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Sample records for cell derived nitric

  1. The Role of Photolabile Dermal Nitric Oxide Derivates in Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR-Induced Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph V. Suschek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation comprising UVB (280–315 nm and UVA (315–400 nm on a daily basis. Within the last two decades, the molecular and cellular response to UVA/UVB and the possible effects on human health have been investigated extensively. It is generally accepted that the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of UVB is due to the direct interaction with DNA. On the other hand, by interaction with non-DNA chromophores as endogenous photosensitizers, UVA induces formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which play a pivotal role as mediators of UVA-induced injuries in human skin. This review gives a short overview about relevant findings concerning the molecular mechanisms underlying UVA/UVB-induced cell death. Furthermore, we will highlight the potential role of cutaneous antioxidants and photolabile nitric oxide derivates (NODs in skin physiology. UVA-induced decomposition of the NODs, like nitrite, leads not only to non-enzymatic formation of nitric oxide (NO, but also to toxic reactive nitrogen species (RNS, like peroxynitrite. Whereas under antioxidative conditions the generation of protective amounts of NO is favored, under oxidative conditions, less injurious reactive nitrogen species are generated, which may enhance UVA-induced cell death.

  2. Nitrolinoleate, a nitric oxide-derived mediator of cell function: Synthesis, characterization, and vasomotor activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dong Gun; Sweeney, Scott; Bloodsworth, Allison; White, C. Roger; Chumley, Phillip H.; Krishna, N. Rama; Schopfer, Francisco; O'Donnell, Valerie B.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Freeman, Bruce A.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (•NO) and •NO-derived reactive species rapidly react with lipids during both autocatalytic and enzymatic oxidation reactions to yield nitrated derivatives that serve as cell signaling molecules. Herein we report the synthesis, purification, characterization, and bioactivity of nitrolinoleate (LNO2). Nitroselenylation of linoleic acid yielded LNO2 that was purified by solvent extraction, silicic acid chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Structural characterization was performed by IR spectroscopy, 15N-NMR, LC-negative ion electrospray mass spectroscopy (MS), and chemiluminescent nitrogen analysis. Quantitative MS analysis of cell and vessel LNO2 metabolism, using L[15N]O2 as an internal standard, revealed that LNO2 is rapidly metabolized by rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) monolayers and rat thoracic aorta, resulting in nitrite production and up to 3-fold increases in cGMP (ED50 = 30 μM for RASM, 50 μM for aorta). LNO2 induced endothelium-independent relaxation of preconstricted rat aortic rings, which was unaffected by LG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester addition and inhibited by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and the •NO scavenger HbO2. These results reveal that synthetic LNO2, identical to lipid derivatives produced biologically by the reaction of •NO and •NO-derived species with oxidizing unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleate), can transduce vascular signaling actions of •NO. PMID:12444258

  3. Zinc regulates iNOS-derived nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells

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    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant production of nitric oxide (NO by inducible NO synthase (iNOS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. Mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iNOS activity in inflammation are still not fully understood. Zinc is an important structural element of NOS enzymes and is known to inhibit its catalytical activity. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of zinc on iNOS activity and expression in endothelial cells. We found that zinc down-regulated the expression of iNOS (mRNA+protein and decreased cytokine-mediated activation of the iNOS promoter. Zinc-mediated regulation of iNOS expression was due to inhibition of NF-κB transactivation activity, as determined by a decrease in both NF-κB-driven luciferase reporter activity and expression of NF-κB target genes, including cyclooxygenase 2 and IL-1β. However, zinc did not affect NF-κB translocation into the nucleus, as assessed by Western blot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Taken together our results demonstrate that zinc limits iNOS-derived high output NO production in endothelial cells by inhibiting NF-κB-dependent iNOS expression, pointing to a role of zinc as a regulator of iNOS activity in inflammation.

  4. Fluid shear stress stimulates prostaglandin and nitric oxide release in bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, T. N.; Du, T.; Frangos, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is a porous tissue that is continuously perfused by interstitial fluid. Fluid flow, driven by both vascular pressure and mechanical loading, may generate significant shear stresses through the canaliculi as well as along the bone lining at the endosteal surface. Both osteoblasts and osteocytes produce signaling factors such as prostaglandins and nitric in response to fluid shear stress (FSS); however, these humoral agents appear to have more profound affects on osteoclast activity at the endosteal surface. We hypothesized that osteoclasts and preosteoclasts may also be mechanosensitive and that osteoclast-mediated autocrine signaling may be important in bone remodeling. In this study, we investigated the effect of FSS on nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and prostacyclin (PGI(2)) release by neonatal rat bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells. These cells were tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive, weakly nonspecific esterase (NSE) positive, and capable of fusing into calcitonin-responsive, bone-resorbing, multinucleated cells. Bone marrow-derived preosteoclast-like cells exposed for 6 h to a well-defined FSS of 16 dynes/cm(2) produced NO at a rate of 7.5 nmol/mg protein/h, which was 10-fold that of static controls. This response was completely abolished by 100 microM N(G)-amino-L-arginine (L-NAA). Flow also stimulated PGE(2) production (3.9 microg/mg protein/h) and PGI(2) production (220 pg/mg protein/h). L-NAA attenuated flow-induced PGE(2) production by 30%, suggesting that NO may partially modulate PGE(2) production. This is the first report demonstrating that marrow derived cells are sensitive to FSS and that autocrine signaling in these cells may play an important role in load-induced remodeling and signal transduction in bone. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

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    János Pálóczi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC- derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days, both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M, BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M, and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M. Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms.

  6. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Protects Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálóczi, János; Varga, Zoltán V.; Szebényi, Kornélia; Sarkadi, Balázs; Madonna, Rosalinda; De Caterina, Raffaele; Csont, Tamás; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Ferdinandy, Péter; Görbe, Anikó

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Human embryonic stem cell- (hESC-) derived cardiomyocytes are one of the useful screening platforms of potential cardiocytoprotective molecules. However, little is known about the behavior of these cardiomyocytes in simulated ischemia/reperfusion conditions. In this study, we have tested the cytoprotective effect of an NO donor and the brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a screening platform based first on differentiated embryonic bodies (EBs, 6 + 4 days) and then on more differentiated cardiomyocytes (6 + 24 days), both derived from hESCs. Methods. Both types of hESC-derived cells were exposed to 150 min simulated ischemia, followed by 120 min reperfusion. Cell viability was assessed by propidium iodide staining. The following treatments were applied during simulated ischemia in differentiated EBs: the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) (10−7, 10−6, and 10−5 M), BNP (10−9, 10−8, and 10−7 M), and the nonspecific NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 10−5 M). Results. SNAP (10−6, 10−5 M) significantly attenuated cell death in differentiated EBs. However, simulated ischemia/reperfusion-induced cell death was not affected by BNP or by L-NNA. In separate experiments, SNAP (10−6 M) also protected hESC-derived cardiomyocytes. Conclusions. We conclude that SNAP, but not BNP, protects differentiated EBs or cardiomyocytes derived from hESCs against simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury. The present screening platform is a useful tool for discovery of cardiocytoprotective molecules and their cellular mechanisms. PMID:27403231

  7. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

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    Florian Rothweiler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1 in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors.

  8. Subpopulations of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) impair T cell responses through independent nitric oxide-related pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Raber, Patrick L.; Thevenot, Paul; Sierra, Rosa; Wyczechowska, Dorota; Halle, Daniel; Ramirez, Maria E; Ochoa, Augusto; Fletcher, Matthew; Velasco, Cruz; Wilk, Anna; Reiss, Krzysztof; Rodriguez, Paulo C.

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in tumor-bearing hosts is a hallmark of malignancy-associated inflammation and a major mediator for the induction of T cell suppression in cancer. MDSC can be divided phenotypically into granulocytic (G-MDSC) and monocytic (Mo-MDSC) subgroups. Several mechanisms mediate the induction of T cell anergy by MDSC; however, the specific role of these pathways in the inhibitory activity of MDSC subpopulations remains unclear. Therefore, we ...

  9. Reduction of myeloid suppressor cell derived nitric oxide provides a mechanistic basis of lead enhancement of alloreactive CD4+ T cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistent environmental toxicant and immunomodulator, lead (Pb), has been proposed to directly target CD4+ T cells. However, our studies suggest that CD4+ T cells are an important functional, yet indirect target. In order to identify the direct target of Pb in the immune system and the potential mechanism of Pb-induced immunotoxicity, myeloid suppressor cells (MSCs) were evaluated for their ability to modulate CD4+ T cell proliferation after Pb exposure. Myeloid suppressor cells regulate the adaptive immune response, in part, by inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. It is thought that the mechanism of MSC-dependent regulation involves the release of the bioactive gas, nitric oxide (NO), blocking cell signaling cascades downstream of the IL-2 receptor and thus preventing T cells from entering cell-cycle. In mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), increasing numbers of MSCs suppressed T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and this suppression is strikingly abrogated with 5 μM lead (Pb) treatment. The Pb-sensitive MSC population is CD11b+, GR1+and CD11c- and thus phenotypically consistent with MSCs described in other literature. Inhibition of NO-synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for the production of NO, enhanced alloreactive T cell proliferation in MLC. Moreover, Pb attenuated NO production in MLC, and exogenous replacement of NO restored suppression in the presence of Pb. Significantly, MSC from iNOS-/- mice were unable to suppress T cell proliferation. An MSC-derived cell line (MSC-1) also suppressed T cell proliferation in MLC, and Pb disrupted this suppression by attenuating NO production. Additionally, Pb disrupted NO production in MSC-1 cells in response to treatment with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and LPS or in response to concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes. However, neither the abundance of protein nor levels of mRNA for the inducible isoform of NOS (iNOS) were altered with Pb treatment. Taken together these data suggest that Pb abrogates

  10. Hypericum triquetrifolium—Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α in THP-1 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalsalam Kmail; Said Khasib; Alaa Hmade; Walid Basha; Bernadette Soudah AbouAtta; Bashar Saad; Omar Said

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF- α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) ...

  11. Stimulation of Nitric Oxide Production Contributes to the Antithrombotic Effect of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1α in Preventing Microsurgical Anastomotic Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ya-Chao; Chen, Hong-Hao; Kang, Qing-Lin; Chai, Yi-Min

    2016-07-01

    Background Intimal injury plays a critical role in initiating the pathogenesis of thrombosis formation after microsurgical anastomosis. Application of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is reported to promote early regeneration of injured intima through migration of endothelial cells and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells. We therefore hypothesized that local transfer of SDF-1α gene would inhibit microsurgical anastomotic thrombosis. Methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided randomly into three groups (SDF-1α group, plasmid group, and saline group) in this study. Plasmid DNA encoding SDF-1α, empty plasmid, and saline were injected into the left femoral muscles of rats from each group, respectively. Seven days after injection, peripheral blood samples were obtained to measure the plasma levels of SDF-1α and nitric oxide (NO). The left femoral artery of each rat was crushed, transected, and repaired by end-to-end microsurgical anastomosis. Vascular patency was assessed at 15, 30, and 120 minutes after reperfusion using milk test. Thrombosis formation was assessed with hematoxylin and eosin staining and scanning electron microscopy at 120 minutes postoperatively. Results The plasma levels of SDF-1α and NO in SDF-1α group were significantly higher than those in plasmid group and saline group (p < 0.01). The patency rate in SDF-1α group was significantly higher than that in control groups at 120 minutes after reperfusion (p < 0.05). Treatment of SDF-1α significantly reduced the size of thrombotic occlusion when compared with controls (p < 0.05). All SDF-1α recipients exhibited decreased thrombosis under scanning electron microscopy. Conclusions The current study demonstrated that local transfer of SDF-1α gene increases arterial patency and inhibits microsurgical anastomotic thrombosis in a crush model of femoral artery in rat. The antithrombotic effect of SDF-1α may be mediated through increased production of

  12. Hypericum triquetrifolium—Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Bashar; AbouAtta, Bernadette Soudah; Basha, Walid; Hmade, Alaa; Kmail, Abdalsalam; Khasib, Said; Said, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion and the expression of iNOS in THP-1 cells. Cells were treated with 5 μg lipopolysaccharide/ml (LPS) in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of extracts from the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium. During the entire experimental period, we used extract concentrations (up to 250 μg mL−1) that had no cytotoxic effects, as measured with MTT and LDH assays. Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced NO release, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced transcription of iNOS and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression and release of TNF-α. No significant effects were observed on the release of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that H. triquetrifolium probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and iNOS expressions. PMID:18955363

  13. Hypericum triquetrifolium-Derived Factors Downregulate the Production Levels of LPS-Induced Nitric Oxide and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in THP-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Bashar; Abouatta, Bernadette Soudah; Basha, Walid; Hmade, Alaa; Kmail, Abdalsalam; Khasib, Said; Said, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Based on knowledge from traditional Arab herbal medicine, this in vitro study aims to examine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of Hypericum triquetrifolium by measuring the expression and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukine-6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in human monocytic cells, THP-1. The effects were assessed by measuring the levels of secretory proteins and mRNA of TNF-α and IL-6, the levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion and the expression of iNOS in THP-1 cells. Cells were treated with 5 μg lipopolysaccharide/ml (LPS) in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of extracts from the aerial parts of H. triquetrifolium. During the entire experimental period, we used extract concentrations (up to 250 μg mL(-1)) that had no cytotoxic effects, as measured with MTT and LDH assays. Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts remarkably suppressed the LPS-induced NO release, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced transcription of iNOS and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the expression and release of TNF-α. No significant effects were observed on the release of IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that H. triquetrifolium probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of TNF-α and iNOS expressions. PMID:18955363

  14. NCX-1015, a nitric-oxide derivative of prednisolone, enhances regulatory T cells in the lamina propria and protects against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice

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    Fiorucci, Stefano; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Del Soldato, Piero; Flower, Roderick J.; Clark, Mark J. Paul; Morelli, Antonio; Perretti, Mauro; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2002-01-01

    NCX-1015 is a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of prednisolone. In this study we show NCX-1015 protects mice against the S. A. development and induces healing of T helper cell type 1-mediated experimental colitis induced by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The beneficial effect of NCX-1015 was reflected in increased survival rates, improvement of macroscopic and histologic scores, a decrease in the mucosal content of T helper cell type 1 cytokines (protein and mRNA), and diminished myeloperoxidase activity in the colon. In contrast to its NO derivative, only very high doses of prednisolone were effective in reproducing these beneficial effects. NCX-1015 was 10- to 20-fold more potent than the parent compound in inhibiting IFN-γ secretion by lamina propria mononuclear cells. Protection against developing colitis correlated with inhibition of nuclear translocation of p65/Rel A in these cells. In vivo treatment with NCX-1015 potently stimulated IL-10 production, suggesting that the NO steroid induces a regulatory subset of T cells that negatively modulates intestinal inflammation. PMID:12427966

  15. An essential role of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in vasorelaxations induced by black tea polyphenols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Green tea has received much attention as protective agent against cardiovascular disease and cancer, the two primary targets of preventive medicine. Since our first demonstration in 1999 of the involvement of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in the acute vasodilator effect of green tea polyphenols, several new vascular protective effects of green tea catechins have been identified. Theaflavins are another class of polyphenol pigments found in black tea, however, little is known about their bioactivity in the vascular system. We have recently demonstrated that black tea and its theaflavins cause relaxations of rat aortas via endothelial nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms and the tea polyphenols are very effective in protecting endothelial function agonist oxidative stress. The present results support the vascular benefit of consumption of black tea, which is equal to that of drinking green tea in terms of their endothelial cell protection and antioxidant capacity.

