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Sample records for cell differentiation shedding

  1. SHED: Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Miura, Masako; Gronthos, Stan; Zhao, Mingrui; Lu, Bai; Fisher, Larry W.; Robey, Pamela Gehron; Shi, Songtao

    2003-01-01

    To isolate high-quality human postnatal stem cells from accessible resources is an important goal for stem-cell research. In this study we found that exfoliated human deciduous tooth contains multipotent stem cells [stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED)]. SHED were identified to be a population of highly proliferative, clonogenic cells capable of differentiating into a variety of cell types including neural cells, adipocytes, and odontoblasts. After in vivo transplantation, ...

  2. SHED - Basic Structure for Stem Cell Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kashyap, Rucha

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that stem cells from dental pulp are capable of differentiating into endothelial cells raised the exciting possibility that these cells can be a single source of odontoblasts and vascular networks in dental tissue engineering. These so-called mesenchymal stem cell populations have been identified from human exfoliated deciduous teeth because of their ability to generate clonogenic adherent colonies when grown and expanded. In addition to these stem cells, other population of ste...

  3. Shedding light on biology of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes P; Basler, Marek

    2016-11-01

    To understand basic principles of living organisms one has to know many different properties of all cellular components, their mutual interactions but also their amounts and spatial organization. Live-cell imaging is one possible approach to obtain such data. To get multiple snapshots of a cellular process, the imaging approach has to be gentle enough to not disrupt basic functions of the cell but also have high temporal and spatial resolution to detect and describe the changes. Light microscopy has become a method of choice and since its early development over 300 years ago revolutionized our understanding of living organisms. As most cellular components are indistinguishable from the rest of the cellular contents, the second revolution came from a discovery of specific labelling techniques, such as fusions to fluorescent proteins that allowed specific tracking of a component of interest. Currently, several different tags can be tracked independently and this allows us to simultaneously monitor the dynamics of several cellular components and from the correlation of their dynamics to infer their respective functions. It is, therefore, not surprising that live-cell fluorescence microscopy significantly advanced our understanding of basic cellular processes. Current cameras are fast enough to detect changes with millisecond time resolution and are sensitive enough to detect even a few photons per pixel. Together with constant improvement of properties of fluorescent tags, it is now possible to track single molecules in living cells over an extended period of time with a great temporal resolution. The parallel development of new illumination and detection techniques allowed breaking the diffraction barrier and thus further pushed the resolution limit of light microscopy. In this review, we would like to cover recent advances in live-cell imaging technology relevant to bacterial cells and provide a few examples of research that has been possible due to imaging

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs induce immune modulatory profile in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Fernando de Sá Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells have prominent immune modulatory properties, which may have clinical applications; however their major source, bone marrow, is of limited availability. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs are readily accessible, but their immune regulatory properties have not been completely investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to evaluate the SHEDs influence on DCs differentiation, maturation, ability to activate T cells and to expand CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The experiments were based in cellular co-culture during differentiation and maturation of monocyte derived-DCs (moDCs, with, or not, presence of SHEDs. After co-culture with SHEDs, (moDCs presented lower expression of BDCA-1 and CD11c, in comparison to DC cultivated without SHEDs. CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 levels were also decreased in mature DCs (mDCs after co-cultivation with SHEDs. To assess the ability of SHEDs-exposed moDCs to modulate T cell responses, the former were separated from SHEDs, and co-cultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes. After 5 days, the proliferation of CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells was evaluated and found to be lower than that induced by moDCs cultivated without SHEDs. In addition, an increase in the proportion of CD4(+Foxp3(+IL-10(+ T cells was observed among cells stimulated by mature moDCs that were previously cultivated with SHEDs. Soluble factors released during co-cultures also showed a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ, and an increase in the anti-inflammatory molecule IL-10. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that SHEDs induce an immune regulatory phenotype in moDCs cells, evidenced by changes in maturation and differentiation rates, inhibition of lymphocyte stimulation and ability to expand CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells. Further characterization and validation of this phenomenon could support the use of SHEDs

  5. Stem Cells from Human-Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Can Differentiate into Dopaminergic Neuron-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Zuoli; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Hui; Shi, Songtao; Wang, Songlin

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have been identified as a novel population of postnatal stem cells capable of differentiating into neural cells, odontogenic cells, and adipocytes. SHED were reported to differentiate into neural cells based on cellular morphology and the expression of early neuronal markers when cultured under neural inductive conditions. This study therefore investigated the therapeutic efficacy of SHED in alleviating Parkinson's disease (PD) in a rat ...

  6. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

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    Gemma Chiva-Blanch

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger

  7. Differentiation and cancer in the mammary gland: shedding light on an old dichotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Rønnov-Jessen, L; Weaver, V M;

    1998-01-01

    of differentiation of normal breast and carcinomas are discussed with emphasis on their possible implications for tumor therapy. So far, most of the emphasis regarding differentiation therapy of tumors has been focused on the possible action of soluble factors, such as colony-stimulating factors in leukemias......In this brief review, the development of breast cancer is discussed from the vantage of phenotypic differentiation, similar to what has been considered over the years for leukemias and melanomas, both of which express easily visible differentiation markers (Hart and Easty, 1991; Clarke et al., 1995......; Lynch, 1995; Sachs, 1996; Sledge, 1996). The review is divided into a theoretical background for human breast differentiation and a discussion of recent experimental results in our laboratories with differentiation of breast epithelial cells. In the theoretical background, in situ markers...

  8. Acceleration of epithelial cell syndecan-1 shedding by anthrax hemolytic virulence factors

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    Chandhoke Vikas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been recently reported that major pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accelerate a normal process of cell surface syndecan-1 (Synd1 ectodomain shedding as a mechanism of host damage due to the production of shedding-inducing virulence factors. We tested if acceleration of Synd1 shedding takes place in vitro upon treatment of epithelial cells with B. anthracis hemolysins, as well as in vivo during anthrax infection in mice. Results The isolated anthrax hemolytic proteins AnlB (sphingomyelinase and AnlO (cholesterol-binding pore-forming factor, as well as ClnA (B. cereus homolog of B. anthracis phosphatidyl choline-preferring phospholipase C cause accelerated shedding of Synd1 and E-cadherin from epithelial cells and compromise epithelial barrier integrity within a few hours. In comparison with hemolysins in a similar range of concentrations, anthrax lethal toxin (LT also accelerates shedding albeit at slower rate. Individual components of LT, lethal factor and protective antigen are inactive with regard to shedding. Inhibition experiments favor a hypothesis that activities of tested bacterial shedding inducers converge on the stimulation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Syk family, ultimately leading to activation of cellular sheddase. Both LT and AnlO modulate ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, while JNK pathway seems to be irrelevant to accelerated shedding. Accelerated shedding of Synd1 also takes place in DBA/2 mice challenged with Bacillus anthracis (Sterne spores. Elevated levels of shed ectodomain are readily detectable in circulation after 24 h. Conclusion The concerted acceleration of shedding by several virulence factors could represent a new pathogenic mechanism contributing to disruption of epithelial or endothelial integrity, hemorrhage, edema and abnormal cell signaling during anthrax infection.

  9. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Steven M.; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering...

  10. Microfluidic isolation of cancer-cell-derived microvesicles from hetergeneous extracellular shed vesicle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven M; Antonyak, Marc A; Cerione, Richard A; Kirby, Brian J

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles, are disseminated throughout the body and represent an important conduit of cell communication. Cancer-cell-derived microvesicles have potential as a cancer biomarker as they help shape the tumor microenvironment to promote the growth of the primary tumor and prime the metastatic niche. It is likely that, in cancer cell cultures, the two constituent extracellular shed vesicle subpopulations, observed in dynamic light scattering, represent an exosome population and a cancer-cell-specific microvesicle population and that extracellular shed vesicle size provides information about provenance and cargo. We have designed and implemented a novel microfluidic technology that separates microvesicles, as a function of diameter, from heterogeneous populations of cancer-cell-derived extracellular shed vesicles. We measured cargo carried by the microvesicle subpopulation processed through this microfluidic platform. Such analyses could enable future investigations to more accurately and reliably determine provenance, functional activity, and mechanisms of transformation in cancer. PMID:25342569

  11. Patterning Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of cell differentiation and assembly remains a fundamental question in developmental biology. Now, a report from the Chen laboratory (Ruiz and Chen, 2008) describes an approach that represents a major step toward a more profound understanding of the geometric-force control of stem cell differentiation.

  12. Ghrelin and cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Wenjiao An; Weizhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a gastric hormone that has been found to have a wide variety of biological functions. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of ghrelin on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  14. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), but not interferon-γ and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1β and TNF-α correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1β and TNF-α, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  15. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menschikowski, Mario, E-mail: Mario.Menschikowski@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  16. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Shed Amphiregulin at the Surface of Lung Carcinoma Cells in a Juxtacrine Manner

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    Oriane Carnet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid tumors comprise cancer cells and different supportive stromal cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, which have recently been shown to enhance tumor growth and metastasis. We provide new mechanistic insights into how bone marrow (BM–derived MSCs co-injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells promote tumor growth and metastasis in mice. The proinvasive effect of BM-MSCs exerted on tumor cells relies on an unprecedented juxtacrine action of BM-MSC, leading to the trans-shedding of amphiregulin (AREG from the tumor cell membrane by tumor necrosis factor-α–converting enzyme carried by the BM-MSC plasma membrane. The released soluble AREG activates cancer cells and promotes their invasiveness. This novel concept is supported by the exploitation of different 2D and 3D culture systems and by pharmacological approaches using a tumor necrosis factor-α–converting enzyme inhibitor and AREG-blocking antibodies. Altogether, we here assign a new function to BM-MSC in tumor progression and establish an uncovered link between AREG and BM-MSC.

  17. Force Balance and Membrane Shedding at the Red-Blood-Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Pierre; Gov, Nir

    2007-01-01

    During the aging of the red-blood cell, or under conditions of extreme echinocytosis, membrane is shed from the cell plasma membrane in the form of nanovesicles. We propose that this process is the result of the self-adaptation of the membrane surface area to the elastic stress imposed by the spectrin cytoskeleton, via the local buckling of membrane under increasing cytoskeleton stiffness. This model introduces the concept of force balance as a regulatory process at the cell membrane and quantitatively reproduces the rate of area loss in aging red-blood cells.

  18. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth differentiate toward neural cells in a medium dynamically cultured with Schwann cells in a series of polydimethylsiloxanes scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wen-Ta; Pan, Yu-Jing

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Schwann cells (SCs) are primary structural and functional cells in the peripheral nervous system. These cells play a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration by releasing neurotrophic factors. This study evaluated the neural differentiation potential effects of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) in a rat Schwann cell (RSC) culture medium. Approach. SHEDs and RSCs were individually cultured on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold, and the effects of the RSC medium on the SHEDs differentiation between static and dynamic cultures were compared. Main results. Results demonstrated that the SHED cells differentiated by the RSC cultured medium in the static culture formed neurospheres after 7 days at the earliest, and SHED cells formed neurospheres within 3 days in the dynamic culture. These results confirm that the RSC culture medium can induce neurospheres formation, the speed of formation and the number of neurospheres (19.16 folds high) in a dynamic culture was superior to the static culture for 3 days culture. The SHED-derived spheres were further incubated in the RSCs culture medium, these neurospheres continuously differentiated into neurons and neuroglial cells. Immunofluorescent staining and RT-PCR revealed nestin, β-III tubulin, GFAP, and γ-enolase of neural markers on the differentiated cells. Significance. These results indicated that the RSC culture medium can induce the neural differentiation of SHED cells, and can be used as a new therapeutic tool to repair nerve damage.

  19. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells on modified chitosan scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium has an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. In this study, the effects of strontium phosphate on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs were investigated. Strontium phosphate was found to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs with up-regulated osteoblast-related gene expression. The proliferation of SHEDs was slightly inhibited by chitosan scaffolds; however, type-I collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition on chitosan scaffolds containing strontium were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, cells seeded in a 3D scaffold under dynamic culture at an optimal fluid rate might enhance cellular differentiation than static culture in osteoblastic gene expression. This experiment might provide a useful cell resource and dynamic 3D culture for tissue engineering and bone repair. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs • 3D scaffold under dynamic culture with optimal fluid rate enhance cellular differentiation

  20. Osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells on modified chitosan scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Pai-Shuen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ko, Chih-Sheng [PhytoHealth Corporation, Maywufa Biopharma Group, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Te-Yang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium has an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. In this study, the effects of strontium phosphate on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs were investigated. Strontium phosphate was found to enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs with up-regulated osteoblast-related gene expression. The proliferation of SHEDs was slightly inhibited by chitosan scaffolds; however, type-I collagen expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition on chitosan scaffolds containing strontium were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, cells seeded in a 3D scaffold under dynamic culture at an optimal fluid rate might enhance cellular differentiation than static culture in osteoblastic gene expression. This experiment might provide a useful cell resource and dynamic 3D culture for tissue engineering and bone repair. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs • 3D scaffold under dynamic culture with optimal fluid rate enhance cellular differentiation.

  1. Determining Influenza Virus Shedding at Different Time Points in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cell Line

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    Asghar Abdoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monitoring of influenza virus shedding and optimization of multiplicities of infection (MOI is important in the investigation of a virus one step growth cycle and for obtaining a high yield of virus in vaccine development and conventional basic diagnostic methods. However, eluted infectious viruses may still be present immediately after virus inoculation and when cells are washed following virus cultivation which may lead to a false positive virus infectivity assay.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we investigated influenza virus progeny production in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells with five different MOI at determined time points. The results were analyzed by end point titration tests and immunofluorescence assay.Results: Higher titers of eluted virus were observed following a high MOI inoculation of virus in cell culture. Most probably, this was the result of sialic acid residues from viral hemagglutin in proteins that were cleaved by neuraminidase glycoproteins on the surface of the influenza virus, which promoted viral spread from the host cell to the culture supernatant or during endocytosis, where viruses recycle to the cell surface by recycling endosomes which culminated in virus shedding without replication.Conclusion: We demonstrated that the pattern of influenza virus progeny production was dose-dependent and not uniform. This production was influenced by several factors, particularly MOI. Understanding the exact features of viral particle propagation has a major impact in producing high virus yields in the development of vaccines. Use of lower MOI (0.01 could result in accurate, precise quantitative assays in virus diagnosis and titration methods.

  2. Soluble HLA-G generated by proteolytic shedding inhibits NK-mediated cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyu Man; Lee, Sunray; Park, Boyoun; Kim, Eunkyung; Shin, Jinwook; Cho, Kwangmin; Ahn, Kwangseog

    2004-01-16

    In contrast to the classical HLA class Ia molecules, the nonclassical HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced to generate several mRNAs that encode four membrane-bound and three soluble isoforms. This study demonstrated that the soluble form of HLA-G can also be generated by metalloproteinase-dependent shedding at post-translational level. These soluble HLA-G1 molecules generated by the cleavage of membrane-bound HLA-G1 associate with beta2-microglobulin and contain bound peptides that are stable at physiological conditions. This report further showed that the soluble HLA-G1 is able to protect HLA class I-negative K562 cells from NK lysis, suggesting that soluble HLA-G could act as an immunoregulator in NK cell recognition and possibly in other immune responses.

  3. Membrane Vesicles as a Novel Strategy for Shedding Encrusted Cell Surfaces

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    Paul P. Shao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface encrustation by minerals, which impedes cellular metabolism, is a potential hazard for microbes. The reduction of U(VI to U(IV by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 leads to the precipitation of the mineral uraninite, as well as a non-crystalline U(IV product. The wild-type (WT strain can produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, prompting precipitation of U some distance from the cells and precluding encrustation. Using cryo-transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy we show that, in the biofilm-deficient mutant ∆mxdA, as well as in the WT strain to a lesser extent, we observe the formation of membrane vesicles (MVs as an additional means to lessen encrustation. Additionally, under conditions in which the WT does not produce EPS, formation of MVs was the only observed mechanism to mitigate cell encrustation. Viability studies comparing U-free controls to cells exposed to U showed a decrease in the number of viable cells in conditions where MVs alone are detected, yet no loss of viability when cells produce both EPS and MVs. We conclude that MV formation is a microbial strategy to shed encrusted cell surfaces but is less effective at maintaining cell viability than the precipitation of U on EPS.

  4. Regulation of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Ectodomain Shedding and Its Role in Cell Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, Alex; Kwak, Taekyoung; Jules, Joel; Harja, Evis; Landgraf, Ralf; Hudson, Barry I

    2016-06-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand transmembrane receptor that can undergo proteolysis at the cell surface to release a soluble ectodomain. Here we observed that ectodomain shedding of RAGE is critical for its role in regulating signaling and cellular function. Ectodomain shedding of both human and mouse RAGE was dependent on ADAM10 activity and induced with chemical activators of shedding (ionomycin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate) and endogenous stimuli (serum and RAGE ligands). Ectopic expression of the splice variant of RAGE (RAGE splice variant 4), which is resistant to ectodomain shedding, inhibited RAGE ligand dependent cell signaling, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, cell spreading, and cell migration. We found that blockade of RAGE ligand signaling with soluble RAGE or inhibitors of MAPK or PI3K blocked RAGE-dependent cell migration but did not affect RAGE splice variant 4 cell migration. We finally demonstrated that RAGE function is dependent on secretase activity as ADAM10 and γ-secretase inhibitors blocked RAGE ligand-mediated cell migration. Together, our data suggest that proteolysis of RAGE is critical to mediate signaling and cell function and may therefore emerge as a novel therapeutic target for RAGE-dependent disease states. PMID:27022018

  5. Sulfamate inhibitor S4 influences carbonic anhydrase IX ectodomain shedding in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hektoen, Helga Helseth; Ree, Anne Hansen; Redalen, Kathrine Røe; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2016-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a pivotal pH regulator under hypoxia, which by its tumor-specific expression represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Here, we report on effects of the sulfamate CAIX inhibitor S4 (4-(3'-(3″,5″-dimethylphenyl)ureido)phenyl sulfamate) in colorectal carcinoma cell lines. S4 was administered under experimental hypoxia or normoxia to HT29, KM20L2 and HCT116 cells. Effects on survival, proliferation, pH, lactate extrusion and CAIX protein expression were evaluated. S4 treatment resulted in attenuated hypoxia-induced extracellular acidification and reduced clonogenic survival under hypoxia in HT29 cells. The pH effects were present only in a [Formula: see text]-free buffer system and were accompanied by decreased lactate extrusion. The main finding of this work was that S4 treatment caused alterations in CAIX ectodomain shedding. This merits further investigation to understand how sulfamates influence CAIX activity and how such drugs may be of use in cancer treatment. PMID:26244271

  6. Isolation, characterization and multi-lineage differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, NAN; CHEN, BAOXING; WANG, WEI; CHEN, CHAO; KANG, JIE; DENG, SAMUEL QINNAN; ZHANG, BIN; LIU, SHUWEI; HAN, FABIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) and identify their phenotypes and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Three SHED cell strains were successfully isolated from three exfoliated deciduous teeth from different human subjects using the outgrowth method. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that SHEDs displayed high expression of the mesenchymal cell markers CD73 and CD90 but low expression of the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34. PCR analysis illustrated that SHEDs expressed the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73 and CD90, the osteoblast markers Alpl, Runx2, CBFA1 and collagen I, the cartilage cell markers Col10a1 and Acan, the adipose cell markers PPARγ2 and LPL, and the neuronal stem cell marker Nestin. In vitro induction experiments demonstrated the potential of the SHEDs for osteogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic differentiation. These SHED cells may be useful for further stem cell research and future therapeutic applications. PMID:27151462

  7. Dopaminergic differentiation of stem cells from human deciduous teeth and their therapeutic benefits for Parkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiromi; Matsubara, Kohki; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ito, Mikako; Ohno, Kinji; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons and the depletion of striatal dopamine. Here we show that DAergic-neuron-like cells could be efficiently induced from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), and that these induced cells had therapeutic benefits in a 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat model. In our protocol, EGF and bFGF signaling activated the SHED's expression of proneural genes, Ngn2 and Mash1, and subsequent treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoted their maturation into DAergic neuron-like SHEDs (dSHEDs). A hypoxic DAergic differentiation protocol improved cell viability and enhanced the expression of multiple neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, GDNF, NT-3, and HGF. Engrafted dSHEDs survived in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats, improved the DA level more efficiently than engrafted undifferentiated SHEDs, and promoted the recovery from neurological deficits. Our findings further suggested that paracrine effects of dSHEDs contributed to neuroprotection against 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration and to nigrostriatal tract restoration. In addition, we found that the conditioned medium derived from dSHEDs protected primary neurons against 6-OHDA toxicity and accelerated neurite outgrowth in vitro. Thus, our data suggest that stem cells derived from dental pulp may have therapeutic benefits for PD.

  8. Osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth induced by thermosensitive hydrogels with strontium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a novel source of multi-potential stem cells for tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium exhibits an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. The association of hydrogels with cell viability is determined using biological tests, including rheological experiments. In this study, osteogenic differentiation was investigated through SHED encapsulation in hydrogels containing strontium phosphate. Results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining indicated that the cells grew well and SHEDs proliferated in the hydrogels. Strontium-loaded chitosan-based hydrogels induced the biomineralization and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the expression levels of bone-related genes, including type-I collagen, Runx2, osteopontin (OP), and osteonectin (ON), were up-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Elucidating the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. • Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. • Bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering

  9. Osteoblastic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth induced by thermosensitive hydrogels with strontium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wei-Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chih-Ming [Department of Biochemistry, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are a novel source of multi-potential stem cells for tissue engineering because of their potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Strontium exhibits an important function in bone remodeling because it can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. The association of hydrogels with cell viability is determined using biological tests, including rheological experiments. In this study, osteogenic differentiation was investigated through SHED encapsulation in hydrogels containing strontium phosphate. Results of 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunofluorescence staining indicated that the cells grew well and SHEDs proliferated in the hydrogels. Strontium-loaded chitosan-based hydrogels induced the biomineralization and high expression of alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, the expression levels of bone-related genes, including type-I collagen, Runx2, osteopontin (OP), and osteonectin (ON), were up-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Elucidating the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate can enhance the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. • Hydrogels can mimic the natural cellular environment. • Bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Feeding of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 differentially affects shedding of enteric viruses in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuzer Susanne

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effects of probiotic bacteria on viral infections have been described previously. Here, two groups of sows and their piglets were fed with or without feed supplementation of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415. Shedding of enteric viruses naturally occurring in these pigs was analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. No differences between the groups were recorded for hepatitis E virus, encephalomyocarditis virus and norovirus. In contrast, astrovirus was exclusively detected in the non-supplemented control group. Rotavirus was shedded later and with lower amounts in the probiotic piglet group (p p p p p p 

  11. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into corneal epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhichong; LIU Jingbo; GE Jian; HUANG Bing; GAO Qianying; LIU Bingqian; WANG Linghua; YU Ling; FAN Zhigang; LU Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Our project was to determine whether embryonic stem (ES) cells could be induced to differentiate into corneal epithelia by superficial corneoscleral limbal stroma. To achieve this goal, ES-GFP cell line D3 was pre-induced by retinoic acid (RA). The pre-induced cells were seeded on deepithelialized superficial corneoscleral slices (SCSS) to form a monolayer, and divided into three groups. Group 1 was cultured and passaged in vitro for direct detection. Group 2 was exposed to air-liquid interfaces for 10 days and implanted into the subcutaneous layer of nude mice for 2 weeks for further induction in vivo. Group 3 was cultured in vitro without any inducing factors for control. There were no teratomas found in nude mice which were implanted with differentiated ES cells after two weeks. The differentiated cells showed an appearance of epithelia both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of CK3, P63 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemical staining in the differentiated cells in group 1 and 2. Microvillis and zonula occludens were observed on the surface of the differentiated cells under an electron microscope. In the control group, ES cells differentiated freely without any inducing factors. Most cells were shed and formed a neuronal dendrite-like structure, and a minority of cells appeared polymorphic. These results demonstrate that ES cells can differentiate into corneal epithelia on the surface of SCSS under the controlled condition. Differentiated ES cells could be used as epithelial seeding cells for the reconstruction of ocular surface and corneal tissue engineering in the future.

  12. Novel management of acute or secondary biliary liver conditions using hepatically differentiated human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Yaegaki, Ken; Imai, Toshio; Tanaka, Tomoko; Fushimi, Naho; Mitev, Vanyo; Okada, Mio; Tominaga, Noriko; Ono, Sachie; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    The current definitive treatment for acute or chronic liver condition, that is, cirrhosis, is liver transplantation from a limited number of donors, which might cause complications after donation. Hence, bone marrow stem cell transplantation has been developed, but the risk of carcinogenesis remains. We have recently developed a protocol for hepatic differentiation of CD117(+) stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). In the present study, we examine whether SHED hepatically differentiated (hd) in vitro could be used to treat acute liver injury (ALI) and secondary biliary cirrhosis. The CD117(+) cell fraction was magnetically separated from SHED and then differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro. The cells were transplanted into rats with either ALI or induced secondary biliary cirrhosis. Engraftment of human liver cells was determined immunohistochemically and by in situ hybridization. Recovery of liver function was examined by means of histochemical and serological tests. Livers of transplanted animals were strongly positive for human immunohistochemical factors, and in situ hybridization confirmed engraftment of human hepatocytes. The tests for recovery of liver function confirmed the presence of human hepatic markers in the animals' blood serum and lack of fibrosis and functional integration of transplanted human cells into livers. No evidence of malignancy was found. We show that in vitro hdSHED engraft morphologically and functionally into the livers of rats having acute injury or secondary biliary cirrhosis. SHED are readily accessible adult stem cells, capable of proliferating in large numbers before differentiating in vitro. This makes SHED an appropriate and safe stem cell source for regenerative medicine. PMID:25234861

  13. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  14. FcγRIIB on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells is essential for antibody-induced GPVI ectodomain shedding in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegner, David; Popp, Michael; Lorenz, Viola; Wax, Jacqueline K; Gessner, J Engelbert; Nieswandt, Bernhard

    2016-08-11

    The activating platelet collagen receptor glycoprotein VI (GPVI) is a promising antithrombotic target because of its central role in arterial thrombosis and its minor relevance for normal hemostasis. The receptor can be specifically targeted by antibodies and irreversibly downregulated in circulating platelets in vivo, resulting in long-term antithrombotic protection in mice. This GPVI immunodepletion predominantly occurs through ectodomain shedding, which is accompanied by a transient drop in peripheral platelet counts. Mechanistic studies on this targeted GPVI loss have been hampered because it cannot be reproduced in isolated platelets in vitro. Here we show that both the transient thrombocytopenia and GPVI ectodomain shedding depend on the Fc portion of the anti-GPVI antibody and its interaction with the inhibitory Fcγ receptor (FcγR)IIB. In wild-type, but not Fcgr2b(-/-) mice, anti-GPVI-opsonized platelets became transiently trapped in the liver followed by the appearance of the soluble GPVI ectodomain in the plasma. Depletion of Kupffer cells neither affected anti-GPVI-induced platelet accumulation nor GPVI shedding, demonstrating that the other major FcγRIIB-expressing cell type, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, is required for both processes to occur. These results reveal a novel and unexpected function of hepatic FcγRIIB in the targeted downregulation of GPVI in vivo. PMID:27297794

  15. Syndecan-2 enhances E-cadherin shedding and fibroblast-like morphological changes by inducing MMP-7 expression in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bohee; Jung, Hyejung; Chung, Heesung; Moon, Byung-In; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2016-08-12

    E-cadherin plays a mechanical role in mediating cell-cell interactions and maintaining epithelial tissue integrity, and the loss of E-cadherin function has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis. Syndecan-2, a cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is upregulated during the development of colon cancer. Here, we assessed the functional relationship between E-cadherin and syndecan-2. We found that stable overexpression of syndecan-2 in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) enhanced the proteolytic shedding of E-cadherin to conditioned-media. Either knockdown of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7) or inhibition of MMP-7 activity using GM6001 significantly reduced the extracellular shedding of E-cadherin, suggesting that syndecan-2 mediates E-cadherin shedding via MMP-7. Consistent with this notion, enhancement of MMP-7 expression by interleukin-1α treatment increased the shedding of E-cadherin. Conversely, the specific reduction of either syndecan-2 or MMP-7 reduced the shedding of E-cadherin. HT29 cells overexpressing syndecan-2 showed significantly lower cell-surface expression of E-cadherin, decreased cell-cell contact, a more fibroblastic cell morphology, and increased expression levels of ZEB-1. Taken together, these data suggest that syndecan-2 induces extracellular shedding of E-cadherin and supports the acquisition of a fibroblast-like morphology by regulating MMP-7 expression in a colon cancer cell line.

  16. Osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth on poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibers containing strontium phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen-Ta, E-mail: f10549@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Pai-Shuen [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Huang, Te-Yang [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the architecture of the extracellular matrix is an effective strategy for tissue engineering. Composite nanofibers similar to natural bone structure can be prepared via an electrospinning technique and used in biomedical applications. Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) can differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as cells that are alternative sources of stem cells for tissue engineering. Strontium has important functions in bone remodeling; for example, this element can simulate bone formation and decrease bone resorption. Incorporating strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. This study investigated the potential of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. Cellular morphology and MTT assay revealed that nanofibers effectively support cellular attachment, spreading, and proliferation. Strontium-loaded PCL nanofibers exhibited higher expressions of collagen type I, alkaline phosphatase, biomineralization, and bone-related genes than pure PCL nanofibers during the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs. This study demonstrated that strontium can be an effective inducer of osteogenesis for SHEDs. Understanding the function of bioceramics (such as strontium) is useful in designing and developing strategies for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • SHEDs have been considered as alternative sources of adult stem cells in tissue engineering. • Strontium phosphate into nanofibers provides a potential material for bone tissue engineering. • Nanofibers coated or blended with strontium phosphate for the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs.

  17. Minimal model for stem-cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yusuke; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2013-09-01

    To explain the differentiation of stem cells in terms of dynamical systems theory, models of interacting cells with intracellular protein expression dynamics are analyzed and simulated. Simulations were carried out for all possible protein expression networks consisting of two genes under cell-cell interactions mediated by the diffusion of a protein. Networks that show cell differentiation are extracted and two forms of symmetric differentiation based on Turing's mechanism and asymmetric differentiation are identified. In the latter network, the intracellular protein levels show oscillatory dynamics at a single-cell level, while cell-to-cell synchronicity of the oscillation is lost with an increase in the number of cells. Differentiation to a fixed-point-type behavior follows with a further increase in the number of cells. The cell type with oscillatory dynamics corresponds to a stem cell that can both proliferate and differentiate, while the latter fixed-point type only proliferates. This differentiation is analyzed as a saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant circle, while the number ratio of each cell type is shown to be robust against perturbations due to self-consistent determination of the effective bifurcation parameter as a result of the cell-cell interaction. Complex cell differentiation is designed by combing these simple two-gene networks. The generality of the present differentiation mechanism, as well as its biological relevance, is discussed.

  18. Differentiation into Endoderm Lineage: Pancreatic differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Hyeon; Chung, Hyung Min

    2011-01-01

    The endoderm gives rise to digestive and respiratory tracts, thyroid, liver, and pancreas. Representative disease of endoderm lineages is type 1 diabetes resulting from destruction of the insulin-producing β cells. Generation of functional β cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro can be practical, renewable cell source for replacement cell therapy for type 1 diabetes. It has been achieved by progressive instructive differentiation through each of the developmental stages. In this...

  19. Nuclear Mechanics and Stem Cell Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xinjian; Gavara, Nuria; Song, Guanbin

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential. Stem cell differentiation is a prerequisite for the application of stem cells in regenerative medicine and clinical therapy. In addition to chemical stimulation, mechanical cues play a significant role in regulating stem cell differentiation. The integrity of mechanical sensors is necessary for the ability of cells to respond to mechanical signals. The nucleus, the largest and stiffest cellular organelle, interacts with the cytoskeleton as a key mediator of cell mechanics. Nuclear mechanics are involved in the complicated interactions of lamins, chromatin and nucleoskeleton-related proteins. Thus, stem cell differentiation is intimately associated with nuclear mechanics due to its indispensable role in mechanotransduction and mechanical response. This paper reviews several main contributions of nuclear mechanics, highlights the hallmarks of the nuclear mechanics of stem cells, and provides insight into the relationship between nuclear mechanics and stem cell differentiation, which may guide clinical applications in the future.

  20. Regulating cell differentiation at different layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiarui Wu

    2011-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a basic behavior in the developmental process of multi-cellular organisms,through which various cell types are generated from one embryonic cell for further building different tissues and organs of animals or plants.It is estimated that there are more than two hundred cell types in a human body.To understand the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation,researchers usually focus on a question how particular genes are selectively expressed during the differentiation process.However,more and more evidence indicates that the regulation of cell differentiation is far beyond simply controlling the expression of genetic program,which is supported by the collection of four research articles in this issue that the regulation of cell differentiation involves various factors at different layers,including epigenetics,metabolism and cell-cell interaction.

  1. Neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dhara, Sujoy K.; Stice, Steven L.

    2008-01-01

    Availability of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has enhanced human neural differentiation research. The derivation of neural progenitor (NP) cells from hESC facilitates the integration of human embryonic development through the generation of neuronal subtypes and supporting glial cells. These cells will likely lead to new and novel drug screening and cell therapy uses. This review will discuss the current status of derivation, maintenance and further differentiation of NP cells with special...

  2. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J; Li, H T; Li, S H; Li, X; Duan, J M

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP) would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20%) enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing. PMID:27599200

  3. Isologous diversification a theory of cell differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1996-01-01

    Isologous diversification theory for cell differentiation is proposed, based on simulations of interacting cells with biochemical networks and cell division process following consumption of some chemicals. According to the simulations of the interaction-based dynamical systems model, the following scenario of the cell differentiation is proposed. (1) Up to some threshold number, divisions bring about almost identical cells with synchronized biochemical oscillations. (2)As the number is increased the oscillations lose the synchrony, leading to groups of cells with different phases of oscillations. (3)Amplitudes of oscillation and averaged chemical compositions start to differ by groups of cells. The differentiated behavior of states is transmitted to daughter cells. (4)Recursivity is formed so that the daughter cells keep the identical chemical character. This ``memory" is made possible through the transfer of initial conditions. (5) Successive differentiation proceeds. Mechanism of tumor cell formation, origi...

  4. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund;

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...

  5. Cancerous epithelial cell lines shed extracellular vesicles with a bimodal size distribution that is sensitive to glutamine inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Steven Michael; Antonyak, Marc A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular shed vesicles (ESVs) facilitate a unique mode of cell-cell communication wherein vesicle uptake can induce a change in the recipient cell's state. Despite the intensity of ESV research, currently reported data represent the bulk characterization of concentrated vesicle samples with little attention paid to heterogeneity. ESV populations likely represent diversity in mechanisms of formation, cargo and size. To better understand ESV subpopulations and the signaling cascades implicated in their formation, we characterize ESV size distributions to identify subpopulations in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. We have discovered that cancer cells exhibit bimodal ESV distributions, one small-diameter and another large-diameter population, suggesting that two mechanisms may govern ESV formation, an exosome population and a cancer-specific microvesicle population. Altered glutamine metabolism in cancer is thought to fuel cancer growth but may also support metastatic niche formation through microvesicle production. We describe the role of a glutaminase inhibitor, compound 968, in ESV production. We have discovered that inhibiting glutamine metabolism significantly impairs large-diameter microvesicle production in cancer cells.

  6. STEM CELLS: Differentiated cells in a back-up role

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Tushar J.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Two independent studies show that, if push comes to shove, differentiated cells of the stomach and lung can act as adult stem cells generating various cell types of the tissue, including a pool of stem cells.

  7. Inhibitory effects of three diketopiperazines from marine-derived bacteria on endothelial protein C receptor shedding in human endothelial cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Hyukjae; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Diketopiperazine is a natural products found from bacteria, fungi, marine sponges, gorgonian and red algae. They are cyclic dipeptides possessing relatively simple and rigid structures with chiral nature and various side chains. The compounds in this structure class have been known to possess diverse bioactivities including antibiotic activity, anti-cancer activity, neuroprotective activity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway and in the activation of protein C. Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). However, little is known about the effects of diketopiperazine on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of diketopiperazine on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding in mice and underlying mechanism. Here, three (1-3) of diketopiperazines were isolated from two strains of marine-derived bacteria and 1-3 induced potent inhibition of PMA-, TNF-α-, IL-1β (in HUVECs), and CLP-induced EPCR shedding (in mice) via inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38, janus kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. 1-3 also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in HUVECs suggesting that p38, ERK1/2, and JNK could be molecular targets of 1-3. These results demonstrate the potential of 1-3 as an anti-EPCR shedding reagent against PMA-mediated and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding. PMID:27012760

  8. Inhibitory effects of three diketopiperazines from marine-derived bacteria on endothelial protein C receptor shedding in human endothelial cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Choi, Hyukjae; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Diketopiperazine is a natural products found from bacteria, fungi, marine sponges, gorgonian and red algae. They are cyclic dipeptides possessing relatively simple and rigid structures with chiral nature and various side chains. The compounds in this structure class have been known to possess diverse bioactivities including antibiotic activity, anti-cancer activity, neuroprotective activity, and anti-inflammatory activity. The endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) plays an important role in the cytoprotective pathway and in the activation of protein C. Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) can be shed from the cell surface, which is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). However, little is known about the effects of diketopiperazine on EPCR shedding. We investigated this issue by monitoring the effects of diketopiperazine on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1β-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-mediated EPCR shedding in mice and underlying mechanism. Here, three (1-3) of diketopiperazines were isolated from two strains of marine-derived bacteria and 1-3 induced potent inhibition of PMA-, TNF-α-, IL-1β (in HUVECs), and CLP-induced EPCR shedding (in mice) via inhibition of phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38, janus kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. 1-3 also inhibited the expression and activity of PMA-induced TACE in HUVECs suggesting that p38, ERK1/2, and JNK could be molecular targets of 1-3. These results demonstrate the potential of 1-3 as an anti-EPCR shedding reagent against PMA-mediated and CLP-mediated EPCR shedding.

  9. Neurogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, M; Mikula, M; Preitschopf, A; Feichtinger, M; Schipany, K; Hengstschläger, M

    2012-05-01

    In 2003, human amniotic fluid has been shown to contain stem cells expressing Oct-4, a marker for pluripotency. This finding initiated a rapidly growing and very promising new stem cell research field. Since then, amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been demonstrated to harbour the potential to differentiate into any of the three germ layers and to form three-dimensional aggregates, so-called embryoid bodies, known as the principal step in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Marker selection and minimal dilution approaches allow the establishment of monoclonal AFS cell lineages with high proliferation potential. AFS cells have a lower risk for tumour development and do not raise the ethical issues of embryonic stem cells. Compared to induced pluripotent stem cells, AFS cells do not need exogenic treatment to induce pluripotency, are chromosomal stable and do not harbour the epigenetic memory and accumulated somatic mutations of specific differentiated source cells. Compared to adult stem cells, AFS can be grown in larger quantities and show higher differentiation potential. Accordingly, in the recent past, AFS became increasingly accepted as an optimal tool for basic research and probably also for specific cell-based therapies. Here, we review the current knowledge on the neurogenic differentiation potential of AFS cells.

  10. Cell Division, Differentiation and Dynamic Clustering

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, K; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Yomo, Tetsuya

    1993-01-01

    A novel mechanism for cell differentiation is proposed, based on the dynamic clustering in a globally coupled chaotic system. A simple model with metabolic reaction, active transport of chemicals from media, and cell division is found to show three successive stages with the growth of the number of cells; coherent growth, dynamic clustering, and fixed cell differentiation. At the last stage, disparity in activities, germ line segregation, somatic cell differentiation, and homeochaotic stability against external perturbation are found. Our results, in consistency with the experiments of the preceding paper, imply that cell differentiation can occur without a spatial pattern. From dynamical systems viewpoint, the new concept of ``open chaos" is proposed, as a novel and general scenario for systems with growing numbers of elements, also seen in economics and sociology.A

  11. Stem cell differentiation and human liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Li Zhou; Claire N Medine; Liang Zhu; David C Hay

    2012-01-01

    Human stem cells are scalable cell populations capable of cellular differentiation.This makes them a very attractive in vitro cellular resource and in theory provides unlimited amounts of primary cells.Such an approach has the potential to improve our understanding of human biology and treating disease.In the future it may be possible to deploy novel stem cell-based approaches to treat human liver diseases.In recent years,efficient hepatic differentiation from human stem cells has been achieved by several research groups including our own.In this review we provide an overview of the field and discuss the future potential and limitations of stem cell technology.

  12. Copper modulates zinc metalloproteinase-dependent ectodomain shedding of key signaling and adhesion proteins and promotes the invasion of prostate cancer epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr-Sturgess, Catherine A; Tinker, Claire L; Hart, Claire A; Brown, Michael D; Clarke, Noel W; Parkin, Edward T

    2012-10-01

    A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc metalloproteinases (ZMPs) that catalyze the "ectodomain shedding" of a range of cell surface proteins including signaling and adhesion molecules. These "sheddases" are associated with the invasion and metastasis of a range of cancers. Increased serum and tumor tissue levels of copper are also observed in several cancers, although little is known about how the metal might promote disease progression at the molecular level. In the current study, we investigated whether copper might regulate the ectodomain shedding of two key cell surface proteins implicated in the invasion and metastasis of prostate cancer, the Notch ligand Jagged1 and the adhesion molecule E-cadherin, and whether the metal was able to influence the invasion of the prostate cancer epithelial cell line PC3. Physiological copper concentrations stimulated the ZMP-mediated proteolysis of Jagged1 and E-cadherin in cell culture models, whereas other divalent metals had no effect. Copper-mediated Jagged1 proteolysis was also observed following the pretreatment of cells with cycloheximide and in a cell-free membrane system, indicating a posttranslational mechanism of sheddase activation. Finally, the concentrations of copper that stimulated ZMP-mediated protein shedding also enhanced PC3 invasion; an effect that could be negated using a sheddase inhibitor or copper chelators. Collectively, these data implicate copper as an important factor in promoting prostate cancer cell invasion and indicate that the selective posttranslational activation of ZMP-mediated protein shedding might play a role in this process.

  13. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into insulin- secreting cells

    OpenAIRE

    S Mollamohammadi; Massumi, M.; H Jafary; Baharvand, H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Type I diabetes mellitus is caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells. A new potential method for curing the disease is transplantation of differentiated insulin- secreting cells from human embryonic stem cells. Methods: Human embryonic stem cell lines (Royan H1) were used to produce embryoid bodies. Differentiation carried out by growth factor-mediated selection of nestin positive cells. In final stage, these cells were expanded in the presence of bFGF, ...

  14. Differentiation of immortal cells inhibits telomerase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, H W; Sokoloski, J A; Perez, J.R.; Maltese, J Y; Sartorelli, A C; Stein, C A; Nichols, G; Khaled, Z.; Telang, N T; Narayanan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleic acid-protein complex, adds hexameric repeats of 5'-TTAGGG-3' to the ends of mammalian chromosomal DNA (telomeres) to compensate for the progressive loss that occurs with successive rounds of DNA replication. Although somatic cells do not express telomerase, germ cells and immortalized cells, including neoplastic cells, express this activity. To determine whether the phenotypic differentiation of immortalized cells is linked to the regulation of telomerase activity, t...

  15. A Structured Population Model of Cell Differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Doumic, Marie; Perthame, Benoit; Zubelli, Jorge P

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and analyze several aspects of a new model for cell differentiation. It assumes that differentiation of progenitor cells is a continuous process. From the mathematical point of view, it is based on partial differential equations of transport type. Specifically, it consists of a structured population equation with a nonlinear feedback loop. This models the signaling process due to cytokines, which regulate the differentiation and proliferation process. We compare the continuous model to its discrete counterpart, a multi-compartmental model of a discrete collection of cell subpopulations recently proposed by Marciniak-Czochra et al. in 2009 to investigate the dynamics of the hematopoietic system. We obtain uniform bounds for the solutions, characterize steady state solutions, and analyze their linearized stability. We show how persistence or extinction might occur according to values of parameters that characterize the stem cells self-renewal. We also perform numerical simulations and discuss the q...

  16. Cell proliferation and differentiation in chemical leukemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irons, R. D.; Stillman, W. S.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tissues such as bone marrow with normally high rates of cell division, proliferation is tightly coordinated with cell differentiation. Survival, proliferation and differentiation of early hematopoietic progenitor cells depend on the growth factors, interleukin 3 (IL-3) and/or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and their synergism with other cytokines. We provide evidence that a characteristic shared by a diverse group of compounds with demonstrated leukemogenic potential is the ability to act synergistically with GM-CSF. This results in an increase in recruitment of a resting population of hematopoietic progenitor cells normally unresponsive to the cytokine and a twofold increase in the size of the proliferating cell population normally regarded to be at risk of transformation in leukemogenesis. These findings support the possibility that transient alterations in hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may be an important factor in the early stages of development of leukemia secondary to chemical or drug exposure.

  17. Differential geometry meets the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wallace F

    2013-07-18

    A new study by Terasaki et al. highlights the role of physical forces in biological form by showing that connections between stacked endoplasmic reticulum cisternae have a shape well known in classical differential geometry, the helicoid, and that this shape is a predictable consequence of membrane physics.

  18. Energy Metabolism Plays a Critical Role in Stem Cell Maintenance and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various stem cells gradually turned to be critical players in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. Current evidence has demonstrated that in addition to growth factors and the extracellular matrix, multiple metabolic pathways definitively provide important signals for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we mainly focus on a detailed overview of stem cell metabolism in vitro. In stem cell metabolic biology, the dynamic balance of each type of stem cell can vary according to the properties of each cell type, and they share some common points. Clearly defining the metabolic flux alterations in stem cells may help to shed light on stemness features and differentiation pathways that control the fate of stem cells.

  19. Energy Metabolism Plays a Critical Role in Stem Cell Maintenance and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenxia; Fan, Linxiao; Cen, Panpan; Chen, Ermei; Jiang, Zhengyi; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Various stem cells gradually turned to be critical players in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine therapies. Current evidence has demonstrated that in addition to growth factors and the extracellular matrix, multiple metabolic pathways definitively provide important signals for stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we mainly focus on a detailed overview of stem cell metabolism in vitro. In stem cell metabolic biology, the dynamic balance of each type of stem cell can vary according to the properties of each cell type, and they share some common points. Clearly defining the metabolic flux alterations in stem cells may help to shed light on stemness features and differentiation pathways that control the fate of stem cells. PMID:26901195

  20. Osteogenic Differentiation of Dental Follicle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mori, Andrea Ballini, Claudia Carbone, Angela Oranger, Giacomina Brunetti, Adriana Di Benedetto, Biagio Rapone, Stefania Cantore, Mariasevera Di Comite, Silvia Colucci, Maria Grano, Felice R. Grassi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stem cells are defined as clonogenic cells capable of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. A population of these cells has been identified in human Dental Follicle (DF.Dental Follicle Stem Cells (DFSCs were found in pediatric unerupted wisdom teeth and have been shown to differentiate, under particular conditions, into various cell types of the mesenchymal tissues.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if cells isolated from DF show stem features, differentiate toward osteoblastic phenotype and express osteoblastic markers.Methods: We studied the immunophenotype of DFSCs by flow cytometric analysis, the osteoblastic markers of differentiated DFSCs were assayed by histochemical methods and real-time PCR.Results: We demonstrated that DFSCs expressed a heterogeneous assortment of makers associated with stemness. Moreover DFSCs differentiated into osteoblast-like cells, producing mineralized matrix nodules and expressed the typical osteoblastic markers, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP and Collagen I (Coll I.Conclusion: This study suggests that DFSCs may provide a cell source for tissue engineering of bone.

  1. RETINOIDS REGULATE STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Gudas, Lorraine J.; Wagner, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Retinoids are ubiquitous signaling molecules that influence nearly every cell type, exert profound effects on development, and complement cancer chemotherapeutic regimens. All-trans retinoic acid (RA) and other active retinoids are generated from vitamin A (retinol), but key aspects of the signaling pathways required to produce active retinoids remain unclear. Retinoids generated by one cell type can affect nearby cells, so retinoids also function in intercellular communication. RA induces di...

  2. Biophysical regulation of stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M; Loiselle, Alayna E; Donahue, Henry J

    2013-06-01

    Bone adaptation to its mechanical environment, from embryonic through adult life, is thought to be the product of increased osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. In parallel with tissue-scale loading, these heterogeneous populations of multipotent stem cells are subject to a variety of biophysical cues within their native microenvironments. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells-the most broadly studied source of osteoblastic progenitors-undergo osteoblastic differentiation in vitro in response to biophysical signals, including hydrostatic pressure, fluid flow and accompanying shear stress, substrate strain and stiffness, substrate topography, and electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, stem cells may be subject to indirect regulation by mechano-sensing osteocytes positioned to more readily detect these same loading-induced signals within the bone matrix. Such paracrine and juxtacrine regulation of differentiation by osteocytes occurs in vitro. Further studies are needed to confirm both direct and indirect mechanisms of biophysical regulation within the in vivo stem cell niche.

  3. Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into various lineages, and the ability to reliably direct stem cell fate determination would have tremendous potential for basic research and clinical therapy. Nanotopography provides a useful tool for guiding differentiation, as the features are more durable than surface chemistry and can be modified in size and shape to suit the desired application. In this paper, nanotopography is examined as a means to guide differentiation, and its application is described in the context of different subsets of stem cells, with a particular focus on skeletal (mesenchymal stem cells. To address the mechanistic basis underlying the topographical effects on stem cells, the likely contributions of indirect (biochemical signal-mediated and direct (force-mediated mechanotransduction are discussed. Data from proteomic research is also outlined in relation to topography-mediated fate determination, as this approach provides insight into the global molecular changes at the level of the functional effectors.

  4. Profiling of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Nobuaki; Ogaki, Soichiro; Kume, Shoen

    2014-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been shown to recapitulate normal developmental stages. They are therefore a highly useful tool in the study of developmental biology. Profiling of ES cell-derived cells has yielded important information about the characteristics of differentiated cells, and allowed the identification of novel marker genes and pathways of differentiation. In this review, we focus on recent results from profiling studies of mouse embryos, human islets, and human ES cell-derived differentiated cells from several research groups. Global gene expression data from mouse embryos have been used to identify novel genes or pathways involved in the developmental process, and to search for transcription factors that regulate direct reprogramming. We introduce gene expression databases of human pancreas cells (Beta Cell Gene Atlas, EuroDia database), and summarize profiling studies of islet- or human ES cell-derived pancreatic cells, with a focus on gene expression, microRNAs, epigenetics, and protein expression. Then, we describe our gene expression profile analyses and our search for novel endoderm, or pancreatic, progenitor marker genes. We differentiated mouse ES cells into mesendoderm, definitive endoderm (DE), mesoderm, ectoderm, and Pdx1-expressing pancreatic lineages, and performed DNA microarray analyses. Genes specifically expressed in DE, and/or in Pdx1-expressing cells, were extracted and their expression patterns in normal embryonic development were studied by in situ hybridization. Out of 54 genes examined, 27 were expressed in the DE of E8.5 mouse embryos, and 15 genes were expressed in distinct domains in the pancreatic buds of E14.5 mouse embryos. Akr1c19, Aebp2, Pbxip1, and Creb3l1 were all novel, and none has been described as being expressed, either in the DE, or in the pancreas. By introducing the profiling results of ES cell-derived cells, the benefits of using ES cells to study early embryonic development will be discussed.

  5. Force-dependent cell signaling in stem cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Evelyn KF; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells interact with biochemical and biophysical signals in their extracellular environment. The biophysical signals are transduced to the stem cells either through the underlying extracellular matrix or externally applied forces. Increasing evidence has shown that these biophysical cues such as substrate stiffness and topography can direct stem cell differentiation and determine the cell fate. The mechanism of the biophysically induced differentiation is not understood; however, several ...

