne M; Canalis, Ernesto

    2003-12-01

    Notch receptors are single pass transmembrane receptors activated by membrane-bound ligands with a role in cell proliferation and differentiation. As Notch 1 and 2 mRNAs are expressed by osteoblasts and induced by cortisol, we postulated that Notch could regulate osteoblastogenesis. We investigated the effects of retroviral vectors directing the constitutive expression of the Notch 1 intracellular domain (NotchIC) in murine ST-2 stromal and in MC3T3 cells. NotchIC overexpression was documented by increased Notch 1 transcripts and activity of the Notch-dependent Hairy Enhancer of Split promoter. In the presence of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), ST-2 cells differentiated toward osteoblasts forming mineralized nodules, and Notch 1 opposed this effect and decreased the expression of osteocalcin, type I collagen, and alkaline phosphatase transcripts and Delta2Delta FosB protein. Further, NotchIC decreased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. As cells differentiated in the presence of BMP-2, they underwent apoptosis, and Notch opposed this event. In the presence of cortisol, NotchIC induced the formation of mature adipocytes and enhanced the effect of cortisol on adipsin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 and CCAAT enhancer binding protein alpha and delta mRNA levels. NotchIC also opposed MC3T3 cell differentiation and the expression of a mature osteoblastic phenotype. In conclusion, NotchIC impairs osteoblast differentiation and enhances adipogenesis in stromal cell cultures.

  10. Imaging stem cell differentiation for cell-based tissue repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zhenghong; Dennis, James; Alsberg, Eben; Krebs, Melissa D; Welter, Jean; Caplan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into a number of tissue lineages and possess great potential in tissue regeneration and cell-based therapy. For bone fracture or cartilage wear and tear, stem cells need to be delivered to the injury site for repair. Assessing engraftment of the delivered cells and their differentiation status is crucial for the optimization of novel cell-based therapy. A longitudinal and quantitative method is needed to track stem cells transplanted/implanted to advance our understanding of their therapeutic effects and facilitate improvements in cell-based therapy. Currently, there are very few effective noninvasive ways to track the differentiation of infused stem cells. A brief review of a few existing approaches, mostly using transgenic animals, is given first, followed by newly developed in vivo imaging strategies that are intended to track implanted MSCs using a reporter gene system. Specifically, marker genes are selected to track whether MSCs differentiate along the osteogenic lineage for bone regeneration or the chondrogenic lineage for cartilage repair. The general strategy is to use the promoter of a differentiation-specific marker gene to drive the expression of an established reporter gene for noninvasive and repeated imaging of stem cell differentiation. The reporter gene system is introduced into MSCs by way of a lenti-viral vector, which allows the use of human cells and thus offers more flexibility than the transgenic animal approach. Imaging osteogenic differentiation of implanted MSCs is used as a demonstration of the proof-of-principle of this differentiation-specific reporter gene approach. This framework can be easily extended to other cell types and for differentiation into any other cell lineage for which a specific marker gene (promoter) can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of differentiation in neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R I

    1985-01-01

    There is now clear evidence that cells cultured from human and animal tumours can be induced to differentiate in vitro by recognised hormones, regulatory peptides, polar solvents and cytotoxic drugs. Examples can be found from several different types of tumour with the bulk of the data deriving from neuroblastoma and myeloid leukaemia. There is no clear correlation of inducer with cell type, other than some specific peptides like MSH, and agents such as dimethyl sulphoxide and dexamethasone have wide ranging activity. Steroid hormone action may require interaction between different cell types, and the inability of tumours to differentiate in situ may implicate reduced cell-cell interaction, possibly due to degradation of extracellular matrix, or to alteration of the stromal phenotype by tumour-derived factors such as peptides or prostaglandins. When differentiation has been demonstrated, it has been possible, in some cases, to correlate increased differentiation with reduced malignancy by in vitro characterisation or tumorigenicity. Conditions which induce differentiation in rat mammary carcinoma and mouse myeloma also reduce tumour growth in vivo. Clinical trials have not provided any conclusive evidence for a therapeutic benefit so far, but relatively few trials have been carried out. There is clearly a need for further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to select optimal conditions and combinations of agents for clinical evaluation.

  12. ADAM17-mediated shedding of FcγRIIIA on human NK cells: identification of the cleavage site and relationship with activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Laurie; Congy-Jolivet, Nicolas; Bolzec, Armelle; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Sicard, Elodie; Sung, Hsueh Cheng; Peiretti, Frank; Moreau, Thierry; Vié, Henri; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Thibault, Gilles

    2014-01-15

    FcγRIIIA/CD16A, the low-affinity receptor for the IgG Fc portion expressed on human CD56(dim) NK cells and involved in Ab-dependent cell cytotoxicity, is shed upon NK cell activation. We found that recombinant a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaved the ectodomain of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and a peptide for which the sequence encompasses aa 191-201 of the FcγRIIIA/CD16A stalk region but not ADAM10. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the peptide was cleaved between Ala(195) and Val(196) (i.e., 1 aa upstream of the expected position). This location of the cleavage site was confirmed by the finding that ADAM17 failed to cleave a peptide in which Ala and Val were reversed. ADAM17 was found to be expressed on NK cells, and stimulation with PMA or N-ethyl-maleimide resulted in the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and CD62L, a specific substrate of ADAM17. Selective inhibition of ADAM17 prevented the shedding of both molecules. Moreover, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was strongly correlated with degranulation when a wide range of CD56(dim) NK cell activating receptors were stimulated, whereas both ADAM17-dependent shedding and internalization were involved in FcγRIIIA/CD16A downmodulation when the latter was engaged. Finally, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was restricted to activated cells, suggesting that ADAM17 acts mainly, if not exclusively, in cis. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, at the molecular level that ADAM17 cleaves the stalk region of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and identified its cleavage site. The shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was at least partially ADAM17 dependent, and it may be considered as a marker of FcγRIIIA/CD16A-independent NK cell activation highly correlated with degranulation.

  13. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  14. Bioprinting and Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Irvine

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The 3D bioprinting of stem cells directly into scaffolds offers great potential for the development of regenerative therapies; in particular for the fabrication of organ and tissue substitutes. For this to be achieved; the lineage fate of bioprinted stem cell must be controllable. Bioprinting can be neutral; allowing culture conditions to trigger differentiation or alternatively; the technique can be designed to be stimulatory. Such factors as the particular bioprinting technique; bioink polymers; polymer cross-linking mechanism; bioink additives; and mechanical properties are considered. In addition; it is discussed that the stimulation of stem cell differentiation by bioprinting may lead to the remodeling and modification of the scaffold over time matching the concept of 4D bioprinting. The ability to tune bioprinting properties as an approach to fabricate stem cell bearing scaffolds and to also harness the benefits of the cells multipotency is of considerable relevance to the field of biomaterials and bioengineering.

  15. The antigen presenting cells instruct plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Banchereau, Jacques

    2014-01-06

    The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but non-specific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs), which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only "signal 1" (the antigen), but also "signal 2" to directly instruct the differentiation process of PCs in a T-cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching, and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  16. Apoptosis-induced ectodomain shedding of hypoxia-regulated carbonic anhydrase IX from tumor cells: a double-edged response to chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidlickova, Ivana; Dequiedt, Franck; Jelenska, Lenka; Sedlakova, Olga; Pastorek, Michal; Stuchlik, Stanislav; Pastorek, Jaromir; Zatovicova, Miriam; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a tumor-associated, highly active, transmembrane carbonic anhydrase isoform regulated by hypoxia and implicated in pH control and adhesion-migration-invasion. CA IX ectodomain (ECD) is shed from the tumor cell surface to serum/plasma of patients, where it can signify cancer prognosis. We previously showed that the CA IX ECD release is mediated by disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17. Here we investigated the CA IX ECD shedding in tumor cells undergoing apoptosis in response to cytotoxic drugs, including cycloheximide and doxorubicin. Presence of cell surface CA IX was correlated to the extent of apoptosis by flow cytometry in cell lines with natural or ectopic CA IX expression. CA IX ECD level was assessed by ELISA using CA IX-specific monoclonal antibodies. Effect of recombinant CA IX ECD on the activation of molecular pathways was evaluated using the cell-based dual-luciferase reporter assay. We found a significantly lower occurrence of apoptosis in the CA IX-positive cell subpopulation than in the CA IX-negative one. We also demonstrated that the cell-surface CA IX level dropped during the death progress due to an increased ECD shedding, which required a functional ADAM17. Inhibitors of metalloproteinases reduced CA IX ECD shedding, but not apoptosis. The CA IX ECD release induced by cytotoxic drugs was connected to elevated expression of CA IX in the surviving fraction of cells. Moreover, an externally added recombinant CA IX ECD activated a pathway driven by the Nanog transcription factor implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness. These findings imply that the increased level of the circulating CA IX ECD might be useful as an indicator of an effective antitumor chemotherapy. Conversely, elevated CA IX ECD might generate unwanted effects through autocrine/paracrine signaling potentially contributing to resistance and tumor progression

  17. Hypoxia Epigenetically Confers Astrocytic Differentiation Potential on Human Pluripotent Cell-Derived Neural Precursor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Yasui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human neural precursor cells (hNPCs derived from pluripotent stem cells display a high propensity for neuronal differentiation, but they require long-term culturing to differentiate efficiently into astrocytes. The mechanisms underlying this biased fate specification of hNPCs remain elusive. Here, we show that hypoxia confers astrocytic differentiation potential on hNPCs through epigenetic gene regulation, and that this was achieved by cooperation between hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and Notch signaling, accompanied by a reduction of DNA methylation level in the promoter region of a typical astrocyte-specific gene, Glial fibrillary acidic protein. Furthermore, we found that this hypoxic culture condition could be applied to rapid generation of astrocytes from Rett syndrome patient-derived hNPCs, and that these astrocytes impaired neuronal development. Thus, our findings shed further light on the molecular mechanisms regulating hNPC differentiation and provide attractive tools for the development of therapeutic strategies for treating astrocyte-mediated neurological disorders.

  18. Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zamecnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14 cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas.

  19. Membrane-type I matrix metalloproteinase-dependent ectodomain shedding of mucin16/ CA-125 on ovarian cancer cells modulates adhesion and invasion of peritoneal mesothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruney, Lana; Conley, Kaitlynn C; Moss, Natalie M; Liu, Yueying; Stack, M Sharon

    2014-10-01

    Mucin16 [MUC16/cancer antigen 125 (CA-125)], a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein expressed on the ovarian tumor cell surface, potentiates metastasis via selective binding to mesothelin on peritoneal mesothelial cells. Shed MUC16/CA-125 is detectable in sera from ovarian cancer patients. We investigated the potential role of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), a transmembrane collagenase highly expressed in ovarian cancer cells, in MUC16/CA-125 ectodomain shedding. An inverse correlation between MT1-MMP and MUC16 immunoreactivity was observed in human ovarian tumors and cells. Further, when MUC16-expressing OVCA433 cells were engineered to overexpress MT1-MMP, surface expression of MUC16/CA-125 was lost, whereas cells expressing the inactive E240A mutant retained surface MUC16/CA-125. As a functional consequence, decreased adhesion of cells expressing catalytically active MT1-MMP to three-dimensional meso-mimetic cultures and intact ex vivo peritoneal tissue explants was observed. Nevertheless, meso-mimetic invasion is enhanced in MT1-MMP-expressing cells. Together, these data support a model wherein acquisition of catalytically active MT1-MMP expression in ovarian cancer cells induces MUC16/CA-125 ectodomain shedding, reducing adhesion to meso-mimetic cultures and to intact peritoneal explants. However, proteolytic clearing of MUC16/CA-125, catalyzed by MT1-MMP, may then expose integrins for high-affinity cell binding to peritoneal tissues, thereby anchoring metastatic lesions for subsequent proliferation within the collagen-rich sub-mesothelial matrix.

  20. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  1. Copper modulates zinc metalloproteinase-dependent ectodomain shedding of key signaling and adhesion proteins and promotes the invasion of prostate cancer epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Parr-Sturgess, Catherine A.; Tinker, Claire L.; Hart, Claire A.; Brown, Michael D.; Clarke, Noel W.; Parkin, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc metalloproteinases (ZMPs) that catalyze the "ectodomain shedding" of a range of cell surface proteins including signaling and adhesion molecules. These "sheddases" are associated with the invasion and metastasis of a range of cancers. Increased serum and tumor tissue levels of copper are also observed in several cancers, although little is known about how the metal might promote disease progression at t...

  2. 8-prenylnaringenin and tamoxifen inhibit the shedding of irradiated epithelial cells and increase the latency period of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Cell culture and murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryck, Tine de; Impe, Annouchka van; Bracke, Marc E. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhoecke, Barbara W. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent (Belgium); Heyerick, Arne [Ghent University, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ghent (Belgium); Vakaet, Luc; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Mueller, Doreen [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Margret [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden and German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCC, and CD-Laboratory RadOnc, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    The major component in the pathogenesis of oral radiation-induced mucositis is progressive epithelial hypoplasia and eventual ulceration. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, while cell loss at the surface continues. We conceived to slow down this desquamation by increasing intercellular adhesion, regulated by the E-cadherin/catenin complex. We investigated if 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) or tamoxifen (TAM) decrease the shedding of irradiated human buccal epithelial cells in vitro and thus delay the ulcerative phase of radiation-induced mucositis in vivo. In vitro, aggregates of buccal epithelial cells were irradiated and cultured in suspension for 11 days. 8-PN or TAM were investigated regarding their effect on cell shedding. In vivo, the lower tongue surface of mice was irradiated with graded single doses of 25 kV X-rays. The incidence, latency, and duration of the resulting mucosal ulcerations were analyzed after topical treatment with 8-PN, TAM or solvent. 8-PN or TAM prevented the volume reduction of the irradiated cell aggregates during the incubation period. This was the result of a higher residual cell number in the treated versus the untreated irradiated aggregates. In vivo, topical treatment with 8-PN or TAM significantly increased the latency of mucositis from 10.9 to 12.1 and 12.4 days respectively, while the ulcer incidence was unchanged. 8-PN and TAM prevent volume reduction of irradiated cell aggregates in suspension culture. In the tongues of mice, these compounds increase the latency period. This suggests a role for these compounds for the amelioration of radiation-induced mucositis in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Die wesentliche Komponente in der Pathogenese der radiogenen Mukositis ist eine progressive epitheliale Hypoplasie und letztendlich Ulzeration. Die Bestrahlung hemmt die Zellproliferation, waehrend der Zellverlust an der Oberflaeche fortbesteht. Wir versuchten, diese Desquamation durch eine Stimulation der

  3. In vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that embryonic stem (ES) cells can be successfully differentiated into liver cells, which offer the potential unlimited cell source for a variety of end-stage liver disease. In our study, in order to induce mouse ES cells to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells under chemically defined conditions, ES cells ...

  4. The epigenomics of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Daniel C; Zhao, Keji

    2013-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess an open and highly dynamic chromatin landscape, which underlies their plasticity and ultimately maintains ESC pluripotency. The ESC epigenome must not only maintain the transcription of pluripotency-associated genes but must also, through gene priming, facilitate rapid and cell type-specific activation of developmental genes upon lineage commitment. Trans-generational inheritance ensures that the ESC chromatin state is stably transmitted from one generation to the next; yet at the same time, epigenetic marks are highly dynamic, reversible and responsive to extracellular cues. Once committed to differentiation, the ESC epigenome is remodeled and resolves into a more compact chromatin state. A thorough understanding of the role of chromatin modifiers in ESC fate and differentiation will be important if they are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Recent technical advances, particularly in next-generation sequencing technologies, have provided a genome-scale view of epigenetic marks and chromatin modifiers. More affordable and faster sequencing platforms have led to a comprehensive characterization of the ESC epigenome and epigenomes of differentiated cell types. In this review, we summarize and discuss the recent progress that has highlighted the central role of histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin modifiers in ESC pluripotency and ESC fate. We provide a detailed and comprehensive discussion of genome-wide studies that are pertinent to our understanding of mammalian development.

  5. Proteomic cornerstones of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors...... which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem....../progenitor cells (HSPCs, Lin(neg)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)) or myeloid committed precursors (Lin(neg)Sca-1(-)c-Kit(+)). By employing stable isotope dimethyl labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry, more than 5,000 proteins were quantified. From biological triplicate experiments subjected to rigorous statistical...

  6. The manipulation of auxin in the abscission zone cells of Arabidopsis flowers reveals that indoleacetic acid signaling is a prerequisite for organ shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Manojit M; González-Carranza, Zinnia H; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Tang, Shouya; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Roberts, Jeremy A

    2013-05-01

    A number of novel strategies were employed to examine the role of indoleacetic acid (IAA) in regulating floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of auxin influx facilitator expression in β-glucuronidase reporter plants revealed that AUXIN RESISTANT1, LIKE AUX1, and LAX3 were specifically up-regulated at the site of floral organ shedding. Flowers from mutants where individual family members were down-regulated exhibited a reduction in the force necessary to bring about petal separation; however, the effect was not additive in double or quadruple mutants. Using the promoter of a polygalacturonase (At2g41850), active primarily in cells undergoing separation, to drive expression of the bacterial genes iaaL and iaaM, we have shown that it is possible to manipulate auxin activity specifically within the floral organ abscission zone (AZ). Analysis of petal breakstrength reveals that if IAA AZ levels are reduced, shedding takes place prematurely, while if they are enhanced, organ loss is delayed. The At2g41850 promoter was also used to transactivate the gain-of-function AXR3-1 gene in order to disrupt auxin signaling specifically within the floral organ AZ cells. Flowers from transactivated lines failed to shed their sepals, petals, and anthers during pod expansion and maturity, and these organs frequently remained attached to the plant even after silique desiccation and dehiscence had taken place. These observations support a key role for IAA in the regulation of abscission in planta and reveal, to our knowledge for the first time, a requirement for a functional IAA signaling pathway in AZ cells for organ shedding to take place.

  7. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  8. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Zirak, Bahar; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Pauli, Mariela L; Truong, Hong-An; Lai, Kevin; Ahn, Richard; Corbin, Kaitlin; Lowe, Margaret M; Scharschmidt, Tiffany C; Taravati, Keyon; Tan, Madeleine R; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto R; Nosbaum, Audrey; Bertolini, Marta; Liao, Wilson; Nestle, Frank O; Paus, Ralf; Cotsarelis, George; Abbas, Abul K; Rosenblum, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is critically dependent on the function of tissue-resident immune cells and the differentiation capacity of tissue-resident stem cells (SCs). How immune cells influence the function of SCs is largely unknown. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) in skin preferentially localize to hair follicles (HFs), which house a major subset of skin SCs (HFSCs). Here, we mechanistically dissect the role of Tregs in HF and HFSC biology. Lineage-specific cell depletion revealed that Tregs promote HF regeneration by augmenting HFSC proliferation and differentiation. Transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of T regs and HFSCs revealed that skin-resident Tregs preferentially express high levels of the Notch ligand family member, Jagged 1 (Jag1). Expression of Jag1 on Tregs facilitated HFSC function and efficient HF regeneration. Taken together, our work demonstrates that Tregs in skin play a major role in HF biology by promoting the function of HFSCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. BC-Box Motif-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of Somatic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL functions to induce neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs and skin-derived precursors (SKPs. Here we identified a neuronal differentiation domain (NDD in pVHL. Neuronal differentiation of SKPs was induced by intracellular delivery of a peptide composed of the amino-acid sequences encoded by the NDD. Neuronal differentiation mediated by the NDD was caused by the binding between it and elongin C followed by Janus kinase-2 (JAK2 ubiquitination of JAK2 and inhibition of the JAK2/the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3(STAT3 pathway. The NDD in pVHL contained the BC-box motif ((A,P,S,TLXXX (A,C XXX(A,I,L,V corresponding to the binding site of elongin C. Therefore, we proposed that other BC-box proteins might also contain an NDD; and subsequently also identified in them an NDD containing the amino-acid sequence encoded by the BC-box motif in BC-box proteins. Furthermore, we showed that different NDD peptide-delivered cells differentiated into different kinds of neuron-like cells. That is, dopaminergic neuron-like cells, cholinergic neuron-like cells, GABAnergic neuron-like cells or rhodopsin-positive neuron-like cells were induced by different NDD peptides. These novel findings might contribute to the development of a new method for promoting neuronal differentiation and shed further light on the mechanism of neuronal differentiation of somatic stem cells.

  10. Cytotoxicity of accelerated white MTA and Malaysian white Portland cement on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED): An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ren Ming; Luddin, Norhayati; Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly; Omar, Nor Shamsuria

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of accelerated-set white MTA (AWMTA) and accelerated-set Malaysian white PC (AMWPC) on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). The test materials were introduced into paraffin wax moulds after mixing with calcium chloride dihydrate and sterile distilled water. Subsequently, the set cement specimens were sterilized, incubated in a prepared Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for seven days. The biomarker CD166 was used for characterization of SHED using flow cytometry. The material extracts were diluted at five different concentrations and incubated for 72h with SHED. The cell viability was evaluated using Dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the data was analysed using Mann-Whitney test (P<0.05). The results showed that AWMTA revealed significantly greater cell viability at 25 and 12.5mg/ml concentrations (P<0.05). Concomitantly, AMWPC exhibited greater cell viability at concentrations <12.5mg/ml and the results were significant at 1.563mg/ml (P<0.05). Both materials demonstrated moderate cytotoxicity at 25mg/ml and slight cytotoxicity at 6.25 and 3.125mg/ml. At 1.563mg/ml, no cytotoxic activity was merely observed with AMWPC. In conclusion, AMWPC exhibited favourable and comparable cell viability to that of AWMTA, and has the potential to be used as an alternative and less costly material in dental applications. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cell surface control of differentiation in Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Villemez, C

    1994-12-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii (Neff) is a free-living soil amoeba with close relatives that are opportunistic pathogens. Trophozoites differentiate into cysts when deprived of nutrients; cysts convert into trophozoites, leaving the wall behind, in the presence of nutrients. The data presented here, which includes immunoaffinity purification of the receptor, indicate that cell surface molecular signals also control Acanthamoeba differentiation in both directions. Monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to a 40 kD trophozoite protein initiate the encystment of trophozoites. When bound to cysts the same monoclonal antibodies prevent excystment. Washing away the antibody allows both trophozoites and cysts to resume normal activity. One of these monoclonal antibodies inhibits pinocytosis, while another has no effect on pinocytosis.

  12. Proteomic investigation of embryonic rat heart-derived H9c2 cell line sheds new light on the molecular phenotype of the popular cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenčo, Juraj; Lenčová-Popelová, Olga; Link, Marek; Jirkovská, Anna; Tambor, Vojtěch; Potůčková, Eliška; Stulík, Jiří; Šimůnek, Tomáš; Štěrba, Martin

    2015-12-10

    Due to their cardiac origin, H9c2 cells rank among the most popular cell lines in current cardiovascular research, yet molecular phenotype remains elusive. Hence, in this study we used proteomic approach to describe molecular phenotype of H9c2 cells in their undifferentiated (i.e., most frequently used) state, and its functional response to cardiotoxic drug doxorubicin. Of 1671 proteins identified by iTRAQ IEF/LC-MSMS analysis, only 12 proteins were characteristic for striated muscle cells and none was cardiac phenotype-specific. Targeted LC-SRM and western blot analyses confirmed that undifferentiated H9c2 cells are phenotypically considerably different to both primary neonatal cardiomyocytes and adult myocardium. These cells lack proteins essential for formation of striated muscle myofibrils or they express only minor amounts thereof. They also fail to express many proteins important for metabolism of muscle cells. The challenge with clinically relevant concentrations of doxorubicin did not induce a proteomic signature that has been previously noted in primary cardiomyocytes or adult hearts. Instead, several alterations previously described in other cells of mesodermal origin, such as fibroblasts, were observed (e.g., severe down-regulation of collagen synthesis pathway). In conclusion, the molecular phenotype of H9c2 cells resembles very immature myogenic cells with skeletal muscle commitment upon differentiation and thus, translatability of findings obtained in these cells deserves caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Souček, Karel; Pernicová, Zuzana; Lincová, Eva; Staršíchová, Andrea; Kozubík, Alois

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 5 (2008), s. 393 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků. Konference Sigma-Aldrich /8./. 10.06.2008-13.06.2008, Devět skal - Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/07/0834; GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : neuroendocrine differentiation * prostate cancer * neuroendocrine-like cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . Deposit shedding can be defined as the process of deposit removal from the heat transfer surfaces. Mechanical and thermal shock devices for deposit removal can be implemented within into the boiler, which can be then referred to as artificial shedding. Sootblowing is one such process, where a pressurized...... on the ash characteristics and the boiler operation. Different deposit characteristics will govern the ash deposit behaviour, and thus the mechanism of deposit shedding. The deposit strength will influence the erosion and gravity shedding mechanisms. The ash viscosity and the melting behaviour will govern...

  15. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  16. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  17. Uptake of label-free graphene oxide by Caco-2 cells is dependent on the cell differentiation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucki, Melanie; Diener, Liliane; Bohmer, Nils; Hirsch, Cordula; Krug, Harald F; Palermo, Vincenzo; Wick, Peter

    2017-06-21

    Understanding the interaction of graphene-related materials (GRM) with human cells is a key to the assessment of their potential risks for human health. There is a knowledge gap regarding the potential uptake of GRM by human intestinal cells after unintended ingestion. Therefore the aim of our study was to investigate the interaction of label-free graphene oxide (GO) with the intestinal cell line Caco-2 in vitro and to shed light on the influence of the cell phenotype given by the differentiation status on cellular uptake behaviour. Internalisation of two label-free GOs with different lateral size and thickness by undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Semi-quantification of cells associated with GRM was performed by flow cytometry. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells showed significant amounts of cell-associated GRM, whereas differentiated Caco-2 cells exhibited low adhesion of GO sheets. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed internalisation of both applied GO (small and large) by undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Even large GO sheets with lateral dimensions up to 10 µm, were found internalised by undifferentiated cells, presumably by macropinocytosis. In contrast, no GO uptake could be found for differentiated Caco-2 cells exhibiting an enterocyte-like morphology with apical brush border. Our results show that the internalisation of GO is highly dependent on the cell differentiation status of human intestinal cells. During differentiation Caco-2 cells undergo intense phenotypic changes which lead to a dramatic decrease in GRM internalisation. The results support the hypothesis that the cell surface topography of differentiated Caco-2 cells given by the brush border leads to low adhesion of GO sheets and sterical hindrance for material uptake. In addition, the mechanical properties of GRM, especially flexibility of the sheets, seem to be an important factor for

  18. CD25 shedding by human natural occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells does not inhibit the action of IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst

    2009-01-01

    Tregs are known to inhibit CD4+ T cell in a contact-dependent manner, but at the same time, various suppressive factors are secreted. We, here, demonstrate that human naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs are able to shed large amounts of soluble CD25 upon activation. Secretion of sCD25 could add......Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and inhibition of pathogenic T-cell responses. Therefore, they are important for the limitation of chronic inflammation but can also be deleterious by e.g. limiting antitumour immune responses. Natural occurring...... to the inhibitory effect of Tregs as such secretion in other settings has been proposed to act as a sink for local IL-2. However, we here demonstrate that supernatant from human Tregs containing high concentration of sCD25 does not inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25(-) T cells or inhibit the action of IL-2...

  19. Stochasticity and Spatial Interaction Govern Stem Cell Differentiation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Quinton; Stukalin, Evgeny; Kusuma, Sravanti; Gerecht, Sharon; Sun, Sean X.

    2015-07-01

    Stem cell differentiation underlies many fundamental processes such as development, tissue growth and regeneration, as well as disease progression. Understanding how stem cell differentiation is controlled in mixed cell populations is an important step in developing quantitative models of cell population dynamics. Here we focus on quantifying the role of cell-cell interactions in determining stem cell fate. Toward this, we monitor stem cell differentiation in adherent cultures on micropatterns and collect statistical cell fate data. Results show high cell fate variability and a bimodal probability distribution of stem cell fraction on small (80-140 μm diameter) micropatterns. On larger (225-500 μm diameter) micropatterns, the variability is also high but the distribution of the stem cell fraction becomes unimodal. Using a stochastic model, we analyze the differentiation dynamics and quantitatively determine the differentiation probability as a function of stem cell fraction. Results indicate that stem cells can interact and sense cellular composition in their immediate neighborhood and adjust their differentiation probability accordingly. Blocking epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can diminish this cell-cell contact mediated sensing. For larger micropatterns, cell motility adds a spatial dimension to the picture. Taken together, we find stochasticity and cell-cell interactions are important factors in determining cell fate in mixed cell populations.

  20. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal

  1. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  2. Oligodendrocyte differentiation and implantation : new insights for remyelinating cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sher, Falak; Balasubramaniyan, Veerakumar; Boddeke, Erik; Copray, Sjef

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent research on oligodendrocyte development has yielded new insights on the involvement of morphogens and differentiation factors in oligodendrogenesis. This knowledge has improved strategies to control neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte differentiation and functional

  3. Differentiation of human olfactory bulb-derived neural stem cells toward oligodendrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hany E; Shouman, Zeinab; Althani, Asma; Afifi, Nahla; A, Abd-Elmaksoud; Lashen, Samah; Hasan, Anwarul; Caceci, Thomas; Rizzi, Roberto; Cenciarelli, Carlo; Casalbore, Patrizia

    2018-02-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes are the glial element in charge of myelin formation. Obtaining an overall presence of oligodendrocyte precursor cells/oligodendrocytes (OPCs/OLs) in culture from different sources of NSCs is an important research area, because OPCs/OLs may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for diseases affecting myelination of axons. The present study was designed to differentiate human olfactory bulb NSCs (OBNSCs) into OPCs/OLs and using expression profiling (RT-qPCR) gene, immunocytochemistry, and specific protein expression to highlight molecular mechanism(s) underlying differentiation of human OBNSCs into OPCs/OLs. The differentiation of OBNSCs was characterized by a simultaneous appearance of neurons and glial cells. The differentiation medium, containing cAMP, PDGFA, T3, and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), promotes OBNSCs to generate mostly oligodendrocytes (OLs) displaying morphological changes, and appearance of long cytoplasmic processes. OBNSCs showed, after 5 days in OLs differentiation medium, a considerable decrease in the number of nestin positive cells, which was associated with a concomitant increase of NG2 immunoreactive cells and few O4(+)-OPCs. In addition, a significant up regulation in gene and protein expression profile of stage specific cell markers for OPCs/OLs (CNPase, Galc, NG2, MOG, OLIG1, OLIG2, MBP), neurons, and astrocytes (MAP2, β-TubulinIII, GFAP) and concomitant decrease of OBNSCs pluripotency markers (Oct4, Sox2, Nestin), was demonstrated following induction of OBNSCs differentiation. Taken together, the present study demonstrate the marked ability of a cocktail of factors containing PDGFA, T3, cAMP, and ATRA, to induce OBNSCs differentiation into OPCs/OLs and shed light on the key genes and pathological pathways involved in this process. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Curtailed T-cell activation curbs effector differentiation and generates CD8+ T cells with a naturally-occurring memory stem cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanon, Veronica; Pilipow, Karolina; Scamardella, Eloise; De Paoli, Federica; De Simone, Gabriele; Price, David A; Martinez Usatorre, Amaia; Romero, Pedro; Mavilio, Domenico; Roberto, Alessandra; Lugli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    Human T memory stem (T SCM ) cells with superior persistence capacity and effector functions are emerging as important players in the maintenance of long-lived T-cell memory and are thus considered an attractive population to be used in adoptive transfer-based immunotherapy of cancer. However, the molecular signals regulating their generation remain poorly defined. Here we show that curtailed T-cell receptor stimulation curbs human effector CD8 + T-cell differentiation and allows the generation of CD45RO - CD45RA + CCR7 + CD27 + CD95 + -phenotype cells from highly purified naïve T-cell precursors, resembling naturally-occurring human T SCM . These cells proliferate extensively in vitro and in vivo, express low amounts of effector-associated genes and transcription factors and undergo considerable self-renewal in response to IL-15 while retaining effector differentiation potential. Such a phenotype is associated with a lower number of mitochondria compared to highly-activated effector T cells committed to terminal differentiation. These results shed light on the molecular signals that are required to generate long-lived memory T cells with potential application in adoptive cell transfer immunotherapy. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Human invariant NKT cell subsets differentially promote differentiation, antibody production, and T cell stimulation by B cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    O'REILLY, VINCENT

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. We investigated the effects of coculturing expanded human CD4(+), CD8α(+), and ...

  6. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  7. Primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated in vitro from skin-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Linher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that stem cells isolated from fetal porcine skin have the potential to form oocyte-like cells (OLCs in vitro. However, primordial germ cells (PGCs, which must also be specified during the stem cell differentiation to give rise to these putative oocytes at more advanced stages of culture, were not systematically characterized. The current study tested the hypothesis that a morphologically distinct population of cells derived from skin stem cells prior to OLC formation corresponds to putative PGCs, which differentiate further into more mature gametes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: When induced to differentiate in an appropriate microenvironment, a subpopulation of morphologically distinct cells, some of which are alkaline phosphatase (AP-positive, also express Oct4, Fragilis, Stella, Dazl, and Vasa, which are markers indicative of germ cell formation. A known differentially methylated region (DMR within the H19 gene locus, which is demethylated in oocytes after establishment of the maternal imprint, is hypomethylated in PGC-like cells compared to undifferentiated skin-derived stem cells, suggesting that the putative germ cell population undergoes imprint erasure. Additional evidence supporting the germ cell identity of in vitro-generated PGC-like cells is that, when labeled with a Dazl-GFP reporter, these cells further differentiate into GFP-positive OLCs. SIGNIFICANCE: The ability to generate germ cell precursors from somatic stem cells may provide an in vitro model to study some of the unanswered questions surrounding early germ cell formation.

  8. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olrichs, N.K.; Aarsman, M.E.G.; Verheul, J.; Arnusch, C.J.; Martin, N.I.; Hervé, M.; Vollmer, W.; de Kruijff, B.; Breukink, E.; den Blaauwen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that

  9. HER-2/neu Shedding and Oncogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clinton, Gail

    2001-01-01

    The HER-2/neu extracellular domain (ECD) is shed from breast carcinoma cells in culture and is found at elevated levels in sera of patients with metastatic breast cancer where it may predict poor prognosis...

  10. Correlation between ECM guidance and actin polymerization on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Vivian; Deiwick, Andrea [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Department of Nanotechnology, Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Pflaum, Michael [Leibniz Research Laboratories for Biotechnology and Artificial Organs (LEBAO), Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Department of Nanotechnology, Hollerithallee 8, D-30419 Hannover (Germany); Institute of Quantum Optics, Leibniz University of Hannover, Welfengarten 1, D-30617 Hannover (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell shape, and stem cell guidance can shed light in understanding and mimicking the functionality of stem cell niches for various applications. This interplay on osteogenic guidance of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was focus of this study. Proliferation and osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were slightly increased by the ECM components laminin (LA), collagen I (COL), and fibronectin (FIB); with control medium no differentiation occurred. ECM guided differentiation was rather dependent on osterix than on Runx2 pathway. FIB significantly enhanced cell elongation even in presence of actin polymerization blockers cytochalasin D (CytoD) and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which generally caused more rounded cells. Except for the COL surface, both inhibitors increased the extent of osterix, while the Runx2 pathway was more sensitive to the culture condition. Both inhibitors did not affect hASC proliferation. CytoD enabled osteogenic differentiation independently from the ECM, while it was rather blocked via Y-27632 treatment; on FIB the general highest extent of differentiation occurred. Taken together, the ECM effect on hASCs occurs indirectly and selectively via a dominant role of FIB: it sustains osteogenic differentiation in case of a tension-dependent control of actin polymerization. - Highlights: • Interplay of ECM and cell shape guides osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. • ECM components only present a promotive but not stimulative effect. • No direct correlation between ECM-enhanced cell elongation and differentiation. • Suppression of differentiation depends on a specific actin polymerization blocking. • Fibronectin sustains cell elongation and differentiation in case of blocking actin.

  11. [Screening of differentially expressed genes in human renal cell carcinoma using suppression subtractive hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Wei; Li, Xu

    2008-01-01

    To suppress COL1A1 and COL3A1 gene expressions in human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) by means of RNA interference (RNAi). SSH was performed in two directions to isolate the differentially expressed genes between human a RCC cell line RLC-310 and a normal renal cell line HK-2 (ATCC). The cDNAs obtained from the final nested PCR were directly inserted into T/A cloning vector to establish a subtractive cDNA library of specifically or highly expressed genes in RCC. Reverse Northern dot blotting was performed to screen the truly differentially expressed genes, and 200 positive genes were randomly selected for sequencing. The two-directional subtractive libraries contained more than 1200 clones, and 213 positive clones were obtained using reverse Northern blotting. Sequence analysis of these clones identified 144 differentially expressed genes, including 67 up-regulated and 77 down-regulated genes, in which 14 novel ESTs and 21 functionally unknown genes were found. Cluster analysis indicated the involvement of the sequenced genes in cell growth, cell adhesion and apoptosis. Reliable subtractive cDNA libraries of human RCC have been constructed successfully with SSH. The identification of the gene expression profile in RCC may help clarify the mechanism of tumorigenesis and development of RCC, and also sheds light on new targets for prevention, diagnosis and therapy of this malignancy.

  12. Cis-acting pathways selectively enforce the non-immunogenicity of shed placental antigen for maternal CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Siean Tay

    Full Text Available Maternal immune tolerance towards the fetus and placenta is thought to be established in part by pathways that attenuate T cell priming to antigens released from the placenta into maternal blood. These pathways remain largely undefined and their existence, at face value, seems incompatible with a mother's need to maintain a functional immune system during pregnancy. A particular conundrum is evident if we consider that maternal antigen presenting cells, activated in order to prime T cells to pathogen-derived antigens, would also have the capacity to prime T cells to co-ingested placental antigens. Here, we address this paradox using a transgenic system in which placental membranes are tagged with a strong surrogate antigen (ovalbumin. We find that although a remarkably large quantity of acellular ovalbumin-containing placental material is released into maternal blood, splenic CD8 T cells in pregnant mice bearing unmanipulated T cell repertoires are not primed to ovalbumin even if the mice are intravenously injected with adjuvants. This failure was largely independent of regulatory T cells, and instead was linked to the intrinsic characteristics of the released material that rendered it selectively non-immunogenic, potentially by sequestering it from CD8α(+ dendritic cells. The release of ovalbumin-containing placental material into maternal blood thus had no discernable impact on CD8 T cell priming to soluble ovalbumin injected intravenously during pregnancy, nor did it induce long-term tolerance to ovalbumin. Together, these results outline a major pathway governing the maternal immune response to the placenta, and suggest how tolerance to placental antigens can be maintained systemically without being detrimental to host defense.