  16. Is endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide involved in cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation-related damage?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Rus; Ma Peinado; S Blanco; Ml Del Moral

    2011-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to act both as a destructive and a protective agent in the pathogenesis of the injuries that occur during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). It has been suggested that this dual role of NO depends directly on the isoform of NO synthase (NOS) involved. In this work, we investigate the role that NO derived from endothelial NOS (eNOS) plays in cardiac H/R-induced injury.Wistar rats were submitted to H/R (hypoxia for 30 min; reoxygenation of 0 h, 12 h and 5 days), with or without prior treatment using the selective eNOS inhibitor L-NIO (20 mg/kg). Lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and protein nitration, as well as NO production (NOx), were analysed. The results showed that L-NIO administration lowered NOx levels in all the experimental groups. However, no change was found in the lipid peroxidation level, the percentage of apoptotic cells or nitrated protein expression, implying that eNOS-derived NO may not be involved in the injuries occurring during H/R in the heart. We conclude that L-NIO would not be useful in alleviating the adverse effects of cardiac H/R.

  17. Purification of a novel nitric oxide inhibitory peptide derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of Mytilus coruscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kang, Seo Hee; Choi, Dong-Kug; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Jung Suck; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2013-06-01

    Shellfish contain significant levels of high quality protein and are therefore a potential source for biofunctional high-value peptides. To purify a novel anti-inflammatory peptide from Mytilus coruscus (M. coruscus), we applied enzymatic hydrolysis and tangential flow filtration (TFF) and investigated its nitric oxide inhibitory property. To prepare the peptide, eight proteases were employed for enzymatic hydrolysis. Flavouzyme hydrolysates, which showed clearly superior nitric oxide inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7, were further purified using a TFF system and consecutive chromatographic methods. Finally, a novel anti-inflammatory peptide composed of 10 amino acid residues was obtained, and the sequence was identified as Gly-Val-Ser-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Leu at N-terminal position. The peptide from M. coruscus effectively inhibited nitric oxide production on macrophage cells. This is the first report of an anti-inflammatory peptide derived from the hydrolysates of M. coruscus. PMID:23500953

  18. Whole body UVA irradiation lowers systemic blood pressure by release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivates

    OpenAIRE

    Opländer, C.; Volkmar, C.M.; Paunel-Görgülü, A; van Faassen, E.E.H.; Heiss, C

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Human skin contains photolabile nitric oxide derivates like nitrite and S-nitroso thiols, which after UVA irradiation, decompose and lead to the formation of vasoactive NO. Objective: Here, we investigated whether whole body UVA irradiation influences the blood pressure of healthy volunteers because of cutaneous nonenzymatic NO formation. Methods and Results: As detected by chemoluminescence detection or by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in vitro with human skin speci...

  19. Choosing the right chondrocyte cell line: Focus on nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Anna; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Abella, Vanessa; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a catabolic factor that contributes to OA pathology by inducing chondrocytes apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases synthesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Thus, the research on NO regulation in chondrocytes represents a relevant field which needs to be explored in depth. However, to date, only the murine ATDC-5 cell line and primary chondrocytes are well-established cells to study NO production in cartilage tissues. The goal of this study is to determine whether two commonly used human chondrocytic cell lines: SW-1353 and T/C-28a2 cell lines are good models to examine lipopolysaccharide and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven NO release and iNOS expression. To this aim, we carefully examined NO production and iNOS protein expression in human T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 chondrocytes stimulated with LPS and interleukin (IL)-1 alone or in combination. We also use ATDC-5 cells as a positive control for NO production. NO accumulation has been determined by colorimetric Griess reaction, whereas NOS type II expression was determined by Western Blot analysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that neither human T/C-28a2 nor SW-1353 chondrocytes showed a detectable increase in NO production or iNOS expression after bacterial endotoxin or cytokines challenge with IL-1. Our study demonstrated that T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 human cell lines are not suitable for studying NO release and iNOS expression confirming that ATDC5 and human primary cultured chondrocytes are the best in vitro cell system to study the actions derived from this mediator. PMID:26016689

  20. Novel anticancer oridonin derivatives possessing a diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate nitric oxide donor moiety: Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and nitric oxide release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shengtao; Wang, Guangyu; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Yanju; Pei, Lingling; Yao, Hong; Hu, Mei; Qiu, Yangyi; Huang, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yihua; Xu, Jinyi

    2016-06-15

    Oridonin (1) is a complex ent-kaurane diterpenoid with unique antitumor profile, which is isolated from Isodon rubescens. In order to develop novel derivatives of oridonin with improved potency, a series of nitric oxide (NO)-releasing oridonin derivatives were synthesized by coupling diazeniumdiolates with oridonin and its semisynthesized analogues. Their in vitro antiproliferative activity, nitric oxide release ability, and preliminary anticancer mechanism were further evaluated. The results displayed that all the target compounds exhibited potent antiproliferative activities, with IC50 values ranging from 1.84 to 17.01μM. Besides, it was observed that in most cases, the antiproliferative activity correlated well with levels of intracellular NO release. More interestingly, preliminary mechanism studies revealed that the most potent compound 14d induced apoptosis and arrested the cell cycle at the S phase in Bel-7402 cells, which is different from parent compound oridonin. Together, the above promising results warrant the further development of oridonin/NO hybrids as potential antitumor leads. PMID:27158140

  1. Nitric oxide: A regulator of stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Rosocha, J.; Vanický, I.; Jergová, S.; Nagyová, M.; Juhásová, Jana; Čížek, M.

    Kerala: Transworld Research Network, 2009 - (Lukáčová, N.), s. 27-39 ISBN 978-81-7895-416-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : stem cells * nitric oxide Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  2. Modulation of endothelial nitric oxide by plant-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christoph A; Dirsch, Verena M

    2009-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is recognised as a central anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic principle in the vasculature. Decreased availability of NO in the vasculature promotes the progression of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that a growing list of natural products, as components of the daily diet or phytomedical preparations, may improve vascular function by enhancing NO bioavailability. In this article we first outline common pathways modulating endothelial NO production or bioavailability to provide a basis for subsequent mechanistic discussions. Then we comprehensively review natural products and plant extracts known to positively influence eNOS activity and/or endothelial function in vitro or in vivo. We will discuss red wine, highlighting polyphenols, oligomeric procyanidins (OPC) and resveratrol as modulators of endothelial NO production. Other dietary products and their active components known to activate eNOS include cocoa (OPC and its monomer (-)-epicatechin), pomegranates (polyphenols), black and green tea (flavanoids, especially epigallocatechin gallate), olive oil (oleic acid and polyphenols), soy (genistein), and quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in plants. In addition, phytomedical preparations made from ginkgo, hawthorn and ginseng, as well as formulations used in traditional Chinese Medicine, have been shown to affect endothelial NO production. Recurring phytochemical patterns among active fractions and purified compounds are discussed. In summary, there is increasing evidence that several single natural products and plant extracts influence endothelial NO production. Identification of such compounds and characterisation of their cellular actions may increase our knowledge of the regulation of endothelial NO production and could provide valuable clues for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19497380

  3. Inhibitory effects of indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay, Arzu Zeynep; Koc, Aslı; Gurkan-Alp, A Selen; Buyukbingol, Zeliha; Buyukbingol, Erdem

    2015-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-lipoic acid) is a potent antioxidant compound that has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects. RAW 264.7 macrophages produce various inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-alpha upon activation with LPS (Lipopolysaccharide) and IFNγ (interferon gamma). In this study, the effect of 12 synthetic indole α-lipoic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) protein expression in LPS/IFNγ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages was determined. Cell proliferation, nitric oxide levels and iNOS protein expression were examined with thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue test, griess assay and western blot, respectively. Our results showed that all of the indole α-lipoic acid derivatives showed significant inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and iNOS protein levels (p < 0.05). The most active compounds were identified as compound I-4b, I-4e and II-3b. In conclusion, these indole α-lipoic acid derivatives may have the potential for treatment of inflammatory conditions related with high nitric oxide production. PMID:25727912

  4. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase-derived nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ-induced pulmonary inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increases nitric oxide (NO) production, which is proposed to play a role in the resulting pulmonary damage and inflammation. To determine the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-induced NO in this lung reaction, the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (iNOS KO) versus C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice to aspirated LPS + IFN-γ were compared. Male mice (8-10 weeks) were exposed to LPS (1.2 mg/kg) + IFN-γ (5000 U/mouse) or saline. At 24 or 72 h postexposure, lungs were lavaged with saline and the acellular fluid from the first bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, albumin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). The cellular fraction of the total BAL was used to determine alveolar macrophage (AM) and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) counts, and AM zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence (AM-CL). Pulmonary responses 24 h postexposure to LPS + IFN-γ were characterized by significantly decreased TAC, increased BAL AMs and PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-α, and MIP-2, and enhanced AM-CL to the same extent in both WT and iNOS KO mice. Responses 72 h postexposure were similar; however, significant differences were found between WT and iNOS KO mice. iNOS KO mice demonstrated a greater decline in total antioxidant capacity, greater BAL PMNs, LDH, albumin, TNF-α, and MIP-2, and an enhanced AM-CL compared to the WT. These data suggest that the role of iNOS-derived NO in the pulmonary response to LPS + IFN-γ is anti-inflammatory, and this becomes evident over time

  5. Endothelial cell nitric oxide production in acute chest syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerman, S I; Klings, E S; Hendra, K P; Upchurch, G R; Rishikof, D C; Loscalzo, J; Farber, H W

    1999-10-01

    Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is the most common form of acute pulmonary disease associated with sickle cell disease. To investigate the possibility that alterations in endothelial cell (EC) production and metabolism of nitric oxide (NO) products might be contributory, we measured NO products from cultured pulmonary EC exposed to red blood cells and/or plasma from sickle cell patients during crisis. Exposure to plasma from patients with ACS caused a 5- to 10-fold increase in S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) and a 7- to 14-fold increase in total nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) production by both pulmonary arterial and microvascular EC. Increases occurred within 2 h of exposure to plasma in a concentration-dependent manner and were associated with increases in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein and eNOS enzymatic activity, but not with changes in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) III or NOS II transcripts, inducible NOS (iNOS) protein nor iNOS enzymatic activity. RSNO and NO(x) increased whether plasma was obtained from patients with ACS or other forms of vasoocclusive crisis. Furthermore, an oxidative state occurred and oxidative metabolites of NO, particularly peroxynitrite, were produced. These findings suggest that altered NO production and metabolism to damaging oxidative molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of ACS. PMID:10516198

  6. INSULIN INDUCES NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION IN BOVINEAORTIC ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of insulin on cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells ( BAEC ) . Methods The mi togenesis was assessed by MTT method; the products of NO in the culture media, by Griess reaction; and the levels of NOS mRNA in BAEC , by RT/PCR tech nique. Results BAEC were not responsive to the growth-promoting effects of insulin. Stimulation with insulin resulted a dose-dependent rise of NO in the culture supernatants 2h later, with a maximum at 12~24h and a decline at 24h. This rise was inhibited by an inhibitor of NOS (L-NAME). NOS mRNA increased slightly in BAEC without statistical significance. Conelu sion The study suggested that the insulin-induced NO release might be caused directly by NOS activation.

  7. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development. (paper)

  8. Postischemic vasodilation in human forearm is dependent on endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, I T; Currie, K E; Anderson, T J; Roddy, M A; Ganz, P; Creager, M A

    1996-04-01

    Although endothelium-derived nitric oxide contributes to basal vascular tone, little is known about its role in regulating blood flow during changes in metabolic supply and demand. We examined the contribution of endothelium-derived nitric oxide to reactive hyperemia in the forearm of 20 normal subjects (12 women, 8 men) aged 27 +/- 4 yr (means +/- SD), using the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Forearm ischemia was induced by suprasystolic blood pressure cuff inflation for 5 min, and the subsequent hyperemic flow was recorded for 5 min using venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. The efficacy of nitric oxide blockade was tested by comparing the dose-response relationship to the endothelium-dependent agonist, acetylcholine (3, 10, and 30 mg/min), before and after intra-arterial infusion of up to 2,000 mg/min of L-NMMA. L-NMMA produced a significant downward and rightward shift in the dose-response relationship to acetylcholine and a 39% reduction in response to the maximum dose (P curve, at 1 and 5 min after cuff release was 17 and 23% less, respectively (13.6 +/- 1.2 vs. 11.3 +/- 1.1 and 31.8 +/- 2.7 vs. 24.6 +/- 1.8 ml/100 ml, P < 0.002), following L-NMMA. These data suggest that endothelium-derived nitric oxide plays a role in both reactive hyperemia and in the maintenance of the hyperemic response following ischemia in the forearm. PMID:8967386

  9. Anti-thrombotic effects of a nitric oxide-releasing, gastric-sparing aspirin derivative.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, J. L.; McKnight, W; del Soldato, P; Baydoun, A. R.; Cirino, G

    1995-01-01

    Effects of a nitroxybutylester derivative of aspirin (NCX 4215) on platelet aggregation and prostanoid synthesis were compared to the effects of aspirin. NCX 4215 was approximately seven times more potent than aspirin as an inhibitor of thrombin-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro, but did not inhibit platelet thromboxane synthesis or gastric prostaglandin synthesis. NCX 4215 released nitric oxide when incubated in the presence of platelets and increased platelet levels of cGMP within...