  6. Differential effects of lenalidomide during plasma cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Michel; Cren, Maïlys; Schafer, Peter; Robert, Nicolas; Duperray, Christophe; Vincent, Laure; Ceballos, Patrice; Cartron, Guillaume; Rossi, Jean-François; Moreaux, Jérôme; Chopra, Rajesh; Klein, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide have greatly improved the outcome of patients with multiple myeloma. However, their effects on plasma cells, the healthy counterpart of myeloma cells, are unknown. Here, we investigated lenalidomide effects on normal human plasma cell generation using an in vitro model. Lenalidomide inhibited the generation of pre-plasmablasts and early plasma cells, while it moderately affected plasmablast production. It also reduced the expression level of Ikaros, Aiolos, and IRF4 transcription factors, in plasmablasts and early plasma cells. This suggests that their differential sensitivity to lenalidomide is not due to a difference in Ikaros or Aiolos degradation. Lenalidomide also inhibited long-lived plasma cell generation, but did not impair their long-term survival once generated. This last observation is in agreement with the finding that lenalidomide treatment for 3-18 months did not affect the bone marrow healthy plasma cell count in allografted patients with multiple myeloma. Our findings should prompt to investigate whether lenalidomide resistance in patients with multiple myeloma could be associated with the emergence of malignant plasmablasts or long-lived plasma cells that are less sensitive to lenalidomide. PMID:27057635

  7. Involvement of gene methylation changes in the differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells into islet-like cell clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Wang, Jian; Lu, Guangxiu

    2014-09-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes results from destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. Islet cell transplantation is a promising cure for diabetes. Here, we induced human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) to differentiate into islet-like cell clusters by nicotinamide plus betacellulin in vitro, and further investigated the DNA methylation status by a Nimble MeDIP microarray before and after cell differentiation to shed light on the molecular mechanisms of this differentiation. In addition, 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to investigate whether the differentiation of hAECs into islet-like cells occurred through demethylation. Purified hAECs (CK18(+)/E-cadherin(+)/CD29(+)/CD90(-)/CD34(-)/CD45(-)) were isolated from human amnia. After induction, hAECs were found to be insulin positive and sensitive to glucose, indicating successful induction to islet-like cells. The methylation status of cell cytoskeleton-related genes was down-regulated and that of negative regulation of cell adhesion-related genes was up-regulated. The methylation status of pancreas development-related genes such as HNF1α and DGAT1 was decreased in hAECs after induction. After brief demethylation, INS gene expression was up-regulated in islet-like cell clusters, suggesting that DNA methylation changes were associated with the differentiation of hAECs into islet-like cell clusters. PMID:24945458

  8. Differential Neuronal Plasticity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells From Exfoliated Deciduous and Permanent Teeth Towards Dopaminergic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Debanjana; Kanafi, Mohammad; Bhonde, Ramesh; Gupta, Pawan; Datta, Indrani

    2016-09-01

    Based on early occurrence in chronological age, stem-cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) has been reported to possess better differentiation-potential toward certain cell-lineage in comparison to stem-cells from adult teeth (DPSCs). Whether this same property between them extends for the yield of functional central nervous system neurons is still not evaluated. Hence, we aim to assess the neuronal plasticity of SHED in comparison to DPSCs toward dopaminergic-neurons and further, if the difference is reflected in a differential expression of sonic-hedgehog (SHH)-receptors and basal-expressions of tyrosine-hydroxylase [TH; through cAMP levels]. Human SHED and DPSCs were exposed to midbrain-cues [SHH, fibroblast growth-factor8, and basic fibroblast growth-factor], and their molecular, immunophenotypical, and functional characterization was performed at different time-points of induction. Though SHED and DPSCs spontaneously expressed early-neuronal and neural-crest marker in their naïve state, only SHED expressed a high basal-expression of TH. The upregulation of dopaminergic transcription-factors Nurr1, Engrailed1, and Pitx3 was more pronounced in DPSCs. The yield of TH-expressing cells decreased from 49.8% to 32.16% in SHED while it increased from 8.09% to 77.47% in DPSCs. Dopamine release and intracellular-Ca(2+) influx upon stimulation (KCl and ATP) was higher in induced DPSCs. Significantly lower-expression of SHH-receptors was noted in naïve SHED than DPSCs, which may explain the differential neuronal plasticity. In addition, unlike DPSCs, SHED showed a down-regulation of cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP) upon exposure to SHH; possibly another contributor to the lesser differentiation-potential. Our data clearly demonstrates for the first time that DPSCs possess superior neuronal plasticity toward dopaminergic-neurons than SHED; influenced by higher SHH-receptor and lower basal TH expression. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2048-2063, 2016. © 2016

  9. Force-dependent cell signaling in stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Evelyn K F; Sheetz, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells interact with biochemical and biophysical signals in their extracellular environment. The biophysical signals are transduced to the stem cells either through the underlying extracellular matrix or externally applied forces. Increasing evidence has shown that these biophysical cues such as substrate stiffness and topography can direct stem cell differentiation and determine the cell fate. The mechanism of the biophysically induced differentiation is not understood; however, several key signaling components have been demonstrated to be involved in the force-mediated differentiation. This review will focus on focal adhesions, cytoskeletal contractility, Rho GTPase signaling and nuclear regulation in connection with biophysically induced differentiation. We will briefly introduce the important components of the mechanotransduction machinery, and the recent developments in the study of force-dependent stem cell differentiation.

  10. Modeling to Optimize Terminal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ian Gallicano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC, iPCs, and adult stem cells (ASCs all are among the most promising potential treatments for heart failure, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. However, considerable uncertainty in the production of ESC-derived terminally differentiated cell types has limited the efficiency of their development. To address this uncertainty, we and other investigators have begun to employ a comprehensive statistical model of ESC differentiation for determining the role of intracellular pathways (e.g., STAT3 in ESC differentiation and determination of germ layer fate. The approach discussed here applies the Baysian statistical model to cell/developmental biology combining traditional flow cytometry methodology and specific morphological observations with advanced statistical and probabilistic modeling and experimental design. The final result of this study is a unique tool and model that enhances the understanding of how and when specific cell fates are determined during differentiation. This model provides a guideline for increasing the production efficiency of therapeutically viable ESCs/iPSCs/ASC derived neurons or any other cell type and will eventually lead to advances in stem cell therapy.

  11. Cell culture models for study of differentiated adipose cells

    OpenAIRE

    Clynes, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Adipose cells are an important source of mesenchymal stem cells and are important for direct use in research on lipid metabolism and obesity. In addition to use of primary cultures, there is increasing interest in other sources of larger numbers of cells, using approaches including induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation and viral immortalisation.

  12. Directed hepatic differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuesong; Zeng, Fanyi

    2011-01-01

    The liver is the largest internal organ in mammals, and is important for the maintenance of normal physiological functions of other tissues and organs. Hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and other chronic liver diseases are serious threats to human health, and these problems are compounded by a scarcity of liver donors for transplantation therapies. Directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells to liver cells is a promising strategy for obtaining hepatocytes that can be used for cell trans...

  13. The Antigen Presenting Cells Instruct Plasma Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eXu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional antigen presenting cells (APCs, including many subsets of dendritic cells and macrophages, not only mediate prompt but nonspecific response against microbes, but also bridge the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through antigen presentation. In the latter, typically activated B cells acquire cognate signals from T helper cells in the germinal center of lymphoid follicles to differentiate into plasma cells, which generate protective antibodies. Recent advances have revealed that many APC subsets provide not only signal 1 (the antigen, but also signal 2 to directly instruct the differentiation process of plasma cells in a T cell-independent manner. Herein, the different signals provided by these APC subsets to direct B cell proliferation, survival, class switching and terminal differentiation are discussed. We furthermore propose that the next generation of vaccines for boosting antibody response could be designed by targeting APCs.

  14. Dazl Promotes Germ Cell Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuo Yu; Ping Ji; Jinping Cao; Shu Zhu; Yao Li; Lin Zheng; Xuejin Chen; Lixin Feng

    2009-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that through the formation of embryoid bodies (Ebs) germ cells can be derived from embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we describe a transgene expression approach to derive germ cells directly from ES cells in vitro without EB formation. Through the ectopic expression of Deleted in Azoospermia-Like (Dazl), a germ cell-specific RNA-binding protein,both motile tailed-sperm and oocytes were induced from mouse ES (mES) cells in culture. Furthermore, transient overexpression of Dazl led to suppression of Nanog but induced germ cell nuclear antigen in mES cells. Dazl knockdown resulted in reduction in the expression of germ cell markers including Stella, MVH and Prdm1. Our study indicates that Dazl is a master gene controlling germ cell differentiation and that ectopic expression of Dazl promotes the dynamic differentiation of mouse ES cells into gametes in vitro.

  15. Higher Viral Load and Prolonged Viral Shedding Period is Associated with Impaired Th17 Cell Response in Patients with H1N1 Influenza A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-lin; Yang; Ying-xia; Liu; Mu-tong; Fang; Wei-long; Liu; Xin-chun; Chen; John; Nunnari; Jing-jing; Xie; Ming-feng; Liao; Ming-xia; Zhang; Guo-bao; Li; Pei-ze; Zhang; Yi; Guan; Bo-ping; Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore whether age,disease severity,cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients,respectively(P < 0.05).Moreover,the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients(P < 0.01).The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.Additionally,the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods,which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.

  16. Signaling involved in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shihori; Tanabe

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling events. Recent technical advances have reve-aled that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells. The signals involved in stem cell pro-gramming are of major interest in stem cell research. The signaling mechanisms involved in regulating stem cell reprogramming and differentiation are the subject of intense study in the field of life sciences. In this review,the molecular interactions and signaling pathways related to stem cell differentiation are discussed.

  17. 8-prenylnaringenin and tamoxifen inhibit the shedding of irradiated epithelial cells and increase the latency period of radiation-induced oral mucositis. Cell culture and murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryck, Tine de; Impe, Annouchka van; Bracke, Marc E. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Vanhoecke, Barbara W. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Experimental Cancer Research, Department Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent (Belgium); Heyerick, Arne [Ghent University, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Ghent (Belgium); Vakaet, Luc; Neve, Wilfried de [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ghent (Belgium); Mueller, Doreen [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Margret [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) partner site Dresden and German Cancer Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Doerr, Wolfgang [Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, CCC, and CD-Laboratory RadOnc, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-05-01

    The major component in the pathogenesis of oral radiation-induced mucositis is progressive epithelial hypoplasia and eventual ulceration. Irradiation inhibits cell proliferation, while cell loss at the surface continues. We conceived to slow down this desquamation by increasing intercellular adhesion, regulated by the E-cadherin/catenin complex. We investigated if 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) or tamoxifen (TAM) decrease the shedding of irradiated human buccal epithelial cells in vitro and thus delay the ulcerative phase of radiation-induced mucositis in vivo. In vitro, aggregates of buccal epithelial cells were irradiated and cultured in suspension for 11 days. 8-PN or TAM were investigated regarding their effect on cell shedding. In vivo, the lower tongue surface of mice was irradiated with graded single doses of 25 kV X-rays. The incidence, latency, and duration of the resulting mucosal ulcerations were analyzed after topical treatment with 8-PN, TAM or solvent. 8-PN or TAM prevented the volume reduction of the irradiated cell aggregates during the incubation period. This was the result of a higher residual cell number in the treated versus the untreated irradiated aggregates. In vivo, topical treatment with 8-PN or TAM significantly increased the latency of mucositis from 10.9 to 12.1 and 12.4 days respectively, while the ulcer incidence was unchanged. 8-PN and TAM prevent volume reduction of irradiated cell aggregates in suspension culture. In the tongues of mice, these compounds increase the latency period. This suggests a role for these compounds for the amelioration of radiation-induced mucositis in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (orig.) [German] Die wesentliche Komponente in der Pathogenese der radiogenen Mukositis ist eine progressive epitheliale Hypoplasie und letztendlich Ulzeration. Die Bestrahlung hemmt die Zellproliferation, waehrend der Zellverlust an der Oberflaeche fortbesteht. Wir versuchten, diese Desquamation durch eine Stimulation der

  18. Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Yuji S.; Qiaobing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1...

  19. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  20. Differential radiosensitivity among B cell subpopulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggs, J.E.; Lussier, A.M.; Lee, S.K.; Appel, M.C.; Woodland, R.T.

    1988-09-15

    We have previously shown that low doses of ionizing radiation selectively impair a functionally defined B cell subpopulation. Normal mice, after exposure to 200 rad of ionizing radiation, have normal or near normal splenic plaque-forming cell responses to thymus-independent type 1 Ag, but reduced responses to thymus-independent type 2 Ag. Here, we confirm and extend the original findings by using hapten-specific serum RIA to demonstrate this differential radiosensitivity is systemic. We also examined splenocytes stained with a panel of lymphocyte surface Ag by FACS analysis to determine if these functional changes are accompanied by a physical alteration of the B cell pool of irradiated mice. Single-parameter FACS analyses demonstrate a diminution in both B cell number and the heterogeneity of membrane Ag expression within the surviving B cell pool after irradiation. In contrast, T cells are relatively radioresistant as the relative percentage of T cells in the irradiated splenocyte pool increases, whereas the heterogeneity of membrane Ag expression remains constant. Multiparameter FACS analyses indicate that B cells with the sIgM much greater than sIgD phenotype are more radiosensitive than B cells of the sIgM much less than sIgD phenotype. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of splenic sections stained with anti-IgM or anti-IgD reveal the enhanced radiosensitivity of marginal zone B cells.

  1. Mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Andrew J; Kelly, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    Biophysical cues play a key role in directing the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells or multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), but the mechanotransductive mechanisms at play are still not fully understood. This review article first describes the roles of both substrate mechanics (e.g. stiffness and topography) and extrinsic mechanical cues (e.g. fluid flow, compression, hydrostatic pressure, tension) on the differentiation of MSCs. A specific focus is placed on the role of such factors in regulating the osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of MSCs. Next, the article focuses on the cellular components, specifically integrins, ion channels, focal adhesions and the cytoskeleton, hypothesized to be involved in MSC mechanotransduction. This review aims to illustrate the strides that have been made in elucidating how MSCs sense and respond to their mechanical environment, and also to identify areas where further research is needed.

  2. GATA2 regulates dendritic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tohru; Onishi, Yasushi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Okitsu, Yoko; Fukuhara, Noriko; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2016-07-28

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical immune response regulators; however, the mechanism of DC differentiation is not fully understood. Heterozygous germ line GATA2 mutations induce GATA2-deficiency syndrome, characterized by monocytopenia, a predisposition to myelodysplasia/acute myeloid leukemia, and a profoundly reduced DC population, which is associated with increased susceptibility to viral infections, impaired phagocytosis, and decreased cytokine production. To define the role of GATA2 in DC differentiation and function, we studied Gata2 conditional knockout and haploinsufficient mice. Gata2 conditional deficiency significantly reduced the DC count, whereas Gata2 haploinsufficiency did not affect this population. GATA2 was required for the in vitro generation of DCs from Lin(-)Sca-1(+)Kit(+) cells, common myeloid-restricted progenitors, and common dendritic cell precursors, but not common lymphoid-restricted progenitors or granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, suggesting that GATA2 functions in the myeloid pathway of DC differentiation. Moreover, expression profiling demonstrated reduced expression of myeloid-related genes, including mafb, and increased expression of T-lymphocyte-related genes, including Gata3 and Tcf7, in Gata2-deficient DC progenitors. In addition, GATA2 was found to bind an enhancer element 190-kb downstream region of Gata3, and a reporter assay exhibited significantly reduced luciferase activity after adding this enhancer region to the Gata3 promoter, which was recovered by GATA sequence deletion within Gata3 +190. These results suggest that GATA2 plays an important role in cell-fate specification toward the myeloid vs T-lymphocyte lineage by regulating lineage-specific transcription factors in DC progenitors, thereby contributing to DC differentiation. PMID:27259979

  3. [Human pluripotent stem cell and neural differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wataya, Takafumi; Muguruma, Keiko; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2008-10-01

    Recovery of lost brain function is an important issue in medical studies because neurons of the central nervous system (CNS) have poor potential for regeneration. Since few CNS diseases can be treated completely by medicines, regenerative therapy by using stem cells should be studied as a new type of therapeutic intervention. The efficacy of cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease has been well investigated. Several studies on fetal tissue transplantation have revealed that quantity and purity of transplanted cells are necessary for recovery of symptoms. SFEB (Serum-free floating culture of embryoid body-like aggregates) method is capable of inducing multi-potential CNS progenitors that can be steered to differentiate into region-specific tissues. On the basis of the existing knowledge of embryology, we have succeeded in the generating of various types of neurons such as telencephalic, cerebeller (Purkinje and granule cells), retinal (photoreceptor cells) and hypothalamic neurons. Application of this culture method to human ES (hES) cells is necessary for clinical purpose: however, poor survival of hES cells in SFEB culture might limit the possibility of using these cells for future medical applications. We found that a selective Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, markedly diminished the dissociation-induced apoptosis of hES cells and enabled the cells to form aggregates in SFEB culture. For both mouse and human ES cells, SFEB culture is a favorable method that can generate large amounts of region-specific neurons. However, stem cell-based therapy continues to face several obstacles. It is important that researchers in the basic sciences and clinical medicine should discuss these problems together to overcome both scientific and ethical issues related to stem cells.

  4. Proteomic cornerstones of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Hansson, Jenny; Raffel, Simon;

    2012-01-01

    Regenerative tissues such as the skin epidermis, the intestinal mucosa or the hematopoietic system are organized in a hierarchical manner with stem cells building the top of this hierarchy. Somatic stem cells harbor the highest self-renewal activity and generate a series of multipotent progenitors...... which differentiate into lineage committed progenitors and subsequently mature cells. In this report, we applied an in-depth quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare the full proteomes of ex vivo isolated and FACS-sorted populations highly enriched for either multipotent hematopoietic stem....../progenitor cells (HSPCs, Lin(neg)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)) or myeloid committed precursors (Lin(neg)Sca-1(-)c-Kit(+)). By employing stable isotope dimethyl labeling and high-resolution mass spectrometry, more than 5,000 proteins were quantified. From biological triplicate experiments subjected to rigorous statistical...

  5. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase modulation of trophoblast cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Lindsey N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The trophoblast lineage arises as the first differentiation event during embryogenesis. Trophoblast giant cells are one of several end-stage products of trophoblast cell differentiation in rodents. These cells are located at the maternal-fetal interface and are capable of invasive and endocrine functions, which are necessary for successful pregnancy. Rcho-1 trophoblast stem cells can be effectively used as a model for investigating trophoblast cell differentiation. In this report, we evaluated the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling pathway in the regulation of trophoblast cell differentiation. Transcript profiles from trophoblast stem cells, differentiated trophoblast cells, and differentiated trophoblast cells following disruption of PI3K signaling were generated and characterized. Results Prominent changes in gene expression accompanied the differentiation of trophoblast stem cells. PI3K modulated the expression of a subset of trophoblast cell differentiation-dependent genes. Among the PI3K-responsive genes were those encoding proteins contributing to the invasive and endocrine phenotypes of trophoblast giant cells. Conclusions Genes have been identified with differential expression patterns associated with trophoblast stem cells and trophoblast cell differentiation; a subset of these genes are regulated by PI3K signaling, including those impacting the differentiated trophoblast giant cell phenotype.

  7. Signaling involved in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Shihori

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell differentiation is regulated by multiple signaling events. Recent technical advances have revealed that differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into stem cells. The signals involved in stem cell programming are of major interest in stem cell research. The signaling mechanisms involved in regulating stem cell reprogramming and differentiation are the subject of intense study in the field of life sciences. In this review, the molecular interactions and signaling pathways related to s...

  8. Cutting edge: TNFR-shedding by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibits the induction of inflammatory mediators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, G.J. van; Scherer, H.U.; Hameetman, M.; Morgan, M.E.; Flierman, R.; Huizinga, T.W.J.; Toes, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play an essential role in maintaining tolerance to self and nonself. In several models of T cell-mediated (auto) immunity, Treg cells exert protective effects by the inhibition of pathogenic T cell responses. In addition, Treg cells can modulate T cell-independent

  9. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  10. Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells to Neural Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To explore the possibility and condition of differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) to neural cells in vitro, BMSCs from whole bone marrow of rats were cultured. The BMSCs of passage 3 were identified with immunocytochemical staining of CD44 ( + ), CD71 ( + )and CD45(-). There were type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ cells in BMSCs. Type Ⅰ BMSCs were spindleshaped and strong positive in immunocytochemical staining of CD44 and CD71, whereas flat and big type Ⅱ BMSCs were lightly stained. The BMSCs of same passage were induced to differentiate into neural cells by β-mercaptoethanol (BME). After induction by BME, the type Ⅰ BMSCs withdrew to form neuron-like round soma and axon-like and dendrite-like processes, and were stained positively for neurofilament (NF). The type Ⅱ BMSCs did not change in the BME medium and were negatively or slightly stained of NF.

  11. Effect of leukemia inhibitory factor on embryonic stem cell differentiation: implications for supporting neuronal differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao HE; Jing-jing LI; Chang-hong ZHEN; Lin-ying FENG; Xiao-yan DING

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, has been used extensively in the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency. In this current work, we examined the effect of the LIF signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation to a neural fate. Methods: In the presence of LIF (1000 U/mL), the production of neuronal cells derived from embryoid bodies (EB)was tested under various culture conditions. Inhibition of the LIF pathway was examined with specific inhibitors. The effects of cell apoptosis and proliferation on neural differentiation were examined. ES cell differentiation into three-gem layers was compared. Results: Under various culture conditions, neuronal differentiation was increased in the presence of LIF. Blocking the LIF-activated STAT3signaling pathway with specific inhibitors abolished the neuronal differentiation of ES cells, whereas inhibition of the LIF-activated MEK signaling pathway impaired the differentiation of ES cells toward a glial fate. LIF suppressed cell apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation during ES cell differentiation. LIF inhibited the differentiation of ES cells to both mesoderm and extraembryonic endoderm fates, but enhanced the determination of neural progenitors. Conclusion:These results suggest that LIF plays a positive role during the differentiation of ES cells into neuronal cells.

  12. EphrinA/EphA-induced ectodomain shedding of neural cell adhesion molecule regulates growth cone repulsion through ADAM10 metalloprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennaman, Leann H; Moss, Marcia L; Maness, Patricia F

    2014-01-01

    EphrinA/EphA-dependent axon repulsion is crucial for synaptic targeting in developing neurons but downstream molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here, it is shown that ephrinA5/EphA3 triggers proteolysis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) by the metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)10 to promote growth cone collapse in neurons from mouse neocortex. EphrinA5 induced ADAM10 activity to promote ectodomain shedding of polysialic acid-NCAM in cortical neuron cultures, releasing a ~ 250 kDa soluble fragment consisting of most of its extracellular region. NCAM shedding was dependent on ADAM10 and EphA3 kinase activity as shown in HEK293T cells transfected with dominant negative ADAM10 and kinase-inactive EphA3 (K653R) mutants. Purified ADAM10 cleaved NCAM at a sequence within the E-F loop of the second fibronectin type III domain (Leu(671) -Lys(672) /Ser(673) -Leu(674) ) identified by mass spectrometry. Mutations of NCAM within the ADAM10 cleavage sequence prevented EphA3-induced shedding of NCAM in HEK293T cells. EphrinA5-induced growth cone collapse was dependent on ADAM10 activity, was inhibited in cortical cultures from NCAM null mice, and was rescued by WT but not ADAM10 cleavage site mutants of NCAM. Regulated proteolysis of NCAM through the ephrin5/EphA3/ADAM10 mechanism likely impacts synapse development, and may lead to excess NCAM shedding when disrupted, as implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PSA-NCAM and ephrinA/EphA3 coordinately regulate inhibitory synapse development. Here, we have found that ephrinA5 stimulates EphA3 kinase and ADAM10 activity to promote PSA-NCAM cleavage at a site in its second FNIII repeat, which regulates ephrinA5-induced growth cone collapse in GABAergic and non-GABAergic neurons. These findings identify a new regulatory mechanism which may contribute to inhibitory connectivity.

  13. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-03-01

    A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  14. In a buffalo shed

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Sitting in a buffalo shed under a village house, Alan Macfarlane reflects on the origins of settled agriculture and the role of animals and technology. He also considers some of the effects of growing wealth on equality and work.

  15. Fibronectin and stem cell differentiation - lessons from chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2012-08-15

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an intricate network of proteins that surrounds cells and has a central role in establishing an environment that is conducive to tissue-specific cell functions. In the case of stem cells, this environment is the stem cell niche, where ECM signals participate in cell fate decisions. In this Commentary, we describe how changes in ECM composition and mechanical properties can affect cell shape and stem cell differentiation. Using chondrogenic differentiation as a model, we examine the changes in the ECM that occur before and during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. In particular, we focus on the main ECM protein fibronectin, its temporal expression pattern during chondrogenic differentiation, its potential effects on functions of differentiating chondrocytes, and how its interactions with other ECM components might affect cartilage development. Finally, we discuss data that support the possibility that the fibronectin matrix has an instructive role in directing cells through the condensation, proliferation and/or differentiation stages of cartilage formation.

  16. Differentiation potential of the fetal rat liver-derived cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Pojda; Jerzy Moraczewski; Tomasz Oldak; Marzena Jastrzewska; Agnieszka Gajkowska; Iwona Grabowska; Eugeniusz K Machaj

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow or several fetal tissues can be expanded and differentiated into other cell lines. The fetal liver is the source of early hematopoietic cells and also, as a fetal tissue, may be considered as a source of pluripotent stem cells. The differentiation potential of fetal rat liver cells have been examined. Freshly isolated liver cells from 14-d fetuses were cultured in Dulbecco medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The plastic-adherent cells were then pa...

  17. Proteomic analysis of osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle precursor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Völlner, Florian;

    2009-01-01

    of differentiation. In the present study we applied 2-DE combined with capillary-LC-MS/MS analysis to profile differentially regulated proteins upon differentiation of dental follicle precursor cells (DFPCs). Out of 115 differentially regulated proteins, glutamine synthetase, lysosomal proteinase cathepsin B...

  18. Soft matrix supports osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viale-Bouroncle, Sandra; Voellner, Florian [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Moehl, Christoph; Kuepper, Kevin [Institute of Complex Systems, ICS7: Biomechanics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Brockhoff, Gero [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, Torsten E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, Gottfried [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, Christian, E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Rigid stiffness supports osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). {yields} Our study examined stiffness and differentiation of dental follicle cells (DFCs). {yields} Soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs. {yields} DFCs and MSCs react contrarily to soft and rigid surface stiffness. -- Abstract: The differentiation of stem cells can be directed by the grade of stiffness of the developed tissue cells. For example a rigid extracellular matrix supports the osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, less is known about the relation of extracellular matrix stiffness and cell differentiation of ectomesenchymal dental precursor cells. Our study examined for the first time the influence of the surface stiffness on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells (DFCs). Cell proliferation of DFCs was only slightly decreased on cell culture surfaces with a bone-like stiffness. The osteogenic differentiation in DFCs could only be initiated with a dexamethasone based differentiation medium after using varying stiffness. Here, the softest surface improved the induction of osteogenic differentiation in comparison to that with the highest stiffness. In conclusion, different to bone marrow derived MSCs, soft ECMs have a superior capacity to support the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs.

  19. Dystroglycan depletion inhibits the functions of differentiated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zárate, Alma Delia; Martínez-Vieyra, Ivette; Alonso-Rangel, Lea; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Winder, Steve J; Cerecedo, Doris

    2014-06-01

    Dystroglycan has recently been characterized in blood tissue cells, as part of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex but to date nothing is known of its role in the differentiation process of neutrophils. We have investigated the role of dystroglycan in the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60 differentiated to neutrophils. Depletion of dystroglycan by RNAi resulted in altered morphology and reduced properties of differentiated HL-60 cells, including chemotaxis, respiratory burst, phagocytic activities and expression of markers of differentiation. These findings strongly implicate dystroglycan as a key membrane adhesion protein involved in the differentiation process in HL-60 cells.

  20. B cells help alloreactive T cells differentiate into memory T cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Yue-Harn; Oberbarnscheidt, Martin H.; Chandramoorthy, Harish Chinna Konda; Hoffman, Rosemary; Chalasani, Geetha

    2010-01-01

    B cells are recognized as effector cells in allograft rejection that are dependent upon T cell help to produce alloantibodies causing graft injury. It is not known if B cells can also help T cells differentiate into memory cells in the alloimmune response. We found that in B cell-deficient hosts, differentiation of alloreactive T cells into effectors was intact whereas their development into memory T cells was impaired. To test if B cell help for T cells was required for their continued diffe...

  1. Klf4 and Klf5 differentially inhibit mesoderm and endoderm differentiation in embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Irène; Giudice, Vincent; Delahaye, Edwige; Wianny, Florence; Aubry, Maxime; Mure, Magali; Chen, Jiaxuan; Jauch, Ralf; Bogu, Gireesh K; Nolden, Tobias; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Xavier Doss, Michael; Sachinidis, Agapios; Schulz, Herbert; Hummel, Oliver; Martinelli, Paola; Hübner, Norbert; Stanton, Lawrence W; Real, Francisco X; Bourillot, Pierre-Yves; Savatier, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-like factors (Klf) 4 and 5 are two closely related members of the Klf family, known to play key roles in cell cycle regulation, somatic cell reprogramming and pluripotency. Here we focus on the functional divergence between Klf4 and Klf5 in the inhibition of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. Using microarrays and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to ultra-high-throughput DNA sequencing, we show that Klf4 negatively regulates the expression of endodermal markers in the undifferentiated ES cells, including transcription factors involved in the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to endoderm differentiation. Knockdown of Klf4 enhances differentiation towards visceral and definitive endoderm. In contrast, Klf5 negatively regulates the expression of mesodermal markers, some of which control commitment to the mesoderm lineage, and knockdown of Klf5 specifically enhances differentiation towards mesoderm. We conclude that Klf4 and Klf5 differentially inhibit mesoderm and endoderm differentiation in murine ES cells.

  2. Accumulation of differentiating intestinal stem cell progenies drives tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Zongzhao; Kondo, Shu; Ha, Nati; Boquete, Jean-Philippe; Brunner, Michael; Ueda, Ryu; Lemaitre, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are coordinated to maintain tissue homeostasis and prevent cancer. Mutations causing stem cell proliferation are traditionally the focus of cancer studies. However, the contribution of the differentiating stem cell progenies in tumorigenesis is poorly characterized. Here we report that loss of the SOX transcription factor, Sox21a, blocks the differentiation programme of enteroblast (EB), the intestinal stem cell progeny in the adult Drosophila midgut...

  3. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.K. Olrichs; M.E.G. Aarsman; J. Verheul; C.J. Arnusch; N.I. Martin; M. Hervé; W. Vollmer; B. de Kruijff; E. Breukink; T. den Blaauwen

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that Escheric

  4. Single-cell analyses of X Chromosome inactivation dynamics and pluripotency during differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Geng; Schell, John Paul; Benitez, Julio Aguila; Petropoulos, Sophie; Yilmaz, Marlene; Reinius, Björn; Alekseenko, Zhanna; Shi, Leming; Hedlund, Eva; Lanner, Fredrik; Sandberg, Rickard; Deng, Qiaolin

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotency, differentiation, and X Chromosome inactivation (XCI) are key aspects of embryonic development. However, the underlying relationship and mechanisms among these processes remain unclear. Here, we systematically dissected these features along developmental progression using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and single-cell RNA sequencing with allelic resolution. We found that mESCs grown in a ground state 2i condition displayed transcriptomic profiles diffused from preimplantation mouse embryonic cells, whereas EpiStem cells closely resembled the post-implantation epiblast. Sex-related gene expression varied greatly across distinct developmental states. We also identified novel markers that were highly enriched in each developmental state. Moreover, we revealed that several novel pathways, including PluriNetWork and Focal Adhesion, were responsible for the delayed progression of female EpiStem cells. Importantly, we “digitalized” XCI progression using allelic expression of active and inactive X Chromosomes and surprisingly found that XCI states exhibited profound variability in each developmental state, including the 2i condition. XCI progression was not tightly synchronized with loss of pluripotency and increase of differentiation at the single-cell level, although these processes were globally correlated. In addition, highly expressed genes, including core pluripotency factors, were in general biallelically expressed. Taken together, our study sheds light on the dynamics of XCI progression and the asynchronicity between pluripotency, differentiation, and XCI. PMID:27486082

  5. Characterization of membrane-shed micro-vesicles from cytokine-stimulated beta-cells using proteomics strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Jensen, Soren Skov; Le Bihan, Marie Catherine;

    2012-01-01

    amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) combined with mass spectrometry. We identified and quantified a large number of beta-cell specific proteins and proteins previously described in micro-vesicles from other cell types in addition to new proteins located to these vesicles. In addition, we quantified...... specific sites of protein phosphorylation and sialylated glycosylation in proteins associated with micro-vesicles from beta-cells. Using pathway analysis software we were able to map the most distinctive changes between micro-vesicles generated during growth and after cytokine stimulation to several cell...

  6. A novel in vivo cell-wall labeling approach sheds new light on peptidoglycan synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olrichs, Nick K; Aarsman, Mirjam E G; Verheul, Jolanda; Arnusch, Christopher J; Martin, Nathaniel I; Hervé, Mireille; Vollmer, Waldemar; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan; den Blaauwen, Tanneke

    2011-05-01

    Peptidoglycan synthesis and turnover in relation to cell growth and division has been studied by using a new labeling method. This method involves the incorporation of fluorescently labeled peptidoglycan precursors into the cell wall by means of the cell-wall recycling pathway. We show that Escherichia coli is able to import exogenous added murein tripeptide labeled with N-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (AeK-NBD) into the cytoplasm where it enters the peptidoglycan biosynthesis route, resulting in fluorescent labels specifically located in the cell wall. When wild-type cells were grown in the presence of the fluorescent peptide, peptidoglycan was uniformly labeled in cells undergoing elongation. Cells in the process of division displayed a lack of labeled peptidoglycan at mid-cell. Analysis of labeling patterns in cell division mutants showed that the occurrence of unlabeled peptidoglycan is dependent on the presence of FtsZ, but independent of FtsQ and FtsI. Accumulation of fluorescence at the division sites of a triple amidase mutant (ΔamiABC) revealed that AeK-NBD is incorporated into septal peptidoglycan. AmiC was shown to be involved in the rapid removal of labeled peptidoglycan side chains at division sites in wild-type cells. Because septal localization of AmiC is dependent on FtsQ and FtsI, this points to the presence of another peptidoglycan hydrolase activity directly dependent on FtsZ. PMID:21472954

  7. Downregulation of rRNA transcription triggers cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiation is considered to contribute to reduced cell growth. However, the downregulation of rRNA transcription can induce various cellular processes; therefore, it may positively regulate cell differentiation. To test this possibility, we specifically downregulated rRNA transcription using actinomycin D or a siRNA for Pol I-specific transcription factor IA (TIF-IA in HL-60 and THP-1 cells, both of which have differentiation potential. The inhibition of rRNA transcription induced cell differentiation in both cell lines, which was demonstrated by the expression of the common differentiation marker CD11b. Furthermore, TIF-IA knockdown in an ex vivo culture of mouse hematopoietic stem cells increased the percentage of myeloid cells and reduced the percentage of immature cells. We also evaluated whether differentiation was induced via the inhibition of cell cycle progression because rRNA transcription is tightly coupled to cell growth. We found that cell cycle arrest without affecting rRNA transcription did not induce differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, our results demonstrate the first time that the downregulation of rRNA levels could be a trigger for the induction of differentiation in mammalian cells. Furthermore, this phenomenon was not simply a reflection of cell cycle arrest. Our results provide a novel insight into the relationship between rRNA transcription and cell differentiation.

  8. Human invariant NKT cell subsets differentially promote differentiation, antibody production, and T cell stimulation by B cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. We investigated the effects of coculturing expanded human CD4(+), CD8α(+), and ...

  9. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    OpenAIRE

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew indefinitely in culture. Because of their differentiation capabilities, ES cells can potentially be used in cell-based therapies in human medicine as well as for toxicology screening and drug testing. Mor...

  10. Phenazopyridine induces and synchronizes neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, David M; Preynat-Seauve, Olivier; Tirefort, Diderik; Feki, Anis; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2009-09-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are powerful tools to understand mechanisms of neuronal differentiation and to engineer neurons for in vitro studies and cell therapy. We developed a screening approach to identify small organic molecules driving neuronal differentiation of ES cells. For this purpose, we used a lentivector carrying a dual luciferase reporter system to engineer an ES cell line which allowed us to screen for small organic molecules enhancing neuronal differentiation. One of them, phenazopyridine, was further analysed in human ES cells. Phenazopyridine: (i) enhanced neuronal differentiation, (ii) increased cell survival, (iii) decreased the amount of non-neuronal and undifferentiated cells and (iv) synchronized the cellular differentiation state. Phenazopyridine allowed the development of a differentiation protocol compatible with the generation of clinical grade neural precursors, which were able differentiate into different neuronal subtypes, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In summary, we describe a powerful approach to identify small molecules directing stem cell differentiation. This led to the establishment of a new application for an old drug and the development of a novel clinical grade protocol for neuronal differentiation of ES cells. PMID:20196783

  11. Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Neural Progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Erin; Grabel, Laura

    2016-01-01

    A variety of protocols have been used to produce neural progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. We have focused on a monolayer culture approach that generates neural rosettes. To initiate differentiation, cells are plated in a serum-free nutrient-poor medium in the presence of a BMP inhibitor. Depending on the cell line used, additional growth factor inhibitors may be required to promote neural differentiation. Long-term culture and addition of the Notch inhibitor DAPT can promote terminal neuronal differentiation. Extent of differentiation is monitored using immunocytochemistry for cell type-specific markers.

  12. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Traitanon, Opas; Mathew, James M.; La Monica, Giovanna; Xu, Luting; Mas, Valeria; Gallon, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC) and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL) on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monit...

  13. SETD7 Regulates the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Julio; Morera, Cristina; Sesé, Borja; Boue, Stephanie; Bonet-Costa, Carles; Martí, Merce; Roque, Alicia; Jordan, Albert; Barrero, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The successful use of specialized cells in regenerative medicine requires an optimization in the differentiation protocols that are currently used. Understanding the molecular events that take place during the differentiation of human pluripotent cells is essential for the improvement of these protocols and the generation of high quality differentiated cells. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation we identify the methyltransferase SETD7 as highly induced during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and differentially expressed between induced pluripotent cells and somatic cells. Knock-down of SETD7 causes differentiation defects in human embryonic stem cell including delay in both the silencing of pluripotency-related genes and the induction of differentiation genes. We show that SETD7 methylates linker histone H1 in vitro causing conformational changes in H1. These effects correlate with a decrease in the recruitment of H1 to the pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation in the SETD7 knock down that might affect the proper silencing of these genes during differentiation.

  14. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  15. Non-genetic heterogeneity, criticality and cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Mainak; Ghosh, Sayantari; Bose, Indrani

    2015-02-01

    The different cell types in a living organism acquire their identity through the process of cell differentiation in which multipotent progenitor cells differentiate into distinct cell types. Experimental evidence and analysis of large-scale microarray data establish the key role played by a two-gene motif in cell differentiation in a number of cell systems. The two genes express transcription factors which repress each other's expression and autoactivate their own production. A number of theoretical models have recently been proposed based on the two-gene motif to provide a physical understanding of how cell differentiation occurs. In this paper, we study a simple model of cell differentiation which assumes no cooperativity in the regulation of gene expression by the transcription factors. The latter repress each other's activity directly through DNA binding and indirectly through the formation of heterodimers. We specifically investigate how deterministic processes combined with stochasticity contribute in bringing about cell differentiation. The deterministic dynamics of our model give rise to a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation from an undifferentiated stable steady state to two differentiated stable steady states. The stochastic dynamics of our model are studied using the approaches based on the Langevin equations and the linear noise approximation. The simulation results provide a new physical understanding of recent experimental observations. We further propose experimental measurements of quantities like the variance and the lag-1 autocorrelation function in protein fluctuations as the early signatures of an approaching bifurcation point in the cell differentiation process.

  16. CD25 shedding by human natural occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells does not inhibit the action of IL-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance and inhibition of pathogenic T-cell responses. Therefore, they are important for the limitation of chronic inflammation but can also be deleterious by e.g. limiting antitumour immune responses. Natural occurring...... Tregs are known to inhibit CD4+ T cell in a contact-dependent manner, but at the same time, various suppressive factors are secreted. We, here, demonstrate that human naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ Tregs are able to shed large amounts of soluble CD25 upon activation. Secretion of sCD25 could add to the...... inhibitory effect of Tregs as such secretion in other settings has been proposed to act as a sink for local IL-2. However, we here demonstrate that supernatant from human Tregs containing high concentration of sCD25 does not inhibit proliferation of CD4+CD25(-) T cells or inhibit the action of IL-2 in an in...

  17. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  18. Cytokine signaling in the differentiation of innate effector cells

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hua; Li, Yapeng; Qi, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    Innate effector cells, including innate effector cells of myeloid and lymphoid lineages, are crucial components of various types of immune responses. Bone marrow progenitors differentiate into many subsets of innate effector cells after receiving instructional signals often provided by cytokines. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) have been shown to be essential in the differentiation of various types of innate effector cells. In this review, we focus specifically on the...

  19. The transcriptional landscape of alpha beta T cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingueneau, Michael; Kreslavsky, Taras; Gray, Daniel; Heng, Tracy; Cruse, Richard; Ericson, Jeffrey; Bendall, Sean; Spitzer, Matt; Nolan, Garry; Kobayashi, Koichi; von Boehmer, Harald; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Best, Adam J.; Knell, Jamie; Goldrath, Ananda; Jojic, Vladimir; Koller, Daphne; Shay, Tal; Regev, Aviv; Cohen, Nadia; Brennan, Patrick; Brenner, Michael; Kim, Francis; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Wagers, Amy; Heng, Tracy; Ericson, Jeffrey; Rothamel, Katherine; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Mathis, Diane; Bezman, Natalie A.; Sun, Joseph C.; Min-Oo, Gundula; Kim, Charlie C.; Lanier, Lewis L.; Miller, Jennifer; Brown, Brian; Merad, Miriam; Gautier, Emmanuel L.; Jakubzick, Claudia; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Monach, Paul; Blair, David A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shinton, Susan A.; Hardy, Richard R.; Laidlaw, David; Collins, Jim; Gazit, Roi; Rossi, Derrick J.; Malhotra, Nidhi; Sylvia, Katelyn; Kang, Joonsoo; Kreslavsky, Taras; Fletcher, Anne; Elpek, Kutlu; Bellemare-Pelletier, Angelique; Malhotra, Deepali; Turley, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The differentiation of abT cells from thymic precursors is a complex process essential for adaptive immunity. Here we exploited the breadth of expression data sets from the Immunological Genome Project to analyze how the differentiation of thymic precursors gives rise to mature T cell transcriptomes

  20. Electrical Property Characterization of Neural Stem Cells in Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available Electrical property characterization of stem cells could be utilized as a potential label-free biophysical approach to evaluate the differentiation process. However, there has been a lack of technology or tools that can quantify the intrinsic cellular electrical markers (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm for a large amount of stem cells or differentiated cells. In this paper, a microfluidic platform enabling the high-throughput quantification of Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm from hundreds of single neural stem cells undergoing differentiation was developed to explore the feasibility to characterize the neural stem cell differentiation process without biochemical staining. Experimental quantification using biochemical markers (e.g., Nestin, Tubulin and GFAP of neural stem cells confirmed the initiation of the differentiation process featured with gradual loss in cellular stemness and increased cell markers for neurons and glial cells. The recorded electrical properties of neural stem cells undergoing differentiation showed distinctive and unique patterns: 1 in the suspension culture before inducing differentiation, a large distribution and difference in σcytoplasm among individual neural stem cells was noticed, which indicated heterogeneity that may result from the nature of suspension culture of neurospheres; and 2 during the differentiation in adhering monolayer culture, significant changes and a large difference in Cspecific membrane were located indicating different expressions of membrane proteins during the differentiation process, and a small distribution difference in σcytoplasm was less significant that indicated the relatively consistent properties of cytoplasm during the culture. In summary, significant differences in Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm were observed during the neural stem cell differentiation process, which may potentially be used as label

  1. Electrical Property Characterization of Neural Stem Cells in Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Chen, Deyong; Li, Zhaohui; Fan, Beiyuan; George, Julian; Xue, Chengcheng; Cui, Zhanfeng; Wang, Junbo

    2016-01-01

    Electrical property characterization of stem cells could be utilized as a potential label-free biophysical approach to evaluate the differentiation process. However, there has been a lack of technology or tools that can quantify the intrinsic cellular electrical markers (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane) and cytoplasm conductivity (σcytoplasm)) for a large amount of stem cells or differentiated cells. In this paper, a microfluidic platform enabling the high-throughput quantification of Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm from hundreds of single neural stem cells undergoing differentiation was developed to explore the feasibility to characterize the neural stem cell differentiation process without biochemical staining. Experimental quantification using biochemical markers (e.g., Nestin, Tubulin and GFAP) of neural stem cells confirmed the initiation of the differentiation process featured with gradual loss in cellular stemness and increased cell markers for neurons and glial cells. The recorded electrical properties of neural stem cells undergoing differentiation showed distinctive and unique patterns: 1) in the suspension culture before inducing differentiation, a large distribution and difference in σcytoplasm among individual neural stem cells was noticed, which indicated heterogeneity that may result from the nature of suspension culture of neurospheres; and 2) during the differentiation in adhering monolayer culture, significant changes and a large difference in Cspecific membrane were located indicating different expressions of membrane proteins during the differentiation process, and a small distribution difference in σcytoplasm was less significant that indicated the relatively consistent properties of cytoplasm during the culture. In summary, significant differences in Cspecific membrane and σcytoplasm were observed during the neural stem cell differentiation process, which may potentially be used as label-free biophysical markers

  2. Two pore channel 2 differentially modulates neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP is an endogenous Ca(2+ mobilizing nucleotide presented in various species. NAADP mobilizes Ca(2+ from acidic organelles through two pore channel 2 (TPC2 in many cell types and it has been previously shown that NAADP can potently induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells. Here we examined the role of TPC2 signaling in the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells. We found that the expression of TPC2 was markedly decreased during the initial ES cell entry into neural progenitors, and the levels of TPC2 gradually rebounded during the late stages of neurogenesis. Correspondingly, TPC2 knockdown accelerated mouse ES cell differentiation into neural progenitors but inhibited these neural progenitors from committing to neurons. Overexpression of TPC2, on the other hand, inhibited mouse ES cell from entering the early neural lineage. Interestingly, TPC2 knockdown had no effect on the differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes of mouse ES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that TPC2 signaling plays a temporal and differential role in modulating the neural lineage entry of mouse ES cells, in that TPC2 signaling inhibits ES cell entry to early neural progenitors, but is required for late neuronal differentiation.

  3. Demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine, reverses differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The de novo methylation activity is essential for embryonic development as well as embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation, where the intensive and extensive DNA methylation was detected. In this study, we investigated the effects of a demethylating agent, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), on differentiated ES cells in order to study the possibility of reversing the differentiation process. We first induced differentiation of ES cells by forming embryoid bodies, and then the cells were treated with 5-AzaC. The cells showed some undifferentiated features such as stem cell-like morphology with unclear cell-to-cell boundary and proliferative responsiveness to LIF. Moreover, 5-AzaC increased the expressions of ES specific markers, SSEA-1, and alkaline phosphatase activity as well as ES specific genes, Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2. We also found that 5-AzaC demethylated the promoter region of H19 gene, a typical methylated gene during embryonic differentiation. These results indicate that 5-AzaC reverses differentiation state of ES cells through its DNA demethylating activity to differentiation related genes

  4. Early specification of dopaminergic phenotype during ES cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how lineage choices are made during embryonic stem (ES cell differentiation is critical for harnessing strategies for controlled production of therapeutic somatic cell types for cell transplantation and pharmaceutical drug screens. The in vitro generation of dopaminergic neurons, the type of cells lost in Parkinson's disease patients' brains, requires the inductive molecules sonic hedgehog and FGF8, or an unknown stromal cell derived inducing activity (SDIA. However, the exact identity of the responding cells and the timing of inductive activity that specify a dopaminergic fate in neural stem/progenitors still remain elusive. Results Using ES cells carrying a neuroepithelial cell specific vital reporter (Sox1-GFP and FACS purification of Sox1-GFP neural progenitors, we have investigated the temporal aspect of SDIA mediated dopaminergic neuron specification during ES cell differentiation. Our results establish that SDIA induces a dopaminergic neuron fate in nascent neural stem or progenitor cells at, or prior to, Sox1 expression and does not appear to have further instructive role or neurotrophic activity during late neuronal differentiation of neural precursors. Furthermore, we show that dopaminergic neurons could be produced efficiently in a monolayer differentiation paradigm independent of SDIA activity or exogenous signalling molecules. In this case, the competence for dopaminergic neuron differentiation is also established at the level of Sox1 expression. Conclusion Dopaminergic neurons are specified early during mouse ES cell differentiation. The subtype specification seems to be tightly linked with the acquisition of a pan neuroectoderm fate.

  5. Advances and challenges in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelalim, Essam M; Emara, Mohamed M

    2015-01-26

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are able to differentiate into several cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Differentiation of pancreatic β cells depends on certain transcription factors, which function in a coordinated way during pancreas development. The existing protocols for in vitro differentiation produce pancreatic β cells, which are not highly responsive to glucose stimulation except after their transplantation into immune-compromised mice and allowing several weeks for further differentiation to ensure the maturation of these cells in vivo. Thus, although the substantial improvement that has been made for the differentiation of induced PSCs and embryonic stem cells toward pancreatic β cells, several challenges still hindering their full generation. Here, we summarize recent advances in the differentiation of PSCs into pancreatic β cells and discuss the challenges facing their differentiation as well as the different applications of these potential PSC-derived β cells.

  6. NOV/CCN3 impairs muscle cell commitment and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhabeu, Frederico; Lafont, Jérome; Le Dreau, Gwenvael; Laurent, Maryvonne; Kazazian, Chantal; Schaeffer, Laurent; Martinerie, Cécile; Dubois, Catherine

    2006-06-10

    NOV (nephroblastoma overexpressed) is a member of a family of proteins which encodes secreted matrix-associated proteins. NOV is expressed during development in dermomyotome and limb buds, but its functions are still poorly defined. In order to understand the role of NOV in myogenic differentiation, C2C12 cells overexpressing NOV (C2-NOV) were generated. These cells failed to engage into myogenic differentiation, whereas they retained the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts. In differentiating conditions, C2-NOV cells remained proliferative, failed to express differentiation markers and lost their ability to form myotubes. Inhibition of differentiation by NOV was also observed with human primary muscle cells. Further examination of C2-NOV cells revealed a strong downregulation of the myogenic determination genes MyoD and Myf5 and of IGF-II expression. MyoD forced expression in C2-NOV was sufficient to restore differentiation and IGF-II induction whereas 10(-6) M insulin treatment had no effects. NOV therefore acts upstream of MyoD and does not affect IGF-II induction and signaling. HES1, a target of Notch, previously proposed to mediate NOV action, was not implicated in the inhibition of differentiation. We propose that NOV is a specific cell fate regulator in the myogenic lineage, acting negatively on key myogenic genes thus controlling the transition from progenitor cells to myoblasts.

  7. Vascular Mural Cells Promote Noradrenergic Differentiation of Embryonic Sympathetic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Vitor; Pardanaud, Luc; Brunet, Isabelle; Ola, Roxana; Ristori, Emma; Santoro, Massimo M; Nicoli, Stefania; Eichmann, Anne

    2015-06-23

    The sympathetic nervous system controls smooth muscle tone and heart rate in the cardiovascular system. Postganglionic sympathetic neurons (SNs) develop in close proximity to the dorsal aorta (DA) and innervate visceral smooth muscle targets. Here, we use the zebrafish embryo to ask whether the DA is required for SN development. We show that noradrenergic (NA) differentiation of SN precursors temporally coincides with vascular mural cell (VMC) recruitment to the DA and vascular maturation. Blocking vascular maturation inhibits VMC recruitment and blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling prevents VMC differentiation and also blocks NA differentiation of SN precursors. NA differentiation is normal in cloche mutants that are devoid of endothelial cells but have VMCs. Thus, PDGFR-mediated mural cell recruitment mediates neurovascular interactions between the aorta and sympathetic precursors and promotes their noradrenergic differentiation.