  13. Schwann cells promote neuronal differentiation of bone marrow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been suggested that the BMSCs have the capacity to differentiate into neurons under specific experimental conditions, using chemical factors. In this study, we showed that BMSCs can be induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when they are co-cultured with Schwann cells by Brdu pulse label technology.

  14. Immunmodulation of the Th cell differentiation using DNA immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzulini, Till

    2010-01-01

    Th cells regulate the immune response in part by the secretion of cytokines. Upon stimulation with antigen naive Th cells differentiate. During this differentiation they receive an imprinting for a certain cytokine profile. It depends on this imprint whether the immune response is adequate or pathologic i.e. autoimmune. Therefore the manipulation of this differentiation is a possibility to treat autoimmunity. This manipulation can be achieved through DNA immunisation. In DNA immunisation simp...

  15. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine...... differentiation process is consistent with a simple model of cell cycle-dependent stochastic priming of progenitors to endocrine fate. The findings provide insights to define control parameters to optimize the generation of β-cells in vitro....

  16. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji-Takayama, Kazue; Inoue, Toshiya; Ijiri, Yoshihiro; Otani, Takeshi; Motoda, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shuji; Orita, Kunzo

    2004-01-01

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  17. Two pore channel 2 differentially modulates neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP is an endogenous Ca(2+ mobilizing nucleotide presented in various species. NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+ from acidic organelles through two pore channel 2 (TPC2 in many cell types and it has been previously shown that NAADP can potently induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Here we examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells. We found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. Correspondingly, TPC2 knockdown accelerated mouse ES cell differentiation into neural progenitors but inhibited these neural progenitors from committing to neurons. Overexpression of TPC2, on the other hand, inhibited mouse ES cell from entering the early neural lineage. Interestingly, TPC2 knockdown had no effect on the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of mouse ES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that TPC2 signaling plays a temporal and differential role in modulating the neural lineage entry of mouse ES cells, in that TPC2 signaling inhibits ES cell entry to early neural progenitors, but is required for late neuronal differentiation.

  18. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; Stålman, Anders; Haldosén, Lars-Arne; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2013-09-02

    Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. The murine fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cell line was induced to tenocytic differentiation by growth differentiation factor-7. Cell proliferation and differentiation with the exposure of different concentrations of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac were measured by WST-1 assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, respectively. Cell proliferation was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac. In addition to tenocytic differentiation, adipocyte formation was observed, both at gene expression and microscopic level, when the cells were exposed to triamcinolone acetonide or high concentrations of diclofenac. Our results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac might alter mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in a nonfavorable way regarding tendon regeneration; therefore, these medications should be used with more caution clinically.

  19. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...... in water instead of phosphate-buffered saline. Passively adsorbed IL-4 was observed to induce differentiation to dendritic cells, but analysis of cell culture supernatants revealed that leakage of IL-4 into solution could account for the differentiation observed. Covalent attachment resulted in bound IL-4...

  20. Shedding light on the expansion and diversification of the Cdc48 protein family during the rise of the eukaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Nickias; Kloepper, Tobias H; Fasshauer, Dirk

    2016-10-18

    A defining feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of various distinct membrane-bound compartments with different metabolic roles. Material exchange between most compartments occurs via a sophisticated vesicle trafficking system. This intricate cellular architecture of eukaryotes appears to have emerged suddenly, about 2 billion years ago, from much less complex ancestors. How the eukaryotic cell acquired its internal complexity is poorly understood, partly because no prokaryotic precursors have been found for many key factors involved in compartmentalization. One exception is the Cdc48 protein family, which consists of several distinct classical ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA+) proteins with two consecutive AAA domains. Here, we have classified the Cdc48 family through iterative use of hidden Markov models and tree building. We found only one type, Cdc48, in prokaryotes, although a set of eight diverged members that function at distinct subcellular compartments were retrieved from eukaryotes and were probably present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA). Pronounced changes in sequence and domain structure during the radiation into the LECA set are delineated. Moreover, our analysis brings to light lineage-specific losses and duplications that often reflect important biological changes. Remarkably, we also found evidence for internal duplications within the LECA set that probably occurred during the rise of the eukaryotic cell. Our analysis corroborates the idea that the diversification of the Cdc48 family is closely intertwined with the development of the compartments of the eukaryotic cell.

  1. UV-induced DNA repair in leukemic cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Sakashita, Akiko; Tomoyasu, Shigeru; Tsuruoka, Nobuyoshi; Ajiri, Teizo.

    1989-01-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV)-induced DNA repair during myeloid leukemic cell differentiation was examined. Human myeloid leukemic cells could be induced to differentiate in vitro into mature cells by various chemical inducers that lost their proliferating potencies. In spite of decrease of proliferation capacity, almost all these terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells invariably showed UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) at low energy of UV irradiation (3-5 J/m 2 ). This indicated that the terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells are functionally quite different from mature granulocytes in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) or in normal peripheral blood. In HL-60 cells, UV-survival was enhanced in the process of differentiation induced by 1.25% DMSO or 0.6 mM sodium n-butyrate. The degree of enhancement of UV-survival was correlated with the increased amount of UDS. The process of myeloid leukemic cell differentiation which is completed without loss of capacity performing repair DNA synthesis was one of the characteristics of the terminally differentiated myeloid leukemic cells induced by chemical inducers in vitro and this function may support the hypothesis that DNA breaking and rejoining are involved in a mechanism of cytodifferentiation. (author)

  2. Early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis (Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan; Sun, Yunlong; Lu, Anming; Wang, Guangyuan

    1987-09-01

    The early stage differentiation of thallus cells of Porphyra haitanensis T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng was studied. Protoplasts or single cells were isolated from the blades using enzyme mixture comprising 2% sea snail gut enzyme and 1% cellulase. The isolated protoplasts or single cells were incubated in the MES medium. The cell differentiations were examined under the microscope at intervals after incubation. Four types of cell differentiation, namely, normal, abnormal, carposporangial and spermatorangial, and rhizoidal types, were observed. Since normal cell differentiations occur mostly in small thalli 50 mm in length and middle portions of big thalli 200 mm in length, it is essential to select tissues from these two kinds of thalli essential for commercial production.

  3. Shedding lights on the flexible-armed porphyrins: Human telomeric G4 DNA interaction and cell photocytotoxicity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Ping; Jin, Shu-Fang; Liu, Min-Chao; Wang, Xia-Hong; Huang, Yu-Min; Cheng, Zhen-Feng; Yan, Si-Qi; Li, Yan-Yu; Chen, Ya-Qing; Zhong, Yan-Mei

    2017-08-01

    DNA polymorphism exerts a fascination on a large scientific community. Without crystallographic structural data, clarification of the binding modes between G-quadruplex (G4) and ligand (complex) is a challenging job. In the present work, three porphyrin compounds with different flexible carbon chains (arms) were designed, synthesized and characterized. Their binding, folding and stabilizing abilities to human telomeric G4 DNA structures were comparatively researched. Positive charges at the end of the flexible carbon chains seem to be favorable for the DNA-porphyrin interactions, which were evidenced by the spectral results and further confirmed by the molecular docking calculations. Biological function analysis demonstrated that these porphyrins show no substantial inhibition to Hela, A549 and BEL 7402 cancer cell lines under dark while exhibit broad inhibition under visible light. This significantly enhanced photocytotoxicity relative to the dark control is an essential property of photochemotherapeutic agents. The feature of the flexible arms emerges as critical influencing factors in the cell photocytotoxicity. Moreover, an ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway was suggested for the cell apoptosis induced by these flexible-armed porphyrins. It is found that the porphyrins with positive charges located at the end of the flexible arms represent an exciting opportunity for photochemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug design. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...... impression on effects of removal of FGF2 and stimulation with ATRA, we combined the results of three cell lines for each experimental setting. When combining gene expression profiles of three cell lines for 96 genes, only 6 genes showed a significant up-regulation in all cell lines, when no FGF2 was added...

  5. Id2 reinforces TH1 cell differentiation and inhibits E2A to repress TFH cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Bélanger, Simon; Omilusik, Kyla D.; Cho, Sunglim; Scott-Browne, James P.; Nance, J. Philip; Goulding, John; Lasorella, Anna; Lu, Li-Fan; Crotty, Shane; Goldrath, Ananda W.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of T helper (TH) effector subsets is critical for host protection. E protein transcription factors and Id proteins are important arbiters of T cell development, but their role in differentiation of TH1 and TFH cells is not well understood. TH1 cells showed robust Id2 expression compared to TFH cells, and RNAi depletion of Id2 increased TFH cell frequencies. Further, TH1 cell differentiation was blocked by Id2 deficiency, leading to E protein-dependent accumulation of effector cells with mixed characteristics during viral infection and severely impaired generation of TH1 cells following Toxoplasma gondii infection. The TFH-defining transcriptional repressor Bcl6 bound the Id2 locus, providing a mechanism for the bimodal Id2 expression and reciprocal development of TH1 and TFH cell fates. PMID:27213691

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Induces Differentiation of Regulatory T Cells in the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailer, Reiner K W; Gisterå, Anton; Polyzos, Konstantinos A; Ketelhuth, Daniel F J; Hansson, Göran K

    2017-05-26

    The liver is the central organ that responds to dietary cholesterol intake and facilitates the release and clearance of lipoprotein particles. Persistent hypercholesterolemia leads to immune responses against lipoprotein particles that drive atherosclerosis. However, the effect of hypercholesterolemia on hepatic T-cell differentiation remains unknown. To investigate hepatic T-cell subsets upon hypercholesterolemia. We observed that hypercholesterolemia elevated the intrahepatic regulatory T (Treg) cell population and increased the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in the liver. Adoptive transfer experiments revealed that intrahepatically differentiated Treg cells relocated to the inflamed aorta in atherosclerosis-prone low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient ( Ldlr -/- ) mice. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia induced the differentiation of intrahepatic, but not intrasplenic, Th17 cells in wild-type mice, whereas the disrupted liver homeostasis in hypercholesterolemic Ldlr -/- mice led to intrahepatic Th1 cell differentiation and CD11b + CD11c + leukocyte accumulation. Our results elucidate a new mechanism that controls intrahepatic T-cell differentiation during atherosclerosis development and indicates that intrahepatically differentiated T cells contribute to the CD4 + T-cell pool in the atherosclerotic aorta. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Cyclosporin A induces cardiac differentiation but inhibits hemato-endothelial differentiation of P19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Cheol Choi

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the effects of Cyclosporin A (CsA on the fate of stem cells, including cardiomyogenic differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effects and the molecular mechanisms behind the actions of CsA on cell lineage determination of P19 cells. CsA induced cardiomyocyte-specific differentiation of P19 cells, with the highest efficiency at a concentration of 0.32 μM during embryoid body (EB formation via activation of the Wnt signaling pathway molecules, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and Wnt8a, and the cardiac mesoderm markers, Mixl1, Mesp1, and Mesp2. Interestingly, cotreatment of P19 cells with CsA plus dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO during EB formation significantly increases cardiac differentiation. In contrast, mRNA expression levels of hematopoietic and endothelial lineage markers, including Flk1 and Er71, were severely reduced in CsA-treated P19 cells. Furthermore, expression of Flk1 protein and the percentage of Flk1+ cells were severely reduced in 0.32 μM CsA-treated P19 cells compared to control cells. CsA significantly modulated mRNA expression levels of the cell cycle molecules, p53 and Cyclins D1, D2, and E2 in P19 cells during EB formation. Moreover, CsA significantly increased cell death and reduced cell number in P19 cells during EB formation. These results demonstrate that CsA induces cardiac differentiation but inhibits hemato-endothelial differentiation via activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, followed by modulation of cell lineage-determining genes in P19 cells during EB formation.

  8. WBC (White Blood Cell) Differential Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to toxic chemicals (such as lye or insecticides) can increase the risk of an abnormal differential. ... before they are fully mature. This is a natural immune response to infection and inflammation. My complete ...

  9. Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate, BiodentineTM and calcium hydroxide on viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Borges Araújo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the capping materials mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium hydroxide (CH and BiodentineTM (BD on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED in vitro. Material and Methods: SHED were cultured for 1 – 7 days in medium conditioned by incubation with MTA, BD or CH (1 mg/mL, and tested for viability (MTT assay and proliferation (SRB assay. Also, the migration of serum-starved SHED towards conditioned media was assayed in companion plates, with 8 μm-pore-sized membranes, for 24 h. Gene expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1 was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Regular culture medium with 10% FBS (without conditioning and culture medium supplemented with 20% FBS were used as controls. Results: MTA, CH and BD conditioned media maintained cell viability and allowed continuous SHED proliferation, with CH conditioned medium causing the highest positive effect on proliferation at the end of the treatment period (compared with BD and MTA (p<0.05. In contrast, we observed increased SHED migration towards BD and MTA conditioned media (compared with CH (p<0.05. A greater amount of DMP-1 gene was expressed in MTA group compared with the other groups from day 7 up to day 21. Conclusion: Our results show that the three capping materials are biocompatible, maintain viability and stimulate proliferation, migration and differentiation in a key dental stem cell population.

  10. Tracing T cell differentiation by genetic barcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijst, Jeroen Waltherus Johannes van

    2010-01-01

    Following antigen encounter, activated T cells can give rise to functionally distinct T cell subsets. Understanding how different T cell subsets arise requires technologies that can monitor the developmental potential of single precursor cells (chapter 2). This thesis describes the development and

  11. Differentiation of hamster liver oval cell following Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, B I; Jung, S Y; Hur, K; Lee, J H; Joo, K H; Lee, Y S; Kim, D Y

    2000-12-01

    Oval cells which appear in the liver after hepatic injuries are suspected to be progenitor cells for both hepatocytes and bile duct cells. Oval cell isolated from the livers of the hamsters treated with diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene and infected with Clonorchis sinensis (CS). cultured for 2 weeks and evaluated for differentiation and plasticity by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In the CS-uninfected group, glycogen granules and peroxisomes were noted in the cells that were cultured for 2 weeks. Starting at 1 week postculture, immunoreactivity of the cells to cytokeratin 19 markedly decreased but that to albumin and alpha-fetoprotein gradually increased. This means that oval cells isolated from hamsters that were not infected with CS differentiated toward hepatocyte lineage. However, in the CS-infected group, cultured cells contained numerous rough endoplasmic reticulum and showed immunoreactivity that was generally in reverse to that of CS-uninfected group, meaning that cells isolated following CS infection were primed by CS and differentiated toward bile duct cell lineage. The results of this study suggested that oval cells are indeed bipolar progenitor cells for hepatocytes and bile duct cells and can differentiate toward either lineage depending upon the priming factor.

  12. Differentiation of mucilage secretory cells of the Arabidopsis seed coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, T L; Skinner, D J; Haughn, G W

    2000-02-01

    In some plant species, including Arabidopsis, fertilization induces the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument to differentiate into a specialized seed coat cell type with a unique morphology and containing large quantities of polysaccharide mucilage (pectin). Such seed coat mucilage cells are necessary for neither viability nor germination under normal laboratory conditions. Thus, the Arabidopsis seed coat offers a unique system with which to use genetics to identify genes controlling cell morphogenesis and complex polysaccharide biosynthesis and secretion. As a first step in the application of this system, we have used microscopy to investigate the structure and differentiation of Arabidopsis seed coat mucilage cells, including cell morphogenesis and the synthesis, secretion, and extrusion of mucilage. During seed coat development in Arabidopsis, the epidermal cells of the outer ovule integument grow and differentiate into cells that produce large quantities of mucilage between the primary cell wall and plasma membrane. Concurrent with mucilage production, the cytoplasm is shaped into a column in the center of the cell. Following mucilage secretion the cytoplasmic column is surrounded by a secondary cell wall to form a structure known as the columella. Thus, differentiation of the seed coat mucilage cells involves a highly regulated series of events including growth, morphogenesis, mucilage biosynthesis and secretion, and secondary cell wall synthesis.

  13. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. ► Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. ► This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and according to our data doxazosin might be useful for application in the field of bone

  14. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jue Yeon [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chong-Pyoung [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Jeong, E-mail: parkyj@snu.ac.kr [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  15. Lactobacilli Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. CD3-CD56+ NK cells were isolated from...... having engulfed bacteria, stimulated the growth of the NK cells. In contrast, a Lactobacillus paracasei strain caused the NK cells to proliferate only in the presence of monocytes. These results demonstrate that various lactobacilli have the capacity to activate NK cells in vitro, in a monocyte dependent...

  16. Conceptual Challenges of the Systemic Approach in Understanding Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paldi, Andras

    2018-01-01

    The cells of a multicellular organism are derived from a single zygote and genetically identical. Yet, they are phenotypically very different. This difference is the result of a process commonly called cell differentiation. How the phenotypic diversity emerges during ontogenesis or regeneration is a central and intensely studied but still unresolved issue in biology. Cell biology is facing conceptual challenges that are frequently confused with methodological difficulties. How to define a cell type? What stability or change means in the context of cell differentiation and how to deal with the ubiquitous molecular variations seen in the living cells? What are the driving forces of the change? We propose to reframe the problem of cell differentiation in a systemic way by incorporating different theoretical approaches. The new conceptual framework is able to capture the insights made at different levels of cellular organization and considered previously as contradictory. It also provides a formal strategy for further experimental studies.

  17. Actin depolymerization enhances adipogenic differentiation in human stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Hu, Huimin; Qiu, Weimin

    2018-01-01

    Human stromal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiate into adipocytes that play a role in skeletal tissue homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. During adipocyte differentiation, hMSCs exhibit significant changes in cell morphology suggesting changes in cytoskeletal organization. Here, we examined...... differentiation as evidenced by decreased number of mature adipocytes and decreased adipocyte specific gene expression (ADIPOQ, LPL, PPARG, FABP4). In contrast, disruption of actin cytoskeleton by Cytochalasin D enhanced adipocyte differentiation. Follow up studies revealed that the effects of CFL1 on adipocyte...... differentiation depended on the activity of LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1) which is the major upstream kinase of CFL1. Inhibiting LIMK by its specific chemical inhibitor LIMKi inhibited the phosphorylation of CFL1 and actin polymerization, and enhanced the adipocyte differentiation. Moreover, treating h...

  18. Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells in Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue contains dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs. Dental pulp cells (also known as dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into multilineage cells including neuron-like cells. The aim of this study was to examine the capability of DPSCs to differentiate into neuron-like cells without using any reagents or growth factors. DPSCs were isolated from teeth extracted from 6- to 8-week-old mice and maintained in complete medium. The cells from the fourth passage were induced to differentiate by culturing in medium without serum or growth factors. RT-PCR molecular analysis showed characteristics of Cd146+, Cd166+, and Cd31− in DPSCs, indicating that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells rather than hematopoietic stem cells. After 5 days of neuronal differentiation, the cells showed neuron-like morphological changes and expressed MAP2 protein. The activation of Nestin was observed at low level prior to differentiation and increased after 5 days of culture in differentiation medium, whereas Tub3 was activated only after 5 days of neuronal differentiation. The proliferation of the differentiated cells decreased in comparison to that of the control cells. Dental pulp stem cells are induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells when cultured in serum- and growth factor-free medium.

  19. Mirna biogenesis pathway is differentially regulated during adipose derived stromal/stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E C; Qureshi, A T; Llamas, C B; Burow, M E; King, A G; Lee, O C; Dasa, V; Freitas, M A; Forsberg, J A; Elster, E A; Davis, T A; Gimble, J M

    2018-02-07

    Stromal/stem cell differentiation is controlled by a vast array of regulatory mechanisms. Included within these are methods of mRNA gene regulation that occur at the level of epigenetic, transcriptional, and/or posttranscriptional modifications. Current studies that evaluate the posttranscriptional regulation of mRNA demonstrate microRNAs (miRNAs) as key mediators of stem cell differentiation through the inhibition of mRNA translation. miRNA expression is enhanced during both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation; however, the mechanism by which miRNA expression is altered during stem cell differentiation is less understood. Here we demonstrate for the first time that adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) induced to an adipogenic or osteogenic lineage have differences in strand preference (-3p and -5p) for miRNAs originating from the same primary transcript. Furthermore, evaluation of miRNA expression in ASCs demonstrates alterations in both miRNA strand preference and 5'seed site heterogeneity. Additionally, we show that during stem cell differentiation there are alterations in expression of genes associated with the miRNA biogenesis pathway. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated changes in the Argonautes (AGO1-4), Drosha, and Dicer at intervals of ASC adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation compared to untreated ASCs. Specifically, we demonstrated altered expression of the AGOs occurring during both adipogenesis and osteogenesis, with osteogenesis increasing AGO1-4 expression and adipogenesis decreasing AGO1 gene and protein expression. These data demonstrate changes to components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway during stromal/stem cell differentiation. Identifying regulatory mechanisms for miRNA processing during ASC differentiation may lead to novel mechanisms for the manipulation of lineage differentiation of the ASC through the global regulation of miRNA as opposed to singular regulatory mechanisms.

  20. Shedding light on cell compartmentation in the candidate phylum Poribacteria by high resolution visualisation and transcriptional profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Martin T.; Markert, Sebastian M.; Ryu, Taewoo; Ravasi, Timothy; Stigloher, Christian; Hentschel, Ute; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    Assigning functions to uncultivated environmental microorganisms continues to be a challenging endeavour. Here, we present a new microscopy protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridisation-correlative light and electron microscopy (FISH-CLEM) that enabled, to our knowledge for the first time, the identification of single cells within their complex microenvironment at electron microscopy resolution. Members of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, common and uncultivated symbionts of marine sponges, were used towards this goal. Cellular 3D reconstructions revealed bipolar, spherical granules of low electron density, which likely represent carbon reserves. Poribacterial activity profiles were retrieved from prokaryotic enriched sponge metatranscriptomes using simulation-based optimised mapping. We observed high transcriptional activity for proteins related to bacterial microcompartments (BMC) and we resolved their subcellular localisation by combining FISH-CLEM with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on ultra-thin sponge tissue sections. In terms of functional relevance, we propose that the BMC-A region may be involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. The FISH-IHC-CLEM approach was proven an effective toolkit to combine -omics approaches with functional studies and it should be widely applicable in environmental microbiology.

  1. Shedding light on cell compartmentation in the candidate phylum Poribacteria by high resolution visualisation and transcriptional profiling

    KAUST Repository

    Jahn, Martin T.

    2016-10-31

    Assigning functions to uncultivated environmental microorganisms continues to be a challenging endeavour. Here, we present a new microscopy protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridisation-correlative light and electron microscopy (FISH-CLEM) that enabled, to our knowledge for the first time, the identification of single cells within their complex microenvironment at electron microscopy resolution. Members of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, common and uncultivated symbionts of marine sponges, were used towards this goal. Cellular 3D reconstructions revealed bipolar, spherical granules of low electron density, which likely represent carbon reserves. Poribacterial activity profiles were retrieved from prokaryotic enriched sponge metatranscriptomes using simulation-based optimised mapping. We observed high transcriptional activity for proteins related to bacterial microcompartments (BMC) and we resolved their subcellular localisation by combining FISH-CLEM with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on ultra-thin sponge tissue sections. In terms of functional relevance, we propose that the BMC-A region may be involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. The FISH-IHC-CLEM approach was proven an effective toolkit to combine -omics approaches with functional studies and it should be widely applicable in environmental microbiology.

  2. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  3. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  4. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus devoid of cell wall β-1,3-glucan is viable, massively sheds galactomannan and is killed by septum formation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichtl, Karl; Samantaray, Sweta; Aimanianda, Vishukumar; Zhu, Zhaojun; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Ebel, Frank; Wagener, Johannes

    2015-02-01

    Echinocandins inhibit β-1,3-glucan synthesis and are one of the few antimycotic drug classes effective against Aspergillus spp. In this study, we characterized the β-1,3-glucan synthase Fks1 of Aspergillus fumigatus, the putative target of echinocandins. Data obtained with a conditional mutant suggest that fks1 is not essential. In agreement, we successfully constructed a viable Δfks1 deletion mutant. Lack of Fks1 results in characteristic growth phenotypes similar to wild type treated with echinocandins and an increased susceptibility to calcofluor white and sodium dodecyl sulfate. In agreement with Fks1 being the only β-1,3-glucan synthase in A. fumigatus, the cell wall is devoid of β-1,3-glucan. This is accompanied by a compensatory increase of chitin and galactosaminogalactan and a significant decrease in cell wall galactomannan due to a massively enhanced galactomannan shedding. Our data furthermore suggest that inhibition of hyphal septation can overcome the limitations of echinocandin therapy. Compounds inhibiting septum formation boosted the antifungal activity of caspofungin. Thus, development of clinically applicable inhibitors of septum formation is a promising strategy to improve existing antifungal therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Chemical strategies for pancreatic β cell differentiation, reprogramming, and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaojie; Zhu, Saiyong

    2017-04-01

    Generation of unlimited functional pancreatic β cells is critical for the study of pancreatic biology and treatment of diabetes mellitus. Recent advances have suggested several promising directions, including directed differentiation of pancreatic β cells from pluripotent stem cells, reprogramming of pancreatic β cells from other types of somatic cells, and stimulated proliferation and enhanced functions of existing pancreatic β cells. Small molecules are useful in generating unlimited numbers of functional pancreatic cells in vitro and could be further developed as drugs to stimulate endogenous pancreatic regeneration. Here, we provide an updated summary of recent major achievements in pancreatic β cell differentiation, reprogramming, proliferation, and function. These studies will eventually lead to significant advances in the field of pancreatic biology and regeneration. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. COMPUTATION MODELING OF TCDD DISRUPTION OF B CELL TERMINAL DIFFERENTIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we established a computational model describing the molecular circuit underlying B cell terminal differentiation and how TCDD may affect this process by impinging upon various molecular targets.

  8. Differentiation of prostate cancer cells using flexible fluorescent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael D; Dutta, Rinku; Haldar, Manas K; Guo, Bin; Friesner, Daniel L; Mallik, Sanku

    2012-01-03

    Using water-soluble, fluorescent, flexible polymers, we have devised a novel methodology for identification and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. Using a stepwise linear discriminant analysis, we demonstrate that the differential modulations of the polymer emission intensities in the presence of conditioned cell culture media can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer subtypes and between cancerous and noncancer cells. The differences in the compositions of the conditioned cell culture media are likely contributing to different fluorescence spectral patterns of the polymers. This in vitro approach may provide a novel platform for the development of an alternative prostate cancer diagnostic and subtyping technique. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. [Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyutin, R V; Zapohlska, K M; Palyanytsya, S S; Sirman, V M; Sokolov, M F

    2015-03-01

    Experimental investigation were conducted with the objective to determine a stem cells, capacity to differentiate in adipogenic direction, if they were obtained from adipose tissue. The investigation results have witnessed, that the cells, obtained from adipose tissue, are capable for a tissue-speciphic differentiation in osteogenic, chondrogenic, and, principally--in adipogenic direction, what confirms a multypotent nature of mesenchymal stem cells of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue constitutes an alternative to the bone marrow, as a source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, which may be applied in further investigations, concerning determination of their defense possibility for the transplanted autologous adipose tissue from the tissue resorption, made in a lipophiling way.

  10. Engineering kidney cells: reprogramming and directed differentiation to renal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Michael M; Tosic, Jelena; Pichler, Roman; Arnold, Sebastian J; Lienkamp, Soeren S

    2017-07-01

    Growing knowledge of how cell identity is determined at the molecular level has enabled the generation of diverse tissue types, including renal cells from pluripotent or somatic cells. Recently, several in vitro protocols involving either directed differentiation or transcription-factor-based reprogramming to kidney cells have been established. Embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells can be guided towards a kidney fate by exposing them to combinations of growth factors or small molecules. Here, renal development is recapitulated in vitro resulting in kidney cells or organoids that show striking similarities to mammalian embryonic nephrons. In addition, culture conditions are also defined that allow the expansion of renal progenitor cells in vitro. Another route towards the generation of kidney cells is direct reprogramming. Key transcription factors are used to directly impose renal cell identity on somatic cells, thus circumventing the pluripotent stage. This complementary approach to stem-cell-based differentiation has been demonstrated to generate renal tubule cells and nephron progenitors. In-vitro-generated renal cells offer new opportunities for modelling inherited and acquired renal diseases on a patient-specific genetic background. These cells represent a potential source for developing novel models for kidney diseases, drug screening and nephrotoxicity testing and might represent the first steps towards kidney cell replacement therapies. In this review, we summarize current approaches for the generation of renal cells in vitro and discuss the advantages of each approach and their potential applications.

  11. Insulin redirects differentiation from cardiogenic mesoderm and endoderm to neuroectoderm in differentiating human embryonic stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freund, C.M.A.H.; Ward-van Oostwaard, D.; Monshouwer-Kloots, J.; van den Brink, S.; van Rooijen, M.A.; Xu, X.; Zweigerdt, R.; Mummery, C.L.; Passier, R.

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can proliferate indefinitely while retaining the capacity to form derivatives of all three germ layers. We have reported previously that hESC differentiate into cardiomyocytes when cocultured with a visceral endoderm-like cell line (END-2). Insulin/insulin-like

  12. Influence of Porcine Intervertebral Disc Matrix on Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Lothar Fuchsbauer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For back disorders, cell therapy is one approach for a real regeneration of a degenerated nucleus pulposus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC could be differentiated into nucleus pulposus (NP-like cells and used for cell therapy. Therefore it is necessary to find a suitable biocompatible matrix, which supports differentiation. It could be shown that a differentiation of hMSC in a microbial transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin matrix is possible, but resulted in a more chondrocyte-like cell type. The addition of porcine NP extract to the gelatin matrix caused a differentiation closer to the desired NP cell phenotype. This concludes that a hydrogel containing NP extract without any other supplements could be suitable for differentiation of hMSCs into NP cells. The NP extract itself can be cross-linked by transglutaminase to build a hydrogel free of NP atypical substrates. As shown by side-specific biotinylation, the NP extract contains molecules with free glutamine and lysine residues available for the transglutaminase.

  13. The effects of chemotherapeutic agents on differentiated chordoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Aydemir, Esra; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Sahin, Fikrettin; Sevli, Serhat; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Acar, Hasan; Ozen, Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    Chordoma is a rare type of malignant bone tumor and is known to arise from the remnants of the notochord. Resistance to chemotherapy makes the treatment of chordoma difficult; therefore, new approaches need to be developed to cure this disease. Differentiation therapy, using various differentiating agents, is attracting oncologists as a common therapeutic method to treat other tumors. Based on forcing cells to mature into other lineages, differentiation therapy might be an available method to treat chordomas in addition to conventional therapies. In this study a chordoma cell line, U-CH1, was exposed to several chemotherapeutic agents including vincristine, doxorubicin, cisplatin, etoposide, fludarabine, methotrexate, nilotinib, and imatinib mesylate under appropriate conditions. The first group of U-CH1 cells was exposed to drugs only and the second group of cells was exposed to the simultaneous treatment of 1 μM all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapeutic agents in differentiation therapy. The efficacy of the differentiation method was assessed by measuring the viability of U-CH1 cells. Vincristine, doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin, and fludarabine, each at a concentration of 10 μM, decreased the number of chordoma cells when given alone down to 11%, 0%, 30%, 67%, and 3%, respectively. Etoposide and cisplatin, each at a concentration of 10 μM, reduced the percentage of viable chordoma cells in a more effective way when given with 1 μM ATRA simultaneously, reducing the number of viable cells to 14% and 9%, respectively. On the other hand, imatinib and nilotinib, each at a concentration of 3 μM, as well as 10 μM methotrexate, showed no decrease in the number of cancer cells. The results suggest that chordoma cells may be treated using the differentiation method in a more effective way than when they are treated with chemotherapeutic agents alone. This new approach may be an alternative method to conventional therapies in the treatment of chordoma.

  14. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Kevin A; Agulnick, Alan D; Eliazer, Susan; Kelly, Olivia G; Kroon, Evert; Baetge, Emmanuel E

    2005-12-01

    The potential of human embryonic stem (hES) cells to differentiate into cell types of a variety of organs has generated much excitement over the possible use of hES cells in therapeutic applications. Of great interest are organs derived from definitive endoderm, such as the pancreas. We have focused on directing hES cells to the definitive endoderm lineage as this step is a prerequisite for efficient differentiation to mature endoderm derivatives. Differentiation of hES cells in the presence of activin A and low serum produced cultures consisting of up to 80% definitive endoderm cells. This population was further enriched to near homogeneity using the cell-surface receptor CXCR4. The process of definitive endoderm formation in differentiating hES cell cultures includes an apparent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and a dynamic gene expression profile that are reminiscent of vertebrate gastrulation. These findings may facilitate the use of hES cells for therapeutic purposes and as in vitro models of development.

  15. Differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Kong, Yan; Zhang, Mingliang; Xie, Fei; Liu, Peng; Xu, Shaohua

    2016-02-26

    A long-standing goal in regenerative medicine is to obtain scalable functional cells on demand to replenish cells lost in various conditions, including relevant diseases, injuries, and aging. As an unlimited cell source, pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are invaluable for regenerative medicine, because they have the potential to give rise to any cell type in an organism. For therapeutic purposes, it is important to develop specific approach to directing PSC differentiation towards desired cell types efficiently. Through directed differentiation, PSCs could give rise to scalable, clinically relevant cells for in vivo transplantation, as well as for studying diseases in vitro and discovering drugs to treat them. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in directing differentiation of PSCs into a variety of cell types. In this review, we discuss recent progress in directed differentiation of PSCs, clinical translation of PSC-based cell replacement therapies, and remaining challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell Fate and Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Kokabu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts and bone marrow adipocytes originate from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs and there appears to be a reciprocal relationship between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis. Alterations in the balance between adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in BMMSCs wherein adipogenesis is increased relative to osteoblastogenesis are associated with decreased bone quality and quantity. Several proteins have been reported to regulate this reciprocal relationship but the exact nature of the signals regulating the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation within the bone marrow space remains to be determined. In this review, we focus on the role of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 3 (TLE3, which was recently reported to regulate the balance between osteoblast and adipocyte formation from BMMSCs. We also discuss evidence implicating canonical Wnt signalling, which plays important roles in both adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis, in regulating TLE3 expression. Currently, there is demand for new effective therapies that target the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation to enhance bone formation. We speculate that reducing TLE3 expression or activity in BMMSCs could be a useful approach towards increasing osteoblast numbers and reducing adipogenesis in the bone marrow environment.

  17. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  18. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  19. The novel BTB/POZ and zinc finger factor Zbtb45 is essential for proper glial differentiation of neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Södersten, Erik; Lilja, Tobias; Hermanson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling the fate decisions of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a crucial issue to shed new light on mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development in health and disease. We have investigated a possible role for the previously uncharacterized BTB/POZ-doma......Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling the fate decisions of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a crucial issue to shed new light on mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development in health and disease. We have investigated a possible role for the previously uncharacterized BTB...... not significantly affect proliferation or cell death in any of the cell types. Based on these observations, we propose that Zbtb45 is a novel regulator of glial differentiation....

  20. Differentiation of blood T cells: Reprogramming human induced pluripotent stem cells into neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Hsing; Chang, Yun-Ching; Lee, Yi-Yen; Ko, Yu-Ling; Yang, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Yu, Wen-Chung; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Teh

    2015-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) morphologically and functionally resemble human embryonic stem cells, which presents the opportunity to use patient-specific somatic cells for disease modeling and drug screening. In order to take one step closer to clinical applications, it is important to generate iPSCs through a less invasive approach and from any accessible tissue, including peripheral blood. Meanwhile, how to differentiate blood cell-derived iPSCs into neuron-like cells is still unclear. We utilized Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1-based episomal vectors, a nonviral system that can reprogram somatic cells into iPSCs in both feeder-dependent and feeder-free conditions, to generate iPSCs from T cells via electroporation and then induce them into neuronal cells. We successfully isolated sufficient T cells from 20 mL peripheral blood of the donors and reprogrammed these T cells into iPSCs within 4 weeks. These iPSCs could be stably passaged to at least 50 passages, and exhibited the abilities of pluripotency and multiple-lineage differentiation. Notably, under the medium induction for 21 days, these T-cell-derived iPSCs could be differentiated into Nestin (neural progenitor marker)-, GFAP (glial cell marker)-, and MAP2 (neuron cell marker)-positive cells detected by immunofluorescence methods. We have developed a safer method to generate integration-free and nonviral human iPSCs from adult somatic cells. This induction method will be useful for the derivation of human integration-free iPSCs and will also be applicable to the generation of iPSCs-derived neuronal cells for drug screening or therapeutics in the near future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  1. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  2. Lack of galectin-3 modifies differentially Notch ligands in bone marrow and spleen stromal cells interfering with B cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Felipe Leite; Dos Santos, Sofia Nascimento; Ricon, Lauremilia; da Costa, Thayse Pinheiro; Pereira, Jonathas Xavier; Brand, Camila; Fermino, Marise Lopes; Chammas, Roger; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; El-Cheikh, Márcia Cury

    2018-02-22

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside binding protein that controls cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In lymphoid organs, gal-3 inhibits B cell differentiation by mechanisms poorly understood. The B cell development is dependent on tissue organization and stromal cell signaling, including IL-7 and Notch pathways. Here, we investigate possible mechanisms that gal-3 interferes during B lymphocyte differentiation in the bone marrow (BM) and spleen. The BM of gal-3-deficient mice (Lgals3 -/- mice) was evidenced by elevated numbers of B220 + CD19 + c-Kit + IL-7R + progenitor B cells. In parallel, CD45 - bone marrow stromal cells expressed high levels of mRNA IL-7, Notch ligands (Jagged-1 and Delta-like 4), and transcription factors (Hes-1, Hey-1, Hey-2 and Hey-L). The spleen of Lgals3 -/- mice was hallmarked by marginal zone disorganization, high number of IgM + IgD + B cells and CD138 + plasma cells, overexpression of Notch ligands (Jagged-1, Delta-like 1 and Delta-like 4) by stromal cells and Hey-1. Morever, IgM + IgD + B cells and B220 + CD138 + CXCR4 + plasmablasts were significantly increased in the BM and blood of Lgals3 -/- mice. For the first time, we demonstrated that gal-3 inhibits Notch signaling activation in lymphoid organs regulating earlier and terminal events of B cell differentiation.

  3. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved...