  10. Shear-Induced Nitric Oxide Production by Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Krishna; Laughlin, Justin G; Rangamani, Padmini; Tartakovsky, Daniel M

    2016-07-12

    We present a biochemical model of the wall shear stress-induced activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in an endothelial cell. The model includes three key mechanotransducers: mechanosensing ion channels, integrins, and G protein-coupled receptors. The reaction cascade consists of two interconnected parts. The first is rapid activation of calcium, which results in formation of calcium-calmodulin complexes, followed by recruitment of eNOS from caveolae. The second is phosphorylation of eNOS by protein kinases PKC and AKT. The model also includes a negative feedback loop due to inhibition of calcium influx into the cell by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In this feedback, increased nitric oxide (NO) levels cause an increase in cGMP levels, so that cGMP inhibition of calcium influx can limit NO production. The model was used to predict the dynamics of NO production by an endothelial cell subjected to a step increase of wall shear stress from zero to a finite physiologically relevant value. Among several experimentally observed features, the model predicts a highly nonlinear, biphasic transient behavior of eNOS activation and NO production: a rapid initial activation due to the very rapid influx of calcium into the cytosol (occurring within 1-5 min) is followed by a sustained period of activation due to protein kinases. PMID:27410748

  11. The role of nitric-oxide-synthase-derived nitric oxide in multicellular traits of Bacillus subtilis 3610: biofilm formation, swarming, and dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprecht-Grandio María

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus subtilis 3610 displays multicellular traits as it forms structurally complex biofilms and swarms on solid surfaces. In addition, B. subtilis encodes and expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS, an enzyme that is known to enable NO-mediated intercellular signalling in multicellular eukaryotes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NOS-derived NO is involved in the coordination of multicellularity in B. subtilis 3610. Results We show that B. subtilis 3610 produces intracellular NO via NOS activity by combining Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy with the NO sensitive dye copper fluorescein (CuFL. We further investigated the influence of NOS-derived NO and exogenously supplied NO on the formation of biofilms, swarming motility and biofilm dispersal. These experiments showed that neither the suppression of NO formation with specific NOS inhibitors, NO scavengers or deletion of the nos gene, nor the exogenous addition of NO with NO donors affected (i biofilm development, (ii mature biofilm structure, and (iii swarming motility in a qualitative and quantitative manner. In contrast, the nos knock-out and wild-type cells with inhibited NOS displayed strongly enhanced biofilm dispersal. Conclusion The results suggest that biofilm formation and swarming motility in B. subtilis represent complex multicellular processes that do not employ NO signalling and are remarkably robust against interference of NO. Rather, the function of NOS-derived NO in B. subtilis might be specific for cytoprotection against oxidative stress as has been proposed earlier. The influence of NOS-derived NO on dispersal of B. subtilis from biofilms might be associated to its well-known function in coordinating the transition from oxic to anoxic conditions. Here, NOS-derived NO might be involved in fine-tuning the cellular decision-making between adaptation of the metabolism to (anoxic conditions in the biofilm or dispersal from the biofilm.

  12. Nitric Oxide And Hypoxia Response In Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Caballano Infantes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of pluripotent cells (ESCs and iPSCs under conditions that maintain their pluripotency is necessary to implement a cell therapy program. Previously, we have described that low nitric oxide (NO donor diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO added to the culture medium, promote the expansion of these cell types. The molecular mechanisms are not yet known. We present evidences that ESC and iPSCs in normoxia in presence of low NO triggers a similar response to hypoxia, thus maintaining the pluripotency. We have studied the stability of HIF-1α (Hypoxia Inducible Factor in presence of low NO. Because of the close relationship between hypoxia, metabolism, mitochondrial function and pluripotency we have analyzed by q RT-PCR the expression of genes involved in the glucose metabolism such as: HK2, LDHA and PDK1; besides other HIF-1α target gene. We further analyzed the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC1α, TFAM and NRF1 and we have observed that low NO maintains the same pattern of expression that in hypoxia. The study of the mitochondrial membrane potential using Mito-Tracker dye showed that NO decrease the mitochondrial function. We will analyze other metabolic parameters, to determinate if low NO regulates mitochondrial function and mimics Hypoxia Response. The knowledge of the role of NO in the Hypoxia Response and the mechanism that helps to maintain self-renewal in pluripotent cells in normoxia, can help to the design of culture media where NO could be optimal for stem cell expansion in the performance of future cell therapies.

  13. Nitric Oxide (NO) Measurements in Stomatal Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurla, Srinivas; Gayatri, Gunja; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in plant cells acquired great importance, in view of the multifaceted function and involvement of NO as a signal in various plant processes. Monitoring of NO in guard cells is quite simple because of the large size of guard cells and ease of observing the detached epidermis under microscope. Stomatal guard cells therefore provide an excellent model system to study the components of signal transduction. The levels and functions of NO in relation to stomatal closure can be monitored, with the help of an inverted fluorescence or confocal microscope. We can measure the NO in guard cells by using flouroprobes like 4,5-diamino fluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA). This fluorescent dye, DAF-2DA, is cell permeable and after entry into the cell, the diacetate group is removed by the cellular esterases. The resulting DAF-2 form is membrane impermeable and reacts with NO to generate the highly fluorescent triazole (DAF-2T), with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 530 nm, respectively. If time-course measurements are needed, the epidermis can be adhered to a cover-glass or glass slide and left in a small petri dishes. Fluorescence can then be monitored at required time intervals; with a precaution that excitation is done minimally, only when a fluorescent image is acquired. The present method description is for the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Pisum sativum and should work with most of the other dicotyledonous plants. PMID:27094410

  14. Vasorelaxant effects of a nitric oxide-releasing aspirin derivative in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muscará, Marcelo N; Lovren, Fina; McKnight, Webb; Dicay, Michael; Soldato, Piero Del; Triggle, Christopher R; Wallace, John L

    2001-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been reported to exacerbate hypertension and to interfere with the effectiveness of some anti-hypertensive therapies. In this study, we tested the effects of a gastric-sparing, nitric oxide-releasing derivative of aspirin (NCX-4016) on hypertension in rats.Hypertension was induced by administering L-NAME in the drinking water (400 mg l−1). Groups of rats were treated daily with aspirin, NCX-4016 or vehicle.NCX-4016 significantly reduced blood pressure...

  15. Determination of U(VI) and Pu(IV) in nitric acid solutions with derivative spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the absorption spectra and fourth derivative spectra (FDS) of U(VI) and Pu(IV) in nitric acid solutions and the effect of impurities on FDS. The concentrations of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with peak-zero method at 415 nm and peak-area method between 472.5-479.5 nm are determined, respectively. When CHNO3 or CNO3- is in 1.5-3.0 mol/l, U(VI) can be directly determined by FDS, with the analysis deviation -4 mol/l

  16. Nitric oxide modulates interleukin-2-induced proliferation in CTLL-2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Padrón, J.; Glaría, L.; Martinez, O.; Torres, M.; Lopez, E.; Delgado, R.; Caveda, L.; Rojas, A.

    1996-01-01

    The role of the L-arginine–nitric oxide metabolic pathway was explored for interleukin-2-induced proliferation in the cytotoxic T lymphocyte clone CTLL-2. Specific inhibition of nitric oxide synthase significantly diminished, in a concentration-dependent manner, 3H-thymidine uptake of CTLL-2 cells in response to different concentrations of interleukin 2. Withdrawal of L-arginine from culture medium resulted as potent as the higher inhibition obtained when blocking nitric oxide synthase with L...

  17. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenzhen; Yang, Bingwu; Fu, Huiling; Ma, Long; Liu, Tingting; Chai, Rongfei; Zheng, Zhaodi [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Zhang, Qunye, E-mail: wz.zhangqy@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research Chinese Ministry of Education and Ministry of Public Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong (China); Li, Guorong, E-mail: grli@sdnu.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Resistant Biology, School of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)

    2015-03-13

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation.

  18. Flavone inhibits nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, nitric oxide production and protein S-nitrosylation in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the core structure of flavonoids, flavone has been proved to possess anticancer effects. Flavone's growth inhibitory functions are related to NO. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and generally increased in a variety of cancer cells. NO regulates multiple cellular responses by S-nitrosylation. In this study, we explored flavone-induced regulations on nitric oxide (NO)-related cellular processes in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that, flavone suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. Flavone restrains NO synthesis by does-dependent inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity. The decrease of NO generation was detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Flavone-induced inhibitory effect on NOS activity is dependent on intact cell structure. For the NO-induced protein modification, flavone treatment significantly down-regulated protein S-nitrosylation, which was detected by “Biotin-switch” method. The present study provides a novel, NO-related mechanism for the anticancer function of flavone. - Highlights: • Flavone inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. • Flavone decreases nitric oxide production by inhibiting NOS enzymatic activity in breast cancer cells. • Flavone down-regulates protein S-nitrosylation

  19. Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells Inhibit T Cell Activation by Depleting Cystine and Cysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Minu K Srivastava; Sinha, Pratima; Clements, Virginia K.; Rodriguez, Paulo; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most cancer patients and are potent inhibitors of T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Their inhibitory activity is attributed to production of arginase, reactive oxygen species, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and IL-10. We now report that MDSC also block T cell activation by sequestering cystine and limiting the availability of cysteine. Cysteine is an essential amino acid for T cell activation because T cells lack cystathionase, which...

  20. Nitric oxide and thermogenesis--challenge in molecular cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otasevic, Vesna; Korac, Aleksandra; Buzadzic, Biljana; Stancic, Ana; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Korac, Bato

    2011-01-01

    Only recently we can link thermogenesis, mitochondria, nitric oxide, and redox regulation in biochemical terms. Currently, we are discussing these processes from the aspect of fundamental principles of molecular physiology. Thus, the present article highlights both cell physiology and the principles of the maintenance of energy homeostasis in organisms. Energy homeostasis means much more than simple combustion; adipose tissues at this point of evolution development are related to a broad spectrum of metabolic disturbances and all aspects of cellular remodeling (i.e. structural, metabolic and endocrine changes). Therefore, this paper addresses not only thermogenesis but also energy homeostasis, oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocytes, their life and death, mitochondriogenesis and angiogenesis. These processes will be united by molecular players of oxidation/reduction reactions, thus creating the principles based on the redox regulation. PMID:21622264

  1. The metabolites of nitric oxide in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D C; Cervi, P; Grimwade, D; O'Driscoll, A; Hamilton, M; Parker, N E; Porter, J B

    1995-12-01

    Plasma NOx concentrations were raised in 22 acute painful crises in SCD. We have measured blood concentrations of nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in sickle-cell disease (SCD), and shown that they are increased compared with healthy controls (P = 0.002), and haemoglobin E/beta-thalassaemic controls (P = 0.05). Concentrations in steady-state SCD were also higher than in healthy controls (P = 0.04) but not significantly different from the concentrations at the beginning of painful crises (P = 0.34). Importantly, in 12 regularly exchanged sicklers, the mean pre-transfusion NOx concentration did not differ significantly from the control population (P = 0.52), suggesting that the changes in NO metabolism can be reversed. It is unlikely that the increased concentrations of NOx in SCD result from anaemia or haemolysis as the untransfused haemoglobin E/beta-thalassaemics did not show increased levels. PMID:8547126

  2. Bile acids increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration and nitric oxide production in vascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yukichi; Chisaki, Keigo; Shin, Wee-Soo; Iwasawa, Kuniaki; Morita, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Seizi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Toyo-Oka, Teruhiko; Nagai, Ryozo; Omata, Masao

    2000-01-01

    The effects of bile acids on intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i and nitric oxide production were investigated in vascular endothelial cells.Whole-cell patch clamp techniques and fluorescence measurements of [Ca2+]i were applied in vascular endothelial cells obtained from human umbilical and calf aortic endothelial cells. Nitric oxide released was determined by measuring the concentration of NO2−.Deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and the taurine conjugates increased [Ca2+]i concent...

  3. Islet Endothelial Cells Derived From Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-01-01

    The islet endothelium comprises a specialized population of islet endothelial cells (IECs) expressing unique markers such as nephrin and α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) that are not found in endothelial cells in surrounding tissues. However, due to difficulties in isolating and maintaining a pure population of these cells, the information on these islet-specific cells is currently very limited. Interestingly, we have identified a large subpopulation of endothelial cells exhibiting IEC phenotype, while deriving insulin-producing cells from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). These cells were identified by the uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and were successfully isolated and subsequently expanded in endothelial cell culture medium. Further analysis demonstrated that the mouse embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells (mESC-ECs) not only express classical endothelial markers, such as platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM1), thrombomodulin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but also IEC-specific markers such as nephrin and AAT. Moreover, mESC-ECs secrete basement membrane proteins such as collagen type IV, laminin, and fibronectin in culture and form tubular networks on a layer of Matrigel, demonstrating angiogenic activity. Further, mESC-ECs not only express eNOS, but also its eNOS expression is glucose dependent, which is another characteristic phenotype of IECs. With the ability to obtain highly purified IECs derived from pluripotent stem cells, it is possible to closely examine the function of these cells and their interaction with pancreatic β-cells during development and maturation in vitro. Further characterization of tissue-specific endothelial cell properties may enhance our ability to formulate new therapeutic angiogenic approaches for diabetes. PMID:25751085

  4. Modulation of cytokine and nitric oxide by mesenchymal stem cell transfer in lung injury/fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jong-Ho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No effective treatment for acute lung injury and fibrosis currently exists. Aim of this study was to investigate the time-dependent effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs on bleomycin (BLM-induced acute lung injury and fibrosis and nitric oxide metabolites and inflammatory cytokine production. Methods BMDMSCs were transferred 4 days after BLM inhalation. Wet/dry ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage cell profiles, histologic changes and deposition of collagen were analyzed. Results Nitrite, nitrate and cytokines were measured weekly through day 28. At day 7, the wet/dry ratio, neutrophilic inflammation, and amount of collagen were elevated in BLM-treated rats compared to sham rats (p = 0.05-0.002. Levels nitrite, nitrate, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β and VEGF were also higher at day 7 (p p in situ hybridization localized the engrafted cells to areas of lung injury. Conclusion Systemic transfer of BMDMSCs effectively reduced the BLM-induced lung injury and fibrosis through the down-regulation of nitric oxide metabolites, and proinflammatory and angiogenic cytokines.