  8. Correlation between ECM guidance and actin polymerization on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Vivian; Deiwick, Andrea; Pflaum, Michael; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    The correlation between extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell shape, and stem cell guidance can shed light in understanding and mimicking the functionality of stem cell niches for various applications. This interplay on osteogenic guidance of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) was focus of this study. Proliferation and osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium mineralization were slightly increased by the ECM components laminin (LA), collagen I (COL), and fibronectin (FIB); with control medium no differentiation occurred. ECM guided differentiation was rather dependent on osterix than on Runx2 pathway. FIB significantly enhanced cell elongation even in presence of actin polymerization blockers cytochalasin D (CytoD) and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, which generally caused more rounded cells. Except for the COL surface, both inhibitors increased the extent of osterix, while the Runx2 pathway was more sensitive to the culture condition. Both inhibitors did not affect hASC proliferation. CytoD enabled osteogenic differentiation independently from the ECM, while it was rather blocked via Y-27632 treatment; on FIB the general highest extent of differentiation occurred. Taken together, the ECM effect on hASCs occurs indirectly and selectively via a dominant role of FIB: it sustains osteogenic differentiation in case of a tension-dependent control of actin polymerization.

  9. Shedding light on cell compartmentation in the candidate phylum Poribacteria by high resolution visualisation and transcriptional profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Martin T.; Markert, Sebastian M.; Ryu, Taewoo; Ravasi, Timothy; Stigloher, Christian; Hentschel, Ute; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Assigning functions to uncultivated environmental microorganisms continues to be a challenging endeavour. Here, we present a new microscopy protocol for fluorescence in situ hybridisation-correlative light and electron microscopy (FISH-CLEM) that enabled, to our knowledge for the first time, the identification of single cells within their complex microenvironment at electron microscopy resolution. Members of the candidate phylum Poribacteria, common and uncultivated symbionts of marine sponges, were used towards this goal. Cellular 3D reconstructions revealed bipolar, spherical granules of low electron density, which likely represent carbon reserves. Poribacterial activity profiles were retrieved from prokaryotic enriched sponge metatranscriptomes using simulation-based optimised mapping. We observed high transcriptional activity for proteins related to bacterial microcompartments (BMC) and we resolved their subcellular localisation by combining FISH-CLEM with immunohistochemistry (IHC) on ultra-thin sponge tissue sections. In terms of functional relevance, we propose that the BMC-A region may be involved in 1,2-propanediol degradation. The FISH-IHC-CLEM approach was proven an effective toolkit to combine -omics approaches with functional studies and it should be widely applicable in environmental microbiology. PMID:27796326

  10. Cancer cell differentiation heterogeneity and aggressive behavior in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jögi, Annika; Vaapil, Marica; Johansson, Martin; Påhlman, Sven

    2012-05-01

    The differentiation stage of tumors is a central aspect in the histopathological classification of solid malignancies. The differentiation stage is strongly associated with tumor behavior, and generally an immature tumor is more aggressive than the more differentiated counterpart. While this is common knowledge in surgical pathology, the contribution of differentiation-related gene expression and functions to tumor behavior is often overlooked in the experimental, tumor biological setting. The mechanisms by which tumor cell differentiation stages are perturbed or affected are poorly explored but have recently come into focus with the introduction.of the tumor stem cell concept. While developmental biologists view the differentiation as a unidirectional event, pathologists and tumor biologists have introduced the concept of dedifferentiation to explain phenotypic changes occurring in solid tumors. In this review we discuss the impact of the tumor cell differentiation stage as used in surgical pathology. We further discuss knowledge gained from exploring the molecular basis of the differentiation and dedifferentiation processes in neuroblastoma and breast cancer, two tumor forms where the tumor cell differentiation concept is used in the clinical diagnostic work and where the tumor stem cell theory has been applied.

  11. Pathological Consequence of Misguided Dendritic Cell Differentiation in Histiocytic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Berres, Marie-Luise; Allen, Carl E.; Merad, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Histiocytic disorders represent a group of complex pathologies characterized by the accumulation of histiocytes, an old term for tissue-resident macrophages and dendritic cells. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is the most frequent of histiocytosis in humans and has been thought to arise from the abnormal accumulation of epidermal dendritic cells called Langerhans cells. In this chapter, we discuss the origin and differentiation of Langerhans cells and dendritic cells and present accumulated evi...

  12. Differentiation of stem cells upon deprivation of exogenous FGF2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjartansdóttir, Kristín Rós; Gabrielsen, Anette; Reda, Ahmed;

    2012-01-01

    Establishing a model for in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) towards the germ cell lineage could be used to identify molecular mechanisms behind germ cell differentiation that may help in understanding human infertility. Here, we evaluate whether a lack of exogenous...... fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is supporting spontaneous differentiation of hESCs cultured on human foreskin fibroblast (hFF) monolayers towards germ cell lineage. Additionally to depriving the hESCs of exogenous FGF2, cells were stimulated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). To get a more comprehensive...... impression on effects of removal of FGF2 and stimulation with ATRA, we combined the results of three cell lines for each experimental setting. When combining gene expression profiles of three cell lines for 96 genes, only 6 genes showed a significant up-regulation in all cell lines, when no FGF2 was added...

  13. Shedding skin and tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammlerschlag, Carl A

    2007-06-01

    I am a purported expert in change and personal growth; that's the work I do with patients, and what I lecture and write about. I say that growth has nothing to do with adding on; it's always about letting go. Alas, it's always easier to tell others how to welcome shedding their skins than it is for me to do it myself. Letting go of the old and familiar is a necessary prerequisite for growth, but it's hard to do because no matter how much we may know, we have to move on. It always makes us feel vulnerable, which can inspire fear.

  14. Transcriptional regulatory networks for CD4 T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Darah; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells play a central role in controlling the adaptive immune response by secreting cytokines to activate target cells. Naïve CD4(+) T cells differentiate into at least four subsets, Th1Th1 , Th2Th2 , Th17Th17 , and inducible regulatory T cellsregulatory T cells , each with unique functions for pathogen elimination. The differentiation of these subsets is induced in response to cytokine stimulation, which is translated into Stat activation, followed by induction of master regulator transcription factorstranscription factors . In addition to these factors, multiple other transcription factors, both subset specific and shared, are also involved in promoting subset differentiation. This review will focus on the network of transcription factors that control CD4(+) T cell differentiation.

  15. The concept of radiation-enhanced stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieloch Adam A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efficient stem cell differentiation is considered to be the holy grail of regenerative medicine. Pursuing the most productive method of directed differentiation has been the subject of numerous studies, resulting in the development of many effective protocols. However, the necessity for further improvement in differentiation efficiency remains. This review contains a description of molecular processes underlying the response of stem cells to ionizing radiation, indicating its potential application in differentiation procedures. In the first part, the radiation-induced damage response in various types of stem cells is described. Second, the role of the p53 protein in embryonic and adult stem cells is highlighted. Last, the hypothesis on the mitochondrial involvement in stem cell development including its response to ionizing radiation is presented.

  16. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jue Yeon [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung Jin [Department of Industrial Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chong-Pyoung [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Jeong, E-mail: parkyj@snu.ac.kr [Craniomaxillofacial Reconstructive Sciences Major, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-749 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Nano Intelligent Biomedical Engineering Corporation (NIBEC), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  17. Interplay of Matrix Stiffness and Cell-Cell Contact in Regulating Differentiation of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kai; Cao, Luping; Li, Shiyu; Yu, Lin; Ding, Jiandong

    2016-08-31

    Stem cells are capable of sensing and responding to the mechanical properties of extracellular matrixes (ECMs). It is well-known that, while osteogenesis is promoted on the stiff matrixes, adipogenesis is enhanced on the soft ones. Herein, we report an "abnormal" tendency of matrix-stiffness-directed stem cell differentiation. Well-defined nanoarrays of cell-adhesive arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptides were modified onto the surfaces of persistently nonfouling poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels to achieve controlled specific cell adhesion and simultaneously eliminate nonspecific protein adsorption. Mesenchymal stem cells were cultivated on the RGD-nanopatterned PEG hydrogels with the same RGD nanospacing but different hydrogel stiffnesses and incubated in the induction medium to examine the effect of matrix stiffness on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation extents. When stem cells were kept at a low density during the induction period, the differentiation tendency was consistent with the previous reports in the literature; however, both lineage commitments were favored on the stiff matrices at a high cell density. We interpreted such a complicated stiffness effect at a high cell density in two-dimensional culture as the interplay of matrix stiffness and cell-cell contact. As a result, this study strengthens the essence of the stiffness effect and highlights the combinatory effects of ECM cues and cell cues on stem cell differentiation.

  18. Lactobacilli Differentially Activate Natural Killer Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    bacteria on regulatory functions of NK-cells. Here, we have investigated how human gut flora-derived non-pathogenic lactobacilli affect NK cells in vitro, by measuring proliferation and IFN-gamma production of human peripheral blood NK cells upon bacterial stimulation. CD3-CD56+ NK cells were isolated from...... having engulfed bacteria, stimulated the growth of the NK cells. In contrast, a Lactobacillus paracasei strain caused the NK cells to proliferate only in the presence of monocytes. These results demonstrate that various lactobacilli have the capacity to activate NK cells in vitro, in a monocyte dependent...

  19. Distinct differentiation characteristics of individual human embryonic stem cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Sakari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61 from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. Results The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder cells. The cells grew significantly faster and could be passaged enzymatically only on mouse feeders. However, this was found to lead to chromosomal instability after prolonged culture. All hESC lines expressed the established markers of pluripotent cells as well as several primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes in a uniform manner. However, the cell lines showed distinct features in their spontaneous differentiation patterns. The embryoid body (EB formation frequency of FES 30 cell line was significantly lower than that of other lines and cells within the EBs differentiated less readily. Likewise, teratomas derived from FES 30 cells were constantly cystic and showed only minor solid tissue formation with a monotonous differentiation pattern as compared with the other lines. Conclusion hESC lines may differ substantially in their differentiation properties although they appear similar in the undifferentiated state.

  20. Levamisole Enhances Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Reduces Shedding of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahoora Shomali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Regarding the role of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica in reassortment and spreading of avian influenza (AI viruses and inadequate protection of vaccination in this species, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of levamisole as an immunomodulatory agent on cell-mediated immunity (CMI, antibody responses and shedding of H9N2 AI virus in experimentally infected quails. Approach: On day 20 of age, 100 quails randomly allocated into 4 equal groups. Birds in groups 2, 3 and 4 were inoculated with virus where group 1 kept as control. Groups 3 and 4 orally received 15 mg kg-1 levamisole for three consecutive days just before virus inoculation which was repeated 10 days post inoculation (PI only in group 4. Antibody titers and CMI of all birds were assayed by HI and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH test respectively and virus detection in fecal and tracheal samples performed by RT-PCR method. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Levamisole in both regimens had no appreciable effect on antibody titers (p>0.05 while repeated regimen resulted in higher CMI response than group 2 at 48 and 72 h post DTH test (p = 0.011 and p = 0.031 respectively. Total fecal samples positive for virus from birds in group 3 and 4 were 34.4 and 40% lower than group 2 respectively. For trachea, the positive samples were 33.3% (group 3 and 46.7% (group 4 lower than group 2. Moreover; fecal and tracheal samples from levamisole treated birds (especially from group 4 became void of virus earlier than group 2. Conclusion/Recommendations: Levamisole administration in a repeated regimen enhances CMI response against H9N2 AI virus and reduces virus shedding in quails. This may pave the road for further investigations on potential positive effects of this agent on prevention and management of H9N2 AI infections in quail industry.

  1. Role of calcium in differentiation of murine erythroleukemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDAN; NONGGAOHE; 等

    1993-01-01

    Calcium plays a crucial role in the normal and abnomal cell metabolism.The role of calcium in the differentiation process of murine erythroleukemia cells(MELC)remains controversial.Here,based upon quantitative measurement of fluorescence in single cells,a method was developed to investigate the intracellular free calcium[Ca2+]i concentration and DNA contents simultaneously,by employing the fluorescent probe,fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester and DNA dye Hoechst 33342.During MELC differentiation.[Ca2+]i concentration incresed.We also demonstrated that calcium ionophore,A23187,enhanced the HMB-induced MELC differentiation,while verapamil,an inhibitor of calcuim uptake,slightly reduced differentiation.These results suggested that an increase in the [Ca2+]i level was an essential step in HMBA-induced MELC differentiation.

  2. Granulosa cell proliferation differentiation and its role in follicular development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Cuiling; YANG Wei; HU Zhaoyuan; LIU Yixun

    2005-01-01

    Granuiosa cells (GCs) are the most important cells in the ovary that undergo serious changes morphologically and physiologically during the processes of follicular proliferation, differentiation, ovulation, lutenization and atresia. Oocyte (OC) directs GC proliferation and differentiation, while GCs influence OC maturation. Many ovarian factors are involved in the regulation of these processes via different molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. P38MAPK can selectively regulate steroidogenesis in GCs controlled by FSH; Transcript factors LRH-1 and DAX-1 play an important role in this process; FSH induces GC prolfferation and differentiation by stimulating PCNA and StAR expression and steroidogenesis. Activated ERK1/2 signal pathway may be involved in the FSH-regulated GC proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, GC is an ideal model for studying cell proliferation, differentiation and interaction,as well as signal transduction. This review briefly summarizes the latest data in the literature, including the results achieved in our laboratory.

  3. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA-induced a phenotype of activated microglia in BV-2 cells requires epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation and proHB-EGF shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Rubén

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of microglia, the primary component of the innate immune response in the brain, is a hallmark of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other pathological conditions such as stroke or CNS infection. In response to a variety of insults, microglial cells produce high levels of inflammatory cytokines that are often involved in neuronal injury, and play an important role in the recognition, engulfment, and clearance of apoptotic cells and/or invading microbes. Secreted phospholipase A2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA, an enzyme that interacts with cells involved in the systemic immune/inflammatory response, has been found up-regulated in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of AD patients. However, despite several approaches, its functions in mediating CNS inflammation remain unknown. In the present study, the role of sPLA2-IIA was examined by investigating its direct effects on microglial cells. Methods Primary and immortalized microglial cells were stimulated by sPLA2-IIA in order to characterize the cytokine-like actions of the phospholipase. The hallmarks of activated microglia analyzed include: mitogenic response, phagocytic capabilities and induction of inflammatory mediators. In addition, we studied several of the potential molecular mechanisms involved in those events. Results The direct exposure of microglial cells to sPLA2-IIA stimulated, in a time- and dose-dependent manner, their phagocytic and proliferative capabilities. sPLA2-IIA also triggered the synthesis of the inflammatory proteins COX-2 and TNFα. In addition, EGFR phosphorylation and shedding of the membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (pro-HB-EGF ectodomain, as well as a rapid activation/phosphorylation of the classical survival proteins ERK, P70S6K and rS6 were induced upon sPLA2-IIA treatment. We further demonstrated that the presence of an EGFR inhibitor (AG1478, a matrix metalloproteinase

  4. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew indefin

  5. Division of Labor in Biofilms : the Ecology of Cell Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The dense aggregation of cells on a surface, as seen in biofilms, inevitably results in both environmental and cellular heterogeneity. For example, nutrient gradients can trigger cells to differentiate into various phenotypic states. Not only do cells adapt physiologically to the local environmental

  6. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats. Immuno

  7. NEW DESIGNED HMBA AGENTS AS INDUCERS OF ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华力; 张世馥; 周建平; 章静波

    2002-01-01

    Objective.Searching for more potent and less toxic HMBA related agents. Methods.Human erythroleukemia cell K562,murine erythroleukemia cell (MEL) and its sub line MEL DS19 were used as target cells to select a cell line which is the most sensitive to HMBA,then analyzed the activity of inducing differentiation of two new designed HMBA derivatives:HMBPA [hexamethylenebi (3 pyridin) amide] and Co HDTA (ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid cobalt) using cell biology,cytochemical and molecular biology techniques. Results.We found that the MEL DS19 cells were most sensitive to HMBA (benzidine positive,B+ ~76% ).Co HDTA can inhibit the growth of MEL DS19,but induces differentiation just in a small population (B+ 2% ~4.5% ).Between 0.02~5μ mol/L,HMBPA induces 3% ~8% cells committed to differentiation with little inhibition of cell proliferation.1μ mol/L HMBPA and 2mmol/L HMBA together,can obviously increase the percentage of differentiated cell (B+ ~72% ),inhibit DNA synthesis and accelerate β globin transcription. Conclusion.The new HMBA derivatives may provide potential cancer differentiation inducers.

  8. The organelle of differentiation in embryos: the cell state splitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Natalie K; Gordon, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The cell state splitter is a membraneless organelle at the apical end of each epithelial cell in a developing embryo. It consists of a microfilament ring and an intermediate filament ring subtending a microtubule mat. The microtubules and microfilament ring are in mechanical opposition as in a tensegrity structure. The cell state splitter is bistable, perturbations causing it to contract or expand radially. The intermediate filament ring provides metastability against small perturbations. Once this snap-through organelle is triggered, it initiates signal transduction to the nucleus, which changes gene expression in one of two readied manners, causing its cell to undergo a step of determination and subsequent differentiation. The cell state splitter also triggers the cell state splitters of adjacent cells to respond, resulting in a differentiation wave. Embryogenesis may be represented then as a bifurcating differentiation tree, each edge representing one cell type. In combination with the differentiation waves they propagate, cell state splitters explain the spatiotemporal course of differentiation in the developing embryo. This review is excerpted from and elaborates on "Embryogenesis Explained" (World Scientific Publishing, Singapore, 2016). PMID:26965444

  9. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells differentiate to neuron-like cells upon inhibition of BMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Monika; Prashar, Paritosh; Yadav, Prem Swaroop; Sen, Jonaki

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a source of autologous stem cells that have the potential for undergoing differentiation into multiple cell types including neurons. Although the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been studied for a long time, the molecular players involved are still not defined. Here we report that the genetic deletion of two members of the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family, Bmp2 and Bmp4 in mouse BMSCs causes their differentiation into cells with neuron-like morphology. Surprisingly these cells expressed certain markers characteristic of both neuronal and glial cells. Based on this observation, we inhibited BMP signaling in mouse BMSCs through a brief exposure to Noggin protein which also led to their differentiation into cells expressing both neuronal and glial markers. Such cells seem to have the potential for further differentiation into subtypes of neuronal and glial cells and thus could be utilized for cell-based therapeutic applications.

  10. Experimental Limitations Using Reprogrammed Cells for Hematopoietic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Seiler

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here our experiences with the in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC and subsequent in vitro development of hematopoietic cells from these iPSC and from embryonic stem cells (ESC. While, in principle, the in vitro reprogramming and subsequent differentiation can generate hematopoietic cell from any somatic cells, it is evident that many of the steps in this process need to be significantly improved before it can be applied to human cells and used in clinical settings of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC transplantations.

  11. Bone marrow cells differentiation into organ cells using stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y-J; Li, X-L; Xue, Y; Zhang, C-X; Wang, Y; Hu, X; Dai, Q

    2016-07-01

    Bone marrow cells (BMC) are progenitors of bone, cartilage, skeletal tissue, the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma and adipocyte cells. BMCs have the potential to differentiate into neural cells, cardiac myocytes, liver hepatocytes, chondrocytes, renal, corneal, blood, and myogenic cells. The bone marrow cell cultures from stromal and mesenchymal cells are called multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs). MAPCs can differentiate into mesenchymal cells, visceral mesoderm, neuroectoderm and endoderm in vitro. It has been shown that the stem cells derived from bone marrow cells (BMCs) can regenerate cardiac myocytes after myocardial infarction (MI). Adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to regenerate neural cells. Neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PC) are ideal for treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington disease. However, there are important ethical issues about the therapeutic use of stem cells. Neurons, cardiac myocytes, hepatocytes, renal cells, blood cells, chondrocytes and adipocytes regeneration from BMCs are very important in disease control. It is known that limbal epithelial stem cells in the cornea can repair the eye sight and remove symptoms of blindness. Stem cell therapy (SCT) is progressing well in animal models, but the use of SCT in human remains to be explored further.

  12. Nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signaling in stem cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mujoo, Kalpana; Krumenacker, Joshua S.; Murad, Ferid

    2011-01-01

    The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) pathway mediates important physiological functions associated with various integrative body systems including the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Furthermore, NO regulates cell growth, survival, apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation at the cellular level. To understand the significance of the NO-cGMP pathway in development and differentiation, studies have been conducted both in developing embryos and stem cells. Manipulation of the NO-cGMP pat...

  13. Transcriptional Enhancers In The Regulation Of T Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Michelle L. T.; Sarah A. Jones; Prier, Julia E.; Brendan Edward Russ

    2015-01-01

    The changes in phenotype and function that characterise the differentiation of naïve T cells to effector and memory states are underscored by large-scale, coordinated, and stable changes in gene expression. In turn, these changes are choreographed by the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic regulators that act to restructure the genome, ultimately ensuring lineage-appropriate gene expression. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that control T cell differentiation, with a partic...

  14. Differentiation potential of the fetal rat liver-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Pojda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow or several fetal tissues can be expanded and differentiated into other cell lines. The fetal liver is the source of early hematopoietic cells and also, as a fetal tissue, may be considered as a source of pluripotent stem cells. The differentiation potential of fetal rat liver cells have been examined. Freshly isolated liver cells from 14-d fetuses were cultured in Dulbecco medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The plastic-adherent cells were then passaged up to 10 times. Freshly isolated cells and cells from every passage were cultured in hematopoiesis-promoting environment that consists of methylcelulose supplemented with FCS, rat IL-3, human IL-6 and Epo. Parallely these cells were incubated in co-culture with rat muscle satellite cells (Dulbecco medium with 10% FCS and 10% HS to examine their myogenic potential. Culture in methylcelulose resulted in a high number of GM and Mix colonies in case of freshly isolated liver cells and the number of colonies decreased according to the number of passages. In case of cells from 4th passage, there ware no hematopoietic colonies in culture. In contrast--freshly isolated cells were not able to fuse with rat satellite cells and form the myotubes. This ability appeared in plastic-adherent cells just from the second passage and increases to 5th passage. The cells from every next passage up to 10th when co-cultured with satellite cells participated in myotube formation at the same high level. This result may suggest that in the 14-d rat liver there exist at least two subpopulations of cells: the non-adherent hematopoietic cell population, and the population of plastic-adherent cells capable of differentiating into myotubes. Since the attempts to redifferentiate hematopoietic subpopulation into myopoiesis, or myopoietic subpopulation into hematopoiesis failed, it may be concluded that at least under our experimental conditions the fetal liver cells do not reveal the

  15. Extracellular vesicles shed by melanoma cells contain a modified form of H1.0 linker histone and H1.0 mRNA-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Puleo, Veronica; Colletta, Oriana; Fricano, Anna; Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are now recognized as a fundamental way for cell-to-cell horizontal transfer of properties, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Most of EV-mediated cross-talk among cells depend on the exchange of proteins, and nucleic acids, among which mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs such as different species of miRNAs. Cancer cells, in particular, use EVs to discard molecules which could be dangerous to them (for example differentiation-inducing proteins such as histone H1.0, or antitumor drugs), to transfer molecules which, after entering the surrounding cells, are able to transform their phenotype, and even to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance. Herein we report that melanoma cells not only secrete EVs which contain a modified form of H1.0 histone, but also transport the corresponding mRNA. Given the already known role in tumorigenesis of some RNA binding proteins (RBPs), we also searched for proteins of this class in EVs. This study revealed the presence in A375 melanoma cells of at least three RBPs, with apparent MW of about 65, 45 and 38 kDa, which are able to bind H1.0 mRNA. Moreover, we purified one of these proteins, which by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was identified as the already known transcription factor MYEF2. PMID:27633859

  16. Sambucus williamsii induced embryonic stem cells differentiated into neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Chien-Yu; Fu, Ru-Huei; Huang, Yu-Chuen; Chen, Shih-Yin; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    The pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into any cell type, thus making them the focus of many clinical application studies. However, the efficiency of ESCs differentiated into neurons needs to improve. In this study, we tried to increase efficiently to a neural fate in the presence of various transitional Chinese medicines through a three-step differentiation strategy. From extracts of 10 transitional Chinese medicine candidates, we determined that Sambucus williamsii (SW) extract triggers the up-regulation of Nestin and Tuj1 (neuron cells markers) gene expression levels. After determining the different concentrations of SW extract, the number of neurons in the 200 μg/ml SW extract group was higher than the control, 50, 100, and 400 μg/ml SW extract groups. In addition, the number of neurons in the 200 μg/ml SW extract group was higher and higher after each time passage (three times). We also detected the Oct4, Sox2 (stem cells markers), Tuj1, and Nestin genes expression levels by RT-PCR. In the differentiated process, Oct4 and Sox2 genes decreased while the Tuj1 and Nestin genes expression levels increased. In summary, we demonstrated that SW could induce pluripotent stem cells differentiated into neurons. Thus, SW might become a powerful material for neurons-differentiating strategies.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor receptor gene expression and shedding in human whole lung tissue and pulmonary epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) at the gene and surface level, and its shedding in human lung tissue and a pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549. Levels of gene expression of TNF-R were evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Human lung issue expressed both type I and type II TNF-R gene, while A549 cells expressed only type I TNF-R gene. Phorbol ester upregulated and TNF-α down-regulated the TNF-R gene expression in A549 cells. Consistent with these modulations of TNF-R gene expression, 125I-TNF binding capacities were increased with phorbol ester stimulation and decreased with TNF stimulation after 24 h in A549 cells. The shedding of TNF-R from A549 cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for soluble type I TNF-R. Not only lung tissues but also A549 cells spontaneously released soluble type I TNF-R into the culture medium. Both phorbol ester and TNF stimulation accelerated the shedding of soluble TNF-R from A549 cells. These results suggest that type I TNF-R gene expression and shedding of soluble TNF-R are differentially regulated in A549 cells. We conclude that tumour necrosis factor receptor surface expression is regulated, at least in part, at the gene expression level and shedding of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor is modulated by inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor in A549 cells. (au) 39 refs

  18. In Vitro Differentiation and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell into Multipotent Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Mahmood; Claudio Napoli; Abdullah Aldahmash

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have the potential to generate virtually any differentiated progeny, are an attractive cell source for transplantation therapy, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. To realize this potential, it is essential to be able to control ESC differentiation and to direct the development of these cells along specific pathways. Basic science in the field of embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, and tissue engineering has offered important ...

  19. Differential role of ICAM ligands in determination of human memory T cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocyte Function Antigen-1 (LFA-1 is a primary adhesion molecule that plays important roles in T cell activation, leukocyte recirculation, and trans-endothelial migration. By applying a multivariate intracellular phospho-proteomic analysis, we demonstrate that LFA-1 differentially activates signaling molecules. Results Signal intensity was dependent on both ICAM ligand and LFA-1 concentration. In the presence of CD3 and CD28 stimulation, ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 decreased TGFβ1 production more than ICAM-1. In long-term differentiation experiments, stimulation with ICAM-3, CD3, and CD28 generated IFNγ producing CD4+CD45RO+CD62L-CD11aBrightCD27- cells that had increased expression of intracellular BCL2, displayed distinct chemokine receptor profiles, and exhibited distinct migratory characteristics. Only CD3/CD28 with ICAM-3 generated CD4+CD45RO+CD62L-CD11aBrightCD27- cells that were functionally responsive to chemotaxis and exhibited higher frequencies of cells that signaled to JNK and ERK1/2 upon stimulation with MIP3α. Furthermore, these reports identify that the LFA-1 receptor, when presented with multiple ligands, can result in distinct T cell differentiation states and suggest that the combinatorial integration of ICAM ligand interactions with LFA-1 have functional consequences for T cell biology. Conclusion Thus, the ICAM ligands, differentially modulate LFA-1 signaling in T cells and potentiate the development of memory human T cells in vitro. These findings are of importance in a mechanistic understanding of memory cell differentiation and ex vivo generation of memory cell subsets for therapeutic applications.

  20. Influence of Porcine Intervertebral Disc Matrix on Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Lothar Fuchsbauer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For back disorders, cell therapy is one approach for a real regeneration of a degenerated nucleus pulposus. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC could be differentiated into nucleus pulposus (NP-like cells and used for cell therapy. Therefore it is necessary to find a suitable biocompatible matrix, which supports differentiation. It could be shown that a differentiation of hMSC in a microbial transglutaminase cross-linked gelatin matrix is possible, but resulted in a more chondrocyte-like cell type. The addition of porcine NP extract to the gelatin matrix caused a differentiation closer to the desired NP cell phenotype. This concludes that a hydrogel containing NP extract without any other supplements could be suitable for differentiation of hMSCs into NP cells. The NP extract itself can be cross-linked by transglutaminase to build a hydrogel free of NP atypical substrates. As shown by side-specific biotinylation, the NP extract contains molecules with free glutamine and lysine residues available for the transglutaminase.

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors block differentiation of skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, P; Viñals, F; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1996-08-01

    Skeletal muscle differentiation involves myoblast alignment, elongation, and fusion into multinucleate myotubes, together with the induction of regulatory and structural muscle-specific genes. Here we show that two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, LY294002 and wortmannin, blocked an essential step in the differentiation of two skeletal muscle cell models. Both inhibitors abolished the capacity of L6E9 myoblasts to form myotubes, without affecting myoblast proliferation, elongation, or alignment. Myogenic events like the induction of myogenin and of glucose carrier GLUT4 were also blocked and myoblasts could not exit the cell cycle, as measured by the lack of mRNA induction of p21 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. Overexpresssion of MyoD in 10T1/2 cells was not sufficient to bypass the myogenic differentiation blockade by LY294002. Upon serum withdrawal, 10T1/2-MyoD cells formed myotubes and showed increased levels of myogenin and p21. In contrast, LY294002-treated cells exhibited none of these myogenic characteristics and maintained high levels of Id, a negative regulator of myogenesis. These data indicate that whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is not indispensable for cell proliferation or in the initial events of myoblast differentiation, i.e. elongation and alignment, it appears to be essential for terminal differentiation of muscle cells. PMID:8702591

  2. Differentiation of rat marrow mesenchymal stem cells into pancreatic islet beta-cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Bo Chen; Xiao-Bing Jiang; Lian Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)in vitro differentiating into functional isletlike cells and to test the diabetes therapeutic potency of Islet-like cells.METHODS: Rat MSCs were isolated from Wistar rats and cultured. Passaged MSCs were induced to differentiate into islet-like cells under following conditions: pre-induction with L-DMEM including 10 mmol/L nicotinamide+1 mmol/L β-mercaptoethanol+200 mL/L fetal calf serum (FSC) for 24 h,followed by induction with serum free H-DMEM solution including 10 mmol/L nicotinamide+ 1 mmol/L,β-mercaptoethanol for 10 h. Differentiated cells were observed under inverse microscopy, insulin and nestin expressed in differentiated cells were detected with immunocytochemistry. Insulin excreted from differentiated cells was tested with radioimmunoassay. Rat diabetic models were made to test in vivo function of differentiated MSCs.RESULTS: Typical islet -like clustered cells were observed.Insulin mRNA and protein expressions were positive in differentiated cells, and nestin could be detected in predifferentiated cells. Insulin excreted from differentiated MSCs (446.93±102.28 IU/L) was much higher than that from pre-differentiated MSCs (2.45±0.81 IU/L (P<0.01).Injected differentiated MSCs cells could down-regulate glucose level in diabetic rats.CONCLUSION: Islet-like functional cells can be differentiated from marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which may be a new procedure for clinical diabetes stem -cell therapy, these cells can control blood glucose level in diabetic rats. MSCs may play an important role in diabetes therapy by islet differentiation and transplantation.

  3. Differentiation of breast cancer stem cells by knockdown of CD44: promising differentiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phuc V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs are the source of breast tumors. Compared with other cancer cells, cancer stem cells show high resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeting of BCSCs is thus a potentially promising and effective strategy for breast cancer treatment. Differentiation therapy represents one type of cancer stem-cell-targeting therapy, aimed at attacking the stemness of cancer stem cells, thus reducing their chemo- and radioresistance. In a previous study, we showed that down-regulation of CD44 sensitized BCSCs to the anti-tumor agent doxorubicin. This study aimed to determine if CD44 knockdown caused BCSCs to differentiate into breast cancer non-stem cells (non-BCSCs. Methods We isolated a breast cancer cell population (CD44+CD24- cells from primary cultures of malignant breast tumors. These cells were sorted into four sub-populations based on their expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers. CD44 knockdown in the BCSC population was achieved using small hairpin RNA lentivirus particles. The differentiated status of CD44 knock-down BCSCs was evaluated on the basis of changes in CD44+CD24- phenotype, tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice, and gene expression in relation to renewal status, metastasis, and cell cycle in comparison with BCSCs and non-BCSCs. Results Knockdown of CD44 caused BCSCs to differentiate into non-BCSCs with lower tumorigenic potential, and altered the cell cycle and expression profiles of some stem cell-related genes, making them more similar to those seen in non-BCSCs. Conclusions Knockdown of CD44 is an effective strategy for attacking the stemness of BCSCs, resulting in a loss of stemness and an increase in susceptibility to chemotherapy or radiation. The results of this study highlight a potential new strategy for breast cancer treatment through the targeting of BCSCs.

  4. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  5. Human embryonic stem cells differentiate into functional renal proximal tubular-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Karl M; Tasnim, Farah; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Schumacher, Annegret; Ni, Ming; Gao, Shujun; Gopalan, Began; Zink, Daniele; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-04-01

    Renal cells are used in basic research, disease models, tissue engineering, drug screening, and in vitro toxicology. In order to provide a reliable source of human renal cells, we developed a protocol for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into renal epithelial cells. The differentiated stem cells expressed markers characteristic of renal proximal tubular cells and their precursors, whereas markers of other renal cell types were not expressed or expressed at low levels. Marker expression patterns of these differentiated stem cells and in vitro cultivated primary human renal proximal tubular cells were comparable. The differentiated stem cells showed morphological and functional characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells, and generated tubular structures in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the differentiated stem cells contributed in organ cultures for the formation of simple epithelia in the kidney cortex. Bioreactor experiments showed that these cells retained their functional characteristics under conditions as applied in bioartificial kidneys. Thus, our results show that human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into renal proximal tubular-like cells. Our approach would provide a source for human renal proximal tubular cells that are not affected by problems associated with immortalized cell lines or primary cells.

  6. Tinospora cordifolia Induces Differentiation and Senescence Pathways in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rachana; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2015-08-01

    Children diagnosed with neuroblastomas often suffer from severe side as well as late effects of conventional treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent advances in understanding of molecular pathways involved in cellular differentiation and apoptosis have helped in the development of new therapeutic approach based on differentiation-based therapy of malignant tumours. Natural medicines with their holistic therapeutic approach are known to selectively eliminate cancer cells thus provide a better substitute for the conventional treatment modes. The current study was aimed to investigate the anti-cancer potential of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) using IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line as a model system. TCE is highly recommended in Ayurveda for its general body and metal health-promoting properties. TCE treatment was seen to arrest the majority of cells in G0/G1 phase and modulated the expression of DNA clamp sliding protein (PCNA) and cyclin D1. Further, TCE-treated cells showed differentiation as revealed by their morphology and the expression of neuronal cell specific differentiation markers NF200, MAP-2 and NeuN in neuroblastoma cells. The differentiated phenotype was associated with induction of senescence and pro-apoptosis pathways by enhancing expression of senescence marker mortalin and Rel A subunit of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) along with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic marker, Bcl-xl. TCE exhibited anti-metastatic activity and significantly reduced cell migration in the scratched area along with downregulation of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) polysialylation and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Our data suggest that crude extract or active phytochemicals from this plant may be a potential candidate for differentiation-based therapy of malignant neuroblastoma cells. PMID:25280667

  7. Differentiation of neuron-like cells from mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingrong Yan; Liwen Li; Fulin Chen; Yanhong Yang; Wei Liu; Wenxin Geng; Huichong Du; Jihong Cui; Xin Xie; Jinlian Hua; Shumin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells have pluripotent differentiation potentials, akin to fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells. The aim of this study was to compare the neuronal differentiation potential of parthenogenetic and fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells. Before differentiation, karyotype analysis was performed, with normal karyotypes detected in both parthenogenetic and fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells. Sex chromosomes were identified as XX. Immunocytochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR detected high expression of the pluripotent gene, Oct4, at both the mRNA and protein levels, indicating pluripotent differentiation potential of the two embryonic stem cell subtypes. Embryonic stem cells were induced with retinoic acid to form embryoid bodies, and then dispersed into single cells. Single cells were differentiated in N2 differentiation medium for 9 days. Immunocytochemistry showed parthenogenetic and fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells both express the neuronal cell markers nestin, βIII-tubulin and myelin basic protein. Quantitative real-time PCR found expression of neurogenesis related genes (Sox-1, Nestin, GABA, Pax6, Zic5 and Pitx1) in both types of embryonic stem cells, and Oct4 expression was significantly decreased. Nestin and Pax6 expression in parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells was significantly higher than that in fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells. Thus, our experimental findings indicate that parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells have stronger neuronal differentiation potential than fertilized embryo-derived embryonic stem cells.

  8. Hyaluronan scaffold supports osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow concentrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, C; Desando, G; Ferrari, A; Zini, N; Mariani, E; Grigolo, B

    2016-01-01

    Osteochondral lesions are considered a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Currently, the treatments available are often unsatisfactory and unable to stimulate tissue regeneration. Tissue engineering offers a new therapeutic strategy, taking into account the role exerted by cells, biomaterial and growth factors in restoring tissue damage. In this light, Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been indicated as a fascinating tool for regenerative medicine thanks to their ability to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose tissue. However, in vitro-cultivation of MSCs could be associated with some risks such as de-differentiation/reprogramming, infection and contaminations of the cells. To overcome these shortcomings, a new approach is represented by the use of Bone Marrow Concentrate (BMC), that could allow the delivery of cells surrounded by their microenvironment in injured tissue. For this purpose, cells require a tridimensional scaffold that can support their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. This study is focused on the potentiality of BMC seeded onto a hyaluronan-based scaffold (Hyaff-11) to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. This process depends on the specific interaction between cells derived from bone marrow (surrounded by their niche) and scaffold, that create an environment able to support the regeneration of damaged tissue. The data obtained from the present study demonstrate that BMC grown onto Hyaff-11 are able to differentiate toward osteogenic sense, producing specific osteogenic genes and matrix proteins.

  9. The Preliminary Experimental Study of Induced Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Corneal Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yu; Jian Ge; Zhichong Wang; Bing Huang; Keming Yu; Chongde Long; Xigu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Purpose:To study preliminarily induced differentiation of embryonic stem cells intocorneal epithelial cells in vitro.Methods: Murine embryonic stem cells were co-cultured with Rabbit limbal cornealepithelial cells in Transwell system to induce differentiation. Mophological andimmunohistochemical examination were implemented.Results: The induced cells from embryonic stem cells have an epithelial appearance.The cells formed a network and were confluent into film gradually after beingco-cultured with rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells for 24 ~ 96 hours. The cells rangedmosaic structure and localized together with clear rim. Most of the cells showedpolygonal appearance. Transmission electron microscope showed lots of microvilli on thesurface of induced cells and tight junctions between them. These epithelial-like cellsexpressed the corneal epithelial cell specific marker cytokeratin3/cytokeratinl2.Conclusion: The potential mechanism of the differentiation of murine embryonic stemcells into corneal epithelial cells induced by limbal corneal epithelial cell-derivedinducing activity is to be further verified.

  10. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Ozcan;

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-...

  11. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoof, Dennis; Muñoz, Javier; Braam, Stefan R;

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during...

  12. Phosphorylation dynamics during early differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, D.; Munoz, J.; Braam, S.R.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Linding, R.; Heck, A.J.R.; Mummery, C.L.; Krijgsveld, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells self-renew indefinitely and possess characteristic protein-protein networks that remodel during differentiation. How this occurs is poorly understood. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we analyzed the (phospho)proteome of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) during different

  13. Cell culture plastics with immobilized interleukin-4 for monocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Hjortø, Gertrud Malene; Met, Özcan;

    2011-01-01

    Standard cell culture plastic was surface modified by passive adsorption or covalent attachment of interleukin (IL)-4 and investigated for its ability to induce differentiation of human monocytes into mature dendritic cells, a process dose-dependently regulated by IL-4. Covalent attachment of IL-4...

  14. Differential Protein Network Analysis of the Immune Cell Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Clancy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks.

  15. PPARγ agonists promote oligodendrocyte differentiation of neural stem cells by modulating stemness and differentiation genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Kanakasabai

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells (NSCs are a small population of resident cells that can grow, migrate and differentiate into neuro-glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates cell growth and differentiation. In this study we analyzed the influence of PPARγ agonists on neural stem cell growth and differentiation in culture. We found that in vitro culture of mouse NSCs in neurobasal medium with B27 in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF induced their growth and expansion as neurospheres. Addition of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and PPARγ agonist ciglitazone or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14-Prostaglandin J(2 (15d-PGJ2 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability and proliferation of NSCs in culture. Interestingly, NSCs cultured with PPARγ agonists, but not ATRA, showed significant increase in oligodendrocyte precursor-specific O4 and NG2 reactivity with a reduction in NSC marker nestin, in 3-7 days. In vitro treatment with PPARγ agonists and ATRA also induced modest increase in the expression of neuronal β-III tubulin and astrocyte-specific GFAP in NSCs in 3-7 days. Further analyses showed that PPARγ agonists and ATRA induced significant alterations in the expression of many stemness and differentiation genes associated with neuro-glial differentiation in NSCs. These findings highlight the influence of PPARγ agonists in promoting neuro-glial differentiation of NSCs and its significance in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Age-associated decrease in muscle precursor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Simon J; Rathbone, Christopher R; Booth, Frank W

    2006-02-01

    Muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are required for the regrowth, regeneration, and/or hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, which are deficient in sarcopenia. In the present investigation, we have addressed the issue of age-associated changes in MPC differentiation. MPCs, including satellite cells, were isolated from both young and old rat skeletal muscle with a high degree of myogenic purity (>90% MyoD and desmin positive). MPCs isolated from skeletal muscle of 32-mo-old rats exhibited decreased differentiation into myotubes and demonstrated decreased myosin heavy chain (MHC) and muscle creatine kinase (CK-M) expression compared with MPCs isolated from 3-mo-old rats. p27(Kip1) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that has been shown to enhance muscle differentiation in culture. Herein we describe our finding that p27(Kip1) protein was lower in differentiating MPCs from skeletal muscle of 32-mo-old rats than in 3-mo-old rat skeletal muscle. Although MHC and CK-M expression were approximately 50% lower in differentiating MPCs isolated from 32-mo-old rats, MyoD protein content was not different and myogenin protein concentration was twofold higher. These data suggest that there are inherent differences in cell signaling during the transition from cell cycle arrest to the formation of myotubes in MPCs isolated from sarcopenic muscle. Furthermore, there is an age-associated decrease in muscle-specific protein expression in differentiating MPCs despite normal MyoD and elevated myogenin levels. PMID:16192302

  17. Differential migration and proliferation of geometrical ensembles of cell clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Girish; Chen, Bo; Co, Carlos C.; Ho, Chia-Chi, E-mail: hocc@email.uc.edu

    2011-06-10

    Differential cell migration and growth drives the organization of specific tissue forms and plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue morphogenesis, and tumor invasion. Localized gradients of soluble factors and extracellular matrix have been shown to modulate cell migration and proliferation. Here we show that in addition to these factors, initial tissue geometry can feedback to generate differential proliferation, cell polarity, and migration patterns. We apply layer by layer polyelectrolyte assembly to confine multicellular organization and subsequently release cells to demonstrate the spatial patterns of cell migration and growth. The cell shapes, spreading areas, and cell-cell contacts are influenced strongly by the confining geometry. Cells within geometric ensembles are morphologically polarized. Symmetry breaking was observed for cells on the circular pattern and cells migrate toward the corners and in the direction parallel to the longest dimension of the geometric shapes. This migration pattern is disrupted when actomyosin based tension was inhibited. Cells near the edge or corner of geometric shapes proliferate while cells within do not. Regions of higher rate of cell migration corresponded to regions of concentrated growth. These findings demonstrate that multicellular organization can result in spatial patterns of migration and proliferation.

  18. Role of Hox genes in stem cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Seifert; David F Werheid; Silvana M Knapp; Edda Tobiasch

    2015-01-01

    Hox genes are an evolutionary highly conserved genefamily. They determine the anterior-posterior body axisin bilateral organisms and influence the developmentalfate of cells. Embryonic stem cells are usually devoidof any Hox gene expression, but these transcriptionfactors are activated in varying spatial and temporalpatterns defining the development of various bodyregions. In the adult body, Hox genes are among othersresponsible for driving the differentiation of tissuestem cells towards their respective lineages in order torepair and maintain the correct function of tissues andorgans. Due to their involvement in the embryonic andadult body, they have been suggested to be useable forimproving stem cell differentiations in vitro and in vivo .In many studies Hox genes have been found as drivingfactors in stem cell differentiation towards adipogenesis,in lineages involved in bone and joint formation, mainlychondrogenesis and osteogenesis, in cardiovascularlineages including endothelial and smooth muscle celldifferentiations, and in neurogenesis. As life expectancyis rising, the demand for tissue reconstruction continuesto increase. Stem cells have become an increasinglypopular choice for creating therapies in regenerativemedicine due to their self-renewal and differentiationpotential. Especially mesenchymal stem cells are usedmore and more frequently due to their easy handlingand accessibility, combined with a low tumorgenicityand little ethical concerns. This review therefore intendsto summarize to date known correlations betweennatural Hox gene expression patterns in body tissuesand during the differentiation of various stem cellstowards their respective lineages with a major focus onmesenchymal stem cell differentiations. This overviewshall help to understand the complex interactions of Hoxgenes and differentiation processes all over the bodyas well as in vitro for further improvement of stem celltreatments in future regenerative medicine approaches.

  19. Directed neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noggle Scott A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have developed a culture system for the efficient and directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs to neural precursors and neurons. HESC were maintained by manual passaging and were differentiated to a morphologically distinct OCT-4+/SSEA-4- monolayer cell type prior to the derivation of embryoid bodies. Embryoid bodies were grown in suspension in serum free conditions, in the presence of 50% conditioned medium from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 (MedII. Results A neural precursor population was observed within HESC derived serum free embryoid bodies cultured in MedII conditioned medium, around 7–10 days after derivation. The neural precursors were organized into rosettes comprised of a central cavity surrounded by ring of cells, 4 to 8 cells in width. The central cells within rosettes were proliferating, as indicated by the presence of condensed mitotic chromosomes and by phosphoHistone H3 immunostaining. When plated and maintained in adherent culture, the rosettes of neural precursors were surrounded by large interwoven networks of neurites. Immunostaining demonstrated the expression of nestin in rosettes and associated non-neuronal cell types, and a radial expression of Map-2 in rosettes. Differentiated neurons expressed the markers Map-2 and Neurofilament H, and a subpopulation of the neurons expressed tyrosine hydroxylase, a marker for dopaminergic neurons. Conclusion This novel directed differentiation approach led to the efficient derivation of neuronal cultures from HESCs, including the differentiation of tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons. HESC were morphologically differentiated to a monolayer OCT-4+ cell type, which was used to derive embryoid bodies directly into serum free conditions. Exposure to the MedII conditioned medium enhanced the derivation of neural precursors, the first example of the effect of this conditioned medium on HESC.

  20. Curcumin increases rat mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation but inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoli Gu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin is a phenolic natural product isolated from the rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric and has effects on bone health and fat formation. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Osteoblast differentiation of MSCs can be a result of upregulation of heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression. Curcumin can potently induce HO-1 expression. Objective: The present study describes the effects of curcumin on rat MSC (rMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Materials and Methods: Rat bone marrow MSCs were isolated and treated with or without curcumin. Osteoblast differentiation was confirmed and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralized nodule formation, the expression of Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2 and osteocalcin. Adipocyte differentiation was determined by Oil red O staining and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (PPARγ2 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP α. Results: Curcumin increased ALP activity and osteoblast-specific mRNA expression of Runx2 and osteocalcin when rMSCs were cultured in osteogenic medium. In contrast, curcumin decreased adipocyte differentiation and inhibited adipocyte-specific mRNA expression of PPARγ2 and C/EBPα when rMSCs were cultured in adipogenic medium. HO-1 expression was increased during osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that curcumin can promote osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs and inhibit adipocyte formation. The effect of curcumin on osteogenic differentiation of rMSCs is correlated with HO-1 expression.

  1. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito;

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that tumors arising from tissues such as kidney, pancreas, liver and stomach are particularly refractory to treatment. Searching for new anticancer drugs using cells in culture has yielded some effective therapies, but these refractory tumors remain intractable. Studies that comp......It is well known that tumors arising from tissues such as kidney, pancreas, liver and stomach are particularly refractory to treatment. Searching for new anticancer drugs using cells in culture has yielded some effective therapies, but these refractory tumors remain intractable. Studies...... survival might, therefore, act through such a matrix-to-cell suppression of apoptosis. Indeed, correlative mining of gene expression and patient survival databases suggests that poor survival in patients with metastatic cancer correlates highly with tumor expression of a common theme: the genes involved...

  2. Lack of vimentin impairs endothelial differentiation of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraas, Liana C; Ahsan, Tabassum

    2016-01-01

    The cytoskeletal filament vimentin is inherent to the endothelial phenotype and is critical for the proper function of endothelial cells in adult mice. It is unclear, however, if the presence of vimentin is necessary during differentiation to the endothelial phenotype. Here we evaluated gene and protein expression of differentiating wild type embryonic stem cells (WT ESCs) and vimentin knockout embryonic stem cells (VIM -/- ESCs) using embryoid bodies (EBs) formed from both cell types. Over seven days of differentiation VIM -/- EBs had altered morphology compared to WT EBs, with a rippled outer surface and a smaller size due to decreased proliferation. Gene expression of pluripotency markers decreased similarly for EBs of both cell types; however, VIM -/- EBs had impaired differentiation towards the endothelial phenotype. This was quantified with decreased expression of markers along the specification pathway, specifically the early mesodermal marker Brachy-T, the lateral plate mesodermal marker FLK1, and the endothelial-specific markers TIE2, PECAM, and VE-CADHERIN. Taken together, these results indicate that the absence of vimentin impairs spontaneous differentiation of ESCs to the endothelial phenotype in vitro. PMID:27480130

  3. Equine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells have a Reduced Tendon Differentiation Capacity Compared to Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bavin, Emma P.; Smith, Olivia; Arabella E. G. Baird; Lawrence C. Smith; Guest, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to ...

  4. Equine induced pluripotent stem cells have a reduced tendon differentiation capacity compared to embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Patricia Bavin; Olivia eSmith; Arabella E. G. Baird; Lawrence C. Smith; Guest, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries occur commonly in horses and their repair through scar tissue formation predisposes horses to a high rate of re-injury. Pluripotent stem cells may provide a cell replacement therapy to improve tendon tissue regeneration and lower the frequency of re-injury. We have previously demonstrated that equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiate into the tendon cell lineage upon injection into the damaged horse tendon and can differentiate into functional tendon cells in vitro to ...

  5. Alternative splicing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Salomonis, Nathan; Schlieve, Christopher R.; Pereira, Laura; Wahlquist, Christine; Colas, Alexandre; Zambon, Alexander C.; Vranizan, Karen; Spindler, Matthew J.; Alexander R Pico; Cline, Melissa S; Tyson A Clark; Williams, Alan; John E Blume; Samal, Eva; Mercola, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two major goals of regenerative medicine are to reproducibly transform adult somatic cells into a pluripotent state and to control their differentiation into specific cell fates. Progress toward these goals would be greatly helped by obtaining a complete picture of the RNA isoforms produced by these cells due to alternative splicing (AS) and alternative promoter selection (APS). To investigate the roles of AS and APS, reciprocal exon–exon junctions were interrogated on a genome-wide scale in ...

  6. Isolation, identification and differentiation of human embryonic cartilage stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changhao; Yan, Zi; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Anhui; Yang, Xi; Wang, Yi

    2015-07-01

    We isolated human embryonic cartilage stem cells (hECSCs), a novel stem cell population, from the articular cartilage of eight-week-old human embryos. These stem cells demonstrated a marker expression pattern and differentiation potential intermediate to those of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human adult stem cells (hASCs). hECSCs expressed markers associated with both hESCs (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4) and human adult stem cells (hASCs) (CD29, CD44, CD90, CD73 and CD10). These cells also differentiated into adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, neurons and islet-like cells under specific inducing conditions. We identified N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) as an inducer of chondrogenic differentiation in hECSCs. Similar results using N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) were obtained for two other types of human embryonic tissue-derived stem cells, human embryonic hepatic stem cells (hEHSCs) and human embryonic amniotic fluid stem cells (hEASCs), both of which exhibited a marker expression pattern similar to that of hECSCs. The isolation of hECSCs and the discovery that N(6), 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) induces chondrogenic differentiation in different stem cell populations might aid the development of strategies in tissue engineering and cartilage repair.