  4. Differential retention of tumor- and differentiation-suppressor functions in cells derived from a human squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, D R; Montero-Puerner, Y; Beckett, M A; Cowan, J M; Weichselbaum, R R; Diamond, A M

    1992-01-01

    Three morphologically distinct cell lines--F.2a, V, and B.2--were isolated from a single human squamous cell carcinoma. Although all three cell lines can grow indefinitely in culture, they differ in a number of important transformation-related phenotypes. Only B.2 is strongly tumorigenic when injected into the flanks of nude mice, and only V can efficiently grow in semisolid media. The dominance of these traits was investigated by generating somatic cell hybrids among the three cell lines. F.2a was able to suppress the tumorigenicity of B.2 cells, whereas B.2 inhibited the capacity for anchorage-independent growth of V, the latter trait being a function of the ability of these epithelial cells to differentiate when deprived of support. The influence of exogenously added growth factors was also evaluated. This study indicates that the particular tumor we examined consisted of a heterogeneous population of cells with distinct growth and differentiation capacities.

  5. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Down Syndrome Embryonic Stem Cells Reveals a Role for RUNX1 in Neural Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Halevy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is the leading genetic cause of mental retardation and is caused by a third copy of human chromosome 21. The different pathologies of DS involve many tissues with a distinct array of neural phenotypes. Here we characterize embryonic stem cell lines with DS (DS-ESCs, and focus on the neural aspects of the disease. Our results show that neural progenitor cells (NPCs differentiated from five independent DS-ESC lines display increased apoptosis and downregulation of forehead developmental genes. Analysis of differentially expressed genes suggested RUNX1 as a key transcription regulator in DS-NPCs. Using genome editing we were able to disrupt all three copies of RUNX1 in DS-ESCs, leading to downregulation of several RUNX1 target developmental genes accompanied by reduced apoptosis and neuron migration. Our work sheds light on the role of RUNX1 and the importance of dosage balance in the development of neural phenotypes in DS.

  7. The role of purinergic receptors in stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Kaebisch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge modern society has to face is the increasing need for tissue regeneration due to degenerative diseases or tumors, but also accidents or warlike conflicts. There is great hope that stem cell-based therapies might improve current treatments of cardiovascular diseases, osteochondral defects or nerve injury due to the unique properties of stem cells such as their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Since embryonic stem cells raise severe ethical concerns and are prone to teratoma formation, adult stem cells are still in the focus of research. Emphasis is placed on cellular signaling within these cells and in between them for a better understanding of the complex processes regulating stem cell fate. One of the oldest signaling systems is based on nucleotides as ligands for purinergic receptors playing an important role in a huge variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, migration and differentiation. Besides their natural ligands, several artificial agonists and antagonists have been identified for P1 and P2 receptors and are already used as drugs. This review outlines purinergic receptor expression and signaling in stem cells metabolism. We will briefly describe current findings in embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells as well as in cancer-, hematopoietic-, and neural crest-derived stem cells. The major focus will be placed on recent findings of purinergic signaling in mesenchymal stem cells addressed in in vitro and in vivo studies, since stem cell fate might be manipulated by this system guiding differentiation towards the desired lineage in the future.

  8. Extracellular vesicles shed by melanoma cells contain a modified form of H1.0 linker histone and H1.0 mRNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Puleo, Veronica; Colletta, Oriana; Fricano, Anna; Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-11-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are now recognized as a fundamental way for cell-to-cell horizontal transfer of properties, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Most of EV-mediated cross-talk among cells depend on the exchange of proteins, and nucleic acids, among which mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs such as different species of miRNAs. Cancer cells, in particular, use EVs to discard molecules which could be dangerous to them (for example differentiation-inducing proteins such as histone H1.0, or antitumor drugs), to transfer molecules which, after entering the surrounding cells, are able to transform their phenotype, and even to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance. Herein we report that melanoma cells not only secrete EVs which contain a modified form of H1.0 histone, but also transport the corresponding mRNA. Given the already known role in tumorigenesis of some RNA binding proteins (RBPs), we also searched for proteins of this class in EVs. This study revealed the presence in A375 melanoma cells of at least three RBPs, with apparent MW of about 65, 45 and 38 kDa, which are able to bind H1.0 mRNA. Moreover, we purified one of these proteins, which by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was identified as the already known transcription factor MYEF2.

  9. Disorders of cell kinetics and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Yalçin; Dolar, Neslihan; Keskin, Sadiye; Wolf, Ronni

    2007-10-01

    The kinetics of cells, keratin, and lipids in the skin could provide useful information about skin biology in health and disease. The kinetics of skin cell turnover are of interest for a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. There are also uncertainties regarding the extent of keratinocyte turnover in various skin diseases. Hyperproliferation may represent a risk factor for skin cancer and occurs in physiologic conditions such as wound healing.

  10. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  11. Substrate Induced Osteoblast-Like Differentiation of Stromal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belizar, Jacqueline; Glaser, Reena; Hung, Matthew; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Shih, Alice

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated that Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be induced to biomineralize on a polybutadiene (PB) coated Si substrate. The cells began to generate calcium phosphate deposits after a five-day incubation period in the absence of dexamethasone. Control cells plated on tissue culture PS culture dish (TCP) did not biomineralize. In addition, the biomineralizing culture retained proliferative cells In order to determine whether the induction was transient, we transferred the cells exposed to polybutadiene after 14 and 28-day incubation periods to TCP dishes. These cells continued to biominerlize. Genetic testing is underway which will determine whether differentiation is maintained after transfer.

  12. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (Keystone Sym)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to establish an in vitro model system to evaluate chemical effects using a single stem cell culture technique that would improve throughput and provide quantitative markers of differentiation and cell number. To this end, we have used an adherent cell differentiation ...

  13. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during

  14. Dexamethasone Suppresses Oxysterol-Induced Differentiation of Monocytic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghae Son

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterol like 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol has been reported to induce differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype. We examined whether dexamethasone (Dx affects 27OHChol-induced differentiation using THP-1 cells. Treatment of monocytic cells with Dx resulted in almost complete inhibition of transcription and surface expression of CD80, CD83, and CD88 induced by 27OHChol. Elevated surface levels of MHC class I and II molecules induced by 27OHChol were reduced to basal levels by treatment with Dx. A decreased endocytosis ability caused by 27OHChol was recovered by Dx. We also examined effects of Dx on expression of CD molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Increased levels of surface protein and transcription of CD105, CD137, and CD166 by treatment with 27OHChol were significantly inhibited by cotreatment with Dx. These results indicate that Dx inhibits 27OHChol-induced differentiation of monocytic cells into a mature dendritic cell phenotype and expression of CD molecules whose levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In addition, we examined phosphorylation of AKT induced by 27OHChol and effect of Dx, where cotreatment with Dx inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT. The current study reports that Dx regulates oxysterol-mediated dendritic cell differentiation of monocytic cells.

  15. Stem Cell Differentiation as a Non-Markov Stochastic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Patrick S; Smith, Rosanna C G; Lenz, Michael; Schuppert, Andreas; Müller, Franz-Josef; Babtie, Ann; Chan, Thalia E; Stumpf, Michael P H; Please, Colin P; Howison, Sam D; Arai, Fumio; MacArthur, Ben D

    2017-09-27

    Pluripotent stem cells can self-renew in culture and differentiate along all somatic lineages in vivo. While much is known about the molecular basis of pluripotency, the mechanisms of differentiation remain unclear. Here, we profile individual mouse embryonic stem cells as they progress along the neuronal lineage. We observe that cells pass from the pluripotent state to the neuronal state via an intermediate epiblast-like state. However, analysis of the rate at which cells enter and exit these observed cell states using a hidden Markov model indicates the presence of a chain of unobserved molecular states that each cell transits through stochastically in sequence. This chain of hidden states allows individual cells to record their position on the differentiation trajectory, thereby encoding a simple form of cellular memory. We suggest a statistical mechanics interpretation of these results that distinguishes between functionally distinct cellular "macrostates" and functionally similar molecular "microstates" and propose a model of stem cell differentiation as a non-Markov stochastic process. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditions for the differentiation of melanocyte- precursor cells from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... The loss of skin pigmentation can induce compromised cutaneous immunity, which can result in conditions such as vitiligo. In this study, we evaluated various agents that are able to induce the differentiation of stem cells into melanocytes. We found that a mixture of forskolin (FK), stem cell factor. (SCF) and ...

  17. Conditions for the differentiation of melanocyte-precursor cells from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, significant expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M and tyrosinase-related protein-1 genes was observed. These results suggest that a mixture of FK, SCF and EDN-3 induces the differentiation of melanocyte-precursor cells (MPCs) from CB-MSCs. Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, ...

  18. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...

  19. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-...

  20. Canthin-6-one induces cell death, cell cycle arrest and differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira Torquato, Heron F; Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio C; Buri, Marcus V; Araújo Júnior, Roberto T; Pimenta, Renata; de Oliveira, José Salvador R; Filho, Valdir C; Macho, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos T

    2017-04-01

    Canthin-6-one is a natural product isolated from various plant genera and from fungi with potential antitumor activity. In the present study, we evaluate the antitumor effects of canthin-6-one in human myeloid leukemia lineages. Kasumi-1 lineage was used as a model for acute myeloid leukemia. Cells were treated with canthin-6-one and cell death, cell cycle and differentiation were evaluated in both total cells (Lin + ) and leukemia stem cell population (CD34 + CD38 - Lin -/low ). Among the human lineages tested, Kasumi-1 was the most sensitive to canthin-6-one. Canthin-6-one induced cell death with apoptotic (caspase activation, decrease of mitochondrial potential) and necrotic (lysosomal permeabilization, double labeling of annexin V/propidium iodide) characteristics. Moreover, canthin-6-one induced cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 (7μM) and G 2 (45μM) evidenced by DNA content, BrdU incorporation and cyclin B1/histone 3 quantification. Canthin-6-one also promoted differentiation of Kasumi-1, evidenced by an increase in the expression of myeloid markers (CD11b and CD15) and the transcription factor PU.1. Furthermore, a reduction of the leukemic stem cell population and clonogenic capability of stem cells were observed. These results show that canthin-6-one can affect Kasumi-1 cells by promoting cell death, cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation depending on concentration used. Canthin-6-one presents an interesting cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells and represents a promising scaffold for the development of molecules for anti-leukemic applications, especially by its anti-leukemic stem cell activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Somatic mutation and cell differentiation in neoplastic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huberman, E.; Collart, F.R.

    1987-01-01

    In brief, the authors suggest that tumor formation may result from continuous expression of growth facilitating genes that, as a result of irreversible changes during the initiation step, are placed under the control of genes expressed during normal differentiation. Thus, to understand carcinogenesis, we must decipher the processes that lead to the acquisition of a mature phenotype in both normal and tumor cells and characterize the growth dependency of tumor cells to inducers of cell differentiation. Furthermore, the growth of a variety of tumors may be controlled through the use of inducers of maturation that activate genes located beyond the gene that is altered during tumor initiation. 22 refs., 3 figs

  2. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi, E-mail: hocc@email.uc.edu

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  3. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  4. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering

  5. Transplantation Dose Alters the Differentiation Program of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Casey; Chu, Elizabeth; Chin, Mike; Lu, Rong

    2016-05-24

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the most prevalent stem cell therapy, but it remains a risky procedure. To improve this treatment, it is important to understand how transplanted stem cells rebuild the blood and immune systems and how this process is impacted by transplantation variables such as the HSC dose. Here, we find that, in the long term following transplantation, 70%-80% of donor-HSC-derived clones do not produce all measured blood cell types. High HSC doses lead to more clones that exhibit balanced lymphocyte production, whereas low doses produce more T-cell-specialized clones. High HSC doses also produce significantly higher proportions of early-differentiating clones compared to low doses. These complex differentiation behaviors uncover the clonal-level regeneration dynamics of hematopoietic regeneration and suggest that transplantation dose can be exploited to improve stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  7. Molecular Control of Interdigital Cell Death and Cell Differentiation by Retinoic Acid during Digit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Díaz-Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The precise coordination of cell death and cell differentiation during the formation of developing digits is essential for generating properly shaped limbs. Retinoic acid (RA has a fundamental role in digit development; it promotes or inhibits the molecular expression of several critical genes. This control of gene expression establishes molecular cascades that enable both the commencement of cell death and the inhibition of cell differentiation. In this review, we focus on the antagonistic functions between RA and fibroblast growth factor (FGF signaling in the control of cell death and between RA and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling in the control of cell differentiation.

  8. Identifying microRNAs that Regulate Neuroblastoma Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    System (Promega). Firefly lucifer - ase activity was normalized to Renilla luciferase activity to evalu- ate the effect of the miRNAs. Biotinylated-miR...objective of Aim 1. We further validated the effect of miR-449a on the expression of molecular differentiation markers, on cell cycle distribution, and on...inducing effect in neuroblastoma cell lines regardless of the genetic backgrounds of the cell lines. We have completed the screen in the MYCN-amplified

  9. Glutathione, cell proliferation and differentiation | Ashtiani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All organisms require an equivalent source for living. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant thiol containing protein in mammalian cells and organs. Glutathione was discovered by Hopkins in 1924 who published his findings in JBC. It is a three peptide containing glutamic acid, cystein and glycin and is found in reduced ...

  10. Surface topography during neural stem cell differentiation regulates cell migration and cell morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Catherine; Short, Aaron; Nelson, Tyler; Gygli, Patrick; Ortiz, Cristina; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Stocker, Ben; Cronin, James; Lannutti, John; Winter, Jessica; Otero, José Javier

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of central nervous system scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small-diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells. Neural stem cells showed differential migratory and morphological reactions with laminin in different topographical contexts. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neural stem cell biological responses to laminin are dependent on topographical context. Large-fiber topography without laminin prevented cell migration, which was partially reversed by treatment with rock inhibitor. Cell morphology complexity assayed by fractal dimension was inhibited in nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated neural precursor cells in large-fiber topography, but was not changed in small-fiber topography with these inhibitors. These data indicate that cell morphology has different requirements on cytoskeletal proteins dependent on the topographical environment encountered by the cell. We propose that the physical structure of distinct scaffolds induces unique signaling cascades that regulate migration and morphology in embryonic neural precursor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3485-3502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  12. Prostate cancer cells induce osteoblastic differentiation via semaphorin 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuzhou; Shen, Weiwei; Qiu, Hao; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei

    2015-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastasis to bone is the second most commonly diagnosed malignant disease among men worldwide. Such metastatic disease is characterized by the presence of osteoblastic bone lesions, and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the various mechanisms involved in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation have not been fully explored. Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) is a newly identified regulator of bone metabolism which stimulates differentiation of pre-osteoblastic cells under physiological conditions. We investigated in this study whether prostate cancer cells can mediate osteoblastic activity through Sema 3A. We cultured osteoprogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells in prostate cancer-conditioned medium, and analyzed levels of Sema 3A protein in diverse prostate cancer cell lines to identify cell lines in which Sema 3A production showed a positive correlation with osteo-stimulation. C4-2 cells were stably transfected with Sema 3A short hairpin RNA to further determine whether Sema 3A contributes to the ability of C4-2 cells to induce osteoblastic differentiation. Down-regulation of Sema 3A expression decreased indicators of C4-2 CM-induced osteoblastic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization. Additionally, silencing or neutralizing Sema 3A in C4-2 cells resulted in diminished β-catenin expression in osteogenitor MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results suggest that prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic differentiation is at least partially mediated by Sema 3A, and may be regulated by the β-catenin signalling pathway. Sema 3A may represent a novel target for treatment of prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Differentiation of Umbilical Cord Lining Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Endothelial-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Doan, Chinh; Long Le, Thanh; Son Hoang, Nghia; Trung Doan, Ngoc; Dong Le, Van; Si Do, Minh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stem cell therapy for the treatment of vascular-related diseases through functional revascularization is one of the most important research areas in tissue engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro differentiation of umbilical CL-MSC into endothelial lineage cells. Methods: In this study, isolated cells were characterized for expression of MSC-specific markers and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. They were induced to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and then examined for expression of the endothelial-specific markers, karyotype, and functional behavior of cells. Results: Isolated cells expressed MSC-specific markers and differentiated into adipocytes and osteoblasts. After endothelial differentiation, they expressed CD31, vWF, VE-cadherin, VEGFR1, and VEGFR2 at both mRNA and protein level, but their morphological changes were not apparent when compared with those of undifferentiated cells. There were no significant changes in karyotype of differentiated cells. Furthermore, angiogenesis assay and LDL uptake assay showed that differentiated cells were able to form the capillary-like structures and uptake LDL, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that umbilical CL-MSC could differentiate into functional endothelial-like cells. Also, they are suitable for basic and clinical studies to cure several vascular-related diseases. PMID:24518546

  14. The Role of Lymphatic Niches in T Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Tara; Kim, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term immunity to many viral and bacterial pathogens requires CD8+ memory T cell development, and the induction of long-lasting CD8+ memory T cells from a naïve, undifferentiated state is a major goal of vaccine design. Formation of the memory CD8+ T cell compartment is highly dependent on the early activation cues received by naïve CD8+ T cells during primary infection. This review aims to highlight the cellularity of various niches within the lymph node and emphasize recent evidence suggesting that distinct types of T cell activation and differentiation occur within different immune contexts in lymphoid organs. PMID:27306645

  15. Gene expression analysis of PTEN positive glioblastoma stem cells identifies DUB3 and Wee1 modulation in a cell differentiation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Forte

    Full Text Available The term astrocytoma defines a quite heterogeneous group of neoplastic diseases that collectively represent the most frequent brain tumors in humans. Among them, glioblastoma multiforme represents the most malignant form and its associated prognosis is one of the poorest among tumors of the central nervous system. It has been demonstrated that a small population of tumor cells, isolated from the brain neoplastic tissue, can reproduce the parental tumor when transplanted in immunodeficient mouse. These tumor initiating cells are supposed to be involved in cancer development and progression and possess stem cell-like features; like their normal counterpart, these cells remain quiescent until they are committed to differentiation. Many studies have shown that the role of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN in cell cycle progression is fundamental for tumor dynamics: in low grade gliomas, PTEN contributes to maintain cells in G1 while the loss of its activity is frequently observed in high grade gliomas. The mechanisms underlying the above described PTEN activity have been studied in many tumors, but those involved in the maintenance of tumor initiating cells quiescence remain to be investigated in more detail. The aim of the present study is to shed light on the role of PTEN pathway on cell cycle regulation in Glioblastoma stem cells, through a cell differentiation model. Our results suggest the existence of a molecular mechanism, that involves DUB3 and WEE1 gene products in the regulation of Cdc25a, as functional effector of the PTEN/Akt pathway.

  16. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortini, P. [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Dogliotti, E., E-mail: eugenia.dogliotti@iss.it [Department of Environment and Primary Prevention, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  17. Mechanisms of dealing with DNA damage in terminally differentiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, P.; Dogliotti, E.

    2010-01-01

    To protect genomic integrity living cells that are continuously exposed to DNA-damaging insults are equipped with an efficient defence mechanism termed the DNA damage response. Its function is to eliminate DNA damage through DNA repair and to remove damaged cells by apoptosis. The DNA damage response has been investigated mainly in proliferating cells, in which the cell cycle machinery is integrated with the DNA damage signalling. The current knowledge of the mechanisms of DNA repair, DNA damage signalling and cell death of post-mitotic cells that have undergone irreversible cell cycle withdrawal will be reviewed. Evidence will be provided that the protection of the genome integrity in terminally differentiated cells is achieved by different strategies than in proliferating cells.

  18. Induction of differentiation of murine embryonal carcinoma cells by ouabain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.T.

    1986-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells can be induced to differentiate by ouabain at concentrations which inhibit Na + , K + -ATPase activity as measured by inhibition of 86 Rb + uptake. Since the pharmacologic action of ouabain is thought to be specific, the authors investigated the role of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition and specific metabolic consequences of this inhibition in the induction of EC differentiation, and explored whether this might be a common mode of action for a variety of structurally diverse inducers. The Na + , K + -ATPase maintains ionic gradients in cells. However, results of studies utilizing specific ionophores, channel blockers, and media deficient in specific components failed to demonstrate a consistent role for ion flux or concentration in the differentiation process. The Na + , K + -ATPase is a major consumer of ATP. They therefore examined the effect of Na + , K + -ATPase inhibition on the adenylate energy charge as measured by high performance liquid chromatography of adenylate nucleotides. Ouabain was found to significantly decrease the energy charge in sensitive cells suggesting a role for suppression of ATP turnover is triggering differentiation. However, direct inhibition of glycolysis also induced differentiation without decreasing the energy charge, suggesting that reduction of the energy charge is not a common mechanism for induction of differentiation of EC

  19. In-depth analysis of secretome and N-glycosecretome of human hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic cell lines shed light on metastasis correlated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyu; Jiang, Jing; Zhao, Xinyuan; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Qichen; Zhao, Qing; Han, Huanhuan; Wang, Jifeng; Yu, Zixiang; Peng, Bo; Ying, Wantao; Qian, Xiaohong

    2016-04-19

    Cancer cell metastasis is a major cause of cancer fatality. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood, which results in the lack of efficient diagnosis, therapy and prevention approaches. Here, we report a systematic study on the secretory proteins (secretome) and secretory N-glycoproteins (N-glycosecretome) of four human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with different metastatic potential, to explore the molecular mechanism of metastasis and supply the clues for effective measurement of diagnosis and therapy. Totally, 6242 unique gene products (GPs) and 1637 unique N-glycosites from 635 GPs were confidently identified. About 4000 GPs on average were quantified in each of the cell lines, 1156 of which show differential expression (pproteins were secretory proteins and proteins correlated to cell movement were significantly activated with the increasing of metastatic potential of the cell lines. Twenty-three GPs increased both in the secretome and the N-glycosecretome were chosen as candidates and verified by western blot analysis, and 10 of them were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The cumulative survival rates of the patients with candidate (FAT1, DKK3) suggested that these proteins might be used as biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. In addition, a comparative analysis with the published core human plasma database (1754 GPs) revealed that there were 182 proteins not presented in the human plasma database but identified by our studies, some of which were selected and verified successfully by western blotting in human plasma.

  20. Regulation of T cell differentiation and function by EZH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THEODOROS KARANTANOS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2, one of the polycomb group (PcG proteins, is the catalytic subunit of Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and induces the trimethylation of the histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 promoting epigenetic gene silencing. EZH2 contains a SET domain promoting the methyltransferase activity while the three other protein components of PRC2, namely EED, SUZ12 and RpAp46/48 induce compaction of the chromatin permitting EZH2 enzymatic activity. Numerous studies highlight the role of this evolutionary conserved protein as a master regulator of differentiation in humans involved in the repression of the homeotic (Hox gene and the inactivation of X-chromosome. Through its effects in the epigenetic regulation of critical genes, EZH2 has been strongly linked to cell cycle progression, stem cell pluripotency and cancer biology. Most recently, EZH2 has been associated with hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thymopoiesis and lymphopoiesis. Several studies have evaluated the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation and plasticity as well as its implications in the development of autoimmune diseases and graft versus host disease (GvHD. In this review we will briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of EZH2 in the regulation of T cell differentiation, effector function and homing in the tumor microenvironment and we will discuss possible therapeutic targeting of EZH2 in order to alter T cell immune functions.

  1. In vitro culture of embryonic mouse intestinal epithelium: cell differentiation and introduction of reporter genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornsey Mark A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study of the normal development of the intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable model systems, in particular ones that enable the introduction of exogenous genes. Production of such a system would advance our understanding of normal epithelial development and help to shed light on the pathogenesis of intestinal neoplasia. The criteria for a reliable culture system include the ability to perform real time observations and manipulations in vitro, the preparation of wholemounts for immunostaining and the potential for introducing genes. Results The new culture system involves growing mouse embryo intestinal explants on fibronectin-coated coverslips in basal Eagle's medium+20% fetal bovine serum. Initially the cultures maintain expression of the intestinal transcription factor Cdx2 together with columnar epithelial (cytokeratin 8 and mesenchymal (smooth muscle actin markers. Over a few days of culture, differentiation markers appear characteristic of absorptive epithelium (sucrase-isomaltase, goblet cells (Periodic Acid Schiff positive, enteroendocrine cells (chromogranin A and Paneth cells (lysozyme. Three different approaches were tested to express genes in the developing cultures: transfection, electroporation and adenoviral infection. All could introduce genes into the mesenchyme, but only to a small extent into the epithelium. However the efficiency of adenovirus infection can be greatly improved by a limited enzyme digestion, which makes accessible the lateral faces of cells bearing the Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor. This enables reliable delivery of genes into epithelial cells. Conclusion We describe a new in vitro culture system for the small intestine of the mouse embryo that recapitulates its normal development. The system both provides a model for studying normal development of the intestinal epithelium and also allows for the manipulation of gene expression. The explants can be cultured for up

  2. Pericytes Stimulate Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Differentiation during CNS Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alerie Guzman De La Fuente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the neurovascular niche in CNS myelin regeneration is incompletely understood. Here, we show that, upon demyelination, CNS-resident pericytes (PCs proliferate, and parenchymal non-vessel-associated PC-like cells (PLCs rapidly develop. During remyelination, mature oligodendrocytes were found in close proximity to PCs. In Pdgfbret/ret mice, which have reduced PC numbers, oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC differentiation was delayed, although remyelination proceeded to completion. PC-conditioned medium accelerated and enhanced OPC differentiation in vitro and increased the rate of remyelination in an ex vivo cerebellar slice model of demyelination. We identified Lama2 as a PC-derived factor that promotes OPC differentiation. Thus, the functional role of PCs is not restricted to vascular homeostasis but includes the modulation of adult CNS progenitor cells involved in regeneration.

  3. Expression of assayable residual stem cell damage in erythroid differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, G.E.; Miller, M.E.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    In rodents, residual damage is inducible in hematopoietic stem cells by exposure to ionizing radiation or alkylating agents. This damage can b e assayed in mice by transferring bone marrow into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients and subsequently measuring the incremental increase of-( 125 I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in spleens. In this study, bone marrow from mice treated 3 weeks previously with Methylnitrosourea (50 mg/kg) or 450 rad was injected into recipients in order to determine possible residual effects of treatment of erythroid cell differentiation following stem cell seeding. Such effects were detected by a reduced amount of 59 Fe incorporation into spleens, thus indicatin g transfer of residual stem cell damage to differentiating cells. (orig.)

  4. Expression of Tight Junction Components in Hepatocyte-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Török, György; Apáti, Ágota; Sarkadi, Balázs; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Kiss, András; Homolya, László

    2015-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated in vitro into a wide variety of progeny cells by addition of different morphogens and growth factors. Our aim was to monitor the expression pattern of tight junction (TJ) components and various cellular markers during differentiation of stem cell lines toward the hepatic lineage. Human embryonic stem cell lines (HUES1, HUES9) were differentiated into endoderm-like cells, and further differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells. Gene expressions of Oct3/4, Nanog, alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, cytokeratins (CK-7, CK-8, CK-18, CK-19), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCC2, ABCC7, ABCG2), and various TJ components, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5, claudin-7, and tricellulin, as well as an extracellular matrix component, agrin were monitored during hepatic differentiation by real-time quantitative PCR. The differentiated cells exhibit epithelial morphology and functional assessments similar to that of hepatocytes. The expression level of stem cell marker genes (Oct3/4 and Nanog) significantly and gradually decreased, while liver-associated genes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin) reached their highest expression at the end of the differentiation. The endoderm-like cells expressed claudin-1, which declined eventually. The expression levels of cholangiocyte markers including claudin-4, CK-7, CK-19, and agrin gradually increased and reached their highest level at the final stage of differentiation. In contrast, these cells did not express notable level of claudin-7, CK-8 and tricellulin. The marker set used for monitoring differentiation revealed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte characteristics of the differentiated cells at the final stage. This is the first report describing the expression level changes of various TJ components, and underlining their importance in hepatic differentiation.

  5. Effects of mineral trioxide aggregate, BiodentineTM and calcium hydroxide on viability, proliferation, migration and differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Leandro Borges; Cosme-Silva, Leopoldo; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Thais Marchini de; Cavalcanti, Bruno das Neves; Gomes Filho, João Eduardo; Sakai, Vivien Thiemy

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of the capping materials mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide (CH) and BiodentineTM (BD) on stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) in vitro. SHED were cultured for 1 - 7 days in medium conditioned by incubation with MTA, BD or CH (1 mg/mL), and tested for viability (MTT assay) and proliferation (SRB assay). Also, the migration of serum-starved SHED towards conditioned media was assayed in companion plates, with 8 μm-pore-sized membranes, for 24 h. Gene expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Regular culture medium with 10% FBS (without conditioning) and culture medium supplemented with 20% FBS were used as controls. MTA, CH and BD conditioned media maintained cell viability and allowed continuous SHED proliferation, with CH conditioned medium causing the highest positive effect on proliferation at the end of the treatment period (compared with BD and MTA) (pMTA conditioned media (compared with CH) (pMTA group compared with the other groups from day 7 up to day 21. Our results show that the three capping materials are biocompatible, maintain viability and stimulate proliferation, migration and differentiation in a key dental stem cell population.

  6. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher; Waldron, Levi

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression...... changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein...... interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two...

  7. An engineered cell-imprinted substrate directs osteogenic differentiation in stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamguyan, Khorshid; Katbab, Ali Asghar; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2018-01-01

    A cell-imprinted poly(dimethylsiloxane)/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite substrate was fabricated to engage topographical, mechanical, and chemical signals to stimulate and boost stem cell osteogenic differentiation. The physicochemical properties of the fabricated substrates, with nanoscale resoluti...

  8. Nanoparticles for monitoring differentiated stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Jendelová, Pavla; Babič, Michal; Vaněček, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, Suppl. 2 (2012), s. 52 ISSN 0233-7657. [Bridges in Life Sciences Annual Conference /7./, Science and Art for the Advancement in Medicine. 30.03.2012-01.04.2012, Budapest] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/1370 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : magnetic * stem cells * labeling Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation

  9. B cells regulate thymic CD8+T cell differentiation in lupus-prone mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chen; Zhu, Gaizhi; Xiao, He; Fang, Ying; Liu, Xiaoling; Han, Gencheng; Chen, Guojiang; Hou, Chunmei; Shen, Beifen; Li, Yan; Ma, Ning; Wang, Renxi

    2017-10-27

    Previous studies have shown that under normal physiological conditions thymic B cells play a critical function in T cell negative selection. We tested the effect of thymic B cells on thymic T-cell differentiation in autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We found that thymic B cells and CD8 - CD4 + and CD4 - CD8 + T cells increased, whereas CD4 + CD8 + T cells decreased in lupus-prone mice. Once B cells were reduced, the change was reversed. Furthermore, we found that B cells blocked thymic immature single positive (ISP) CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo/- RORγt - T cells progression into CD4 + CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, we found a novel population of thymic immature T cells (CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo RORγt + ) that were induced into mature CD4 - CD8 + CD3 + RORγt + T cells by B cells in lupus-prone mice. Importantly, we found that IgG, produced by thymic B cells, played a critical role in the differentiation of thymic CD8 + ISP and mature RORγt + CD8 + T cells in lupus-prone mice. In conclusion, B cells blocked the differentiation from thymic CD8 + ISP and induced the differentiation of a novel immature CD4 - CD8 + CD3 lo RORγt + T cells into mature RORγt + CD8 + T cells by secreting IgG antibody in lupus-prone mice.

  10. Differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells into immunoglobulin secreting cells decreases LEF-1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1 plays a crucial role in B lineage development and is only expressed in B cell precursors as B cell differentiation into mature B and plasma cells silences its expression. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells aberrantly express LEF-1 and its expression is required for cellular survival. We hypothesized that modification of the differentiation status of CLL cells would result in loss of LEF-1 expression and eliminate the survival advantage provided by its aberrant expression. In this study, we first established a methodology that induces CLL cells to differentiate into immunoglobulin (Ig secreting cells (ISC using the TLR9 agonist, CpG, together with cytokines (CpG/c. CpG/c stimulation resulted in dramatic CLL cell phenotypic and morphologic changes, expression of cytoplasmic Ig, and secretion of light chain restricted Ig. CpG/c stimulation also resulted in decreased CLL cell LEF-1 expression and increased Blimp-1 expression, which is crucial for plasma cell differentiation. Further, Wnt pathway activation and cellular survival were impaired in differentiated CLL cells compared to undifferentiated CLL cells. These data support the notion that CLL can differentiate into ISC and that this triggers decreased leukemic cell survival secondary to the down regulation of LEF-1 and decreased Wnt pathway activation.

  11. Redox environment in stem and differentiated cells: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.G. Lyublinskaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are believed to maintain a specific intracellular redox status through a combination of enhanced removal capacity and limited production of ROS. In the present study, we challenge this assumption by developing a quantitative approach for the analysis of the pro- and antioxidant ability of human embryonic stem cells in comparison with their differentiated descendants, as well as adult stem and non-stem cells. Our measurements showed that embryonic stem cells are characterized by low ROS level, low rate of extracellular hydrogen peroxide removal and low threshold for peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. However, biochemical normalization of these parameters to cell volume/protein leads to matching of normalized values in stem and differentiated cells and shows that tested in the present study cells (human embryonic stem cells and their fibroblast-like progenies, adult mesenchymal stem cells, lymphocytes, HeLa maintain similar intracellular redox status. Based on these observations, we propose to use ROS concentration averaged over the cell volume instead of ROS level as a measure of intracellular redox balance. We show that attempts to use ROS level for comparative analysis of redox status of morphologically different cells could lead to false conclusions. Methods for the assessment of ROS concentration based on flow cytometry analysis with the use of H2DCFDA dye and HyPer, genetically encoded probe for hydrogen peroxide, are discussed.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... failure was induced in vitro into hepatocytes-like cells by three cell culture media (serum-free medium (group 1), auto serum-containing medium (group 2) and medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS) (group 3)). Cell morphology, cell growth curve, amount of urea and glycogen and mRNA expressions of ALB, ...

  13. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  14. Epigenetic heterochromatin markers distinguish terminally differentiated leukocytes from incompletely differentiated leukemia cells in human blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popova, Evgenya Y.; Claxton, David F.; Lukášová, Emilie; Bird, Philip I.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2006), s. 453-462 ISSN 0301-472X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : terminal cell differentiation * chromatin structure * chronic myeloid leukemia Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2006

  15. Differentiation state determines neural effects on microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muffley, Lara A., E-mail: muffley@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Pan, Shin-Chen, E-mail: pansc@mail.ncku.edu.tw [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Smith, Andria N., E-mail: gnaunderwater@gmail.com [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Ga, Maricar, E-mail: marga16@uw.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Hocking, Anne M., E-mail: ahocking@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States); Gibran, Nicole S., E-mail: nicoleg@u.washington.edu [University of Washington, Campus Box 359796, 300 9th Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Growing evidence indicates that nerves and capillaries interact paracrinely in uninjured skin and cutaneous wounds. Although mature neurons are the predominant neural cell in the skin, neural progenitor cells have also been detected in uninjured adult skin. The aim of this study was to characterize differential paracrine effects of neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons on dermal microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that neural progenitor cells and mature sensory neurons have unique secretory profiles and distinct effects on dermal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and nitric oxide production. Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons secrete different proteins related to angiogenesis. Specific to neural progenitor cells were dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IGFBP-2, pentraxin-3, serpin f1, TIMP-1, TIMP-4 and VEGF. In contrast, endostatin, FGF-1, MCP-1 and thrombospondin-2 were specific to dorsal root ganglion neurons. Microvascular endothelial cell proliferation was inhibited by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. In contrast, microvascular endothelial cell migration in a scratch wound assay was inhibited by neural progenitor cells and unaffected by dorsal root ganglion neurons. In addition, nitric oxide production by microvascular endothelial cells was increased by dorsal root ganglion neurons but unaffected by neural progenitor cells. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate microvascular endothelial cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells, not dorsal root ganglion neurons, regulate microvascular endothelial cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neural progenitor cells and dorsal root ganglion neurons do not effect microvascular endothelial tube formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dorsal root ganglion neurons, not neural progenitor cells, regulate

  16. Secretion of novel SEL1L endogenous variants is promoted by ER stress/UPR via endosomes and shed vesicles in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cattaneo

    Full Text Available We describe here two novel endogenous variants of the human endoplasmic reticulum (ER cargo receptor SEL1LA, designated p38 and p28. Biochemical and RNA interference studies in tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells indicate that p38 and p28 are N-terminal, ER-anchorless and more stable relative to the canonical transmembrane SEL1LA. P38 is expressed and constitutively secreted, with increase after ER stress, in the KMS11 myeloma line and in the breast cancer lines MCF7 and SKBr3, but not in the non-tumorigenic breast epithelial MCF10A line. P28 is detected only in the poorly differentiated SKBr3 cell line, where it is secreted after ER stress. Consistently with the presence of p38 and p28 in culture media, morphological studies of SKBr3 and KMS11 cells detect N-terminal SEL1L immunolabeling in secretory/degradative compartments and extracellularly-released membrane vesicles. Our findings suggest that the two new SEL1L variants are engaged in endosomal trafficking and secretion via vesicles, which could contribute to relieve ER stress in tumorigenic cells. P38 and p28 could therefore be relevant as diagnostic markers and/or therapeutic targets in cancer.

  17. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo

    2012-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously

  18. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously.

  19. Differentiation of a bipotential glial progenitor cell in a single cell microculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, S; Raff, M C

    Although it is known that most cells of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) are derived from the neuroepithelial cells of the neural tube, the factors determining whether an individual neuroepithelial cell develops into a particular type of neurone or glial cell remain unknown. A promising model for studying this problem is the bipotential glial progenitor cell in the developing rat optic nerve; this cell differentiates into a particular type of astrocyte (a type-2 astrocyte) if cultured in 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and into an oligodendrocyte if cultured in serum-free medium. As the oligodendrocyte-type-2 astrocyte (0-2A) progenitor cell can differentiate along either glial pathway in neurone-free cultures, living axons clearly are not required for its differentiation, at least in vitro. However, the studies on 0-2A progenitor cells were carried out in bulk cultures of optic nerve, and so it was possible that other cell-cell interactions were required for differentiation in culture. We show here that 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate into type-2 astrocytes or oligodendrocytes when grown as isolated cells in microculture, indicating that differentiation along either glial pathway in vitro does not require signals from other CNS cells, apart from the signals provided by components of the culture medium. We also show that single 0-2A progenitor cells can differentiate along either pathway without dividing, supporting our previous studies using 3H-thymidine and suggesting that DNA replication is not required for these cells to choose between the two differentiation programmes.

  20. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation.......Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors...