  5. MACROPHAGE-TUMOR CELL INTERACTIONS REGULATE THE FUNCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichalAmitRahat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cell-macrophage interactions change as the tumor progresses, and the generation of nitric oxide (NO by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS plays a major role in this interplay. In early stages, macrophages employ their killing mechanisms, particularly the generation of high concentrations of NO and its derivative reactive nitrogen species (RNS to initiate tumor cell apoptosis and destroy emerging transformed cells. If the tumor escapes the immune system and grows, macrophages that infiltrate it are reprogrammed in situ by the tumor microenvironment. Low oxygen tensions (hypoxia and immunosuppressive cytokines inhibit iNOS activity and lead to production of low amounts of NO/RNS, which are pro-angiogenic and support tumor growth and metastasis by inducing growth factors (e.g. VEGF and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. We review here the different roles of NO/RNS in tumor progression and inhibition, and the mechanisms that regulate iNOS expression and NO production, highlighting the role of different subtypes of macrophages and the microenvironment. We finally claim that some tumor cells may become resistant to macrophage-induced death by increasing their expression of microRNA-146a (miR-146a, which leads to inhibition of iNOS translation. This implies that some cooperation between tumor cells and macrophages is required to induce tumor cell death, and that tumor cells may control their fate. Thus, in order to induce susceptibility of tumors cells to macrophage-induced death, we suggest a new therapeutic approach that couples manipulation of miR-146a levels in tumors with macrophage therapy, which relies on ex vivo stimulation of macrophages and their re-introduction to tumors.

  6. N-Substituted acetamidines and 2-methylimidazole derivatives as selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Patruno, Antonia; Lannutti, Fabio; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Franceschelli, Sara; Giampietro, Letizia; Masella, Simona; Felaco, Mario; Re, Nazzareno; Amoroso, Rosa

    2010-11-15

    A series of N-substituted acetamidines and 2-methylimidazole derivatives structurally related to W1400 were synthesized and evaluated as Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Analogs with sterically hindering isopropyl and phenyl substituents on the benzylic carbon connecting the aromatic core of W1400 to the acetamidine nitrogen, showed good inhibitory potency for nNOS (IC(50)=0.2 and 0.3 μM) and selectivity over eNOS (500 and 1166) and to a lesser extent over iNOS (50 and 100). A molecular modeling study allowed to shed light on the effects of the structural modifications on the selectivity of the designed inhibitors toward the different NOS isoforms. PMID:20933416

  7. Interaction of caveolin-1, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthases in hypoxic human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiangang; Lee, Waisin; Li, Yue; Lau, Chi Fai; Ng, Kwong Man; Fung, Man Lung; Liu, Ke Jian

    2008-10-01

    Neuroblastoma cells are capable of hypoxic adaptation, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 (cav-1), a plasma membrane signal molecule, might play a role in protecting neuroblastoma cells from oxidative injury by modulating nitric oxide (NO) production. We investigated the alterations of cav-1, cav-2, nitric oxide synthases (NOS), and NO levels in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells exposed to hypoxia with 2% [O2]. The major discoveries include: (i) cav-1 but not cav-2 was up-regulated in the cells exposed to 15 h of hypoxia; (ii) NO donor 1-[N, N-di-(2-aminoethyl) amino] diazen-1-ium-1, 2-diolate up-regulated the expression of cav-1, whereas the non-selective NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor 1400W each abolished the increase in cav-1 expression in the hypoxic SK-N-MC cells. These results suggest that iNOS-induced NO production contributes to the up-regulation of cav-1 in the hypoxic SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, we studied the roles played by cav-1 in regulating NO, NOS, and apoptotic cell death in the SK-N-MC cells subjected to 15 h of hypoxic treatment. Both cav-1 transfection and cav-1 scaffolding domain peptide abolished the induction of iNOS, reduced the production of NO, and reduced the rates of apoptotic cell death in the hypoxic SK-N-MC cells. These results suggest that increased expression of cav-1 in response to hypoxic stimulation could prevent oxidative injury induced by reactive oxygen species. The interactions of cav-1, NO, and NOS could be an important signal pathway in protecting the neuroblastoma cells from oxidative injury, contributing to the hypoxic tolerance of neuroblastoma cells. PMID:18717816

  8. Carnosine facilitates nitric oxide production in endothelial f-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Satoru; Nakashima, Yukiko; Toda, Ken-Ichi

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effect of carnosine (beta-alanyl-histidine) on nitric oxide (NO) production and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activation in endothelial F-2 cells. Carnosine enhanced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect of carnosine was observed at concentrations exceeding 5 mM. The carnosine-stimulated NO production was inhibited by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, but not by N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester. In contrast, beta-alanine, histidine (carnosine components) and anserine (N-methyl carnosine) failed to increase NO production. Carnosine had no effect on NO production for the initial 5 min, but thereafter resulted in a gradual increase in NO production up to 15 min. Carnosine did not induce phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. The carnosine-induced increase in NO production was observed even when extracellular Ca2+ was depleted by ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N'-N'-tetraacetic acid however, the effect was abolished upon depletion of intracellular Ca2+ by BAPTA. After F-2 cells were incubated with carnosine for 4 min, intracellular Ca2+ concentration gradually increased. The carnosine-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration occurred even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. These results indicate that carnosine facilitates NO production in endothelial F-2 cells. It is also suggested that eNOS is activated by Ca2+, which might be released from intracellular Ca2+ stores in response to carnosine. PMID:19881293

  9. Fibroblastic reticular cells from lymph nodes attenuate T cell expansion by producing nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Stefanie; Huang, Hsin-Ying; Yang, Chen-Ying; Scarpellino, Leonardo; Carrie, Lucie; Essex, Sarah; Nelson, Peter J; Heikenwalder, Matthias; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Buckley, Christopher D; Marsland, Benjamin J; Zehn, Dietmar; Luther, Sanjiv A

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses are initiated when T cells encounter antigen on dendritic cells (DC) in T zones of secondary lymphoid organs. T zones contain a 3-dimensional scaffold of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC) but currently it is unclear how FRC influence T cell activation. Here we report that FRC lines and ex vivo FRC inhibit T cell proliferation but not differentiation. FRC share this feature with fibroblasts from non-lymphoid tissues as well as mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified FRC as strong source of nitric oxide (NO) thereby directly dampening T cell expansion as well as reducing the T cell priming capacity of DC. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was up-regulated in a subset of FRC by both DC-signals as well as interferon-γ produced by primed CD8+ T cells. Importantly, iNOS expression was induced during viral infection in vivo in both LN FRC and DC. As a consequence, the primary T cell response was found to be exaggerated in Inos(-/-) mice. Our findings highlight that in addition to their established positive roles in T cell responses FRC and DC cooperate in a negative feedback loop to attenuate T cell expansion during acute inflammation. PMID:22110693

  10. Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, T. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide can inhibit cytoskeletal breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by inhibiting calpain cleavage of talin. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside prevented many of the effects of calcium ionophore on C(2)C(12) muscle cells, including preventing talin proteolysis and release into the cytosol and reducing loss of vinculin, cell detachment, and loss of cellular protein. These results indicate that nitric oxide inhibition of calpain protected the cells from ionophore-induced proteolysis. Calpain inhibitor I and a cell-permeable calpastatin peptide also protected the cells from proteolysis, confirming that ionophore-induced proteolysis was primarily calpain mediated. The activity of m-calpain in a casein zymogram was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, and this inhibition was reversed by dithiothreitol. Previous incubation with the active site-targeted calpain inhibitor I prevented most of the sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of m-calpain activity. These data suggest that nitric oxide inhibited m-calpain activity via S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine. The results of this study indicate that nitric oxide produced endogenously by skeletal muscle and other cell types has the potential to inhibit m-calpain activity and cytoskeletal proteolysis.

  11. Effects of moderate electrical stimulation on reactive species production by primary rat skeletal muscle cells: cross talk between superoxide and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertucci, Rafael Herling; Silveira, Leonardo Dos Reis; Hirabara, Sandro Massao; Curi, Rui; Sweeney, Gary; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina

    2012-06-01

    The effects of a moderate electrical stimulation on superoxide and nitric oxide production by primary cultured skeletal muscle cells were evaluated. The involvement of the main sites of these reactive species production and the relationship between superoxide and nitric oxide production were also examined. Production of superoxide was evaluated by cytochrome c reduction and dihydroethidium oxidation assays. Electrical stimulation increased superoxide production after 1 h incubation. A xanthine oxidase inhibitor caused a partial decrease of superoxide generation and a significant amount of mitochondria-derived superoxide was also observed. Nitric oxide production was assessed by nitrite measurement and by using 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2-DA) assay. Using both methods an increased production of nitric oxide was obtained after electrical stimulation, which was also able to induce an increase of iNOS content and NF-κB activation. The participation of superoxide in nitric oxide production was investigated by incubating cells with DAF-2-DA in the presence or absence of electrical stimulation, a superoxide generator system (xanthine-xanthine oxidase), a mixture of NOS inhibitors and SOD-PEG. Our data show that the induction of muscle contraction by a moderate electrical stimulation protocol led to an increased nitric oxide production that can be controlled by superoxide generation. The cross talk between these reactive species likely plays a role in exercise-induced maintenance and adaptation by regulating muscular glucose metabolism, force of contraction, fatigue, and antioxidant systems activities. PMID:21898396

  12. Brain BDNF levels are dependent on cerebrovascular endothelium-derived nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banoujaafar, Hayat; Monnier, Alice; Pernet, Nicolas; Quirié, Aurore; Garnier, Philippe; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Marie, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Scientific evidence continues to demonstrate a link between endothelial function and cognition. Besides, several studies have identified a complex interplay between nitric oxide (NO) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin largely involved in cognition. Therefore, this study investigated the link between cerebral endothelium-derived NO and BDNF signaling. For this purpose, levels of BDNF and the phosphorylated form of endothelial NO synthase at serine 1177 (p-eNOS) were simultaneously measured in the cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to either bilateral common carotid occlusion (n = 6), physical exercise (n = 6) or a combination of both (n = 6) as experimental approaches to modulate flow-induced NO production by the cerebrovasculature. Tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) receptors and its phosphorylated form at tyrosine 816 (p-TrkB) were also measured. Moreover, we investigated BDNF synthesis in brain slices exposed to the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate. Our results showed increased p-eNOS and BDNF levels after exercise and decreased levels after vascular occlusion as compared to corresponding controls, with a positive correlation between changes in p-eNOS and BDNF (r = 0.679). Exercise after vascular occlusion did not change levels of these proteins. Gyceryl trinitrate increased proBDNF and BDNF levels in brain slices, thus suggesting a possible causal relationship between NO and BDNF. Moreover, vascular occlusion, like exercise, resulted in increased TrkB and p-TrkB levels, whereas no change was observed with the combination of both. These results suggest that brain BDNF signaling may be dependent on cerebral endothelium-derived NO production. PMID:27306299

  13. Synthesis and effects of new caffeic acid derivatives on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Liu-Xin; Xu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Bo-Wei; Wang, Rui; Fu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 20 new derivatives of caffeic acid esters were synthesized and their inhibitory activities against the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages were determined. Compounds 3l, 3r, 3s and 3t were found to decrease nitrite levels in a dose-dependent manner in LPS-induced cells and showed potent inhibitory activities against the NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 7.4, 5.9, 3.3 and 2.2 μM, respectively. They could b...

  14. Nitric oxide production by murine spleen cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosroseno, Wihaskoro; Herminajeng, Endang; Susilowati, Heni; Budiarti, Sri

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans) could induce murine spleen cells to produce nitric oxide (NO). Spleen cells derived from Balb/c mice were stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS from Escherichia coli for 4 days. The effects of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA), polymyxin B, and cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-4) on the production of NO were also assessed. The NO production from the carrageenan-treated spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma was determined. The carrageenan-treated mice were transferred with splenic macrophages and the NO production was assessed from the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. The results showed that NO production was detectable in the cultures of spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans in a dose-dependent fashion, but was lower than in the cells stimulated with LPS from E. coli. The NO production was blocked by NMMA and polymyxin B. IFN-gamma up-regulated but IL-4 suppressed the production of NO by the spleen cells stimulated with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans. The carrageenan-treated spleen cells failed to produce NO after stimulation with LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans or both LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans and IFN-gamma. Adoptive transfer of splenic macrophages to the carrageenan-treated mice could restore the ability of the spleen cells to produce NO. The results of the present study suggest that LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans under the regulatory control of cytokines induces murine spleen cells to produce NO and that splenic macrophages are the cellular source of the NO production. Therefore, these results may support the view that NO production by LPS-A. actinomycetemcomitans-stimulated macrophages may play a role in the course of periodontal diseases. PMID:16887678

  15. Investigations of the inhibition of copper corrosion in nitric acid solutions by ketene dithioacetal derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, A.; Chibani, A.; Darchen, A.; Boulkamh, A.; Djebbar, K.

    2007-10-01

    Ketene dithioacetal derivatives, namely 3-[bis(methylthio)methylene] pentane-2,4-dione ( 1), 3-(1,3-dithian-2-ylidene) pentane-2,4-dione ( 2) and 3-(1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidene) pentane-2,4-dione ( 3) were synthesized and their respective capacity to inhibit copper corrosion in 3 M HNO 3 was investigated by means of weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The obtained results indicate that the addition of these compounds significantly decreases the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of the investigated compounds at a fixed temperature, but decreases with increasing temperature. These results on the whole showed that the studied substances are good cathodic inhibitors for copper corrosion in nitric acid medium. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) examination of the copper surface revealed that these compounds prevented copper from corrosion by adsorption on its surface to form a protective film, which acts as a barrier to aggressive agents. The presence of these organic compounds adsorbed on the electrode surface was confirmed by XRF investigations.

  16. Curcumin Derivatives as Green Corrosion Inhibitors for α-Brass in Nitric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouda, A. S.; Elattar, K. M.

    2012-11-01

    1,7- Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-hepta-1,6-diene-4-arylazo-3,5-dione I-V have been investigated as corrosion inhibitors for α-brass in 2 M nitric acid solution using weight-loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The efficiency of the inhibitors increases with the increase in the inhibitor concentration but decreases with a rise in temperature. The conjoint effect of the curcumin derivatives and KSCN has also been studied. The apparent activation energy ( E a*) and other thermodynamic parameters for the corrosion process have also been calculated. The galvanostatic polarization data indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed-type, but the cathode is more polarized than the anode. The slopes of the cathodic and anodic Tafel lines ( b c and b a) are maintained approximately equal for various inhibitor concentrations. However, the value of the Tafel slopes increases together as inhibitor concentration increases. The adsorption of these compounds on α-brass surface has been found to obey the Frumkin's adsorption isotherm. The mechanism of inhibition was discussed in the light of the chemical structure of the undertaken inhibitors.