  7. Downregulation of rRNA Transcription Triggers Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki Hayashi; Takao Kuroda; Hiroyuki Kishimoto; Changshan Wang; Atsushi Iwama; Keiji Kimura

    2014-01-01

    Responding to various stimuli is indispensable for the maintenance of homeostasis. The downregulation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription is one of the mechanisms involved in the response to stimuli by various cellular processes, such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Cell differentiation is caused by intra- and extracellular stimuli and is associated with the downregulation of rRNA transcription as well as reduced cell growth. The downregulation of rRNA transcription during differentiati...

  8. Sertoli Cell Differentiation in Pubertal Boars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meishan boars experience puberty at a younger age than crossbred (BX) boars in association with earlier cessation of Sertoli cell proliferation and smaller post pubertal testicular size. The current study defined changes in expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH...

  9. Gene expression analysis of PTEN positive glioblastoma stem cells identifies DUB3 and Wee1 modulation in a cell differentiation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Forte

    Full Text Available The term astrocytoma defines a quite heterogeneous group of neoplastic diseases that collectively represent the most frequent brain tumors in humans. Among them, glioblastoma multiforme represents the most malignant form and its associated prognosis is one of the poorest among tumors of the central nervous system. It has been demonstrated that a small population of tumor cells, isolated from the brain neoplastic tissue, can reproduce the parental tumor when transplanted in immunodeficient mouse. These tumor initiating cells are supposed to be involved in cancer development and progression and possess stem cell-like features; like their normal counterpart, these cells remain quiescent until they are committed to differentiation. Many studies have shown that the role of the tumor suppressor protein PTEN in cell cycle progression is fundamental for tumor dynamics: in low grade gliomas, PTEN contributes to maintain cells in G1 while the loss of its activity is frequently observed in high grade gliomas. The mechanisms underlying the above described PTEN activity have been studied in many tumors, but those involved in the maintenance of tumor initiating cells quiescence remain to be investigated in more detail. The aim of the present study is to shed light on the role of PTEN pathway on cell cycle regulation in Glioblastoma stem cells, through a cell differentiation model. Our results suggest the existence of a molecular mechanism, that involves DUB3 and WEE1 gene products in the regulation of Cdc25a, as functional effector of the PTEN/Akt pathway.

  10. The microRNA-dependent cell fate of multipotent stromal cells differentiating to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Min-Ji; Choi, Eunhyun; Lee, Seahyoung; Song, Byeong-Wook; Yoon, Cheesoon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2016-02-15

    In the endothelial recovery process, bone marrow-derived MSCs are a potential source of cells for both research and therapy, and their capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into all the cell types in the human body make them a promising therapeutic agent for remodeling cellular differentiation and a valuable resource for the treatment of many diseases. Based on the results provided in a miRNA database, we selected miRNAs with unique targets in cell fate-related signaling pathways. The tested miRNAs targeting GSK-3β (miR-26a), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and CD133 (miR-26a and miR-29b) induced MSC differentiation into functional ECs, whereas miRNAs targeting VEGF receptor (miR-15, miR-144, miR-145, and miR-329) inhibited MSC differentiation into ECs through VEGF stimulation. In addition, the expression levels of these miRNAs were correlated with in vivo physiological endothelial recovery processes. These findings indicate that the miRNA expression profile is distinct for cells in different stages of differentiation from MSCs to ECs and that specific miRNAs can function as regulators of endothelialization.

  11. Advances and challenges in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into pancreatic β cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Essam M Abdelalim; Mohamed M Emara

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are able to differentiate intoseveral cell types, including pancreatic β cells. Differentiationof pancreatic β cells depends on certain transcriptionfactors, which function in a coordinated way duringpancreas development. The existing protocols for in vitrodifferentiation produce pancreatic β cells, which are nothighly responsive to glucose stimulation except after theirtransplantation into immune-compromised mice and allowingseveral weeks for further differentiation to ensurethe maturation of these cells in vivo . Thus, although thesubstantial improvement that has been made for the differentiationof induced PSCs and embryonic stem cellstoward pancreatic β cells, several challenges still hinderingtheir full generation. Here, we summarize recent advancesin the differentiation of PSCs into pancreatic β cells anddiscuss the challenges facing their differentiation as wellas the different applications of these potential PSC-derivedβ cells.

  12. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  13. 5-azacytidine promotes terminal differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Cui, Jiejie; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang

    2015-08-01

    5-azacytidine (5-azaC) is known to induce cardiomyocyte differentiation. However, its function in hepatocyte differentiation is unclear. The present study investigated the in vitro capability of 5-azaC to promote maturation and differentiation of mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells, with the aim of developing an approach for improving hepatic differentiation. Mouse embryonic hepatic progenitor cells (HP14.5 cells) were treated with 5-azaC at concentrations from 0 to 20 μmol/l, in addition to hepatocyte induction culture medium. Hepatocyte induction medium induces HP14.5 cell differentiation. 5-azaC may enhance the albumin promotor-driven Gaussia luciferase (ALB-GLuc) activity in induced HP14.5 cells. In the present study 2 μmol/l was found to be the optimum concentration with which to achieve this. The expression of hepatocyte-associated factors was not significantly different between the group treated with 5-azaC alone and the control group. The mRNA levels of ALB; cytokeratin 18 (CK18); tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT); and cytochrome p450, family 1, member A1 (CYP1A1); in addition to the protein levels of ALB, CK18 and uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) in the induced group with 5-azaC, were higher than those in the induced group without 5-azaC, although no significant differences were detected in expression of the hepatic stem cell markers, DLK and α-fetoprotein, between the two groups. Treatment with 5-azaC alone did not affect glycogen synthesis or indocyanine green (ICG) metabolic function in HP14.5 cells, although it significantly increased ICG uptake and periodic acid-Schiff-positive cell numbers amongst HP14.5 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that treatment with 5-azaC alone exerted no effects on the maturation and differentiation of HP14.5 cells. However, 5-azaC exhibited a synergistic effect on the terminal differentiation of induced hepatic progenitor cells in association with a hepatic induction medium. PMID

  14. Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagi, Ido; Chia, Gloryn; Golan-Lev, Tamar; Peretz, Mordecai; Weissbein, Uri; Sui, Lina; Sauer, Mark V; Yanuka, Ofra; Egli, Dieter; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2016-04-01

    Diploidy is a fundamental genetic feature in mammals, in which haploid cells normally arise only as post-meiotic germ cells that serve to ensure a diploid genome upon fertilization. Gamete manipulation has yielded haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells from several mammalian species, but haploid human ES cells have yet to be reported. Here we generated and analysed a collection of human parthenogenetic ES cell lines originating from haploid oocytes, leading to the successful isolation and maintenance of human ES cell lines with a normal haploid karyotype. Haploid human ES cells exhibited typical pluripotent stem cell characteristics, such as self-renewal capacity and a pluripotency-specific molecular signature. Moreover, we demonstrated the utility of these cells as a platform for loss-of-function genetic screening. Although haploid human ES cells resembled their diploid counterparts, they also displayed distinct properties including differential regulation of X chromosome inactivation and of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, alongside reduction in absolute gene expression levels and cell size. Surprisingly, we found that a haploid human genome is compatible not only with the undifferentiated pluripotent state, but also with differentiated somatic fates representing all three embryonic germ layers both in vitro and in vivo, despite a persistent dosage imbalance between the autosomes and X chromosome. We expect that haploid human ES cells will provide novel means for studying human functional genomics and development.

  15. Globular adiponectin induces differentiation and fusion of skeletal muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Fiaschi; Domenico Cirelli; Giuseppina Comito; Stefania Gelmini; Giampietro Ramponi; Maria Serio; Paola Chiarugi

    2009-01-01

    The growing interest in skeletal muscle regeneration is associated with the opening of new therapeutic strategies for muscle injury after trauma, as well as several muscular degenerative pathologies, including dystrophies, muscu-lar atrophy, and cachexia. Studies focused on the ability of extracellular factors to promote myogenesis are therefore highly promising. We now report that an adipocyte-derived factor, globular adiponectin (gAd), is able to induce mus-cle gene expression and cell differentiation, gAd, besides its well-known ability to regulate several metabolic func-tions in muscle, including glucose uptake and consumption and fatty acid catabolism, is able to block cell cycle entry of myoblasts, to induce the expression of specific skeletal muscle markers such as myosin heavy chain or eaveolin-3, as well as to provoke cell fusion into multinucleated syneytia and, finally, muscle fibre formation, gAd exerts its pro-differentiative activity through redox-dependent activation of p38, Akt and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase path-ways. Interestingly, differentiating myoblasts are autocrine for adiponectiu, and the mimicking of pro-inflammatory settings or exposure to oxidative stress strongly increases the production of the hormone from differentiating cells. These data suggest a novel function of adiponectin, directly coordinating the myogenic differentiation program and serving an autocrine function during skeletal myogenesis.

  16. Structural properties of scaffolds: Crucial parameterstowards stem cells differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field thatapplies the principles of engineering and life-sciencesfor regeneration of damaged tissues. Stem cells haveattracted much interest in tissue engineering as a cellsource due to their ability to proliferate in an undifferentiatedstate for prolonged time and capability ofdifferentiating to different cell types after induction.Scaffolds play an important role in tissue engineeringas a substrate that can mimic the native extracellularmatrix and the properties of scaffolds have been shownto affect the cell behavior such as the cell attachment,proliferation and differentiation. Here, we focus on therecent reports that investigated the various aspectsof scaffolds including the materials used for scaffoldfabrication, surface modification of scaffolds, topographyand mechanical properties of scaffolds towards stemcells differentiation effect. We will present a moredetailed overview on the effect of mechanical propertiesof scaffolds on stem cells fate.

  17. Cell cycle-dependent differentiation dynamics balances growth and endocrine differentiation in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yung Hae; Larsen, Hjalte List; Rué, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    Organogenesis relies on the spatiotemporal balancing of differentiation and proliferation driven by an expanding pool of progenitor cells. In the mouse pancreas, lineage tracing at the population level has shown that the expanding pancreas progenitors can initially give rise to all endocrine...

  18. DIFFERENTIATION AND MALIGNANT SUPPRESSION INDUCED BY MOUSE ERYTHROID DIFFERENTIATION AND DENUCLEATION FACTOR ON MOUSE ERYTHROLEUKEMIA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩代书; 赵青; 葛晔华; 周建平; 马静; 陈克铨; 薛社普

    2002-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the roles of mouse erythroid differentiation and denueleation factor (MEDDF), a novel factor cloned in our laboratory recently, in erythroid terminal differentiation.Methods. Mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cells were transfected with eukaryotic expression plasmid pcD-NA-MEDDF. Then we investigated the changes on characteristics of cell growth by analyzing cells growth rate,mitotic index and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium. The expressions of c-myc and β-globin genes were analysed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.Results. MEL ceils transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF showed significant lower growth rate, mitotic index,and colony-forming rate in semi-solid medium ( P<0.01 ). The percentage of benzidine-positive cells was 32.8% after transfection. The expression of β-globin in cells transfected with pcDNA-MEDDF was 3.43 times higher than that of control (MEL transfected with blank vector, pcDNA3. 1 ), and the expression of c-myc decreased by 66.3%.Conclusions. MEDDF can induce differentiation of MEL cell and suppress its malignancy.

  19. Pluripotency of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth for Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Vinicius; Dubey, Nileshkumar; Islam, Intekhab; Min, Kyung-San; Nör, Jacques E.

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are highly proliferative pluripotent cells that can be retrieved from primary teeth. Although SHED are isolated from the dental pulp, their differentiation potential is not limited to odontoblasts only. In fact, SHED can differentiate into several cell types including neurons, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. The high plasticity makes SHED an interesting stem cell model for research in several biomedical areas. This review will discuss key findings about the characterization and differentiation of SHED into odontoblasts, neurons, and hormone secreting cells (e.g., hepatocytes and islet-like cell aggregates). The outcomes of the studies presented here support the multipotency of SHED and their potential to be used for tissue engineering-based therapies. PMID:27313627

  20. In-depth analysis of secretome and N-glycosecretome of human hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic cell lines shed light on metastasis correlated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyu; Jiang, Jing; Zhao, Xinyuan; Zhao, Yan; Cao, Qichen; Zhao, Qing; Han, Huanhuan; Wang, Jifeng; Yu, Zixiang; Peng, Bo; Ying, Wantao; Qian, Xiaohong

    2016-04-19

    Cancer cell metastasis is a major cause of cancer fatality. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood, which results in the lack of efficient diagnosis, therapy and prevention approaches. Here, we report a systematic study on the secretory proteins (secretome) and secretory N-glycoproteins (N-glycosecretome) of four human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with different metastatic potential, to explore the molecular mechanism of metastasis and supply the clues for effective measurement of diagnosis and therapy. Totally, 6242 unique gene products (GPs) and 1637 unique N-glycosites from 635 GPs were confidently identified. About 4000 GPs on average were quantified in each of the cell lines, 1156 of which show differential expression (p<0.05). Ninety-nine percentage of the significantly altered proteins were secretory proteins and proteins correlated to cell movement were significantly activated with the increasing of metastatic potential of the cell lines. Twenty-three GPs increased both in the secretome and the N-glycosecretome were chosen as candidates and verified by western blot analysis, and 10 of them were chosen for immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. The cumulative survival rates of the patients with candidate (FAT1, DKK3) suggested that these proteins might be used as biomarkers for HCC diagnosis. In addition, a comparative analysis with the published core human plasma database (1754 GPs) revealed that there were 182 proteins not presented in the human plasma database but identified by our studies, some of which were selected and verified successfully by western blotting in human plasma. PMID:27014972

  1. Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Ventral Foregut Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothová, Michaela; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Livigni, Alessandra;

    2016-01-01

    Anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), the ventral foregut precursor, is both an important embryonic signaling center and a unique multipotent precursor of liver, pancreas, and other organs. Here, a method is described for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to definitive...... endoderm with pronounced anterior character. ADE-containing cultures can be produced in vitro by suspension (embryoid body) culture or in a serum-free adherent monolayer culture. ESC-derived ADE cells are committed to endodermal fates and can undergo further differentiation in vitro towards ventral foregut...

  2. MicroRNA in cell differentiation and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; JIN YouXin

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) Is a recently discovered pattern of gene regulation in animals and plants. MiRNAs have been implicated in various aspects of animal develop-ment and cell differentiation, such as early embryonic development, neuronal development, muscle development, and lymphocyte development, by the analysis of genetic deletions of individual miRNAs in mammals. These studies show that miRNAs are key regulators in animal development and are po-tential causes of human diseases. Here we review some recent discoveries about the functions of miRNAs in cell differentiation and development.

  3. MicroRNA in cell differentiation and development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by microRNAs(miRNAs) is a recently discovered pattern of gene regulation in animals and plants.MiRNAs have been implicated in various aspects of animal development and cell differentiation,such as early embryonic development,neuronal development,muscle development,and lymphocyte development,by the analysis of genetic deletions of individual miRNAs in mammals.These studies show that miRNAs are key regulators in animal development and are potential causes of human diseases.Here we review some recent discoveries about the functions of miRNAs in cell differentiation and development.

  4. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher; Waldron, Levi;

    2014-01-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression...... changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein...... interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two...

  5. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B (ANP32B) contributes to retinoic acid-induced differentiation of leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yun; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Wu, Zhao-Xia; Han, Bin [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Li-Shun, E-mail: jywangls@shsmu.edu.cn [Shanghai Universities E-Institute for Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of National Ministry of Education, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B was down-regulated during ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of ANP32B enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ectopic expression of ANP32B inhibited ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANP32B inhibited ATRA activated transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha}. -- Abstract: The acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32B (ANP32B) is a member of a conserved superfamily of nuclear proteins whose functions are largely unknown. In our previous work, ANP32B was identified as a novel direct substrate for caspase-3 and acted as a negative regulator for leukemic cell apoptosis. In this work, we provided the first demonstration that ANP32B expression was down-regulated during differentiation induction of leukemic cells by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Knockdown of ANP32B expression by specific shRNA enhanced ATRA-induced leukemic cell differentiation, while ectopic expression of ANP32B attenuated it, indicating an inhibitory role of ANP32B against leukemic cell differentiation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assay revealed that ANP32B might exert this role through inhibiting the ATRA dependent transcriptional activity of retinoic acid receptor (RAR{alpha}). These data will shed new insights into understanding the biological functions of ANP32B protein.

  6. Roles of Nrf2 in cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shohei; Motohashi, Hozumi

    2015-11-01

    The Keap1-Nrf2 system plays pivotal roles in defense mechanisms by regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Nrf2 is an inducible transcription factor that activates a battery of genes encoding antioxidant proteins and phase II enzymes in response to oxidative stress and electrophilic xenobiotics. The activity of Nrf2 is regulated by Keap1, which promotes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Nrf2 under normal conditions and releases the inhibited Nrf2 activity upon exposure to the stresses. Though an impressive contribution of the Keap1-Nrf2 system to the protection from exogenous and endogenous electrophilic insults has been well established, a line of evidence has suggested that the Keap1-Nrf2 system has various novel functions, particularly in cell proliferation and differentiation. Because the proliferation and differentiation of diverse cell types are often influenced and modulated by the cellular redox balance, Nrf2 has been considered to control these cellular processes by regulating the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, analyses of the genome-wide distribution of Nrf2 have identified new sets of Nrf2 target genes whose products are involved in cell proliferation and differentiation but not necessarily in the regulation of oxidative stress. Considering the most characteristic features of Nrf2 as an inducible transcription factor, a newly emerged concept proposes that the Keap1-Nrf2 system translates environmental stresses into regulatory network signals in cell fate determination. In this review, we introduce the contribution of Nrf2 to lineage-specific differentiation, maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, and proliferation of normal and cancer cells, and we discuss how the response to fluctuating environments modulates cell behavior through the Keap1-Nrf2 system. PMID:26119783

  7. Transcription factor interplay in T helper cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catherine M; Jenner, Richard G

    2013-11-01

    The differentiation of CD4 helper T cells into specialized effector lineages has provided a powerful model for understanding immune cell differentiation. Distinct lineages have been defined by differential expression of signature cytokines and the lineage-specifying transcription factors necessary and sufficient for their production. The traditional paradigm of differentiation towards Th1 and Th2 subtypes driven by T-bet and GATA3, respectively, has been extended to incorporate additional T cell lineages and transcriptional regulators. Technological advances have expanded our view of these lineage-specifying transcription factors to the whole genome and revealed unexpected interplay between them. From these data, it is becoming clear that lineage specification is more complex and plastic than previous models might have suggested. Here, we present an overview of the different forms of transcription factor interplay that have been identified and how T cell phenotypes arise as a product of this interplay within complex regulatory networks. We also suggest experimental strategies that will provide further insight into the mechanisms that underlie T cell lineage specification and plasticity.

  8. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, P C; Cavalcante, L A

    1998-02-01

    Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase), that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions. PMID:9686148

  9. Proliferation of differentiated glial cells in the brain stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barradas P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical studies of macroglial proliferation in muride rodents have provided conflicting evidence concerning the proliferating capabilities of oligodendrocytes and microglia. Furthermore, little information has been obtained in other mammalian orders and very little is known about glial cell proliferation and differentiation in the subclass Metatheria although valuable knowledge may be obtained from the protracted period of central nervous system maturation in these forms. Thus, we have studied the proliferative capacity of phenotypically identified brain stem oligodendrocytes by tritiated thymidine radioautography and have compared it with known features of oligodendroglial differentiation as well as with proliferation of microglia in the opossum Didelphis marsupialis. We have detected a previously undescribed ephemeral, regionally heterogeneous proliferation of oligodendrocytes expressing the actin-binding, ensheathment-related protein 2'3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase, that is not necessarily related to the known regional and temporal heterogeneity of expression of CNPase in cell bodies. On the other hand, proliferation of microglia tagged by the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia B4 isolectin, which recognizes an alpha-D-galactosyl-bearing glycoprotein of the plasma membrane of macrophages/microglia, is known to be long lasting, showing no regional heterogeneity and being found amongst both ameboid and differentiated ramified cells, although at different rates. The functional significance of the proliferative behavior of these differentiated cells is unknown but may provide a low-grade cell renewal in the normal brain and may be augmented under pathological conditions.

  10. Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids under microgravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerwinka Wolfgang H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To develop and characterize a novel cell culture method for the generation of undifferentiated and differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell 3D structures, we utilized the RWV system with a gelatin-based scaffold. 3 × 106 cells generated homogeneous spheroids and maximum spheroid loading was accomplished after 3 days of culture. Spheroids cultured in undifferentiated spheroids of 3 and 10 days retained expression of CD44, without expression of differentiation markers. Spheroids cultured in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation media exhibited oil red O staining and von Kossa staining, respectively. Further characterization of osteogenic lineage, showed that 10 day spheroids exhibited stronger calcification than any other experimental group corresponding with significant expression of vitamin D receptor, alkaline phosphatase, and ERp60 . In conclusion this study describes a novel RWV culture method that allowed efficacious engineering of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids and rapid osteogenic differentiation. The use of gelatin scaffolds holds promise to design implantable stem cell tissue of various sizes and shapes for future regenerative treatment.

  11. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  12. Optical Imaging for Stem Cell Differentiation to Neuronal Lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In regenerative medicine, the prospect of stem cell therapy hold great promise for the recovery of injured tissues and effective treatment of intractable diseases. Tracking stem cell fate provides critical information to understand and evaluate the success of stem cell therapy. The recent emergence of in vivo noninvasive molecular imaging has enabled assessment of the behavior of grafted stem cells in living subjects. In this review, we provide an overview of current optical imaging strategies based on cell or tissue specific reporter gene expression and of in vivo methods to monitor stem cell differentiation into neuronal lineages. These methods use optical reporters either regulated by neuron-specific promoters or containing neuron-specific microRNA binding sites. Both systems revealed dramatic changes in optical reporter imaging signals in cells differentiating a yeast GAL4 amplification system or an engineering-enhanced luciferase reported gene. Furthermore, we propose an advanced imaging system to monitor neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis that uses in vivo multiplexed imaging techniques capable of detecting several targets simultaneously.

  13. Delivery of differentiation factors by mesoporous silica particles assists advanced differentiation of transplanted murine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E; Kozhevnikova, Mariya; König, Niclas;

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation holds great hope for the replacement of damaged cells in the nervous system. However, poor long-term survival after transplantation and insufficiently robust differentiation of stem cells into specialized cell types in vivo remain major obstacles for clinical application...... neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, respectively, with these particles enabled not only robust functional differentiation of motor neurons from transplanted embryonic stem cells but also their long-term survival in vivo. We propose that the delivery of growth factors...... by mesoporous nanoparticles is a potentially versatile and widely applicable strategy for efficient differentiation and functional integration of stem cell derivatives upon transplantation....

  14. Mesenchymal stem cell ingrowth and differentiation on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Stiehler, Maik; Baatrup, Anette;

    2007-01-01

    Culture of osteogenic cells on a porous scaffold could offer a new solution to bone grafting using autologous human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) from the patient. We compared coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with pore sizes of 200 and 500 microm for expansion and differentiation of hMSCs. We...... polymerase chain reaction for 10 osteogenic markers. The 500-microm scaffolds had increased proliferation rates and accommodated a higher number of cells (shown by DNA content, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy). Thus the porosity of a 3D microporous biomaterial may be used to steer h......MSC in a particular direction. We found that dynamic spinner flask cultivation of hMSC/scaffold constructs resulted in increased proliferation, differentiation and distribution of cells in scaffolds. Therefore, spinner flask cultivation is an easy-to-use inexpensive system for cultivating hMSCs on small...

  15. Arsenic inhibits hedgehog signaling during P19 cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jui Tung [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Bain, Lisa J., E-mail: lbain@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, 132 Long Hall, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Arsenic is a toxicant found in ground water around the world, and human exposure mainly comes from drinking water or from crops grown in areas containing arsenic in soils or water. Epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure during development decreased intellectual function, reduced birth weight, and altered locomotor activity, while in vitro studies have shown that arsenite decreased muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway plays an important role during the differentiation of both neurons and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether arsenic can disrupt Shh signaling in P19 mouse embryonic stem cells, leading to changes muscle and neuronal cell differentiation. P19 embryonic stem cells were exposed to 0, 0.25, or 0.5 μM of sodium arsenite for up to 9 days during cell differentiation. We found that arsenite exposure significantly reduced transcript levels of genes in the Shh pathway in both a time and dose-dependent manner. This included the Shh ligand, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, the Gli2 transcription factor, which was decreased 2- to 3-fold, and its downstream target gene Ascl1, which was decreased 5-fold. GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity were also reduced. However, arsenic did not alter GLI2 primary cilium accumulation or nuclear translocation. Moreover, additional extracellular SHH rescued the inhibitory effects of arsenic on cellular differentiation due to an increase in GLI binding activity. Taken together, we conclude that arsenic exposure affected Shh signaling, ultimately decreasing the expression of the Gli2 transcription factor. These results suggest a mechanism by which arsenic disrupts cell differentiation. - Highlights: • Arsenic exposure decreases sonic hedgehog pathway-related gene expression. • Arsenic decreases GLI2 protein levels and transcriptional activity in P19 cells. • Arsenic exposure does not alter the levels of SHH

  16. Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macoch, Mélinda; Morzadec, Claudie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2013-01-15

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that the antileukemic trivalent inorganic arsenic prevents the development of severe pro-inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive Th1 and Th17 cell responses. Differentiation of Th1 and Th17 subsets is mainly regulated by interleukins (ILs) secreted from dendritic cells (DCs) and the ability of inorganic arsenic to impair interferon-γ and IL-17 secretion by interfering with the physiology of DCs is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that high concentrations of sodium arsenite (As(III), 1–2 μM) clinically achievable in plasma of arsenic-treated patients, block differentiation of human peripheral blood monocytes into immature DCs (iDCs) by inducing their necrosis. Differentiation of monocytes in the presence of non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) (0.1 to 0.5 μM) only slightly impacts endocytotic activity of iDCs or expression of co-stimulatory molecules in cells activated with lipopolysaccharide. However, this differentiation in the presence of As(III) strongly represses secretion of IL-12p70 and IL-23, two major regulators of Th1 and Th17 activities, from iDCs stimulated with different toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists in metalloid-free medium. Such As(III)-exposed DCs also exhibit reduced mRNA levels of IL12A and/or IL12B genes when activated with TLR agonists. Finally, differentiation of monocytes with non-cytotoxic concentrations of As(III) subsequently reduces the ability of activated DCs to stimulate the release of interferon-γ and IL-17 from Th cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that clinically relevant concentrations of inorganic arsenic markedly impair in vitro differentiation and functions of DCs, which may contribute to the putative beneficial effects of the metalloid towards inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Highlights: ► Inorganic arsenic impairs differentiation and functions of human dendritic cells (DCs) ► Arsenite (> 1 μM) blocks differentiation of dendritic cells by

  17. Alternative splicing regulates mouse embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan; Schlieve, Christopher R; Pereira, Laura; Wahlquist, Christine; Colas, Alexandre; Zambon, Alexander C; Vranizan, Karen; Spindler, Matthew J; Pico, Alexander R; Cline, Melissa S; Clark, Tyson A; Williams, Alan; Blume, John E; Samal, Eva; Mercola, Mark; Merrill, Bradley J; Conklin, Bruce R

    2010-06-01

    Two major goals of regenerative medicine are to reproducibly transform adult somatic cells into a pluripotent state and to control their differentiation into specific cell fates. Progress toward these goals would be greatly helped by obtaining a complete picture of the RNA isoforms produced by these cells due to alternative splicing (AS) and alternative promoter selection (APS). To investigate the roles of AS and APS, reciprocal exon-exon junctions were interrogated on a genome-wide scale in differentiating mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with a prototype Affymetrix microarray. Using a recently released open-source software package named AltAnalyze, we identified 144 genes for 170 putative isoform variants, the majority (67%) of which were predicted to alter protein sequence and domain composition. Verified alternative exons were largely associated with pathways of Wnt signaling and cell-cycle control, and most were conserved between mouse and human. To examine the functional impact of AS, we characterized isoforms for two genes. As predicted by AltAnalyze, we found that alternative isoforms of the gene Serca2 were targeted by distinct microRNAs (miRNA-200b, miRNA-214), suggesting a critical role for AS in cardiac development. Analysis of the Wnt transcription factor Tcf3, using selective knockdown of an ES cell-enriched and characterized isoform, revealed several distinct targets for transcriptional repression (Stmn2, Ccnd2, Atf3, Klf4, Nodal, and Jun) as well as distinct differentiation outcomes in ES cells. The findings herein illustrate a critical role for AS in the specification of ES cells with differentiation, and highlight the utility of global functional analyses of AS. PMID:20498046

  18. Zfp423 promotes adipogenic differentiation of bovine stromal vascular cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Huang

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423 as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05 in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05 in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05 in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular

  19. Ghrelin promotes differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin YANG; Guo-qiang LIU; Rui WEI; Wen-fang HOU; Mei-juan GAO; Ming-xia ZHU; Hai-ning WANG; Gui-an CHEN; Tian-pei HONG

    2011-01-01

    Aim:Ghrelin is involved in regulating the differentiation of mesoderm-derived precursor cells.The aim of this study was to investigate whether ghrelin modulated the differentiation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells into cardiomyocytes and,if so,whether the effect was mediated by growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1α (GHS-R1α).Methods:Cardiomyocyte differentiation from hES cells was performed according to an embryoid body (EB)-based protocol.The cumulative percentage of beating EBs was calculated.The expression of cardiac-specific markers including cardiac troponin Ⅰ (cTnl) and α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) was detected using RT-PCR,real-time PCR and Western blot.The dispersed beating EBs were examined using immunofluorescent staining.Results:The percentage of beating EBs and the expression of cTnl were significantly increased after ghrelin (0.1 and 1 nmol/L) added into the differentiation medium.From 6 to 18 d of differentiation,the increased expression of cTnl and α-MHC by ghrelin (1 nmol/L)was time-dependent,and in line with the alteration of the percentages of beating EBs.Furthermore,the dispersed beating EBs were double-positively immunostained with antibodies against cTnl and α-actinin.However,blockage of GHS-R1α with its specific antagonist D-[lys3]-GHRP-6 (1 μmol/L) did not alter the effects of ghrelin on cardiomyocyte differentiation.Conclusion:Our data show that ghrelin enhances the generation of cardiomyocytes from hES cells,which is not mediated via GHS-R1α.

  20. Ultrastructure of neuronal-like cells differentiated from adult adipose-derived stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changqing Ye; Xiaodong Yuan; Hui Liu; Yanan Cai; Ya Ou

    2010-01-01

    β-mercaptoethanol induces in vitro adult adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) to differentiate into neurons. However, the ultrastructural features of the differentiated neuronal-like cells remain unknown. In the present study, inverted phase contrast microscopy was utilized to observe β-mercaptcethanol-induced differentiation of neuronal-like cells from human ADSCs, and immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction were employed to detect expression of a neural stem cells marker (nestin), a neuronal marker (neuron-specific enolase), and a glial marker (glial fibrillary acidic protein). In addition, ultrastructure of neuronal-like cells was observed by transmission election microscopy. Results revealed highest expression rate of nestin and neuron-specific enolase at 3 and 5 hours following induced differentiation; cells in the 5-hour induction group exhibited a neuronal-specific structure, i.e., Nissl bodies. However, when induction solution was replaced by complete culture medium after 8-hour induction, the differentiated cells reverted to the fibroblast-like morphology from day 1. These results demonstrate that β-mercaptoethanol-induced ADSCs induced differentiation into neural stem cells, followed by morphology of neuronal-like cells. However, this differentiation state was not stable.

  1. Differentiation: A Central Topic in Developmental and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W. A.

    The concept of "differentiation" encompasses all processes leading to differently specialized cell types, beginning with the progressive divergence of developmental pathways and ending with the successive programming and final elaboration of each particular cell type. Guidance and positional information are provided by external cues, by differentially allotted cytoplasmic determinants such as mRNA for transcription factors, and by cascades of intercellular signals. Eventually cell type specific selector genes, such as the muscle cell determining MyoD/myogenin genes and neural key genes (e.g., achaete scute-C, neurogenin), are switched on which control entire sets of subordinate effector genes. In multiplying cells "cell heredity" based on an epigenetic cellular memory enables transmission of the cell type determining program from parental to daughter cells. This memory can be based on autocatalytic self-activation of cell type specific selector genes and on the enduring action of gene groups such as the Polycomb and thrithorax complexes that code for proteins which bind to DNA sequences called cellular memory modules. These modules confer permanent accessibility (potentiation) or inaccessibility (silencing) upon many different gene loci on the chromosomes.

  2. Citalopram increases the differentiation efifcacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Verdi; Seyed Abdolreza Mortazavi-Tabatabaei; Shiva Sharif; Hadi Verdi; Alireza Shoae-Hassani

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was decreased in citalopram-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells than in control cells in neurobasal medium. In addition, the cumulative population doubling level of the citalopram-treated cells was signiifcantly increased compared to that of control cells. Also BrdU incorporation was elevated in citalopram-treated cells. These ifndings suggest that citalopram can improve the neuronal-like cell differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by increasing cell proliferation and survival while maintaining their neuronal characteristics.

  3. Nicotinamide induces differentiation of embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, nicotinamide, induces differentiation and maturation of fetal pancreatic cells. In addition, we have previously reported evidence that nicotinamide increases the insulin content of cells differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the possibility of nicotinamide acting as a differentiating agent on its own has never been completely explored. Islet cell differentiation was studied by: (i) X-gal staining after neomycin selection; (ii) BrdU studies; (iii) single and double immunohistochemistry for insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iv) insulin and C-peptide content and secretion assays; and (v) transplantation of differentiated cells, under the kidney capsule, into streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. Here we show that undifferentiated mouse ES cells treated with nicotinamide: (i) showed an 80% decrease in cell proliferation; (ii) co-expressed insulin, C-peptide and Glut-2; (iii) had values of insulin and C-peptide corresponding to 10% of normal mouse islets; (iv) released insulin and C-peptide in response to stimulatory glucose concentrations; and (v) after transplantation into diabetic mice, normalized blood glucose levels over 7 weeks. Our data indicate that nicotinamide decreases ES cell proliferation and induces differentiation into insulin-secreting cells. Both aspects are very important when thinking about cell therapy for the treatment of diabetes based on ES cells

  4. D609 induces vascular endothelial cells and marrow stromal cells differentiation into neuron-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan WANG; Chun-qing DU; Shao-shan WANG; Kun XIE; Shang-li ZHANG; Jun-ying MIAO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of tricyclodecane-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) on cell differentiation in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and marrow stromal cells (MSCs). METHODS: Morphological changes were observed under phase contrast microscope. Electron microscope and immunostaining were used for VECs identification. The expressions of neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: After 6 h of induction with D609, some VECs showed morphological changes characteristic of neurones. 9 h later, more VECs became neuron-like cells. About 30.8 % of VECs displayed positive NSE (P<0.01), while the expression of GFAP was negative. When MSCs were exposed to D609, the cells displayed neuronal morphologies, such as pyramidal cell bodies and processes formed extensive networks at 3 h. 6 h later, almost all of the cells exhibited a typical neuronal appearance, and 85.6 % of MSCs displayed intensive positive NSE, but GFAP did not express. CONCLUSION: D609 induces VECs and MSCs differentiation into neuron-like cells.

  5. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  6. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E.; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The studies of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation the embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder-layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture. PMID:25687301

  7. Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cell Culture Methods and Induction of Differentiation into Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Li, Fei; Kohler, Erin E; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B; Wary, Kishore K

    2016-01-01

    The study of stem cell behavior and differentiation in a developmental context is complex, time-consuming, and expensive, and for this reason, cell culture remains a method of choice for developmental and regenerative biology and mechanistic studies. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells have the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs), and the route for differentiation appears to mimic the developmental process that occurs during the formation of an embryo. Traditional EC induction methods from embryonic stem (ES) cells rely mostly on the formation of embryoid body (EB), which employs feeder or feeder-free conditions in the presence or absence of supporting cells. Similar to ES cells, iPS cells can be cultured in feeder layer or feeder-free conditions. Here, we describe the iPS cell culture methods and induction differentiation of these cells into ECs. We use anti-mouse Flk1 and anti-mouse VE-cadherin to isolate and characterize mouse ECs, because these antibodies are commercially available and their use has been described in the literature, including by our group. The ECs produced by this method have been used by our laboratory, and we have demonstrated their in vivo potential. We also discuss how iPS cells differ in their ability to differentiate into endothelial cells in culture.

  8. Evaluation of a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) has been used to evaluate the effects of xenobiotics using three endpoints, stem cell differentiation, stem cell viability and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal is to establish amodel system that would evaluate chemical effects using a singl...

  9. Mechanistic Contribution of Ubiquitous 15-Lipoxygenase-1 Expression Loss in Cancer Cells to Terminal Cell Differentiation Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Moussalli, Micheline J.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zuo, Xiangsheng; Yang, Xiu L.; Wistuba, Ignacio Ivan; Raso, Maria G.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Bowser, Jessica L.; Minna, John D.; Lotan, Reuben; SHUREIQI, IMAD

    2011-01-01

    Loss of terminal cell differentiation promotes tumorigenesis. 15-LOX-1 contributes to terminal cell differentiation in normal cells. The mechanistic significance of 15-LOX-1 expression loss in human cancers to terminal cell differentiation suppression is unknown. In a screen of 128 cancer cell lines representing more than 20 types of human cancer, we found that 15-LOX-1 mRNA expression levels were markedly lower than levels in terminally differentiated cells. Relative expression levels of 15-...

  10. Chemo-mechanical control of neural stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geishecker, Emily R.

    Cellular processes such as adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation are controlled in part by cell interactions with the microenvironment. Cells can sense and respond to a variety of stimuli, including soluble and insoluble factors (such as proteins and small molecules) and externally applied mechanical stresses. Mechanical properties of the environment, such as substrate stiffness, have also been suggested to play an important role in cell processes. The roles of both biochemical and mechanical signaling in fate modification of stem cells have been explored independently. However, very few studies have been performed to study well-controlled chemo-mechanotransduction. The objective of this work is to design, synthesize, and characterize a chemo-mechanical substrate to encourage neuronal differentiation of C17.2 neural stem cells. In Chapter 2, Polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffnesses are functionalized with differing amounts of whole collagen to investigate the role of protein concentration in combination with substrate stiffness. As expected, neurons on the softest substrate were more in number and neuronal morphology than those on stiffer substrates. Neurons appeared locally aligned with an expansive network of neurites. Additional experiments would allow for statistical analysis to determine if and how collagen density impacts C17.2 differentiation in combination with substrate stiffness. Due to difficulties associated with whole protein approaches, a similar platform was developed using mixed adhesive peptides, derived from fibronectin and laminin, and is presented in Chapter 3. The matrix elasticity and peptide concentration can be individually modulated to systematically probe the effects of chemo-mechanical signaling on differentiation of C17.2 cells. Polyacrylamide gel stiffness was confirmed using rheological techniques and found to support values published by Yeung et al. [1]. Cellular growth and differentiation were assessed by cell counts

  11. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  12. Photoresist Derived Carbon for Growth and Differentiation of Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Zou

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis or necrosis of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS is thehallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI. Theinability to regenerate in CNS offers little hope for naturally repairing the damagedneurons. However, with the rapid development of new technologies, regenerative medicineoffers great promises to patients with these disorders. Among many events for furtheradvancement of regenerative medicine, extracellular matrix (ECM plays a critical role forcellular migration and differentiation. To develop a biocompatible and electricallyconductive substrate that can be potentially used to promote growth and regeneration ofneurons and to record intracellular and multisite signals from brain as a probe, a polymericprecursor – SPR 220.7 was fabricated by pyrolysis at temperatures higher than 700 oC.Human Neuroblastoma cells - SK-N-MC, SY5Y, mouse teratocarcinoma cells P-19 and ratPC12 cells were found to attach and proliferate on photoresist derived carbon film.Significantly, neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells induced by NGF was demonstrated byobserving cell shape and size, and measuring the length of neurites under SEM. Our resultsindicated that fabricated carbon could potentially be explored in regenerative medicine forpromoting neuronal growth and differentiation in CNS with neurodegeneration.

  13. Biological characteristics of breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚根有; 周吉林; 赵仲生; 阮俊

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate DNA content and expression of c-erbB-2, PS2, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) proteins in breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine (NE) cell differentiation.Methods Chromogranin, c-erbB-2, PS2, and PSA in 131 samples of breast cancer were detected immunohistochemically. Classic Feulgen staining image analysis techniques were used to quantify DNA content in 81 of the breast cancer samples.Results The c-erbB-2 positive rate in breast carcinoma samples containing neuroendocrine cells was 37.5% and the rate of high expression of c-erbB-2 (++ or +++) was 33.3%, both significantly lower than that in breast carcinomas without neuroendocrine cells (62.6% and 68.7%, respectively, P 5c aneuploidy cells, and rate of aneuploidy among cells were all lower than that in NE (-) breast carcinomas (P<0.01). In NE (+) grade I or II breast carcinomas, these indices were also all lower than that in the NE (-) breast carcinoma samples (P<0.01).Conclusion Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation have a lower rate of malignancy. Neuroendocrine differentiation could serve as a prognostic marker in clinical practice.

  14. FTIR Spectroscopic and Molecular Analysis during Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells to Pancreatic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Jesus Vazquez-Zapien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some of the greatest challenges in stem cells (SCs biology and regenerative medicine are differentiation control of SCs and ensuring the purity of differentiated cells. In this work, we differentiated mouse pluripotent stem cells (mPSCs toward pancreatic cells characterizing this differentiation process by molecular and spectroscopic technics. Both mPSCs and Differentiated Pancreatic Cells (DPCs were subjected to a genetic, phenotypic, and biochemical analysis by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR, immunocytochemistry, and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Cultured mPCSs expressed pluripotent genes and proteins (Nanog and SOX2. DPCs expressed endodermal genes (SOX17 and Pdx1 at day 11, an inductor gene of embryonic pancreas development (Pdx1 at day 17 and pancreas genes and proteins (Insulin and Glucagon at day 21 of differentiation. Likewise, FTIR spectra of mPSCs and DPCs at different maturation stages (11, 17, and 21 days were obtained and showed absorption bands related with different types of biomolecules. These FTIR spectra exhibited significant spectral changes agreeing with the differentiation process, particularly in proteins and nucleic acids bands. In conclusion, the obtained DPCs passed through the chronological stages of embryonic pancreas development and FTIR spectra provide a new biophysical parameter based on molecular markers indicating the differentiation process of mPSCs to specialized cells.

  15. Differentiation of Effector CD4 T Cell Populations*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jinfang; Yamane, Hidehiro; Paul, William E.

    2010-01-01

    CD4 T cells play critical roles in mediating adaptive immunity to a variety of pathogens. They are also involved in autoimmunity, asthma, and allergic responses as well as in tumor immunity. During TCR activation in a particular cytokine milieu, naive CD4 T cells may differentiate into one of several lineages of T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and iTreg, as defined by their pattern of cytokine production and function. In this review, we summarize the discovery, functions, and r...

  16. Poorly Differentiated Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Tattooed Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deba P. Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tattoos have increasingly become accepted by mainstream Western society. As a result, the incidence of tattoo-associated dermatoses is on the rise. The presence of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in an old tattooed skin is of interest as it has not been previously documented. Case Presentation. A 79-year-old white homeless man of European descent presented to the dermatology clinic with a painless raised nodule on his left forearm arising in a tattooed area. A biopsy of the lesion revealed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating into a tattoo. The lesion was completely excised and the patient remains disease-free one year later. Conclusion. All previous reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising in tattoos have been well-differentiated low-grade type or keratoacanthoma-type and are considered to be coincidental rather than related to any carcinogenic effect of the tattoo pigments. Tattoo-associated poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma appears to be extremely rare.

  17. Induced Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stromal Cells into Myoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂珠; 郑秀; 江忠清; 王金华; 宋岩峰

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells(ADSCs) into myoblasts,which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence(SUI).ADSCs,isolated and cultured ex vivo,were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine(5-aza),5% FBS,and 5% horse serum.Cellular morphology was observed under an i...

  18. Stem cells in light of a new concept for cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristeva, Marlene Anastassova

    2008-10-01

    My concept of cell differentiation involves genetic information from DNA being transcribed into mRNA proteins-morphogenes (mRNAs+ homeodomain proteins)-and stored in the ovoplasm as maternal inheritance, or cytoplasmic genetic memory. Feedback mechanism(s) allow these morphogenes to selectively unlock new genes, regulating the development of the embryo. The blastomeres and the embryonic pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass of early (5 day) blastocysts are loaded with morphogenes which hamper the production of cell lines and are responsible for the formation of embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. There are therefore legitimate concerns as to proposals to use embryonic pluripotent cells for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. An alternative cell therapy would involve the production of tailored growth-related genes-morphogenes-and hence selective in vitro differentiation of adult de-differentiated cells.

  19. Bladder cancer cell in co-culture induces human stem cell differentiation to urothelial cells through paracrine FGF10 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Seyung S.; Koh, Chester J.

    2013-01-01

    FGF10 is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 as a lead induction factor for stem cell differentiation toward urothelial cell. To this end, human multi-potent stem cell in vitro system was employed. Human amniotic fluid stem cells were co-cultured with immortalized bladder cancer lines to induce directed differentiation into urothelial cells. Urothe...

  20. Replicator Dynamics of of Cancer Stem Cell; Selection in the Presence of Differentiation and Plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveh, Kamran; Kohandel, Mohammad; Sivaloganathan, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have the potential to produce lineages of non-stem cell populations (differentiated cells) via a ubiquitous hierarchal division scheme. Differentiation of a stem cell into (partially) differentiated cells can happen either symmetrically or asymmetrically. The selection dynamics of a mutant cancer stem cell should be investigated in the light of a stem cell proliferation hierarchy and presence of a non-stem cell population. By constructing a three-compartment Moran-type model compos...

  1. Efficient Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Insulin-Producing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-Hsiu Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells are a potential source of a variety of differentiated cells for cell therapy, drug discovery, and toxicology screening. Here, we present an efficacy strategy for the differentiation of mouse ES cells into insulin-producing cells (IPCs by a two-step differentiation protocol comprising of (i the formation of definitive endoderm in monolayer culture by activin A, and (ii this monolayer endoderm being induced to differentiate into IPCs by nicotinamide, insulin, and laminin. Differentiated cells can be obtained within approximately 7 days. The differentiation IPCs combined application of RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunofluorescence to characterize phenotypic and functional properties. In our study, we demonstrated that IPCs produced pancreatic transcription factors, endocrine progenitor marker, definitive endoderm, pancreatic β-cell markers, and Langerhans α and δ cells. The IPCs released insulin in a manner that was dose dependent upon the amount of glucose added. These techniques may be able to be applied to human ES cells, which would have very important ramifications for treating human disease.

  2. In vitro apoptotic cell death during erythroid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamai, L; Burattini, S; Luchetti, F; Canonico, B; Ferri, P; Melloni, E; Gonelli, A; Guidotti, L; Papa, S; Falcieri, E

    2004-03-01

    Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow and it has been shown that during in vivo erythroid differentiation some immature erythroblasts undergo apoptosis. In this regard, it is known that immature erythroblasts are FasL- and TRAIL-sensitive and can be killed by cells expressing these ligand molecules. In the present study, we have investigated the cell death phenomenon that occurs during a common unilineage model of erythroid development. Purified CD34+ human haemopoietic progenitors were cultured in vitro in the presence of SCF, IL-3 and erythropoietin. Their differentiation stages and apoptosis were followed by multiple technical approaches. Flow cytometric evaluation of surface and intracellular molecules revealed that glycophorin A appeared at day 3-4 of incubation and about 75% of viable cells co-expressed high density glycophorin A (Gly(bright)) and adult haemoglobin at day 14 of culture, indicating that this system reasonably recapitulates in vivo normal erythropoiesis. Interestingly, when mature (Gly(bright)) erythroid cells reached their higher percentages (day 14) almost half of cultured cells were apoptotic. Morphological studies indicated that the majority of dead cells contained cytoplasmic granular material typical of basophilic stage, and DNA analysis by flow cytometry and TUNEL reaction revealed nuclear fragmentation. These observations indicate that in vitro unilineage erythroid differentiation, as in vivo, is associated with apoptotic cell death of cells with characteristics of basophilic erythroblasts. We suggest that the interactions between different death receptors on immature basophilic erythroblasts with their ligands on more mature erythroblasts may contribute to induce apoptosis in vitro. PMID:15004520

  3. BTK Signaling in B Cell Differentiation and Autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corneth, Odilia B J; Klein Wolterink, Roel G J; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2016-01-01

    Since the original identification of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) as the gene defective in the primary immunodeficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in 1993, our knowledge on the physiological function of BTK has expanded impressively. In this review, we focus on the role of BTK during B cell differentiation in vivo, both in the regulation of expansion and in the developmental progression of pre-B cells in the bone marrow and as a crucial signal transducer of signals downstream of the IgM or IgG B cell antigen receptor (BCR) in mature B cells governing proliferation, survival, and differentiation. In particular, we highlight BTK function in B cells in the context of host defense and autoimmunity. Small-molecule inhibitors of BTK have very recently shown impressive anti-tumor activity in clinical studies in patients with various B cell malignancies. Since promising effects of BTK inhibition were also seen in experimental animal models for lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, BTK may be a good target for controlling autoreactive B cells in patients with systemic autoimmune disease.