  1. In vitro differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells into endothelial- and epithelial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Ayşegül; Demirci, Selami; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical techniques in dental practice include stem cell and tissue engineering applications. Dental stem cells are promising primary cell source for mainly tooth tissue engineering. Interaction of mesenchymal stem cell with epithelial and endothelial cells is strictly required for an intact tooth morphogenesis. Therefore, it is important to investigate whether human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) derived from wisdom tooth are suitable for endothelial and epithelial cell transformation in dental tissue regeneration approaches. Differentiation into endothelial and epithelial cell lineages were mimicked under defined conditions, confirmed by real time PCR, western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis by qualitative and quantitative methods. HUVECs and HaCaT cells were used as positive controls for the endothelial and epithelial differentiation assays, respectively. Immunocytochemical and western blotting analysis revealed that terminally differentiated cells expressed cell-lineage markers including CD31, VEGFR2, VE-Cadherin, vWF (endothelial cell markers), and cytokeratin (CK)-17, CK-19, EpCaM, vimentin (epithelial cell markers) in significant levels with respect to undifferentiated control cells. Moreover, high expression levels of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGF, CK-18, and CK-19 genes were detected in differentiated endothelial and epithelial-like cells. Endothelial-like cells derived from hTGSCs were cultured on Matrigel, tube-like structure formations were followed as an indication for functional endothelial differentiation. hTGSCs successfully differentiate into various cell types with a broad range of functional abilities using an in vitro approach. These findings suggest that hTGSCs may serve a potential stem cell source for tissue engineering and cell therapy of epithelial and endothelial tissue. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  3. Directed differentiation of rhesus monkey ES cells into pancreatic cell phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauert Brian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ES can self-replicate and differentiate into all cell types including insulin-producing, beta-like cells and could, therefore, be used to treat diabetes mellitus. To date, results of stem cell differentiation into beta cells have been debated, largely due to difficulties in defining the identity of a beta cell. We have recently differentiated non-human primate (rhesus embryonic stem (rES cell lines into insulin producing, beta-like cells with the beta cell growth factor, Exendin-4 and using C-peptide as a phenotype marker. Cell development was characterized at each stage by gene and protein expression. Insulin, NKX6.1 and glucagon mRNA were expressed in stage 4 cells but not in early undifferentiated cells. We concluded that rES cells could be differentiated ex vivo to insulin producing cells. These differentiated rES cells could be used to develop a non-human primate model for evaluating cell therapy to treat diabetes. To facilitate the identification of beta-like cells and to track the cells post-transplantation, we have developed a marker gene construct: fusing the human insulin promoter (HIP to the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene. This construct was transfected into stage 3 rES derived cells and subsequent GFP expression was identified in C-peptide positive cells, thereby substantiating endogenous insulin production by rES derived cells. Using this GFP detection system, we will enrich our population of insulin producing rES derived cells and track these cells post-transplantation in the non-human primate model.

  4. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jui Tung [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  5. Effects of trichostatins on differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Nomura, S.; Beppu, T.

    1987-01-01

    The fungistatic antibiotics trichostatins (TS) A and C were isolated from culture broth of Streptomyces platensis No. 145 and were found to be potent inducers of differentiation in murine erythroleukemia (Friend and RV133) cells at concentrations of 1.5 X 10(-8) M for TSA and 5 X 10(-7) M for TSC. Differentiation induced by TS was cooperatively enhanced by UV irradiation but not by treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide. This enhanced activity was completely inhibited by adding cycloheximide to the culture medium 2 h after exposure to TS, suggesting that TS are dimethyl sulfoxide-type inducers of erythroid differentiation. No inhibitory effect of TS was observed on macromolecular synthesis in cultured cells

  6. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  7. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  8. Neurodegenerative effects of azithromycin in differentiated PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waetzig, Vicki; Riffert, Jeanette; Cordt, Justus; Reinecke, Kirstin; Haeusgen, Wiebke; Boehm, Ruwen; Cascorbi, Ingolf; Herdegen, Thomas

    2017-08-15

    Azithromycin is a widely used macrolide antibiotic with sustained and high tissue penetration and intracellular accumulation. While short-term exposure to low-dose azithromycin is usually well tolerated, prolonged treatment can lead to unwanted neurological effects like paresthesia and hearing loss. However, the mechanism causing neurodegeneration is still unknown. Here, we show that even low therapeutically relevant azithromycin concentrations like 1µg/ml decreased cell viability by 15% and induced neurite loss of 47% after 96h in differentiated PC12 cells, which are a well-established model system for neuronal cells. When higher concentrations were used, the drug-induced effects occurred earlier and were more pronounced. Thereby, azithromycin altered tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) signaling and attenuated protein kinase B (Akt) activity, which subsequently induced autophagy. Simultaneously, the antibiotic impaired lysosomal functions by blocking the autophagic flux, and this concurrence reduced cell viability. In good agreement with reversible effects observed in patients, PC12 cells could completely recover if azithromycin was removed after 24h. In addition, the detrimental effects of azithromycin were limited to differentiated cells, as confirmed in the human neuronal model cell line SH-SY5Y. Thus, azithromycin alters cell surface receptor signaling and autophagy in neuronal cells, but does not automatically induce irreversible damage when used in low concentrations and for a short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  10. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  11. Protein signaling pathways in differentiation of neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Vodička, Petr; Pelech, S.; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 4547-4559 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : antibody microarray * differentiation * neural stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.586, year: 2008

  12. Shedding of HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, and EBV in the saliva of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients at Fundación HOMI - Hospital de la Misericordia, Bogotá, D.C.

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    Bohórquez, Sonia P; Díaz, Juliana; Rincón, Claudia M; Estupiñán, Marcela; Chaparro, Mauricio; Low-Calle, Ana María; Castellanos, Jaime E

    2016-05-19

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric patients is an alternative treatment for different diseases. The conditioning regimen for transplant predisposes recipients to the development of infections. Viral infections by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are the most common, and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients. These viruses lie dormant in various cell types and the reactivation of latent infections may lead to asymptomatic viral shedding in saliva. The detection of these viruses in secretions may contribute to understand the behavioral dynamics of these viral infections in transplanted patients, and to the early diagnosis of reactivation.  To assess HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV and EBV viral shedding in the saliva of patients admitted for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at Fundación HOMI - Hospital de la Misericordia between January and November of 2012.  We evaluated stimulated saliva samples of 17 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients weekly. We performed DNA extraction from saliva, and we evaluated the presence of DNA for HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, and EBV by PCR.  While we detected HSV-2 and CMV DNA in the saliva of four patients, EBV DNA was detected in nine patients with leukopenia. In contrast, we did not detect HSV-1 DNA in saliva. Additionally, four out of the 17 patients showed a simultaneous shedding of CMV and EBV.  By conventional PCR, we demonstrated asymptomatic HSV-2, CMV, and EBV viral shedding in saliva, associated with leukopenia.

  13. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (SOT)

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    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been used to evaluate the effects of xenobiotics using three endpoints, stem cell differentiation, stem cell viability and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal is to establish amodel system that would evaluate chemical effects using a singl...

  14. Epigenetic dysregulation in mesenchymal stem cell aging and spontaneous differentiation.

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    Zhilong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs hold great promise for the treatment of difficult diseases. As MSCs represent a rare cell population, ex vivo expansion of MSCs is indispensable to obtain sufficient amounts of cells for therapies and tissue engineering. However, spontaneous differentiation and aging of MSCs occur during expansion and the molecular mechanisms involved have been poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human MSCs in early and late passages were examined for their expression of genes involved in osteogenesis to determine their spontaneous differentiation towards osteoblasts in vitro, and of genes involved in self-renewal and proliferation for multipotent differentiation potential. In parallel, promoter DNA methylation and hostone H3 acetylation levels were determined. We found that MSCs underwent aging and spontaneous osteogenic differentiation upon regular culture expansion, with progressive downregulation of TERT and upregulation of osteogenic genes such as Runx2 and ALP. Meanwhile, the expression of genes associated with stem cell self-renewal such as Oct4 and Sox2 declined markedly. Notably, the altered expression of these genes were closely associated with epigenetic dysregulation of histone H3 acetylation in K9 and K14, but not with methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of most of these genes. bFGF promoted MSC proliferation and suppressed its spontaneous osteogenic differentiation, with corresponding changes in histone H3 acetylation in TERT, Oct4, Sox2, Runx2 and ALP genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that histone H3 acetylation, which can be modulated by extrinsic signals, plays a key role in regulating MSC aging and differentiation.

  15. Timing-dependent actions of NGF required for cell differentiation.

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    Jaehoon Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continuous NGF stimulation induces PC12 cell differentiation. However, why continuous NGF stimulation is required for differentiation is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of the timing-dependent requirement of NGF action for cell differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the timing-dependency of the NGF action, we performed a discontinuous stimulation assay consisting of a first transient stimulation followed by an interval and then a second sustained stimulation and quantified the neurite extension level. Consequently, we observed a timing-dependent action of NGF on cell differentiation, and discontinuous NGF stimulation similarly induced differentiation. The first stimulation did not induce neurite extension, whereas the second stimulation induced fast neurite extension; therefore, the first stimulation is likely required as a prerequisite condition. These observations indicate that the action of NGF can be divided into two processes: an initial stimulation-driven latent process and a second stimulation-driven extension process. The latent process appears to require the activities of ERK and transcription, but not PI3K, whereas the extension-process requires the activities of ERK and PI3K, but not transcription. We also found that during the first stimulation, the activity of NGF can be replaced by PACAP, but not by insulin, EGF, bFGF or forskolin; during the second stimulation, however, the activity of NGF cannot be replaced by any of these stimulants. These findings allowed us to identify potential genes specifically involved in the latent process, rather than in other processes, using a microarray. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that NGF induces the differentiation of PC12 cells via mechanically distinct processes: an ERK-driven and transcription-dependent latent process, and an ERK- and PI3K-driven and transcription-independent extension process.

  16. Cell fusion-independent differentiation of neural stem cells to the endothelial lineage.

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    Wurmser, Andrew E; Nakashima, Kinichi; Summers, Robert G; Toni, Nicolas; D'Amour, Kevin A; Lie, Dieter C; Gage, Fred H

    2004-07-15

    Somatic stem cells have been claimed to possess an unexpectedly broad differentiation potential (referred to here as plasticity) that could be induced by exposing stem cells to the extracellular developmental signals of other lineages in mixed-cell cultures. Recently, this and other experimental evidence supporting the existence of stem-cell plasticity have been refuted because stem cells have been shown to adopt the functional features of other lineages by means of cell-fusion-mediated acquisition of lineage-specific determinants (chromosomal DNA) rather than by signal-mediated differentiation. In this study we co-cultured mouse neural stem cells (NSCs), which are committed to become neurons and glial cells, with human endothelial cells, which form the lining of blood vessels. We show that in the presence of endothelial cells six per cent of the NSC population converted to cells that did not express neuronal or glial markers, but instead showed the stable expression of multiple endothelial markers and the capacity to form capillary networks. This was surprising because NSCs and endothelial cells are believed to develop from the ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively. Experiments in which endothelial cells were killed by fixation before co-culture with live NSCs (to prevent cell fusion) and karyotyping analyses, revealed that NSCs had differentiated into endothelial-like cells independently of cell fusion. We conclude that stem-cell plasticity is a true characteristic of NSCs and that the conversion of NSCs to unanticipated cell types can be accomplished without cell fusion.

  17. The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

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    Vahid Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4 as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells.

  18. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering

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    Bing Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  19. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering.

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    Song, Bing; Jiang, Wenkai; Alraies, Amr; Liu, Qian; Gudla, Vijay; Oni, Julia; Wei, Xiaoqing; Sloan, Alastair; Ni, Longxing; Agarwal, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin) increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  20. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

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    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

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    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  2. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

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    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  3. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

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    Patompon Wongtrakoongate

    Full Text Available Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs. In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  4. STELLA facilitates differentiation of germ cell and endodermal lineages of human embryonic stem cells.

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    Wongtrakoongate, Patompon; Jones, Mark; Gokhale, Paul J; Andrews, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Stella is a developmentally regulated gene highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and in primordial germ cells (PGCs). In human, the gene encoding the STELLA homologue lies on chromosome 12p, which is frequently amplified in long-term cultured human ES cells. However, the role played by STELLA in human ES cells has not been reported. In the present study, we show that during retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation of human ES cells, expression of STELLA follows that of VASA, a marker of germline differentiation. By contrast, human embryonal carcinoma cells express STELLA at a higher level compared with both karyotypically normal and abnormal human ES cell lines. We found that over-expression of STELLA does not interfere with maintenance of the stem cell state of human ES cells, but following retinoic acid induction it leads to up-regulation of germline- and endodermal-associated genes, whereas neural markers PAX6 and NEUROD1 are down-regulated. Further, STELLA over-expression facilitates the differentiation of human ES cells into BE12-positive cells, in which the expression of germline- and endodermal-associated genes is enriched, and suppresses differentiation of the neural lineage. Taken together, this finding suggests a role for STELLA in facilitating germline and endodermal differentiation of human ES cells.

  5. Roquin Paralogs Differentially Regulate Functional NKT Cell Subsets.

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    Drees, Christoph; Vahl, J Christoph; Bortoluzzi, Sabrina; Heger, Klaus D; Fischer, Julius C; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Peschel, Christian; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2017-04-01

    NKT cells represent a small subset of glycolipid-recognizing T cells that are heavily implicated in human allergic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases. In the thymus, precursor cells recognize self-glycolipids by virtue of their semi-invariant TCR, which triggers NKT cell lineage commitment and maturation. During their development, NKT cells are polarized into the NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17 subsets, defined through their cytokine-secretion patterns and the expression of key transcription factors. However, we have largely ignored how the differentiation into the NKT cell subsets is regulated. In this article, we describe the mRNA-binding Roquin-1 and -2 proteins as central regulators of murine NKT cell fate decisions. In the thymus, T cell-specific ablation of the Roquin paralogs leads to a dramatic expansion of NKT17 cells, whereas peripheral mature NKT cells are essentially absent. Roquin-1/2-deficient NKT17 cells show exaggerated lineage-specific expression of nearly all NKT17-defining proteins tested. We show through mixed bone marrow chimera experiments that NKT17 polarization is mediated through cell-intrinsic mechanisms early during NKT cell development. In contrast, the loss of peripheral NKT cells is due to cell-extrinsic factors. Surprisingly, Roquin paralog-deficient NKT cells are, in striking contrast to conventional T cells, compromised in their ability to secrete cytokines. Altogether, we show that Roquin paralogs regulate the development and function of NKT cell subsets in the thymus and periphery. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell differentiation in 3D too

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    Zajac, Allison; Rehfeldt, Florian; Discher, Dennis

    2009-03-01

    Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage andcommit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticitydirected lineage specification--without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.

  7. The effect of dexamethasone and triiodothyronine on terminal differentiation of primary bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Thomas M Randau

    Full Text Available The newly evolved field of regenerative medicine is offering solutions in the treatment of bone or cartilage loss and deficiency. Mesenchymal stem cells, as well as articular chondrocytes, are potential cells for the generation of bone or cartilage. The natural mechanism of bone formation is that of endochondral ossification, regulated, among other factors, through the hormones dexamethasone and triiodothyronine. We investigated the effects of these hormones on articular chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells, hypothesizing that these hormones would induce terminal differentiation, with chondrocytes and differentiated stem cells being similar in their response. Using a 3D-alginate cell culture model, bovine chondrocytes and chondrogenically differentiated stem cells were cultured in presence of triiodothyronine or dexamethasone, and cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production were investigated. Collagen mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR. Col X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase were monitored as markers of terminal differentiation, a prerequisite of endochondral ossification. The alginate culture system worked well, both for the culture of chondrocytes and for the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dexamethasone led to an increase in glycosaminoglycan production. Triiodothyronine increased the total collagen production only in chondrocytes, where it also induced signs of terminal differentiation, increasing both collagen X mRNA and alkaline phosphatase activity. Dexamethasone induced terminal differentiation in the differentiated stem cells. The immature articular chondrocytes used in this study seem to be able to undergo terminal differentiation, pointing to their possible role in the onset of degenerative osteoarthritis, as well as their potential for a cell source in bone tissue engineering. When chondrocyte-like cells, after their differentiation, can indeed be moved on

  8. Cdon, a cell surface protein, mediates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

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    Wang, Li-Chun; Almazan, Guillermina

    2016-06-01

    During central nervous system development, oligodendrocyte progenitors (OLPs) establish multiple branched processes and axonal contacts to initiate myelination. A complete understanding of the molecular signals implicated in cell surface interaction to initiate myelination/remyelination is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to assess whether Cdon, a cell surface protein that was shown to participate in muscle and neuron cell development, is involved in oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and myelination. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous Cdon protein is expressed in OLPs, increasing in the early differentiation stages and decreasing in mature OLGs. Immunocytochemistry of endogenous Cdon showed localization on both OLG cell membranes and cellular processes exhibiting puncta- or varicosity-like structures. Cdon knockdown with siRNA decreased protein levels by 62% as well as two myelin-specific proteins, MBP and MAG. Conversely, overexpression of full-length rat Cdon increased myelin proteins in OLGs. The complexity of OLGs branching and contact point numbers with axons were also increased in Cdon overexpressing cells growing alone or in coculture with dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs). Furthermore, myelination of DRGNs was decreased when OLPs were transfected with Cdon siRNA. Altogether, our results suggest that Cdon participates in OLG differentiation and myelination, most likely in the initial stages of development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Differences in cell division rates drive the evolution of terminal differentiation in microbes.

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    João F Matias Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Multicellular differentiated organisms are composed of cells that begin by developing from a single pluripotent germ cell. In many organisms, a proportion of cells differentiate into specialized somatic cells. Whether these cells lose their pluripotency or are able to reverse their differentiated state has important consequences. Reversibly differentiated cells can potentially regenerate parts of an organism and allow reproduction through fragmentation. In many organisms, however, somatic differentiation is terminal, thereby restricting the developmental paths to reproduction. The reason why terminal differentiation is a common developmental strategy remains unexplored. To understand the conditions that affect the evolution of terminal versus reversible differentiation, we developed a computational model inspired by differentiating cyanobacteria. We simulated the evolution of a population of two cell types -nitrogen fixing or photosynthetic- that exchange resources. The traits that control differentiation rates between cell types are allowed to evolve in the model. Although the topology of cell interactions and differentiation costs play a role in the evolution of terminal and reversible differentiation, the most important factor is the difference in division rates between cell types. Faster dividing cells always evolve to become the germ line. Our results explain why most multicellular differentiated cyanobacteria have terminally differentiated cells, while some have reversibly differentiated cells. We further observed that symbioses involving two cooperating lineages can evolve under conditions where aggregate size, connectivity, and differentiation costs are high. This may explain why plants engage in symbiotic interactions with diazotrophic bacteria.

  10. Bee venom enhances the differentiation of human regulatory T cells.

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    Caramalho, I; Melo, A; Pedro, E; Barbosa, M M P; Victorino, R M M; Pereira Santos, M C; Sousa, A E

    2015-10-01

    Venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT) is well recognized by its efficacy, and compelling evidence implicates regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the underlying tolerogenic mechanisms. Additionally, hymenoptera venom has for a long time been claimed to modulate immunity. Here, we investigated the putative role of bee venom (Bv) in human FOXP3-expressing Treg homeostasis and differentiation, irrespective of the donors' allergic status. We found that Bv significantly enhanced the differentiation of FOXP3-expressing cells both from conventional naïve CD4 T cells and mature CD4 thymocytes, a property that may contribute to the VIT's capacity to expand circulating Tregs in allergic individuals. We expect that our data enlightening the Treg-mediated immunomodulatory properties of Bv regardless of TCR specificity, to have application in other allergies, as well as in other clinical settings, such as autoimmunity and transplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Eccrine syringofibroadenoma associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Kacerovska, Denisa; Nemcova, Jana; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of an eccrine syringofibroadenoma (ESFA) associated with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was an 85-year-old man, who had a 2.5x2.5-cm, brown-colored ulcerated nodule, with a fragile, flesh-colored bleeding surface located beyond the metacarpophalangeal joint of the second finger of his left hand. Histopathologically, there were areas of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, alternating with the typical area of ESFA characterized by anastomosing cords, strands, and columns of epithelial cells extending from the crusted epidermis into a thickened, edematous, myxoid vascular-rich dermis. Immunohistochemically, the areas with dysplastic epithelium were positive for p16, whereas the benign ESFA parts tested negative. Human papillomavirus was detected in the lesional tissue by polymerase chain reaction, and the subsequent sequencing analysis demonstrated that the virus was close to human papillomavirus type 107.

  12. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

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    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  13. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

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    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  14. Derivation of keratinocytes from chicken embryonic stem cells: Establishment and characterization of differentiated proliferative cell populations

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    Mathilde Couteaudier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A common challenge in avian cell biology is the generation of differentiated cell-lines, especially in the keratinocyte lineage. Only a few avian cell-lines are available and very few of them show an interesting differentiation profile. During the last decade, mammalian embryonic stem cell-lines were shown to differentiate into almost all lineages, including keratinocytes. Although chicken embryonic stem cells had been obtained in the 1990s, few differentiation studies toward the ectodermal lineage were reported. Consequently, we explored the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells toward the keratinocyte lineage by using a combination of stromal induction, ascorbic acid, BMP4 and chicken serum. During the induction period, we observed a downregulation of pluripotency markers and an upregulation of epidermal markers. Three homogenous cell populations were derived, which were morphologically similar to chicken primary keratinocytes, displaying intracellular lipid droplets in almost every pavimentous cell. These cells could be serially passaged without alteration of their morphology and showed gene and protein expression profiles of epidermal markers similar to chicken primary keratinocytes. These cells represent an alternative to the isolation of chicken primary keratinocytes, being less cumbersome to handle and reducing the number of experimental animals used for the preparation of primary cells.

  15. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

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    Ouchi, Rie [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakano, Ichiro [Department of Neurosurgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1824 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Seimiya, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hseimiya@jfcr.or.jp [Division of Molecular Biotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy Center, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy of Cancer, Department of Computational Biology and Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan)

    2016-02-05

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  16. Senescence from glioma stem cell differentiation promotes tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Rie; Okabe, Sachiko; Migita, Toshiro; Nakano, Ichiro; Seimiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor composed of heterogeneous cellular populations including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs). While GSCs are involved in tumor initiation and propagation, NSGCs' role remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that NSGCs undergo senescence and secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, boosting the GSC-derived tumor formation in vivo. We used a GSC model that maintains stemness in neurospheres, but loses the stemness and differentiates into NSGCs upon serum stimulation. These NSGCs downregulated telomerase, shortened telomeres, and eventually became senescent. The senescent NSGCs released pro-angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factors and senescence-associated interleukins, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Conditioned medium from senescent NSGCs promoted proliferation of brain microvascular endothelial cells, and mixed implantation of GSCs and senescent NSGCs into mice enhanced the tumorigenic potential of GSCs. The senescent NSGCs seem to be clinically relevant, because both clinical samples and xenografts of GBM contained tumor cells that expressed the senescence markers. Our data suggest that senescent NSGCs promote malignant progression of GBM in part via paracrine effects of the secreted proteins. - Highlights: • Non-stem glioma cells (NSGCs) lose telomerase and eventually become senescent. • Senescent NSGCs secrete pro-angiogenic proteins, such as VEGFs, IL-6, and IL-8. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the growth of brain microvascular endothelial cells. • Senescent NSGCs enhance the tumorigenic potential of glioma stem cells in vivo.

  17. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism is the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of [3H]TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation

  18. Interleukin 4: signalling mechanisms and control of T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that controls both growth and differentiation among haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. Its receptor is a heterodimer. One chain, the IL-4R alpha chain, binds IL-4 with high affinity and determines the nature of the biochemical signals that are induced. The second chain, gamma c, is required for the induction of such signals. IL-4-mediated growth depends upon activation events that involve phosphorylation of Y497 of IL-4R alpha, leading to the binding and phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 in haemopoietic cells and of IRS-1 in non-haemopoietic cells. By contrast, IL-4-mediated differentiation events depend upon more distal regions of the IL-4R alpha chain that include a series of STAT-6 binding sites. The distinctive roles of these receptor domains was verified by receptor-reconstruction experiments. The 'growth' and 'differentiation' domains of the IL-4R alpha chain, independently expressed as chimeric structures with a truncated version of the IL-2R beta chain, were shown to convey their functions to the hybrid receptor. The critical role of STAT-6 in IL-4-mediated gene activation and differentiation was made clear by the finding that lymphocytes from STAT-6 knockout mice are strikingly deficient in these functions but have retained the capacity to grow, at least partially, in response to IL-4. IL-4 plays a central role in determining the phenotype of naive CD4+ T cells. In the presence of IL-4, newly primed naive T cells develop into IL-4 producers while in its absence they preferentially become gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) producers. Recently, a specialized subpopulation of T cells, CD4+/NK1.1+ cells, has been shown to produce large amounts of IL-4 upon stimulation. Two examples of mice with deficiencies in these cells are described--beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice and SJL mice. Both show defects in the development of IL-4-producing cells and in the increase in serum IgE in response to stimulation with the

  19. Differential cytokine contributions of perivascular haematopoietic stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Noboru; Kunisaki, Yuya; Pierce, Halley; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Birbrair, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi; Frenette, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    Arterioles and sinusoids of the bone marrow (BM) are accompanied by stromal cells that express nerve/glial antigen 2 (NG2) and leptin receptor (LepR), and constitute specialized niches that regulate quiescence and proliferation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, how niche cells differentially regulate HSC functions remains unknown. Here, we show that the effects of cytokines regulating HSC functions are dependent on the producing cell sources. Deletion of chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 12 (Cxcl12) or stem cell factor (Scf) from all perivascular cells marked by nestin-GFP dramatically depleted BM HSCs. Selective Cxcl12 deletion from arteriolar NG2 + cells, but not from sinusoidal LepR + cells, caused HSC reductions and altered HSC localization in BM. By contrast, deletion of Scf in LepR + cells, but not NG2 + cells, led to reductions in BM HSC numbers. These results uncover distinct contributions of cytokines derived from perivascular cells in separate vascular niches to HSC maintenance.

  20. Diclofenac and triamcinolone acetonide impair tenocytic differentiation and promote adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Maritha; Li, Yan; St?lman, Anders; Haldos?n, Lars-Arne; Fell?nder-Tsai, Li

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendinopathies are often empirically treated with oral/topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications and corticosteroid injections despite their unclear effects on tendon regeneration. Recent studies indicate that tendon progenitors exhibit stem cell-like properties, i.e., differentiation to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, in addition to tenocytes. Our present study aims at understanding the effects of triamcinolone acetonide and diclofenac on tenocytic differentiat...

  1. Autocrine VEGF isoforms differentially regulate endothelial cell behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Yamamoto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF is involved in all the essential biology of endothelial cells, from proliferation to vessel function, by mediating intercellular interactions and monolayer integrity. It is expressed as three major alternative spliced variants. In mice, these are VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, each with different affinities for extracellular matrices and cell surfaces, depending on the inclusion of heparin-binding sites, encoded by exons 6 and 7. To determine the role of each VEGF isoform in endothelial homeostasis, we compared phenotypes of primary endothelial cells isolated from lungs of mice expressing single VEGF isoforms in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The differential expression and distribution of VEGF isoforms affect endothelial cell functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and integrity, which are dependent on the stability of and affinity to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2. We found a correlation between autocrine VEGF164 and VEGFR2 stability, which is also associated with increased expression of proteins involved in cell adhesion. Endothelial cells expressing only VEGF188, which localizes to extracellular matrices or cell surfaces, presented a mesenchymal morphology and weakened monolayer integrity. Cells expressing only VEGF120 lacked stable VEGFR2 and dysfunctional downstream processes, rendering the cells unviable. Endothelial cells expressing these different isoforms in isolation also had differing rates of apoptosis, proliferation, and signaling via nitric oxide (NO synthesis. These data indicate that autocrine signaling of each VEGF isoform has unique functions on endothelial homeostasis and response to hypoxia, due to both distinct VEGF distribution and VEGFR2 stability, which appears to be, at least partly, affected by differential NO production. This study demonstrates that each autocrine VEGF isoform has a distinct effect on downstream functions, namely VEGFR2-regulated endothelial cell

  2. Cell population structure prior to bifurcation predicts efficiency of directed differentiation in human induced pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargaje, Rhishikesh; Trachana, Kalliopi; Shelton, Martin N; McGinnis, Christopher S; Zhou, Joseph X; Chadick, Cora; Cook, Savannah; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Huang, Sui; Hood, Leroy

    2017-02-28

    Steering the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) toward specific cell types is crucial for patient-specific disease modeling and drug testing. This effort requires the capacity to predict and control when and how multipotent progenitor cells commit to the desired cell fate. Cell fate commitment represents a critical state transition or "tipping point" at which complex systems undergo a sudden qualitative shift. To characterize such transitions during iPSC to cardiomyocyte differentiation, we analyzed the gene expression patterns of 96 developmental genes at single-cell resolution. We identified a bifurcation event early in the trajectory when a primitive streak-like cell population segregated into the mesodermal and endodermal lineages. Before this branching point, we could detect the signature of an imminent critical transition: increase in cell heterogeneity and coordination of gene expression. Correlation analysis of gene expression profiles at the tipping point indicates transcription factors that drive the state transition toward each alternative cell fate and their relationships with specific phenotypic readouts. The latter helps us to facilitate small molecule screening for differentiation efficiency. To this end, we set up an analysis of cell population structure at the tipping point after systematic variation of the protocol to bias the differentiation toward mesodermal or endodermal cell lineage. We were able to predict the proportion of cardiomyocytes many days before cells manifest the differentiated phenotype. The analysis of cell populations undergoing a critical state transition thus affords a tool to forecast cell fate outcomes and can be used to optimize differentiation protocols to obtain desired cell populations.

  3. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL. Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. PMID:27194709

  4. Embryonic liver cells and permanent lines as models for hepatocyte and bile duct cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Weiss, Mary C

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of liver cells during development is facilitated by the possibility of complementing in vivo analysis with experiments on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss results from several laboratories concerning bipotential hepatic stem cells from mouse (HBC-3, H-CFU-C, MMH and BMEL), rat (rhe14321) and primate (IPFLS) embryos. Several groups have used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify clonogenic bipotential cells; others have derived bipotential cell lines by plating liver cell suspensions and cloning. The bipotential cells, which probably originate from hepatoblasts, can differentiate as hepatocytes or bile duct cells, and undergo morphogenesis in culture. Disparities in differentiation can be explained by distinct medium compositions, extracellular matrix coated culture surfaces, and gene expression detection methods. Potential applications of these cell lines are discussed.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of TRAIL promotes dendritic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young S; Challa, Sreerupa; Clancy, Lauren; Chan, Francis K-M

    2010-08-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death-inducing cytokine whose physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that TRAIL has a role in programming human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. TRAIL expression was strongly induced in DCs upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) stimulation. Blockade of TRAIL with neutralizing antibody partially inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70. In addition, neutralization of TRAIL in LPS-treated DCs inhibited the DC-driven differentiation of T cells into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) -producing effectors. The effects of TRAIL neutralization in poly(I:C)-treated DCs were similar, except that IL-12 production and the differentiation of effector T cells into IFN-gamma producers were not inhibited. Strikingly, TRAIL stimulation alone was sufficient to induce morphological changes resembling DC maturation, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and enhancement of DC-driven allogeneic T-cell proliferation. However, TRAIL alone did not induce inflammatory cytokine production. We further show that the effects of TRAIL on DC maturation were not the result of the induction of apoptosis, but may involve p38 activation. Hence, our data demonstrate that TRAIL co-operates with other cytokines to facilitate DC functional maturation in response to Toll-like receptor activation.

  6. Ebf1 controls early cell differentiation in the embryonic striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garel, S; Marín, F; Grosschedl, R; Charnay, P

    1999-12-01

    Ebf1/Olf-1 belongs to a small multigene family encoding closely related helix-loop-helix transcription factors, which have been proposed to play a role in neuronal differentiation. Here we show that Ebf1 controls cell differentiation in the murine embryonic striatum, where it is the only gene of the family to be expressed. Ebf1 targeted disruption affects postmitotic cells that leave the subventricular zone (SVZ) en route to the mantle: they appear to be unable to downregulate genes normally restricted to the SVZ or to activate some mantle-specific genes. These downstream genes encode a variety of regulatory proteins including transcription factors and proteins involved in retinoid signalling as well as adhesion/guidance molecules. These early defects in the SVZ/mantle transition are followed by an increase in cell death, a dramatic reduction in size of the postnatal striatum and defects in navigation and fasciculation of thalamocortical fibres travelling through the striatum. Our data therefore show that Ebf1 plays an essential role in the acquisition of mantle cell molecular identity in the developing striatum and provide information on the genetic hierarchies that govern neuronal differentiation in the ventral telencephalon.

  7. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Patricia Bavin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to generate artificial tendons. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have now been derived from horses but, to date, there are no reports on their ability to differentiate into tendon cells. As iPSCs can be produced from adult cell types, they provide a more accessible source of cells than ESCs, which require the use of horse embryos. The aim of this study was to compare tendon differentiation by ESCs and iPSCs produced through two independent methods. In 2-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs expressed tendon associated genes and proteins, which were enhanced by the presence of transforming growth factor-β3. However, in 3-dimensional differentiation assays the iPSCs failed to differentiate into functional tendon cells and generate artificial tendons. These results demonstrate the utility of the 3-dimensional in vitro tendon assay for measuring tendon differentiation and the need for more detailed studies to be performed on equine iPSCs to identify and understand their epigenetic differences from pluripotent ESCs prior to their clinical application.

  8. Differentiation potential of menstrual blood- versus bone marrow-stem cells into glial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azedi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Behzadi, Gila; Vasei, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Khanjani, Sayeh; Edalatkhah, Haleh; Lakpour, Niknam

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual blood is easily accessible, renewable, and inexpensive source of stem cells that have been interested for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we showed conversion of menstrual blood stem cells (MenSCs) into clonogenic neurosphere- like cells (NSCs), which can be differentiated into glial-like cells. Moreover, differentiation potential of MenSCs into glial lineage was compared with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Differentiation potential of individual converted NSCs derived from MenSCs or BMSCs into glial-like cells was investigated using immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction.The fibroblastic morphology of both MenSCs and BMSCs was turned into NSCs shape during first step of differentiation. NSCs derived from both BMSCs and MenSCs expressed higher levels of Olig-2 and Nestin markers compared to undifferentiated cells. The expression levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA up regulated only in BMSCs-NSCs no in MenSCs-NSCs. However, outgrowth of individual NSCs derived from both MenSCs and BMSCs into glial-like cells led to significant up regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein,Olig-2 and MBP at mRNA and protein level accompanied with down regulation of Nestin protein.This is the first study demonstrating that MenSCs can be converted to NSCs with differentiation ability into glial-like cells. Accumulative data show different expression pattern of glial markers in differentiated MenSCs compared to BMSCs. The comparable differentiation potential, more accessibility and no invasive technique for sample collection of MenSCs in comparison with BMSCs introduce MenSCs as an apt, consistent and safe alternative to BMSCs for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Transcription pausing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodi Tastemel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs relies on appropriate responsiveness to developmental cues. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II has been suggested to play a role in keeping genes poised for future activation. To identify the role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC pluripotency, we have generated mouse ESCs carrying a mutation in the pause-inducing factor SPT5. Genomic studies reveal genome-wide reduction of paused Pol II caused by mutant SPT5 and further identify a tight correlation between pausing-mediated transcription effect and local chromatin environment. Functionally, this pausing-deficient SPT5 disrupts ESC differentiation upon removal of self-renewal signals. Thus, our study uncovers an important role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC differentiation and suggests a model that Pol II pausing coordinates with epigenetic modification to influence transcription during mESC differentiation.

  10. Stalk cell differentiation without polyketides in the cellular slime mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie G; Suarez, Teresa; Saito, Tamao

    2016-07-01

    Polyketides induce prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. In the double-knockout mutant of the SteelyA and B polyketide synthases, most of the pstA cells-the major part of the prestalk cells-are lost, and we show by whole mount in situ hybridization that expression of prestalk genes is also reduced. Treatment of the double-knockout mutant with the PKS inhibitor cerulenin gave a further reduction, but some pstA cells still remained in the tip region, suggesting the existence of a polyketide-independent subtype of pstA cells. The double-knockout mutant and cerulenin-treated parental Ax2 cells form fruiting bodies with fragile, single-cell layered stalks after cerulenin treatment. Our results indicate that most pstA cells are induced by polyketides, but the pstA cells at the very tip of the slug are induced in some other way. In addition, a fruiting body with a single-cell layered, vacuolated stalk can form without polyketides.

  11. Quantitative single cell analysis of cell population dynamics during submandibular salivary gland development and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deirdre A.; Manhardt, Charles; Kamath, Vidya; Sui, Yunxia; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Can, Ali; Bello, Musodiq; Corwin, Alex; Dinn, Sean R.; Lazare, Michael; Gervais, Elise M.; Sequeira, Sharon J.; Peters, Sarah B.; Ginty, Fiona; Gerdes, Michael J.; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Summary Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells); cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells); and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells) and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis. PMID:23789091

  12. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  13. IL-17 inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kondo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineages, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Here we investigated the effects of IL-17, a key cytokine in chronic inflammation, on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs were pellet cultured in chondrogenic induction medium containing TGF-β3. Chondrogenic differentiation was detected by cartilage matrix accumulation and chondrogenic marker gene expression. RESULTS: Over-expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic marker genes was noted in chondrogenic cultures, but was inhibited by IL-17 in a dose-dependent manner. Expression and phosphorylation of SOX9, the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis, were induced within 2 days and phosphorylated SOX9 was stably maintained until day 21. IL-17 did not alter total SOX9 expression, but significantly suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At day 7, IL-17 also suppressed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA, which is known to phosphorylate SOX9. H89, a selective PKA inhibitor, also suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation, expression of chondrogenic markers and cartilage matrix, and also decreased chondrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: IL-17 inhibited chondrogenesis of human MSCs through the suppression of PKA activity and SOX9 phosphorylation. These results suggest that chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs can be inhibited by a mechanism triggered by IL-17 under chronic inflammation.