  17. Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, J O; Settergren, G; Gelinder, S; Lundberg, J M; Alving, K; Weitzberg, E

    1996-12-01

    The vasodilator gas nitric oxide (NO) is produced in the paranasal sinuses and is excreted continuously into the nasal airways of humans. This NO will normally reach the lungs with inspiration, especially during nasal breathing. We wanted to investigate the possible effects of low-dose inhalation of NO from the nasal airways on pulmonary function. The effects of nasal and oral breathing on transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2) were studied in healthy subjects. Furthermore, we also investigated whether restoring low-dose NO inhalation would influence pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) and arterial oxygenation (PaO2) in intubated patients who are deprived of NO produced in the nasal airways. Thus, air derived from the patient's own nose was aspirated and led into the inhalation limb of the ventilator. In six out of eight healthy subjects tcPO2 was 10% higher during periods of nasal breathing when compared with periods of oral breathing. In six out of six long-term intubated patients PaO2 increased by 18% in response to the addition of nasal air samples. PVRI was reduced by 11% in four of 12 short-term intubated patients when nasal air was added to the inhaled air. The present study demonstrates that tcPO2 increases during nasal breathing compared with oral breathing in healthy subjects. Furthermore, in intubated patients, who are deprived of self-inhalation of endogenous NO. PaO2 increases and pulmonary vascular resistance may decrease by adding NO-containing air, derived from the patient's own nose, to the inspired air. The involvement of self-inhaled NO in the regulation of pulmonary function may represent a novel physiological principle, namely that of an enzymatically produced airborne messenger. Furthermore, our findings may help to explain one biological role of the human paranasal sinuses. PMID:8971255

  18. Marrow-Derived Cells Regulate the Development of Early Diabetic Retinopathy and Tactile Allodynia in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guangyuan; Veenstra, Alexander A.; Talahalli, Ramaprasad R.; Wang, Xiaoqi; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose A.; Sheibani, Nader; Timothy S. Kern

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that marrow-derived cells, and specifically proinflammatory proteins in those cells, play a critical role in the development of diabetes-induced retinopathy and tactile allodynia was investigated. Abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of retinopathy and allodynia were measured in chimeric mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) or poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase (PARP1) in only their marrow-derived cells. Diabetes-induced capillary degeneration, proinflammat...

  19. Bee Venom Accelerates Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice by Suppressing Activating Transcription Factor-3 (ATF-3) and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS)-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Recruiting Bone Marrow-Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Gamal; Hozzein, Wael N; Badr, Badr M; Al Ghamdi, Ahmad; Saad Eldien, Heba M; Garraud, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to impaired diabetic wound healing including impaired neovascularization and deficient endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment. Bee venom (BV) has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of several diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of BV on the healing of diabetic wounds has not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the impact of BV on diabetic wound closure in a type I diabetic mouse model. Three experimental groups were used: group 1, non-diabetic control mice; group 2, diabetic mice; and group 3, diabetic mice treated with BV. We found that the diabetic mice exhibited delayed wound closure characterized by a significant decrease in collagen production and prolonged elevation of inflammatory cytokines levels in wounded tissue compared to control non-diabetic mice. Additionally, wounded tissue in diabetic mice revealed aberrantly up-regulated expression of ATF-3 and iNOS followed by a marked elevation in free radical levels. Impaired diabetic wound healing was also characterized by a significant elevation in caspase-3, -8, and -9 activity and a marked reduction in the expression of TGF-β and VEGF, which led to decreased neovascularization and angiogenesis of the injured tissue by impairing EPC mobilization. Interestingly, BV treatment significantly enhanced wound closure in diabetic mice by increasing collagen production and restoring the levels of inflammatory cytokines, free radical, TGF-β, and VEGF. Most importantly, BV-treated diabetic mice exhibited mobilized long-lived EPCs by inhibiting caspase activity in the wounded tissue. Our findings reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying improved diabetic wound healing and closure following BV treatment. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2159-2171, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26825453

  20. Interferon-Gamma-Induced Nitric Oxide Inhibits the Proliferation of Murine Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Tate Jr., John R. Patterson, Cruz Velasco-Gonzalez, Emily N. Carroll, Janie Trinh, Daniel Edwards, Ashok Aiyar, Beatriz Finkel-Jimenez, Arnold H. Zea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains one of the most resistant tumors to systemic chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Despite great progress in understanding the basic biology of RCC, the rate of responses in animal models and clinical trials using interferons (IFNs has not improved significantly. It is likely that the lack of responses can be due to the tumor's ability to develop tumor escape strategies. Currently, the use of targeted therapies has improved the clinical outcomes of patients with RCC and is associated with an increase of Th1-cytokine responses (IFNγ, indicating the importance of IFNγ in inhibiting tumor proliferation. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate a new mechanism by which IFNγ mediates direct anti-proliferative effects against murine renal cell carcinoma cell lines. When cultured RCC cell lines were exposed to murine recombinant IFNγ, a dose dependent growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cells was observed; this effect was not observed in Renca cells. Growth inhibition in CL-2 and CL-19 cell lines was associated with the intracellular induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein, resulting in a sustained elevation of nitric oxide (NO and citrulline, and a decrease in arginase activity. The inhibition of cell proliferation appears to be due to an arrest in the cell cycle. The results indicate that in certain RCC cell lines, IFNγ modulates L-arginine metabolism by shifting from arginase to iNOS activity, thereby developing a potent inhibitory mechanism to encumber tumor cell proliferation and survival. Elucidating the cellular events triggered by IFNγ in murine RCC cell lines will permit anti-tumor effects to be exploited in the development of new combination therapies that interfere with L-arginine metabolism to effectively combat RCC in patients.

  1. Study on reduction and back extraction of Pu(IV) by urea derivatives in nitric acid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction kinetics of Pu(IV) by hydroxyl-semicarbazide (HSC), hydroxyurea (HU) and di-hydroxyurea (DHU) in nitric acid solutions were investigated separately with adequate kinetic equations. In addition, counter-current cascade experiments were conducted for Pu split from U in nitric acid media using three kinds of reductant, respectively. The results show that urea derivatives as a kind of novel salt-free reductant can reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) rapidly in the nitric acid solutions. The stripping experimental results showed that Pu(IV) in the organic phase can be stripped rapidly to the aqueous phase by the urea derivatives, and the separation factors of plutonium /uranium can reach more than 104. This indicates that urea derivatives is a kind of promising salt-free agent for uranium/plutonium separation. In addition, the complexing effect of HSC with Np(IV) was revealed, and Np(IV) can be back-extracted by HSC with a separation factor of about 20

  2. EFFECT OF SUB MAXIMAL EXERCISE ON ENDOTHELIUM-DERIVED NITRIC OXIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN HEALTHY YOUNG SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    kasturi mukherjee; Soumika biswas; Sayari Banerjee; Raghunath Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine any possible contribution of 10 minutes single session sub maximal exercise on Nitric oxide level in healthy young population. Design: A descriptive observational study on forty healthy volunteers (20 male & 20 female) of 20-30 years designed to evaluate the level of nitric oxide after 10 minutes cycling. Intervention: Young populations are allowed to exercise in a bicycle ergo meter for 10 minutes regular exercise under protocol YMCA Sub maximal Cycle Ergo me...

  3. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca

    2013-01-01

    The elicitation of efficient antitumor immune responses requires the optimal activation of tumor-associated dendritic cells (DCs). Our comparison of the effect of various immunostimulatory treatments on DCs revealed that the best predictor of the success of immunotherapy is not the activation of existing DC populations, but the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DC in tumor-draining lymph nodes.

  4. DMPD: Nitric oxide and cell viability in inflammatory cells: a role for NO inmacrophage function and fate. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15691589 Nitric oxide and cell viability in inflammatory cells: a role for NO inmac...(.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Nitric oxide and cell viability in inflammatory cells: a role for NO inma...ty in inflammatory cells: a role for NO inmacrophage function and fate. Authors Bosca L, Zeini M, Traves PG,

  5. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan;

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells. Many different therapies for chronic wounds exist with varying success rates. The capacity of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors......, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types makes them a potential ideal therapy for chronic wounds. The aim of this article was to review all preclinical trials using ASCs in problem wound models. A systematic search was performed and 12 studies were found where different...

  6. Trans fatty acids induce vascular inflammation and reduce vascular nitric oxide production in endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi G Iwata

    Full Text Available Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA, which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from ruminant-derived-dairy products and meat on endothelial NF-κB activation and nitric oxide (NO production. Human endothelial cells were treated with increasing concentrations of Elaidic (trans-C18:1 (9 trans, Linoelaidic (trans-C18:2 (9 trans, 12 trans, and Transvaccenic (trans-C18:1 (11 trans for 3 h. Both Elaidic and Linoelaidic acids were associated with increasing NF-κB activation as measured by IL-6 levels and phosphorylation of IκBα, and impairment of endothelial insulin signaling and NO production, whereas Transvaccenic acid was not associated with these responses. We also measured superoxide production, which has been hypothesized to be necessary in fatty acid-dependent activation of NF-κB. Both Elaidic acid and Linoelaidic acid are associated with increased superoxide production, whereas Transvaccenic acid (which did not induce inflammatory responses did not increase superoxide production. We observed differential activation of endothelial superoxide production, NF-κB activation, and reduction in NO production by different C18 isomers suggesting that the location and number of trans double bonds effect endothelial NF-κB activation.

  7. Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Sabire

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The lack of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia and secondary complications, such as cardiovascular disease. The currently approved clinical treatments for diabetes mellitus often fail to achieve sustained and optimal glycemic control. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of surrogate beta cells as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Normally, pancreatic beta cells produce and secrete insulin only in response to increased blood glucose levels. However in many cases, insulin secretion from non-beta cells engineered to produce insulin occurs in a glucose-independent manner. In the present study we engineered liver cells to produce and secrete insulin and insulin secretion can be stimulated via the nitric oxide pathway. Results Expression of either human insulin or the beta cell specific transcription factors PDX-1, NeuroD1 and MafA in the Hepa1-6 cell line or primary liver cells via adenoviral gene transfer, results in production and secretion of insulin. Although, the secretion of insulin is not significantly increased in response to high glucose, treatment of these engineered liver cells with L-arginine stimulates insulin secretion up to three-fold. This L-arginine-mediated insulin release is dependent on the production of nitric oxide. Conclusion Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can be induced by treatment with L-arginine via the production of nitric oxide.

  8. Nitric oxide scavenging by red blood cell microparticles and cell-free hemoglobin as a mechanism for the red cell storage lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Donadee (Chenell); N.J.H. Raat (Nicolaas); T. Kanias (Tamir); J. Tejero (Jesús); J.S. Lee (Janet); E.E. Kelley (Eric); X. Zhao (Xuejun); C. Liu (Chen); H. Reynolds (Hannah); I. Azarov (Ivan); S. Frizzell (Sheila); E.M. Meyer (Michael); A.D. Donnenberg (Albert); L. Qu (Lirong); D. Triulzi (Darrel); D.B. Kim-Shapiro (Daniel); M.T. Gladwin (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBacground-: Intravascular red cell hemolysis impairs nitric oxide (NO)-redox homeostasis, producing endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and vasculopathy. Red blood cell storage under standard conditions results in reduced integrity of the erythrocyte membrane, with formation of

  9. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. Teresa; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Carvalho, Arsélio P.; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, M. Celeste

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO4) and increases the ...

  10. Iptakalim rescues human pulmonary artery endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced nitric oxide system dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Zong, Feng; Zuo, Xiang-Rong; Wang, Qiang; ZHANG, SHI-JIANG; Xie, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hypoxia inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production, and whether iptakalim may rescue human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) from hypoxia-induced NO system dysfunction. HPAECs were cultured under hypoxic conditions in the absence or presence of 0.1, 10 and 1,000 μM iptakalim or the combination of 10 μM iptakalim and 1, 10 and 100 μM glibenclamide for 24 h, and the eNOS activity and NO levels...