  4. Understanding stem cell differentiation through self-organization theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, K; Ortoleva, P

    2008-02-21

    The mechanism underling stem cells' key property, the ability to either divide into two replicate cells or a replicate and a differentiated daughter, still is not understood. We tested a hypothesis that stem cell asymmetric division/differentiation is spontaneously created by the coupling of processes within each daughter and the resulting biochemical feedbacks via the exchange of molecules between them during mitotic division. We developed a mathematical/biochemical model that accounts for dynamic processes accompanying division, including signaling initiation and transcriptional, translational and post-translational (TTP) reactions. Analysis of this model shows that it could explain how stem cells make the decision to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically under different microenvironmental conditions. The analysis also reveals that a stem cell can be induced externally to transition to an alternative state that does not have the potentiality to have the option to divide symmetrically or asymmetrically. With this model, we initiated a search of large databases of transcriptional regulatory network (TRN), protein-protein interaction, and cell signaling pathways. We found 12 subnetworks (motifs) that could support human stem cell asymmetric division. A prime example of the discoveries made possible by this tool, two groups of the genes in the genetic model are revealed to be strongly over-represented in a database of cancer-related genes. PMID:18076908

  5. Interleukin 4: signalling mechanisms and control of T cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, W E

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic type I cytokine that controls both growth and differentiation among haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. Its receptor is a heterodimer. One chain, the IL-4R alpha chain, binds IL-4 with high affinity and determines the nature of the biochemical signals that are induced. The second chain, gamma c, is required for the induction of such signals. IL-4-mediated growth depends upon activation events that involve phosphorylation of Y497 of IL-4R alpha, leading to the binding and phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 in haemopoietic cells and of IRS-1 in non-haemopoietic cells. By contrast, IL-4-mediated differentiation events depend upon more distal regions of the IL-4R alpha chain that include a series of STAT-6 binding sites. The distinctive roles of these receptor domains was verified by receptor-reconstruction experiments. The 'growth' and 'differentiation' domains of the IL-4R alpha chain, independently expressed as chimeric structures with a truncated version of the IL-2R beta chain, were shown to convey their functions to the hybrid receptor. The critical role of STAT-6 in IL-4-mediated gene activation and differentiation was made clear by the finding that lymphocytes from STAT-6 knockout mice are strikingly deficient in these functions but have retained the capacity to grow, at least partially, in response to IL-4. IL-4 plays a central role in determining the phenotype of naive CD4+ T cells. In the presence of IL-4, newly primed naive T cells develop into IL-4 producers while in its absence they preferentially become gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) producers. Recently, a specialized subpopulation of T cells, CD4+/NK1.1+ cells, has been shown to produce large amounts of IL-4 upon stimulation. Two examples of mice with deficiencies in these cells are described--beta 2-microglobulin knockout mice and SJL mice. Both show defects in the development of IL-4-producing cells and in the increase in serum IgE in response to stimulation with the

  6. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  7. Small Buccal Fat Pad Cells Have High Osteogenic Differentiation Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumachi, Niina; Akita, Daisuke; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Toriumi, Taku; Kazama, Tomohiko; Oki, Yoshinao; Tamura, Yoko; Tonogi, Morio; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2016-03-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells derived from mature adipocytes have mesenchymal stem cells' (MSCs) characteristics. Generally, mature adipocytes are 60-110 μm in diameter; however, association between adipocyte size and dedifferentiation efficiency is still unknown. This study, therefore, investigated the dedifferentiation efficiency of adipocytes based on cell diameter. Buccal fat pad was harvested from five human donors and dissociated by collagenase digestion. After exclusion of unwanted stromal cells by centrifugation, floating adipocytes were collected and their size distribution was analyzed. The floating adipocytes were then separated into two groups depending on cell size using 40- and 100-μm nylon mesh filters: cell diameters less than 40 μm (small adipocytes: S-adipocytes) and cell diameters of 40-100 μm (large adipocytes: L-adipocytes). Finally, we evaluated the efficiency of adipocyte dedifferentiation and then characterized the resultant DFAT cells. The S-adipocytes showed a higher capacity to dedifferentiate into DFAT cells (S-DFAT cells) compared to the L-adipocytes (L-DFAT cells). The S-DFAT cells also showed a relatively higher proportion of CD146-positive cells than L-DFAT cells, and exhibited more osteogenic differentiation ability based on the alkaline phosphatase activity and amount of calcium deposition. These results suggested that the S- and L-DFAT cells had distinct characteristics, and that the higher dedifferentiation potential of S-adipocytes compared to L-adipocytes gives the former group an advantage in yielding DFAT cells. PMID:26651216

  8. Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL) Reveals the Sequential Differentiation of Sieve Element-Like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yuki; Nurani, Alif Meem; Saito, Chieko; Ichihashi, Yasunori; Saito, Masato; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2016-06-01

    Cell differentiation is a complex process involving multiple steps, from initial cell fate specification to final differentiation. Procambial/cambial cells, which act as vascular stem cells, differentiate into both xylem and phloem cells during vascular development. Recent studies have identified regulatory cascades for xylem differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying phloem differentiation is largely unexplored due to technical challenges. Here, we established an ectopic induction system for phloem differentiation named Vascular Cell Induction Culture System Using Arabidopsis Leaves (VISUAL). Our results verified similarities between VISUAL-induced Arabidopsis thaliana phloem cells and in vivo sieve elements. We performed network analysis using transcriptome data with VISUAL to dissect the processes underlying phloem differentiation, eventually identifying a factor involved in the regulation of the master transcription factor gene APL Thus, our culture system opens up new avenues not only for genetic studies of phloem differentiation, but also for future investigations of multidirectional differentiation from vascular stem cells. PMID:27194709

  9. Enhancement of cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Several approaches have been used to encourage the differentiation of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells.However,the differentiation efficiency is low,and appropriate culture protocols are needed to produce adequate numbers of cardiomyocytes for therapeutic cell transplantation.This study investigated the effects of serum on cardiomyocyte differentiation in suspension culture medium during embryoid body(EB) formation by human embryonic stem cells.The addition of ascorbic acid,dimethylsulfoxide and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine during days 5-7 at the EB-forming stage resulted in an increase in the numbers of rhythmically contracting clusters of derived cardiomyocytes.Treatment with 0.1 mmol L-1 ascorbic acid alone,or more notably in combination with 10 μmol L-1 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine,induced the formation of beating cells within EBs.Most of the beating clusters had spontaneous contraction rates similar to those found in human adults,and their contractile ac-tivity lasted for up to 194 days.

  10. Simulated Microgravity Modulates Differentiation Processes of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Shinde

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Embryonic developmental studies under microgravity conditions in space are very limited. To study the effects of altered gravity on the embryonic development processes we established an in vitro methodology allowing differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs under simulated microgravity within a fast-rotating clinostat (clinorotation and capture of microarray-based gene signatures. Methods: The differentiating mESCs were cultured in a 2D pipette clinostat. The microarray and bioinformatics tools were used to capture genes that are deregulated by simulated microgravity and their impact on developmental biological processes. Results: The data analysis demonstrated that differentiation of mESCs in pipettes for 3 days resultet to early germ layer differentiation and then to the different somatic cell types after further 7 days of differentiation in the Petri dishes. Clinorotation influences differentiation as well as non-differentiation related biological processes like cytoskeleton related 19 genes were modulated. Notably, simulated microgravity deregulated genes Cyr61, Thbs1, Parva, Dhrs3, Jun, Tpm1, Fzd2 and Dll1 are involved in heart morphogenesis as an acute response on day 3. If the stem cells were further cultivated under normal gravity conditions (1 g after clinorotation, the expression of cardiomyocytes specific genes such as Tnnt2, Rbp4, Tnni1, Csrp3, Nppb and Mybpc3 on day 10 was inhibited. This correlated well with a decreasing beating activity of the 10-days old embryoid bodies (EBs. Finally, we captured Gadd45g, Jun, Thbs1, Cyr61and Dll1 genes whose expressions were modulated by simulated microgravity and by real microgravity in various reported studies. Simulated microgravity also deregulated genes belonging to the MAP kinase and focal dhesion signal transduction pathways. Conclusion: One of the most prominent biological processes affected by simulated microgravity was the process of cardiomyogenesis. The

  11. The proliferation and differentiation of stem cell journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2010-12-01

    As scientists position themselves in translating the therapeutic potential of stem cells from laboratory to clinical applications, publishing companies have taken this rapidly evolving field as a unique opportunity to launch new journals for dissemination of stem cell research. Over the last decade, the significant increase in the number of stem cell-based journals has created a conundrum. At stake is the pressure for these new journals to build their reputation by maintaining publication standards, while at the same time attracting a cadre of stem cell researchers to consider their journals as the publication of choice. We discuss here a prophetic path of survival for these journals which likely will closely mimic the core scientific and translational value of stem cells, namely their capacity to proliferate and differentiate into something meaningful! PMID:20694581

  12. Planar Cell Polarity Controls Pancreatic Beta Cell Differentiation and Glucose Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortijo, Cedric; Gouzi, Mathieu; Tissir, Fadel;

    2012-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) refers to the collective orientation of cells within the epithelial plane. We show that progenitor cells forming the ducts of the embryonic pancreas express PCP proteins and exhibit an active PCP pathway. Planar polarity proteins are acquired at embryonic day 11.......5 synchronously to apicobasal polarization of pancreas progenitors. Loss of function of the two PCP core components Celsr2 and Celsr3 shows that they control the differentiation of endocrine cells from polarized progenitors, with a prevalent effect on insulin-producing beta cells. This results in a decreased...... glucose clearance. Loss of Celsr2 and 3 leads to a reduction of Jun phosphorylation in progenitors, which, in turn, reduces beta cell differentiation from endocrine progenitors. These results highlight the importance of the PCP pathway in cell differentiation in vertebrates. In addition, they reveal...

  13. Mitochondria in mesenchymal stem cell biology and cell therapy: From cellular differentiation to mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ting-Hsien; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized to have the capacity of self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into mesoderm, ectoderm-like and endoderm-like cells. MSCs hold great promise for cell therapies due to their multipotency in vitro and therapeutic advantage of hypo-immunogenicity and lower tumorigenicity. Moreover, it has been shown that MSCs can serve as a vehicle to transfer mitochondria into cells after cell transplantation. Mitochondria produce most of the energy through oxidative phosphorylation in differentiated cells. It has been increasingly clear that the switch of energy supply from glycolysis to aerobic metabolism is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. Post-translational modifications of proteins have been established to regulate mitochondrial function and metabolic shift during MSCs differentiation. In this article, we review and provide an integrated view on the roles of different protein kinases and sirtuins in the maintenance and differentiation of MSCs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that alteration in the expression of Sirt3 and Sirt5 and relative changes in the acylation levels of mitochondrial proteins might be involved in the activation of mitochondrial function and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs. We summarize their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, oxidative responses and differentiation of MSCs. On the other hand, we discuss recent advances in the study of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial transfer as well as their roles in the differentiation and therapeutic application of MSCs to improve cell function in vitro and in animal models. Accumulating evidence has substantiated that the therapeutic potential of MSCs is conferred not only by cell replacement and paracrine effects but also by transferring mitochondria into injured tissues or cells to modulate the cellular metabolism in situ. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms

  14. Mitochondria in mesenchymal stem cell biology and cell therapy: From cellular differentiation to mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ting-Hsien; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized to have the capacity of self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into mesoderm, ectoderm-like and endoderm-like cells. MSCs hold great promise for cell therapies due to their multipotency in vitro and therapeutic advantage of hypo-immunogenicity and lower tumorigenicity. Moreover, it has been shown that MSCs can serve as a vehicle to transfer mitochondria into cells after cell transplantation. Mitochondria produce most of the energy through oxidative phosphorylation in differentiated cells. It has been increasingly clear that the switch of energy supply from glycolysis to aerobic metabolism is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. Post-translational modifications of proteins have been established to regulate mitochondrial function and metabolic shift during MSCs differentiation. In this article, we review and provide an integrated view on the roles of different protein kinases and sirtuins in the maintenance and differentiation of MSCs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that alteration in the expression of Sirt3 and Sirt5 and relative changes in the acylation levels of mitochondrial proteins might be involved in the activation of mitochondrial function and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs. We summarize their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, oxidative responses and differentiation of MSCs. On the other hand, we discuss recent advances in the study of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial transfer as well as their roles in the differentiation and therapeutic application of MSCs to improve cell function in vitro and in animal models. Accumulating evidence has substantiated that the therapeutic potential of MSCs is conferred not only by cell replacement and paracrine effects but also by transferring mitochondria into injured tissues or cells to modulate the cellular metabolism in situ. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms

  15. Neuro-muscular differentiation of adult porcine skin derived stem cell-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the genetic relationship to humans, porcine stem cells are a very important model system to investigate cell differentiation, associated cell signaling pathways, and cell fate. Porcine skin derived stem cells have been isolated from mid-gestation porcine fetus recently. To our knowledge, stem cells from the skin of the adult porcine organism have not been isolated until now. Hence, to our knowledge, we here describe the isolation, expansion, characterization and differentiation of multipotent porcine skin derived stem cell-like cells (pSSCs from the adult porcine organism for the first time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: pSSCs had a spindle shaped morphology similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 120 days and were able to form colonies from single cells. pSSCs expressed Sox2 and Oct3/4, both transcription factors essential to the pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes of embryonic stem cells, which recently gained attention due to their function in inducing pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, the expression of the progenitor marker nestin, the somatic stem cell markers Bcrp1/ABCG2, Bmi1, and Stat3 was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in undifferentiated pSSCs. Flow cytometry revealed the expression of the MSC related proteins CD9, CD29, CD44 and CD105, but not CD90. After neuronal differentiation cells with a characteristic morphology of neuronal and smooth muscle-like cells were present in the cultures. Subsequent immunochemistry and flow cytometry revealed the down-regulation of nestin and the up-regulation of the neuron specific protein beta-III-tubulin and the astrocyte marker GFAP. Also, alpha-SMA expressing cells increased during differentiation suggesting the neuro-muscular differentiation of these skin derived cells. pSSCs could also be induced to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells when cultured under

  16. mTOR and the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin Xiang; Jing Zhao; Geyang Xu; Yin Li; Weizhen Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine protein kinase,belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinase family, which contains a lipid kinase-like domain within their C-terminal region. Recent studies have revealed that mTOR as a critical intracellular molecule can sense the extracellular energy status and regulate the cell growth and proliferation in a variety of cells and tissues. This review summarizes our current understanding about the effects of mTOR on cell differentiation and tissue development, with an emphasis on the lineage determination of mesenchymal stem cells, mTOR can promote adipogenesis in white adipocytes, brown adipocytes, and muscle satellite cells, while rapamycin inhibits the adipogenic function of mTOR. mTOR signaling may function to affect osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, however, rapamycin has been reported to either inhibit or promote osteogenesis. Although the precise mechanism remains unclear, mTOR is indispensable for myogenesis. Depending on the cell type, rapamycin has been reported to inhibit, promote, or have no effect on myogenesis.

  17. Isolation and differentiation of medaka embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yunhan; Schartl, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Medaka is a small laboratory fish that daily produces eggs easily controllable by light cycles. This fish represents a unique lower vertebrate compared to mammals, in which embryonic stem (ES) cell lines can be derived from midblastula embryos (MBEs). Like mouse ES cells, medaka ES cells most resemble the totipotent embryonic cells at the blastula stage. Medaka ES cells retain a diploid karyotype, pluripotency in vitro, and chimera competence in vivo. They give rise to high efficiencies of transient and stable gene transfer and maintain their pluripotency after long-term drug selection for transgene integration. They can also be directed to differentiate into particular cell types. Medaka is the most distantly related vertebrate to mammals, and its ES cell lines provide an ideal reference to mammalian ES cells for the molecular analysis of stemness. More important, medaka ES cell lines on their own offer an excellent tool for studying stem cell biology in vitro and in vivo because production and observation of ES-derived chimeras as well as phenotypic analyses are very easy because of its external, transparent, and temperature-adjustable embryology.

  18. Stalk cell differentiation without polyketides in the cellular slime mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie G; Suarez, Teresa; Saito, Tamao

    2016-07-01

    Polyketides induce prestalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium. In the double-knockout mutant of the SteelyA and B polyketide synthases, most of the pstA cells-the major part of the prestalk cells-are lost, and we show by whole mount in situ hybridization that expression of prestalk genes is also reduced. Treatment of the double-knockout mutant with the PKS inhibitor cerulenin gave a further reduction, but some pstA cells still remained in the tip region, suggesting the existence of a polyketide-independent subtype of pstA cells. The double-knockout mutant and cerulenin-treated parental Ax2 cells form fruiting bodies with fragile, single-cell layered stalks after cerulenin treatment. Our results indicate that most pstA cells are induced by polyketides, but the pstA cells at the very tip of the slug are induced in some other way. In addition, a fruiting body with a single-cell layered, vacuolated stalk can form without polyketides. PMID:27305283

  19. Snai1 represses Nanog to promote embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Galvagni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal and pluripotency is maintained by an external signaling pathways and intrinsic regulatory networks involving ESC-specific transcriptional complexes (mainly formed by OCT3/4, Sox2 and Nanog proteins, the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2 and DNA methylation [1–8]. Among these, Nanog represents the more ESC specific factor and its repression correlates with the loss of pluripotency and ESC differentiation [9–11]. During ESC early differentiation, many development-associated genes become upregulated and although, in general, much is known about the pluripotency self-renewal circuitry, the molecular events that lead ESCs to exit from pluripotency and begin differentiation are largely unknown. Snai1 is one the most early induced genes during ESC differentiation in vitro and in vivo [12,13]. Here we show that Snai1 is able to directly repress several stemness-associated genes including Nanog. We use a ESC stable-line expressing a inducible Snai1 protein. We here show microarray analysis of embryonic stem cells (ESC expressing Snail-ER at various time points of induction with 4-OH. Data were deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO datasets under reference GSE57854 and here: http://epigenetics.hugef-research.org/data.php.

  20. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Pearl A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5 undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1, our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2 that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of m

  1. Expression of the chitinase family glycoprotein YKL-40 in undifferentiated, differentiated and trans-differentiated mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Hoover

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1 is a secreted chitinase family protein that induces angiogenesis, cell survival, and cell proliferation, and plays roles in tissue remodeling and immune regulation. It is expressed primarily in cells of mesenchymal origin, is overexpressed in numerous aggressive carcinomas and sarcomas, but is rarely expressed in normal ectodermal tissues. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be induced to differentiate into various mesenchymal tissues and trans-differentiate into some non-mesenchymal cell types. Since YKL-40 has been used as a mesenchymal marker, we followed YKL-40 expression as undifferentiated MSCs were induced to differentiate into bone, cartilage, and neural phenotypes. Undifferentiated MSCs contain significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA but do not synthesize detectable levels of YKL-40 protein. MSCs induced to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteocytes soon began to express and secrete YKL-40 protein, as do ex vivo cultured chondrocytes and primary osteocytes. In contrast, MSCs induced to trans-differentiate into neurons did not synthesize YKL-40 protein, consistent with the general absence of YKL-40 protein in normal CNS parenchyma. However, these trans-differentiated neurons retained significant levels of YKL-40 mRNA, suggesting the mechanisms which prevented YKL-40 translation in undifferentiated MSCs remained in place, and that these trans-differentiated neurons differ in at least this way from neurons derived from neuronal stem cells. Utilization of a differentiation protocol containing β-mercaptoethanol resulted in cells that expressed significant amounts of intracellular YKL-40 protein that was not secreted, which is not seen in normal cells. Thus the synthesis of YKL-40 protein is a marker for MSC differentiation into mature mesenchymal phenotypes, and the presence of untranslated YKL-40 mRNA in non-mesenchymal cells derived from MSCs reflects differences between differentiated and

  2. Citalopram increases the differentiation efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into neuronal-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Verdi, Javad; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed AbdolReza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Hadi; Shoae-Hassani, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants can promote neuronal cell proliferation and enhance neuroplasticity both in vitro and in vivo. It is hypothesized that citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can promote the neuronal differentiation of adult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Citalopram strongly enhanced neuronal characteristics of the cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The rate of cell death was d...

  3. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into embryoid bodies compromising the three embryonic germ layers.

    OpenAIRE

    Itskovitz-Eldor, J.; Schuldiner, M; Karsenti, D.; Eden, A.; Yanuka, O.; Amit, M; Soreq, H; Benvenisty, N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES) cells are lines of cells that are isolated from blastocysts. The murine ES cells were demonstrated to be true pluripotent cells as they differentiate into all embryonic lineages. Yet, in vitro differentiation of rhesus ES cells was somewhat inconsistent and disorganized. The recent isolation of human ES cells calls for exploring their pluripotential nature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human ES cells were grown in suspension to induce their differentiation into embry...

  4. n-3 PUFAs reduce T-helper 17 cell differentiation by decreasing responsiveness to interleukin-6 in isolated mouse splenic CD4⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M Jeannie; Fan, Yang-Yi; Monk, Jennifer M; Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Cluster of differentiation 4(+) (CD4(+)) effector T-cell subsets [e.g., T-helper (Th) 1 and Th17] are implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that induces Th17 polarization via signaling through the membrane-bound transducer glycoprotein 130 (GP130). Previously, we demonstrated that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduce CD4(+) T-cell activation and differentiation into pathogenic Th17 cells by 25-30%. Here we report that n-3 PUFAs alter the response of CD4(+) T cells to IL-6 in a lipid raft membrane-dependent manner. Naive splenic CD4(+) T cells from fat-1 transgenic mice exhibited 30% lower surface expression of the IL-6 receptor. This membrane-bound receptor is known to be shed during cellular activation, but the release of soluble IL-6 receptor after treatment with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 was not changed in the CD4(+) T cells from fat-1 mice, suggesting that the decrease in surface expression was not due to ectodomain release. We observed a significant 20% decrease in the association of GP130 with lipid rafts in activated fat-1 CD4(+) T cells and a 35% reduction in GP130 homodimerization, an obligate requirement for downstream signaling. The phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a downstream target of IL-6-dependent signaling, was also decreased by 30% in response to exogenous IL-6 in fat-1 CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that n-3 PUFAs suppress Th17 cell differentiation in part by reducing membrane raft-dependent responsiveness to IL-6, an essential polarizing cytokine. PMID:24944284

  5. Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytotoxicity (ACDC) assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Embryonic Stem Cell Test (EST) is an assay which evaluates xenobiotic-induced effects using three endpoints: mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation, mESC viability, and 3T3-cell viability. Our research goal was to develop an improved high-throughput assay by establi...

  6. Clonal, self-renewing and differentiating human and porcine urothelial cells, a novel stem cell population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans M Larsson

    Full Text Available Although urothelial progenitor-like cells have been described in the human urinary tract, the existence of stem cells remains to be proven. Using a culture system that favors clonogenic epithelial cell growth, we evaluated and characterized clonal human urothelial cells. We isolated human urothelial cells that were clonogenic, capable of self-renewal and could develop into fully differentiated urothelium once re-implanted into the subcapsular space of nude mice. In addition to final urothelial cell differentiation, spontaneous formation of bladder-like microstructures was observed. By examining an epithelial stem cell signature marker, we found p63 to correlate with the self-renewal capacity of the isolated human urothelial clonal populations. Since a clinically relevant, long-term model for functional reconstitution of human cells does not exist, we sought to establish a culture method for porcine urothelial cells in a clinically relevant porcine model. We isolated cells from porcine ureter, urethra and bladder that were clonogenic and capable of self-renewal and differentiation into fully mature urothelium. In conclusion, we could isolate human and porcine cell populations, behaving as urothelial stem cells and showing clonogenicity, self-renewal and, once re-implanted, morphological differentiation.

  7. Monocyte cell surface glycosaminoglycans positively modulate IL-4-induced differentiation toward dendritic cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, E. den; Grefte, S.; Huijs, T.; Dam, G.B. ten; Versteeg, E.M.M.; Berk, L.C.J. van den; Bladergroen, B.A.; Kuppevelt, A.H.M.S.M. van; Figdor, C.G.; Torensma, R.

    2008-01-01

    IL-4 induces the differentiation of monocytes toward dendritic cells (DCs). The activity of many cytokines is modulated by glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In this study, we explored the effect of GAGs on the IL-4-induced differentiation of monocytes toward DCs. IL-4 dose-dependently up-regulated the expr

  8. Quantitative single cell analysis of cell population dynamics during submandibular salivary gland development and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells; cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells; and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis.

  9. High glucose suppresses embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Penghua; Shen, Wei-bin; Reece, E Albert; Chen, Xi; Yang, Peixin

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal neurogenesis occurs during embryonic development in human diabetic pregnancies and in animal models of diabetic embryopathy. Our previous studies in a mouse model of diabetic embryopathy have implicated that high glucose of maternal diabetes delays neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium leading to neural tube defects. However, the underlying process in high glucose-impaired neurogenesis is uncharacterized. Neurogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells provides a valuable model for understanding the abnormal neural lineage development under high glucose conditions. ES cells are commonly generated and maintained in high glucose (approximately 25 mM glucose). Here, the mouse ES cell line, E14, was gradually adapted to and maintained in low glucose (5 mM), and became a glucose responsive E14 (GR-E14) line. High glucose induced the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, CHOP, in GR-E14 cells. Under low glucose conditions, the GR-E14 cells retained their pluripotency and capability to differentiate into neural lineage cells. GR-E14 cell differentiation into neural stem cells (Sox1 and nestin positive cells) was inhibited by high glucose. Neuron (Tuj1 positive cells) and glia (GFAP positive cells) differentiation from GR-E14 cells was also suppressed by high glucose. In addition, high glucose delayed GR-E14 differentiation into neural crest cells by decreasing neural crest markers, paired box 3 (Pax3) and paired box 7 (Pax7). Thus, high glucose impairs ES cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. The low glucose adapted and high glucose responsive GR-E14 cell line is a useful in vitro model for assessing the adverse effect of high glucose on the development of the central nervous system.

  10. Cell-mediated remodeling of biomimetic encapsulating hydrogels triggered by adipogenic differentiation of adipose stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Tracy N; Luna, Gabriel; Boctor, Daniel; Fisher, Steven K; Clegg, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common regenerative therapies is autologous fat grafting, which frequently suffers from unexpected volume loss. One approach is to deliver adipose stem cells encapsulated in the engineered hydrogels supportive of cell survival, differentiation, and integration after transplant. We describe an encapsulating, biomimetic poly(ethylene)-glycol hydrogel, with embedded peptides for attachment and biodegradation. Poly(ethylene)-glycol hydrogels containing an Arg–Gly–Asp attachment sequence and a matrix metalloprotease 3/10 cleavage site supported adipose stem cell survival and showed remodeling initiated by adipogenic differentiation. Arg–Gly–Asp–matrix metalloprotease 3/10 cleavage site hydrogels showed an increased number and area of lacunae or holes after adipose stem cell differentiation. Image analysis of adipose stem cells in Arg–Gly–Asp–matrix metalloprotease 3/10 cleavage site hydrogels showed larger Voronoi domains, while cell density remained unchanged. The differentiated adipocytes residing within these newly remodeled spaces express proteins and messenger RNAs indicative of adipocytic differentiation. These engineered scaffolds may provide niches for stem cell differentiation and could prove useful in soft tissue regeneration. PMID:27733898

  11. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  12. Derivation, characterization and retinal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subba Rao Mekala; Vasundhara Vauhini; Usha Nagarajan; Savitri Maddileti; Subhash Gaddipati; Indumathi Mariappan

    2013-03-01

    Millions of people world over suffer visual disability due to retinal dystrophies which can be age-related or a genetic disorder resulting in gradual degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Therefore, cell replacement therapy offers a great promise in treating such diseases. Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report the derivation of four iPSC lines from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using a cocktail of recombinant retroviruses carrying the genes for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. The iPS clone MEF-4F3 was further characterized for stemness marker expression and stable reprogramming by immunocytochemistry, FACS and RT-PCR analysis. Methylation analysis of the nanog promoter confirmed the reprogrammed epigenetic state. Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal differentiation, patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they expressed ZO-1 (tight junction protein), RPE65 and bestrophin (mature RPE markers) and showed phagocytic activity by the uptake of fluorescent latex beads.

  13. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  14. Differentiation mechanism and function of the cereal aleurone cells and hormone effects on them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yankun; Wang, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    The cereal aleurone cells differentiate from the endosperm epidermis with the exception of endosperm transfer cells. Aleurone cells contain proteins, lipids, and minerals, and are important for digesting the endosperm storage products to nurse the embryo under effects of several hormones during the seed germination. The differentiation of aleurone cells is related to location effect and special gene expression. Moreover, the differentiation of aleurone cells is probably affected by the cues from maternal tissues. In the paper, differentiation mechanism and function of aleurone cells and hormone effects on them are reviewed. Some speculations about the differentiation mechanism of aleurone cells are given here.

  15. Variable expression of cystatin C in cultured trans-differentiating rat hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Axel M Gressner; Birgit Lahme; Steffen K Meurer; Olav Gressner; Ralf Weiskirchen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of cystatin C (CysC), its regulation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the potential interference of CysC with TGF-β1 signaling in this special cell type.METHODS: We evaluated the CysC expression in cultured, profibrogenic hepatic stellate cells and transdifferentiated myofibroblasts by Northern and Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy.RESULTS: CysC was increased significantly in the course of trans-differentiation. Both TGF-β1 and PDGFBB suppressed CysC expression. Furthermore, CysC secretion was induced by the treatment with TGF-β1.Although CysC induced an increased binding affinity of TGF-β receptor type Ⅲ (beta-glycan) as assessed by chemical cross-linking with [125I]-TGF-β1, it did not modulate TGF-β1 signal transduction as shown by evaluating the Smad2/3 phosphorylation status and [CAGA]-MLP-luciferase reporter gene assay. Interestingly,the shedding of type Ⅲ TGF-β receptor beta-glycan was reduced in CysC-treated cells. Our data indicated that CysC expression was upregulated during transdifferentiation.CONCLUSION: Increased CysC levels in the serum of patients suffering from liver diseases are at least partially due to a higher expression in activated hepatic stellate cells. Furthermore, TGF-β1 influences the secretion of CysC, highlighting a potentially important role of cysteine proteases in the progression of hepatic fibrogenesis.

  16. Differentiation within autologous fibrin scaffolds of porcine dermal cells with the mesenchymal stem cell phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puente, Pilar de la, E-mail: pilardelapuentegarcia@gmail.com [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain); Ludeña, Dolores [Pathology Service, University Hospital of Salamanca, P/San Vicente 58-182, 37007 Salamanca (Spain); López, Marta; Ramos, Jennifer; Iglesias, Javier [Tissue Bank, San Francisco Clinic Foundation, Av./Facultad 51, 5°, 24004 León (Spain)

    2013-02-01

    Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) are an attractive source of cells for tissue engineering because their properties are similar to those of human stem cells. pMSCs can be found in different tissues but their dermal origin has not been studied in depth. Additionally, MSCs differentiation in monolayer cultures requires subcultured cells, and these cells are at risk of dedifferentiation when implanting them into living tissue. Following this, we attempted to characterize the MSCs phenotype of porcine dermal cells and to evaluate their cellular proliferation and differentiation in autologous fibrin scaffolds (AFSs). Dermal biopsies and blood samples were obtained from 12 pigs. Dermal cells were characterized by flow cytometry. Frozen autologous plasma was used to prepare AFSs. pMSC differentiation was studied in standard structures (monolayers and pellets) and in AFSs. The pMSCs expressed the CD90 and CD29 markers of the mesenchymal lineage. AFSs afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. The porcine dermis can be proposed to be a good source of MSCs with adequate proliferative capacity and a suitable expression of markers. The pMSCs also showed optimal proliferation and differentiation in AFSs, such that these might serve as a promising autologous and implantable material for use in tissue engineering. -- Highlights: ► Low fibrinogen concentration provides a suitable matrix for cell migration and differentiation. ► Autologous fibrin scaffolds is a promising technique in tissue engineering. ► Dermal cells are an easily accessible mesenchymal stem cell source. ► Fibrin scaffolds afforded adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation.

  17. Vaccination of pigs with attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis induced acute phase protein responses and primed cell-mediated immunity without reduction in bacterial shedding after challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes;

    2015-01-01

    nomically important diseases in modern pig production worldwide. The Enterisol®Ileitis vaccine havebeen shown to reduce clinical disease and to increase weight gain, however, while the natural infectionwith L. intracellularis can provide complete protection against re-infection, this has not been...... achievedby this vaccine. We therefore undertook a detailed characterization of immune responses to L. intracel-lularis infection in vaccinated pigs (VAC) compared to previously infected pigs (RE) in order to pinpointimmunological determinants of protection.Results: The VAC pigs shed L. intracellularis...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...

  18. Prion protein expression regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Miranda

    Full Text Available Cellular prion protein (PRNP is a glycoprotein involved in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. Although the physiological function of PRNP is largely unknown, its key role in prion infection has been extensively documented. This study examines the functionality of PRNP during the course of embryoid body (EB differentiation in mouse Prnp-null (KO and WT embryonic stem cell (ESC lines. The first feature observed was a new population of EBs that only appeared in the KO line after 5 days of differentiation. These EBs were characterized by their expression of several primordial germ cell (PGC markers until Day 13. In a comparative mRNA expression analysis of genes playing an important developmental role during ESC differentiation to EBs, Prnp was found to participate in the transcription of a key pluripotency marker such as Nanog. A clear switching off of this gene on Day 5 was observed in the KO line as opposed to the WT line, in which maximum Prnp and Nanog mRNA levels appeared at this time. Using a specific antibody against PRNP to block PRNP pathways, reduced Nanog expression was confirmed in the WT line. In addition, antibody-mediated inhibition of ITGB5 (integrin αvβ5 in the KO line rescued the low expression of Nanog on Day 5, suggesting the regulation of Nanog transcription by Prnp via this Itgb5. mRNA expression analysis of the PRNP-related proteins PRND (Doppel and SPRN (Shadoo, whose PRNP function is known to be redundant, revealed their incapacity to compensate for the absence of PRNP during early ESC differentiation. Our findings provide strong evidence for a relationship between Prnp and several key pluripotency genes and attribute Prnp a crucial role in regulating self-renewal/differentiation status of ESC, confirming the participation of PRNP during early embryogenesis.

  19. Delayed BMP4 exposure increases germ cell differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei Fard, Nehleh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Fate mapping studies have revealed that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling has a key role in segregation of primordial germ cells from proximal epiblast. Adding BMP4 to the culture media of embryonic stem (ES) cells could induce expression of germ cell markers; however, to provide a desired number of germ cells has remained a challenge. In the current study, we intended to establish an in vitro system to obtain reliable germ cells derived from ES cells. Differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB) and monolayer culture system. Cells were cultured with BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4) or after 48 hours (+BMP4) of culturing for five days. The cultures were assessed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Oct4, Mvh and c-kit. In EB culture protocol, the expression of Mvh, Oct4 and ALP activity significantly increased in +BMP4 culture condition, but a significant down-regulation in the expression of germ cell markers was shown in ++BMP4 condition compared with the control group. Parallel differentiation experiments using monolayer culture system indicated the number of putative germ cells did not change. In the current study, we compared two differentiation methods (EB and monolayer) to achieve an optimal germ cell production. The EBs with a short exposure time period to BMP4, showing typical characteristics of germ cells. Therefore, our approach provides a strategy for the production of germline cells from ES cells. PMID:24969978

  20. Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells into Dopaminergic Neuron-like Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, So Young; Soker, Shay; Jang, Yu-Jin; Kwon, Tae Gyun; Yoo, Eun Sang

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the potential of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons in vitro as an autologous stem cell source for Parkinson's disease treatment. The hDPSCs were expanded in knockout-embryonic stem cell (KO-ES) medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on gelatin-coated plates for 3-4 days. Then, the medium was replaced with KO-ES medium without LIF to allow the formation of the neurosphere for 4 days. The neurosphere was transferred into ITS medium, containing ITS (human insulin-transferrin-sodium) and fibronectin, to select for Nestin-positive cells for 6-8 days. The cells were then cultured in N-2 medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF-8b, sonic hedgehog-N, and ascorbic acid on poly-l-ornithine/fibronectin-coated plates to expand the Nestin-positive cells for up to 2 weeks. Finally, the cells were transferred into N-2/ascorbic acid medium to allow for their differentiation into dopaminergic neurons for 10-15 days. The differentiation stages were confirmed by morphological, immunocytochemical, flow cytometric, real-time PCR, and ELISA analyses. The expressions of mesenchymal stem cell markers were observed at the early stages. The expressions of early neuronal markers were maintained throughout the differentiation stages. The mature neural markers showed increased expression from stage 3 onwards. The percentage of cells positive for tyrosine hydroxylase was 14.49%, and the amount was 0.526 ± 0.033 ng/mL at the last stage. hDPSCs can differentiate into dopaminergic neural cells under experimental cell differentiation conditions, showing potential as an autologous cell source for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, Maria Franca; Mandas, Antonella; Abete, Claudia; Dessì, Sandra; Mocali, Alessandra; Paoletti, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3) and acylCoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol export (caveolin-1) in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC), in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells. PMID:22184540

  2. Cholesterol esterification during differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia (Friend cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Mulas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential constituent of all mammalian cell membranes, and its availability is therefore a prerequisite for cellular growth and other functions. Several lines of evidence are now indicating an association between alterations of cholesterol homeostasis and cell cycle progression. However, the role of cholesterol in cell differentiation is still largely unknown. To begin to address this issue, in this study we examined changes in cholesterol metabolism and in the mRNA levels of proteins involved in cholesterol import and esterification (multi-drug resistance, MDR-3 and acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT and cholesterol export (caveolin-1 in Friend virus-induced erythroleukemia cells (MELC, in the absence or in the presence of the chemical inducer of differentiation, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA. FBS-stimulated growth of MELC was accompanied by an immediate elevation of cholesterol synthesis and cholesterol esterification, and by an increase in the levels of MDR-3 and ACAT mRNAs. A decrease in caveolin-1 expression was also observed. However, when MELC were treated with HMBA, the inhibition of DNA synthesis caused by HMBA treatment, was associated with a decrease in cholesterol esterification and in ACAT and MDR-3 mRNA levels and an increase in caveolin-1 mRNA. Detection of cytoplasmic neutral lipids by staining MELC with oil red O, a dye able to evidence CE but not FC, revealed that HMBA-treatment also reduced growth-stimulated accumulation of cholesterol ester to approximately the same extent as the ACAT inhibitor, SaH. Overall, these results indicate for the first time a role of cholesterol esterification and of some related genes in differentiation of erythroid cells.

  3. Spheroid culture for enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Kartik; Owens, Derek Jason; Raju, Ravali; Firpo, Meri; O'Brien, Timothy D; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2014-01-15

    Stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells hold great potential for the treatment of liver disease and for drug toxicity screening. The success of these applications hinges on the generation of differentiated cells with high liver specific activities. Many protocols have been developed to guide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate to the hepatic lineage. Here we report cultivation of hESCs as three-dimensional aggregates that enhances their differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells. Differentiation was first carried out in monolayer culture for 20 days. Subsequently cells were allowed to self-aggregate into spheroids. Significantly higher expression of liver-specific transcripts and proteins, including Albumin, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 was observed. The differentiated phenotype was sustained for more than 2 weeks in the three-dimensional spheroid culture system, significantly longer than in monolayer culture. Cells in spheroids exhibit morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of primary hepatocytes by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in addition to mature functions, such as biliary excretion of metabolic products and cytochrome P450 activities. This three-dimensional spheroid culture system may be appropriate for generating high quality, functional hepatocyte-like cells from ESCs.

  4. Differentiation of Equine Mesenchymal Stromal Cells into Cells of Neural Lineage: Potential for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are able to differentiate into extramesodermal lineages, including neurons. Positive outcomes were obtained after transplantation of neurally induced MSCs in laboratory animals after nerve injury, but this is unknown in horses. Our objectives were to test the ability of equine MSCs to differentiate into cells of neural lineage in vitro, to assess differences in morphology and lineage-specific protein expression, and to investigate if horse age and cell passage number affected the ability to achieve differentiation. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were obtained from young and adult horses. Following demonstration of stemness, MSCs were neurally induced and microscopically assessed at different time points. Results showed that commercially available nitrogen-coated tissue culture plates supported proliferation and differentiation. Morphological changes were immediate and all the cells displayed a neural crest-like cell phenotype. Expression of neural progenitor proteins, was assessed via western blot or immunofluorescence. In our study, MSCs generated from young and middle-aged horses did not show differences in their ability to undergo differentiation. The effect of cell passage number, however, is inconsistent and further experiments are needed. Ongoing work is aimed at transdifferentiating these cells into Schwann cells for transplantation into a peripheral nerve injury model in horses.

  5. Differentiation of mouse bone marrow derived stem cells toward microglia-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolzing Alexandra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microglia, the macrophages of the brain, have been implicated in the causes of neurodegenerative diseases and display a loss of function during aging. Throughout life, microglia are replenished by limited proliferation of resident microglial cells. Replenishment by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is still under debate. In this context, we investigated the differentiation of mouse microglia from bone marrow (BM stem cells. Furthermore, we looked at the effects of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L, astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM and GM-CSF on the differentiation to microglia-like cells. Methods We assessed in vitro-derived microglia differentiation by marker expression (CD11b/CD45, F4/80, but also for the first time for functional performance (phagocytosis, oxidative burst and in situ migration into living brain tissue. Integration, survival and migration were assessed in organotypic brain slices. Results The cells differentiated from mouse BM show function, markers and morphology of primary microglia and migrate into living brain tissue. Flt3L displays a negative effect on differentiation while GM-CSF enhances differentiation. Conclusion We conclude that in vitro-derived microglia are the phenotypic and functional equivalents to primary microglia and could be used in cell therapy.

  6. Human dental pulp stem cells express many pluripotency regulators and differentiate into neuronal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behnam Ebrahimi; Mohammad Mehdi Yaghoobi; Ali Mohammadi Kamal-abadi; Maryam Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells were isolated from human dental pulp using an optimized method, in which pulp pieces were digested by enzymes and immobilized to enhance cell outgrowth. Stem cell marker expression was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and differentiation markers were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that dental pulp stem cells actively expressed nanog, oct4, nucleostemin slain-1, jmjd1a, jmjd2c, and cyclin D1. When stem cells were induced to differentiate into neurons, nucleostemin, nanog, and cyclin D1 expres-sion significantly decreased, whereas expression of neuronal markers, such as microtubule asso-ciated protein-2 and neurofilament-heavy, significantly increased. These results suggested that stem cells exited a pluripotent state and entered a neuronal differentiation pathway. In addition, results demonstrated that human dental pulp serves as a reservoir of stem cells that express defined stem cell markers; these cells were easily isolated and were induced to differentiate towards a desired cell lineage.

  7. Ceramide and S1P signaling in embryonic stem cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bieberich, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that bioactive lipids are important regulators for stem cell survival and differentiation. The sphingolipid ceramide and its derivative, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), can act synergistically on embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation. We show here simple methods to analyze sphingolipids in differentiating ES cells and to use ceramide and S1P analogs for the guided differentiation of mouse ES cells toward neuronal and glial lineage.

  8. miRNAs regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zuoren; Li, Yuan; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Pestell, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells undergo symmetric and asymmetric divisions to generate differentiated cells and more stem cells. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells is controlled by transcription factors, epigenetic regulatory networks, and microRNAs (miRNAs). Herein the miRNA involvement in the regulation of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation is summarized. miRNA contribution to malignancy through regulating cancer stem cells is described. In addition, the reciprocal associ...

  9. Differentiation of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into Schwann-like cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-ye; ZHENG Jia-kun; WANG Chao-yang; LI Wen-yu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differentiative capability of adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into Schwann-like cells. Methods: Bone marrows were aspirated from healthy donors and mononuclear cells were separated by Percoll lymphocytes separation liquid (1.073 g/ml) with centrifugation, cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF) and 20 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Cells of passage 1 were identified with immunocytochemistry. Conclusions: Bone marrow contains the stem cells with the ability of differentiating into Schwann-like cells, which may represent an alternative stem cell sources for neural transplantation.

  10. Generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells and directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minyue Ma; Jiahao Sha; Zuomin Zhou; Qi Zhou; Qingzhang Li

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic stem(ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can give rise to derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Due to its characteristics, the patient-specific ES cells are of great potential for transplantation therapies. Several strategies can reprogramme somatic cells back to pluripotent stem cells: nuclear transfer, fusion with ES cells, treatment with cell extract and induction by specific factors. Considering the future clinical use, the differentiation from ES to neurons, cardiomyocytes and many other types of cell scurrently provide basic cognition and experience to regenerative medicine. This article will review two courses, the reprogramming of differentiated cells and the differentiation of ES cells to specific cell types.

  11. Stem cell therapy. Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells as replacement therapy for treating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Ira J; Daley, George Q; Goldman, Steven A;

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) directed to various cell fates holds promise as source material for treating numerous disorders. The availability of precisely differentiated PSC-derived cells will dramatically affect blood component and hematopoietic stem cell therapies and should facilitate......, and industry is critical for generating new stem cell-based therapies....... treatment of diabetes, some forms of liver disease and neurologic disorders, retinal diseases, and possibly heart disease. Although an unlimited supply of specific cell types is needed, other barriers must be overcome. This review of the state of cell therapies highlights important challenges. Successful...

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells from rat olfactory bulbs can differentiate into cells with cardiomyocyte characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuahn-Sieh; Li, I-Hsun; Chueh, Sheau-Huei; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Tai, Ming-Cheng; Liang, Chang-Min; Lien, Shiu-Bii; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Ma, Kuo-Hsing

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are widely distributed in different tissues such as bone marrow, adipose tissues, peripheral blood, umbilical cord and amnionic fluid. Recently, MSC-like cells were also found to exist in rat olfactory bulb and are capable of inducing differentiation into mesenchymal lineages - osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. However, whether these cells can differentiate into myocardial cells is not known. In this study, we examined whether olfactory bulb-derived MSCs could differentiate into myocardial cells in vitro. Fibroblast-like cells isolated from the olfactory bulb of neonatal rats were grown under four conditions: no treatment; in the presence of growth factors (neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin); co-cultured with cardiomyocytes; and co-cultured with cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. Cell differentiation into myocardial cells was monitored by RT-PCR, light microscopy immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and contractile response to pharmacological treatments. The isolated olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells expressed CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, CD166 but not CD34 and CD45, consistent with the characteristics of MSCs. Long cylindical cells that spontaneously contracted were only observed following 7 days of co-culture of MSCs with rat cardiomyocytes plus neuregulin-1, bFGF and forskolin. RT-PCR and western blot analysis indicated that the cylindrical cells expressed myocardial markers, such as Nkx2.5, GATA4, sarcomeric α-actinin, cardiac troponin I, cardiac myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide and connexin 43. They also contained sarcomeres and gap junction and were sensitive to pharmacological treatments (adrenal and cholinergic agonists and antagonists). These findings indicate that rat olfactory bulb-derived fibroblast-like cells with MSC characteristics can differentiate into myocardial-like cells.

  13. Differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells under the influence of nanostructural polyoxometalates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bâlici, Ştefana; Şuşman, Sergiu; Rusu, Dan; Nicula, Gheorghe Zsolt; Soriţău, Olga; Rusu, Mariana; Biris, Alexandru S; Matei, Horea

    2016-03-01

    Two polyoxometalates (POMs) with W were synthesized by a two-step, self-assembling method. They were used for stimulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into insulin-producing cells. The nanocompounds (tris(vanadyl)-substituted tungsto-antimonate(III) anions [POM1] and tris-butyltin-21-tungsto-9-antimonate(III) anions [POM2]) were characterized by analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible, Fourier transform infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. We found that these polyoxotungstates, with 2-4 nm diameters, did not present toxic effects at the tested concentrations. In vitro, POM1 stimulated differentiation of a greater number of dithizone-positive cells (also organized in clusters) than the second nanocompound (POM2). Based on our in vitro studies, we have concluded that both the POMs tested had significant biological activity acting as active stimuli for differentiation of stem cells into insulin-producing cells. PMID:26397720

  14. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  15. Acrylamide inhibits cellular differentiation of human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jong-Hang; Chou, Chin-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    This study explores human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) and human glioblastoma (U-1240 MG) cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide (ACR). Differentiation of SH-SY5Y and U-1240 MG cells were induced by retinoic acid (RA) and butyric acid (BA), respectively. Morphological observations and MTT assay showed that the induced cellular differentiation and cell proliferation were inhibited by ACR in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ACR co-treatment with RA attenuated SH-SY5Y expressions of neurofilament protein-L (NF-L), microtubule-associated protein 1b (MAP1b; 1.2 to 0.7, p < 0.001), MAP2c (2.2 to 0.8, p < 0.05), and Janus kinase1 (JAK1; 1.9 to 0.6, p < 0.001), while ACR co-treatment with BA attenuated U-1240 MG expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), MAP1b (1.2 to 0.6, p < 0.001), MAP2c (1.5 to 0.7, p < 0.01), and JAK1 (2.1 to 0.5, p < 0.001), respectively. ACR also decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) in U-1240 MG cells, while caffeine reversed this suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation caused by ACR treatment. These results showed that RA-induced neurogenesis of SH-SY5Y and BA-induced astrogliogenesis of U-1240 MG cells were attenuated by ACR and were associated with down-regulation of MAPs expression and JAK-STAT signaling.

  16. In vitro differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Lidong; SHI Shuangshuang; PEI Xuetao; LI Shaoqing; WANG Yunfang; YUE Huimin; LIU Daqing; HE Lijuan; BAI Cixian; YAN Fang; NAN Xue

    2006-01-01

    The neovascularization of ischemic tissue is a crucial initial step for the functional rehabilitation and wound healing. However, the short of seed cell candidate for the foundation of vascular network is still a big issue. Human adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs), which possess multilineage potential, are capable of adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation. We examined whether this kind of stem cells could differentiate into endothelial-like cells and participate in blood vessel formation, and whether they could be used as an ideal cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis in ischemic diseases or vascularization of tissue constructs. The results showed that hADSCs, grown under appropriately induced conditions, displayed characteristics similar to those of vessel endothelium. The differentiated cells expressed endothelial cell markers CD34 and vWF, and had high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein and prostacyclin. In addition, the induced cells were able to form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. Our data indicated that induced hADSCs could exhibit characteristics of endothelial cells. Therefore, these cells, as a source of human endothelial cells, may find many applications in such realms as engineering blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  17. Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Easley, IV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have been shown to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs but not into spermatogonia, haploid spermatocytes, or spermatids. Here, we show that hESCs and hiPSCs differentiate directly into advanced male germ cell lineages, including postmeiotic, spermatid-like cells, in vitro without genetic manipulation. Furthermore, our procedure mirrors spermatogenesis in vivo by differentiating PSCs into UTF1-, PLZF-, and CDH1-positive spermatogonia-like cells; HIWI- and HILI-positive spermatocyte-like cells; and haploid cells expressing acrosin, transition protein 1, and protamine 1 (proteins that are uniquely found in spermatids and/or sperm. These spermatids show uniparental genomic imprints similar to those of human sperm on two loci: H19 and IGF2. These results demonstrate that male PSCs have the ability to differentiate directly into advanced germ cell lineages and may represent a novel strategy for studying spermatogenesis in vitro.

  18. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Lange; Helge Bruns; Dietrich Kluth; Axel R Zander; Henning C Fiegel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in co-cultures with fetal liver cells (FLC) and the possibility to expand differentiated hepatocytic cells.METHODS: MSCs were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSCs were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF),hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) alone, or in presence of freshly isolated FLC. Cells in co-cultures were harvested, and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the liver specific markers cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), albumin,and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was performed in different cell populations.RESULTS: Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18,and AFP-RNA over two weeks. At wk 3, MSCs lost hepatooytic gene expression, probably due to overgrowth of the cocultured FLC. FLC also showed a stable liver specific gene expression in the co-cultures and a very high growth potential.CONCLUSION: The rat MSCs from bone marrow can differentiate hepatocytic cells in the presence of FLC in vitro and the presence of MSCs in co-cultures also prorides a beneficial environment for expansion and differentiation of FLC.

  19. Neural differentiation of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells following neural cell co-culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nailong Yang; Hongyan Zhang; Xiaojuan Sun; Lili Xu

    2011-01-01

    We induced human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPMSCs) to differentiate into neural cells by adding chemical reagents,despite the fact that toxic chemicals induce cell shrinkage or cytoskeletal formation,which does not represent a proper cell differentiation process.The present study established a co-culture system with hPMSCs and neural cells and analyzed the influence of neural cells on hPMSC differentiation in a co-culture system.hPMSCs were isolated and purified from human full-term placenta using collagenase digestion.Fetal neural cells were co-cultured with hPMSCs for 48 hours using the Transwell co-culture system.hPMSCs co-cultured with neural cells exhibited a slender morphology with a filament.After 96 hours,hPMSCs expressed neuron-specific enolase,which suggested that co-culture of hPMSCs and neural cells induced neural differentiation of hPMSCs.

  20. MicroRNAs in T helper cell differentiation and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, Silvia

    2013-11-15

    Understanding how T cells generate productive and long-lasting responses, and how these mechanisms are dysregulated in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders is crucial for prevention and treatment of these diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA species able to suppress gene expression post-transcriptionally. Hundreds of different miRNAs are produced in a cell starting from longer precursors. While the role of miRNAs has been clearly established in the regulation of the differentiation, proliferation and effector functions of a variety of immune cells, here I will focus specifically on miRNAs known to be involved in regulating the biology of CD4 T helper lymphocytes.

  1. Huntingtin regulates mammary stem cell division and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Salah; Thion, Morgane S; Yu, Hua; Sousa, Cristovao Marques; Lasgi, Charlène; Morin, Xavier; Humbert, Sandrine

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington's disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties. PMID:24749073

  2. Huntingtin Regulates Mammary Stem Cell Division and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Elias

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the mechanisms of mitotic spindle orientation during mammary gland morphogenesis. Here, we report the presence of huntingtin, the protein mutated in Huntington’s disease, in mouse mammary basal and luminal cells throughout mammogenesis. Keratin 5-driven depletion of huntingtin results in a decreased pool and specification of basal and luminal progenitors, and altered mammary morphogenesis. Analysis of mitosis in huntingtin-depleted basal progenitors reveals mitotic spindle misorientation. In mammary cell culture, huntingtin regulates spindle orientation in a dynein-dependent manner. Huntingtin is targeted to spindle poles through its interaction with dynein and promotes the accumulation of NUMA and LGN. Huntingtin is also essential for the cortical localization of dynein, dynactin, NUMA, and LGN by regulating their kinesin 1-dependent trafficking along astral microtubules. We thus suggest that huntingtin is a component of the pathway regulating the orientation of mammary stem cell division, with potential implications for their self-renewal and differentiation properties.