  14. Is Melanoma a stem cell tumor? Identification of neurogenic proteins in trans-differentiated cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Linda S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although several genes and proteins have been implicated in the development of melanomas, the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these tumors are not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the relationship between the cell growth, tumorigenesis and differentiation, we have studied a highly malignant cat melanoma cell line that trans-differentiates into neuronal cells after exposure to a feline endogenous retrovirus RD114. Methods To define the repertoire of proteins responsible for the phenotypic differences between melanoma and its counterpart trans-differentiated neuronal cells we have applied proteomics technology and compared protein profiles of the two cell types and identified differentially expressed proteins by 2D-gel electrophoresis, image analyses and mass spectrometry. Results The melanoma and trans-differentiated neuronal cells could be distinguished by the presence of distinct sets of proteins in each. Although approximately 60–70% of the expressed proteins were shared between the two cell types, twelve proteins were induced de novo after infection of melanoma cells with RD114 virus in vitro. Expression of these proteins in trans-differentiated cells was significantly associated with concomitant down regulation of growth promoting proteins and up-regulation of neurogenic proteins (p = 95% proteins expressed in trans-differentiated cells could be associated with the development, differentiation and regulation of nervous system cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that the cat melanoma cells have the ability to differentiate into distinct neuronal cell types and they express proteins that are essential for self-renewal. Since melanocytes arise from the neural crest of the embryo, we conclude that this melanoma arose from embryonic precursor stem cells. This model system provides a unique opportunity to identify domains of interactions between the expressed proteins that halt the

  15. Male Differentiation of Germ Cells Induced by Embryonic Age-Specific Sertoli Cells in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kohei; Yamamoto, Miyuki; Lin, Yanling; Hogg, Nathanael; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Behringer, Richard R.; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid (RA) is a meiosis-inducing factor. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the developing ovary are exposed to RA, resulting in entry into meiosis. In contrast, PGCs in the developing testis enter mitotic arrest to differentiate into prospermatogonia. Sertoli cells express CYP26B1, an RA-metabolizing enzyme, providing a simple explanation for why XY PGCs do not initiate meios/is. However, regulation of entry into mitotic arrest is likely more complex. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate male germ cell differentiation, we cultured XX and XY germ cells at 11.5 and 12.5 days postcoitus (dpc) with an RA receptor inhibitor. Expression of Stra8, a meiosis initiation gene, was suppressed in all groups. However, expression of Dnmt3l, a male-specific gene, during embryogenesis was elevated but only in 12.5-dpc XY germ cells. This suggests that inhibiting RA signaling is not sufficient for male germ cell differentiation but that the male gonadal environment also contributes to this pathway. To define the influence of Sertoli cells on male germ cell differentiation, Sertoli cells at 12.5, 15.5, and 18.5 dpc were aggregated with 11.5 dpc PGCs, respectively. After culture, PGCs aggregated with 12.5 dpc Sertoli cells increased Nanos2 and Dnmt3l expression. Furthermore, these PGCs established male-specific methylation imprints of the H19 differentially methylated domains. In contrast, PGCs aggregated with Sertoli cells at late embryonic ages did not commit to the male pathway. These findings suggest that male germ cell differentiation is induced both by inhibition of RA signaling and by molecule(s) production by embryonic age-specific Sertoli cells. PMID:22262692

  16. Melanoma cells influence the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodet, Ondřej; Lacina, Lukáš; Krejčí, Eliška; Dvořánková, Barbora; Grim, Miloš; Štork, Jiří; Kodetová, Daniela; Vlček, Čestmír; Šáchová, Jana; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Smetana, Karel

    2015-01-05

    Nodular melanoma is one of the most life threatening tumors with still poor therapeutic outcome. Similarly to other tumors, permissive microenvironment is essential for melanoma progression. Features of this microenvironment are arising from molecular crosstalk between the melanoma cells (MC) and the surrounding cell populations in the context of skin tissue. Here, we study the effect of melanoma cells on human primary keratinocytes (HPK). Presence of MC is as an important modulator of the tumor microenvironment and we compare it to the effect of nonmalignant lowly differentiated cells also originating from neural crest (NCSC). Comparative morphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis of epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma (n = 100) was performed. Data were compared to results of transcriptome profiling of in vitro models, in which HPK were co-cultured with MC, normal human melanocytes, and NCSC, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate genes were verified by RT-qPCR. Biological activity of candidate proteins was assessed on cultured HPK. Epidermis surrounding nodular melanoma exhibits hyperplastic features in 90% of cases. This hyperplastic region exhibits aberrant suprabasal expression of keratin 14 accompanied by loss of keratin 10. We observe that MC and NCSC are able to increase expression of keratins 8, 14, 19, and vimentin in the co-cultured HPK. This in vitro finding partially correlates with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia observed in melanoma biopsies. We provide evidence of FGF-2, CXCL-1, IL-8, and VEGF-A participation in the activity of melanoma cells on keratinocytes. We conclude that the MC are able to influence locally the differentiation pattern of keratinocytes in vivo as well as in vitro. This interaction further highlights the role of intercellular interactions in melanoma. The reciprocal role of activated keratinocytes on biology of melanoma cells shall be verified in the future.

  17. Antigen Availability Shapes T Cell Differentiation and Function during Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguche, Albanus O; Musvosvi, Munyaradzi; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Plumlee, Courtney R; Mearns, Helen; Geldenhuys, Hennie; Smit, Erica; Abrahams, Deborah; Rozot, Virginie; Dintwe, One; Hoff, Søren T; Kromann, Ingrid; Ruhwald, Morten; Bang, Peter; Larson, Ryan P; Shafiani, Shahin; Ma, Shuyi; Sherman, David R; Sette, Alessandro; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; McKinney, Denise M; Maecker, Holden; Hanekom, Willem A; Hatherill, Mark; Andersen, Peter; Scriba, Thomas J; Urdahl, Kevin B

    2017-06-14

    CD4 T cells are critical for protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the cause of tuberculosis (TB). Yet to date, TB vaccine candidates that boost antigen-specific CD4 T cells have conferred little or no protection. Here we examined CD4 T cell responses to two leading TB vaccine antigens, ESAT-6 and Ag85B, in Mtb-infected mice and in vaccinated humans with and without underlying Mtb infection. In both species, Mtb infection drove ESAT-6-specific T cells to be more differentiated than Ag85B-specific T cells. The ability of each T cell population to control Mtb in the lungs of mice was restricted for opposite reasons: Ag85B-specific T cells were limited by reduced antigen expression during persistent infection, whereas ESAT-6-specific T cells became functionally exhausted due to chronic antigenic stimulation. Our findings suggest that different vaccination strategies will be required to optimize protection mediated by T cells recognizing antigens expressed at distinct stages of Mtb infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential differentiation of islet-like cells from pregnant cow-derived placental stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yu Peng

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Altogether, islet-like cells have the potential to be differentiated from CPSCs without gene manipulation, and can be used in diabetic animal models in the future for preclinical and drug testing trial investigations.

  19. Expression of the chitinase family glycoprotein YKL-40 in undifferentiated, differentiated and trans-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hoover

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1 is a secreted chitinase family protein that induces angiogenesis, cell survival, and cell proliferation, and plays roles in tissue remodeling and immune regulation. It is expressed primarily in cells of mesenchymal origin, is overexpressed in numerous aggressive carcinomas and sarcomas, but is rarely expressed in normal ectodermal tissues. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into various mesenchymal tissues and trans-differentiate into some non-mesenchymal cell types. Since YKL-40 has been used as a mesenchymal marker, we followed YKL-40 expression as undifferentiated MSCs were induced to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and neural phenotypes. Undifferentiated MSCs contain significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA but do not synthesize detectable levels of YKL-40 protein. MSCs induced to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes soon began to express and secrete YKL-40 protein, as do ex vivo cultured chondrocytes and primary osteocytes. In contrast, MSCs induced to trans-differentiate into neurons did not synthesize YKL-40 protein, consistent with the general absence of YKL-40 protein in normal CNS parenchyma. However, these trans-differentiated neurons retained significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA, suggesting the mechanisms which prevented YKL-40 translation in undifferentiated MSCs remained in place, and that these trans-differentiated neurons differ in at least this way from neurons derived from neuronal stem cells. Utilization of a differentiation protocol containing β-mercaptoethanol resulted in cells that expressed significant amounts of intracellular YKL-40 protein that was not secreted, which is not seen in normal cells. Thus the synthesis of YKL-40 protein is a marker for MSC differentiation into mature mesenchymal phenotypes, and the presence of untranslated YKL-40 mRNA in non-mesenchymal cells derived from MSCs reflects differences between differentiated and

  20. BMP9 signaling in stem cell differentiation and osteogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Qin, Jiaqiang; Nan, Guoxin; Wang, Jinhua; Liu, Xing; Yin, Liangjun; Tomal, Justin; Li, Ruidong; Shui, Wei; Zhang, Hongyu; Kim, Stephanie H; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Jiye; Kong, Yuhan; Denduluri, Sahitya; Rogers, Mary Rose; Pratt, Abdullah; Haydon, Rex C; Luu, Hue H; Angeles, Jovito; Shi, Lewis L; He, Tong-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are members of the TGF-β superfamily and play a critical role in skeletal development, bone formation and stem cell differentiation. Disruptions in BMP signaling result in a variety of skeletal and extraskeletal anomalies. BMP9 is a poorly characterized member of the BMP family and is among the most osteogenic BMPs, promoting osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in vitro and in vivo. Recent findings from various in vivo and molecular studies strongly suggest that the mechanisms governing BMP9-mediated osteoinduction differ from other osteogenic BMPs. Many signaling pathways with diverse functions have been found to play a role in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. Several of these pathways are also critical in the differentiation of other cell lineages, including adipocytes and chondrocytes. While BMP9 is known to be a potent osteogenic factor, it also influences several other pathways including cancer development, angiogenesis and myogenesis. Although BMP9 has been demonstrated as one of the most osteogenic BMPs, relatively little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for these effects. BMP9 has demonstrated efficacy in promoting spinal fusion and bony non-union repair in animal models, demonstrating great translational promise. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of BMP9-mediated osteogenesis by presenting recently completed work which may help us to further elucidate these pathways. PMID:23671813

  1. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puente, Pilar de la; Ludeña, Dolores; López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  2. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: pilardelapuentegarcia@gmail.com [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  3. Glioblastoma stem cell differentiation into endothelial cells evidenced through live-cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Chen, Yin-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Rong; Xi, Shao-Yan; Chen, Zhong-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma cell-initiated vascularization is an alternative angiogenesis called vasculogenic mimicry. However, current knowledge on the mechanism of de novo vessel formation from glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) is limited. Sixty-four glioblastoma samples from patients and 10 fluorescent glioma xenograft samples were examined by immunofluorescence staining for endothelial marker (CD34 and CD31) and glial cell marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]) expression. GSCs were then isolated from human glioblastoma tissue and CD133+/Sox2+ red fluorescent protein-containing (RFP)-GSC-1 cells were established. The ability of these cells to form vascular structures was examined by live-cell imaging of 3D cultures. CD34-GFAP or CD31-GFAP coexpressing glioblastoma-derived endothelial cells (GDEC) were found in 30 of 64 (46.9%) of clinical glioblastoma samples. In those 30 samples, GDEC were found to form vessel structures in 21 (70%) samples. Among 21 samples with GDEC vessels, the CD34+ GDEC vessels and CD31+ GDEC vessels accounted for about 14.16% and 18.08% of total vessels, respectively. In the xenograft samples, CD34+ GDEC were found in 7 out of 10 mice, and 4 out of 7 mice had CD34+ GDEC vessels. CD31+ GDEC were also found in 7 mice, and 4 mice had CD31+ GDEC vessels (10 mice in total). Through live-cell imaging, we observed gradual CD34 expression when cultured with vascular endothelial growth factor in some glioma cells, and a dynamic increase in endothelial marker expression in RFP-GSC-1 in vitro was recorded. Cells expressed CD34 (9.46%) after 6 hours in culture. The results demonstrated that GSCs may differentiate into endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis in glioblastomas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Epigenetic landscaping during hESC differentiation to neural cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golebiewska, Anna; Atkinson, Stuart P; Lako, Majlinda; Armstrong, Lyle

    2009-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying pluripotency and lineage specification from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are still largely unclear. To address the role of chromatin structure in maintenance of pluripotency in human ESCs (hESCs) and establishment of lineage commitment, we analyzed a panel of histone modifications at promoter sequences of genes involved in maintenance of pluripotency, self-renewal, and in early stages of differentiation. To understand the changes occurring at lineage-specific gene regulatory sequences, we have established an efficient purification system that permits the examination of two distinct populations of lineage committed cells; fluorescence activated cell sorted CD133(+) CD45(-)CD34(-) neural stem cells and beta-III-tubulin(+) putative neurons. Here we report the importance of other permissive marks supporting trimethylation of Lysine 4 H3 at the active stem cell promoters as well as poised bivalent and nonbivalent lineage-specific gene promoters in hESCs. Methylation of lysine 9 H3 was found to play a role in repression of pluripotency-associated and lineage-specific genes on differentiation. Moreover, presence of newly formed bivalent domains was observed at the neural progenitor stage. However, they differ significantly from the bivalent domains observed in hESCs, with a possible role of dimethylation of lysine 9 H3 in repressing the poised genes.

  5. Parameters Identification of Photovoltaic Cells Based on Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the complex nonlinear model of photovoltaic cells, traditional evolution strategy is easy to fall into the local optimal and its identification time is too long when taking parameters identification, then the difference algorithm is proposed in this study, which is to solve the problems of parameter identification in photovoltaic cell model, where it is very difficult to achieve with other identification algorithms. In this method, the random data is selected as the initial generation; the successful evolution to the next generation is done through a certain strategy of difference algorithm, which can achieve the effective identification of control parameters. It is proved that the method has a good global optimization and the fast convergence ability, and the simulation results are shown that the differential evolution has high identification ability and it is an effective method to identify the parameters of photovoltaic cells, where the photovoltaic cells can be widely used in other places with these parameters.

  6. Differentiation of Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells into Cells of Neural Lineage: Potential for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are able to differentiate into extramesodermal lineages, including neurons. Positive outcomes were obtained after transplantation of neurally induced MSCs in laboratory animals after nerve injury, but this is unknown in horses. Our objectives were to test the ability of equine MSCs to differentiate into cells of neural lineage in vitro, to assess differences in morphology and lineage-specific protein expression, and to investigate if horse age and cell passage number affected the ability to achieve differentiation. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from young and adult horses. Following demonstration of stemness, MSCs were neurally induced and microscopically assessed at different time points. Results showed that commercially available nitrogen-coated tissue culture plates supported proliferation and differentiation. Morphological changes were immediate and all the cells displayed a neural crest-like cell phenotype. Expression of neural progenitor proteins, was assessed via western blot or immunofluorescence. In our study, MSCs generated from young and middle-aged horses did not show differences in their ability to undergo differentiation. The effect of cell passage number, however, is inconsistent and further experiments are needed. Ongoing work is aimed at transdifferentiating these cells into Schwann cells for transplantation into a peripheral nerve injury model in horses.

  7. Potential of bursa-immigrated hematopoietic precursor cells to differentiate to functional B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.T.; Alexander, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential of hematopoietic precursor cells, recently immigrated into the 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursa, to migrate to the thymus and to differentiate to functional T cells was investigated. Chromosomally marked cell populations obtained from 13- and 14-day-old embryonic bursas were transferred i.v. to 780 R γ-irradiated chick embryos of equivalent age. When appropriate chimeras were examined at 4 to 12 weeks after cell transfer, donor cells were found to proliferate primarily in the bursa. Significant donor cell influx into the thymus was not detected. In correlation with these findings, Con A- and PHA-responsive T cells in thymus and spleen cell cultures of recipients remained of host origin whereas the number of anti-CIg responsive B cells of donor type increased gradually in the spleens of recipients. An initial lag period preceded the accumulation of functional donor B cells in the spleens of recipients, despite the predominant presence of dividing donor cells in the bursa. This suggests that the transferred bursal cell population required substantially longer to mature and emigrate from the bursa as functional B cells than the host cell population remaining in the irradiated bursas at time of cell transfer. The failure to detect significant influx of donor cells into the thymus and their failure to differentiate to functional T cells suggest that the recently bursa-immigrated hematopoietic stem cells of 13- and 14-day-old embryos may not be pluripotential cells, but rather cells already committed to the B cell line of differentiation

  8. Glutathione S-transferase expression and isoenzyme composition during cell differentiation of Caco-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharmach, E.; Hessel, S.; Niemann, B.; Lampen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2 is frequently used to study human intestinal metabolism and transport of xenobiotica. Previous studies have shown that both Caco-2 cells and human colon cells constitutively express the multigene family of detoxifying enzymes glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), particularly GST alpha and GST pi. GSTs may play a fundamental role in the molecular interplay between phase I, II enzymes and ABC-transporters. The gut fermentation product, butyrate, can modulate the potential for detoxification. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal expression of further cytosolic GSTs in Caco-2 cells during cell differentiation. In addition, a comparison was made with expression levels in MCF-7 and HepG2, two other cell types with barrier functions. Finally, the butyrate-mediated modulation of gene and protein expression was determined by real time PCR and western blot analysis. In Caco-2, gene and protein expression levels of GST alpha increased during cell differentiation. High levels of GSTO1 and GSTP1 were constantly expressed. No expression of GSTM5 and GSTT1 was detected. HepG2 expressed GSTO1 and MCF-7 GSTZ1 most intensively. No expression of GSTA5, GSTM5, or GSTP1 was detected in either cell. Incubation of Caco-2 cells with butyrate (5 mM) significantly induced GSTA1 and GSTM2 in proliferating Caco-2 cells. In differentiated cells, butyrate tended to increase GSTO1 and GSTP1. The results of this study show that a differentiation-dependent expression of GSTs in Caco-2 cells may reflect the in vivo situation and indicate the potential of butyrate to modify intestinal metabolism. GSTA1-A4 have been identified as good markers for cell differentiation. The Caco-2 cell line is a useful model for assessing the potential of food-related substances to modulate the GST expression pattern.

  9. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  10. Identification of differentially expressed genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma TCA8113 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Lifeng; Gao, Lina; Guan, Chao; Su, Kexin; Li, Linlin; Luo, Wenping; Chen, Hongying; Ji, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cancer cells with increased levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 'bright' activity (ALDH br ) exhibit stem cell properties compared with cells exhibiting decreased ALDH activity (ALDH low ). To screen possible biomarkers of cancer stem cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, ALDH br and ALDH low cells were isolated from the tongue squamous cell carcinoma TCA8113 cell line, and suppression subtractive hybridization was performed to identify differentially expressed genes in the two subpopulations. A total of 240 positive clones were randomly selected for sequencing and were functionally characterized using bioinformatical tools. The results of the present study identified the differential expression of 104 clones, 62 of which corresponded to known genes and 42 of which corresponded to unknown genes. Cluster analysis revealed that the known genes were involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and cell differentiation. In addition, analysis of 10 signaling pathways revealed that genes were markedly altered in the ALDH br cell subpopulation. Additional study is required to identify the function that these genes serve in the biomolecular regulatory mechanisms of cancer stem cells and to assist in explaining the biological behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Maintenance of Clonogenic KIT+ Human Colon Tumor Cells Requires Secretion of Stem Cell Factor by Differentiated Tumor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatrai, Szabolcs; Van Schelven, Susanne J.; Ubink, Inge; Govaert, Klaas M.; Raats, Danielle; Koster, Jan; Verheem, Andre; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Colon tumors contain a fraction of undifferentiated stem cell-like cancer cells with high tumorigenic potential. Little is known about the signals that maintain these stem-like cells. We investigated whether differentiated tumor cells provide support. Methods We established

  12. Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stem Cells into Schwann Cell Phenotype in Comparison with Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolikha Golipoor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sBone marrow is the traditional source of human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, but adipose tissue appears to be an alternative and more readily available source. In this study, rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells and compared with rat bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs for their Schwann-like cells differentiation potential. Materials and MethodsBMSCs and ADSCs were characterized for expression of MSCs-specific markers, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. They were induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells and analyzed for expression of the Schwann specific markers. The immunocytochemical differentiation markers were S-100 and real time quantitative Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR markers were S100, P75 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP. 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol- 2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and Annexin V-Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC/ Propidium iodide (PI double labeling method were employed to detect early stage cell apoptosis.ResultsBMSCs and ADSCs showed similarities in expression of the MSC-specific markers, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Both quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated that BMSCs and ADSCs had equal expression of the Schwann-specific markers following Schwann-like cells differentiation. However, gene expression of P75 was higher in BMSCs compared with ADSCs. MTT assay and flow cytometry found that of the total BMSCs and ADSCs in the culture medium, 20% to 30% of the cells died, but the remaining cell population remained strongly attached to the substrate and differentiated.ConclusionComparative analysis showed that Schwann-like cell differentiation potential of ADSCs was slightly decreased in comparison with BMSCs. Therefore, BMSCs are more favorable choice than ADSCs for tissue engineering.

  13. Immuno-Magnetic Isolation and Thermogenic Differentiation of White Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Rohollah; Bayindir-Buchhalter, Irem; Meln, Irina; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Appropriate cell models are necessary for the investigation of thermogenic beige adipocyte differentiation from progenitor cells. Here, we describe a primary cell culture method that is based on defined progenitor cells from murine white adipose tissue and aims at minimizing confounding factors including cell heterogeneity and nonphysiological differentiation inducers. Adipocyte progenitor cells are enriched by immuno-magnetic separation, expanded minimally, and induced for beige adipocyte differentiation with carbaprostacyclin, a stable analogue of the endogenous mediator PGI 2 .

  14. Differential gene expression by 1,25(OH)2D3 in an endometriosis stromal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Sue Ann; Wu, Liang; Liu, Benjamin T; Chen, Yibu; Wang, Chun-Yeh; Templeman, Claire; Brueggmann, Doerthe

    2017-10-01

    Endometriosis is a common female reproductive disease characterized by invasion of endometrial cells into other organs, frequently causing pelvic pain and infertility. Alterations of the vitamin D system have been linked to endometriosis incidence and severity. To shed light on the potential mechanism for these associations, we examined the effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 on gene expression in endometriosis cells. Stromal cell lines derived from endometriosis tissue were treated with 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , and RNA-seq was used to identify genes differentially expressed between treated and untreated cells. Gene ontology and pathway analyses were carried out using Partek Flow and Ingenuity software suites, respectively. We identified 1627 genes that were differentially expressed (886 down-regulated and 741 up-regulated) by 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . Only one gene, CYP24A1, was strongly up-regulated (369-fold). Many genes were strongly down-regulated. 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 treatment down-regulated several genetic pathways related to neuroangiogenesis, cellular motility, and invasion, including pathways for axonal guidance, Rho GDP signaling, and matrix metalloprotease inhibition. These findings support a role for vitamin D in the pathophysiology of endometriosis, and provide new targets for investigation into possible causes and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Capacity of Human Dental Follicle Cells to Differentiate into Neural Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Kanao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymal tissue surrounding the developing tooth germ. Human dental follicle cells (hDFCs have the capacity to commit to differentiation into multiple cell types. Here we investigated the capacity of hDFCs to differentiate into neural cells and the efficiency of a two-step strategy involving floating neurosphere-like bodies for neural differentiation. Undifferentiated hDFCs showed a spindle-like morphology and were positive for neural markers such as nestin, β-III-tubulin, and S100β. The cellular morphology of several cells was neuronal-like including branched dendrite-like processes and neurites. Next, hDFCs were used for neurosphere formation in serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and B27 supplement. The number of cells with neuronal-like morphology and that were strongly positive for neural markers increased with sphere formation. Gene expression of neural markers also increased in hDFCs with sphere formation. Next, gene expression of neural markers was examined in hDFCs during neuronal differentiation after sphere formation. Expression of Musashi-1 and Musashi-2, MAP2, GFAP, MBP, and SOX10 was upregulated in hDFCs undergoing neuronal differentiation via neurospheres, whereas expression of nestin and β-III-tubulin was downregulated. In conclusion, hDFCs may be another optimal source of neural/glial cells for cell-based therapies to treat neurological diseases.

  16. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  17. Sulfur mustard vapor effects on differentiated human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, JeanClare; Weber, Waylon M.; Grotendorst, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Context sulfur mustard (SM) causes skin blistering and long-term pulmonary dysfunction. Its adverse effects have been studied in battlefield-exposed humans, but lack of knowledge regarding confounding factors makes interpretation challenging. Animal studies are critical to understanding mechanisms, but differences between animals and humans must be addressed. Studies of cultured human cells can bridge animal studies and humans. Objective Evaluate effects of SM vapor on airway cells. Materials and methods We examined responses of differentiated human tracheal/bronchial epithelial cells, cultured at an air-liquid interface, to SM vapors. SM effects on metabolic activity (Water Soluble Tetrazolium (WST) assay), cytokine and metalloproteinase secretion, and cellular heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress indicator, were measured after 24 h. Results At noncytotoxic levels of exposure, interleukin 8 and matrix metalloproteinase-13 were significantly increased in these cultures, but HO-1 was not significantly affected. Discussion and conclusion Exposure of differentiated airway epithelial cells to sub-cytotoxic levels of SM vapor induced inflammatory and degradative responses that could contribute to the adverse health effects of inhaled SM. PMID:20569120

  18. Tumor necrosis factor (cachetin) decreases adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.J.; Jones, D.D.; Jewell, D.E.; Hausman, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cachetin has been shown to effect gene product expression in the established adipose cell line 3T3-L1. Expression of messenger RNA for lipoprotein lipase is suppressed in cultured adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Cachetin on adipose cell differentiation in primary cell culture. Stromalvascular cells obtained from the inguinal fat pad of 4-5 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were grown in culture for two weeks. During the proliferative growth phase all cells were grown on the same medium and labelled with 3 H-thymidine. Cachetin treatment (10 -6 to 10 -10 M) was initiated on day 5, the initial phase of preadipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes and stromal cells were separated using density gradient, and 3 H-thymidine was determined for both cell types. Thymidine incorporation into adipose cells was decreased maximally (∼ 50%) at 10 -10 M. Stromalvascular cells were not influenced at any of the doses tested. Adipose cell lipid content as indicated by oil red-O staining was decreased by Cachetin. Esterase staining by adipose cells treated with Cachetin was increased indicating an increase in intracellular lipase. These studies show that Cachetin has specific effects on primary adipose cell differentiation

  19. Effect of cell density on adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongxu [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Guo, Likun [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wozniak, Michal J. [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Kawazoe, Naoki [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Tateishi, Tetsuya [Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Xingdong [National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 29 Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Guoping, E-mail: Guoping.CHEN@nims.go.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2009-04-10

    The effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated by using a patterning technique to induce the formation of a cell density gradient on a micropatterned surface. The adipogenic differentiation of MSCs at a density gradient from 5 x 10{sup 3} to 3 x 10{sup 4} cells/cm{sup 2} was examined. Lipid vacuoles were observed at all cell densities after 1-3 weeks of culture in adipogenic differentiation medium although the lipid vacuoles were scarce at the low cell density and abundant at the high cell density. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that adipogenesis marker genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4) were detected in the MSCs cultured at all cell densities. The results suggest that there was no apparent effect of cell density on the adipogenic differentiation of human MSCs.

  20. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  1. Arf6 mediates Schwann cell differentiation and myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Tsumura, Hideki; Kawahara, Kazuko; Tanoue, Akito; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-09-25

    During development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), Schwann cells wrap neuronal axons, becoming the myelin sheaths that help axonal functions. While the intercellular signals controlling the myelination process between Schwann cells and peripheral neurons are well studied, the transduction of these signals in Schwann cells still remains elusive. Here, we show that Arf6, an Arf protein of the small GTPase family, is involved in promoting the myelination process. Knockdown of Arf6 with the small-interfering (si)RNA in primary Schwann cells markedly decreases dibutyl-cyclic AMP-induced myelin marker protein expression, indicating that Arf6 plays a role in differentiation-like phenotypic changes. To obtain in vivo evidence, we generated small-hairpin (sh)RNA transgenic mice targeting Arf6 for Schwann cells. Transgenic mice exhibited reduced myelin thickness compared to littermate controls, consistent with the defective myelin formation observed in the transgenic mouse-derived Schwann cell and neuronal culture system. Transgenic mice also exhibited decreased phosphorylation of myelination-related signaling molecules such as Akt kinase cascade proteins as well as downregulation of myelin marker proteins. These results suggest that signaling through Arf6 is required for Schwann cell myelination, adding Arf6 to the list of intracellular signaling molecules involved in the myelination process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Wnt/β-catenin Inhibits Dental Pulp Stem Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, E.L.; Chang, J.; Wang, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a unique precursor population isolated from post-natal human dental pulp and have the ability to regenerate a reparative dentin-like complex. Canonical Wnt signaling plays a critical role in tooth development and stem cell self-renewal through β-catenin. In this study, the regulation of odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSCs by canonical Wnt signaling was examined. DPSCs were stably transduced with canonical Wnt-1 or the active form of β-catenin, with retrovirus-mediated infection. Northern blot analysis found that Wnt-1 strongly induced the expression of matricellular protein osteopontin, and modestly enhanced the expression of type I collagen in DPSCs. Unexpectedly, Wnt-1 inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the formation of mineralized nodules in DPSCs. Moreover, over-expression of β-catenin was also sufficient to suppress the differentiation and mineralization of DPSCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that canonical Wnt signaling negatively regulates the odontoblast-like differentiation of DPSCs. PMID:18218837

  3. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  4. Response of Turkey Muscle Satellite Cells to Thermal Challenge. II. Transcriptome Effects in Differentiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent M. Reed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of poultry to extreme temperatures during the critical period of post-hatch growth can seriously affect muscle development and thus compromise subsequent meat quality. This study was designed to characterize transcriptional changes induced in turkey muscle satellite cells by thermal challenge during differentiation. Our goal is to better define how thermal stress alters breast muscle ultrastructure and subsequent development.Results: Skeletal muscle satellite cells previously isolated from the Pectoralis major muscle of 7-wk-old male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo from two breeding lines: the F-line (16 wk body weight-selected and RBC2 (randombred control line were used in this study. Cultured cells were induced to differentiate at 38°C (control or thermal challenge temperatures of 33 or 43°C. After 48 h of differentiation, cells were harvested and total RNA was isolated for RNAseq analysis. Analysis of 39.9 Gb of sequence found 89% mapped to the turkey genome (UMD5.0, annotation 101 with average expression of 18,917 genes per library. In the cultured satellite cells, slow/cardiac muscle isoforms are generally present in greater abundance than fast skeletal isoforms. Statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed among treatments and between turkey lines, with a greater number of genes affected in the F-line cells following cold treatment whereas more differentially expressed (DE genes were observed in the RBC2 cells following heat treatment. Many of the most significant pathways involved signaling, consistent with ongoing cellular differentiation. Regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis appears to be significantly affected by temperature treatment, particularly cold treatment.Conclusions: Satellite cell differentiation is directly influenced by temperature at the level of gene transcription with greater effects attributed to selection for fast growth. At lower temperature, muscle-associated genes in the

  5. Radotinib Induces Apoptosis of CD11b+ Cells Differentiated from Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Kyoung Heo

    Full Text Available Radotinib, developed as a BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, is approved for the second-line treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML in South Korea. However, therapeutic effects of radotinib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML are unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that radotinib significantly decreases the viability of AML cells in a dose-dependent manner. Kasumi-1 cells were more sensitive to radotinib than NB4, HL60, or THP-1 cell lines. Furthermore, radotinib induced CD11b expression in NB4, THP-1, and Kasumi-1 cells either in presence or absence of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA. We found that radotinib promoted differentiation and induced CD11b expression in AML cells by downregulating LYN. However, CD11b expression induced by ATRA in HL60 cells was decreased by radotinib through upregulation of LYN. Furthermore, radotinib mainly induced apoptosis of CD11b+ cells in the total population of AML cells. Radotinib also increased apoptosis of CD11b+ HL60 cells when they were differentiated by ATRA/dasatinib treatment. We show that radotinib induced apoptosis via caspase-3 activation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm in CD11b+ cells differentiated from AML cells. Our results suggest that radotinib may be used as a candidate drug in AML or a chemosensitizer for treatment of AML by other therapeutics.

  6. [Neuronal differentiation of human small cell lung cancer cell line PC-6 by Solcoseryl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T

    1997-11-01

    Solcoseryl is composed of extracts from calf blood, and is a drug known to activate tissue respiration. In the present study, I demonstrated the cell biological effects of Solcoseryl on a human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6, by analyzing cell morphology, cell growth, expression of neuronal differentiation markers, and the ras proto-oncogene product(ras p21). Exposure of PC-6 cells to Solcoseryl at the concentration of 200 microliters/ml induced (1) cell morphological changes, including neurodendrite-like projections from the cell surface, and (2) complete inhibition of cell growth, that was shown by the loss of Ki-67 expression. Solcoseryl also induced the expression of neurofilament protein and acetylcholinesterase, both of which are markers of neuronal differentiation. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of the ras proto-oncogene product, ras p21. Taken together, these data suggest that Solcoseryl is composed of component(s) which can induce neuronal differentiation of the human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6.

  7. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Interleukin-21 Drives Proliferation and Differentiation of Porcine Memory B Cells into Antibody Secreting Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Rahe

    Full Text Available Immunological prevention of infectious disease, especially viral, is based on antigen-specific long-lived memory B cells. To test for cellular proliferation and differentiation factors in swine, an outbred model for humans, CD21+ B cells were activated in vitro with CD40L and stimulated with purported stimulatory cytokines to characterize functional responses. IL-21 induced a 3-fold expansion in total cell numbers with roughly 15% of all B cells differentiating to IgM or IgG antibody secreting cells (ASCs. However, even with robust proliferation, cellular viability rapidly deteriorated. Therefore, a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL and B cell activating factor (BAFF were evaluated as survival and maintenance factors. BAFF was effective at enhancing the viability of mature B cells as well as ASCs, while APRIL was only effective for ASCs. Both cytokines increased approximately two-fold the amount of IgM and IgG which was secreted by IL-21 differentiated ASCs. Mature B cells from porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV immune and naïve age-matched pigs were activated and treated with IL-21 and then tested for memory cell differentiation using a PRRSV non-structural protein 7 ELISPOT and ELISA. PRRSV immune pigs were positive on both ELISPOT and ELISA while naïve animals were negative on both assays. These results highlight the IL-21-driven expansion and differentiation of memory B cells in vitro without stimulation of the surface immunoglobulin receptor complex, as well as the establishment of a defined memory B cell culture system for characterization of vaccine responses in outbred animals.

  9. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  10. Differentiation-Dependent Glycosylation of Cells in Squamous Cell Epithelia Detected by a Mammalian Lectin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plzák, J.; Holíková, Z.; Smetana Jr., K.; Dvořánková, B.; Hercogová, J.; Kaltner, H.; Motlík, Jan; Gabius, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 171, - (2002), s. 135-144 ISSN 1422-6405 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A065; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Keywords : carcinoma * basal cell * cell differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2002

  11. Pigment Cell Differentiation in Sea Urchin Blastula-Derived Primary Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageenko, Natalya V.; Kiselev, Konstantin V.; Dmitrenok, Pavel S.; Odintsova, Nelly A.

    2014-01-01

    The quinone pigments of sea urchins, specifically echinochrome and spinochromes, are known for their effective antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, and antitumor activities. We developed in vitro technology for inducing pigment differentiation in cell culture. The intensification of the pigment differentiation was accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in cell proliferation. The number of pigment cells was two-fold higher in the cells cultivated in the coelomic fluids of injured sea urchins than in those intact. The possible roles of the specific components of the coelomic fluids in the pigment differentiation process and the quantitative measurement of the production of naphthoquinone pigments during cultivation were examined by MALDI and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Echinochrome A and spinochrome E were produced by the cultivated cells of the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis in all tested media, while only spinochromes were found in the cultivated cells of another sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus intermedius. The expression of genes associated with the induction of pigment differentiation was increased in cells cultivated in the presence of shikimic acid, a precursor of naphthoquinone pigments. Our results should contribute to the development of new techniques in marine biotechnology, including the generation of cell cultures producing complex bioactive compounds with therapeutic potential. PMID:24979272

  12. Wnt signaling-mediated redox regulation maintains the germ line stem cell differentiation niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su; Gao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Ma, Xing; Zhu, Xiujuan; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhihao; Ni, Jianquan; Li, Hua; Malanowski, Kathryn E; Anoja, Perera; Park, Jungeun; Haug, Jeff; Xie, Ting

    2015-10-09

    Adult stem cells continuously undergo self-renewal and generate differentiated cells. In the Drosophila ovary, two separate niches control germ line stem cell (GSC) self-renewal and differentiation processes. Compared to the self-renewing niche, relatively little is known about the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche. In this study, we show that the cellular redox state regulated by Wnt signaling is critical for the maintenance and function of the differentiation niche to promote GSC progeny differentiation. Defective Wnt signaling causes the loss of the differentiation niche and the upregulated BMP signaling in differentiated GSC progeny, thereby disrupting germ cell differentiation. Mechanistically, Wnt signaling controls the expression of multiple glutathione-S-transferase family genes and the cellular redox state. Finally, Wnt2 and Wnt4 function redundantly to maintain active Wnt signaling in the differentiation niche. Therefore, this study has revealed a novel strategy for Wnt signaling in regulating the cellular redox state and maintaining the differentiation niche.

  13. Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, L; Fernández, S; López, T

    1976-12-01

    Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos, (membrana celular y uniones celulares en la diferenciación del embrión de ratón antes de la implantación). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 130-134, 1976. The development of cell junctions that seal the peripheral blastomeres could be a decisive step in the differentiation of morulae into blastocysts. The appearance of these junctions is studied by electron microscopy of late morulae and initial blastocysts. Zonulae occludentes as well as impermeability to lanthanum emulsion precedes the appearance of the blastocel and hence might be considered as one of its necessary causes.

  14. Differentiation of Wharton's jelly primitive stromal cells into insulin-producing cells in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Fang; Wang, Ni-Na; Liu, Yuan-Sheng; Wei, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Primitive stromal cells can be isolated from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly (UC-PSCs). Umbilical cord can be easily obtained without causing pain to donors, and the procedure avoids ethical and technical issues. UC-PSCs are more primitive than mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from some other tissue sources. In this study, UC-PSCs were induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells, and compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) for their pancreatic differentiation potential. UC-PSCs showed significantly higher proliferation than BM-MSCs. During pancreatic induction, UC-PSCs formed larger islet-like cell clusters than BM-MSCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that higher expression of the pancreatic-specific transcription factor PDX-1 was detected in differentiated UC-PSCs than in differentiated BM-MSCs. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that the percentage of differentiated UC-PSCs expressing pancreatic-specific marker C-peptide was 72% higher than differentiated BM-MSCs. Radioimmunoassay revealed that differentiated UC-PSCs secreted significantly more insulin than differentiated BM-MSCs. These results demonstrated that UC-PSCs had higher pancreatic differentiation potential than BM-MSCs. Therefore, UC-PSCs are more suitable for pancreatic tissue engineering in the treatment of type I diabetes than BM-MSCs.