  11. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as a novel target for the control of osteolytic bone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Anandi; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) from mice bearing bone metastases differentiate into functional osteoclasts in vitro and in vivo, through a signaling pathway that relies on nitric oxide. In addition, MDSC-targeting drugs have been shown to robustly inhibit osteolysis. Thus, MDSC stand out as novel osteoclast progenitors and hence as candidate targets for the control of osteolytic bone disease.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a nitric oxide-releasing derivative of enalapril in male beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Cristina E; Mendes, Gustavo Duarte; Faro, Renato; Rezende, Vinicius M; Lagos, Rodolfo Monaco; Astigarraga, Rafael E B; Antunes, Edson; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2007-04-01

    1. Pharmacological compounds that release nitric oxide (NO) have been useful tools in the evaluation of the broad role of NO in physiopathology and therapeutics. The present study compared the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of enalapril and an NO-releasing enalapril molecule (NCX899) in conscious male beagles. The effects of both enalapril and NCX899 in the arterial hypertension and bradycardia induced by acute NO inhibition in anaesthetized dogs were also investigated. 2. Dogs received either NCX899 (4 micromol/kg, i.v.) or enalapril (4 micromol/kg, i.v.), after which plasma concentrations of the analytes and metabolites were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 3. In the NCX899 group, the area under the time-course curve (AUC(0-24h)) was 29.18 +/- 4.72, 229.37 +/- 51.32 and 5159.23 +/- 514.88 microg.h/L for the analytes nitro-enalapril, enalapril and enalaprilat, respectively. In the enalapril group, the AUC(0-24h) was 704.53 +/- 158.86 and 4149.27 +/- 847.30 microg.h/L for the analytes enalapril and enalaprilat, respectively. Statistical analysis of data from both groups showed a significant difference for the analyte enalapril, but not for enalaprilat. Moreover, NCX899 and enalapril were equally effective in inhibiting the activity of serum angiotensin-converting enzyme. 4. In anaesthetized dogs, i.v. administration of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 0.1-10 mg/kg) significantly elevated arterial blood pressure, with concomitant bradycardia. The compound NCX899 significantly attenuated both arterial hypertension and bradycardia, whereas enalapril had no significant effect. 5. In conclusion, the present results showed that the NO-releasing derivative of enalapril NCX899 presents a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship similar to its parent compound enalapril. Moreover, NCX899 (but not enalapril) was effective in protecting against the cardiovascular changes

  13. The effects of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perečko, T; Kassab, R B; Vašíček, O; Pekarová, M; Jančinová, V; Lojek, A

    2014-01-01

    Chloroquine, an antimalarial drug, can also be used in the regulation of the immune system, e.g. it is used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative on nitric oxide (NO) production in two different cell types: (i) immortalized mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and (ii) mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). The cells were treated with different concentrations (1-100 μM) of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24 h to induce NO production. Measurement of nitrites by the Griess reaction was used to evaluate the production of NO. Expression of inducible NO synthase was evaluated with Western blot and ATPcytotoxicity test was used to measure the viability of the cells. Our results showed that both chloroquine and its hydroxy-derivative inhibited NO production in both cell types. However, based on the results of LD50 these inhibitory effects of both derivatives were due to their cytotoxicity. The LD50 values for chloroquine were 24.77 μM (RAW 264.7) and 24.86 μM (BMDM), the LD50 for hydroxychloroquine were 13.28 μM (RAW 264.7) and 13.98 μM (BMDM). In conclusion, hydroxychloroquine was more cytotoxic than its parent molecule. Comparing the two cell types tested, our data suggest that there are no differences in cytotoxicity of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for primary cells (BMDM) or immortalized cell line (RAW 264.7). PMID:25369339

  14. Lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in pulmonary epithelial cells induced by peroxynitrite and nitric oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Yuan-Soon [School of Medical Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei (Taiwan); Liou, Hung-Bin; Lin, Yu-Ping; Guo, How-Ran; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Lee, Ching-Chang; Wang, Ying-Jan [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, 138 Sheng-Li Road, Tainan (Taiwan); Lin, Jen-Kun; Pan, Min-Hsiung [Institute of Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan); Jeng, Jiiang-Huei [School of Dentistry, National Taiwan University and Hospital, Medical College, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2002-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an environmental pollutant found in smog and cigarette smoke. Recently, NO has been discovered to act as a molecular messenger, mediating various physiological functions. However, when an excess of NO is present, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects can also be induced. The reaction of NO with superoxide results in the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO{sup -}), which decomposes into the hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide. Both of them are potent oxidant species that may initiate and propagate lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we examined the effects of NO and ONOO{sup -} on the induction of lipid peroxidation and cell death mechanisms in rats and in A549 pulmonary epithelial cells. The results showed that ONOO{sup -} is able to induce lipid peroxidation in pulmonary epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. 8-Epi-prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} can serve as a good biomarker of lipid peroxidation both in vitro and in vivo. Postmitotic apoptosis was found in A549 cells exposed to NO, whereas ONOO{sup -} induced cell death more characteristic of necrosis than apoptosis. Apoptosis that occurred in cells may be related to the dysfunction of mitochondria, the release of cytochrome c into cytosol, and the activation of caspase-9. The relationship between caspase activation and the cleavage of other death substrates during postmitotic apoptosis in A549 cells needs further investigation. (orig.)

  15. Development of a ruthenium(II) complex based luminescent probe for imaging nitric oxide production in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Run; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wang, Guilan; Zhang, Wenzhu; Yuan, Jingli

    2010-06-18

    A unique ruthenium(II) complex, bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(4-(3,4-diaminophenoxy)-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate ([(Ru(bpy)(2)(dabpy)][PF(6)](2)), has been designed and synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective luminescence probe for the imaging of nitric oxide (NO) production in living cells. The complex can specifically react with NO in aqueous buffers under aerobic conditions to yield its triazole derivative with a high reaction rate constant at the 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) level; this reaction is accompanied by a remarkable increase of the luminescence quantum yield from 0.13 to 2.2 %. Compared with organic probes, the new Ru(II) complex probe shows the advantages of a large Stokes shift (>150 nm), water solubility, and a wide pH-availability range (pH independent at pH>5). In addition, it was found that the new probe could be easily transferred into both living animal cells and plant cells by the coincubation method, whereas the triazole derivative was cell-membrane impermeable. The probe was successfully used for luminescence-imaging detection of the exogenous NO in mouse macrophage cells and endogenous NO in gardenia cells. The results demonstrated the efficacy and advantages of the new probe for NO detection in living cells. PMID:20458707

  16. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the expression of nitric oxide synthase and generation of nitric oxide induced by ultraviolet B in HaCaT cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xiu-zu; BI Zhi-gang; XU Ai-e

    2006-01-01

    Background Nitic oxide (NO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, including sunburn and pigmentation induced by ultraviolet irradiation. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major effective component in green tea and can protect skin from ultraviolet-induced damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective mechanisms of EGCG on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO generation by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in HaCaT cells.Methods HaCaT cells were irradiated with UVB 30 mJ/cm2 and pretreated with EGCG at varying concentrations. The iNOS mRNA was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and NO production was quantified by spectrophotometric method. The expression of NF-κB P65 was measured by immunofluorescence cytochemistry staining. Results The expression of iNOS mRNA and generation of NO in HaCaT cells were increased by UVB irradiation. EGCG down regulated the UVB-induced iNOS mRNA synthesis and NO generation in a dose dependent manner. The UVB-induced activation and translocation of NF-κB were also down regulated by EGCG treatment in HaCaT cells (P<0.01).Conclusions Green tea derived-EGCG can inhibit and down regulate the UVB-induced activation and translocation of NF-κB, expression of iNOS mRNA and generation of NO respectively, indicating EGCG may play a protective role from UVB-induced skin damage.

  17. Selective inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by derivatives of acetamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Patruno, Antonia; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Franceschelli, Sara; Giampietro, Letizia; Masella, Simona; Tricca, Maria Luisa; Amoroso, Rosa

    2012-11-01

    A new series of phenyl- and heteryl acetamidines were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS). While the N-substitution of the acetamidine moiety with different heterocycles appears to completely destroy the activity, linking the phenyl core preserves it. Moreover, it was observed a strong dependence of the phenylacetamidines potency of action from the length of the alkyl chain that connects the aromatic ring to the acetamidine moiety. PMID:22741778

  18. Nitric oxide induces cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongsanguanchai, Nuttida; Pongrakhananon, Varisa; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2015-01-15

    Even though tremendous advances have been made in the treatment of cancers during the past decades, the success rate among patients with cancer is still dismal, largely because of problems associated with chemo/radioresistance and relapse. Emerging evidence has indicated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are behind the resistance and recurrence problems, but our understanding of their regulation is limited. Rapid reversible changes of CSC-like cells within tumors may result from the effect of biological mediators found in the tumor microenvironment. Here we show how nitric oxide (NO), a key cellular modulator whose level is elevated in many tumors, affects CSC-like phenotypes of human non-small cell lung carcinoma H292 and H460 cells. Exposure of NO gradually altered the cell morphology toward mesenchymal stem-like shape. NO exposure promoted CSC-like phenotype, indicated by increased expression of known CSC markers, CD133 and ALDH1A1, in the exposed cells. These effects of NO on stemness were reversible after cessation of the NO treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, such effect was reproducible using another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Importantly, inhibition of NO by the known NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy-3-oxide strongly inhibited CSC-like aggressive cellular behavior and marker expression. Last, we unveiled the underlying mechanism of NO action through the activation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), which is upregulated by NO and is responsible for the aggressive behavior of the cells, including anoikis resistance, anchorage-independent cell growth, and increased cell migration and invasion. These findings indicate a novel role of NO in CSC regulation and its importance in aggressive cancer behaviors through Cav-1 upregulation. PMID:25411331

  19. Macrophage control of phagocytosed mycobacteria is increased by factors secreted by alveolar epithelial cells through nitric oxide independent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbjort H Petursdottir

    Full Text Available Tissue-resident macrophages are heterogeneous with tissue-specific and niche-specific functions. Thus, simplified models of macrophage activation do not explain the extent of heterogeneity seen in vivo. We focus here on the respiratory tract and ask whether factors secreted by alveolar epithelial cells (AEC can influence the functionality of resident pulmonary macrophages (PuM. We have previously reported that factors secreted by AEC increase control of intracellular growth of BCG in macrophages. In the current study, we also aimed to investigate possible mechanisms by which AEC-derived factors increase intracellular control of BCG in both primary murine interstitial macrophages, and bone marrow-derived macrophages and characterize further the effect of these factors on macrophage differentiation. We show that; a in contrast to other macrophage types, IFN-γ did not increase intracellular growth control of Mycobacterium bovis, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG by interstitial pulmonary macrophages although the same macrophages could be activated by factors secreted by AEC; b the lack of response of pulmonary macrophages to IFN-γ was apparently regulated by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS1; c AEC-derived factors did not induce pro-inflammatory pathways induced by IFN-γ e.g. expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, secretion of nitric oxide (NO, or IL-12, d in contrast to IFN-γ, intracellular bacterial destruction induced by AEC-derived factors was not dependent on iNOS transcription and NO production. Collectively, our data show that PuM were restricted in inflammatory responses mediated by IFN-γ through SOCS1 and that factors secreted by AEC- enhanced the microbicidal capacities of macrophages by iNOS independent mechanisms.

  20. Unraveling the response of plant cells to cytotoxic saponins: Role of metallothionein and nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Macovei, Anca; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Raimondi, Elena; Daniela CARBONERA

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of pharmacological properties are ascribed to natural saponins, in addition to their biological activities against herbivores, plant soil-borne pathogens and pests. As for animal cells, the cytotoxicity and the chemopreventive role of saponins are mediated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways which include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The involvement of other relevant components of the saponin-related signaling routes, such as the Tumor Nec...

  1. Differential regulation of metabolism by nitric oxide and S-nitrosothiols in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Diers, Anne R.; Broniowska, Katarzyna A.; Darley-Usmar, Victor M.; Hogg, Neil

    2011-01-01

    S-nitrosation of thiols in key proteins in cell signaling pathways is thought to be an important contributor to nitric oxide (NO)-dependent control of vascular (patho)physiology. Multiple metabolic enzymes are targets of both NO and S-nitrosation, including those involved in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Thus it is important to understand how these metabolic pathways are integrated by NO-dependent mechanisms. Here, we compared the effects of NO and S-nitrosation on both glycolysis...

  2. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  3. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well

  4. Indazole, Pyrazole, and Oxazole Derivatives Targeting Nitric Oxide Synthases and Carbonic Anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Vullo, Daniela; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carradori, Simone; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-08-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential endogenous mediator with a physiological role in the central nervous system as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that abnormal nitrergic signaling is a crucial event in the development of neurodegeneration. In particular, the uncontrolled production of NO by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is well recognized that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) physiologically modulate crucial pathways of signal processing and that low expression of CA affects cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive impairments. In light of this, dual agents that are able to target both NOS (inhibition) and CA (activation) could be useful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we show the design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of new nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds. Among the tested molecules, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)propanamide hydrochloride (10 b) was revealed to be a potent dual agent, able to act as a selective nNOS inhibitor and activator of the hCA I isoform. PMID:27377568

  5. Nitric Oxide Signaling Depends on Biotin in Jurkat Human Lymphoma Cells12

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2009-01-01

    Biotin affects gene expression through a diverse array of cell signaling pathways. Previous studies provided evidence that cGMP-dependent signaling also depends on biotin, but the mechanistic sequence of cGMP regulation by biotin is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effects of biotin in cGMP-dependent cell signaling are mediated by nitric oxide (NO). Human lymphoid (Jurkat) cells were cultured in media containing deficient (0.025 nmol/L), physiological (0.25 nmol/L), and pharmac...

  6. Myeloid derived suppressor cells – a new therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wesolowski, Robert; Markowitz, Joseph; Carson, William E

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that are increased in states of cancer, inflammation and infection. In malignant states, MDSC are induced by tumor secreted growth factors. MDSC play an important part in suppression of host immune responses through several mechanisms such as production of arginase 1, release of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and secretion of immune-suppressive cytokines. This leads to a permissive immun...

  7. Nitric oxide-induced signalling in rat lacrimal acinar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Looms, Dagnia Karen; Tritsaris, K.; Dissing, S.

    2002-01-01

    using the fluorescent NO indicator 4,5-diaminofluorescein (DAF-2). We initiated investigations by adding NO from an external source by means of the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Cellular concentrations of cyclic guanosine 5'-phosphate (cGMP) ([cGMP]) were measured by...... radioimmunoassay (RIA), and we found that SNAP induced a fast increase in the [cGMP], amounting to 350% of the [cGMP] in resting cells. Moreover, addition of SNAP and elevating [cGMP] in fura-2 loaded lacrimal acinar cells, resulted in a cGMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated release of Ca2+ from intracellular......-adrenergic stimulation and not by a rise in [Ca2+]i alone.   We show that in rat lacrimal acinar cells, NO and cGMP induce Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via G kinase activation. However, the changes in [Ca2+]i are relatively small, suggesting that this pathway plays a modulatory role in Ca2+ signalling, thus...