  3. Human NK cell subset functions are differentially affected by adipokines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Huebner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for various types of infectious diseases and cancer. The increase in adipose tissue causes alterations in both adipogenesis and the production of adipocyte-secreted proteins (adipokines. Since natural killer (NK cells are the host's primary defense against virus-infected and tumor cells, we investigated how adipocyte-conditioned medium (ACM affects functions of two distinct human NK cell subsets. METHODS: Isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were cultured with various concentrations of human and murine ACM harvested on two different days during adipogenesis and analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS. RESULTS: FACS analyses showed that the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL, granzyme A (GzmA and interferon (IFN-γ in NK cells was regulated in a subset-specific manner. ACM treatment altered IFN-γ expression in CD56(dim NK cells. The production of GzmA in CD56(bright NK cells was differentially affected by the distinct adipokine compositions harvested at different states of adipogenesis. Comparison of the treatment with either human or murine ACM revealed that adipokine-induced effects on NK cell expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R, TRAIL and IFN-γ were species-specific. CONCLUSION: Considering the growing prevalence of obesity and the various disorders related to it, the present study provides further insights into the roles human NK cell subsets play in the obesity-associated state of chronic low-grade inflammation.

  4. Positive regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by growth differentiation factor 15 upregulated in osteocytic cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Ochi, Hiroki; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakatani, Eri; Iezaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hidano, Shinya; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takeda, Shu; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Osteocytes are thought to play a role as a mechanical sensor through their communication network in bone. Although osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological functions in skeletogenesis. Here, we have attempted to delineate the pivotal functional role of osteocytes in regulation of bone remodeling under pathological conditions. We first found markedly increased osteoclastic differentiation by conditioned media (CM) from osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells previously exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Using microarray and real-time PCR analyses, we identified growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as a key candidate factor secreted from osteocytes under hypoxia. Recombinant GDF15 significantly promoted osteoclastic differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner, with concomitant facilitation of phosphorylation of both p65 and inhibitory-κB in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. To examine the possible functional significance of GDF15 in vivo, mice were subjected to ligation of the right femoral artery as a hypoxic model. A significant increase in GDF15 expression was specifically observed in tibias of the ligated limb but not in tibias of the normally perfused limb. Under these experimental conditions, in cancellous bone of proximal tibias in the ligated limb, a significant reduction was observed in bone volume, whereas a significant increase was seen in the extent of osteoclast surface/bone surface when determined by bone histomorphometric analysis. Finally, the anti-GDF15 antibody prevented bone loss through inhibiting osteoclastic activation in tibias from mice with femoral artery ligation in vivo, in addition to suppressing osteoclastic activity enhanced by CM from osteocytes exposed to hypoxia in vitro. These findings suggest that GDF15 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss relevant to hypoxia through promotion of osteoclastogenesis after

  5. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin

  6. Dexamethasone facilitates erythropoiesis in murine embryonic stem cells differentiating into hematopoietic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiating embryonic stem (ES) cells are increasingly emerging as an important source of hematopoietic progenitors with a potential to be useful for both basic and clinical research applications. It has been suggested that dexamethasone facilitates differentiation of ES cells towards erythrocytes but the mechanism responsible for sequential expression of genes regulating this process are not well-understood. Therefore, we in vitro induced differentiation of murine ES cells towards erythropoiesis and studied the sequential expression of a set of genes during the process. We hypothesized that dexamethasone-activates its cognate nuclear receptors inducing up-regulation of erythropoietic genes such as GATA-1, Flk-1, Epo-R, and direct ES cells towards erythropoietic differentiation. ES cells were cultured in primary hematopoietic differentiation media containing methyl-cellulose, IMDM, IL-3, IL-6, and SCF to promote embryoid body (EB) formation. Total RNA of day 3, 5, and 9-old EBs was isolated for gene expression studies using RT-PCR. Cells from day 9 EBs were subjected to secondary differentiation using three different cytokines and growth factors combinations: (1) SCF, EPO, dexamethasone, and IGF; (2) SCF, IL-3, IL-6, and TPO; and (3) SCF IL-3, IL-6, TPO, and EPO. Total RNA from day 12 of secondary differentiated ES cells was isolated to study the gene expression pattern during this process. Our results demonstrate an up-regulation of GATA-1, Flk-1, HoxB-4, Epo-R, and globin genes (α-globin, βH-1 globin, β-major globin, ε -globin, and ζ-globin) in the 9-day-old EBs, whereas, RNA from 5-day-old EBs showed expression of HoxB-4, ε-globin, γ-globin, βH1-globin, and Flk-1. Three-day-old EBs showed only HoxB-4 and Flk-1 gene expression and lacked expression of all globin genes. These findings indicate that erythropoiesis-specific genes are activated later in the course of differentiation. Gene expression studies on the ES cells of secondary EB origin cultured

  7. Characterization of tumor cells and stem cells by differential nuclear methylation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbakhsh, Jian; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Bar-Nur, Ori; Vishnevsky, Eugene; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2008-02-01

    DNA methylation plays a key role in cellular differentiation. Aberrant global methylation patterns are associated with several cancer types, as a result of changes in long-term activation status of up to 50% of genes, including oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes, which are regulated by methylation and demethylation of promoter region CpG dinucleotides (CpG islands). Furthermore, DNA methylation also occurs in nonisland CpG sites (> 95% of the genome), present once per 80 dinucleotides on average. Nuclear DNA methylation increases during the course of cellular differentiation while cancer cells usually show a net loss in methylation. Given the large dynamic range in DNA methylation load, the methylation pattern of a cell can provide a valuable distinction as to its status during differentiation versus the disease state. By applying immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and 3D image analysis we assessed the potential of differential nuclear distribution of methylated DNA to be utilized as a biomarker to characterize cells during development and when diseased. There are two major fields that may immediately benefit from this development: (1) the search for factors that contribute to pluripotency and cell fate in human embryonic stem cell expansion and differentiation, and (2) the characterization of tumor cells with regard to their heterogeneity in molecular composition and behavior. We performed topological analysis of the distribution of methylated CpG-sites (MeC) versus heterochromatin. This innovative approach revealed significant differences in colocalization patterns of MeC and heterochromatin-derived signals between undifferentiated and differentiated human embryonic stem cells, as well as untreated AtT20 mouse pituitary tumor cells compared to a subpopulation of these cells treated with 5-azacytidine for 48 hours.

  8. In Vitro Differentiation and Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell into Multipotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, which have the potential to generate virtually any differentiated progeny, are an attractive cell source for transplantation therapy, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. To realize this potential, it is essential to be able to control ESC differentiation and to direct the development of these cells along specific pathways. Basic science in the field of embryonic development, stem cell differentiation, and tissue engineering has offered important insights into key pathways and scaffolds that regulate hESC differentiation, which have produced advances in modeling gastrulation in culture and in the efficient induction of endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm, and many of their downstream derivatives. These findings have lead to identification of several pathways controlling the differentiation of hESCs into mesodermal derivatives such as myoblasts, mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, as well as hemangioblastic derivatives. The next challenge will be to demonstrate the functional utility of these cells, both in vitro and in preclinical models of bone and vascular diseases.

  9. Ex vivo differentiation of multipotent adult progenitor cells to skin epidermal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Kaihong; Xiong Jun; Fan Lixing; Hu Kaimeng; Liu Houqi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: By establishing the indirect contact co-culture system, we studied the in vitro condition for MAPCs differentiating into epidermal cells and the transformation of MAPCs into epidermal cell phenotype. Methods: Cell culture insert membrane was used for substitute basal membrane and MAPCs, fibroblast cells (FCs) and mixture of MAPCs and epidermal cells and FCs were separately implanted into 2 sides of it. PKH26 was used to label cloned MAPCs; type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method was used to isolate and culture the skin epidermal cells from 1-day-old SD rat. Results: Part of the MAPCs transformed into cells expressing keratin in the presence of peripheral epithelia and FCs. Type Ⅳ collagen rapid adhering method successfully selected rats' epidermal stem cells. The mixture of the 2 kinds of cells or indirect culture might promote the differentiation through mesenchymal factors secreted by dermis FC. Conclusion: We were the first to have established the in vitro model of MAPCs differentiation into epidermal cells, in which MAPCs were transformed into epithelium-like cells.

  10. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  11. Chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Tadanao; Spector, Myron

    2010-06-01

    Reparative strategies for the treatment of injuries to tendons, including those of the rotator cuff of the shoulder, need to address the formation of the cartilage which serves as the attachment apparatus to bone and which forms at regions undergoing compressive loading. Moreover, recent work indicates that cells employed for rotator cuff repair may need to synthesize a lubricating glycoprotein, lubricin, which has recently been found to play a role in tendon tribology. The objective of the present study was to investigate the chondrogenic differentiation and lubricin expression of caprine infraspinatus tendon cells in monolayer and three-dimensional culture, and to compare the behavior with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The results demonstrated that while tendon cells in various media, including chondrogenic medium, expressed lubricin, virtually none of the MSCs synthesized this important lubricating molecule. Also of interest was that the cartilage formation capacity of the tendon cells grown in pellet culture in chondrogenic medium was comparable with MSCs. These data inform the use of tendon cells for rotator cuff repair, including for fibrocartilaginous zones.

  12. Implant Surface Design Regulates Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, B D; Cheng, A; Olivares-Navarrete, R; Schwartz, Z

    2016-03-01

    Changes in dental implant materials, structural design, and surface properties can all affect biological response. While bulk properties are important for mechanical stability of the implant, surface design ultimately contributes to osseointegration. This article reviews the surface parameters of dental implant materials that contribute to improved cell response and osseointegration. In particular, we focus on how surface design affects mesenchymal cell response and differentiation into the osteoblast lineage. Surface roughness has been largely studied at the microscale, but recent studies have highlighted the importance of hierarchical micron/submicron/nanosurface roughness, as well as surface roughness in combination with surface wettability. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that recognize changes in the surface and mediate downstream signaling pathways. Specifically, the noncanonical Wnt5a pathway has been implicated in osteoblastic differentiation of cells on titanium implant surfaces. However, much remains to be elucidated. Only recently have studies been conducted on the differences in biological response to implants based on sex, age, and clinical factors; these all point toward differences that advocate for patient-specific implant design. Finally, challenges in implant surface characterization must be addressed to optimize and compare data across studies. An understanding of both the science and the biology of the materials is crucial for developing novel dental implant materials and surface modifications for improved osseointegration.

  13. Transient expression of Olig1 initiates the differentiation of neural stem cells into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, [No Value; Timmer, N; Kust, B; Boddeke, E; Copray, S

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop an efficient strategy to induce the in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NSCs were isolated from E14 mice and grown in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). Besides supplementing

  14. Memory CD8+ T cell differentiation in viral infection: A cell for all seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Radziewicz; Luke Uebelhoer; Bertram Bengsch; Arash Grakoui

    2007-01-01

    Chronic viral infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are major global health problems affecting more than 500 million people worldwide. Virus-specific CD8+ T cells play an important role in the course and outcome of these viral infections and it is hypothesized that altered or impaired differentiation of virusspecific CD8+ T cells contributes to the development of persistence and/or disease progression. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for functional differentiation of CD8+ T cells is essential for the generation of successful therapies aiming to strengthen the adaptive component of the immune system.

  15. Efficient Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Neurons in Glial Cell-conditioned Medium under Attaching Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Bin TIAN; Zeng-Liang BAI; Hong WANG; Jian-Quan CHEN; Guo-Xiang CHENG

    2005-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells can differentiate into neurons in vitro, which provides hope for the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases through cell transplantation. However, it remains a challenge to efficiently induce ES cells to differentiate into neurons. Here, we show that murine ES cells can efficiently differentiate into neurons when cultured in glial cell- conditioned medium (GCM) under attaching conditions without the formation of embryoid bodies. In comparison with murine embryonic fibroblast-conditioned medium, we found that GCM has a positive effect on limiting the generation of non-neuronal cells, such as astrocytes. In addition, compared with suspension conditions, attaching conditions delay the differentiation process of ES cells.

  16. Cell-extracellular matrix interactions regulate neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Mahendra S

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interactions of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM are critical for the establishment and maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, the ECM is a complex mixture of matrix molecules; little is known about the role of ECM components in human embryonic stem cell (hESC differentiation into neural progenitors and neurons. Results A reproducible protocol was used to generate highly homogenous neural progenitors or a mixed population of neural progenitors and neurons from hESCs. This defined adherent culture system allowed us to examine the effect of ECM molecules on neural differentiation of hESCs. hESC-derived differentiating embryoid bodies were plated on Poly-D-Lysine (PDL, PDL/fibronectin, PDL/laminin, type I collagen and Matrigel, and cultured in neural differentiation medium. We found that the five substrates instructed neural progenitors followed by neuronal differentiation to differing degrees. Glia did not appear until 4 weeks later. Neural progenitor and neuronal generation and neurite outgrowth were significantly greater on laminin and laminin-rich Matrigel substrates than on other 3 substrates. Laminin stimulated hESC-derived neural progenitor expansion and neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner. The laminin-induced neural progenitor expansion was partially blocked by the antibody against integrin α6 or β1 subunit. Conclusion We defined laminin as a key ECM molecule to enhance neural progenitor generation, expansion and differentiation into neurons from hESCs. The cell-laminin interactions involve α6β1 integrin receptors implicating a possible role of laminin/α6β1 integrin signaling in directed neural differentiation of hESCs. Since laminin acts in concert with other ECM molecules in vivo, evaluating cellular responses to the composition of the ECM is essential to clarify further the role of cell-matrix interactions in neural derivation of hESCs.

  17. Factors affecting growth, differentiation and apoptosis of osteoblastic and osteosarcoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblasts play a fundamental role in determining bone structure and function. These cells originate from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and through proliferation and differentiation develop into preosteoblasts and then into mature cells. Most of these cells undergo apoptosis before reaching their terminal differentiated stages of either osteocytes or bone lining cells. These processes, i.e. proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, are affected by systemic hormones and...

  18. Differentiation of Cardiomyocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Using Monolayer Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Batalov; Feinberg, Adam W.

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a promising cell source for cardiac tissue engineering and cell-based therapies for heart repair because they can be expanded in vitro and differentiated into most cardiovascular cell types, including cardiomyocytes. During embryonic heart development, this differentiation occurs under the influence of internal and external stimuli that guide cells to go down the cardiac lineage. In order to differentiate PSCs in vitro, these or similar stimuli need to ...

  19. Pluripotency and differentiation of cells from human testicular sperm extraction: An investigation of cell stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Aflatoonian, Reza; Borzouie, Zahra; Akyash, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Soleimani, Mehrdad; Aghajanpour, Samaneh; Moore, Harry D; Aflatoonian, Behrouz

    2016-04-01

    Human male germ-line stem cells (hmGSCs) and human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like (htESC-like) cells are claimed to be in vitro pluripotent counterparts of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), but the origin and pluripotency of human testis-derived cell cultures are still under debate. The aim of this study was to generate putative pluripotent stem cells in vitro from human testicular sperm-extracted (TESE) samples of infertile men, and to assess their pluripotency and capacity to differentiate. TESE samples were minced, enzymatically disaggregated and dispersed into single-cell or cluster suspensions, and then cultured. Initially, cell clusters resembled those described for hmGSCs and htESC-like cells, and were positive for markers such as OCT4/POU5F1, NANOG, and TRA-2-54. Prolonged propagation of cell clusters expressing pluripotency markers did not thrive; instead, the cells that emerged possessed characteristics of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) such as STRO-1, CD105/EGLN1, CD13/ANPEP, SOX9, vimentin, and fibronectin. KIT, SOX2, and CD44 were not expressed by these MSCs. The multipotential differentiation capacity of these cells was confirmed using Oil Red-O and Alizarin Red staining after induction with specific culture conditions. It is therefore concluded that pluripotent stem cells could not be derived using the conditions previously reported to be successful for TESE samples. PMID:27077675

  20. Differentiation of human ESCs to retinal ganglion cells using a CRISPR engineered reporter cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluch, Valentin M; Davis, Chung-ha O; Ranganathan, Vinod; Kerr, Justin M; Krick, Kellin; Martin, Russ; Berlinicke, Cynthia A; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas; Diamond, Jeffrey S; Mao, Hai-Quan; Zack, Donald J

    2015-11-13

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) injury and cell death from glaucoma and other forms of optic nerve disease is a major cause of irreversible vision loss and blindness. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived RGCs could provide a source of cells for the development of novel therapeutic molecules as well as for potential cell-based therapies. In addition, such cells could provide insights into human RGC development, gene regulation, and neuronal biology. Here, we report a simple, adherent cell culture protocol for differentiation of hPSCs to RGCs using a CRISPR-engineered RGC fluorescent reporter stem cell line. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting of the differentiated cultures yields a highly purified population of cells that express a range of RGC-enriched markers and exhibit morphological and physiological properties typical of RGCs. Additionally, we demonstrate that aligned nanofiber matrices can be used to guide the axonal outgrowth of hPSC-derived RGCs for in vitro optic nerve-like modeling. Lastly, using this protocol we identified forskolin as a potent promoter of RGC differentiation.

  1. Biomaterials coated by dental pulp cells as substrate for neural stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Jose Miguel; Sancho-Tello, María; Esparza, M Angeles Garcia; Mirabet, Vicente; Bagan, Jose Vicente; Monleón, Manuel; Carda, Carmen

    2011-04-01

    This study is focused on the development of an in vitro hybrid system, consisting in a polymeric biomaterial covered by a dental pulp cellular stroma that acts as a scaffold offering a neurotrophic support for the subsequent survival and differentiation of neural stem cells. In the first place, the behavior of dental pulp stroma on the polymeric biomaterial based on ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethyl acrylate copolymer was studied. For this purpose, cells from normal human third molars were grown onto 0.5-mm-diameter biomaterial discs. After cell culture, quantification of neurotrophic factors generated by the stromal cells was performed by means of an ELISA assay. In the second place, survival and differentiation of adult murine neural stem cells on the polymeric biomaterials covered by dental pulp stromal cells was studied. The results show the capacity of dental pulp cells to uniformly coat the majority of the material's surface and to secrete neurotrophic factors that become crucial for a subsequent differentiation of neural stem cells. The use of stromal cells cultured on scaffolding biomaterials provides neurotrophic pumps that may suggest new criteria for the design of cell therapy experiments in animal models to assist the repair of lesions in Central Nervous System.

  2. Current Status of Human Adipose–Derived Stem Cells: Differentiation into Hepatocyte-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Al Battah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of human organ donors and the low cell quality of available liver tissues represent major obstacles for the clinical application of orthotropic liver transplantation and hepatocyte transplantation, respectively. Therefore, worldwide research groups are investigating alternative extrahepatic cell sources. Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from various sources, including human bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord, can be differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells when appropriate conditions are used. In particular, interest exists for human adipose–derived stems cells (hASCs as an attractive cell source for generating hepatocyte-like cells. The hASCs are multipotent MSCs that reside in adipose tissue, with the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Moreover, these cells can secrete multiple growth factors and cytokines that exert beneficial effects on organ or tissue injury. In this review, we will not only present recent data regarding hASC biology, their isolation, and differentiation capability towards hepatocytes, but also the potential application of hASC-derived hepatocytes to study drug toxicity. Additionally, this review will discuss the therapeutic potential of hASCs as undifferentiated cells in liver regeneration.

  3. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  4. Edges of human embryonic stem cell colonies display distinct mechanical properties and differentiation potential

    OpenAIRE

    Rosowski, Kathryn A.; Mertz, Aaron F.; Samuel Norcross; Dufresne, Eric R.; Valerie Horsley

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that guide cell fate decisions during early human development, we closely examined the differentiation process in adherent colonies of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Live imaging of the differentiation process reveals that cells on the outer edge of the undifferentiated colony begin to differentiate first and remain on the perimeter of the colony to eventually form a band of differentiation. Strikingly, this band is of constant width in all colonies,...

  5. A single-cell resolution map of mouse hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestorowa, Sonia; Hamey, Fiona K; Pijuan Sala, Blanca; Diamanti, Evangelia; Shepherd, Mairi; Laurenti, Elisa; Wilson, Nicola K; Kent, David G; Göttgens, Berthold

    2016-08-25

    Maintenance of the blood system requires balanced cell fate decisions by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Because cell fate choices are executed at the individual cell level, new single-cell profiling technologies offer exciting possibilities for mapping the dynamic molecular changes underlying HSPC differentiation. Here, we have used single-cell RNA sequencing to profile more than 1600 single HSPCs, and deep sequencing has enabled detection of an average of 6558 protein-coding genes per cell. Index sorting, in combination with broad sorting gates, allowed us to retrospectively assign cells to 12 commonly sorted HSPC phenotypes while also capturing intermediate cells typically excluded by conventional gating. We further show that independently generated single-cell data sets can be projected onto the single-cell resolution expression map to directly compare data from multiple groups and to build and refine new hypotheses. Reconstruction of differentiation trajectories reveals dynamic expression changes associated with early lymphoid, erythroid, and granulocyte-macrophage differentiation. The latter two trajectories were characterized by common upregulation of cell cycle and oxidative phosphorylation transcriptional programs. By using external spike-in controls, we estimate absolute messenger RNA (mRNA) levels per cell, showing for the first time that despite a general reduction in total mRNA, a subset of genes shows higher expression levels in immature stem cells consistent with active maintenance of the stem-cell state. Finally, we report the development of an intuitive Web interface as a new community resource to permit visualization of gene expression in HSPCs at single-cell resolution for any gene of choice. PMID:27365425

  6. Reconstitution of mammary epithelial morphogenesis by murine embryonic stem cells undergoing hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammary stem cells are maintained within specific microenvironments and recruited throughout lifetime to reconstitute de novo the mammary gland. Mammary stem cells have been isolated through the identification of specific cell surface markers and in vivo transplantation into cleared mammary fat pads. Accumulating evidence showed that during the reformation of mammary stem cell niches by dispersed epithelial cells in the context of the intact epithelium-free mammary stroma, non-mammary epithelial cells may be sequestered and reprogrammed to perform mammary epithelial cell functions and to adopt mammary epithelial characteristics during reconstruction of mammary epithelium in regenerating mammary tissue in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine whether other types of progenitor cells are able to contribute to mammary branching morphogenesis, we examined the potential of murine embryonic stem (mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to support mammary reconstitution in vivo. We observed that cells from day 14 embryoid bodies (EBs under hematopoietic differentiation condition, but not supernatants derived from these cells, when transplanted into denuded mammary fat pads, were able to contribute to both the luminal and myoepithelial lineages in branching ductal structures resembling the ductal-alveolar architecture of the mammary tree. No teratomas were observed when these cells were transplanted in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data provide evidence for the dominance of the tissue-specific mammary stem cell niche and its role in directing mES cells, undergoing hematopoietic differentiation, to reprogram into mammary epithelial cells and to promote mammary epithelial morphogenesis. These studies should also provide insights into regeneration of damaged mammary gland and the role of the mammary microenvironment in reprogramming cell fate.

  7. Differentiation of rat embryonic neural stem cells promoted by co-cultured Schwann cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万虹; 安沂华; 张泽舜; 张亚卓; 王忠诚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore the factors which induce differentiation of embryonic neural stem cells. Methods Rat embryonic neural stem cells were co-cultured with newborn rat Schwann cells in serum-free medium. The phenotype and specific-markers including tubulin-β, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactorcerebroside (GalC), were domonstrated by phase contrast microscopy and double immunofluorescence staining. Results Overall, 80%±5% of neural stem cells protruded several elongated processes and expressed tubulin-β antigen at high levels, while 20±3% of them protruded several short processes and were GalC or GFAP positive. Conclusion The factors secreted by Schwann cells could induce rat embryonic neural stem cell to differentiate.

  8. Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing Reveals a Continuous Spectrum of Differentiation in Hematopoietic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain C. Macaulay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transcriptional programs that govern hematopoiesis have been investigated primarily by population-level analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which cannot reveal the continuous nature of the differentiation process. Here we applied single-cell RNA-sequencing to a population of hematopoietic cells in zebrafish as they undergo thrombocyte lineage commitment. By reconstructing their developmental chronology computationally, we were able to place each cell along a continuum from stem cell to mature cell, refining the traditional lineage tree. The progression of cells along this continuum is characterized by a highly coordinated transcriptional program, displaying simultaneous suppression of genes involved in cell proliferation and ribosomal biogenesis as the expression of lineage specific genes increases. Within this program, there is substantial heterogeneity in the expression of the key lineage regulators. Overall, the total number of genes expressed, as well as the total mRNA content of the cell, decreases as the cells undergo lineage commitment.

  9. Differentiation of Bone Marrow: Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghrbawy, Nesrien M; Afify, Reham Abdel Aleem Mohamed; Dyaa, Nehal; El Sayed, Asmaa A

    2016-09-01

    Cirrhosis is the end-stage liver fibrosis, whereby normal liver architecture is disrupted by fibrotic bands, parenchymal nodules and vascular distortion. Portal hypertension and hepatocyte dysfunction are the end results and give rise to major systemic complications and premature death. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have the capacity of self-renew and to give rise to cells of various lineages, so MSC can be isolated from bone marrow (BM) and induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells. MSC were induced to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells by hepatotic growth factor (HGF) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4). Differentiated cells were examined for the expression of hepatocyte-specific markers and hepatocyte functions. MSC were isolated. Flow cytometry analysis showed that they expressed the MSC-specific markers, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that MSC expressed the hepatocyte-specific marker cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) following hepatocyte induction. This study demonstrates that BM-derived-MSC can differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells following the induction of HGF and FGF-4. MSC can serve as a favorable cell source for tissue engineering in the treatment of liver disease. PMID:27429519

  10. MicroRNA-196b promotes cell proliferation and suppress cell differentiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Donglin, E-mail: caodlgz@sina.com; Hu, Liangshan; Lei, Da; Fang, Xiaolin; Zhang, Zhihong; Wang, Ting; Lin, Maorui; Huang, Jiwei; Yang, Huawen; Zhou, Xuan; Zhong, Limei

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • miRNA-196b increases proliferation and blocks differentiation of progenitor cell. • miRNA-196b inhibits apoptosis and increases viability of cells lines. • Forced expression of miR-196b blocks the differentiation of THP1 induced by PMA. - Abstract: MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) is frequently amplified and aberrantly overexpressed in acute leukemias. To investigate the role of miR-196b in acute leukemias, it has been observed that forced expression of this miRNA increases proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human cell lines. More importantly, we show that this miRNA can significantly increase the colony-forming capacity of mouse normal bone marrow progenitor cells alone, as well as partially blocking the cells from differentiation. Taken together, our studies suggest that miRNA-196b may play an essential role in the development of MLL-associated leukemias through inhibiting cell differentiation and apoptosis, while promoting cell proliferation.

  11. Atoh7 promotes the differentiation of retinal stem cells derived from Müller cells into retinal ganglion cells by inhibiting Notch signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wei-tao; Zhang, Xue-yong; Xia, Xiao-Bo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Retinal Müller cells exhibit the characteristics of retinal progenitor cells, and differentiate into ganglion cells under certain conditions. However, the number of ganglion cells differentiated from retinal Müller cells falls far short of therapeutic needs. This study aimed to develop a novel protocol to promote the differentiation of retinal Müller cells into ganglion cells and explore the underlying signaling mechanisms. Methods Müller cells were isolated and purified from rat...

  12. 3D surface topology guides stem cell adhesion and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Priyalakshmi; Ondeck, Matthew G; Chirasatitsin, Somyot; Ngamkham, Kamolchanok; Reilly, Gwendolen C; Engler, Adam J; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Polymerized high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE) foams are extremely versatile materials for investigating cell-substrate interactions in vitro. Foam morphologies can be controlled by polymerization conditions to result in either open or closed pore structures with different levels of connectivity, consequently enabling the comparison between 2D and 3D matrices using the same substrate with identical surface chemistry conditions. Additionally, here we achieve the control of pore surface topology (i.e. how different ligands are clustered together) using amphiphilic block copolymers as emulsion stabilizers. We demonstrate that adhesion of human mesenchymal progenitor (hES-MP) cells cultured on polyHIPE foams is dependent on foam surface topology and chemistry but is independent of porosity and interconnectivity. We also demonstrate that the interconnectivity, architecture and surface topology of the foams has an effect on the osteogenic differentiation potential of hES-MP cells. Together these data demonstrate that the adhesive heterogeneity of a 3D scaffold could regulate not only mesenchymal stem cell attachment but also cell behavior in the absence of soluble growth factors.

  13. Targeting pancreatic progenitor cells in human embryonic stem cell differentiation for the identification of novel cell surface markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Bettina; Segev, Hanna; Kopper, Oded; Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Schulman, Margarita; Benvenisty, Nissim; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Kitsberg, Danny

    2012-09-01

    New sources of beta cells are needed in order to develop cell therapies for patients with diabetes. An alternative to forced expansion of post-mitotic beta cells is the induction of differentiation of stem-cell derived progenitor cells that have a natural self-expansion capacity into insulin-producing cells. In order to learn more about these progenitor cells at different stages along the differentiation process in which they become progressively more committed to the final beta cell fate, we took the approach of identifying, isolating and characterizing stage specific progenitor cells. We generated human embryonic stem cell (HESC) clones harboring BAC GFP reporter constructs of SOX17, a definitive endoderm marker, and PDX1, a pancreatic marker, and identified subpopulations of GFP expressing cells. Using this approach, we isolated a highly enriched population of pancreatic progenitor cells from hESCs and examined their gene expression with an emphasis on the expression of stage-specific cell surface markers. We were able to identify novel molecules that are involved in the pancreatic differentiation process, as well as stage-specific cell markers that may serve to define (alone or in combination with other markers) a specific pancreatic progenitor cell. These findings may help in optimizing conditions for ultimately generating and isolating beta cells for transplantation therapy.

  14. Differentiation of Human Breast-Milk Stem Cells to Neural Stem Cells and Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Human breast milk contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have the potential to provide a noninvasive source of cells for cell therapy in many neurodegenerative diseases without any ethical concern. The objectives of this study were to differentiate the breast milk-derived stem cells (BMDSC toward neural stem cells and then into the neurons and neuroglia. Materials and Methods. To do this, the BMDSC were isolated from human breast milk and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium/F12 (DMEM/F12 containing fibroblast growth factor (bFGF. The cells were then characterized by evaluation of the embryonic and stem cell markers. Then, the cells were exposed to culture medium containing 1% B27 and 2% N2 for 7–10 days followed by medium supplemented with B27, N2, bFGF 10 µg/mL, and endothelial growth factor (EGF 20 µg/mL. Then, the sphere-forming assay was performed. The spheres were then differentiated into three neural lineages by withdrawing growth factor in the presence of 5% FBS (fetal bovine serum. The immunofluorescence was done for β-tubulin III, O4, and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein. Results. The results indicated that the cells expressed both embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers. They also showed neurospheres formation that was nestin-positive. The cells were also differentiated into all three neural lineages. Conclusion. The BMDSC can behave in the same way with neural stem cells. They were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as neurons.

  15. Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cells with corneal keratocyte phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey A Chan

    Full Text Available Corneal transparency depends on a unique extracellular matrix secreted by stromal keratocytes, mesenchymal cells of neural crest lineage. Derivation of keratocytes from human embryonic stem (hES cells could elucidate the keratocyte developmental pathway and open a potential for cell-based therapy for corneal blindness. This study seeks to identify conditions inducing differentiation of pluripotent hES cells to the keratocyte lineage. Neural differentiation of hES cell line WA01(H1 was induced by co-culture with mouse PA6 fibroblasts. After 6 days of co-culture, hES cells expressing cell-surface NGFR protein (CD271, p75NTR were isolated by immunoaffinity adsorption, and cultured as a monolayer for one week. Keratocyte phenotype was induced by substratum-independent pellet culture in serum-free medium containing ascorbate. Gene expression, examined by quantitative RT-PCR, found hES cells co-cultured with PA6 cells for 6 days to upregulate expression of neural crest genes including NGFR, SNAI1, NTRK3, SOX9, and MSX1. Isolated NGFR-expressing cells were free of PA6 feeder cells. After expansion as a monolayer, mRNAs typifying adult stromal stem cells were detected, including BMI1, KIT, NES, NOTCH1, and SIX2. When these cells were cultured as substratum-free pellets keratocyte markers AQP1, B3GNT7, PTDGS, and ALDH3A1 were upregulated. mRNA for keratocan (KERA, a cornea-specific proteoglycan, was upregulated more than 10,000 fold. Culture medium from pellets contained high molecular weight keratocan modified with keratan sulfate, a unique molecular component of corneal stroma. These results show hES cells can be induced to differentiate into keratocytes in vitro. Pluripotent stem cells, therefore, may provide a renewable source of material for development of treatment of corneal stromal opacities.

  16. Natural killer cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells: a comparative analysis of heparin- and stromal cell-supported methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dezell, S.A.; Ahn, Y.O.; Spanholtz, J.; Wang, H.; Weeres, M.; Jackson, S.; Cooley, S.; Dolstra, H.; Miller, J.S.; Verneris, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells differentiated from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) may have significant clinical benefits over NK cells from adult donors, including the ability to choose alloreactive donors and potentially more robust in vivo expansion. Stromal-based methods have been used to study the d

  17. Complex Systems Analysis of Arrested Neural Cell Differentiation during Development and Analogous Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Baianu, Professor I.C.; Prisecaru, M.S. V

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the modular, complex systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics of arrested neural cell Differentiation--induced cell proliferation during organismic development and the analogous cell cycling network transformations involved in carcinogenesis is proposed. Neural tissue arrested differentiation that induces cell proliferation during perturbed development and Carcinogenesis are complex processes that involve dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane...

  18. Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma: prognostic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F. Dall'Oglio

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a tumor with aggressive behavior that is poorly responsive to immunotherapy. The objective of this study is to report our experience in the treatment of 15 patients with this tumor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive cases of renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation diagnosed between 1991 and 2003. The clinical presentation and the pathological stage were assessed, as were the tumor's pathological features, use of adjuvant immunotherapy and survival. The study's primary end-point was to assess survival of these individuals. RESULTS: The sample included 8 women and 7 men with mean age of 63 years (44 - 80; follow-up ranged from 1 to 100 months (mean 34. Upon presentation, 87% were symptomatic and 4 individuals had metastatic disease. Mean tumor size was 9.5 cm (4 - 24 with the following pathological stages: 7% pT1, 7% pT2, 33% pT3, and 53% pT4. The pathological features showed high-grade tumors with tumoral necrosis in 87% of the lesions and 80% of intratumoral microvascular invasion. Disease-free and cancer-specific survival rates were 40 and 46% respectively, with 2 cases responding to adjuvant immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sarcomatoid tumors of the kidney have a low life expectancy, and sometimes surgical resection associated with immunotherapy can lead to a long-lasting therapeutic response.

  19. TRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hillje, Anna-Lena; Pavlou, Maria Angeliki; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Worlitzer, Maik; Bahnassawy, Lamiaa; Lewejohann, Lars; Palm, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells in the subventricular zone continuously generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb. Cell fate commitment in these adult neural stem cells is regulated by cell fate-determining proteins. Here, we show that the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 is upregulated during differentiation of adult neural stem cells into olfactory bulb neurons. We further demonstrate that TRIM32 is necessary for the correct induction of neuronal differentiation in these cells...

  20. Memory T cell–driven differentiation of naive cells impairs adoptive immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Scott, Christopher D.; Leonardi, Anthony J.; Yamamoto, Tori N.; Cruz, Anthony C.; Ouyang, Claudia; Ramaswamy, Madhu; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Ji, Yun; Eil, Robert L.; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Crompton, Joseph G.; Palmer, Douglas C.; Borman, Zachary A.; Clever, David; Thomas, Stacy K.; Patel, Shashankkumar; Yu, Zhiya; Muranski, Pawel; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Gros, Alena; Gattinoni, Luca; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Siegel, Richard M.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of purified naive, stem cell memory, and central memory T cell subsets results in superior persistence and antitumor immunity compared with ACT of populations containing more-differentiated effector memory and effector T cells. Despite a clear advantage of the less-differentiated populations, the majority of ACT trials utilize unfractionated T cell subsets. Here, we have challenged the notion that the mere presence of less-differentiated T cells in starting populations used to generate therapeutic T cells is sufficient to convey their desirable attributes. Using both mouse and human cells, we identified a T cell–T cell interaction whereby antigen-experienced subsets directly promote the phenotypic, functional, and metabolic differentiation of naive T cells. This process led to the loss of less-differentiated T cell subsets and resulted in impaired cellular persistence and tumor regression in mouse models following ACT. The T memory–induced conversion of naive T cells was mediated by a nonapoptotic Fas signal, resulting in Akt-driven cellular differentiation. Thus, induction of Fas signaling enhanced T cell differentiation and impaired antitumor immunity, while Fas signaling blockade preserved the antitumor efficacy of naive cells within mixed populations. These findings reveal that T cell subsets can synchronize their differentiation state in a process similar to quorum sensing in unicellular organisms and suggest that disruption of this quorum-like behavior among T cells has potential to enhance T cell–based immunotherapies. PMID:26657860

  1. Bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced human dental pulp cell differentiation involves p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated canonical WNT pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Yang; Ling Ye; Tian-Qian Hui; Dong-Mei Yang; Ding-Ming Huang; Xue-Dong Zhou; Jeremy J Mao; Cheng-Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Both bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and the wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT)/b-catenin signalling pathway play important roles in odontoblast differentiation and dentinogenesis. Cross-talk between BMP2 and WNT/b-catenin in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation has been identified. However, the roles and mechanisms of the canonical WNT pathway in the regulation of BMP2 in dental pulp injury and repair remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BMP2 promotes the differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) by activating WNT/b-catenin signalling, which is further mediated by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in vitro. BMP2 stimulation upregulated the expression of b-catenin in HDPCs, which was abolished by SB203580 but not by Noggin or LDN193189. Furthermore, BMP2 enhanced cell differentiation, which was not fully inhibited by Noggin or LDN193189. Instead, SB203580 partially blocked BMP2-induced b-catenin expression and cell differentiation. Taken together, these data suggest a possible mechanism by which the elevation of b-catenin resulting from BMP2 stimulation is mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway, which sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of BMP2-mediated pulp reparative dentin formation.

  2. Tissue engineering of blood vessels with endothelial cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN XU; MIN XIONG SHEN; DONG ZHU MA; LI YING WANG; XI LIANG ZHA

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells (TEC3 cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as seed cells to construct blood vessels. Tissue engineered blood vessels were made by seeding 8 × l06 smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from rabbit arteries onto a sheet of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers, which was used as a biodegradable polymer scaffold. After being cultured in DMEM medium for 7 days in vitro, SMCs grew well on the PGA fibers, and the cell-PGA sheet was then wrapped around a silicon tube, and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 6~8 weeks, the silicon tube was replaced with another silicon tube in smaller diameter, and then the TEC3 cells (endothelial cells differentiated from mouse ES cells) were injected inside the engineered vessel tube as the test group. In the control group only culture medium was injected. Five days later, the engineered vessels were harvested for gross observation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The preliminary results demonstrated that the SMC-PGA construct could form a tubular structure in 6~8 weeks and PGA fibers were completely degraded. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the newly formed tissue revealed a typical blood vessel structure, including a lining of endothelial cells (ECs) on the lumimal surface and the presence of SMC and collagen in the wall. No EC lining was found in the tubes of control group. Therefore, the ECs differentiated from mouse ES cells can serve as seed cells for endothelium lining in tissue engineered blood vessels.

  3. Simulation of proliferation and differentiation of cells in a stem-cell niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2008-10-01

    Stem-cell niches represent microscopic compartments formed of environmental cells that nurture stem cells and enable them to maintain tissue homeostasis. The spatio-temporal kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of cells in such niches depend on the specifics of the niche structure and on adhesion and communication between cells and may also be influenced by spatial constraints on cell division. We propose a generic lattice model, taking all these factors into account, and systematically illustrate their role. The model is motivated by the experimental data available for the niches located in the subventricular zone of adult mammalian brain. The general conclusions drawn from our Monte Carlo simulations are applicable to other niches as well. One of our main findings is that the kinetics under consideration are highly stochastic due to a relatively small number of cells proliferating and differentiating in a niche and the autocatalytic character of the symmetric cell division. In particular, the kinetics exhibit huge stochastic bursts especially if the adhesion between cells is taken into account. In addition, the results obtained show that despite the small number of cells present in stem-cell niches, their arrangement can be predetermined to appreciable extent provided that the adhesion of different cells is different so that they tend to segregate.

  4. Differentiation of dermis-derived multipotent cells into insulin-producing pancreatic cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Meng Shi; Tian-Min Cheng

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the plasticity of whether dermis-derived multipotent cells to differentiate into insulin-producing pancreatic cells in vitro.METHODS: A donal population of dermis-derived multipotent stem cells (DMCs) from newborn rat with the capacity to produce osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neurons was used. The gene expression of cultured DMCs was assessed by DNA microarray using rat RGU34A gene expression probe arrays. DMCs were further cultured in the presence of insulin complex components (Insulintransferrin-selenium, ITS) to observe whether DMCs could be induced into insulin-producing pancreatic cells in vitro.RESULTS: DNA microarray analysis showed that cultured DMCs simultaneously expressed several genes associated with pancreatic cell, neural cell, epithelial cell and hepatocyte,widening its transcriptomic repertoire. When cultured in the specific induction medium containing ITS for pancreatic cells, DMCs differentiated into epithelioid cells that were positive for insulin detected by immunohistochemistry.CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that dermal multipotent cells may serve as a source of stem/progenitor cells for insulin-producing pancreatic cells.

  5. Comparison Between Transepicardial Cell Transplantations: Autologous Undifferentiated Versus Differentiated Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been heralded as a source of great promise for the regeneration of the infarcted heart. There are no clear data as to whether or not in vitro differentiation of MSCs into major myocardial cells can increase the beneficial effects of MSCs. The aim of this study was to address this issue.Methods: To induce MSCs to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells, 5-Azacytidine and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were used, respectively. Myocardial infarction in rabbits was generated by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery. The animals were divided into three experimental groups: I control group, II undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation group, and III differentiated mesenchymal stem cell transplantation group. The three groups received peri-infarct injections of culture media, autologous undifferentiated MSCs, and autologous differentiated MSCs, respectively. Echocardiography and pathology were performed in order to search for improvement in the cardiac function and reduction in the infarct size. Results: Improvements in the left ventricular function and reductions in the infarcted area were observed in both cell transplanted groups (Groups II and III to the same degree. Conclusions: There is no need for prior differentiation induction of marrow-derived MSCs before transplantation, and peri-infarct implantation of MSCs can effectively reduce the size of the infarct and improve the cardiac function.

  6. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  7. Differentiation of murine embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells to renal lineage in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morizane, Ryuji [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Monkawa, Toshiaki, E-mail: monkawa@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-12-25

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells which have the unlimited proliferative capacity and extensive differentiation potency can be an attractive source for kidney regeneration therapies. Recent breakthroughs in the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have provided with another potential source for the artificially-generated kidney. The purpose of this study is to know how to differentiate mouse ES and iPS cells into renal lineage. We used iPS cells from mouse fibroblasts by transfection of four transcription factors, namely Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc and Klf4. Real-time PCR showed that renal lineage markers were expressed in both ES and iPS cells after the induction of differentiation. It also showed that a tubular specific marker, KSP progressively increased to day 18, although the differentiation of iPS cells was slower than ES cells. The results indicated that renal lineage cells can be differentiated from both murine ES and iPS cells. Several inducing factors were tested whether they influenced on cell differentiation. In ES cells, both of GDNF and BMP7 enhanced the differentiation to metanephric mesenchyme, and Activin enhanced the differentiation of ES cells to tubular cells. Activin also enhanced the differentiation of iPS cells to tubular cells, although the enhancement was lower than in ES cells. ES and iPS cells have a potential to differentiate to renal lineage cells, and they will be an attractive resource of kidney regeneration therapy. This differentiation is enhanced by Activin in both ES and iPS cells.

  8. miR-21 promotes the differentiation of hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxin Ni; Kaizhi Zhang; Xuejuan Liu; Tingting Yang; Baixiang Wang; Li Fu; Lan A; Yanmin Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Hair follicle-derived neural crest stem cells can be induced to differentiate into Schwann cells in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism during cell differentiation remains poorly understood. This study isolated neural crest stem cells from human hair folli-cles and induced them to differentiate into Schwann cells. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that microRNA (miR)-21 expression was gradually increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells. After transfection with the miR-21 agonist (agomir-21), the differentiation capacity of neural crest stem cells was enhanced. By contrast, after transfection with the miR-21 antagonist (antagomir-21), the differentiation capacity was attenuated. Further study results showed that SOX-2 was an effective target of miR-21. Without compromising SOX2 mRNA expression, miR-21 can down-regulate SOX protein expression by binding to the 3′-UTR of miR-21 mRNA. Knocking out the SOX2 gene from the neural crest stem cells significantly reversed the antagomir-21 inhibition of neural crest stem cells differentiating into Schwann cells. The results suggest that miR-21 expression was increased during the differentiation of neural crest stem cells into Schwann cells and miR-21 promoted the differentiation through down-regu-lating SOX protein expression by binding to the 3′-UTR of SOX2 mRNA.

  9. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Huang, Xiaohua [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Clinical Biochemistry, College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); An, Yue [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116023 (China); Ren, Feng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hongmei; Zhou, Lei [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); He, Xiaowen; Schachner, Melitta [Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience and Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Xiao, Zhicheng, E-mail: zhicheng.xiao@monash.edu [The Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650228 (China); Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Ma, Keli, E-mail: makeli666@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Li, Yali, E-mail: yalilipaper@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119078 (Singapore)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression.

  10. Cell recognition molecule L1 promotes embryonic stem cell differentiation through the regulation of cell surface glycosylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference analysis showed that L1 enhanced differentiation of ESCs into neurons through the upregulation of FUT9 and ST3Gal4. Furthermore, blocking the phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) signaling pathway with either a specific PLCγ inhibitor or knockdown PLCγ reduced the expression levels of both FUT9 and ST3Gal4 mRNAs and inhibited L1-mediated neuronal differentiation. These results demonstrate that L1 promotes neuronal differentiation from ESCs through the L1-mediated enhancement of FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression

  11. [Bone and Stem Cells. The mechanism of osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal stem cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Yasuhisa; Ozono, Keiichi

    2014-04-01

    Osteoblasts and osteocytes originate from pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells commit to osteogenic lineage and differentiate into mature osteoblasts and osteocytes through osteoprogenitor cells and preosteoblasts in response to multiple stimuli. The osteoblast commitment, differentiation, and functions are governed by several transcription factors. Among these transcription factors, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is a crucial factor in osteoblast differentiation and controls bone formation. Differentiation toward these osteogenic lineage is controlled by a multitude of cytokines including WNTs, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) , transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) , hedgehog, parathyroid hormone (PTH) /parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP) , insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) , fibroblast growth factor (FGF) , and Notch. Although regulation of Runx2 activity is a point of convergence of many of the signal transduction routes, there is also a high degree of cross-talk between these pathways. Thus, the combined action of the signal transduction pathways induced by some cytokines determines the commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells toward the osteogenic lineage. PMID:24681495

  12. Human amnion epithelial cells can be induced to differentiate into functional insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanan Hou; Qin Huang; Tianjin Liu; Lihe Guo

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has demonstrated that long-term insulin independence may be achieved in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1. However, limited availability of islet tissue means that new sources of insulinproducing cells that are responsive to glucose are required. Here, we show that human amnion epithelial cells (HAEC) can be induced to differentiate into functional insulinproducing cells in vitro. After induction of differentiation, HAEC expressed multiple pancreatic --cell genes, including insulin, pancreas duodenum homeobox-1, paired box gene 6,NK2 transcription factor-related locus 2, Islet 1, glucokinase,and glucose transporter-2, and released C-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner in response to other extracellular stimulations. The transplantation of induced HAEC into streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57 mice reversed hyperglycemia, restored body weight, and maintained euglycemia for 30 d. These findings indicated that HAEC may be a new source for cell replacement therapy in type 1 diabetes.

  13. Novel Method To Differentiate Human Embryonic Stem Cells Into Dopaminergic Nerve Cells | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse's Development and Plasticity Section is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize novel methods to differentiate human embryonic stem cells into dopaminergic nerve cells. The invention described here is a novel method of differentiating human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into dopaminergic nerve cells, which is preferable to the currently available dopaminergic differentiation techniques.

  14. HNF-4α determines hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mong-Liang; Chen; Kuan-Der; Lee; Huei-Chun; Huang; Yue-Lin; Tsai; Yi-Chieh; Wu; Tzer-Min; Kuo; Cheng-Po; Hu; Chungming; Chang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the differentiation status and key factors to facilitate hepatic differentiation of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). METHODS: Human MSCs derived from bone marrow were induced into hepatocyte-like cells following a previously published protocol. The differentiation status of the hepatocyte-like cells was compared with various human hepatoma cell lines. Overexpression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α was mediated by adenovirus infection of these hepatocyte-like...

  15. Wnt signaling pathway participates in valproic acid-induced neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Liu, Yuan; Li, Sen; Zai-yun LONG; Wu, Ya-min

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capacity for differentiation into the major cell types of the nervous system, i.e. neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely prescribed drug for seizures and bipolar disorder in clinic. Previously, a number of researches have been shown that VPA has differential effects on growth, proliferation and differentiation in many types of cells. However, whether VPA can induce NSCs from embryonic cerebral cor...

  16. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Lee, John C. [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); Adamo, Martin L., E-mail: adamo@biochem.uthscsa.edu [Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States); The Sam and Ann Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  17. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects

  18. Human monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells subsets that induce anergic and regulatory T cells in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Faivre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a multifactorial pathology with high susceptibility to secondary infections. Innate and adaptive immunity are affected in sepsis, including monocyte deactivation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the effects of alterations in monocytes on the regulation of immune responses during sepsis, we analyzed their differentiation in dendritic cell (DC. Cells from septic patients differentiated overwhelmingly into CD1a-negative DC, a population that was only a minor subset in controls and that is so far poorly characterized. Analysis of T cell responses induced with purified CD1a-negative and CD1a+ DC indicated that (i CD1a-negative DC from both healthy individuals and septic patients fail to induce T cell proliferation, (ii TGFβ and IL-4 were strongly produced in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR with control CD1a-negative DC; reduced levels were produced with patients DC together with a slight induction of IFNγ, (iii compared to controls, CD1a+ DC derived from septic patients induced 3-fold more Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a strong shift in DC populations derived from septic patients' monocytes with expanded cell subsets that induce either T cell anergy or proliferation of T cells with regulatory potential. Lower regulatory cytokines induction on a per cell basis by CD1a-negative dendritic cells from patients points however to a down regulation of immune suppressive abilities in these cells.

  19. WEHI-3 cells inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jing [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Liu, Gexiu [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yan, Guoyao [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); He, Dongmei [Institute of Hematology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Zhou, Ying [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Chen, Shengting, E-mail: shengtingchen@sina.cn [The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2015-06-26

    By investigating the anti-adipogenic effects of WEHI-3 cells – a murine acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line – we sought to improve the efficiency of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Analysis of Oil Red O staining and the expression of adipogenic genes, including PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS and LPL, indicated that WEHI-3 cells significantly inhibited 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocyte cells from differentiating into adipocytes. In vivo, fat vacuoles in mice injected with WEHI-3 cells were also remarkably reduced in the murine bone marrow pimelosis model. Moreover, the key gene in the Rho signaling pathway, ROCKII, and the key gene in the Wnt signaling pathway, β-catenin, were both upregulated compared with the control group. siRNA-mediated knockdown of ROCKII and β-catenin reversed these WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects. Taken together, these data suggest that WEHI-3 cells exert anti-adipogenic effects and that both ROCKII and β-catenin are involved in this process. - Highlights: • WEHI-3, an acute myelomonocytic leukemia cell line, inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte from differentiating into adipocyte. • WEHI-3 cells can arrest 3T3-L1 cells in G0/G1 phase by secreting soluble factors and thus inhibit their proliferation. • WEHI-3 cells reduced bone marrow pimelosis in the murine model. • Both ROCKII and β-catenin were involved in the WEHI-3-mediated anti-adipogenic effects.