  15. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  16. A survey of Sertoli cell differentiation in men after gonadotropin suppression and in testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarulli, Gerard A; Stanton, Peter G; Loveland, Kate L

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes of infer......It is widely held that the somatic cell population that is responsible for sperm development and output (Sertoli cells) is terminally differentiated and unmodifiable in adults. It is postulated, with little evidence, that Sertoli cells are not terminally differentiated in some phenotypes...... of proliferation (PCNA and Ki67) and functional differentiation (androgen receptor). As additional markers of differentiation, the organization of Sertoli cell tight junction and associated proteins were assessed in specimens with carcinoma in situ. In normal men, Sertoli cells exhibited a differentiated phenotype...

  17. Functional Thyroid Follicular Cells Differentiation from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Arauchi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of regenerated thyroid follicular cells (TFCs is a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with hypothyroidism. Here, we have succeeded in inducing functional TFCs from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in scalable suspension culture. Differentiation of iPSCs with Activin A treatment produced Sox17- and FoxA2-expressing definitive endodermal cells that also expressed thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and Nkx2-1. Further treatment with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH induced TFCs expressing various types of thyroid proteins including TSH receptor, sodium–iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, and thyroid peroxidase. Interestingly, differentiated cells secreted free thyroxine in vitro. These results indicate successful differentiation of human iPSCs to functional TFCs that may enable us to fabricate thyroid tissues for regenerative medicine and disease models.

  18. Downregulation of LGR5 Expression Inhibits Cardiomyocyte Differentiation and Potentiates Endothelial Differentiation from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajneesh Jha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding molecules involved in differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells is important in advancing hPSCs for cell therapy and drug testing. Here, we report that LGR5, a leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor, plays a critical role in hPSC differentiation into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. LGR5 expression was transiently upregulated during the early stage of cardiomyocyte differentiation, and knockdown of LGR5 resulted in reduced expression of cardiomyocyte-associated markers and poor cardiac differentiation. In contrast, knockdown of LGR5 promoted differentiation of endothelial-like cells with increased expression of endothelial cell markers and appropriate functional characteristics, including the ability to form tube-like structures and to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. Furthermore, knockdown of LGR5 significantly reduced the proliferation of differentiated cells and increased the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and expression of Wnt signaling-related genes. Therefore, regulation of LGR5 may facilitate efficient generation of cardiomyocytes or endothelial cells from hPSCs.

  19. Implant Surface Design Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, B D; Cheng, A; Olivares-Navarrete, R; Schwartz, Z

    2016-03-01

    Changes in dental implant materials, structural design, and surface properties can all affect biological response. While bulk properties are important for mechanical stability of the implant, surface design ultimately contributes to osseointegration. This article reviews the surface parameters of dental implant materials that contribute to improved cell response and osseointegration. In particular, we focus on how surface design affects mesenchymal cell response and differentiation into the osteoblast lineage. Surface roughness has been largely studied at the microscale, but recent studies have highlighted the importance of hierarchical micron/submicron/nanosurface roughness, as well as surface roughness in combination with surface wettability. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that recognize changes in the surface and mediate downstream signaling pathways. Specifically, the noncanonical Wnt5a pathway has been implicated in osteoblastic differentiation of cells on titanium implant surfaces. However, much remains to be elucidated. Only recently have studies been conducted on the differences in biological response to implants based on sex, age, and clinical factors; these all point toward differences that advocate for patient-specific implant design. Finally, challenges in implant surface characterization must be addressed to optimize and compare data across studies. An understanding of both the science and the biology of the materials is crucial for developing novel dental implant materials and surface modifications for improved osseointegration. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  20. Cell-Cell Connection Enhances Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Rat Embryonic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jiao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interaction as one of the niche signals plays an important role in the balance of stem cell quiescence and proliferation or differentiation. In order to address the effect and the possible mechanisms of cell-cell connection on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs proliferation and differentiation, upon passaging, NSCs/NPCs were either dissociated into single cell as usual (named Group I or mechanically triturated into a mixture of single cell and small cell clusters containing direct cell-cell connections (named Group II. Then the biological behaviors including proliferation and differentiation of NSCs/NPCs were observed. Moreover, the expression of gap junction channel, neurotrophic factors and the phosphorylation status of MAPK signals were compared to investigate the possible mechanisms. Our results showed that, in comparison to the counterparts in Group I, NSCs/NPCs in Group II survived well with preferable neuronal differentiation. In coincidence with this, the expression of connexin 45 (Cx45, as well as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3 in Group II were significantly higher than those in Group I. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK2 were significantly upregulated in Group II too, while no change was found about p38. Furthermore, the differences of NSCs/NPCs biological behaviors between Group I and II completely disappeared when ERK and JNK phosphorylation were inhibited. These results indicated that cell-cell connection in Group II enhanced NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation through upregulating the expression of gap junction and neurotrophic factors. MAPK signals- ERK and JNK might contribute to the enhancement. Efforts for maintaining the direct cell-cell connection are worth making to provide more favorable niches for NSCs/NPCs survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation.

  1. Vaccination of pigs with attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis induced acute phase protein responses and primed cell-mediated immunity without reduction in bacterial shedding after challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes

    2015-01-01

    achievedby this vaccine. We therefore undertook a detailed characterization of immune responses to L. intracel-lularis infection in vaccinated pigs (VAC) compared to previously infected pigs (RE) in order to pinpointimmunological determinants of protection.Results: The VAC pigs shed L. intracellularis......nomically important diseases in modern pig production worldwide. The Enterisol®Ileitis vaccine havebeen shown to reduce clinical disease and to increase weight gain, however, while the natural infectionwith L. intracellularis can provide complete protection against re-infection, this has not been...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...

  2. Differential effect of baicalein on ionizing radiation induced cell death in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, R.S.; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Santosh Kumar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxy-2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one), a naturally occurring flavone, present in Indian and Chinese medicinal plants has been reported to possess potent antioxidant activity. Previous reports from our laboratory have elucidated the radical scavenging and radioprotective potential of this compound in cell free system. To investigate potential of baicalein as a radioprotector, we have studied its effect on normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells (EL-4 cells) in presence of radiation. Baicalein protected murine splenic lymphocytes against radiation (4Gy) induced apoptosis as assessed by propidium iodide staining. It inhibited background cell death in lymphocytes whereas, baicalein induced concentration dependent cell death in EL-4 cells and did not protect against radiation induced apoptosis. Interestingly, baicalein scavenged radiation derived ROS (reactive oxygen species) in both the cell types suggesting that, it is not exhibiting differential antioxidant action. Despite scavenging radiation derived ROS, which are principal mediators of radiation induced cell death, baicalein induced cell death in EL-4 cells. To investigate the reason for this differential behavior, we investigated the effect of baicalein on pro-survival molecules viz. ERK and NF-kB. Baicalein induced phosphorylation of ERK in normal lymphocytes in a time dependent manner, but, it did not alter pERK levels in EL-4 cells. Baicalein treatment per se induced degradation of IkBα and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-kB in normal lymphocytes. Whereas, baicalein pre-treatment reduced basal NF-kB levels in EL-4 cells and it also suppressed TNF-α induced nuclear accumulation of NF-kB. This study suggests that, differential regulation of pro-survival transcription factor NF-kB may be playing a role in differential effect of baicalein in normal lymphocytes and lymphoma cells. (author)

  3. Current Status of Human Adipose–Derived Stem Cells: Differentiation into Hepatocyte-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Al Battah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of human organ donors and the low cell quality of available liver tissues represent major obstacles for the clinical application of orthotropic liver transplantation and hepatocyte transplantation, respectively. Therefore, worldwide research groups are investigating alternative extrahepatic cell sources. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from various sources, including human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord, can be differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells when appropriate conditions are used. In particular, interest exists for human adipose–derived stems cells (hASCs as an attractive cell source for generating hepatocyte-like cells. The hASCs are multipotent MSCs that reside in adipose tissue, with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, these cells can secrete multiple growth factors and cytokines that exert beneficial effects on organ or tissue injury. In this review, we will not only present recent data regarding hASC biology, their isolation, and differentiation capability towards hepatocytes, but also the potential application of hASC-derived hepatocytes to study drug toxicity. Additionally, this review will discuss the therapeutic potential of hASCs as undifferentiated cells in liver regeneration.

  4. Differentiation of Mouse Ovarian Stem Cells Toward Oocyte-Like Structure by Coculture with Granulosa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvari, Soraya; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Rajabi, Zahra; Gerayeli Malek, Valliollah; Rastegar, Tayebeh; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    An increasing body of evidence has confirmed existence and function of ovarian stem cells (OSCs). In this study, a novel approach on differentiation of OSCs into oocyte-like cells (OLCs) has been addressed. Recently, different methods have been recruited to isolate and describe aspects of OSCs, but newer and more convenient strategies in isolation are still growing. Herein, a morphology-based method was used to isolate OSCs. Cell suspension of mouse neonatal ovaries was cultured and formed colonies were harvested mechanically and cultivated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts. For differentiation induction, colonies transferred on inactive granulosa cells. Results showed that cells in colonies were positive for alkaline phosphatase activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed the pluripotency characteristics of cells. Immunofluorescence revealed a positive signal for OCT4, DAZL, MVH, and SSEA1 in colonies as well. Results of RT-PCR and immunofluorescence confirmed that some OLCs were generated within the germ stem cell (GSCs) colonies. The applicability of morphological selection for isolation of GSCs was verified. This method is easier and more economic than other techniques. Our results demonstrate that granulosa cells were effective in inducing the differentiation of OSCs into OLCs through direct cell-to-cell contacts.

  5. Odontoblast-Like Cells Differentiated from Dental Pulp Stem Cells Retain Their Phenotype after Subcultivation

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    Paula A. Baldión

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontoblasts, the main cell type in teeth pulp tissue, are not cultivable and they are responsible for the first line of response after dental restauration. Studies on dental materials cytotoxicity and odontoblast cells physiology require large quantity of homogenous cells retaining most of the phenotype characteristics. Odontoblast-like cells (OLC were differentiated from human dental pulp stem cells using differentiation medium (containing TGF-β1, and OLC expanded after trypsinization (EXP-21 were evaluated and compared. Despite a slower cell growth curve, EXP-21 cells express similarly the odontoblast markers dentinal sialophosphoprotein and dentin matrix protein-1 concomitantly with RUNX2 transcripts and low alkaline phosphatase activity as expected. Both OLC and EXP-21 cells showed similar mineral deposition activity evidenced by alizarin red and von Kossa staining. These results pointed out minor changes in phenotype of subcultured EXP-21 regarding the primarily differentiated OLC, making the subcultivation of these cells a useful strategy to obtain odontoblasts for biocompatibility or cell physiology studies in dentistry.

  6. Single-cell entropy for accurate estimation of differentiation potency from a cell's transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E.; Enver, Tariq

    2017-06-01

    The ability to quantify differentiation potential of single cells is a task of critical importance. Here we demonstrate, using over 7,000 single-cell RNA-Seq profiles, that differentiation potency of a single cell can be approximated by computing the signalling promiscuity, or entropy, of a cell's transcriptome in the context of an interaction network, without the need for feature selection. We show that signalling entropy provides a more accurate and robust potency estimate than other entropy-based measures, driven in part by a subtle positive correlation between the transcriptome and connectome. Signalling entropy identifies known cell subpopulations of varying potency and drug resistant cancer stem-cell phenotypes, including those derived from circulating tumour cells. It further reveals that expression heterogeneity within single-cell populations is regulated. In summary, signalling entropy allows in silico estimation of the differentiation potency and plasticity of single cells and bulk samples, providing a means to identify normal and cancer stem-cell phenotypes.

  7. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  8. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

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    Shuxian Jiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo.To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo.Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  9. MicroRNA-196b promotes cell proliferation and suppress cell differentiation in vitro

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    Cao, Donglin, E-mail: caodlgz@sina.com; Hu, Liangshan; Lei, Da; Fang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Lin, Maorui; Huang, Jiwei; Yang, Huawen; Zhou, Xuan; Zhong, Limei

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • miRNA-196b increases proliferation and blocks differentiation of progenitor cell. • miRNA-196b inhibits apoptosis and increases viability of cells lines. • Forced expression of miR-196b blocks the differentiation of THP1 induced by PMA. - Abstract: MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) is frequently amplified and aberrantly overexpressed in acute leukemias. To investigate the role of miR-196b in acute leukemias, it has been observed that forced expression of this miRNA increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human cell lines. More importantly, we show that this miRNA can significantly increase the colony-forming capacity of mouse normal bone marrow progenitor cells alone, as well as partially blocking the cells from differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that miRNA-196b may play an essential role in the development of MLL-associated leukemias through inhibiting cell differentiation and apoptosis, while promoting cell proliferation.

  10. The cell polarity determinant CDC42 controls division symmetry to block leukemia cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukawa, Benjamin; O'Brien, Eric; Moreira, Daniel C; Wunderlich, Mark; Hochstetler, Cindy L; Duan, Xin; Liu, Wei; Orr, Emily; Grimes, H Leighton; Mulloy, James C; Zheng, Yi

    2017-09-14

    As a central regulator of cell polarity, the activity of CDC42 GTPase is tightly controlled in maintaining normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSC/P) functions. We found that transformation of HSC/P to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with increased CDC42 expression and activity in leukemia cells. In a mouse model of AML, the loss of Cdc42 abrogates MLL-AF9 -induced AML development. Furthermore, genetic ablation of CDC42 in both murine and human MLL-AF9 (MA9) cells decreased survival and induced differentiation of the clonogenic leukemia-initiating cells. We show that MLL-AF9 leukemia cells maintain cell polarity in the context of elevated Cdc42-guanosine triphosphate activity, similar to nonmalignant, young HSC/Ps. The loss of Cdc42 resulted in a shift to depolarized AML cells that is associated with a decrease in the frequency of symmetric and asymmetric cell divisions producing daughter cells capable of self-renewal. Importantly, we demonstrate that inducible CDC42 suppression in primary human AML cells blocks leukemia progression in a xenograft model. Thus, CDC42 loss suppresses AML cell polarity and division asymmetry, and CDC42 constitutes a useful target to alter leukemia-initiating cell fate for differentiation therapy. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Β-carotene inhibits neuroblastoma tumorigenesis by regulating cell differentiation and cancer cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ji Ye; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Min, Soo Jin; Kim, Yuri

    2014-08-08

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid cancer in young children and malignant NB cells have been shown to possess cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics. Thus, the successful elimination of CSCs represents a strategy for developing an effective preventive and chemotherapeutic agent. CSCs are characterized by differentiation and tumorigenicity. β-Carotene (BC) has been associated with many anticancer mechanisms, although the efficacy of BC on CSCs remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of BC on tumor cell differentiation and tumorigenicity was investigated using a xenograft model. Mice were pretreated with BC for 21 days, then received a subcutaneous injection of SK-N-BE(2)C cells. Both tumor incidence and tumor growth were significantly inhibited for mice that received BC supplementation compared to the control group. Treatment with BC has also been shown to induce tumor cell differentiation by up-regulating differentiation markers, such as vimentin, peripherin, and neurofilament. Conversely, BC treatment has been shown to significantly suppress tumor stemness by down-regulating CSC markers such as Oct 3/4 and DLK1. BC treatment also significantly down-regulated HIF1-α expression and its downstream target, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that BC is a potential chemotherapeutic reagent for the treatment of NB, and mediates this effect by regulating the differentiation and stemness of CSCs, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cell death and neuronal differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells induced by neurogenic transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Bieche, Ivan; Teigell, Marisa; Serguera, Ché; Rothhut, Bernard; Rigau, Valérie; Scamps, Frédérique; Ripoll, Chantal; Vacher, Sophie; Taviaux, Sylvie; Chevassus, Hugues; Duffau, Hugues; Mallet, Jacques; Susini, Aurélie; Joubert, Dominique; Bauchet, Luc; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) are devastating brain tumors containing a fraction of multipotent stem-like cells which are highly tumorigenic. These cells are resistant to treatments and are likely to be responsible for tumor recurrence. One approach to eliminate GBM stem-like cells would be to force their terminal differentiation. During development, neurons formation is controlled by neurogenic transcription factors such as Ngn1/2 and NeuroD1. We found that in comparison with oligodendrogenic genes, the expression of these neurogenic genes is low or absent in GBM tumors and derived cultures. We thus explored the effect of overexpressing these neurogenic genes in three CD133(+) Sox2(+) GBM stem-like cell cultures and the U87 glioma line. Introduction of Ngn2 in CD133(+) cultures induced massive cell death, proliferation arrest and a drastic reduction of neurosphere formation. Similar effects were observed with NeuroD1. Importantly, Ngn2 effects were accompanied by the downregulation of Olig2, Myc, Shh and upregulation of Dcx and NeuroD1 expression. The few surviving cells adopted a typical neuronal morphology and some of them generated action potentials. These cells appeared to be produced at the expense of GFAP(+) cells which were radically reduced after differentiation with Ngn2. In vivo, Ngn2-expressing cells were unable to form orthotopic tumors. In the U87 glioma line, Ngn2 could not induce neuronal differentiation although proliferation in vitro and tumoral growth in vivo were strongly reduced. By inducing cell death, cell cycle arrest or differentiation, this work supports further exploration of neurogenic proteins to oppose GBM stem-like and non-stem-like cell growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Primary study on directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into thyrocyte-like cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiongying; Jiang Ningyi; Hu Yinyin; Liu Xingguang; Zhang Hong; Liu Sheng; Zhou Dunhua; Meng Ying; Huang Shaoliang; Zhang Xuchao; Chen Guibing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into thyrocyte-like cells in vitro. Methods: Murine E14 ESCs were cultured in methylcellulose semisolid medium to form embryoid bodies (EBs). These EBs were transferred for further inductive culture with the stepwise addition of growth factors (TSH, insulin and KI) into the culture medium. During differentiation, cell morphology was observed through phase contrast microscopy and compared with the normal thyroid cells from mouse. The molecular markers of thyroid cells were performed by indirect immunofluorescent analysis under fluorescent microscopy. Gene expressions of thyroid specific mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR for molecules TSH receptor (TSHR), paired box gene 8 (PAX8), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg). Results: After EBs formation, on day six of further culture added with inductive factors TSH, insulin and KI, ESCs-derived cells expressed thyroid-specific genes such as PAX8, NIS, TPO, Tg and TSHR. On the 8th day, these ESCs-derived thyrocyte-like cells overexpressed TSHR, thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) whereas PAX8, thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) remained in a housekeeping level. On the 10th day, all the molecular markers (including TSHR, PAX8, NIS, TPO and Tg) were overexpressed. Morphology of these markers positive differentiated cells was similar to those normal thyroid cells. Conclusions: ESCs can differentiate into thyrocyte-like cells under certain inductive conditions and is possibly related to growth factors in vitro. This study suggests that a renewable source of thyroid follicular cells derived from ESCs holds great therapeutic potential for future cell replacement therapy in clinic. (authors)

  14. Transcription pausing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastemel, Melodi; Gogate, Aishwarya A; Malladi, Venkat S; Nguyen, Kim; Mitchell, Courtney; Banaszynski, Laura A; Bai, Xiaoying

    2017-12-01

    The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) relies on appropriate responsiveness to developmental cues. Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has been suggested to play a role in keeping genes poised for future activation. To identify the role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC pluripotency, we have generated mouse ESCs carrying a mutation in the pause-inducing factor SPT5. Genomic studies reveal genome-wide reduction of paused Pol II caused by mutant SPT5 and further identify a tight correlation between pausing-mediated transcription effect and local chromatin environment. Functionally, this pausing-deficient SPT5 disrupts ESC differentiation upon removal of self-renewal signals. Thus, our study uncovers an important role of Pol II pausing in regulating ESC differentiation and suggests a model that Pol II pausing coordinates with epigenetic modification to influence transcription during mESC differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanoresponsive musculoskeletal tissue differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbull, Andrew; Subramanian, Gayathri; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2016-04-22

    Musculoskeletal tissues are constantly under mechanical strains within their microenvironment. Yet, little is understood about the effect of in vivo mechanical milieu strains on cell development and function. Thus, this review article outlines the in vivo mechanical environment of bone, muscle, cartilage, tendon, and ligaments, and tabulates the mechanical strain and stress in these tissues during physiological condition, vigorous, and moderate activities. This review article further discusses the principles of mechanical loading platforms to create physiologically relevant mechanical milieu in vitro for musculoskeletal tissue regeneration. A special emphasis is placed on adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as an emerging valuable tool for regenerative musculoskeletal tissue engineering, as they are easily isolated, expanded, and able to differentiate into any musculoskeletal tissue. Finally, it highlights the current state-of-the art in ADSCs-guided musculoskeletal tissue regeneration under mechanical loading.

  16. Absence of Rybp Compromises Neural Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Kovacs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rybp (Ring1 and Yy1 Binding Protein is a transcriptional regulator and member of the noncanonical polycomb repressive complex 1 with essential role in early embryonic development. We have previously described that alteration of Rybp dosage in mouse models induced striking neural tube defects (NTDs, exencephaly, and disorganized neurocortex. In this study we further investigated the role of Rybp in neural differentiation by utilising wild type (rybp+/+ and rybp null mutant (rybp-/- embryonic stem cells (ESCs and tried to uncover underlying molecular events that are responsible for the observed phenotypic changes. We found that rybp null mutant ESCs formed less matured neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes from existing progenitors than wild type cells. Furthermore, lack of rybp coincided with altered gene expression of key neural markers including Pax6 and Plagl1 pinpointing a possible transcriptional circuit among these genes.

  17. A small-molecule/cytokine combination enhances hematopoietic stem cell proliferation via inhibition of cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Guan, Xin; Wang, Huihui; Shen, Bin; Zhang, Yu; Ren, Zhihua; Ma, Yupo; Ding, Xinxin; Jiang, Yongping

    2017-07-18

    Accumulated evidence supports the potent stimulating effects of multiple small molecules on the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which are important for the therapy of various hematological disorders. Here, we report a novel, optimized formula, named the SC cocktail, which contains a combination of three such small molecules and four cytokines. Small-molecule candidates were individually screened and then combined at their optimal concentration with the presence of cytokines to achieve maximum capacity for stimulating the human CD34 + cell expansion ex vivo. The extent of cell expansion and the immunophenotype of expanded cells were assessed through flow cytometry. The functional preservation of HSC stemness was confirmed by additional cell and molecular assays in vitro. Subsequently, the expanded cells were transplanted into sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID mice for the assessment of human cell viability and engraftment potential in vivo. Furthermore, the expression of several genes in the cell proliferation and differentiation pathways was analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) during the process of CD34 + cell expansion. The SC cocktail supported the retention of the immunophenotype of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells remarkably well, by yielding purities of 86.6 ± 11.2% for CD34 + cells and 76.2 ± 10.5% for CD34 + CD38 - cells, respectively, for a 7-day culture. On day 7, the enhancement of expansion of CD34 + cells and CD34 + CD38 - cells reached a maxima of 28.0 ± 5.5-fold and 27.9 ± 4.3-fold, respectively. The SC cocktail-expanded CD34 + cells preserved the characteristics of HSCs by effectively inhibiting their differentiation in vitro and retained the multilineage differentiation potential in primary and secondary in vivo murine xenotransplantation trials. Further gene expression analysis suggested that the small-molecule combination strengthened the ability of the cytokines to enhance the Notch

  18. Melatonin as potential inducer of Th17 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklina, Elena M

    2014-09-01

    The subset of T lymphocytes producing IL-17 (Th17) plays a key role in the immune system. It has been implicated in host defense, inflammatory diseases, tumorigenesis, autoimmune diseases, and transplant rejection. Careful analysis of the data available holds that Th17 cell subpopulation should be under the direct control of pineal hormone melatonin: the key Th17 differentiation factor RORα serves in the meantime as a high-affinity melatonin receptor. Since the levels of melatonin have diurnal and seasonal variation, as well as substantial deviations in some physiological or pathological conditions, melatonin-dependent regulation of Th17 cells should implicate multiform manifestation, such as influencing the outcome of infectious challenge or determining predisposition, etiology and progression of immune-related morbidities. Another important reason to raise a point of the new melatonin effects is current considering the possibilities of its clinical trials. Especially, the differentiation of Th17 upon melatonin treatment must aggravate the current recession in autoimmune diseases or induce serious complications in pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma: prognostic implications

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    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is poorly responsive to immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of 15 patients with this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. The clinical presentation and the pathological stage were assessed, as were the tumor's pathological features, use of adjuvant immunotherapy and survival. The study's primary end-point was to assess survival of these individuals. RESULTS: The sample included 8 women and 7 men with mean age of 63 years (44 - 80; follow-up ranged from 1 to 100 months (mean 34. Upon presentation, 87% were symptomatic and 4 individuals had metastatic disease. Mean tumor size was 9.5 cm (4 - 24 with the following pathological stages: 7% pT1, 7% pT2, 33% pT3, and 53% pT4. The pathological features showed high-grade tumors with tumoral necrosis in 87% of the lesions and 80% of intratumoral microvascular invasion. Disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 40 and 46% respectively, with 2 cases responding to adjuvant immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sarcomatoid tumors of the kidney have a low life expectancy, and sometimes surgical resection associated with immunotherapy can lead to a long-lasting therapeutic response.

  20. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

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    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: makeli666@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: yalilipaper@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  1. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Huang, Xiaohua; An, Yue; Ren, Feng; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei; He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta; Xiao, Zhicheng; Ma, Keli; Li, Yali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression

  2. IL2rg Cytokines Enhance Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Differentiation to T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyari, Zeynab; Soleimanirad, Sara; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation for the treatment of patients with leukemia if matched donor is not available. CD34+ is a pan marker for human hematopoietic stem cells, including umbilical cord blood stem cell. In comparison to other sources, cord blood CD34+ cells proliferate more rapidly and produce large number of progeny cells. For ex vivo expansion of Umbilical Cord Blood- HSCs/HPCs, different combinations of cytokines have been used in many laboratories. IL2rg cytokines, including IL2, IL7 and IL15, are key cytokines in the regulation of differentiation, proliferation and survival of immune cells. IL2 is important cytokine for T cell survival and proliferation, IL7 involve in B cell development and IL15 is a key cytokine for NK cell development. In this study we evaluated the generation of T cells derived from CD34+ and CD34- cord blood mononuclear cells by using combination of cytokines including IL2, IL7 and IL15. Methods: Cultured cord blood mononuclear cells were evaluated at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. Results: Present study showed that differentiation of T cells derived from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells increased by using IL2 and IL7 at different time points. In the other hand IL15 did not show any significant role in generation of T cells from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our data illustrated that either IL2 or IL7 versus other cytokine combinations, generate more T cell from cord blood CD34 cells, probably this cytokines can be the best condition for ex vivo expansion of UCB HSCs. PMID:26793606

  3. Overexpression of cyclin D1 induces the reprogramming of differentiated epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Along; Yang, Leilei; Ma, Kui; Sun, Mengli; Li, Lei; Huang, Jin; Li, Yang; Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Haihong; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that Wnt/β-catenin is critical for dedifferentiation of differentiated epidermal cells. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) is a β-catenin target gene. In this study, we provide evidence that overexpression of CCND1 induces reprogramming of epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells. After introducing CCND1 gene into differentiated epidermal cells, we found that the large flat-shaped cells with a small nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio changed into small round-shaped cells with a large nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio. The expressions of CK10, β1-integrin, Oct4 and Nanog in CCND1 induced cells were remarkably higher than those in the control group (P cells exhibited a high colony-forming ability and a long-term proliferative potential. When the induced cells were implanted into a wound of laboratory animal model, the wound healing was accelerated. These results suggested that overexpression of CCND1 induced the reprogramming of differentiated epidermal cells into stem cell-like cells. This study may also offer a new approach to yield epidermal stem cells for wound repair and regeneration.

  4. Determination of Autophagy in the Caco-2 Spontaneously Differentiating Model of Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçer, Sinem; Banerjee, Sreeparna

    2017-08-27

    The Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell line is widely used as a model for intestinal differentiation and barrier function. These cells, upon reaching confluency, spontaneously differentiate into enterocyte-like cells, synthesize intestinal enzymes, and form domes. Caco-2 cells also undergo autophagy in the course of differentiation. The criteria to establish the induction of autophagy in cells are already well established. Here, we describe the protocol for the spontaneous differentiation of Caco-2 cells and the detection of autophagy using Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence.

  5. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morizane, Ryuji; Monkawa, Toshiaki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  6. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

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    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  7. ROG negatively regulates T-cell activation but is dispensable for Th-cell differentiation.

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    Kang, Bok Yun; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Ho, I-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    ROG, a transcriptional repressor, is a direct target gene of NF-AT and a putative negative regulator of T-cell activation. In addition, overexpression of ROG suppresses the activity of GATA-3, implying a role of ROG in the differentiation and function of Th cells. Despite these observations, the function of ROG has yet to be confirmed by loss-of-function approaches. Here we report that ROG-deficient T cells are hypersensitive to anti-CD3 stimulation and produce more interleukin-2 (IL-2) due to enhanced NF-kappaB activity. ROG-deficient dendritic cells also produce more IL-12p40, another NF-kappaB target gene. However, ROG-deficient Th cells are capable of differentiating into Th1 and Th2 cells, and ROG-deficient mice have no defect in mounting appropriate Th immune responses in vivo. Thus, ROG is dispensable for the differentiation and function of Th cells but serves as a mediator of NF-AT-initiated suppression of NF-kappaB. Its mechanism of action and its expression pattern are distinct from those of other transcription factors negatively regulating the activation of T cells.

  8. Novel Method To Differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Nerve Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Development and Plasticity Section is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in licensing opportunities to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into dopaminergic nerve cells. The invention described here is a novel method of differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopaminergic nerve cells, which is preferable to the currently available dopaminergic differentiation techniques.

  9. Retinoic acid induces differentiation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells into germ cells.

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    Shah, Syed Mohmad; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Palta, Prabhat; Manik, Radhey Sham; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh

    2017-08-30

    Development of precise and reproducible culture system for in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into germ cells counts as a major leap forward for understanding not only the remarkable process of gametogenesis, otherwise obscured by limited availability of precursor primordial germ cells (PGCs), but in finally treating the catastrophic infertility. Taking into account the significant role of retinoic acid (RA) during in vivo gametogenesis, we designed the present study to investigate the effects of its stimulation on directing the differentiation of ES cells into germ cells. The effects of RA were analyzed across dose-and-time upon various stages of gametogenesis like PGC induction, meiosis initiation and completion, haploid cell formation and development of the final gamete (oocyte and spermatozoa). Out of the series of RA doses (2, 4, 8, 16, 20 and 30μM), 16μM RA for 8day culture interval was found to induce highest expression of PGC- and meiosis-associated genes like DAZL, VASA, SYCP3, MLH1, TNP1/2 and PRM2, while mature germ cell genes like BOULE and TEKT1 (Spermatocyte markers), GDF9 and ZP2 (Oocyte markers) showed higher expression at 2μM RA dose, suggesting functional concentration-gradient of RA activity. Immunocytochemistry revealed expression of germ lineage-specific markers like: c-KIT, DAZL and VASA (PGC-markers); SYCP3, MLH1 and PROTAMINE1 (Meiotic-markers); ACROSIN and HAPRIN (Spermatocyte-markers); and GDF9 and ZP4 (Oocyte-markers) in optimally differentiated embryoid bodies (EBs) and adherent cultures. We observed significantly reduced (pcell population, indicating completion of meiosis. Oocyte-like structures (OLS) were obtained in adherent differentiated cultures. They had a big nucleus and a zona pellucida (ZP4) coat. They showed progression through 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst-like structures upon extended culture beyond 14days. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Modelling T cell proliferation: Dynamics heterogeneity depending on cell differentiation, age, and genetic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation is the common characteristic of all biological systems. The immune system insures the maintenance of body integrity on the basis of a continuous production of diversified T lymphocytes in the thymus. This involves processes of proliferation, differentiation, selection, death and migration of lymphocytes to peripheral tissues, where proliferation also occurs upon antigen recognition. Quantification of cell proliferation dynamics requires specific experimental methods and mathematical modelling. Here, we assess the impact of genetics and aging on the immune system by investigating the dynamics of proliferation of T lymphocytes across their differentiation through thymus and spleen in mice. Our investigation is based on single-cell multicolour flow cytometry analysis revealing the active incorporation of a thymidine analogue during S phase after pulse-chase-pulse experiments in vivo, versus cell DNA content. A generic mathematical model of state transition simulates through Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) the evolution of single cell behaviour during various durations of labelling. It allows us to fit our data, to deduce proliferation rates and estimate cell cycle durations in sub-populations. Our model is simple and flexible and is validated with other durations of pulse/chase experiments. Our results reveal that T cell proliferation is highly heterogeneous but with a specific “signature” that depends upon genetic origins, is specific to cell differentiation stages in thymus and spleen and is altered with age. In conclusion, our model allows us to infer proliferation rates and cell cycle phase durations from complex experimental 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) data, revealing T cell proliferation heterogeneity and specific signatures. PMID:28288157

  11. Uncovering stem cell differentiation factors for salivary gland regeneration by quantitative analysis of differential proteomes.

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    Yun-Jong Park

    Full Text Available Severe xerostomia (dry mouth compromises the quality of life in patients with Sjögren's syndrome or radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A clinical management of xerostomia is often unsatisfactory as most interventions are palliative with limited efficacy. Following up our previous study demonstrating that mouse BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system, we further explored the molecular basis that governs the MSC reprogramming by utilizing high-throughput iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Our data revealed the novel induction of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1α, muscle, intestine and stomach expression-1 (MIST-1, and achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (ASCL3 in 7 day co-cultured MSCs but not in control MSCs. More importantly, a common notion of pancreatic-specific expression of PTF1 α was challenged for the first time by our verification of PTF1 α expression in the mouse salivary glands. Furthermore, a molecular network simulation of our selected putative MSC reprogramming factors demonstrated evidence for their perspective roles in salivary gland development. In conclusion, quantitative proteomics with extensive data analyses narrowed down a set of MSC reprograming factors potentially contributing to salivary gland regeneration. Identification of their differential/synergistic impact on MSC conversion warrants further investigation.

  12. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

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    Lai, Jing [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liu, Gexiu [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yan, Guoyao [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); He, Dongmei [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhou, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Shengting, E-mail: shengtingchen@sina.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  13. Human monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells subsets that induce anergic and regulatory T cells in sepsis.

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    Valérie Faivre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a multifactorial pathology with high susceptibility to secondary infections. Innate and adaptive immunity are affected in sepsis, including monocyte deactivation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the effects of alterations in monocytes on the regulation of immune responses during sepsis, we analyzed their differentiation in dendritic cell (DC. Cells from septic patients differentiated overwhelmingly into CD1a-negative DC, a population that was only a minor subset in controls and that is so far poorly characterized. Analysis of T cell responses induced with purified CD1a-negative and CD1a+ DC indicated that (i CD1a-negative DC from both healthy individuals and septic patients fail to induce T cell proliferation, (ii TGFβ and IL-4 were strongly produced in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR with control CD1a-negative DC; reduced levels were produced with patients DC together with a slight induction of IFNγ, (iii compared to controls, CD1a+ DC derived from septic patients induced 3-fold more Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a strong shift in DC populations derived from septic patients' monocytes with expanded cell subsets that induce either T cell anergy or proliferation of T cells with regulatory potential. Lower regulatory cytokines induction on a per cell basis by CD1a-negative dendritic cells from patients points however to a down regulation of immune suppressive abilities in these cells.

  14. Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Embryoid Bodies by Hanging-Drop Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Richard; Gertsenstein, Marina; Nagy, Kristina Vintersten; Nagy, Andras

    2016-12-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can develop into many types of differentiated tissues if they are placed into a differentiating environment. This can occur in vivo when the ES cells are injected into or aggregated with an embryo, or in vitro if their culture conditions are modified to induce differentiation. There are an increasing number of differentiating culture conditions that can bias the differentiation of ES cells into desired cell types. Determining the mechanisms that control ES cell differentiation into therapeutically important cell types is a quickly growing area of research. Knowledge gained from these studies may eventually lead to the use of stem cells to repair specific damaged tissues. Many times ES cell differentiation proceeds through an intermediate stage called the embryoid body (EB). EBs are round structures composed of ES cells that have undergone some of the initial stages of differentiation. EBs can then be manipulated further to generate more specific cell types. This protocol describes a method to differentiate ES cells into EBs. It produces EBs of comparable size. This aspect is important because the differentiation processes taking place inside an EB are influenced by its size. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Ecto-mesenchymal stem cells from dental pulp are committed to differentiate into active melanocytes

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    F Paino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent stem cells derived from neural crest and mesenchyme and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. It has already been demonstrated that DPSCs differentiate into melanocyte-like cells but only when cultivated in a specific melanocyte differentiating medium. In this study we have shown, for the first time, that DPSCs are capable of spontaneously differentiating into mature melanocytes, which display molecular and ultrastructural features of full development, including the expression of melanocyte specific markers and the presence of melanosomes up to the terminal stage of maturation. We have also compared the differentiating features of DPSCs grown in different culture conditions, following the timing of differentiation at molecular and cytochemical levels and found that in all culture conditions full development of these cells was obtained, although at different times. The spontaneous differentiating potential of these cells strongly suggests their possible applications in regenerative medicine.

  16. Exosomal miR-135b shed from hypoxic multiple myeloma cells enhances angiogenesis by targeting factor-inhibiting HIF-1

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    Tadokoro, Hiroko; Azuma, Kenko; Yoshizawa, Seiichiro; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Ohyashiki, Junko H.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are small endosome-derived vesicles containing a wide range of functional proteins, mRNA, and miRNA. Exosomal miRNA from cancer cells helps modulate the microenvironment. In multiple myeloma (MM), the massive proliferation of malignant plasma cells causes hypoxia. To date, the majority of in vitro hypoxia studies of cancer cells have used acute hypoxic exposure (3-24 hours). Thus, we attempted to clarify the role of MM-derived exosomes in hypoxic bone marrow by using MM cells grown continuously in vitro under chronic hypoxia (hypoxia-resistant MM [HR-MM] cells). The HR-MM cells produced more exosomes than the parental cells under normoxia or acute hypoxia conditions, and miR-135b was significantly upregulated in exosomes from HR-MM cells. Exosomal miR-135b directly suppressed its target factor–inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (FIH-1) in endothelial cells. Finally, exosomal miR-135b from HR-MM cells enhanced endothelial tube formation under hypoxia via the HIF-FIH signaling pathway. This in vitro HR myeloma cell model will be useful for investigating MM cell–endothelial cell interactions under hypoxic conditions, which may mimic the in vivo bone marrow microenvironment. Although tumor angiogenesis is regulated by various factors, exosomal miR-135b may be a target for controlling MM angiogenesis. PMID:25320245

  17. Bioactive DNA-peptide nanotubes enhance the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Freeman, Ronit; North, Hilary A; Sur, Shantanu; Jeong, Su Ji; Tantakitti, Faifan; Kessler, John A; Stupp, Samuel I

    2015-01-14

    We report the construction of DNA nanotubes covalently functionalized with the cell adhesion peptide RGDS as a bioactive substrate for neural stem cell differentiation. Alteration of the Watson-Crick base pairing program that builds the nanostructures allowed us to probe independently the effect of nanotube architecture and peptide bioactivity on stem cell differentiation. We found that both factors instruct synergistically the preferential differentiation of the cells into neurons rather than astrocytes.