  8. Photocontrol of nitric oxide production in cell culture using a caged isoform selective inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdicakis, Basil; Montgomery, Heather J; Abbott, Glenn L; Fishlock, Dan; Lajoie, Gilles A; Guillemette, J Guy; Jervis, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, multiphoton microscopy has progressed from a photonic novelty to a technique whose application is currently experiencing exponential growth in the biological sciences. A novel application of this technology with significant therapeutic potential is the control of drug activity by multiphoton photolysis of caged therapeutics. As an initial case study, the potent isoform selective inhibitor N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl) acetamidine (1400W) of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) has been conjugated to a caging molecule 6-bromo-7-hydroxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-2-ylmethyl acetyl ester (Bhc). Here we present the first report of a bulk therapeutic effect, inhibition of nitric oxide production, in mammalian cell culture by multiphoton photolysis of a caged drug, Bhc-1400W. Mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells induced with bacterial lipopolysaccharides to express iNOS were used to assess the therapeutic value of the conjugated inhibitor. Both 1400W and Bhc-1400W are stable in metabolically active cells and an optimal time interval for the photorelease of the inhibitor was determined. The ratios of the IC(50) values of Bhc-1400W over 1400W calculated in the presence of iNOS enzyme and in RAW 264.7 cell culture are 19 and 100, respectively, indicating that a broad therapeutic range exists in cell culture. Multiphoton uncaging protocols and therapeutic doses of inhibitors were not cytotoxic. Photocontrol of LPS induced nitric oxide production was achieved in mammalian cell culture using a single laser focal volume. This technology has the potential to control active drug concentrations in vivo, a lack of which is one of the main problems currently associated with systemic drug administration. PMID:15582451

  9. Visible Light-Controlled Nitric Oxide Release from Hindered Nitrobenzene Derivatives for Specific Modulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kai; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Ieda, Naoya; Miyata, Naoki; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2016-05-20

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a physiological signaling molecule, whose biological production is precisely regulated at the subcellular level. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of novel mitochondria-targeted NO releasers, Rol-DNB-mor and Rol-DNB-pyr, that are photocontrollable not only in the UV wavelength range but also in the biologically favorable visible wavelength range (530-590 nm). These caged NO compounds consist of a hindered nitrobenzene as the NO-releasing moiety and a rhodamine chromophore. Their NO-release properties were characterized by an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method and fluorometric analysis using NO probes, and their mitochondrial localization in live cells was confirmed by costaining. Furthermore, we demonstrated visible light control of mitochondrial fragmentation via activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) by means of precisely controlled NO delivery into mitochondria of cultured HEK293 cells, utilizing Rol-DNB-pyr. PMID:26878937

  10. Insulin Enhances Nitric Oxide Production in Trabecular Meshwork Cells via De Novo Pathway for Tetrahydrobiopterin Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of insulin on the production of nitric oxide (NO) in the trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and the enzymatic synthetic pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis. Methods Primarily cultured human TM cells were exposed to 1, 10, and 100 µg/ml of insulin and 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 nM dexamethasone for 3 days. To evaluate the enzymatic pathway of BH4 synthesis, 10 µM dexamethasone, 5 mM diaminopyrimidinone, 100 µM ascorbic acid, 100 µM sepiapterin, or 10 µM met...

  11. The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Jana; Pekarová, Michaela; Drábiková, Katarína; Jančinová, Viera; Nosáľ, Radomír; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    2010-01-01

    As reported in our previous studies, dithiaden (an antagonist of histamine H1-receptor, used clinically as an anti-allergic or anti-emetic drug) in a concentration range of 5×10−5–10−4 M decreased the production of reactive oxygen species by phagocytes. In this study we investigated the influence of dithiaden on nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. The cell viability in the presence of 10−4–5×10−5 M dithiaden was evaluated by an ATP-test. RAW 264.7 cells (2.5×106/well) ...

  12. Early embryo loss is associated with local production of nitric oxide by decidual mononuclear cells

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    In early embryo loss, the fetus may be considered to be an allograft and, therefore, may be rejected by maternal immunocytes. However, the cytotoxic mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We have previously shown the involvement of natural killer (NK) cells and mononuclear cells expressing Mac-1 (CD11b) and F4/80 in resorbing compared to nonresorbing embryos. In this study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mechanism of early embryo loss was studied. Pregnant CBA/J females mated ...

  13. Agave sisalana extract induces cell death in Aedes aegypti hemocytes increasing nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrine Felipe Hilario; Gabriel Joventino Nascimento; Joo Paulo Saraiva Morais; Everaldo Paulo de Medeiros; Manoel Francisco de Sousa; Fabiola da Cruz Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Agave sisalana (A. sisalana) extract on Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) primary cell culture. Methods: Cells of Ae. aegypti were exposed to different concentrations of A. sisalana crude extract (0.18–6.00 mg/mL) for 24 h. Then, the cells were labeled with propidium iodide and subjected to fluorescence microscopy to verify cell viability. In addition, nitric oxide production was measured. Results: Results showed that cells exposed to 6 mg/mL of the crude extract presented a greater percentage of death when compared to control (73.8%± 9.6%vs. 34.6%± 9.6%). Furthermore, there was an increase in the nitric oxide production in cells exposed to 6 mg/mL of A. sisalana crude extract [(0.81 ± 0.08) mmol/L] compared to control group [(0.41 ± 0.18) mmol/L]. Conclusions: The results show that A. sisalana is cytotoxic to Ae. aegypti and may be used as raw material for new eco-friendly and inexpensive insecticides, since sisal in-dustry discards the liquid waste for the extraction of plant fiber.

  14. Signal transduction pathway of nitric oxide inducing PC12 cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study signal transduction pathway of nitric oxideinducing death of PC12 cells.Methods: Cell survival rate was measured with MTT assay, and caspase-3 activity with caspase-3 assay kits after PC12 cells were incubated with sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caspase-3 inhibitor Ⅱ plus SNP or p38 inhibitor-SB203580 plus SNP.Results: SNP induced death of PC12 cells in dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced caspase-3 activity gradually. Both caspase-3 inhibitor Ⅱ and SB203580 reduced cell death, but SB203580 reduced caspase-3 activity significantly.Conclusions: NO may induce death of PC12 cells through activation of p38 and caspase-3.

  15. Bone marrow-derived versus parenchymal sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Bourbonniere, Lyne; Hassan-Zahraee, Mina;

    2004-01-01

    discrepancies may reflect balance between immunoregulatory and neurocytopathologic roles for NO. We investigated selective effects of bone marrow-derived versus CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS in EAE in chimeric mice. Chimeras that selectively expressed or ablated iNOS in leukocytes both showed significant...... delay in disease onset, with no difference in disease severity. We conclude that bone marrow-derived and CNS parenchymal sources of iNOS-derived NO both play a regulatory role in EAE....

  16. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  17. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal. PMID:17614139

  18. SHIP-deficient dendritic cells, unlike wild type dendritic cells, suppress T cell proliferation via a nitric oxide-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frann Antignano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs not only play a crucial role in activating immune cells but also suppressing them. We recently investigated SHIP's role in murine DCs in terms of immune cell activation and found that TLR agonist-stimulated SHIP-/- GM-CSF-derived DCs (GM-DCs were far less capable than wild type (WT, SHIP+/+ GM-DCs at activating T cell proliferation. This was most likely because SHIP-/- GM-DCs could not up-regulate MHCII and/or co-stimulatory receptors following TLR stimulation. However, the role of SHIP in DC-induced T cell suppression was not investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we examined SHIP's role in DC-induced T cell suppression by co-culturing WT and SHIP-/- murine DCs, derived under different conditions or isolated from spleens, with αCD3+ αCD28 activated WT T cells and determined the relative suppressive abilities of the different DC subsets. We found that, in contrast to SHIP+/+ and -/- splenic or Flt3L-derived DCs, which do not suppress T cell proliferation in vitro, both SHIP+/+ and -/- GM-DCs were capable of potently suppressing T cell proliferation. However, WT GM-DC suppression appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by nitric oxide (NO production while SHIP-/- GM-DCs expressed high levels of arginase 1 and did not produce NO. Following exhaustive studies to ascertain the mechanism of SHIP-/- DC-mediated suppression, we could conclude that cell-cell contact was required and the mechanism may be related to their relative immaturity, compared to SHIP+/+ GM-DCs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that although both SHIP+/+ and -/- GM-DCs suppress T cell proliferation, the mechanism(s employed are different. WT GM-DCs suppress, at least in part, via IFNγ-induced NO production while SHIP-/- GM-DCs do not produce NO and suppression can only be alleviated when contact is prevented.

  19. Effect of nanoparticles binding ß-amyloid peptide on nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells and macrophages

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    Orlando A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Orlando,1 Francesca Re,1 Silvia Sesana,1 Ilaria Rivolta,1 Alice Panariti,1 Davide Brambilla,2 Julien Nicolas,2 Patrick Couvreur,2 Karine Andrieux,2 Massimo Masserini,1 Emanuela Cazzaniga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Institut Galien Paris Sud, University Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France Background: As part of a project designing nanoparticles for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, we have synthesized and characterized a small library of nanoparticles binding with high affinity to the β-amyloid peptide and showing features of biocompatibility in vitro, which are important properties for administration in vivo. In this study, we focused on biocompatibility issues, evaluating production of nitric oxide by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and macrophages, used as models of cells which would be exposed to nanoparticles after systemic administration. Methods: The nanoparticles tested were liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin, and PEGylated poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PEG-PACA. We measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method as well as phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and intracellular free calcium, which are biochemically related to nitric oxide production. MTT viability tests and caspase-3 detection were also undertaken. Results: Exposure to liposomes did not affect the viability of endothelial cells at any concentration tested. Increased production of nitric oxide was detected only with liposomes carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin at the highest concentration (120 µg/mL, together with increased synthase phosphorylation and intracellular calcium levels. Macrophages exposed to liposomes showed a slightly dose-dependent decrease in viability, with no increase in production of nitric oxide. Exposure to solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid decreased viability in

  20. Inflammatory cytokines promote inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated DNA damage in hamster gallbladder epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the link between chronic biliary inflammation and carcinogenesis using hamster gallbladder epithelial cells.METHODS: Gallbladder epithelial cells were isolated from hamsters and cultured with a mixture of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, nitric oxide (NO) generation, and DNA damage were evaluated.RESULTS: NO generation was increased significantly following cytokine stimulation, and suppressed by an iNOS inhibitor. iNOS mRNA expression was demonstrated in the gallbladder epithelial cells during exposure to inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, NO-dependent DNA damage, estimated by the comet assay, was significantly increased by cytokines, and decreased to control levels by an iNOS inhibitor.CONCLUSION: Cytokine stimulation induced iNOS expression and NO generation in normal hamster gallbladder epithelial cells, which was sufficient to cause DNA damage. These results indicate that NO-mediated genotoxicity induced by inflammatory cytokines through activation of iNOS may be involved in the process of biliary carcinogenesis in response to chronic inflammation of the biliary tree.

  1. The Role Of Nitric Oxide After Repeated Low Dose Photodynamic Treatments In Prostate Carcinoma Cells

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    Valentina Rapozzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinically approved treatment that causes a selective cytotoxic effect in cancer cells. In addition to the production of singlet oxygen and reactive oxygen species, PDT can induce the release of nitric oxide (NO by up-regulating nitric oxide synthases (NOS. Since non-optimal PDT often causes tumor recurrence, understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the photoprocess is a challenging task for scientists. The present study has examined the response of the PC3 human metastatic prostate cancer cell line, following repeated low-dose pheophorbide a treatments, mimicking non-optimal PDT treatment. The analysis was focused on the NF-kB/YY1/RKIP circuitry as it is (i dysregulated in cancer cells (ii modulated by NO and (iii correlated with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. We hypothesized that a repeated treatment of non-optimal PDT induces low levels of NO that lead to cell growth and EMT via regulation of the above circuitry. The expressions of gene products involved in the circuitry and in EMT were analyzed by western blot. The findings demonstrate the cytoprotective role of NO following non-optimal PDT treatments that was corroborated by the use of l-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS.

  2. Neural stem cell derived tumourigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Froldi; Milán Szuperák; Cheng, Louise Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the developing Drosophila CNS, two pools of neural stem cells, the symmetrically dividing progenitors in the neuroepithelium (NE) and the asymmetrically dividing neuroblasts (NBs) generate the majority of the neurons that make up the adult central nervous system (CNS). The generation of a correct sized brain depends on maintaining the fine balance between neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, which are regulated by cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic cues. In this review, we wil...

  3. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Hetero-adhesion of Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells: Restraining Circulating Tumor Cells from Initiating Metastatic Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yusheng; Yu, Ting; Liang, Haiyan; Wang, Jichuang; Xie, Jingjing; Shao, Jingwei; Gao, Yu; Yu, Suhong; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Lie; Jia, Lee

    2014-03-01

    Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to vascular endothelial bed becomes a crucial starting point in metastatic cascade. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) may prevent cancer metastasis from happening by its direct vasodilation and inhibition of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Here we show that S-nitrosocaptopril (CAP-NO, a typical NO donor) produced direct vasorelaxation that can be antagonized by typical NO scavenger hemoglobin and guanylate cyclase inhibitor. Cytokines significantly stimulated production of typical CAMs by the highly-purified human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CAP-NO inhibited expression of the stimulated CAMs (particularly VCAM-1) and the resultant hetero-adhesion of human colorectal cancer cells HT-29 to the HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The same concentration of CAP-NO, however, did not significantly affect cell viability, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential of HT-29, thus excluding the possibility that inhibition of the hetero-adhesion was caused by cytotoxicity by CAP-NO on HT-29. Hemoglobin reversed the inhibition of CAP-NO on both the hetero-adhesion between HT-29 and HUVECs and VCAM-1 expression. These data demonstrate that CAP-NO, by directly releasing NO, produces vasorelaxation and interferes with hetero-adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelium via down-regulating expression of CAMs. The study highlights the importance of NO in cancer metastatic prevention.

  4. Endothelial dysfunction in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice: role of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-derived hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Grazielle C; Silva, Josiane F; Diniz, Thiago F; Lemos, Virginia S; Cortes, Steyner F

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a common problem associated with hypertension and is considered a precursor to the development of micro- and macro-vascular complications. The present study investigated the involvement of nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase) and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) in the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the mesenteric arteries of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt-hypertensive mice. Myograph studies were used to investigate the endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of ACh (acetylcholine). The expression and phosphorylation of nNOS and eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) were studied by Western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence was used to examine the localization of nNOS and eNOS in the endothelial layer of the mesenteric artery. The vasodilator effect of ACh is strongly impaired in mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Non-selective inhibition of NOS sharply reduced the effect of ACh in both DOCA-salt-hypertensive and sham mice. Selective inhibition of nNOS and catalase led to a higher reduction in the effect of ACh in sham than in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. Production of H2O2 induced by ACh was significantly reduced in vessels from DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, and it was blunted after nNOS inhibition. The expression of both eNOS and nNOS was considerably lower in DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice, whereas phosphorylation of their inhibitory sites was increased. The presence of nNOS was confirmed in the endothelial layer of mesenteric arteries from both sham and DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice. These results demonstrate that endothelial dysfunction in the mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt-hypertensive mice is associated with reduced expression and functioning of nNOS and impaired production of nNOS-derived H2O2 Such findings offer a new perspective for the understanding of endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. PMID:26976926

  5. Nitric oxide functions in both methyl jasmonate signaling and abscisic acid signaling in Arabidopsis guard cells

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Naoki; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Mori, Izumi C.; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular components in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) signaling remain largely unknown, to compare those in well-understood abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. We have reported that nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling component in MeJA-induced stomatal closure, as well as ABA-induced stomatal closure in the previous study. To gain further information about the role of NO in the guard cell signaling, NO production was examined in an ABA- and MeJA-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant, rcn1. Neither MeJA nor AB...