  20. In vitro differentiation of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells to endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Bernardini, Chiara; Bertocchi, Martina; Zannoni, Augusta; Bianchi, Francesca; Avallone, Giancarlo; Mangano, Chiara; Sarli, Giuseppe; Calzà, Laura; Bacci, Maria Laura; Forni, Monica

    2015-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that progenitor and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are associated with vascular niches. Cells displaying mesenchymal properties and differentiating to whole components of a functional blood vessel, including endothelial and smooth muscle cells, can be defined as vascular stem cells (VSCs). Recently, we isolated a population of porcine aortic vascular precursor cells (pAVPCs), which have MSC- and pericyte-like properties. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether pAVPCs possess VSC-like properties and assess their differentiation potential toward endothelial and smooth muscle lineages. pAVPCs, maintained in a specific pericyte growth medium, were cultured in high-glucose DMEM + 10% FBS (long-term medium, LTM) or in human endothelial serum-free medium + 5% FBS and 50 ng/ml of hVEGF (endothelial differentiation medium, EDM). After 21 days of culture in LTM, pAVPCs showed an elongated fibroblast-like morphology, and they seem to organize in cord-like structures. qPCR analysis of smooth muscle markers [α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin, and smooth muscle myosin (SMM) heavy chain] showed a significant increment of the transcripts, and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of α-SMA and SMM proteins. After 21 days of culture in EDM, pAVPCs displayed an endothelial cell-like morphology and revealed the upregulation of the expression of endothelial markers (CD31, vascular endothelial-cadherin, von Willebrand factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase) showing the CD31-typical pattern. In conclusion, pAVPCs could be defined as a VSC-like population considering that, if they are maintained in a specific pericyte medium, they express MSC markers, and they have, in addition to the classical mesenchymal trilineage differentiation potential, the capacity to differentiate in vitro toward the smooth muscle and the endothelial cell phenotypes. PMID:26135800

  1. Effects of olfactory ensheathing cells on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Xie; Zhouping Tang; Feng Xu; Na Liu; Zaiwang Li; Suiqiang Zhu; Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells can promote oriented differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells by cell-secreted neural factors.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of olfactory ensheathing cells on the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells.DESIGN, TIME AND SETrlNG: Cytology was performed at the Department of Neurology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, from September 2007 to October 2008.MATERIALS: Mouse anti-nestin polyclonal antibody (Chemicon, USA), mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IgG1, mouse anti-2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) IgG1, mouse anti-Tubulin Class-Ill IgG1 (Neo Markers, USA), Avidin-labeled Cy3 (KPL, USA), and goat anti-mouse IgG1: fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) (Serotec, UK) were used in this study.METHODS: Tissues were isolated from the embryonic olfactory bulb and subependymal region of Wistar rats. Serum-free DMEM/F12 culture media was used for co-culture experiments. Neural stem cells were incubated in serum-free or 5% fetal bovine serum-containing DMEM/F12 as controls.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 7 days of co-culture, neural stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells underwent immunofluorescent staining for nestin, tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CNPase.RESULTS: Olfactory ensheathing cells promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells into neuron-like cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The proportion of neuron-like cells was 78.2%, but the proportion of neurons in 5% fetal bovine serum DMEM/F12 was 48.3%. In the serum-free DMEM/F12, neural stem cells contracted, unevenly adhered to the glassware wall, or underwent apoptosis at 7 days.CONCLUSION: Olfactory ensheathing cells promote differentiation of neural stem cells mainly into neuron-like cells, and accelerate proliferation of neural stem cells. The outcome is better compared with serum-free medium or medium containing 5% fetal bovine

  2. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  3. Improvement of In Vitro Osteogenic Potential through Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Dental Tissue towards Mesenchymal-Like Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Andre Ishiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constraints for the application of MSCs for bone reconstruction include restricted self-renewal and limited cell amounts. iPSC technology presents advantages over MSCs, providing homogeneous cellular populations with prolonged self-renewal and higher plasticity. However, it is unknown if the osteogenic potential of iPSCs differs from that of MSCs and if it depends on the iPSCs originating cellular source. Here, we compared the in vitro osteogenesis between stem cells from human deciduous teeth (SHED and MSC-like cells from iPSCs from SHED (iPS-SHED and from human dermal fibroblasts (iPS-FIB. MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED and iPS-FIB displayed fibroblast-like morphology, downregulation of pluripotency markers and upregulation of mesenchymal markers. Comparative in vitro osteogenesis analysis showed higher osteogenic potential in MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED followed by MSC-like cells from iPS-FIB and SHED. CD105 expression, reported to be inversely correlated with osteogenic potential in MSCs, did not display this pattern, considering that SHED presented lower CD105 expression. Higher osteogenic potential of MSC-like cells from iPS-SHED may be due to cellular homogeneity and/or to donor tissue epigenetic memory. Our findings strengthen the rationale for the use of iPSCs in bone bioengineering. Unveiling the molecular basis behind these differences is important for a thorough use of iPSCs in clinical scenarios.

  4. Highly efficient differentiation of human ES cells and iPS cells into mature pancreatic insulin-producing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Zhang; Wei Jiang; Meng Liu; Xin Sui; Xiaolei Yin; Song Chen; Yan Shi; Hongkui Deng

    2009-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells represent a potentially unlimited source of functional pancreatic endocrine lineage cells. Here we report a highly efficient approach to induce human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to differentiate into mature insulin-producing cells in a chemical-defined culture system. The differentiated human ES cells obtained by this approach comprised nearly 25% insulin-positive cells as assayed by flow cytometry analysis, which released insulin/C-peptide in response to glucose stimuli in a manner comparable to that of adult human islets. Most of these insulin-producing cells co-expressed mature β cell-specific markers such as NKX6-1 and PDX1, indicating a similar gene expression pattern to adult islet β cells in vivo. In this study, we also demonstrated that EGF facilitates the expansion of PDX1-positive pancreatic progenitors. Moreover, our protocol also succeeded in efficiently inducing human iPS cells to differentiate into insulin-producing cells. Therefore, this work not only provides a new model to study the mechanism of human pancreatic specialization and maturation in vitro, but also enhances the possibility of utilizing patient-specific iPS cells for the treatment of diabetes.

  5. The Fetal Allograft Revisited: Does the Study of an Ancient Invertebrate Species Shed Light on the Role of Natural Killer Cells at the Maternal-Fetal Interface?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton F. Barrier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Human pregnancy poses a fundamental immunological problem because the placenta and fetus are genetically different from the host mother. Classical transplantation theory has not provided a plausible solution to this problem. Study of naturally occurring allogeneic chimeras in the colonial marine invertebrate, Botryllus schlosseri, has yielded fresh insight into the primitive development of allorecognition, especially regarding the role of natural killer (NK cells. Uterine NK cells have a unique phenotype that appears to parallel aspects of the NK-like cells in the allorecognition system of B. schlosseri. Most notably, both cell types recognize and reject “missing self” and both are involved in the generation of a common vascular system between two individuals. Chimeric combination in B. schlosseri results in vascular fusion between two individual colonies; uterine NK cells appear essential to the establishment of adequate maternal-fetal circulation. Since human uterine NK cells appear to de-emphasize primary immunological function, it is proposed that they may share the same evolutionary roots as the B. schlosseri allorecognition system rather than a primary origin in immunity.

  6. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 regulates differentiation onset and migration of trophoblast stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Hölz, Stefanie; Metzger, Eric; Pavlovic, Mihael; Jandausch, Anett; Jilg, Cordula; Galgoczy, Petra; Herz, Corinna; Moser, Markus; Metzger, Daniel; Günther, Thomas; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Schüle, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Propagation and differentiation of stem cell populations are tightly regulated to provide sufficient cell numbers for tissue formation while maintaining the stem cell pool. Embryonic parts of the mammalian placenta are generated from differentiating trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) invading the maternal decidua. Here we demonstrate that lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) regulates differentiation onset of TSCs. Deletion of Lsd1 in mice results in the reduction of TSC number, diminished formation of trophectoderm tissues and early embryonic lethality. Lsd1-deficient TSCs display features of differentiation initiation, including alterations of cell morphology, and increased migration and invasion. We show that increased TSC motility is mediated by the premature expression of the transcription factor Ovol2 that is directly repressed by Lsd1 in undifferentiated cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that the epigenetic modifier Lsd1 functions as a gatekeeper for the differentiation onset of TSCs, whereby differentiation-associated cell migration is controlled by the transcription factor Ovol2.

  7. Forced expression of the Oct-4 gene influences differentiation of embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By transfecting an Oct-4 expression plasmid into embryonic stem cells (ES cells), the ES-O cell line was constructed, which sustained the expression of Oct-4 gene when induced by retinoic acid. Forced expression of Oct-4 gene could not sustain the stem property of ES-O cells without the differentiation inhibiting factor LIF, but if LIF exists,forced expression of Oct-4 gene could enhance the ability to sustain the undifferentiation state and inhibit cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid. It was indicated that Oct-4 must cooperate with LIF to sustain the undifferentiation state of ES cells. During the cell differentiation, ES-O cells tend to differentiate into neural cells, suggesting that forced expression of Oct-4 gene may be in relation with the differentiation of neuroderm.

  8. WNT signaling regulates self-renewal and differentiation of prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabelle Bisson; David M Prowse

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics were identified in human prostate cancer cell lines by their abil-ity to form from single cells self-renewing prostaspheres in non-adherent cultures. Prostaspheres exhibited heteroge-neous expression of proliferation, differentiation and stem cell-associated makers CD44, ABCG2 and CD133. Treat-ment with WNT inhibitors reduced both prostasphere size and self-renewal, In contrast, addition of Wnt3a caused increased prostasphere size and self-renewal, which was associated with a significant increase in nuclear β-catenin, keratin 18, CD133 and CD44 expression. As a high proportion of LNCaP and C4-2B cancer cells express androgen receptor we determined the effect of the androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide. Androgen receptor inhibition reduced prostasphere size and expression of PSA, but did not inhibit prostasphere formation. These effects are con-sistent with the androgen-independent self-renewal of cells with stem cell characteristics and the androgen-dependent proliferation of transit amplifying cells. As the canonical WNT signaling effector β-catenin can also associate with the androgen receptor, we propose a model for tumour propagation involving a balance between WNT and androgen re-ceptor activity. That would affect the self-renewal of a cancer cell with stem cell characteristics and drive transit am-plifying cell proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that WNT activity regulates the self-renewal of prostate cancer cells with stem cell characteristics independently of androgen receptor activity. Inhibition of WNT signaling therefore has the potential to reduce the self-renewal of prostate cancer cells with stem cell charac-teristics and improve the therapeutic outcome.

  9. Expression Profile of microRNAs Regulating Proliferation and Differentiation in Mouse Adult Cardiac Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brás-Rosário, Luis; Matsuda, Alex; Pinheiro, Ana Isabel; Gardner, Rui; Lopes, Telma; Amaral, Andreia; Gama-Carvalho, Margarida

    2013-01-01

    The identification of cardiac cells with stem cell properties changed the paradigm of the heart as a post mitotic organ. These cells proliferate and differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, providing for cardiac cell homeostasis and regeneration. microRNAs are master switches controlling proliferation and differentiation, in particular regulating stem cell biology and cardiac development. Modulation of microRNAs -regulated gene expression networks holds...

  10. Post-mitotic role of nucleostemin as a promoter of skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Romanova, Liudmila; Kellner, Steven; Verma, Mayank; Rayner, Samuel; Asakura, Atsushi; Kikyo, Nobuaki

    2009-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein abundantly expressed in a variety of proliferating cells and undifferentiated cells. Its known functions include cell cycle regulation and the control of pre-rRNA processing. It also has been proposed that NS has an additional role in undifferentiated cells due to its downregulation during stem cell differentiation and its upregulation during tissue regeneration. Here, however, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle cell differentiation has a unique expre...

  11. Cell Signaling and Differential Protein Expression in Neuronal Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Hypermethylated Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH Pathway Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hung Tzeng

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs modified by targeting DNA hypermethylation of genes in the Salvador/Warts/Hippo pathway were induced to differentiate into neuronal cells in vitro. The differentiated cells secreted a significant level of brain-derived neurotrophy factor (BDNF and the expression of BDNF receptor tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB correlated well with the secretion of BDNF. In the differentiating cells, CREB was active after the binding of growth factors to induce phosphorylation of ERK in the MAPK/ERK pathway. Downstream of phosphorylated CREB led to the functional maturation of differentiated cells and secretion of BDNF, which contributed to the sustained expression of pERK and pCREB. In summary, both PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways play important roles in the neuronal differentiation of MSCs. The main function of the PI3K/Akt pathway is to maintain cell survival during neural differentiation; whereas the role of the MAPK/ERK pathway is probably to promote the maturation of differentiated MSCs. Further, cellular levels of protein kinase C epsilon type (PKC-ε and kinesin heavy chain (KIF5B increased with time of induction, whereas the level of NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1 (Nm23-H1 decreased during the time course of differentiation. The correlation between PKC-ε and TrkB suggested that there is cross-talk between PKC-ε and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  12. Efficient differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into functional cerebellar-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erceg, Slaven; Ronaghi, Mohammad; Zipancic, Ivan; Lainez, Sergio; Roselló, Mireia Gárcia; Xiong, Chen; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Fernando Javier; Planells, Rosa; Alvarez-Dolado, Manuel; Bhattacharya, Shom Shanker; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2010-11-01

    The cerebellum has critical roles in motor and sensory learning and motor coordination. Many cerebellum-related disorders indicate cell therapy as a possible treatment of neural loss. Here we show that application of inductive signals involved in early patterning of the cerebellar region followed by application of different factors directs human embryonic stem cell differentiation into cerebellar-like cells such as granule neurons, Purkinje cells, interneuron, and glial cells. Neurons derived using our protocol showed a T-shaped polarity phenotype and express similar markers to the developed human cerebellum. Electrophysiological measurements confirmed functional electrical properties compatible with these cells. In vivo implantation of differentiated human embryonic stem cells transfected with MATH1-GFP construct into neonatal mice resulted in cell migration across the molecular and the Purkinje cell layers and settlement in the internal molecular layers. Our findings demonstrate that the universal mechanisms involved in the development of cerebellum can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro, which enables the design of new strategies for cell replacement therapy, to study early human development and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20521974

  13. Effect of amyloid peptides on serum withdrawal-induced cell differentiation and cell viability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Peng WANG; Ze Fen WANG; Ying Chun ZHANG; Qing TIAN; Jian Zhi WANG

    2004-01-01

    Abnormal deposition of amyloid-β(Aβ) peptides and formation of neuritic plaques are recognized as pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. By using amyloid precursor protein (APP) transfected cells, this study aims to investigate the effect of overproduction of Aβ on cell differentiation and cell viability. It was shown that after serum withdrawal, untransfected cell (N2a/Wt) and vector transfected cells (N2a/vector) extended long and branched cell processes, whereas no neurites was induced in wild type APP (N2a/APP695) and Swedish mutant APP (N2a/APPswe) transfected N2a cells. After differentiation by serum withdrawal, the localization of APP/Aβ and neurofilament was extended to neurites, whereas those of APP-transfected cells were still restricted within the cell body. Levels of both APP and Aβ were significantly higher in N2a/APP695 and N2a/APPswe than in N2a/Wt, as determined by Western blot and Sandwich ELISA, respectively. To further investigate the effect of Aβ on the inhibition of cell differentiation,we added exogenously the similar level or about 10-times of the Aβ level produced by N2a/APP695 and N2a/APPswe to the culture medium and co-cultured with N2a/Wt for 12 h, and we found that the inhibition of serum withdrawalinduced differentiation observed in N2a/APP695 and N2a/APPswe could not be reproduced by exogenous administration of Aβ into N2a/Wt. We also observed that neither endogenous production nor exogenous addition of Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42, even to hundreds fold of the physiological concentration, affected obviously the cell viability. These results suggest that the overproduction of Aβ could not arrest cell differentiation induced by serum deprivation and that, at least to a certain degree and in a limited time period, is not toxic to cell viability.

  14. Protein expression profile in the differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells into Schwann cell-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade,increasing evidence suggested that bone marrow stromal cells(MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neural lineages.Many studies have reported that MSCs showed morphological changes and expressed a limited number of neural proteins under experimental conditions.However,no proteomic studies on MSCs differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells have been reported.In this study,we isolated MSCs from adult Sprague-Dawley rat femur and tibia bone marrows and induced the cells in vitro under specific conditions.By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE),we compared the protein profiles of MSCs before and after induced differentiation.We obtained 792 protein spots in the protein profile by 2-DE,and found that 74 spots changed significantly before and after the differentiation using PDQuest software,with 43 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated.We analyzed these 74 spots by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS) and by database searching,and found that they could be grouped into various classes,including cytoskeleton and structure proteins,growth factors,metabolic proteins,chaperone proteins,receptor proteins,cell cycle proteins,calcium binding proteins,and other proteins.These proteins also include neural and glial proteins,such as BDNF,CNTF and GFAP.The results may provide valuable proteomic information about the differentiation of MSCs into Schwann cell-like cells.

  15. Protein expression profile in the differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells into Schwann cell-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI WenTing; SUN HuaLin; XU ZengLu; DING Fei; GU XiaoSong

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade, increasing evidence suggested that bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neural lineages. Many studies have reported that MSCs showed morpho-logical changes and expressed a limited number of neural proteins under experimental conditions. However, no proteomic studies on MSCs differentiated into Schwann cell-like cells have been reported. In this study, we isolated MSCs from adult Sprague-Dawley rat femur and tibia bone marrows and in-duced the cells in vitro under specific conditions. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), we compared the protein profiles of MSCs before and after induced differentiation. We obtained 792 protein spots in the protein profile by 2-DE, and found that 74 spots changed significantly before and after the differentiation using PDQuest software, with 43 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated. We ana-lyzed these 74 spots by a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and by database searching, and found that they could be grouped into various classes, including cytoskeleton and structure proteins, growth factors, metabolic proteins, chaperone proteins, receptor proteins, cell cycle proteins, calcium binding proteins, and other proteins. These proteins also include neural and glial proteins, such as BDNF, CNTF and GFAP. The results may provide valuable proteomic information about the differentiation of MSCs into Schwann cell-like cells.

  16. Spontaneous Differentiation of Dental Pulp stem cells on Dental polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bherwani, Aneel; Suarato, Giulia; Qin, Sisi; Chang, Chung-Cheh; Akhavan, Aaron; Spiegel, Joseph; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Simon, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    Dental pulp stem cells were plated on two dentally relevant materials i.e. PMMA commonly used for denture and Titanium used for implants. In both cases, we probed for the role of surface interaction and substrate morphology. Different films of PMMA were spun cast directly onto Si wafers; PMMA fibers of different diameters were electro spun onto some of these substrates. Titanium metal was evaporated onto Si surfaces using an electron beam evaporator. In addition, on some surfaces, P4VP nanofibers were spun cast. DPSC were grown in alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.2mM L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, 2mm glutamine and 10mM beta-glycerol phosphate either with or without 10nM dexamethasone. After 21 days samples were examined using confocal microscopy of cells and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). In the case of Titanium biomineralization was observed independent of dexamethasone, where the deposits were templated along the fibers. Minimal biomineralization was observed on flat Titanium and PMMA samples. Markers of osteogenesis and specific signaling pathways are being evaluated by RT-PCR, which are up regulated on each surface, to understand the fundamental manner in which surfaces interact with cell differentiation.

  17. Thymic Nurse Cells Support CD4-CD8+ Thymocytes to Differentiate into CD4+CD8+ Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aidong Li; Xueli Liu; Baochun Duan; Jie Ma

    2005-01-01

    Thymic nurse cells (TNCs) represent a unique microenvironment in the thymus for T cell maturation. In order to investigate the role of thymic nurse cells during T cell differentiation, a TNC clone, RWTE-1, which formed a typical complex with fetal thymocytes in vitro was established from normal Wistar rat. Hanging drop culture method was applied to reveal the interaction between TNCs and thymocytes. Our result revealed that eighty percent of immature CD4-CD8+ cells differentiated into CD4+CD8+ cells after a 12-hour hanging drop culture with RWTE-1. However, in a 12-hour culture of immature CD4-CD8+ cells with or without RWTE-1 supernatant, only 30% of the cells differentiated into CD4+CD8+ cells spontaneously. This observation led to the conclusion that RWTE-1 cell has the capacity to facilitate immature CD4-CD8+ thymocytes to differentiate into CD4+CD8+ T cells by direct interaction.

  18. Common marmoset embryonic stem cell can differentiate into cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common marmoset monkeys have recently attracted much attention as a primate research model, and are preferred to rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys due to their small bodies, easy handling and efficient breeding. We recently reported the establishment of common marmoset embryonic stem cell (CMESC) lines that could differentiate into three germ layers. Here, we report that our CMESC can also differentiate into cardiomyocytes and investigated their characteristics. After induction, FOG-2 was expressed, followed by GATA4 and Tbx20, then Nkx2.5 and Tbx5. Spontaneous beating could be detected at days 12-15. Immunofluorescent staining and ultrastructural analyses revealed that they possessed characteristics typical of functional cardiomyocytes. They showed sinus node-like action potentials, and the beating rate was augmented by isoproterenol stimulation. The BrdU incorporation assay revealed that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes retained a high proliferative potential for up to 24 weeks. We believe that CMESC-derived cardiomyocytes will advance preclinical studies in cardiovascular regenerative medicine

  19. Cell-Cycle-Dependent Reconfiguration of the DNA Methylome during Terminal Differentiation of Human B Cells into Plasma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gersende Caron

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanisms underlying terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells are major determinants of adaptive immunity but remain only partially understood. Here we present the transcriptional and epigenomic landscapes of cell subsets arising from activation of human naive B cells and differentiation into plasmablasts. Cell proliferation of activated B cells was linked to a slight decrease in DNA methylation levels, but followed by a committal step in which an S phase-synchronized differentiation switch was associated with an extensive DNA demethylation and local acquisition of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine at enhancers and genes related to plasma cell identity. Downregulation of both TGF-β1/SMAD3 signaling and p53 pathway supported this final step, allowing the emergence of a CD23-negative subpopulation in transition from B cells to plasma cells. Remarkably, hydroxymethylation of PRDM1, a gene essential for plasma cell fate, was coupled to progression in S phase, revealing an intricate connection among cell cycle, DNA (hydroxymethylation, and cell fate determination.

  20. Differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into insulin-secreting cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Jing; Jiang Fangxu; Shi Bingyin

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative medicine,including cell-replacement strategies,may have an important role in the treatment of type 1 diabetes which is associated with decreased islet cell mass. To date,significant progress has been made in generating insulin-secreting β cells from pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs).The aim of this study is to explore the potential of regulating the differentiation of ESCs into pancreatic endocrine cells capable of synthesizing the pancreatic hormones including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide under proper conditions.Undifferentiated ES cell line was stably transfected with mouse RIP-YFP plasmid construction in serum-free medium using LipofectamineTM 2000 Reagents. We tested pancreatic specific gene expression and characterized these ESC-derived pancreatic endocrine cells. Most of these insulin-secreting cells co-expressed many of the phenotypic markers characteristic of β cells such as insulinl,insulin2,Islet1,MafA,insulinoma-associated antigen 1 (IA1) and so on,indicating a similar gene expression pattern to adult islet β cells in vivo. Characterization of this population revealed that it consisted predominantly of pancreatic endocrine cells that were able to undergo pancreatic specification under the appropriate conditions. We also demonstrated that zinc supplementation mediated up-regulation of insulin-secreting cells as an effective inducer promoted the development of ESC-derived diabetes therapy. In conclusion,this work not only established an efficient pancreatic differentiation strategy from ESCs to pancreatic endocrine lineage in vitro,but also leaded to the development of new strategies to derive transplantable islet-replacement β cells from embryonic stem cells for the future applications of a stem cell based therapy of diabetes.

  1. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  2. FGF7 and cell density are required for final differentiation of pancreatic amylase-positive cells from human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yoshie, Susumu; Yue, Fengming; Mogi, Akimi; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-01

    The major molecular signals of pancreatic exocrine development are largely unknown. We examine the role of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) in the final induction of pancreatic amylase-containing exocrine cells from induced-pancreatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Our protocol consisted in three steps: Step I, differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) by activin A treatment of hES cell colonies; Step II, differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells by re-plating of the cells of Step I onto 24-well plates at high density and stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid; Step III, differentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells with a combination of FGF7, glucagon-like peptide 1 and nicotinamide. The expression levels of pancreatic endodermal markers such as Foxa2, Sox17 and gut tube endoderm marker HNF1β were up-regulated in both Step I and II. Moreover, in Step III, the induced cells expressed pancreatic markers such as amylase, carboxypeptidase A and chymotrypsinogen B, which were similar to those in normal human pancreas. From day 8 in Step III, cells immunohistochemically positive for amylase and for carboxypeptidase A, a pancreatic exocrine cell product, were induced by FGF7. Pancreatic progenitor Pdx1-positive cells were localized in proximity to the amylase-positive cells. In the absence of FGF7, few amylase-positive cells were identified. Thus, our three-step culture protocol for human ES cells effectively induces the differentiation of amylase- and carboxypeptidase-A-containing pancreatic exocrine cells.

  3. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    of anterior definitive endoderm (DE). Here, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells towards DE using three different activin A based treatments. Differentiation efficiencies were evaluated by gene expression profiling over time at cell population level. A panel of key markers was used to study DE...... for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize......Characterization of directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells towards therapeutically relevant cell types, including pancreatic beta-cells and hepatocytes, depends on molecular markers and assays that resolve the signature of individual cells. Pancreas and liver both have a common origin...

  4. Analysis of Alterations in Morphologic Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Mechanical Stimulation during Differentiation into Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can be expanded and differentiated intomany mature cell types including smooth muscle cells (SMCs. In addition to growth factor,cyclic stretch contributes to differentiation of stem cells. Mechanical stimuli are criticalto morphological changes, development, regeneration, differentiation and pathology ofmesenchymal tissues. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cyclic stretch withdiffering amplitudes on morphology and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.Materials and Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells are extracted from human bone marrow.Cells are cultured on silicone membrane and exposed to cyclic stretch by a custommade device. Cellular images are captured before and after tests. Effects of 5% and 15%uniaxial strain with 1Hz frequency and 1-8 hour durations on morphology of human mesenchymalstem cells are investigated. It is assumed that environmental factors such asmechanical loading regulate MSCs differentiation to SMCs. Fractal analysis is used toquantify alterations in cellular morphology. An image processing method with a designedcode is used for evaluation of fractal dimension parameter.Results: Results demonstrate statistically significant change in cell morphology due tomechanical stretch. By elevation of strain amplitude and number of load cycles, fractaldimensions of cell images decrease. Such decrease is equivalent to alignment of cells bymechanical stimulus. Cells are differentiated to SMCs purely by cyclic stretch. The initiationand rate of differentiation depend on mechanical conditions.Conclusion: To produce functional SMCs for engineered tissues, MSCs can be exposed to uniaxialcyclic stretch. The functionality of differentiated SMCs depends on loading conditions.

  5. DNA methylation-mediated silencing of PU.1 in leukemia cells resistant to cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Nestosa, María José; Monturus, Estefanía; Sánchez, Zunilda; Torres, Francisco S; Fernández, Agustín F; Fraga, Mario F; Hernández, Pablo; Schvartzman, Jorge B; Krimer, Dora B

    2013-01-01

    In mice, the proviral integration of the Friend Spleen Focus Forming Virus (SFFV) within the PU.1 locus of erythroid precursors results in the development of erythroleukemia. SFFV integrates several kilobases upstream of the PU.1 transcription initiation start site leading to the constitutive activation of the gene which in turn results in a block of erythroid differentiation. In this study we have mapped and sequenced the exact location of the retroviral integration site. We have shown that SFFV integrates downstream of a previously described upstream regulatory element (URE), precisely 2,976 bp downstream of the URE-distal element. We have also found that SFFV persists integrated within the same location in resistant cell lines that have lost their differentiation capacity and in which case PU.1 remains silent. We have examined the methylation status of PU.1 and found that in resistant cells the nearby CpG islands remained methylated in contrast to a non-methylated status of the parental cell lines. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine caused resistant cells to differentiate yet only when combined with HMBA. Altogether these results strongly suggest that methylation plays a crucial role with regard to PU.1 silencing. However, although demethylation is required, it is not sufficient to overcome the differentiation impasse. We have also showed that activation blockage of the Epo/Epo-R pathway remains despite of the absence of PU.1.

  6. Further characterization of protective Trypanosoma cruzi-specific CD4+ T-cell clones: T helper type 1-like phenotype and reactivity with shed trypomastigote antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, S P; Keane, M; So, M

    1993-01-01

    We previously reported the isolation from immune mice of a panel of murine clonal T-cell lines which specifically recognize antigens expressed by the trypomastigote stage of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of human Chagas' disease. Our analysis indicated that distinct clones which recognize common as well as strain-specific antigenic determinants were represented. The immunoprotective potential of several of these T-cell clones was demonstrated by adoptive transfer of protection to naive syngeneic recipients. Here we report that these T-cell clones are all of the TH1 phenotype, as determined from their lymphokine secretion patterns. Significant levels of stimulatory activity for each clone were detected in trypomastigote supernatants, and the release of this activity was time and temperature dependent. Seven of 10 T-cell clones tested responded to nitrocellulose-immunoblotted trypomastigote proteins in the range of 90 to 47 kDa; no fewer than six distinct epitopes residing on at least five distinct polypeptide species were recognized by this panel of clones. Two clones (2G8 and 4B10) previously shown to protect in vivo responded to immunoblotted proteins in the range of 65 to 53 and 90 to 80 kD, respectively. Stimulatory activity for the latter clone was shown to be expressed on the surface of trypomastigotes and to bind specifically to wheat germ agglutinin, indicating that its target antigen is an 85-kDa trypomastigote surface glycoprotein. PMID:8335358

  7. Exendin-4 induces cell adhesion and differentiation and counteracts the invasive potential of human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Luciani

    Full Text Available Exendin-4 is a molecule currently used, in its synthetic form exenatide, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exendin-4 binds and activates the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R, thus inducing insulin release. More recently, additional biological properties have been associated to molecules that belong to the GLP-1 family. For instance, Peptide YY and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide have been found to affect cell adhesion and migration and our previous data have shown a considerable actin cytoskeleton rearrangement after exendin-4 treatment. However, no data are currently available on the effects of exendin-4 on tumor cell motility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this molecule on cell adhesion, differentiation and migration in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-AS. We first demonstrated, by Extra Cellular Matrix cell adhesion arrays, that exendin-4 increased cell adhesion, in particular on a vitronectin substrate. Subsequently, we found that this molecule induced a more differentiated phenotype, as assessed by i the evaluation of neurite-like protrusions in 3D cell cultures, ii the analysis of the expression of neuronal markers and iii electrophysiological studies. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exendin-4 reduced cell migration and counteracted anchorage-independent growth in neuroblastoma cells. Overall, these data indicate for the first time that exendin-4 may have anti-tumoral properties.

  8. Understanding Cell Shape Phenotypes Associated with Stem Cell Differentiation Induced by Topographical Cues of Nanofiber Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desu; Sarkar, Sumona; Losert, Wolfgang

    It is increasingly important to understand cell responses to bioinspired material structures and topographies designed to guide cell functional alterations. In this study, we investigated association between early stage cell morphological response and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) induced by poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds (PCL-NF). Accounting for both multi-parametric complexity and biological heterogeneity, we developed an analysis framework based on support vector machines and a multi-cell level averaging method (supercell) to determine the most pronounced cell shape features describing shape phenotypes of cells in PCL-NF compared to cells on flat PCL films. We found that smaller size and more dendritic shape were the major morphological responses of hBMSCs to PCL-NF on day 1 of cell culture. Further, we investigated the shape phenotypes of hBMSCs in PCL-NF of different fiber densities to monitor the transition between 2-D and 3-D topographies. We tracked the genotypic, phenotypic and morphological responses of hBMSCs to different fiber densities at multiple time points to identify correlations between hBMSCs differentiation and early stage morphology in PCL-NF scaffolds.

  9. Aristaless related homeobox gene, Arx, is implicated in mouse fetal Leydig cell differentiation possibly through expressing in the progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Miyabayashi

    Full Text Available Development of the testis begins with the expression of the SRY gene in pre-Sertoli cells. Soon after, testis cords containing Sertoli and germ cells are formed and fetal Leydig cells subsequently develop in the interstitial space. Studies using knockout mice have indicated that multiple genes encoding growth factors and transcription factors are implicated in fetal Leydig cell differentiation. Previously, we demonstrated that the Arx gene is implicated in this process. However, how ARX regulates Leydig cell differentiation remained unknown. In this study, we examined Arx KO testes and revealed that fetal Leydig cell numbers largely decrease throughout the fetal life. Since our study shows that fetal Leydig cells rarely proliferate, this decrease in the KO testes is thought to be due to defects of fetal Leydig progenitor cells. In sexually indifferent fetal gonads of wild type, ARX was expressed in the coelomic epithelial cells and cells underneath the epithelium as well as cells at the gonad-mesonephros border, both of which have been described to contain progenitors of fetal Leydig cells. After testis differentiation, ARX was expressed in a large population of the interstitial cells but not in fetal Leydig cells, raising the possibility that ARX-positive cells contain fetal Leydig progenitor cells. When examining marker gene expression, we observed cells as if they were differentiating into fetal Leydig cells from the progenitor cells. Based on these results, we propose that ARX acts as a positive factor for differentiation of fetal Leydig cells through functioning at the progenitor stage.

  10. Simvastatin enhances Rho/actin/cell rigidity pathway contributing to mesenchymal stem cells' osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, I-Chun; Wang, Yao-Hsien; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Chang, Je-Ken; Ho, Mei-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that statins induce osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism of statin-stimulated osteogenesis is unknown. Activation of RhoA signaling increases cytoskeletal tension, which plays a crucial role in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We thus hypothesized that RhoA signaling is involved in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We found that although treatment with simvastatin shifts localization of RhoA protein from the membrane to the cytosol, the treatment still activates RhoA dose-dependently because it reduces the association with RhoGDIα. Simvastatin also increased the expression of osteogenic proteins, density of actin filament, the number of focal adhesions, and cellular tension. Furthermore, disrupting actin cytoskeleton or decreasing cell rigidity by using chemical agents reduced simvastatin-induced osteogenic differentiation. In vivo study also confirms that density of actin filament is increased in simvastatin-induced ectopic bone formation. Our study is the first to demonstrate that maintaining intact actin cytoskeletons and enhancing cell rigidity are crucial in simvastatin-induced osteogenesis. The results suggested that simvastatin, which is an osteoinductive factor and acts by increasing actin filament organization and cell rigidity combined with osteoconductive biomaterials, may benefit stem-cell-based bone regeneration. PMID:26451103

  11. Valproic Acid Increases the Hepatic Differentiation Potential of Salivary Gland Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakova, O S; Ashapkin, V V; Shtratnikova, V Y; Kutueva, L I; Vorotelyak, E A; Borisov, M A; Terskikh, V V; Gvazava, I G; Vasiliev, A V

    2015-01-01

    The studies of cell plasticity and differentiation abilities are important problems in modern cellular biology. The use of histone deacetylase inhibitor - valproic acid is a promising approach to increasing the differentiation efficiency of various cell types. In this paper we investigate the ability of mouse submandibular salivary gland cells to differentiate into the hepatic direction and the effect of valproic acid on the efficiency of this differentiation. It was shown that the gene expression levels of hepatocyte markers (Aat, Afp, G6p, Pepck, Tat, Cyp3a13) and liver-enriched transcription factors (Hnf-3α, Hnf-3β, Hnf-4α, Hnf-6) were increased after differentiation in salivary gland cells. Valproic acid increases the specificity of hepatic differentiation, reducing the expression levels of the ductal (Krt19, Hhex1, Cyp7a1) and acinar (Ptf1a) markers. After valproic acid exposure, the efficiency of hepatic differentiation also increases, as evidenced by the increase in the gene expression level of Alb and Tdo, and increase in urea production by differentiated cells. No change was found in DNA methylation of the promoter regions of the genes; however, valproic acid treatment and subsequent hepatic differentiation largely affected the histone H3 methylation of liver-enriched genes. Thus, mouse submandibular salivary gland cells are capable of effective differentiation in the hepatic direction. Valproic acid increases the specificity and efficiency of the hepatic differentiation of these cells.

  12. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  13. Effects of histone deacetylation inhibition on neuronal differentiation of embryonic mouse neural stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balasubramaniyan, V.; Boddeke, E.; Bakels, R.; Kust, B.; Kooistra, S.; Veneman, A.; Copray, S.

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capacity for self-renewal and for differentiation into the major cell types of the nervous system, i.e. neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The molecular mechanisms regulating gene transcription resulting in NSC differentiation and c

  14. Post-mitotic role of nucleostemin as a promoter of skeletal muscle cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Hiroyuki; Romanova, Liudmila; Kellner, Steven; Verma, Mayank; Rayner, Samuel [Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Room 2-216, MTRF, 2001 6th St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Asakura, Atsushi, E-mail: asakura@umn.edu [Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Room 2-216, MTRF, 2001 6th St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kikyo, Nobuaki, E-mail: kikyo001@umn.edu [Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Room 2-216, MTRF, 2001 6th St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein abundantly expressed in a variety of proliferating cells and undifferentiated cells. Its known functions include cell cycle regulation and the control of pre-rRNA processing. It also has been proposed that NS has an additional role in undifferentiated cells due to its downregulation during stem cell differentiation and its upregulation during tissue regeneration. Here, however, we demonstrate that skeletal muscle cell differentiation has a unique expression profile of NS in that it is continuously expressed during differentiation. NS was expressed at similar levels in non-proliferating muscle stem cells (satellite cells), rapidly proliferating precursor cells (myoblasts) and post-mitotic terminally differentiated cells (myotubes and myofibers). The sustained expression of NS during terminal differentiation is necessary to support increased protein synthesis during this process. Downregulation of NS inhibited differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, accompanied by striking downregulation of key myogenic transcription factors, such as myogenin and MyoD. In contrast, upregulation of NS inhibited proliferation and promoted muscle differentiation in a p53-dependent manner. Our findings provide evidence that NS has an unexpected role in post-mitotic terminal differentiation. Importantly, these findings also indicate that, contrary to suggestions in the literature, the expression of NS cannot always be used as a reliable indicator for undifferentiated cells or proliferating cells.

  15. Distribution and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in tumor tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-feng; CHEN Jun; XU Zhi-shun; ZHANG Ke-qin

    2009-01-01

    Background Tumor has an ability to become enriched in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and of guiding MSCs to migrate to tumor tissue. But there are lack of relevant reports on the distribution and differentiation of MSCs in tumor tissue and the effect on tumor growth after MSCs engrafted in tumor tissue. In this study, we observed the distribution of bone marrow MSCs in tumor tissue and the possibility of MSCs differentiating into myofibroblast under the induction of local tumor microenvironment.Methods Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits were randomly classified into the control group and the test group. MSCs were isolated and cultured for each animal, vx-2 tumor tissue was transplanted under the bladder mucosa of each animal. One week after the transplantation, the self F2 passage MSCs marked by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole were transplanted into tumor tissue in the test group while only Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium-low glucose was infused into the control group. Ultrasonography was performed for each animal 1,2, 3 and 4 week(s) after the vx-2 tumor mass was transplanted. The maximum bladder tumor diameter of each animal was recorded and the mean value of each group was calculated. One animal from each group was sacrificed in the third week and the remaining animals in the fourth week to observe the tumor development. Another animal treated the same as the test group was sacrificed to observe the distribution of MSCs in tumor tissue one week after self MSCs transplantation. Immunofluorescence was used to trace MSCs in tumor tissue. The double labeling immunofluorescence for α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin was performed to identify whether the MSCs can differentiate into myofibroblast.Results The ultrasonography showed no tumor mass one week after the vx-2 tumor mass transplantation. The mean maximum tumor diameter of the control group and test group was (0.70±0.14) cm and (0.78±0.14) cm, respectively, and there was no significant difference (t=1

  16. Direct hepatic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells induced by valproic acid and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Jun Dong; Guo-Rong Zhang; Qing-Jun Zhou; Ruo-Lang Pan; Ye Chen; Li-Xin Xiang; Jian-Zhong Shao

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop a protocol for direct hepatic lineage differentiation from early developmental progenitors to a population of mature hepatocytes. METHODS: Hepatic progenitor cells and then mature hepatocytes from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were obtained in a sequential manner, induced by valproic acid (VPA) and cytokines (hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor and insulin). Morphological changes of the differentiated cells were examined by phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical analyses were used to evaluate the gene expression profiles of the VPA-induced hepatic progenitors and the hepatic progenitor-derived hepatocytes. Glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, transplantation assay, differentiation of bile duct-like structures and tumorigenic analyses were performed for the functional identification of the differentiated cells. Furthermore, FACS and electron microscopy were used for the analyses of cell cycle profile and apoptosis in VPA-induced hepatic differentiated cells. RESULTS: Based on the combination of VPA and cytokines, mouse ES cells differentiated into a uniform and homogeneous cell population of hepatic progenitor cells and then matured into functional hepatocytes. The progenitor population shared several characteristics with ES cells and hepatic stem/progenitor cells, and represented a novel progenitor cell between ES and hepatic oval cells in embryonic development. The differentiated hepatocytes from progenitor cells shared typical characteristics with mature hepatocytes, including the patterns of gene expression, immunological markers, in vitro hepatocyte functions and in vivo capacity to restore acute-damaged liver function. In addition, the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells from ES cells was accompanied by significant cell cycle arrest and selective survival of differentiating cells towards hepatic lineages. CONCLUSION: Hepatic cells

  17. Isolation and Culture of Pig Spermatogonial Stem Cells and Their in Vitro Differentiation into Neuron-Like Cells and Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyan Wang; Tingfeng Chen; Yani Zhang; Bichun Li; Qi Xu; Chengyi Song

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) renew themselves throughout the life of an organism and also differentiate into sperm in the adult. They are multipopent and therefore, can be induced to differentiate into many cells types in vitro. SSCs from pigs, considered an ideal animal model, are used in studies of male infertility, regenerative medicine, and preparation of transgenic animals. Here, we report on a culture system for porcine SSCs and the differentiation of these cells into neuron-like c...

  18. A co-culture model of the hippocampal neurogenic niche reveals differential effects of astrocytes, endothelial cells and pericytes on proliferation and differentiation of adult murine precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ehret

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The niche concept of stem cell biology proposes a functional unit between the precursor cells and their local microenvironment, to which several cell types might contribute by cell–cell contacts, extracellular matrix, and humoral factors. We here established three co-culture models (with cell types separated by membrane for both adherent monolayers and neurospheres to address the potential influence of different niche cell types in the neurogenic zone of the adult hippocampus of mice. Astrocytes and endothelial cells enhanced precursor cell proliferation and neurosphere formation. Endothelial factors also led to a prolonged increase in proliferation after growth factor withdrawal, which otherwise induces differentiation. All niche cell types enhanced cell survival in monolayer cultures, endothelial cells also stimulated neuronal differentiation. A parallel trend elicited by astrocytes did not reach conventional statistical significance. Pericytes had variable effects here. We did not observe changes in differentiation in neurosphere co-cultures. In summary, our data indicate that in precursor cell culture protocols survival could be improved by adding as yet unknown factors physiologically contributed by astrocytes and endothelial cells. Our findings also underscore the complexity of the niche and the differential impact of factors from the different sources on distinct aspects of neuronal development. With the help of the models presented here, identification of these factors and their specific biological activity can now be initiated.

  19. Collagen Type I Improves the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells towards Definitive Endoderm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn; Møller, Jonas Bech;

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to generate all cell types in the body and can potentially provide an unlimited source of cells for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. Current differentiation protocols of human embryonic stem cells towards insulin...... embryonic stem cells to the definitive endoderm lineage. The percentage of definitive endoderm cells after differentiation on collagen I and fibronectin was >85% and 65%, respectively. The cells on collagen I substrates displayed different morphology and gene expression during differentiation as assessed...... producing beta cells focus on soluble molecules whereas the impact of cell-matrix interactions has been mainly unattended. In this study almost 500 different extracellular matrix protein combinations were screened to systemically identify extracellular matrix proteins that influence differentiation of human...

  20. Chemical Induction of Cardiac Differentiation in P19 Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmin,; Spray, David C.; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia

    2010-01-01

    P19 cells, a pluripotent cell line derived from a teratocarcinoma induced in C3H/HeHa mice, have been widely used as a model system to study cardiac differentiation. We have used these cells to evaluate the extent to which exposure to DMSO and/or cardiogenol C for 4 days in suspension culture enhanced their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Cardiac differentiation was assessed by observing beating clusters and further confirmed using immunocytochemical, biochemical, and pharmacological app...

  1. Generation of priming mesenchymal stem cells with enhanced potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages using extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Na Rae; Yun, Jung Im; Park, Young Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Choonghyo; Choi, Jung Hoon; Lee, Eunsong; Lim, Jeong Mook; Lee, Seung Tae

    2013-07-01

    Poor understanding of the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has resulted in a low differentiation yield, and has hindered their application in medicine. As a solution, priming MSCs sensitive to signaling, thus stimulating differentiation into a specific cell lineage, may improve the differentiation yield. To demonstrate this, priming MSCs were produced by using a gelatin matrix for the isolation of primary MSCs from bone-marrow-derived primary cells. Subsequently, cellular characteristics and sensitivity to specific differentiation signals were analyzed at passage five. Compared to non-priming MSCs, priming MSCs showed no significant differences in cellular characteristics, but demonstrated a significant increase in sensitivity to neurogenic differentiation signals. These results demonstrate that generation of priming MSCs by specific extracellular signaling increases the rate of differentiation into a cell-specific lineage.

  2. Differential cytotoxic effects of mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on blastomere-derived embryonic stem cells and differentiating neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential applications of embryonic stem (ES) cells are not limited to regenerative medicine but can also include in vitro screening of various toxicants. In this study, we established mouse ES cell lines from isolated blastomeres of two-cell stage embryos and examined their potential use as an in vitro system for the study of developmental toxicity. Two ES cell lines were established from 69 blastomere-derived blastocysts (2.9%). The blastomere-derived ES (bm-ES) cells were treated with mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in an undifferentiated state or after directed differentiation into early neural cell types. We observed significantly decreased cell viability when undifferentiated bm-ES cells were exposed to a high dose of MEHP (1000 μM). The cytotoxic effects of MEHP were accompanied by increased DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation, and activation of Caspase-3, which are biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. Compared to undifferentiated bm-ES cells, considerably lower doses of MEHP (50 and 100 μM) were sufficient to induce cell death in early neurons differentiated from bm-ES cells. At the lower doses, the number of neural cells positive for the active form of Caspase-3 was greater than that for undifferentiated bm-ES cells. Thus, our data indicate that differentiating neurons are more sensitive to MEHP than undifferentiated ES cells, and that undifferentiated ES cells may have more efficient defense systems against cytotoxic stresses. These findings might contribute to the development of a new predictive screening method for assessment of hazards for developmental toxicity.

  3. Screening of differentially expressed genes related to differentiation and proliferation by gene expression profiling of different grade astrocytoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zeng; Zhong Yang; Yangyun Han; Chao You

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The detection of differential gene expression in brain is possible by cDNA microarray technology, and the screening of differentially expressed genes might provide a biological basis for gene-targeted therapy for tumors. OBJECTIVE: To detect the differential expression of genes among astrocytoma SHG-44 (WHO grade IV), CHG-5 (WHO grade II), and ATRA-treated SHG-44 cell lines by cDNA microarray. DESIGN: Laboratory experiments in vitro.SETTING: Department of Neurobiology, the Third Military Medical University. MATERIALS: The experiment was performed at the Department of Neurobiology in the Third Military Medical University of the Chinese PLA from January to October 2007. The SHG-44 cell line (WHO grade Ⅳ) was established by Prof. Ziwei Du, and the CHG-5 cell line (WHO grade II) was set up by Prof. Xiuwu Bian from the Third Military Medical University of the Chinese PLA. The cDNA microarray containing 9182 known genes was prepared and provided by Dr. Yang Zhong at the City University of Hong Kong. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The identification of genes that were similarly regulated (overlapping) during tumor progression and differentiation, by comparison of gene expression profiles between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. RESULTS: Thirty-one overlapping genes were found to have similar regulatory effects on astrocytomas; among them, twenty genes were up-regulated and eleven were down-regulated in both comparisons between CHG-5 and SHG-44 cells, and between SHG-44 cells with or without treatment with ATRA. The four reported genes, SERPINF1, MAPK11, HIF1A and SOD2, were up-regulated in this study.CONCLUSION: The differentially expressed genes in different grade astrocytoma cell lines were revealed primarily by cDNA microarray; among them, five identified overlapping genes, SERPINF1, MAPK11, DCTN2, HIF1A and SOD2, were related to the malignant progression of astrocytoma cells.

  4. All-trans retinoic acid promotes smooth muscle cell differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhong-yuan; Ying LI; Zhao, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells, an attractive resource for regenerative medicine. Accumulating evidence suggests that all-trans retinoic acid plays a key role in the development and differentiation of smooth muscle cells. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that rabbit bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into smooth muscle cells upon the treatment with all-trans retinoic acid. All-trans retinoic acid increased t...

  5. Human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into nerve-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lian; FENG Xue-yong; CUI Bing-lin; Frieda Law; JIANG Xue-wu; YANG Li-ye; XIE Qing-dong; HUANG Tian-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background The two most basic properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and differentiate into multiple cells and tissue types. The cells from human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly have properties of MSCs and represent a rich source of primitive cells. This study was conducted to explore the possibility of inducing human umbilical cord Wharton's Jelly-derived MSCs to differentiate into nerve-like cells.Methods MSCs were cultured from the Wharton's Jelly taken from human umbilical cord of babies delivered after full-term normal labor. Salvia miltiorrhiza and β-mercaptoethanol were used to induce the human umbilical cord-derived MSCs to differentiate. The expression of neural protein markers was shown by immunocytochemistry. The induction process was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, electron microscopy (EM), and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) .The pleiotrophin and nestin genes were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results MSCs in the Wharton's Jelly were easily attainable and could be maintained and expanded in culture. They were positive for markers of MSCs, but negative for markers of hematopoietic cells and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related cells. Treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza caused Wharton's Jelly cells to undergo profound morphological changes. The induced MSCs developed rounded cell bodies with multiple neurite-like extensions. Eventually they developed processes that formed networks reminiscent of primary cultures of neurons. Salvia miltiorrhiza and β-mercaptoethanol also induced MSCs to express nestin, β-tubulinⅢ, neurofilament (NF) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). It was confirmed by RT-PCR that MSCs could express pleiotrophin both before and after induction by Salvia miltiorrhiza. The expression was markedly enhanced after induction and the nestin gene was also expressed.Conclusions MSCs could be isolated from human umbilical

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells differentially modulate effector CD8+ T cell subsets and exacerbate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Justin D; Smith, Matthew D; Calabresi, Peter A; Whartenby, Katharine A

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a promising candidate for inflammatory suppression and disease amelioration, especially of neuro-inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Auto-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells acquire pathogenic IFNγ-producing- (Type I) and IL-17A-producing- (Type 17) effector phenotypes in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Although MSC have been extensively demonstrated to suppress pathogenic effector CD4+ T cells and CD4+ T cell-mediated EAE, surprisingly few studies have addressed their modulation of effector CD8+ T cells represented in MS or their impact on CD8+ T cell-mediated EAE. We find that MSC differentially modulate CD8+ T cell development depending on effector T cell subtype. MSC drive activated low-IFNγ producers toward an enhanced high-IFNγ Tc1-like phenotype but strongly inhibit the production of IL-17A and Tc17 polarization in vitro. These observations are underscored by differential MSC modulation of T cell activation, proliferation, and signature transcription factor up-regulation. In addition, effector CD8+ T cells co-cultured with MSC exhibited increased production of IL-2, a molecule known to enhance IFNγ, yet suppress IL-17A, production. Based on these in vitro effects on CD8+ T cells, we next evaluated their impact on the severity of EAE. To better evaluate CD8+ T cells, we immunized mice with MOG37-50 , which is a CD8-targeted epitope. Our results revealed a worsening of disease, consistent with their in vitro stimulation of Tc1 cells. These findings highlight the emerging duality of MSC in immune modulation and provide implications for their future use in immune-related diseases. PMID:24911892

  7. Atmospheric-pressure plasma-irradiation inhibits mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm but promotes ectoderm differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Taichi; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishihara, Shoko

    2016-04-01

    Recently, various effects of low-temperature atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation on living cells have been demonstrated, such as tissue sterilization, blood coagulation, angiogenesis, wound healing, and tumor elimination. However, the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) has not yet been clarified. A large number of reactive species are generated by plasma-irradiation in medium, of which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is one of the main species generated. Here, we investigated the effect of plasma-irradiation on the differentiation of mESCs using an embryoid body (EB) formation assay with plasma-irradiated medium or H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium. Our findings demonstrated that plasma-irradiated medium potently inhibits the differentiation from mESCs to mesoderm and endoderm by inhibiting Wnt signaling as determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In contrast, both the plasma-irradiated medium and H2O2-supplemented non-irradiated medium enhanced the differentiation to epiblastoid, ectodermal, and neuronal lineages by activation of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling, suggesting that these effects are caused by the H2O2 generated by plasma-irradiation in medium. However, in each case, the differentiation to glial cells remained unaffected. This study is the first demonstration that plasma-irradiation affects the differentiation of mESCs by the regulation of Wnt and FGF4 signaling pathways.