  18. Human dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells isolation and osteoblast differentiation

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    Moustafa Alkhalil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study was focused on the isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from human dental pulp (DPSC. Methods The study was performed in the Department for Oral and Cranio-Maxillo- Facial Surgey Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar and Weill Cornell Medical Colleague Doha, Qatar, in period 2010-2011. Dental pulp was extracted from premolars and third molars of 19 healthy patients. The pulp was digested in a solution of 3 mg/mL collagenase type I and 4 mg/mL dispase for 1 hour at 37C. After filtration, cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM Low Glucoses with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS, 2mM L-glutamine and antibiotics (100 U/mL penicillin, 100 ug/mL streptomycin at 37 °C under 5% CO2. Cultures were treated with osteoinductive medium for differentiation MSC in to the osteoblast cell line. Staining with Alizarin red were used for the detection of the osteoblast production and calcification new formed tissue. Results On the total of three out of 19 patients it was possible to isolate DPMSCs after 2 to 3 weeks: in one patient it was not possible to expand MSCs because of infection, and in other two patients positive Alizarin red staining reaction showed osteogenic differentiation capability and strong mineralization in vitro. Conclusion The main advantage of using DPSC is absence of morbidity. MSCs could be isolated noninvasively from teeth, routinely extracted in the clinic and discarded as medical waste. Standardization of clinical and laboratory protocols for DPMSCs isolation and team work coordination could lead to significantly improved result.

  19. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  20. Review of Differentiation and Proliferation of Primordial Germ Cells in Culture

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    Zohreh Makoolati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGCs are highly specialized cell population that arises from the epiblast in vivo. There are three critical steps in the life cycle of these cells: 1-Specification 2-migration and proliferation 3-prenatal and postnatal sex specific development. Specification of germ cells in epiblast occurs due to signals secreted from extraembryonic tissues. Primordial germ cells are required for continuation and development of the species. Thus, differentiation and purification of these cells from different cell sources is valuable for research, genetical analysis of germ cell development, epigenetic eveluation and infertility treatment. The most important part in the germ cell differentiation includes; optimum media selection, distinguishing and purification of differentiated cell. Several studies about in vitro PGC differentiation have been reported. In order to distinguish PGCs in vitro, specific markers which are expressed in these cells are used. Furthermore, functional ability of these cells for production of offspring can be employed for this purpose.

  1. Intravenously injected human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells selectively engraft into mouse aortic aneurysms and attenuate dilatation by differentiating into multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Katsuhiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Fumitaka; Maeda, Kay; Adachi, Osamu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Dezawa, Mari; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2018-02-21

    Aortic aneurysms result from the degradation of multiple components represented by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and elastic fibers. Cells that can replenish these components are desirable for cell-based therapy. Intravenously injected multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, endogenous nontumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells, reportedly integrate into the damaged site and repair the tissue through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Muse cells in a murine aortic aneurysm model. Human bone marrow Muse cells, isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 + from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or non-Muse cells (stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 - cells in mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or vehicle was intravenously injected at day 0, day 7, and 2 weeks (20,000 cells/injection) after inducing aortic aneurysms by periaortic incubation of CaCl 2 and elastase in severe combined immunodeficient mice. At 8 weeks, infusion of human Muse cells attenuated aneurysm dilation, and the aneurysmal size in the Muse group corresponded to approximately 62.5%, 55.6%, and 45.6% in the non-Muse, mesenchymal stem cell, and vehicle groups, respectively. Multiphoton laser confocal microscopy revealed that infused Muse cells migrated into aneurysmal tissue from the adventitial side and penetrated toward the luminal side. Histologic analysis demonstrated robust preservation of elastic fibers and spontaneous differentiation into endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. After intravenous injection, Muse cells homed and expanded to the aneurysm from the adventitial side. Subsequently, Muse cells differentiated spontaneously into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, and elastic fibers were preserved. These Muse cell features together led to substantial attenuation of aneurysmal dilation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association

  2. Differential Effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG on Human Rotavirus Binding, Infection, and B Cell Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Fischer, David; Kumar, Anand; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Rauf, Abdul; Shao, Lulu; Langel, Stephanie N; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2016-02-15

    Rotavirus (RV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interactions, but little is known about the impact of commonly used probiotics on human RV (HRV) infection. In this study, we compared the immunomodulatory effects of Gram-positive (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG [LGG]) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli Nissle [EcN]) probiotic bacteria on virulent human rotavirus (VirHRV) infection and immunity using neonatal gnotobiotic piglets. Gnotobiotic piglets were colonized with EcN, LGG, or EcN+LGG or uncolonized and challenged with VirHRV. Mean peak virus shedding titers and mean cumulative fecal scores were significantly lower in EcN-colonized compared with LGG-colonized or uncolonized piglets. Reduced viral shedding titers were correlated with significantly reduced small intestinal HRV IgA Ab responses in EcN-colonized compared with uncolonized piglets post-VirHRV challenge. However the total IgA levels post-VirHRV challenge in the intestine and pre-VirHRV challenge in serum were significantly higher in EcN-colonized than in LGG-colonized piglets. In vitro treatment of mononuclear cells with these probiotics demonstrated that EcN, but not LGG, induced IL-6, IL-10, and IgA, with the latter partially dependent on IL-10. However, addition of exogenous recombinant porcine IL-10 + IL-6 to mononuclear cells cocultured with LGG significantly enhanced IgA responses. The greater effectiveness of EcN in moderating HRV infection may also be explained by the binding of EcN but not LGG to Wa HRV particles or HRV 2/4/6 virus-like particles but not 2/6 virus-like particles. Results suggest that EcN and LGG differentially modulate RV infection and B cell responses. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Targeting peroxiredoxin I potentiates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced cell differentiation in leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Liu, Chuanxu; Qin, Dongjun; Song, Lili; Xia, Li; Lei, Hu; Yu, Yun; Wang, Weiwei; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; Wu, Yingli; Xu, Hanzhang; Hao, Siguo

    2016-03-01

    Although 1,25‑dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) is regarded as a promising inducing agent for leukemia cell differentiation, it is not as effective an agent as all‑trans‑retinoic acid, and its usefulness is also limited by the adverse effects of hypercalcemia. The aim of the present study was to determine whether combining VD3 with adenanthin, a peroxiresoxin I (Prx I)‑targeting natural compound, improves the efficacy of VD3. Cell viability was assessed using a trypan blue exclusion assay and flow cytometry was used to evaluate the expression of cell surface markers, CD11b/CD14, and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Wright's staining was used to examine morphological changes and RNA‑interference was used to knockdown Prx I and p65 gene expression. Protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that adenanthin markedly enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation of leukemia NB4 cells, as evidenced by the increased percentage of CD11b‑ and CD14‑positive cells, the mature morphology of the monocytes and the increased phagocytic ability. Consistent with these results, knockdown of Prx I, but not nuclear factor‑κB (p65), enhanced VD3‑induced cell differentiation. The combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3 were shown to be associated with the ROS‑CCAAT‑enhancer‑binding protein (C/EBP)β axis, since N‑acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger, was able to abrogate the differentiation‑enhancing effects of adenanthin, and the knockdown of C/EBPβ also inhibited the combinatorial effects of adenanthin and VD3. In addition, co‑treatment with adenanthin and VD3 was able to induce differentiation in other non‑acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and primary leukemia cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed a novel role for Prx I in VD3‑induced cell differentiation, and suggested that targeting Prx I may represent a novel strategy to enhance VD3‑induced leukemia cell differentiation.

  4. Bmi1 regulates stem cells and proliferation and differentiation of committed cells in mammary epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietersen, Alexandra M; Evers, Bastiaan; Prasad, Asheeta A; Tanger, Ellen; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Jonkers, Jos; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2008-07-22

    PolycombGroup (PcG) proteins are epigenetic silencers involved in maintaining cellular identity, and their deregulation can result in cancer [1]. Mice without the PcG gene Bmi1 are runted and suffer from progressive loss of hematopoietic and neural stem cells [2-4]. Here, we assess the effects of Bmi1 on stem cells and differentiation of an epithelial tissue in vivo. We chose the mammary gland because it allows limiting dilution transplantations [5, 6] and because Bmi1 is overexpressed in breast cancer [7, 8]. Our analyses show that Bmi1 is expressed in all cells of the mouse mammary gland and is especially high in luminal cells. Loss of Bmi1 results in a severe mammary-epithelium growth defect, which can be rescued by codeletion of the Ink4a/Arf locus or pregnancy. Even though mammary stem cells are present in the absence of Bmi1, their activity is reduced, and this is only partially due to Ink4a/Arf expression. Interestingly, loss of Bmi1 causes premature lobuloalveolar differentiation, whereas overexpression of Bmi1 inhibits lobuloalveolar differentiation induced by pregnancy hormones. Because Bmi1 affects not only mammary stem cells but also more committed cells, our data warrant a more detailed analysis of the different roles of Bmi1 in breast-cancer etiology.

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Differentiation of Myeloid Progenitor Cells During Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Mittal, Sharad K; Sahu, Anuradha; Sahu, Srikant K; Chauhan, Sunil K

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess distinct immunomodulatory properties and have tremendous potential for use in therapeutic applications in various inflammatory diseases. MSCs have been shown to regulate pathogenic functions of mature myeloid inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. Intriguingly, the capacity of MSCs to modulate differentiation of myeloid progenitors (MPs) to mature inflammatory cells remains unknown to date. Here, we report the novel finding that MSCs inhibit the expression of differentiation markers on MPs under inflammatory conditions. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of MSCs is dependent on direct cell-cell contact and that this intercellular contact is mediated through interaction of CD200 expressed by MSCs and CD200R1 expressed by MPs. Furthermore, using an injury model of sterile inflammation, we show that MSCs promote MP frequencies and suppress infiltration of inflammatory cells in the inflamed tissue. We also find that downregulation of CD200 in MSCs correlates with abrogation of their immunoregulatory function. Collectively, our study provides unequivocal evidence that MSCs inhibit differentiation of MPs in the inflammatory environment via CD200-CD200R1 interaction. Stem Cells 2017;35:1532-1541. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Effects of Feeder Cells on Dopaminergic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

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    Zhenqiang Zhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs are used for the culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. MEFs and HFFs differed in their capacity to support the proliferation and pluripotency of hESCs and could affect cardiac differentiation potential of hESCs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MEFs and HFFs feeders on dopaminergic differentiation of hESCs lines. To minimize the impact of culture condition variation, two hESCs lines were cultured on mixed feeder cells (MFCs, MEFs: HFFs =1:1 and HFFs feeder respectively, and then were differentiated into DA neurons under the identical protocol. Dopaminergic differentiation was evaluated by immunocytochemistry, quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR (qRT-PCR, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and patch clamp. Our results demonstrated that these hESCs-derived neurons were genuine and functional DA neurons. However, compared to hESCs line on MFCs feeder, hESCs line on HFFs feeder had a higher proportion of TH positive cells and expressed higher levels of FOXA2, PITX3, NURR1 and TH genes. In addition, the values of threshold intensity and threshold membrane potential of DA neurons from hESCs line on HFFs feeder were lower than those of DA neurons from hESCs line on the MFCs feeder. In conclusion, HFFs feeder not only facilitated the differentiation of hESCs cells into dopaminergic neurons, but also induced hESCs-derived DA neurons to express higher electrophysiological excitability. Therefore, feeder cells could affect not only dopaminergic differentiation potential of different hESCs lines, but also electrophysiological properties of hESCs-derived DA neurons.

  7. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  8. Cell-Cycle-Dependent Reconfiguration of the DNA Methylome during Terminal Differentiation of Human B Cells into Plasma Cells

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    Gersende Caron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms underlying terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells are major determinants of adaptive immunity but remain only partially understood. Here we present the transcriptional and epigenomic landscapes of cell subsets arising from activation of human naive B cells and differentiation into plasmablasts. Cell proliferation of activated B cells was linked to a slight decrease in DNA methylation levels, but followed by a committal step in which an S phase-synchronized differentiation switch was associated with an extensive DNA demethylation and local acquisition of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine at enhancers and genes related to plasma cell identity. Downregulation of both TGF-β1/SMAD3 signaling and p53 pathway supported this final step, allowing the emergence of a CD23-negative subpopulation in transition from B cells to plasma cells. Remarkably, hydroxymethylation of PRDM1, a gene essential for plasma cell fate, was coupled to progression in S phase, revealing an intricate connection among cell cycle, DNA (hydroxymethylation, and cell fate determination.

  9. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Yun, E-mail: jiangshaoyun@yahoo.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wangjiantao65@hotmail.com [Eye Center, Tianjin Medical University, 64 Tongan Road, Tianjin 300070 (China); Dohney Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DOH 314, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  10. Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) Affects Gene Expression in PC12 Cells Differentiating into Neuronal-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2013-01-01

    into neuronal-like cells was investigated using cell viability, cell cycle distribution, morphology, and gene expression analysis. Results/Conclusions: After differentiation, the morphology, viability and cell cycle distribution of PC12 cells grown on PS, PMMA with and without PDMS underneath was the same....... By contrast, 41 genes showed different expression for PC12 cells differentiating on PMMA as compared to on PS. In contrast, 677 genes showed different expression on PMMA with PDMS underneath as compared with PC12 cells on PS. The differentially expressed genes are involved in neuronal cell development...... and function. However, there were also many markers for neuronal cell development and functions that were expressed similarly in cells differentiating on PS, PMMA and PMMA with PDMS underneath. In conclusion, it was shown that PMMA has a minor impact and PDMS a major impact on gene expression in PC12 cells....

  11. Betaine promotes cell differentiation of human osteoblasts in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Isabella; Senesi, Pamela; Montesano, Anna; Ferraretto, Anita; Vacante, Fernanda; Spinello, Alice; Bottani, Michela; Bolamperti, Simona; Rubinacci, Alessandro; Luzi, Livio; Terruzzi, Ileana

    2017-06-07

    Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery. Cells were treated with 10 mM BET at 5, 15, 60 min and 3, 6 and 24 h. The possible effects of BET on hObs differentiation were evaluated by real time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence analysis. Calcium imaging was used to monitor intracellular calcium changes. Real time PCR results showed that BET stimulated significantly the expression of RUNX2, osterix, bone sialoprotein and osteopontin. Western blot and immunofluorescence confirmed BET stimulation of osteopontin protein synthesis. BET stimulated ERK signaling, key pathway involved in osteoblastogenesis and calcium signaling. BET induced a rise of intracellular calcium by means of the calcium ions influx from the extracellular milieu through the L-type calcium channels and CaMKII signaling activation. A significant rise in IGF-I mRNA at 3 and 6 h and a significant increase of IGF-I protein at 6 and 24 h after BET stimulus was detected. Furthermore, BET was able to increase significantly both SOD2 gene expression and protein content. Our study showed that three signaling pathways, i.e. cytosolic calcium influx, ERK activation and IGF-I production, are enhanced by BET in human osteoblasts. These pathways could have synergistic effects on osteogenic gene expression and protein synthesis, thus potentially leading to enhanced bone formation. Taken together, these results suggest that BET could be a

  12. Odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells on tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: The 3D culture system improves odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. The differentiation level of the cells in 3D culture is significantly lower than that of odontoblasts present in pulp tissue. TCP biomaterial possesses an odontogenic-inducing property.

  13. B-cell lymphoma with Mott cell differentiation in two young adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Nabity, Mary B; Hackendahl, Nicole; Buote, Melanie; Ward, Jennifer; Ginn, Pamela E; Vernau, William; Clapp, William L; Harvey, John W

    2009-03-01

    Two young adult dogs with gastrointestinal signs were each found to have an intra-abdominal mass based on physical examination and diagnostic imaging. On exploratory laparotomy, small intestinal masses and mesenteric lymphadenopathy were found in both dogs; a liver mass was also found in dog 1. Cytologic and histologic examination of intestinal and liver masses and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed 2 distinct lymphoid cell populations: lymphoblasts and atypical Mott cells. With Romanowsky stains, the atypical Mott cells contained many discrete, clear to pale blue cytoplasmic inclusions consistent with Russell bodies that were positive by immunohistochemistry for IgM and CD79a in both dogs and for IgG in dog 2. The Mott cells and occasional lymphoblasts stained strongly positive with periodic acid-Schiff. Using flow cytometric immunophenotyping in dog 1, 60% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and 85% of cells in an affected lymph node were positive for CD21, CD79a, IgM, and MCH II, indicative of B-cells. With electron microscopy, disorganized and dilated endoplasmic reticulum was seen in Mott cells in tumors from both dogs. Antigen receptor gene rearrangement analysis of lymph node and intestinal masses indicated a clonal B-cell population. Based on cell morphology, tissue involvement, and evidence for clonal B-cell proliferation, we diagnosed neoplasms involving Mott cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second report of Mott cell tumors or, more appropriately, B-cell lymphoma with Mott cell differentiation, in dogs. More complete characterization of this neoplasm requires further investigation of additional cases. This lymphoproliferative disease should be considered as a differential diagnosis for canine gastrointestinal tumors.

  14. [Clinical applications of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth in stem cell therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoxia, Li; Jiaozi, Fangteng; Shi, Yu; Yuming, Zhao; Lihong, Ge

    2017-10-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are one category of dental stem cells. They belong to ectodermal mesenchymal stem cells. As an ideal stem cell source, SHED possess great potential in stem cell therapy. This review demonstrates the biological characteristics and advantages of SHED in stem cell therapy and discusses its multiple functions in tissue regeneration and repair, including multiple differentiation potentiality, cell secretion of cytokines, and immunomodulatory ability. Furthermore, this article introduces the main findings regarding the potential clinical applications of SHED to a variety of diseases. This article demonstrates research progress in dentin-pulp regeneration, maxillofacial bone regeneration, and treatment of nervous system and immune system diseases with SHED for stem cell transplantation.

  15. A Roadmap for Human Liver Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Teng Ang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available How are closely related lineages, including liver, pancreas, and intestines, diversified from a common endodermal origin? Here, we apply principles learned from developmental biology to rapidly reconstitute liver progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs. Mapping the formation of multiple endodermal lineages revealed how alternate endodermal fates (e.g., pancreas and intestines are restricted during liver commitment. Human liver fate was encoded by combinations of inductive and repressive extracellular signals at different doses. However, these signaling combinations were temporally re-interpreted: cellular competence to respond to retinoid, WNT, TGF-β, and other signals sharply changed within 24 hr. Consequently, temporally dynamic manipulation of extracellular signals was imperative to suppress the production of unwanted cell fates across six consecutive developmental junctures. This efficiently generated 94.1% ± 7.35% TBX3+HNF4A+ human liver bud progenitors and 81.5% ± 3.2% FAH+ hepatocyte-like cells by days 6 and 18 of hPSC differentiation, respectively; the latter improved short-term survival in the Fah−/−Rag2−/−Il2rg−/− mouse model of liver failure.

  16. Spontaneous Differentiation of Dental Pulp stem cells on Dental polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bherwani, Aneel; Suarato, Giulia; Qin, Sisi; Chang, Chung-Cheh; Akhavan, Aaron; Spiegel, Joseph; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Simon, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    Dental pulp stem cells were plated on two dentally relevant materials i.e. PMMA commonly used for denture and Titanium used for implants. In both cases, we probed for the role of surface interaction and substrate morphology. Different films of PMMA were spun cast directly onto Si wafers; PMMA fibers of different diameters were electro spun onto some of these substrates. Titanium metal was evaporated onto Si surfaces using an electron beam evaporator. In addition, on some surfaces, P4VP nanofibers were spun cast. DPSC were grown in alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.2mM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, 2mm glutamine and 10mM beta-glycerol phosphate either with or without 10nM dexamethasone. After 21 days samples were examined using confocal microscopy of cells and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). In the case of Titanium biomineralization was observed independent of dexamethasone, where the deposits were templated along the fibers. Minimal biomineralization was observed on flat Titanium and PMMA samples. Markers of osteogenesis and specific signaling pathways are being evaluated by RT-PCR, which are up regulated on each surface, to understand the fundamental manner in which surfaces interact with cell differentiation.

  17. Morphological, molecular and FTIR spectroscopic analysis during the differentiation of kidney cells from pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maribel Mata-Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney diseases are a global health problem. Currently, over 2 million people require dialysis or transplant which are associated with high morbidity and mortality; therefore, new researches focused on regenerative medicine have been developed, including the use of stem cells. Results In this research, we generate differentiated kidney cells (DKCs from mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs analyzing their morphological, genetic, phenotypic, and spectroscopic characteristics along differentiation, highlighting that there are no reports of the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy to characterize the directed differentiation of mPSCs to DKCs. The genetic and protein experiments proved the obtention of DKCs that passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. Regarding vibrational spectroscopy analysis by FTIR, bands related with biomolecules were shown on mPSCs and DKCs spectra, observing distinct differences between cell lineages and maturation stages. The second derivative of DKCs spectra showed changes in the protein bands compared to mPSCs. Finally, the principal components analysis obtained from FTIR spectra allowed to characterize chemical and structurally mPSCs and their differentiation process to DKCs in a rapid and non-invasive way. Conclusion Our results indicated that we obtained DKCs from mPSCs, which passed through the chronological stages of embryonic kidney development. Moreover, FTIR spectroscopy resulted in a non-invasive, rapid and precise technic that together with principal component analysis allows to characterize chemical and structurally both kind of cells and also discriminate and determine different stages along the cell differentiation process.

  18. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  19. Proteome-wide analysis of neural stem cell differentiation to facilitate transition to cell replacement therapies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žižková, Martina; Suchá, Rita; Tylečková, Jiřina; Jarkovská, Karla; Mairychová, Kateřina; Kotrčová, Eva; Marsala, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2015), s. 83-95 ISSN 1478-9450 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cell therapy * immunomodulation * neural stem cell differentiation * neural subpopulation * neurodegenerative disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.465, year: 2015

  20. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes : High glucose inhibits ES cell cardiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Chen, Xi; Kaushal, Sunjay; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2016-12-09

    Babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes have a high risk for congenital heart defects (CHD). Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are excellent in vitro models for studying the effect of high glucose on cardiac lineage specification because ESCs can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes. ESC maintenance and differentiation are currently performed under high glucose conditions, whose adverse effects have never been clarified. We investigated the effect of high glucose on cardiomyocyte differentiation from a well-characterized ESC line, E14, derived from mouse blastocysts. E14 cells maintained under high glucose (25 mM) failed to generate any beating cardiomyocytes using the hanging-drop embryonic body method. We created a glucose-responsive E14 cell line (GR-E14) through a graduated low glucose adaptation. The expression of stem cell markers was similar in the parent E14 cells and the GR-E14 cells. Glucose transporter 2 gene was increased in GR-E14 cells. When GR-E14 cells were differentiated into cardiomyocytes under low (5 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose conditions, high glucose significantly delayed the appearance and reduced the number of TNNT2 (Troponin T Type 2)-positive contracting cardiomyocytes. High glucose suppressed the expression of precardiac mesoderm markers, cardiac transcription factors, mature cardiomyocyte markers, and potassium channel proteins. High glucose impaired the functionality of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes by suppressing the frequencies of Ca 2+ wave and contraction. Our findings suggest that high glucose inhibits ESC cardiogenesis by suppressing key developmental genes essential for the cardiac program.

  1. An In Vitro Study of Differentiation of Hematopoietic Cells to Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ru Wang

    2011-01-01

    medium (ECCM. BM-EPCs were characterized in terms of phenotype, lineage potential, and their functional properties. Endothelial cell colonies derived from BM-EPC were cultured with ECCM for 3 months. Cultured EPC colony cells expressed endothelial cell markers and formed the capillary-like network in vitro. EPC colony cells expressed differential proliferative capacity; some of the colonies exhibited a high proliferative potential (HPP capacity up to 20 population doublings. More importantly, these HPP-EPCs expressed hematopoietic marker CD45, exhibited endocytic activities, and preserved some of the myeloid cell activity. In addition, the HPP-EPCs secrete various growth factors including VEGF and GM-CSF into the culture medium. The results demonstrate that these EPCs were primarily derived from hematopoietic origin of early precursor cells and maintained high proliferative potential capacity, a feature with a significant potential in the application of cell therapy in ischemic diseases.

  2. Common marmoset embryonic stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Li Weizhen; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Onizuka, Takeshi; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Ohno, Yohei; Sasaki, Erika; Kimura, Kensuke; Hakuno, Daihiko

    2008-01-01

    Common marmoset monkeys have recently attracted much attention as a primate research model, and are preferred to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys due to their small bodies, easy handling and efficient breeding. We recently reported the establishment of common marmoset embryonic stem cell (CMESC) lines that could differentiate into three germ layers. Here, we report that our CMESC can also differentiate into cardiomyocytes and investigated their characteristics. After induction, FOG-2 was expressed, followed by GATA4 and Tbx20, then Nkx2.5 and Tbx5. Spontaneous beating could be detected at days 12-15. Immunofluorescent staining and ultrastructural analyses revealed that they possessed characteristics typical of functional cardiomyocytes. They showed sinus node-like action potentials, and the beating rate was augmented by isoproterenol stimulation. The BrdU incorporation assay revealed that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes retained a high proliferative potential for up to 24 weeks. We believe that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes will advance preclinical studies in cardiovascular regenerative medicine

  3. Screening ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) in vitro assay with mouse embryonic stem cells was used to screen the ToxCast Phase I chemical library for effects on cellular differentiation and cell number. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the ...

  4. Properties of Neural Crest-Like Cells Differentiated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivánek, J.; Švandová, Eva; Králik, J.; Hajda, S.; Fedr, Radek; Vinařský, V.; Jaroš, J.; Souček, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2014 (2014), s. 30-38 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/11/1418 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : stem cell differentiation * neural crest * odontogenesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; ED - Physiology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  5. Spatial coordination between stem cell activity and cell differentiation in the root meristem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moubayidin, L.; Mambro, Di R.; Sozzani, R.; Pacifici, E.; Salvi, E.; Terpstra, I.; Bao, D.; Dijken, van A.; Dello loio, R.; Perilli, S.; Ljung, K.; Benfey, P.N.; Heidstra, R.; Costantino, P.; Sabatini, S.

    2013-01-01

    A critical issue in development is the coordination of the activity of stem cell niches with differentiation of their progeny to ensure coherent organ growth. In the plant root, these processes take place at opposite ends of the meristem and must be coordinated with each other at a distance. Here,

  6. Differentiation of primordial germ cells from induced pluripotent stem cells of primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lizhi; Tan, Yueqiu; Gong, Fei; Hu, Liang; Ouyang, Qi; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2015-03-01

    Can the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) differentiate into germ cells for potential disease modeling in vitro? The iPSC lines derived from POI patients with 46, X, del(X)(q26) or 46, X, del(X)(q26)9qh+ could differentiate into germ cells and expressed lower levels of genes in the deletion region of the X chromosome. iPSC technology has been envisioned as an approach for generating patient-specific stem cells for disease modeling and for developing novel therapies. It has also been confirmed that iPSCs differentiate into germ cells. We compared the differentiation ability of germ cells and the gene expression level of germ cell-related genes in the X chromosome deletion region of iPSC lines derived from POI patients (n = 2) with an iPSC line derived from normal fibroblasts (n = 1). We established three iPSC lines from two patients with partial Xq deletion-induced POI and normal fibroblasts by overexpressing four factors: octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4), sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2), Nanog homeobox (NANOG), and lin-28 homolog (LIN28), using lentiviral vectors. We then generated stable-transfected fluorescent reporter cell lines under the control of the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, also called VASA) promoter, and selected clonal derived sublines. We induced subline differentiation into germ cells by adding Wnt3a (30 ng/ml) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (100 ng/ml). After 12 days of differentiation, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive and GFP-negative cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analyzed for endogenous VASA protein (immunostaining) and for germ cell markers and genes expressed in the deleted region of the X chromosome (quantitative RT-PCR). The POI- and normal fibroblast-derived iPSCs had typical self-renewal and pluripotency characteristics. After stable transfection with the VASA-GFP construct, the sublines POI1-iPS-V.1

  7. Improvement of In Vitro Osteogenic Potential through Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Dental Tissue towards Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Andre Ishiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constraints for the application of MSCs for bone reconstruction include restricted self-renewal and limited cell amounts. iPSC technology presents advantages over MSCs, providing homogeneous cellular populations with prolonged self-renewal and higher plasticity. However, it is unknown if the osteogenic potential of iPSCs differs from that of MSCs and if it depends on the iPSCs originating cellular source. Here, we compared the in vitro osteogenesis between stem cells from human deciduous teeth (SHED and MSC-like cells from iPSCs from SHED (iPS-SHED and from human dermal fibroblasts (iPS-FIB. MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED and iPS-FIB displayed fibroblast-like morphology, downregulation of pluripotency markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. Comparative in vitro osteogenesis analysis showed higher osteogenic potential in MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED followed by MSC-like cells from iPS-FIB and SHED. CD105 expression, reported to be inversely correlated with osteogenic potential in MSCs, did not display this pattern, considering that SHED presented lower CD105 expression. Higher osteogenic potential of MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED may be due to cellular homogeneity and/or to donor tissue epigenetic memory. Our findings strengthen the rationale for the use of iPSCs in bone bioengineering. Unveiling the molecular basis behind these differences is important for a thorough use of iPSCs in clinical scenarios.

  8. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells towards hematopoietic cells: progress and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinghui; Kaufman, Dan S

    2008-07-01

    Hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells has been one of the most productive areas of stem cell biology. Recent studies have progressed from work with mouse to human embryonic stem cells. Strategies to produce defined blood cell populations can be used to better understand normal and abnormal hematopoiesis, as well as potentially improve the generation of hematopoietic cells with therapeutic potential. Molecular profiling, phenotypic and functional analyses have all been utilized to demonstrate that hematopoietic cells derived from embryonic stem cells most closely represent a stage of hematopoiesis that occurs at embryonic/fetal developmental stages. Generation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells comparable to hematopoietic stem cells found in the adult sources, such as bone marrow and cord blood, still remains challenging. However, genetic manipulation of intrinsic factors during hematopoietic differentiation has proven a suitable approach to induce adult definitive hematopoiesis from embryonic stem cells. Concrete evidence has shown that embryonic stem cells provide a powerful approach to study the early stage of hematopoiesis. Multiple hematopoietic lineages can be generated from embryonic stem cells, although most of the evidence suggests that hematopoietic development from embryonic stem cells mimics an embryonic/fetal stage of hematopoiesis.

  9. Characterization of dendritic cells and macrophages generated by directed differentiation from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Satoru; Haruta, Miwa; Matsunaga, Yusuke; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ikeda, Tokunori; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Okita, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Shinya; Nishimura, Yasuharu

    2009-05-01

    Methods have been established to generate dendritic cells (DCs) from mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells. We designated them as ES-DCs and mouse models have demonstrated the induction of anti-cancer immunity and prevention of autoimmune disease by in vivo administration of genetically engineered ES-DCs. For the future clinical application of ES-DCs, the histoincompatibility between patients to be treated and available human ES cells and the ethical concerns associated with human ES cells may be serious obstacles. However, recently developed induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology is expected to resolve these issues. This report describes the generation and characterization of DCs derived from mouse iPS cells. The iPS cell-derived DCs (iPS-DCs) possessed the characteristics of DCs including the capacity of T-cell-stimulation, antigen-processing and presentation and cytokine production. DNA microarray analyses revealed the upregulation of genes related to antigen-presenting functions during differentiation into iPS-DCs and similarity in gene expression profile in iPS-DCs and bone marrow cell-derived DCs. Genetically modified iPS-DCs expressing antigenic protein primed T-cells specific to the antigen in vivo and elicited efficient antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity. In addition, macrophages were generated from iPS cells (iPS-MP). iPS-MP were comparable with bone marrow cell-derived macrophages in the cell surface phenotype, functions, and gene expression profiles.

  10. Nano-Biosensor for Monitoring the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, monitoring the status of stem cell differentiation is crucial to verify therapeutic efficacy and optimize treatment procedures. However, traditional methods, such as cell staining and sorting, are labor-intensive and may damage the cells. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to monitor the differentiation status in situ is highly desirable and can be of great benefit to stem cell-based therapies. Toward this end, nanotechnology has been applied to develop highly-sensitive biosensors to noninvasively monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells. Herein, this article reviews the development of noninvasive nano-biosensor systems to monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells, mainly focusing on optical (plasmonic and eletrochemical methods. The findings in this review suggest that novel nano-biosensors capable of monitoring stem cell differentiation are a promising type of technology that can accelerate the development of stem cell therapies, including regenerative medicine.

  11. Incomplete differentiation of antigen-specific CD8 T cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargadon, Kristian M; Brinkman, C Colin; Sheasley-O'neill, Stacey L; Nichols, Lisa A; Bullock, Timothy N J; Engelhard, Victor H

    2006-11-01

    CD8 T cells lacking effector activity have been recovered from lymphoid organs of mice and patients with progressing tumors. We explored the basis for lack of effector activity in tumor-bearing mice by evaluating Ag presentation and CD8 T cell function in lymphoid organs over the course of tumor outgrowth. Early after tumor injection, cross-presentation by bone marrow-derived APC was necessary for T cell activation, inducing proliferation and differentiation into IFN-gamma-producing, cytolytic effectors. At later stages of outgrowth, tumor metastasized to draining lymph nodes. Both cross- and direct presentation occurred, but T cell differentiation induced by either modality was incomplete (proliferation without cytokine production). T cells within tumor-infiltrated nodes differentiated appropriately if Ag was presented by activated, exogenous dendritic cells. Thus, activated T cells lacking effector function develop through incomplete differentiation in the lymph nodes of late-stage tumor-bearing mice, rather than through suppression of previously differentiated cells.

  12. All in one - integrating cell polarity, meiosis, mitosis and mechanical forces in early oocyte differentiation in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkouby, Yaniv M

    2017-01-01

    While the differentiation of oocytes is key for embryonic development, and its investigation is crucial for advancing our understanding of human reproduction and fertility, many fundamental questions in oogenesis have been long standing. However, recent technical advances have led to several breakthroughs mainly in mice and zebrafish. Here I review these recent findings, including regulation and organization of the germline cyst, the mechanistics of chromosomal pairing, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a universal mRNA-protein (mRNP) granule called the Balbiani body. I discuss common themes in oogenesis from frogs, fish and mouse and compare them to findings from C. elegans and Drosophila. The zebrafish juvenile ovary is an attractive model where these individual processes can be investigated, but also revealing how they are inter-coordinated in oocyte differentiation. A conserved cellular organizer was discovered in the zebrafish oocyte that seems to function at a nexus of oocyte differentiation. This organizer, termed the Meiotic Vegetal Center (MVC), is composed of the oocyte centrosome, and couples meiotic chromosomal pairing with oocyte polarization and Balbiani body formation. The MVC breaks the oocyte symmetry, is regulated by upstream mitotic division in the cyst and nucleates Balbiani body mRNPs prion-like aggregation downstream. These processes can shed new light on broad questions in biology, such as how mitosis contributes to cell polarity, and how prion aggregation which lead to neurodegenerative disease when awry, is regulated in a physiological context. Furthermore, novel cytoskeletal structures can unravel cytoplasmic mechanical functions in chromosomal pairing. Finally, together with recently developed tools, genome editing technology now enables a robust genetic analysis of these fundamental processes in the zebrafish, paving the way for a comprehensive cell and developmental view of vertebrate oogenesis.

  13. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  14. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is widely studied as a potential unlimited source for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells relies mainly on soluble factors. Although, some studies have hi...

  15. Modulation of carcinoembryonic antigen release by glucosylceramide : Implications for HT29 cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babia, T; Hoekstra, D; Kok, JW; Veldman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Previous work suggested that glucosylceramide (GlcCer) plays a role in the regulation of cell differentiation of HT29 human colon tumor cells [I]. In the present study, we investigated the role of GlcCer in the cellular release of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a marker for cell differentiation.

  16. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  17. Mast Cells Density in Fibrotic Capsule of Enchondroma and Well-Differentiated Chondrosarcoma: A Method for Histopathologic Differentiation

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    Mohammad Javad Kharazi Fard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An enchondroma is a benign and a well-differentiated chondrosarcoma is an invasive chondroid tumor with high recurrence potential. In spite of biologic differences, these two tumors have very similar histopathologic appearance. It has been shown that the biologic nature of the connective tissue around benign and malignant tumors varies in the number of mast cells. The aim of this study was to study the histopathologic distinction of enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma using the density of the mast cells in fibrotic capsule. Methods: Twelve enchondroma and 15 well-differentiated chondrosarcoma were collected from Pathology department of Cancer Institute and Central Pathology department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran. 3 micron paraffin embedded tissue sections were stained by toluidine blue for mast cells counting. Mast cells were counted in fibrous capsule of all cases. Mast cells counts were accomplished in 10 high power fields .The average number of mast cells in 10HPF was determined as an index for each lesion. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean index in enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma groups were 0.1±0.12 and 0.31±0.33 respectively, showing a significant difference between number of mast cells in the fibrotic capsule in these two lesions (p=0.028. Comparison of the corresponding points in ROC curve, showed a cut-off point = 0.15, with positive predictive value of 61%, negative predictive value 71%, specificity of 33.3% and sensitivity of 66.7%, (p=0.025. Conclusion: Average density of the mast cells in the surrounding fibrotic capsules of enchondroma and well-differentiated chondrosarcoma along with other criterions, could be a beneficial factor for histologically differentiation between these two lesions.

  18. Emergence of nuclear heparanase induces differentiation of human mammary cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobuhisa, Tetsuji; Naomoto, Yoshio; Takaoka, Munenori; Tabuchi, Yoko; Ookawa, Keizou; Kitamoto, Dai; Gunduz, Esra; Gunduz, Mehmet; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi; Haisa, Minoru; Matsuoka, Junji; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Noriaki

    2005-01-01

    The study of epithelial differentiation touches upon many modern aspects of biology. The epithelium is in constant dialogue with the underlying mesenchyme to control stem cell activity, proliferation in transit-amplifying compartments, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation and, ultimately, cell death. There are spatially distinct compartments dedicated to each of these events. Recently we reported that heparanase is expressed in nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm and that nuclear heparanase seems to be related to cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of nuclear heparanase in differentiation by transducing human mammary epithelial cancer cells with heparanase which was delivered specifically into nucleus. We observed that expression of nuclear heparanase allowed the cells to differentiate with the appearance of lipid droplets. This finding supports the idea that heparanase plays a novel role in epithelial cell differentiation apart from its known enzymatic function

  19. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits the human erythroid cell differentiation by altering the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finaurini, Sara; Basilico, Nicoletta; Corbett, Yolanda; D’Alessandro, Sarah; Parapini, Silvia; Olliaro, Piero; Haynes, Richard K.; Taramelli, Donatella

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin derivatives such as dihydroartemisinin (DHA) induce significant depletion of early embryonic erythroblasts in animal models. We have reported previously that DHA specifically targets pro-erythroblasts and basophilic erythroblasts, when human CD34+ stem cells are differentiated toward the erythroid lineage, indicating that a window of susceptibility to artemisinins may exist also in human developmental erythropoiesis during pregnancy. To better investigate the toxicity of artemisinin derivatives, the structure–activity relationship was evaluated against the K562 leukaemia cell line, used as a model for differentiating early human erythroblasts. All artemisinins derivatives, except deoxyartemisinin, inhibited both spontaneous and induced erythroid differentiation, confirming that the peroxide bridge is responsible for the erythro-toxicity. On the contrary, cell growth was markedly reduced by DHA, artemisone and artesunate but not by artemisinin, 10-deoxoartemisinin or deoxy-artemisinin. The substituent at position C-10 is responsible only for the anti-proliferative effect, since 10-deoxoartemisinin did not reduce cell growth but arrested the differentiation of K562 cells. In particular, the results showed that DHA resulted the most potent and rapidly acting compound of the drug family, causing (i) the decreased expression of GpA surface receptors and the down regulation the γ-globin gene; (ii) the alteration of S phase of cell cycle and (iii) the induction of programmed cell death of early erythroblasts in a dose dependent manner within 24 h. In conclusion, these findings confirm that the active metabolite DHA is responsible for the erythro-toxicity of most of artemisinins used in therapy. Thus, as long as no further clinical data are available, current WHO recommendations of avoiding malaria treatment with artemisinins during the first trimester of pregnancy remain valid.

  20. Differentiation potential of STRO-1+ dental pulp stem cells changes during cell passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ruoning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs can be driven into odontoblast, osteoblast, and chondrocyte lineages in different inductive media. However, the differentiation potential of naive DPSCs after serial passaging in the routine culture system has not been fully elucidated. Results DPSCs were isolated from human/rat dental pulps by the magnetic activated cell sorting based on STRO-1 expression, cultured and passaged in the conventional culture media. The biological features of STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st and 9th passages were investigated. During the long-term passage, the proliferation ability of human STRO-1+ DPSCs was downregulated as indicated by the growth kinetics. When compared with STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 1st passage (DPSC-P1, the expression of mature osteoblast-specific genes/proteins (alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osterix, and osteopontin, odontoblast-specific gene/protein (dentin sialophosphoprotein and dentin sialoprotein, and chondrocyte-specific gene/protein (type II collagen was significantly upregulated in human STRO-1+ DPSCs at the 9th passage (DPSC-P9. Furthermore, human DPSC-P9 cells in the mineralization-inducing media presented higher levels of alkaline phosphatase at day 3 and day 7 respectively, and produced more mineralized matrix than DPSC-P9 cells at day 14. In vivo transplantation results showed that rat DPSC-P1 cell pellets developed into dentin, bone and cartilage structures respectively, while DPSC-P9 cells can only generate bone tissues. Conclusions These findings suggest that STRO-1+ DPSCs consist of several interrelated subpopulations which can spontaneously differentiate into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. The differentiation capacity of these DPSCs changes during cell passaging, and DPSCs at the 9th passage restrict their differentiation potential to the osteoblast lineage in vivo.

  1. A co-culture model of the hippocampal neurogenic niche reveals differential effects of astrocytes, endothelial cells and pericytes on proliferation and differentiation of adult murine precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ehret

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The niche concept of stem cell biology proposes a functional unit between the precursor cells and their local microenvironment, to which several cell types might contribute by cell–cell contacts, extracellular matrix, and humoral factors. We here established three co-culture models (with cell types separated by membrane for both adherent monolayers and neurospheres to address the potential influence of different niche cell types in the neurogenic zone of the adult hippocampus of mice. Astrocytes and endothelial cells enhanced precursor cell proliferation and neurosphere formation. Endothelial factors also led to a prolonged increase in proliferation after growth factor withdrawal, which otherwise induces differentiation. All niche cell types enhanced cell survival in monolayer cultures, endothelial cells also stimulated neuronal differentiation. A parallel trend elicited by astrocytes did not reach conventional statistical significance. Pericytes had variable effects here. We did not observe changes in differentiation in neurosphere co-cultures. In summary, our data indicate that in precursor cell culture protocols survival could be improved by adding as yet unknown factors physiologically contributed by astrocytes and endothelial cells. Our findings also underscore the complexity of the niche and the differential impact of factors from the different sources on distinct aspects of neuronal development. With the help of the models presented here, identification of these factors and their specific biological activity can now be initiated.

  2. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards therapeutically relevant cell types, including pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes, depends on molecular markers and assays that resolve the signature of individual cells. Pancreas and liver both have a common origin...... for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...

  3. Incorporation of Biomaterials in Multicellular Aggregates Modulates Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt-Leal, Andrés M.; Carpenedo, Richard L.; Ungrin, Mark; Zandstra, Peter W.; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2010-01-01

    Biomaterials are increasingly being used to engineer the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular stem cell microenvironment in order to tailor niche characteristics and direct cell phenotype. To date, stem cell-biomaterial interactions have largely been studied by introducing stem cells into artificial environments, such as 2D cell culture on biomaterial surfaces, encapsulation of cell suspensions within hydrogel materials, or cell seeding on 3D polymeric scaffolds. In this study, microparticles fabricated from different materials, such as agarose, PLGA and gelatin, were stably integrated, in a dose-dependent manner, within aggregates of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) prior to differentiation as a means to directly examine stem cell-biomaterial interactions in 3D. Interestingly, the presence of the materials within the stem cell aggregates differentially modulated the gene and protein expression patterns of several differentiation markers without adversely affecting cell viability. Microparticle incorporation within 3D stem cell aggregates can control the spatial presentation of extracellular environmental cues (i.e. soluble factors, extracellular matrix and intercellular adhesion molecules) as a means to direct the differentiation of stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. In addition, these results suggest that the physical presence of microparticles within stem cell aggregates does not compromise PSC differentiation, but in fact the choice of biomaterials can impact the propensity of stem cells to adopt particular differentiated cell phenotypes. PMID:20864164

  4. Activated NKT cells imprint NK-cell differentiation, functionality and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Trittel, Stephanie; May, Tobias; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Chambers, Benedict J; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    NK cells represent a vital component of the innate immune system. The recent discoveries demonstrating that the functionality of NK cells depends on their differentiation and education status underscore their potential as targets for immune intervention. However, to exploit their full potential, a detailed understanding of the cellular interactions involved in these processes is required. In this regard, the cross-talk between NKT cells and NK cells needs to be better understood. Our results provide strong evidence for NKT cell-induced effects on key biological features of NK cells. NKT-cell activation results in the generation of highly active CD27(high) NK cells with improved functionality. In this context, degranulation activity and IFNγ production were mainly detected in the educated subset. In a mCMV infection model, we also demonstrated that NKT-cell stimulation induced the generation of highly functional educated and uneducated NK cells, crucial players in viral control. Thus, our findings reveal new fundamental aspects of the NKT-NK cell axis that provide important hints for the manipulation of NK cells in clinical settings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Functional Concentrations of BMP4 on Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells to Primordial Germ Cells

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    Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 has a significant role in primordial germ cells(PGCs differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC. The aim of this study is to determinethe best concentration of BMP4 at a time of two days on differentiation PGCs from mESC.Materials and Methods: To differentiate PGCs, embryoid bodies (EBs from mESCs were culturedin concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 ng/ml BMP4 for two days. Germ cell markers Oct4 (Pou5f1, Stella(Dppa3 and Mvh (Ddx4 were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.Results: Flow cytometry data demonstrated most Mvh-positive cells were observed only in thetreated groups. Immunocytochemistry of EBs in the treated groups identified cells positive forMvh. PCR results showed expression of Oct4 in the control group and treated groups. Stella andMvh were expressed only in the treated groups.Conclusion: Low concentrations of BMP4 during two days had an optimal effect on differentiationof PGCs from mESC.

  6. Evolution of plant conducting cells: perspectives from key regulators of vascular cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Misato; Akiyoshi, Nobuhiro; Takenaka, Yuto; Sano, Ryosuke; Demura, Taku

    2017-01-01

    One crucial problem that plants faced during their evolution, particularly during the transition to growth on land, was how to transport water, nutrients, metabolites, and small signaling molecules within a large, multicellular body. As a solution to this problem, land plants developed specific tissues for conducting molecules, called water-conducting cells (WCCs) and food-conducting cells (FCCs). The well-developed WCCs and FCCs in extant plants are the tracheary elements and sieve elements, respectively, which are found in vascular plants. Recent molecular genetic studies revealed that transcriptional networks regulate the differentiation of tracheary and sieve elements, and that the networks governing WCC differentiation are largely conserved among land plant species. In this review, we discuss the molecular evolution of plant conducting cells. By focusing on the evolution of the key transcription factors that regulate vascular cell differentiation, the NAC transcription factor VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN for WCCs and the MYB-coiled-coil (CC)-type transcription factor ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT for sieve elements, we describe how land plants evolved molecular systems to produce the specialized cells that function as WCCs and FCCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neural stem cells promote nerve regeneration through IL12-induced Schwann cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don-Ching; Chen, Jong-Hang; Hsu, Tai-Yu; Chang, Li-Hsun; Chang, Hsu; Chi, Ya-Hui; Chiu, Ing-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration. In this study, we identified IL12p80 (homodimer of IL12p40) in the cell extracts of implanted nerve conduit combined with NSCs by using protein antibody array and Western blotting. Levels of IL12p80 in these conduits are 1.6-fold higher than those in conduits without NSCs. In the sciatic nerve injury mouse model, implantation of NSCs combined with nerve conduit and IL12p80 improves motor recovery and increases the diameter up to 4.5-fold, at the medial site of the regenerated nerve. In vitro study further revealed that IL12p80 stimulates the Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). These results suggest that IL12p80 can trigger Schwann cell differentiation of mouse NSCs through Stat3 phosphorylation and enhance the functional recovery and the diameter of regenerated nerves in a mouse sciatic nerve injury model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential Expression Profiles of Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA of Osteogenically Differentiated Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongyu; Li, Jinteng; Wang, Peng; Li, Yuxi; Wu, Xiaohua; Wang, Shan; Su, Hongjun; Deng, Wen; Liu, Zhenhua; Cen, Shuizhong; Ouyang, Yi; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2016-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS; ASMSC) have a greater osteogenic differentiation capacity than MSC from healthy donors (HDMSC) and that this difference underlies the pathogenesis of pathological osteogenesis in AS. Here we compared expression levels of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and mRNA between osteogenically differentiated ASMSC and HDMSC and explored the precise mechanism underlying abnormal osteogenic differentiation in ASMSC. HDMSC and ASMSC were induced with osteogenic differentiation medium for 10 days. Microarray analyses were then performed to identify lncRNA and mRNA differentially expressed between HDMSC and ASMSC, which were then subjected to bioinformatics analysis and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. In addition, coding-non-coding gene co-expression (CNC) networks were constructed to examine the relationships between the lncRNA and mRNA expression patterns. A total of 520 lncRNA and 665 mRNA were differentially expressed in osteogenically differentiated ASMSC compared with HDMSC. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 64 signaling pathways with significant differences, including transforming growth factor-β signaling. qRT-PCR assays confirmed the reliability of the microarray data. The CNC network indicated that 4 differentially expressed lncRNA, including lnc-ZNF354A-1, lnc-LIN54-1, lnc-FRG2C-3, and lnc-USP50-2 may be involved in the abnormal osteogenic differentiation of ASMSC. Our study characterized the differential lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles of osteogenically differentiated ASMSC and identified 4 lncRNA that may participate in the abnormal osteogenic differentiation of ASMSC. These results provide insight into the pathogenesis of pathological osteogenesis in AS.

  9. IFN regulatory factor 8 represses GM-CSF expression in T cells to affect myeloid cell lineage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Amy V; Zhang, Ruihua; Qi, Chen-Feng; Bardhan, Kankana; Peng, Liang; Lu, Geming; Yang, Jianjun; Merad, Miriam; McGaha, Tracy; Zhou, Gang; Mellor, Andrew; Abrams, Scott I; Morse, Herbert C; Ozato, Keiko; Xiong, Huabao; Liu, Kebin

    2015-03-01

    During hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cells constantly differentiate into granulocytes and macrophages via a distinct differentiation program that is tightly controlled by myeloid lineage-specific transcription factors. Mice with a null mutation of IFN regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) accumulate CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells that phenotypically and functionally resemble tumor-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), indicating an essential role of IRF8 in myeloid cell lineage differentiation. However, IRF8 is expressed in various types of immune cells, and whether IRF8 functions intrinsically or extrinsically in regulation of myeloid cell lineage differentiation is not fully understood. In this study, we report an intriguing finding that, although IRF8-deficient mice exhibit deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and resultant accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) MDSCs, surprisingly, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in myeloid cells exhibit no abnormal myeloid cell lineage differentiation. Instead, mice with IRF8 deficiency only in T cells exhibited deregulated myeloid cell differentiation and MDSC accumulation. We further demonstrated that IRF8-deficient T cells exhibit elevated GM-CSF expression and secretion. Treatment of mice with GM-CSF increased MDSC accumulation, and adoptive transfer of IRF8-deficient T cells, but not GM-CSF-deficient T cells, increased MDSC accumulation in the recipient chimeric mice. Moreover, overexpression of IRF8 decreased GM-CSF expression in T cells. Our data determine that, in addition to its intrinsic function as an apoptosis regulator in myeloid cells, IRF8 also acts extrinsically to repress GM-CSF expression in T cells to control myeloid cell lineage differentiation, revealing a novel mechanism that the adaptive immune component of the immune system regulates the innate immune cell myelopoiesis in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. ROG Negatively Regulates T-Cell Activation but Is Dispensable for Th-Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bok Yun; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Ho, I-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    ROG, a transcriptional repressor, is a direct target gene of NF-AT and a putative negative regulator of T-cell activation. In addition, overexpression of ROG suppresses the activity of GATA-3, implying a role of ROG in the differentiation and function of Th cells. Despite these observations, the function of ROG has yet to be confirmed by loss-of-function approaches. Here we report that ROG-deficient T cells are hypersensitive to anti-CD3 stimulation and produce more interleukin-2 (IL-2) due t...

  11. Topical herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccination with human papillomavirus vectors expressing gB/gD ectodomains induces genital-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells and reduces genital disease and viral shedding after HSV-2 challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Schiller, John T

    2015-01-01

    No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8(+) T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic disease caused by

  12. Isolation and Multiple Differentiation Potential Assessment of Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from the gingiva (GMSCs and confirm their multiple differentiation potentials, including the odontogenic lineage. GMSCs, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and dermal stem cells (DSCs cultures were analyzed for cell shape, cell cycle, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F and stem cell markers. Cells were then induced for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and analyzed for differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization nodule formation and Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN and collagen I expressions for the osteogenic differentiation, and lipid vacuole formation and PPARγ-2 expression for the adipogenic differentiation. Besides, the odontogenic differentiation potential of GMSCs induced with embryonic tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (ETGC-CM was observed. GMSCs, PDLSCs and DSCs were all stromal origin. PDLSCs showed much higher osteogenic differentiation ability but lower adipogenic differentiation potential than DSCs. GMSCs showed the medial osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials between those of PDLSCs and DSCs. GMSCs were capable of expressing the odontogenic genes after ETGC-CM induction. This study provides evidence that GMSCs can be used in tissue engineering/regeneration protocols as an approachable stem cell source.

  13. Bone marrow stromal cells as an inducer for cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengming; Johkura, Kohei; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Nagai, Mika; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2010-09-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) secrete soluble factors and display varied cell-biological functions. To confirm the ability and efficiency of BMSCs to induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiomyocytes, mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were co-cultured with rat BMSCs. After about 10 days, areas of rhythmically contracting cells in more solid aggregates became evident with bundle-like structures formed along borders between EB outgrowth and BMSC layer. ESC-derived cardiomyocytes exhibited sarcomeric striations when stained with troponin I (Trop I), organized in separated bundles. Besides, the staining for connexin 43 was detected in cell-cell junctions, which demonstrated that ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled by gap junction in culture. The related genes of cardiomyocytes were found in these beating and no-beating EBs co-cultured with BMSCs. In addition, an improved efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESC-BMSC co-culture was found in the serum-free medium: 5-fold up-regulation in the number of beating area compared with the serum medium. Effective cardiac differentiation was also recognized in transfer filter assay and in condition medium obtained from BMSC culture. A clear increase in the expression of cardiac genes and TropI protein confirmed further cardiac differentiation by BMP4 and Retinoic Acid (RA) treatment. These results demonstrate that BMSCs can induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESCs through soluble factors and enhance it with BMP4 or RA treatment. Serum-free ESC-BMSC co-culture represents a defined in vitro model for identifying the cardiomyocyte-inducing activity from BMSCs and, in addition, a straightforward experimental system for assessing clinical applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Notch signalling inhibits CD4 expression during initiation and differentiation of human T cell lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Carlin

    Full Text Available The Delta/Notch signal transduction pathway is central to T cell differentiation from haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Although T cell development is well characterized using expression of cell surface markers, the detailed mechanisms driving differentiation have not been established. This issue becomes central with observations that adult HSCs exhibit poor differentiation towards the T cell lineage relative to neonatal or embryonic precursors. This study investigates the contribution of Notch signalling and stromal support cells to differentiation of adult and Cord Blood (CB human HSCs, using the Notch signalling OP9Delta co-culture system. Co-cultured cells were assayed at weekly intervals during development for phenotype markers using flow cytometry. Cells were also assayed for mRNA expression at critical developmental stages. Expression of the central thymocyte marker CD4 was initiated independently of Notch signalling, while cells grown with Notch signalling had reduced expression of CD4 mRNA and protein. Interruption of Notch signalling in partially differentiated cells increased CD4 mRNA and protein expression, and promoted differentiation to CD4(+ CD8(+ T cells. We identified a set of genes related to T cell development that were initiated by Notch signalling, and also a set of genes subsequently altered by Notch signal interruption. These results demonstrate that while Notch signalling is essential for establishment of the T cell lineage, at later stages of differentiation, its removal late in differentiation promotes more efficient DP cell generation. Notch signalling adds to signals provided by stromal cells to allow HSCs to differentiate to T cells via initiation of transcription factors such as HES1, GATA3 and TCF7. We also identify gene expression profile differences that may account for low generation of T cells from adult HSCs.

  15. Efficient and Fast Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Cell Therapy

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    Xinxin Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based therapies have been used for repairing damaged brain tissue and helping functional recovery after brain injury. Aberrance neurogenesis is related with brain injury, and multipotential neural stem cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells provide a great promise for cell replacement therapies. Optimized protocols for neural differentiation are necessary to produce functional human neural stem cells (hNSCs for cell therapy. However, the qualified procedure is scarce and detailed features of hNSCs originated from hES cells are still unclear. In this study, we developed a method to obtain hNSCs from hES cells, by which we could harvest abundant hNSCs in a relatively short time. Then, we examined the expression of pluripotent and multipotent marker genes through immunostaining and confirmed differentiation potential of the differentiated hNSCs. Furthermore, we analyzed the mitotic activity of these hNSCs. In this report, we provided comprehensive features of hNSCs and delivered the knowledge about how to obtain more high-quality hNSCs from hES cells which may help to accelerate the NSC-based therapies in brain injury treatment.

  16. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

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    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-irradiation inhibits mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm but promotes ectoderm differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Shoko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on living cells have been demonstrated, such as tissue sterilization, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor elimination. However, the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clarified. A large number of reactive species are generated by plasma-irradiation in medium, of which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the main species generated. Here, we investigated the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mESCs using an embryoid body (EB) formation assay with plasma-irradiated medium or H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium. Our findings demonstrated that plasma-irradiated medium potently inhibits the differentiation from mESCs to mesoderm and endoderm by inhibiting Wnt signaling as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In contrast, both the plasma-irradiated medium and H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium enhanced the differentiation to epiblastoid, ectodermal, and neuronal lineages by activation of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling, suggesting that these effects are caused by the H2O2 generated by plasma-irradiation in medium. However, in each case, the differentiation to glial cells remained unaffected. This study is the first demonstration that plasma-irradiation affects the differentiation of mESCs by the regulation of Wnt and FGF4 signaling pathways.

  18. A Lin28 homologue reprograms differentiated cells to stem cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Sako, Yusuke; Imai, Akihiro; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Thompson, Kari; Kubo, Minoru; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kabeya, Yukiko; Karlson, Dale; Wu, Shu-Hsing; Ishikawa, Masaki; Murata, Takashi; Benfey, Philip N.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Tamada, Yosuke; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2017-01-01

    Both land plants and metazoa have the capacity to reprogram differentiated cells to stem cells. Here we show that the moss Physcomitrella patens Cold-Shock Domain Protein 1 (PpCSP1) regulates reprogramming of differentiated leaf cells to chloronema apical stem cells and shares conserved domains with the induced pluripotent stem cell factor Lin28 in mammals. PpCSP1 accumulates in the reprogramming cells and is maintained throughout the reprogramming process and in the resultant stem cells. Expression of PpCSP1 is negatively regulated by its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Removal of the 3′-UTR stabilizes PpCSP1 transcripts, results in accumulation of PpCSP1 protein and enhances reprogramming. A quadruple deletion mutant of PpCSP1 and three closely related PpCSP genes exhibits attenuated reprogramming indicating that the PpCSP genes function redundantly in cellular reprogramming. Taken together, these data demonstrate a positive role of PpCSP1 in reprogramming, which is similar to the function of mammalian Lin28. PMID:28128346

  19. Biodentine induces immortalized murine pulp cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells and stimulates biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Marjorie; Sautier, Jean Michel; Berdal, Ariane; Simon, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Faussés, France), a new tricalcium silicate-based cement, has recently been commercialized and advertised as a bioactive material. Its clinical application and physical properties have been widely described, but, so far, its bioactivity and biological effect on pulp cells have not been clearly shown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effect of Biodentine on immortalized murine pulp cells (OD-21). OD-21 cells were cultured with or without Biodentine. Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) colorimetric assay after 2, 3, and 5 days of stimulation. The expression of several biomolecular markers was analyzed to screen differentiation pathways, both on a gene level with Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and on a protein level by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity. Alizarin red staining was used to assess and quantify biomineralization. The expression patterns of several genes confirmed the differentiation of OD-21 cells into odontoblasts during the period of cell culture. Our results suggest that Biodentine is bioactive because it increased OD-21 cell proliferation and biomineralization in comparison with controls. Because of its bioactivity, Biodentine can be considered as a suitable material for clinical indications of dentin-pulp complex regeneration, such as direct pulp capping. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F.

    2009-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A β-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the β-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the β-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal β-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the β-casein gene

  1. Human natural killer (NK) cells produce a late-acting B-cell differentiation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H; Sherr, E H; Saxon, A

    1988-09-01

    The supernatant of unstimulated purified NKH-1 bearing human natural killer (NK) cells was found to enhance ongoing immunoglobulin synthesis. This NK-Cell supernatant (NKSN) enhanced IgE, IgG, and IgA synthesis from corresponding B-cell lines without increasing thymidine incorporation or cell number. Separation of NKH-1+ cells into CD3- or CD3+ cells showed that this activity was produced by the CD3- population. Recombinant human interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-4, interferon (INF)-beta 1, INF-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, or partially purified low molecular weight B-cell growth factor (BCGF) failed to provide the same enhancement of Ig synthesis. While the NKSN contained small amounts of IL-6 (0.1 U/ml) and IL-6 could increase Ig synthesis in vitro, the optimal IL-6 enhancement was far less than that observed with NKSN. NKSN also enhanced ongoing Ig synthesis from in vivo activated B cells obtained from peripheral blood or bone marrow but failed to induce Ig synthesis from resting or in vitro activated B cells. These results demonstrate that human NK (CD3-, NKH-1+) cells can produce B-cell differentiation activity capable of regulating Ig production in vivo, which appears to be distinct from the activity of previously described cytokines.

  2. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  3. Up-regulated microRNA-143 in cancer stem cells differentiation promotes prostate cancer cells metastasis by modulating FNDC3B expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Xinlan; Chen, Xu; Deng, Weixi; Zhong, Guangzheng; Cai, Qingqing; Lin, Tianxin

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumor progression and metastasis, including in prostate cancer. There is an obvious and urgent need for effective cancer stem cells specific therapies in metastatic prostate cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes that are involved in a variety of biological functions, especially in cancer. The goal of this study was to identify miRNAs involved in prostate cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. A microarray and qRT-PCR were performed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. A transwell assay was used to evaluate the migration of PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. MiR-143 was silenced with antisense oligonucleotides in PC-3, PC-3-M and LNCaP cells. The role of miR-143 in prostate cancer metastasis was measured by wound-healing and transwell assays in vitro and bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Bioinformatics and luciferase report assays were used to identify the target of miR-143. The expression of miR-143 and the migration capability were reduced in PC-3 sphere cells and progressively increased during sphere re-adherent culture. Moreover, the down-regulation of miR-143 suppressed prostate cancer cells migration and invasion in vitro and systemically inhibited metastasis in vivo. Fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B), which regulates cell motility, was identified as a target of miR-143. The inhibition of miR-143 increased the expression of FNDC3B protein but not FNDC3B mRNA in vitro and vivo. These data demonstrate for the first time that miR-143 was up-regulated during the differentiation of prostate cancer stem cells and promoted prostate cancer metastasis by repressing FNDC3B expression. This sheds a new insight into the post-transcriptional regulation of cancer stem cells differentiation by miRNAs, a potential approach for the treatment of prostate cancer

  4. Dental pulp stem cell-derived chondrogenic cells demonstrate differential cell motility in type I and type II collagen hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Flynn, Nikol

    2018-02-13

    Advances in the development of biomaterials and stem cell therapy provide a promising approach to regenerating degenerated discs. The normal nucleus pulposus (NP) cells exhibit the similar phenotype as chondrocytes. Because dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrogenic cells, the DPSCs and DPSCs-derived chondrogenic cells encapsulated in type I and type II collagen hydrogels can potentially be transplanted into degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to repair damaged tissue. The motility of transplanted cells is critical because the cells need to migrate away from the hydrogels containing the cells of high density and disperse into the NP tissue after implantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the motility of DPSC and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in type I and type II collagen hydrogels. The time lapse imaging that recorded cell migration was analyzed to quantify the cell migration velocity and distance. The cell viability of DPSCs in native or 4S-StarPEG - crosslinked type I and type II collagen hydrogels was determined using LIVE/DEAD ® cell viability assay and AlamarBlue® assay. DPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic cells. The migration of DPSCs and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in these hydrogels was recorded using a time lapse imaging system. This study was funded by Regional Institute on Aging and Wichita Medical Research and Education Foundation and the authors declare no competing interest. DPSCs showed high cell viability in non-crosslinked and crosslinked collagen hydrogels. DPSCs migrated in collagen hydrogels, and the cell migration speed was not significantly different in either type I collagen or type II collagen hydrogels. The migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells was higher in type I collagen hydrogel than in type II collagen hydrogel. Crosslinking of type I collagen with 4S-StarPEG significantly reduced the cell migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells. After implantation of

  5. Programmed Cell Death Progresses Differentially in Epidermal and Mesophyll Cells of Lily Petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai

    Full Text Available In the petals of some species of flowers, programmed cell death (PCD begins earlier in mesophyll cells than in epidermal cells. However, PCD progression in each cell type has not been characterized in detail. We separately constructed a time course of biochemical signs and expression patterns of PCD-associated genes in epidermal and mesophyll cells in Lilium cv. Yelloween petals. Before visible signs of senescence could be observed, we found signs of PCD, including DNA degradation and decreased protein content in mesophyll cells only. In these cells, the total proteinase activity increased on the day after anthesis. Within 3 days after anthesis, the protein content decreased by 61.8%, and 22.8% of mesophyll cells was lost. A second peak of proteinase activity was observed on day 6, and the number of mesophyll cells decreased again from days 4 to 7. These biochemical and morphological results suggest that PCD progressed in steps during flower life in the mesophyll cells. PCD began in epidermal cells on day 5, in temporal synchrony with the time course of visible senescence. In the mesophyll cells, the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (LoCYP and S1/P1 nuclease (LoNUC genes were upregulated before petal wilting, earlier than in epidermal cells. In contrast, relative to that in the mesophyll cells, the expression of the SAG12 cysteine proteinase homolog (LoSAG12 drastically increased in epidermal cells in the final stage of senescence. These results suggest that multiple PCD-associated genes differentially contribute to the time lag of PCD progression between epidermal and mesophyll cells of lily petals.

  6. Isolation, Characterization, Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Stem Cells and Differentiation to Osteogenic and Adipogenic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Gholizadeh-Ghaleh Aziz

    Full Text Available Human stem cells and progenitor cells can be used to treat cancer and replace dysfunctional cells within a tissue or organ. The objective of this study was to identify the appropriate cells type in regenerative medicine and targeted therapy. As an alternative to embryonic and bone marrow stem cells, we examined human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs, one of the potential source of multipotent stem cells isolated from both cell pellet (using single-stage method, and supernatant of human amniotic fluid. Source of isolation and unique property of the cells emphasize that these cells are one of the promising new tools in therapeutic field. Double sources for isolation and availability of the left over samples in diagnostic laboratory at the same time have less legal and ethical concerns compared with embryonic stem cell studies. Cells were isolated, cultured for 18th passage for 6 months and characterized using qPCR and flow cytometry. Cells showed good proliferative ability in culture condition. The cells successfully differentiated into the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Based on these findings, amniotic fluid can be considered as an appropriate and convenient source of human amniotic fluid stem cells. These cells provide potential tools for therapeutic applications in the field of regenerative medicine. To get a better understanding of crosstalk between Oct4/NANOG with osteogenesis and adipogenesis, we used network analysis based on Common Targets algorithm and Common Regulators algorithm as well as subnetwork discovery based on gene set enrichment. Network analysis highlighted the possible role of MIR 302A and MIR let-7g. We demonstrated the high expression of MIR 302A and low expression of MIR let7g in hAFSCs by qPCR.

  7. Gene expression analysis of embryonic stem cells expressing VE-cadherin (CD144 during endothelial differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libermann Towia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial differentiation occurs during normal vascular development in the developing embryo. This process is recapitulated in the adult when endothelial progenitor cells are generated in the bone marrow and can contribute to vascular repair or angiogenesis at sites of vascular injury or ischemia. The molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation remain incompletely understood. Novel approaches are needed to identify the factors that regulate endothelial differentiation. Methods Mouse embryonic stem (ES cells were used to further define the molecular mechanisms of endothelial differentiation. By flow cytometry a population of VEGF-R2 positive cells was identified as early as 2.5 days after differentiation of ES cells, and a subset of VEGF-R2+ cells, that were CD41 positive at 3.5 days. A separate population of VEGF-R2+ stem cells expressing the endothelial-specific marker CD144 (VE-cadherin was also identified at this same time point. Channels lined by VE-cadherin positive cells developed within the embryoid bodies (EBs formed by differentiating ES cells. VE-cadherin and CD41 expressing cells differentiate in close proximity to each other within the EBs, supporting the concept of a common origin for cells of hematopoietic and endothelial lineages. Results Microarray analysis of >45,000 transcripts was performed on RNA obtained from cells expressing VEGF-R2+, CD41+, and CD144+ and VEGF-R2-, CD41-, and CD144-. All microarray experiments were performed in duplicate using RNA obtained from independent experiments, for each subset of cells. Expression profiling confirmed the role of several genes involved in hematopoiesis, and identified several putative genes involved in endothelial differentiation. Conclusion The isolation of CD144+ cells during ES cell differentiation from embryoid bodies provides an excellent model system and method for identifying genes that are expressed during endothelial differentiation and that

  8. Inductive differentiation of two neural lineages reconstituted in a microculture system from Xenopus early gastrula cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, S; Okamoto, H

    1991-05-01

    Neural induction of ectoderm cells has been reconstituted and examined in a microculture system derived from dissociated early gastrula cells of Xenopus laevis. We have used monoclonal antibodies as specific markers to monitor cellular differentiation from three distinct ectoderm lineages in culture (N1 for CNS neurons from neural tube, Me1 for melanophores from neural crest and E3 for skin epidermal cells from epidermal lineages). CNS neurons and melanophores differentiate when deep layer cells of the ventral ectoderm (VE, prospective epidermis region; 150 cells/culture) and an appropriate region of the marginal zone (MZ, prospective mesoderm region; 5-150 cells/culture) are co-cultured, but not in cultures of either cell type on their own; VE cells cultured alone yield epidermal cells as we have previously reported. The extent of inductive neural differentiation in the co-culture system strongly depends on the origin and number of MZ cells initially added to culture wells. The potency to induce CNS neurons is highest for dorsal MZ cells and sharply decreases as more ventrally located cells are used. The same dorsoventral distribution of potency is seen in the ability of MZ cells to inhibit epidermal differentiation. In contrast, the ability of MZ cells to induce melanophores shows the reverse polarity, ventral to dorsal. These data indicate that separate developmental mechanisms are used for the induction of neural tube and neural crest lineages. Co-differentiation of CNS neurons or melanophores with epidermal cells can be obtained in a single well of co-cultures of VE cells (150) and a wide range of numbers of MZ cells (5 to 100). Further, reproducible differentiation of both neural lineages requires intimate association between cells from the two gastrula regions; virtually no differentiation is obtained when cells from the VE and MZ are separated in a culture well. These results indicate that the inducing signals from MZ cells for both neural tube and neural

  9. Primordial germ cell differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells using surface modified electroconductive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami-Arshaghi, Tarlan; Vakilian, Saeid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza; Soleimani, Masoud; Salehi, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    A combination of nanotopographical cues and surface modification of collagen and fibronectin is a potential platform in primordial germ cells (PGCs) differentiation. In the present study, the synergistic effect of nanotopography and surface modification on differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (nt-ESCs) toward PGC lineage was investigated. In order to achieve this goal, poly-anyline (PANi) was mix within poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA). Afterward, the random composite mats were fabricated using PLLA and PANi mix solution. The nanofiber topography notably upregulated the expressions of prdm14, mvh and c-kit compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). Moreover, the combination of nanofiber topography and surface modification resulted in more enhancement of PGCs differentiation compared with non-modified nanofibrous scaffold. Additionally, gene expression results showed that mvh and c-kit were expressed at higher intensity in cells exposed to collagen and fibronectin rather than collagen or fibronectin solitary. These results demonstrated the importance of combined effect of collagen and fibronectin in order to develop a functional extracellular matrix (ECM) mimic in directing stem cell fate and the potential of such biofunctional scaffolds for treatment of infertility.

  10. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alice; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sparwasser, Tim; Thomas, Ranjeny; Steptoe, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses. Although many mechanisms of Treg suppression in vitro have been described, the mechanisms by which Treg modulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and effector function in vivo are more poorly defined. It has been proposed, in many instances, that modulation of cytokine homeostasis could be an important mechanism by which Treg regulate adaptive immunity; however, direct experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate that CD4+CD25+ Treg, by critically regulating IL-2 homeostasis, modulate CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation. Expansion and effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells is promoted by autocrine IL-2 but, by competing for IL-2, Treg limit CD8+ effector differentiation. Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8+ effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion. PMID:21502514

  11. Cancer Stem Cells of Differentiated B-Cell Malignancies: Models and Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Emilie; Quillet-Mary, Anne [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France); Ysebaert, Loic; Laurent, Guy [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France); Service d' Hématologie, CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Fournie, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.fournie@inserm.fr [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-25

    The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors and cancers of the primitive hematopoietic compartment. Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such as multiple myeloma, lymphomas and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a “top-to-bottom” clonal hierarchy from memory B-cells and a “bottom-to-top” model of clonal reprogramming. Selection pressure on the growing tumor can drive such reprogramming and increase its genetic diversity.

  12. Cancer Stem Cells of Differentiated B-Cell Malignancies: Models and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Emilie; Quillet-Mary, Anne; Ysebaert, Loic; Laurent, Guy; Fournie, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors and cancers of the primitive hematopoietic compartment. Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such as multiple myeloma, lymphomas and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a “top-to-bottom” clonal hierarchy from memory B-cells and a “bottom-to-top” model of clonal reprogramming. Selection pressure on the growing tumor can drive such reprogramming and increase its genetic diversity

  13. Cancer Stem Cells of Differentiated B-Cell Malignancies: Models and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Fournie

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors and cancers of the primitive hematopoietic compartment. Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such as multiple myeloma, lymphomas and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a “top-to-bottom” clonal hierarchy from memory B-cells and a “bottom-to-top” model of clonal reprogramming. Selection pressure on the growing tumor can drive such reprogramming and increase its genetic diversity.

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells promote CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell proliferation with preserved red blood cell differentiation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Show Xuan; Leong, Yin Yee; Ng, Wai Hoe; Ng, Albert Wee Po; Ismail, Ida Shazrina; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ramasamy, Rajesh; Tan, Jun Jie

    2017-06-01

    Studies showed that co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cord blood-derived CD34 + hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offered greater therapeutic effects but little is known regarding the effects of human Wharton's jelly derived MSCs on HSC expansion and red blood cell (RBC) generation in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effects of MSCs on HSC expansion and differentiation. HSCs were co-cultured with MSCs or with 10% MSCs-derived conditioned medium, with HSCs cultured under standard medium served as a control. Cell expansion rates, number of mononuclear cell post-expansion and number of enucleated cells post-differentiation were evaluated. HSCs showed superior proliferation in the presence of MSC with mean expansion rate of 3.5 × 10 8  ± 1.8 × 10 7 after day 7 compared to the conditioned medium and the control group (8.9 × 10 7  ± 1.1 × 10 8 and 7.0 × 1