  8. Functional Role of Mst1/Mst2 in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Li; Ying Chen; Kinglun Kingston Mak; Chun Kwok Wong; Chi Chiu Wang; Ping Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is an evolutionary conserved pathway that involves cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and organ size regulation. Mst1 and Mst2 are central components of this pathway that are essential for embryonic development, though their role in controlling embryonic stem cells (ES cells) has yet to be exploited. To further understand the Mst1/Mst2 function in ES cell pluripotency and differentiation, we derived Mst1/Mst2 double knockout (Mst-/-) ES cells to completely pertur...

  9. Human Serum Promotes Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Pisciotta; Massimo Riccio; Gianluca Carnevale; Francesca Beretti; Lara Gibellini; Tullia Maraldi; Gian Maria Cavallini; Adriano Ferrari; Giacomo Bruzzesi; Anto De Pol

    2012-01-01

    Human dental pulp is a promising alternative source of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering in regenerative medicine, for the easily recruitment with low invasivity for the patient and for the self-renewal and differentiation potential of cells. So far, in vitro culture of mesenchymal stem cells is usually based on supplementing culture and differentiation media with foetal calf serum (FCS). FCS is known to contain a great quantity of growth factors, and thus to promote cell attachmen...

  10. GATA2 regulates differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kamata, Mayumi; Okitsu, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kanehira, Masahiko; Nakajima, Shinji; Takahashi, Taro; Inoue, Ai; Fukuhara, Noriko; Onishi, Yasushi; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Harigae, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment comprises multiple cell niches derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the molecular mechanism of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation is poorly understood. The transcription factor GATA2 is indispensable for hematopoietic stem cell function as well as other hematopoietic lineages, suggesting that it may maintain bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in an immature state and also contribute to their differentiation. To explore this ...

  11. Isolation and Multiple Differentiation Potential Assessment of Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from the gingiva (GMSCs and confirm their multiple differentiation potentials, including the odontogenic lineage. GMSCs, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and dermal stem cells (DSCs cultures were analyzed for cell shape, cell cycle, colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F and stem cell markers. Cells were then induced for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and analyzed for differentiation markers (alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mineralization nodule formation and Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN and collagen I expressions for the osteogenic differentiation, and lipid vacuole formation and PPARγ-2 expression for the adipogenic differentiation. Besides, the odontogenic differentiation potential of GMSCs induced with embryonic tooth germ cell-conditioned medium (ETGC-CM was observed. GMSCs, PDLSCs and DSCs were all stromal origin. PDLSCs showed much higher osteogenic differentiation ability but lower adipogenic differentiation potential than DSCs. GMSCs showed the medial osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potentials between those of PDLSCs and DSCs. GMSCs were capable of expressing the odontogenic genes after ETGC-CM induction. This study provides evidence that GMSCs can be used in tissue engineering/regeneration protocols as an approachable stem cell source.

  12. β-catenin/TCF-1 pathway in T cell development and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wang, Ruiqing; Fang, Xianfeng; Sun, Zuoming

    2012-12-01

    T cells must undergo two critical differentiation processes before they become competent effectors that can mediate actual immune responses. Progenitor T cells undergo defined stages of differentiation in the thymus, which include positive and negative selection, to generate a repertoire of T cells that will respond to foreign but not self antigens. When these immunocompetent T cells first migrate out of thymus into peripheral lymphoid tissues, they are naïve and are unable to mediate immune responses. However, upon antigen encounter, peripheral CD4+ naïve T cells undergo another differentiation process to become armed effector T cells including Th1, Th2, Th17 or regulatory T cells, all of which are capable of regulating immune responses. A canonical Wnt/β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) pathway has been shown to regulate T cell differentiation in both the thymus and in peripheral lymphoid tissues. Dysfunction of this pathway at any stage of T cell differentiation could lead to severe autoimmunity including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis or immune deficiency. Understanding the role played by β-catenin/TCF-1 in T cell differentiation will facilitate our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate T cell function and assist in identifying novel therapy targets for treating both autoimmune and immune diseases. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the function of β-catenin/TCF-1 pathway in the regulation of thymic and peripheral T cell differentiation processes.

  13. Arrested neural and advanced mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma cells-comparative study with neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat Wojciech

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although features of variable differentiation in glioblastoma cell cultures have been reported, a comparative analysis of differentiation properties of normal neural GFAP positive progenitors, and those shown by glioblastoma cells, has not been performed. Methods Following methods were used to compare glioblastoma cells and GFAP+NNP (NHA: exposure to neural differentiation medium, exposure to adipogenic and osteogenic medium, western blot analysis, immunocytochemistry, single cell assay, BrdU incorporation assay. To characterize glioblastoma cells EGFR amplification analysis, LOH/MSI analysis, and P53 nucleotide sequence analysis were performed. Results In vitro differentiation of cancer cells derived from eight glioblastomas was compared with GFAP-positive normal neural progenitors (GFAP+NNP. Prior to exposure to differentiation medium, both types of cells showed similar multilineage phenotype (CD44+/MAP2+/GFAP+/Vimentin+/Beta III-tubulin+/Fibronectin+ and were positive for SOX-2 and Nestin. In contrast to GFAP+NNP, an efficient differentiation arrest was observed in all cell lines isolated from glioblastomas. Nevertheless, a subpopulation of cells isolated from four glioblastomas differentiated after serum-starvation with varying efficiency into derivatives indistinguishable from the neural derivatives of GFAP+NNP. Moreover, the cells derived from a majority of glioblastomas (7 out of 8, as well as GFAP+NNP, showed features of mesenchymal differentiation when exposed to medium with serum. Conclusion Our results showed that stable co-expression of multilineage markers by glioblastoma cells resulted from differentiation arrest. According to our data up to 95% of glioblastoma cells can present in vitro multilineage phenotype. The mesenchymal differentiation of glioblastoma cells is advanced and similar to mesenchymal differentiation of normal neural progenitors GFAP+NNP.

  14. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. Flk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type II collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class I molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  15. Chondrogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells promoted by mature chondrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Feng; ZHANG WenJie; CHEN FanFan; ZHOU GuangDong; CUI Lei; LIU Wei; CAO YiLin

    2008-01-01

    In order to direct embryonic stem (ES) cells to differentiate into chondrocytes, a chondrogenic envi-ronment provided by mature chondrocytes was investigated. FIk-1 positive cells sorted from pre-differentiated mouse ES cells were mixed with adult porcine articular chondrocytes, seeded on biodegradable scaffolds, and then implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. The cell-scaffold com-plexes formed cartilage tissues after 4 weeks, which was demonstrated by histology and anti-type Ⅱ collagen antibody staining. Positive staining of mouse Major Histocompatibility Complex class Ⅰ molecules confirmed that part of the chondrocytes were derived from mouse ES cells. The current study established a new approach for directing ES cell differentiation.

  16. Differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells induced by liver tissue homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, X K; Feng, H G; Yuan, Z Q

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of inducing the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro using Sprague Dawley rats, as a model of hepatocyte generation for cell transplantation. BMSCs were isolated and grown using the adherent method and exposed to 5 or 10% liver tissue homogenate, before being collected for analysis after 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. Immunofluorescence and western blotting were employed to detect the liver-specific markers a-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB). Supernatant urea content was also measured to verify that differentiation had been induced. After 7 days in the presence of 10% liver tissue homogenate, BMSCs demonstrated hepatocyte-like morphological characteristics, and with prolonged culture time, liver-specific markers were gradually produced at levels indicating cell maturation. AFP expression peaked at 14 days then began to decrease, while both urea and ALB levels increased with induction time. Overall, marker expression in the 5% homogenate group was less than or equal to the 10% group at each time point. Thus, in a rat model, liver tissue homogenate obtained from partial hepatectomy can induce the differentiation of BMSCs into hepatocyte-like cells. This method is simple, feasible, and has remarkable real-world application potential. PMID:27525848

  17. Appearance of Human Plasma Cells Following Differentiation of Human B Cells in NOD/SCID Mouse Spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kikuchi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little is known for the differentiation and maturation process of human B cells to plasma cells. This is particularly important in reconstitution work involving transfer of autoantibodies. To address this issue, we transplanted human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC directly into the spleen of irradiated NOD/SCID mice depleted of natural killer cell activity. Within 6 weeks, naïve B cells differentiated into memory B cells and, importantly, the numbers of human CD138+ plasma cells in spleen increased by 100 fold after transplantation. Plasma cell numbers correlated with the detection of human IgM and IgG in serum, indicating that human B cells had differentiated into mature plasma cells in the murine spleen. In addition to CD19+ plasma cells, a distinct CD19- plasma cell population was detected, suggesting that downregulation of CD19 associated with maturation of plasma cells occurred. When purified human B cells were transplanted, those findings were not observed. Our results indicate that differentiation and maturation of human B cells and plasma cells can be investigated by transplantation of human PBMC into the spleen of NOD/SCID mice. The model will be useful for studying the differentiation of human B cells and generation of plasma cells.

  18. Notch signalling inhibits CD4 expression during initiation and differentiation of human T cell lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Carlin

    Full Text Available The Delta/Notch signal transduction pathway is central to T cell differentiation from haemopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Although T cell development is well characterized using expression of cell surface markers, the detailed mechanisms driving differentiation have not been established. This issue becomes central with observations that adult HSCs exhibit poor differentiation towards the T cell lineage relative to neonatal or embryonic precursors. This study investigates the contribution of Notch signalling and stromal support cells to differentiation of adult and Cord Blood (CB human HSCs, using the Notch signalling OP9Delta co-culture system. Co-cultured cells were assayed at weekly intervals during development for phenotype markers using flow cytometry. Cells were also assayed for mRNA expression at critical developmental stages. Expression of the central thymocyte marker CD4 was initiated independently of Notch signalling, while cells grown with Notch signalling had reduced expression of CD4 mRNA and protein. Interruption of Notch signalling in partially differentiated cells increased CD4 mRNA and protein expression, and promoted differentiation to CD4(+ CD8(+ T cells. We identified a set of genes related to T cell development that were initiated by Notch signalling, and also a set of genes subsequently altered by Notch signal interruption. These results demonstrate that while Notch signalling is essential for establishment of the T cell lineage, at later stages of differentiation, its removal late in differentiation promotes more efficient DP cell generation. Notch signalling adds to signals provided by stromal cells to allow HSCs to differentiate to T cells via initiation of transcription factors such as HES1, GATA3 and TCF7. We also identify gene expression profile differences that may account for low generation of T cells from adult HSCs.

  19. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  20. Isolation and differentiation of stromal vascular cells to beige/brite cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; Ruiz, Lauren; Kajimura, Shingo

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipocytes have the ability to uncouple the respiratory chain in mitochondria and dissipate chemical energy as heat. Development of UCP1-positive brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues (so called beige or brite cells) is highly induced by a variety of environmental cues such as chronic...... in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) provide a reliable cellular system to study the molecular control of beige/brite cell development. Here we describe a protocol for effective isolation of primary preadipocytes and for inducing differentiation to beige/brite cells in culture. The browning effect can...

  1. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cardiac Regenerative Therapy: Optimization of Cell Differentiation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhiwei; Yang, Junjie; Hu, Shijun; Shen, Zhenya

    2015-01-01

    With the high mortality rate, coronary heart disease (CHD) has currently become a major life-threatening disease. The main pathological change of myocardial infarction (MI) is the induction of myocardial necrosis in infarction area which finally causes heart failure. Conventional treatments cannot regenerate the functional cell efficiently. Recent researches suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to differentiate into multiple lineages, including cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo, and they have been used for the treatment of MI to repair the injured myocardium and improve cardiac function. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress on MSCs derived cardiomyocytes for cardiac regeneration after MI.

  2. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Huaxi [Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou (China); Yang, Yan [College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Ge, Renshan [Population Council, Rockefeller University, 10065 New York (United States); Su, Zhijian, E-mail: tjnuszj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Huang, Yadong, E-mail: tydhuang@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  3. Rigidity of silicone substrates controls cell spreading and stem cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertelov, Grigory; Gutierrez, Edgar; Lee, Sin-Ae; Ronan, Edward; Groisman, Alex; Tkachenko, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The dependences of spreading and differentiation of stem cells plated on hydrogel and silicone gel substrates on the rigidity and porosity of the substrates have recently been a subject of some controversy. In experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells plated on soft, medium rigidity, and hard silicone gels we show that harder gels are more osteogenic, softer gels are more adipogenic, and cell spreading areas increase with the silicone gel substrate rigidity. The results of our study indicate that substrate rigidity induces some universal cellular responses independently of the porosity or topography of the substrate. PMID:27651230

  4. Up-regulated microRNA-143 in cancer stem cells differentiation promotes prostate cancer cells metastasis by modulating FNDC3B expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are involved in tumor progression and metastasis, including in prostate cancer. There is an obvious and urgent need for effective cancer stem cells specific therapies in metastatic prostate cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of pervasive genes that are involved in a variety of biological functions, especially in cancer. The goal of this study was to identify miRNAs involved in prostate cancer metastasis and cancer stem cells. A microarray and qRT-PCR were performed to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. A transwell assay was used to evaluate the migration of PC-3 sphere cells and adherent cells. MiR-143 was silenced with antisense oligonucleotides in PC-3, PC-3-M and LNCaP cells. The role of miR-143 in prostate cancer metastasis was measured by wound-healing and transwell assays in vitro and bioluminescence imaging in vivo. Bioinformatics and luciferase report assays were used to identify the target of miR-143. The expression of miR-143 and the migration capability were reduced in PC-3 sphere cells and progressively increased during sphere re-adherent culture. Moreover, the down-regulation of miR-143 suppressed prostate cancer cells migration and invasion in vitro and systemically inhibited metastasis in vivo. Fibronectin type III domain containing 3B (FNDC3B), which regulates cell motility, was identified as a target of miR-143. The inhibition of miR-143 increased the expression of FNDC3B protein but not FNDC3B mRNA in vitro and vivo. These data demonstrate for the first time that miR-143 was up-regulated during the differentiation of prostate cancer stem cells and promoted prostate cancer metastasis by repressing FNDC3B expression. This sheds a new insight into the post-transcriptional regulation of cancer stem cells differentiation by miRNAs, a potential approach for the treatment of prostate cancer

  5. Differential proteome analysis of chikungunya virus infection on host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Li-Ping Thio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused multiple unprecedented and re-emerging outbreaks in both tropical and temperate countries. Despite ongoing research efforts, the underlying factors involved in facilitating CHIKV replication during early infection remains ill-characterized. The present study serves to identify host proteins modulated in response to early CHIKV infection using a proteomics approach. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The whole cell proteome profiles of CHIKV-infected and mock control WRL-68 cells were compared and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE. Fifty-three spots were found to be differentially modulated and 50 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Eight were significantly up-regulated and 42 were down-regulated. The mRNA expressions of 15 genes were also found to correlate with the corresponding protein expression. STRING network analysis identified several biological processes to be affected, including mRNA processing, translation, energy production and cellular metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP and cell cycle regulation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate alteration of the host cellular proteome during early CHIKV infection. Our proteomics data showed that during early infection, CHIKV affected the expression of proteins that are involved in mRNA processing, host metabolic machinery, UPP, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 regulation (in favour of virus survival, replication and transmission. While results from this study complement the proteomics results obtained from previous late host response studies, functional characterization of these proteins is warranted to reinforce our understanding of their roles during early CHIKV infection in humans.

  6. Cancer cell differentiation heterogeneity and aggressive behavior in solid tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Jögi, Annika; Vaapil, Marica; Johansson, Martin; Påhlman, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The differentiation stage of tumors is a central aspect in the histopathological classification of solid malignancies. The differentiation stage is strongly associated with tumor behavior, and generally an immature tumor is more aggressive than the more differentiated counterpart. While this is common knowledge in surgical pathology, the contribution of differentiation-related gene expression and functions to tumor behavior is often overlooked in the experimental, tumor biological setting. Th...

  7. Plasma cell differentiation is coupled to division-dependent DNA hypomethylation and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwick, Benjamin G; Scharer, Christopher D; Bally, Alexander P R; Boss, Jeremy M

    2016-10-01

    The epigenetic processes that regulate antibody-secreting plasma cells are not well understood. Here, analysis of plasma cell differentiation revealed DNA hypomethylation of 10% of CpG loci that were overrepresented at enhancers. Inhibition of DNA methylation enhanced plasma cell commitment in a cell-division-dependent manner. Analysis of B cells differentiating in vivo stratified by cell division revealed a fivefold increase in mRNA transcription coupled to DNA hypomethylation. Demethylation occurred first at binding motifs for the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1 and later at those for the transcription factors IRF and Oct-2 and was coincident with activation and differentiation gene-expression programs in a cell-division-dependent manner. These data provide mechanistic insight into cell-division-coupled transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming and suggest that DNA hypomethylation reflects the cis-regulatory history of plasma cell differentiation.

  8. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tham, Allister Yingwei [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh, E-mail: dineshkumar@ntu.edu.sg [Cellular and Molecular Epigenetics Lab, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2015-04-01

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering.

  9. Biomimetic hybrid nanofibrous substrates for mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimicking native extracellular matrix with electrospun porous bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds has huge potential in bone tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to fabricate porous poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly-(ε-caprolactone)/silk fibroin/ascorbic acid/tetracycline hydrochloride (PLACL/SF/AA/TC) and nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) was deposited by calcium-phosphate dipping method for bone tissue engineering (BTE). Fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology, hydrophilicity, porosity, mechanical test and chemical properties by FT-IR and EDX analysis. The results showed that the fiber diameter and pore size of scaffolds observed around 228 ± 62–320 ± 22 nm and 1.5–6.9 μm respectively. Resulting nanofibrous scaffolds are highly porous (87–94%) with ultimate tensile strength observed in the range of 1.51–4.86 MPa and also showed better hydrophilic properties after addition of AA, TC and n-HA. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on these bio-composite nanofibrous scaffolds and stimulated to osteogenic differentiation in the presence of AA/TC/n-HA for BTE. The cell proliferation and biomaterial interactions were studied using MTS assay, SEM and CMFDA dye exclusion methods. Osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was proven by using alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and double immunofluorescence staining of both CD90 and osteocalcin. The observed results suggested that the fabricated PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA biocomposite hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for the differentiation of MSCs into osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • We fabricated and characterized hybrid porous nanofibrous scaffolds. • PLACL/SF/AA/TC/n-HA scaffolds promote cell differentiation and mineralization. • Porous nanofibrous scaffolds initiate MSC differentiation into osteogenic cells. • Biomimetic nanofibrous scaffolds have good potential for bone tissue engineering

  10. The tumorigenicity of mouse embryonic stem cells and in vitro differentiated neuronal cells is controlled by the recipients' immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Dressel

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem (ES cells have the potential to differentiate into all cell types and are considered as a valuable source of cells for transplantation therapies. A critical issue, however, is the risk of teratoma formation after transplantation. The effect of the immune response on the tumorigenicity of transplanted cells is poorly understood. We have systematically compared the tumorigenicity of mouse ES cells and in vitro differentiated neuronal cells in various recipients. Subcutaneous injection of 1x10(6 ES or differentiated cells into syngeneic or allogeneic immunodeficient mice resulted in teratomas in about 95% of the recipients. Both cell types did not give rise to tumors in immunocompetent allogeneic mice or xenogeneic rats. However, in 61% of cyclosporine A-treated rats teratomas developed after injection of differentiated cells. Undifferentiated ES cells did not give rise to tumors in these rats. ES cells turned out to be highly susceptible to killing by rat natural killer (NK cells due to the expression of ligands of the activating NK receptor NKG2D on ES cells. These ligands were down-regulated on differentiated cells. The activity of NK cells which is not suppressed by cyclosporine A might contribute to the prevention of teratomas after injection of ES cells but not after inoculation of differentiated cells. These findings clearly point to the importance of the immune response in this process. Interestingly, the differentiated cells must contain a tumorigenic cell population that is not present among ES cells and which might be resistant to NK cell-mediated killing.

  11. Nanotopography Promotes Pancreatic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Cha, Kyoung Je; Han, Jiyou; Jang, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Sung; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2016-03-22

    Although previous studies suggest that nanotopographical features influence properties and behaviors of stem cells, only a few studies have attempted to derive clinically useful somatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells using nanopatterned surfaces. In the present study, we report that polystyrene nanopore-patterned surfaces significantly promote the pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared different diameters of nanopores and showed that 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces highly upregulated the expression of PDX1, a critical transcription factor for pancreatic development, leading to an approximately 3-fold increase in the percentage of differentiating PDX1(+) pancreatic progenitors compared with control flat surfaces. Furthermore, in the presence of biochemical factors, 200 nm nanopore-patterned surfaces profoundly enhanced the derivation of pancreatic endocrine cells producing insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin. We also demonstrate that nanopore-patterned surface-induced upregulation of PDX1 is associated with downregulation of TAZ, suggesting the potential role of TAZ in nanopore-patterned surface-mediated mechanotransduction. Our study suggests that appropriate cytokine treatments combined with nanotopographical stimulation could be a powerful tool for deriving a high purity of desired cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

  12. Substrate stiffness and matrix composition coordinately control the differentiation of liver progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourouklis, Andreas P; Kaylan, Kerim B; Underhill, Gregory H

    2016-08-01

    Recent approaches have utilized microfabricated platforms to examine combinations of microenvironmental signals that regulate stem and progenitor cell differentiation. However, the majority of these efforts have focused on the biochemical properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) or soluble factors without simultaneously exploring the biomechanical effects of cell-substrate interactions. To address this need, we combined a high-throughput approach for the analysis of combinatorial ECM cues with substrates of modular stiffness and traction force microscopy. This integrated approach enabled the characterization of cell-generated traction stress and phenotypic expression in response to ECM cues. We investigated the impact of substrate stiffness and ECM composition on the differentiation of bipotential mouse embryonic liver (BMEL) progenitor cells. We observed that hepatocyte differentiation was primarily regulated by ECM composition, and cholangiocyte differentiation was cooperatively influenced by ECM proteins and stiffness properties. In particular, stiffness-mediated cholangiocyte differentiation was observed for cells cultured on fibronectin, while collagen IV promoted differentiation independent of substrate stiffness. We demonstrated the influence of cell contractility and traction stress in early cholangiocyte specification and further uncovered the roles of ERK and ROCK in this differentiation process. Overall, these findings illustrate the involvement of biomechanical signals in liver progenitor differentiation. Further, this approach could enable investigations for a broad range of cell types and ECM proteins, providing an integrated platform for evaluating the combinatorial effects of biochemical and biophysical signals in cell differentiation.

  13. Autophagy activator promotes neuronal differentiation of adult adipose-derived stromal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhui Lu; Xiaodong Yuan; Qiaoyu Sun; Ya Ou

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary research from our group found altered autophagy intensity during adipose-derived stromal cell differentiation into neuronal-like cells, and that this change was associated with morphological changes in differentiated cells. This study aimed to verify the role of rapamycin, an autophagy activator, in the process of adipose-derived stromal cell differentiation into neuronal-like cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that expression of neuron-specific enolase and neurofilament-200 were gradually upregulated in adipose-derived stromal cells after 5 mM β-mercaptoethanol induction, and the differentiation rate gradually increased with induction time. Using transmission electron microscopy, induced cells were shown to exhibit cytoplasmic autophagosomes, with bilayer membranes, and autolysosomes. After rapamycin (200μg/L) induction for 1 hour, adipose-derived stromal cells began to extend long processes, similar to the morphology of neuronal-like cells, while untreated cells did not exhibit similar morphologies until 3 hours after induction. Moreover, the differentiation rate was significantly increased after rapamycin treatment. Compared with untreated cells, expression of LC3, an autophagy protein, was also significantly upregulated. Positive LC3 expression tended to concentrate at cell nuclei with increasing induction times. Our experimental findings indicate that autophagy can significantly increase the speed of adipose-derived stromal cell differentiation into neuronal-like cells.

  14. Expression profile of microRNAs regulating proliferation and differentiation in mouse adult cardiac stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Brás-Rosário

    Full Text Available The identification of cardiac cells with stem cell properties changed the paradigm of the heart as a post mitotic organ. These cells proliferate and differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, providing for cardiac cell homeostasis and regeneration. microRNAs are master switches controlling proliferation and differentiation, in particular regulating stem cell biology and cardiac development. Modulation of microRNAs -regulated gene expression networks holds the potential to control cell fate and proliferation, with predictable biotechnologic and therapeutic applications. To obtain insights into the regulatory networks active in cardiac stem cells, we characterized the expression profile of 95 microRNAs with reported functions in stem cell and tissue differentiation in mouse cardiac stem cells, and compared it to that of mouse embryonic heart and mesenchymal stem cells. The most highly expressed microRNAs identified in cardiac stem cells are known to target key genes involved in the control of cell proliferation and adhesion, vascular function and cardiomyocyte differentiation. We report a subset of differentially expressed microRNAs that are proposed to act as regulators of differentiation and proliferation of adult cardiac stem cells, providing novel insights into active gene expression networks regulating their biological properties.

  15. A simple model system enabling human CD34(+ cells to undertake differentiation towards T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lapenna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Channelling the development of haematopoietic progenitor cells into T lymphocytes is dependent upon a series of extrinsic prompts whose temporal and spatial sequence is critical for a productive outcome. Simple models of human progenitor cells development depend in the main on the use of xenogeneic systems which may provide some limitations to development. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we provide evidence that a simple model system which utilises both human keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines arrayed on a synthetic tantalum coated matrix provides a permissive environment for the development of human CD34⁺ haematopoietic cells into mature CD4⁺ or CD8⁺ T lymphocytes in the presence of Interleukin 7 (IL-7, Interleukin 15 (IL-15 and the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt-3L. This system was used to compare the ability of CD34(+ cells to produce mature thymocytes and showed that whilst these cells derived from cord blood were able to productively differentiate into thymocytes the system was not permissive for the development of CD34(+ cells from adult peripheral blood. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides direct evidence for the capacity of human cord blood CD34(+ cells to differentiate along the T lineage in a simple human model system. Productive commitment of the CD34⁺ cells to generate T cells was found to be dependent on a three-dimensional matrix which induced the up-regulation of the Notch delta-like ligand 4 (Dll-4 by epithelial cells.

  16. Platelet-rich fibrin-induced bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into osteoblast-like cells and neural cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Li; Yajun Geng; Lei Lu; Tingting Yang; Mingrui Zhang; Yanmin Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were allowed to develop for 14 days in a platelet-rich fibrin environment. Results demonstrated that platelet-rich fibrin significantly promoted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation. In addition, there was a dose-dependent increase in Runt-related transcription factor-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 mRNA expression, as well as neuron-specific enolase and glial acidic protein. Results showed that platelet-rich fibrin promoted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastlike cells and neural cells in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Induced differentiation of cancer cells: second generation potent hybrid polar compounds target cell cycle regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid polar compounds are potent inducers of differentiation of a wide variety of cancer transformed cells. Hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) has been used as a prototype of these compounds to investigate their mechanism of action. Employing murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells as a model, three characteristics of inducer-mediated commitment to terminal differentiation were demonstrated: (I) induced commitment was stochastic, requiring up to 5 cell cycles to recruit essentially all cells to commit to growth arrest in G1; (II) inducers caused a prolongation of the initial G1; and (III) the hybrid polar compounds induced a wide variety of transformed cells to terminal differentiation. These findings suggested that the rate limiting factor or factors for induction by these agents may be at the level of protein(s) regulating G1-to-S progression, which are common to most eukaryotic cells. It was found that HMBA induced a profound suppression of cyclin dependent kinase, cdk4, which reflected a marked decrease in stability of the protein, and is a critical change in the pathway of induced differentiation. HMBA also induced an increase in pRB and in the active, underphosphorylated form of this protein, an increase in the pRB related protein, p107, and an increase in the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. Further, the free form of the transcription factor, E2F, was markedly decreased within hours of exposure of transformed cells to HMBA and found to complex with p107 and cdk 2. A phase II clinical trial was conducted using HMBA to treat patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia. Of 28 patients, 9 patients achieved a complete or partial remission lasting from 1 to 16 months. These clinical studies also provided direct evidence that HMBA induces differentiation of transformed cells in patients. In four separate courses of treatment with HMBA, a patient with MDS and the monosomy 7 karyotype marking the malignant clone of bone marrow blast

  18. Programmed Cell Death Progresses Differentially in Epidermal and Mesophyll Cells of Lily Petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Mochizuki-Kawai

    Full Text Available In the petals of some species of flowers, programmed cell death (PCD begins earlier in mesophyll cells than in epidermal cells. However, PCD progression in each cell type has not been characterized in detail. We separately constructed a time course of biochemical signs and expression patterns of PCD-associated genes in epidermal and mesophyll cells in Lilium cv. Yelloween petals. Before visible signs of senescence could be observed, we found signs of PCD, including DNA degradation and decreased protein content in mesophyll cells only. In these cells, the total proteinase activity increased on the day after anthesis. Within 3 days after anthesis, the protein content decreased by 61.8%, and 22.8% of mesophyll cells was lost. A second peak of proteinase activity was observed on day 6, and the number of mesophyll cells decreased again from days 4 to 7. These biochemical and morphological results suggest that PCD progressed in steps during flower life in the mesophyll cells. PCD began in epidermal cells on day 5, in temporal synchrony with the time course of visible senescence. In the mesophyll cells, the KDEL-tailed cysteine proteinase (LoCYP and S1/P1 nuclease (LoNUC genes were upregulated before petal wilting, earlier than in epidermal cells. In contrast, relative to that in the mesophyll cells, the expression of the SAG12 cysteine proteinase homolog (LoSAG12 drastically increased in epidermal cells in the final stage of senescence. These results suggest that multiple PCD-associated genes differentially contribute to the time lag of PCD progression between epidermal and mesophyll cells of lily petals.

  19. Role of Mechanical Cues in Cell Differentiation and Proliferation: A 3D Numerical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jamaleddin Mousavi

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation, proliferation and migration are essential processes in tissue regeneration. Experimental evidence confirms that cell differentiation or proliferation can be regulated according to the extracellular matrix stiffness. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate to neuroblast, chondrocyte or osteoblast within matrices mimicking the stiffness of their native substrate. However, the precise mechanisms by which the substrate stiffness governs cell differentiation or proliferation are not well known. Therefore, a mechano-sensing computational model is here developed to elucidate how substrate stiffness regulates cell differentiation and/or proliferation during cell migration. In agreement with experimental observations, it is assumed that internal deformation of the cell (a mechanical signal together with the cell maturation state directly coordinates cell differentiation and/or proliferation. Our findings indicate that MSC differentiation to neurogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage specifications occurs within soft (0.1-1 kPa, intermediate (20-25 kPa or hard (30-45 kPa substrates, respectively. These results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. Remarkably, when a MSC differentiate to a compatible phenotype, the average net traction force depends on the substrate stiffness in such a way that it might increase in intermediate and hard substrates but it would reduce in a soft matrix. However, in all cases the average net traction force considerably increases at the instant of cell proliferation because of cell-cell interaction. Moreover cell differentiation and proliferation accelerate with increasing substrate stiffness due to the decrease in the cell maturation time. Thus, the model provides insights to explain the hypothesis that substrate stiffness plays a key role in regulating cell fate during mechanotaxis.

  20. Role of Mechanical Cues in Cell Differentiation and Proliferation: A 3D Numerical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation, proliferation and migration are essential processes in tissue regeneration. Experimental evidence confirms that cell differentiation or proliferation can be regulated according to the extracellular matrix stiffness. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate to neuroblast, chondrocyte or osteoblast within matrices mimicking the stiffness of their native substrate. However, the precise mechanisms by which the substrate stiffness governs cell differentiation or proliferation are not well known. Therefore, a mechano-sensing computational model is here developed to elucidate how substrate stiffness regulates cell differentiation and/or proliferation during cell migration. In agreement with experimental observations, it is assumed that internal deformation of the cell (a mechanical signal) together with the cell maturation state directly coordinates cell differentiation and/or proliferation. Our findings indicate that MSC differentiation to neurogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage specifications occurs within soft (0.1-1 kPa), intermediate (20-25 kPa) or hard (30-45 kPa) substrates, respectively. These results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. Remarkably, when a MSC differentiate to a compatible phenotype, the average net traction force depends on the substrate stiffness in such a way that it might increase in intermediate and hard substrates but it would reduce in a soft matrix. However, in all cases the average net traction force considerably increases at the instant of cell proliferation because of cell-cell interaction. Moreover cell differentiation and proliferation accelerate with increasing substrate stiffness due to the decrease in the cell maturation time. Thus, the model provides insights to explain the hypothesis that substrate stiffness plays a key role in regulating cell fate during mechanotaxis. PMID:25933372

  1. Optimal time point for the transplantation of neural stem cells induced to differentiate with retinoic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuxin Wang; Dengji Pan; Na Liu; Yongming Liu; Juan Chen; Houjie Ni; Zhouping Tang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that differentiated neural stem cells (NSCs) are more suitable for transplantation than non-differentiated NSCs. In this study, NSCs were expanded in vitro for two passages, induced with retinoic acid to differentiate, and harvested between 1-6 days later. They were subsequently cultured in artificial cerebrospinal fluid for an additional 3 days, during which their growth and morphology was monitored. NSCs induced for 4 days exhibited a peak rate of cells differentiating into neurons and robust growth. Our results indicate that the optimal time point for transplanting NSCs is following a 4-day period of induced differentiation.

  2. The polycomb group protein Suz12 is required for embryonic stem cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Diego; Bracken, Adrian P; Hansen, Jacob Bo Højberg;

    2007-01-01

    results in early lethality of mouse embryos. Here, we demonstrate that Suz12(-/-) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be established and expanded in tissue culture. The Suz12(-/-) ES cells are characterized by global loss of H3K27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and higher expression levels of differentiation......-specific genes. Moreover, Suz12(-/-) ES cells are impaired in proper differentiation, resulting in a lack of repression of ES cell markers as well as activation of differentiation-specific genes. Finally, we demonstrate that the PcGs are actively recruited to several genes during ES cell differentiation, which...... despite an increase in H3K27me3 levels is not always sufficient to prevent transcriptional activation. In summary, we demonstrate that Suz12 is required for the establishment of specific expression programs required for ES cell differentiation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that PcGs have different...

  3. Cancer Stem Cells of Differentiated B-Cell Malignancies: Models and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors and cancers of the primitive hematopoietic compartment. Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such as multiple myeloma, lymphomas and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a “top-to-bottom” clonal hierarchy from memory B-cells and a “bottom-to-top” model of clonal reprogramming. Selection pressure on the growing tumor can drive such reprogramming and increase its genetic diversity

  4. Cancer Stem Cells of Differentiated B-Cell Malignancies: Models and Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Emilie; Quillet-Mary, Anne [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France); Ysebaert, Loic; Laurent, Guy [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France); Service d' Hématologie, CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Fournie, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: jean-jacques.fournie@inserm.fr [INSERM, UMR1037-Cancer Research Center of Toulouse, 31300 Toulouse (France); ERL 5294 CNRS, BP3028 CHU Purpan, 31300 Toulouse (France); Université Toulouse III Paul-Sabatier, 31300 Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-25

    The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors and cancers of the primitive hematopoietic compartment. Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such as multiple myeloma, lymphomas and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a “top-to-bottom” clonal hierarchy from memory B-cells and a “bottom-to-top” model of clonal reprogramming. Selection pressure on the growing tumor can drive such reprogramming and increase its genetic diversity.

  5. Future application of hair follicle stem cells: capable in differentiation into sweat gland cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; LIU Zhi-yue; ZHAO Qing; SUN Tong-zhu; MA Kui; FU Xiao-bing

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweat glands (SGs) can not regenerate after complete destruction in the severe skin injury,so it is important to find a ideal stem cell source in order to regenerate functional SGs.Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs)possess the obvious properties of the adult stem cells,which are multipotent and easily accessible.In this research,we attempted to direct the HFSCs suffered from the sweat gland cells (SGCs) special differentiation by a cooperative coculture system in vitro.Methods The designed co-culture microenvironment in the transwell was consist of two critial factors:heat shocked SGCs and dermis-like mesenchymal tissue,which appeared independently in the two control groups; after induction,the purified induced SGC-like cells were transplanted into the full-thickness scalded wounds of the nude mice,after 4 weeks,the reconstructed SG-like structures were identified by immunohistochemical and immunofiuorescence analysis.Results A part of HFSCs in experimental group finally expressed SGCs phenotypes,by contrast,the control group 1 which just containing dermis-like mesenchymal tissue failed and the control group 2 consisted of heat shocked SGCs was in a poor efficiency; by immunofluorescence staining and flow cytometry analysis,the expression of HFSCs special biomarkers was down regulated,instead of the positive efficiency of SGCs special antigens increased; besides,the induced SGCs displayed a high expression of ectodysplasin A (EDA) and ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) genes and proteins; after cell transplantation,the youngest SG-like structures formed and be positive in SGCs special antigens,which never happened in untreated wounds (P <0.05).Conclusion The HFSCs are multipotential and capable in differentiating into SGCs which promise a potential stem cells reservoir for future use; our special co-culture microenvironment is promising for HFSCs differentiating; the induced SGCs are functional and could work well in the regeneration of SGs.

  6. Embryonic carcinoma cells show specific dielectric resistance profiles during induced differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Öz

    Full Text Available Induction of differentiation in cancer stem cells by drug treatment represents an important approach for cancer therapy. The understanding of the mechanisms that regulate such a forced exit from malignant pluripotency is fundamental to enhance our knowledge of tumour stability. Certain nucleoside analogues, such as 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine and 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine, can induce the differentiation of the embryonic cancer stem cell line NTERA 2 D1 (NT2. Such induced differentiation is associated with drug-dependent DNA-damage, cellular stress and the proteolytic depletion of stem cell factors. In order to further elucidate the mode of action of these nucleoside drugs, we monitored differentiation-specific changes of the dielectric properties of growing NT2 cultures using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS. We measured resistance values of untreated and retinoic acid treated NT2 cells in real-time and compared their impedance profiles to those of cell populations triggered to differentiate with several established substances, including nucleoside drugs. Here we show that treatment with retinoic acid and differentiation-inducing drugs can trigger specific, concentration-dependent changes in dielectric resistance of NT2 cultures, which can be observed as early as 24 hours after treatment. Further, low concentrations of nucleoside drugs induce differentiation-dependent impedance values comparable to those obtained after retinoic acid treatment, whereas higher concentrations induce proliferation defects. Finally, we show that impedance profiles of substance-induced NT2 cells and those triggered to differentiate by depletion of the stem cell factor OCT4 are very similar, suggesting that reduction of OCT4 levels has a dominant function for differentiation induced by nucleoside drugs and retinoic acid. The data presented show that NT2 cells have specific dielectric properties, which allow the early identification of differentiating

  7. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa;

    2008-01-01

    Properly committed neural stem cells constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but a protocol for controlled dopaminergic differentiation is not yet available. To establish a setting for identification of secreted neural compounds promoting dopaminergic di...

  8. The RNA-methyltransferase Misu (NSun2 poises epidermal stem cells to differentiate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Blanco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of most adult tissues is maintained by balancing stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, but whether post-transcriptional mechanisms can regulate this process is unknown. Here, we identify that an RNA methyltransferase (Misu/Nsun2 is required to balance stem cell self-renewal and differentiation in skin. In the epidermis, this methyltransferase is found in a defined sub-population of hair follicle stem cells poised to undergo lineage commitment, and its depletion results in enhanced quiescence and aberrant stem cell differentiation. Our results reveal that post-transcriptional RNA methylation can play a previously unappreciated role in controlling stem cell fate.

  9. Enhanced Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toward Definitive Endoderm on Ultrahigh Aspect Ratio Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Camilla Holzmann; Reynolds, Paul M.; Petersen, Dorthe Roenn;

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells is widely studied as a potential unlimited source for cell replacement therapy to treat degenerative diseases such as diabetes. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells relies mainly on soluble factors. Although, some studies have...... of the ultrahigh aspect ratio nanopillars (stiffness can be reduced by 25.000X). It is found that tall nanopillars, yielding softer surfaces, significantly enhance the induction of defi nitive endoderm cells from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells, resulting in more consistent differentiation of a pure...

  10. Stochastic differentiation into an osteoclast lineage from cloned macrophage-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichi, E-mail: shayashi@med.tottori-u.ac.jp [Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Life Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-Cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Murata, Akihiko; Okuyama, Kazuki; Shimoda, Yuhki; Hikosaka, Mari [Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Life Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-Cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan); Yasuda, Hisataka [Planning and Development, Bioindustry Division, Oriental Yeast Co., Ltd, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 174-8505 (Japan); Yoshino, Miya [Division of Immunology, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, School of Life Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 86 Nishi-Cho, Yonago, Tottori 683-8503 (Japan)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of C7 differentiation into osteoclast was low and constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only extended C7 cell cultures exponentially increased osteoclast+ cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may maintain the stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. -- Abstract: Differentiation into osteoclasts is induced by a macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand. The macrophage-like cell line, C7 has the potential to differentiate into osteoclasts when it is cultured with both factors for 6 days. Although C7 is an established cell line, the frequency of differentiation into this lineage was less than 10%, and the ratio was maintained at a constant level, even after repeated cloning. In this study, to increase the differentiation of C7 cells to osteoclasts, C7 derivative treatments with several activators and/or inhibitors were performed for 3 days prior to setting osteoclast induction analysis; however, a reagent to significantly up-regulate the frequency of differentiation was not found. Only extended cultures for osteoclastogenesis exponentially increased the frequency of osteoclast precursors. It is likely that C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot' rather than requiring specific signals to drive this process.

  11. Airway epithelial homeostasis and planar cell polarity signaling depend on multiciliated cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Milla, Carlos E.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. In airway epithelia, PCP is determined in a 2-phase process. First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. The second phase not only directs cilium polarization, but also consolidates polarization across the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that in airway epithelia, PCP depends on MCC differentiation. PCP mutant epithelia have misaligned cilia, and also display defective barrier function and regeneration, indicating that PCP regulates multiple aspects of airway epithelial homeostasis. In humans, MCCs are often sparse in chronic inflammatory diseases, and these airways exhibit PCP dysfunction. The presence of insufficient MCCs impairs mucociliary clearance in part by disrupting PCP-driven polarization of the epithelium. Consistent with defective PCP, barrier function and regeneration are also disrupted. Pharmacological stimulation of MCC differentiation restores PCP and reverses these defects, suggesting its potential for broad therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:27570836

  12. Airway epithelial homeostasis and planar cell polarity signaling depend on multiciliated cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladar, Eszter K.; Nayak, Jayakar V.; Milla, Carlos E.; Axelrod, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Motile airway cilia that propel contaminants out of the lung are oriented in a common direction by planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, which localizes PCP protein complexes to opposite cell sides throughout the epithelium to orient cytoskeletal remodeling. In airway epithelia, PCP is determined in a 2-phase process. First, cell-cell communication via PCP complexes polarizes all cells with respect to the proximal-distal tissue axis. Second, during ciliogenesis, multiciliated cells (MCCs) undergo cytoskeletal remodeling to orient their cilia in the proximal direction. The second phase not only directs cilium polarization, but also consolidates polarization across the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that in airway epithelia, PCP depends on MCC differentiation. PCP mutant epithelia have misaligned cilia, and also display defective barrier function and regeneration, indicating that PCP regulates multiple aspects of airway epithelial homeostasis. In humans, MCCs are often sparse in chronic inflammatory diseases, and these airways exhibit PCP dysfunction. The presence of insufficient MCCs impairs mucociliary clearance in part by disrupting PCP-driven polarization of the epithelium. Consistent with defective PCP, barrier function and regeneration are also disrupted. Pharmacological stimulation of MCC differentiation restores PCP and reverses these defects, suggesting its potential for broad therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory disease.

  13. Embryonic hybrid cells: a powerful tool for studying pluripotency and reprogramming of the differentiated cell chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEROV OLEG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of embryonic hybrid cells obtained by fusion of embryonic stem (ES or teratocarcinoma (TC cells with differentiated cells are reviewed. Usually, ES-somatic or TC-somatic hybrids retain pluripotent capacity at high levels quite comparable or nearly identical with those of the pluripotent partner. When cultured in vitro, ES-somatic- and TC-somatic hybrid cell clones, as a rule, lose the chromosomes derived from the somatic partner; however, in some clones the autosomes from the ES cell partner were also eliminated, i.e. the parental chromosomes segregated bilaterally in the ES-somatic cell hybrids. This opens up ways for searching correlation between the pluripotent status of the hybrid cells and chromosome segregation patterns and therefore for identifying the particular chromosomes involved in the maintenance of pluripotency. Use of selective medium allows to isolate in vitro the clones of ES-somatic hybrid cells in which "the pluripotent" chromosome can be replaced by "the somatic" counterpart carrying the selectable gene. Unlike the TC-somatic cell hybrids, the ES-somatic hybrids with a near-diploid complement of chromosomes are able to contribute to various tissues of chimeric animals after injection into the blastocoel cavity. Analysis of the chimeric animals showed that the "somatic" chromosome undergoes reprogramming during development. The prospects for the identification of the chromosomes that are involved in the maintenance of pluripotency and its cis- and trans-regulation in the hybrid cell genome are discussed.

  14. Material properties of the cell dictate stress-induced spreading and differentiation in embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Farhan; Na, Sungsoo; Li, Dong; Poh, Yeh-Chuin; Tanaka, Tetsuya S.; Wang, Fei; Wang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that physical microenvironments and mechanical stresses, in addition to soluble factors, help direct mesenchymal-stem-cell fate. However, biological responses to a local force in embryonic stem cells remain elusive. Here we show that a local cyclic stress through focal adhesions induced spreading in mouse embryonic stem cells but not in mouse embryonic stem-cell-differentiated cells, which were ten times stiffer. This response was dictated by the cell material property (cell softness), suggesting that a threshold cell deformation is the key setpoint for triggering spreading responses. Traction quantification and pharmacological or shRNA intervention revealed that myosin II contractility, F-actin, Src or cdc42 were essential in the spreading response. The applied stress led to oct3/4 gene downregulation in mES cells. Our findings demonstrate that cell softness dictates cellular sensitivity to force, suggesting that local small forces might have far more important roles in early development of soft embryos than previously appreciated.

  15. Evidence for Differential Glycosylation of Trophoblast Cell Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiushi; Pang, Poh-Choo; Cohen, Marie E; Longtine, Mark S; Schust, Danny J; Haslam, Stuart M; Blois, Sandra M; Dell, Anne; Clark, Gary F

    2016-06-01

    Human placental villi are surfaced by the syncytiotrophoblast (STB), with a layer of cytotrophoblasts (CTB) positioned just beneath the STB. STB in normal term pregnancies is exposed to maternal immune cells in the placental intervillous space. Extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVT) invade the decidua and spiral arteries, where they act in conjunction with natural killer (NK) cells to convert the spiral arteries into flaccid conduits for maternal blood that support a 3-4 fold increase in the rate of maternal blood flow into the placental intervillous space. The functional roles of these distinct trophoblast subtypes during pregnancy suggested that they could be differentially glycosylated. Glycomic analysis of these trophoblasts has revealed the expression of elevated levels of biantennary N-glycans in STB and CTB, with the majority of them bearing a bisecting GlcNAc. N-glycans terminated with polylactosamine extensions were also detected at low levels. A subset of the N-glycans linked to these trophoblasts were sialylated, primarily with terminal NeuAcα2-3Gal sequences. EVT were decorated with the same N-glycans as STB and CTB, except in different proportions. The level of bisecting type N-glycans was reduced, but the level of N-glycans decorated with polylactosamine sequences were substantially elevated compared with the other types of trophoblasts. The level of triantennary and tetraantennary N-glycans was also elevated in EVT. The sialylated N-glycans derived from EVT were completely susceptible to an α2-3 specific neuraminidase (sialidase S). The possibility exists that the N-glycans associated with these different trophoblast subpopulations could act as functional groups. These potential relationships will be considered. PMID:26929217

  16. Osteogenic Differentiation of Miniature Pig Mesenchymal Stem Cells in 2D and 3D Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Juhásová, J. (Jana); Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Klíma, J.; Strnádel, J. (Ján); Holubová, M. (Monika); Motlík, J. (Jan)

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been repeatedly shown to be able to repair bone defects. The aim of this study was to characterize the osteogenic differentiation of miniature pig MSCs and markers of this differentiation in vitro. Flow-cytometrically characterized MSCs were seeded on cultivation plastic (collagen I and vitronectin coated/uncoated) or plasma clot (PC)/plasma-alginate clot (PAC) scaffolds and differentiated in osteogenic medium. During three weeks of differentiation, the form...

  17. Differential expression profiling of membrane proteins by quantitative proteomics in a human mesenchymal stem cell line undergoing osteoblast differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Leonard J; Zeemann, Patricia A; Li, Chen;

    2005-01-01

    One of the major limitations for understanding the biology of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is the absence of prospective markers needed for distinguishing them from other cells and for monitoring lineage-specific differentiation. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has proven extremely...... in a cell model of hMSCs established by overexpression of human telomerase reverse-transcriptase gene. We identified 463 unique proteins with extremely high confidence, including all known markers of hMSCs (e.g., SH3 [CD71], SH2 [CD105], CD166, CD44, Thy1, CD29, and HOP26 [CD63]) among 148 integral membrane...... or membrane-anchored proteins and 159 membrane-associated proteins. Twenty-nine integrins and cell adhesion molecules, 20 receptors, and 18 Ras-related small GTPases were also identified. Upon OB differentiation, the expression levels of 83 proteins increased by at least twofold whereas the levels of another...

  18. Protein Profiling of Human Nonpigmented Ciliary Epithelium Cell Secretome: The Differentiation Factors Characterization for Retinal Ganglion Cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to characterize proteins secreted from the human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (HNPE cells, which have differentiated a rat retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5. Undifferentiated RGC-5 cells have been shown to express several marker proteins characteristic of retinal ganglion cells. However, RGC-5 cells do not respond to N-methyl-D aspartate (NMDA, or glutamate. HNPE cells have been shown to secrete numbers of neuropeptides or neuroproteins also found in the aqueous humor, many of which have the ability to influence the activity of neuronal cells. This paper details the profile of HNPE cell-secreted proteins by proteomic approaches. The experimental results revealed the identification of 132 unique proteins from the HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium. The biological functions of a portion of these identified proteins are involved in cell differentiation. We hypothesized that a differentiation system of HNPE cell-conditioned SF-medium with RGC-5 cells can induce a differentiated phenotype in RGC-5 cells, with functional characteristics that more closely resemble primary cultures of rat retinal ganglion cells. These proteins may replace harsh chemicals, which are currently used to induce cell differentiation.

  19. Calcium regulates the commitment of murine erythroleukemia cells to terminal erythroid differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    An alteration in the rate of calcium transport appears to be the rate- limiting event for the commitment of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells to initiate a program of terminal erythroid differentiation. The dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced commitment of MEL cells to erythroid differentiation can be inhibited by treatment of cells with the calcium- chelating agent EGTA. Upon removal of EGTA, cells initiate commitment without the 12-h lag normally observed after treatment with DMSO alone. Tre...

  20. STRUCTURAL REMODELING OF PROTEOGLYCANS UPON RETINOIC ACID-INDUCED DIFFERENTIATION OF NCCIT CELLS*

    OpenAIRE

    Gasimli, Leyla; Stansfield, Hope E.; Nairn, Alison V.; Liu, Haiying; Janet L. Paluh; Yang, Bo; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Moremen, Kelley W.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent and multipotent cells become increas