  6. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

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    Azizah Ugusman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into four groups: control, treatment with 180 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, treatment with 150 μg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H2O2 for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. CONCLUSION: Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  7. Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis via nitric oxide in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-fa WANG; Shao-yu WU; Jin-jun RAO; Lin L(U); Wei XU; Jian-xin PANG; Zhong-qiu LIU; Shu-guang WU; Jia-jie ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies, which contain von Willebrand factor (VWF), P-selectin and other modulators, plays an important role in both inflammation and thrombosis. The present study investigates whether genipin,an aglycon of geniposide, inhibits endothelial exocytosis.Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated from umbilical cords and cultured. The concentration of VWF in cell supernatants was measured using an ELISA Kit. P-selectin translocation on the cell surface was analyzed by cell surface ELISA. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit-8. Mouse bleeding times were measured by amputating the tail tip. Western blot analysis was used to determine the amount of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phospho-eNOS present. Nitric oxide (NO) was measured in the cell supernatants as nitrite using an NO Colorimetric Assay.Results: Genipin inhibited thrombin-induced VWF release and P-selectin translocation in HUVECs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The drug had no cytotoxic effect on the cells at the same doses that were able to inhibit exocytosis. The functional study that demonstrated that genipin inhibited exocytosis in vivo also showed that genipin prolonged the mouse bleeding time. Furthermore, genipin activated eNOS phosphorylation, promoted enzyme activation and increased NO production. L-NAME, an inhibitor of NOS, reversed the inhibitory effects of genipin on endothelial exocytosis.Conclusion: Genipin inhibits endothelial exocytosis in HUVECs. The mechanism by which this compound inhibits exocytosis may be related to its ability to stimulate eNOS activation and NO production. Our findings suggest a novel antiinflammatory mechanism for genipin. This compound may represent a new treatment for inflammation and/or thrombosis in which excess endothelial exocytosis plays a pathophysiological role.

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation on nitric oxide production in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important biological molecule with a wide variety of functions in physiological and pathophysiological events. We reported previously the presence of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms such as inducible, endothelial and neuronal types in the rat mammary glands. In addition, we demonstrated that a selective inhibitor of inducible NOS and NO-specific scavenger prevent radiation-induced rat mammary tumors, and that radiation-induced NO might contribute to tumor initiation of mammary glands in rat. However, the production and action of NO in the epithelium of mammary glands after the exposure of radiation are still unclear. In this current study we, therefore, examined the effects of ionizing radiation on a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (HC11) to provide a concrete evidence regarding the production of NO in the mammary epithelial cells after irradiation. The HC11 cells, established from COMMA-1D mouse mammary epithelial cell line, were cultured in RPMI-1640 growth medium containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin until become confluence, then irradiated by X-ray with a dose at 10 or 30 Gy (1 Gy/min). After the irradiation, NO produced and secreted by HC11 cells into culture medium was estimated by the measurement of nitrite concentration in the culture medium with a Griess assay. HC11 cells produced NO spontaneously, and NO concentration was gradually increased during the experimented period. On the other hand, NO production was transiently enhanced immediately after irradiation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. It, then, descended in an hour after irradiation, and returned to a basal level in 24 hours. These indicate that NO production was undoubtedly increased by irradiation in mammary epithelial cells, and support our previous propose that radiation-induced NO might contribute to initiation of tumorigenesis of mammary glands

  9. Mast cells phagocyte Candida albicans and produce nitric oxide by mechanisms involving TLR2 and Dectin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Lima, Heliton Gustavo de; Cunha, Fernando Queiroz; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a fungus commonly found in the human mucosa, which may cause superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunosuppression. Until now, the main actors in the defense against this fungus are the epithelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages/monocytes and dendritic cells. However, mast cells are strategically located to play a first line of anti-Candida defense and it has appropriate mechanisms to do it. As with other cells, the recognition of C. albicans occurs meanly via TLR2 and Dectin-1. We assess the TLR2/Dectin-1 involvement in phagocytosis and production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mast cells challenged with C. albicans. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (MC) from wild type (Wt) or knockout (TLR2-/-) mice C57BL/6 were subjected to in vitro Dectin-1 blockade. After challenged with FITC-labeled C. albicans or zymosan, phagocytosis was analyzed by microscopy. The intracellular production of NO and ROS was measured by DAF-FM diacetate and CellROX Deep/Red Reagent kits. The nitrite formation and hydrogen peroxide release were analyzed by Griess reaction and Amplex Red Hydrogen Peroxide/Peroxidase Assay Kit. Wt/MC phagocytose C. albicans with production of intracellular NO, but not ROS. Moreover, increased levels of nitrite were also observed. The absence and/or blockade of TLR2/Dectin-1 caused significant decreased in C. albicans phagocytosis and NO production. Our results showed that mast cells are able to phagocytose and produce NO against C. albicans via TLR2/Dectin-1. Therefore, mast cells could be important during the course of Candida infection and as a therapeutic target. PMID:26421959

  10. Correlation between Nitric oxide (NO & Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA Hemoglobin Concentration in sickle cell patients

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    Kadkhodaei ElyaderaniM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The importance of Nitric oxide (NO andAsymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA in pathophysiology of Sickle celldisease (SCD is being increasingly clarified. Since very few of the studieshave been conducted in the word and no study has been carried out in Iran,especially in Khuzestan province where is the main center of Sickle Celldisorder (SCD in Iran, We decided to conduct the present study.Material and Methods: EDTA anticoagulated plasma samples were obtainedfrom 35 healthy controls (Hb AA, 35 heterozygous (HB AS and 35homozygous (HB SS sickle cell anemia patients. Plasma concentration of NOwas measured by Colorimetric and Griess reaction and the concentration ofADMA by employing ELISA method. Then the results were analyzed by tstudenttest and OneWay ANOVA.Results: There is a positive significance correlation between Hemoglobin(Hb and NO in SS (r=0.703 and AS (r=0.366 groups. Also, a negativecorrelation between Hb and ADMA in SS (r=-0.786 and AS (r=-0.478groups is seen. No correlation is found between these parameters in AAgroup.Conclusion: The prevention of Hb concentration decrease and prescription ofNO donors and (or ADMA disintegrators can be helpful for improvingclinical signs of sickle cell patients.Key words: Nitric oxide (NO, Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA,Sickle cell disease (SCD.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Furozan-Based Nitric Oxide-Releasing Derivatives of Oridonin as Potential Anti-Tumor Agents

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    Hao Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To search for novel nitric oxide (NO releasing anti-tumor agents, a series of novel furoxan/oridonin hybrids were designed and synthesized. Firstly, the nitrate/nitrite levels in the cell lysates were tested by a Griess assay and the results showed that these furoxan-based NO-releasing derivatives could produce high levels of NO in vitro. Then the anti-proliferative activity of these hybrids against four human cancer cell lines was also determined, among which, 9h exhibited the most potential anti-tumor activity with IC50 values of 1.82 µM against K562, 1.81 µM against MGC-803 and 0.86 µM against Bel-7402, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship was concluded based on the experimental data obtained. These results suggested that NO-donor/natural product hybrids may provide a promising approach for the discovery of novel anti-tumor agents.

  12. Overexpression of cationic amino acid transporter-1 increases nitric oxide production in hypoxic human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Hongmei; Chen, Bernadette; Chicoine, Louis G.; Nelin, Leif D.

    2011-01-01

    1. The endogenous production of and/or the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is decreased in pulmonary hypertensive diseases. L-arginine (L-arg) is the substrate for NO synthase (NOS). L-arg is transported into cells via the cationic amino acid transporters (CAT), of which there are two isoforms in endothelial cells, CAT-1 and CAT-2.

  13. Nitric Oxide Prevents Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Through Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Signaling, and Control of Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Limonchi, Rafael; Cahuana, Gladys M; Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Salguero-Aranda, Carmen; Beltran-Povea, Amparo; Hitos, Ana B; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Martin, Franz; Soria, Bernat; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) delays mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation by regulating genes linked to pluripotency and differentiation. Nevertheless, no profound study has been conducted on cell differentiation regulation by this molecule through signaling on essential biological functions. We sought to demonstrate that NO positively regulates the pluripotency transcriptional core, enforcing changes in the chromatin structure, in addition to regulating cell proliferation, and signaling pathways with key roles in stemness. Culturing mESCs with 2 μM of the NO donor diethylenetriamine/NO (DETA/NO) in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induced significant changes in the expression of 16 genes of the pluripotency transcriptional core. Furthermore, treatment with DETA/NO resulted in a high occupancy of activating H3K4me3 at the Oct4 and Nanog promoters and repressive H3K9me3 and H3k27me3 at the Brachyury promoter. Additionally, the activation of signaling pathways involved in pluripotency, such as Gsk3-β/β-catenin, was observed, in addition to activation of PI3 K/Akt, which is consistent with the protection of mESCs from cell death. Finally, a decrease in cell proliferation coincides with cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Our results provide novel insights into NO-mediated gene regulation and cell proliferation and suggest that NO is necessary but not sufficient for the maintenance of pluripotency and the prevention of cell differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2078-2088, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26853909

  14. Role of Rutin on Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Ugusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO, produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, is a major antiatherogenic factor in the blood vessel. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Decreased availability of endothelial NO promotes the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Rutin is a flavonoid with multiple cardiovascular protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on eNOS and NO production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. HUVEC were divided into four groups: control; oxidative stress induction with 180 μM H2O2; treatment with 300 μM rutin; and concomitant induction with rutin and H2O2 for 24 hours. HUVEC treated with rutin produced higher amount of NO compared to control (P<0.01. In the oxidative stress-induced HUVEC, rutin successfully induced cells’ NO production (P<0.01. Rutin promoted NO production in HUVEC by inducing eNOS gene expression (P<0.05, eNOS protein synthesis (P<0.01, and eNOS activity (P<0.05. Treatment with rutin also led to increased gene and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF in HUVEC. Therefore, upregulation of eNOS expression by rutin may be mediated by bFGF. The results showed that rutin may improve endothelial function by augmenting NO production in human endothelial cells.

  15. Contact sensitizer nickel sulfate activates the transcription factors NF-kB and AP-1 and increases the expression of nitric oxide synthase in a skin dendritic cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, MT; Gonçalo, Margarida; A. Figueiredo; Carvalho, AP; Duarte, CB

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors are ubiquitously expressed signaling molecules known to regulate the transcription of a large number of genes involved in immune responses, namely the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In this study, we demonstrate that a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) produces nitric oxide (NO) in response to the contact sensitizer nickel sulfate (NiSO(4)) and increases the expression of the i...

  16. Derivative spectra and simultaneous determination of U(IV), U(VI) and Pu(III) in nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second derivative spectra (2nd DS) of U(IV), U(VI) and Pu(III) in nitric acid solution in investigated and compared with each species' absorption spectra (AS). The influences of HNO3, H+ and other impurities on 2nd DS and AS of these species are discussed. Wide and intensive absorption band can be declined by derivation. On the other hand, weak but sharp absorption band can be amplified by derivation. U(IV) causes serious interference on absorption spectra of U(VI) and Pu(III) if the concentration of U(IV) is higher than the concentrations of U(VI) and Pu(III). But in 2nd DS, the characteristic peaks of U(VI) and Pu(III) can be easily discerned and U(IV) slightly affects their determinations. The height of negative peak at 415 nm can be used to determine U(VI) concentration. Either the negative peak at 584 nm or the positive peak at 665 nm can be used to determine Pu(III) concentration depending on concrete situation. The determination of U(IV) is scarcely affected by Pu(III) and U(VI), and its concentration can be determined via several peaks' height. 2.5-3.0 mol/l HNO3 is suitable for the determination with the analysis deviation below 5.0%. The low-limits of determination for Pu(III), U(IV) and U(VI) are 0.5, 0.1 and 1 mmol/l, respectively

  17. Nitric oxide modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression via interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeda, C B; Teixeira, S A; Tamura, E K; Muscará, M N; de Mello, S B V; Markus, R P; Farsky, S H P

    2011-08-01

    We have shown previously that nitric oxide (NO) controls platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) expression on both neutrophils and endothelial cells under physiological conditions. Here, the molecular mechanism by which NO regulates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endothelial PECAM-1 expression and the role of interleukin (IL)-10 on this control was investigated. For this purpose, N-(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg/kg/day for 14 days dissolved in drinking water) was used to inhibit both constitutive (cNOS) and inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) synthase activities in LPS-stimulated Wistar rats (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). This treatment resulted in reduced levels of serum NO. Under this condition, circulating levels of IL-10 was enhanced, secreted mainly by circulating lymphocytes, dependent on transcriptional activation, and endothelial PECAM-1 expression was reduced independently on reduced gene synthesis. The connection between NO, IL-10 and PECAM-1 expression was examined by incubating LPS-stimulated (1 µg/ml) cultured endothelial cells obtained from naive rats with supernatant of LPS-stimulated lymphocytes, which were obtained from blood of control or L-NAME-treated rats. Supernatant of LPS-stimulated lymphocytes obtained from L-NAME-treated rats, which contained higher levels of IL-10, reduced LPS-induced PECAM-1 expression by endothelial cells, and this reduction was reversed by adding the anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody. Therefore, an association between NO, IL-10 and PECAM-1 was found and may represent a novel mechanism by which NO controls endothelial cell functions. PMID:21564091

  18. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 impairs the insulin-dependent nitric oxide pathway in vascular endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonès Gemma; Saavedra Paula; Heras Mercedes; Cabré Anna; Girona Josefa; Masana Lluís

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) plasma levels are associated with impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this work, we analysed the effect of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial cells in vitro. Methods In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs), we measured the effects of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activation a...

  19. Role of nitric oxide in Salmonella typhimurium-mediated cancer cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial targeting of tumours is an important anti-cancer strategy. We previously showed that strain SL7838 of Salmonella typhimurium targets and kills cancer cells. Whether NO generation by the bacteria has a role in SL7838 lethality to cancer cells is explored. This bacterium has the mechanism for generating NO, but also for decomposing it. Mechanism underlying Salmonella typhimurium tumour therapy was investigated through in vitro and in vivo studies. NO measurements were conducted either by chemical assays (in vitro) or using Biosensors (in vivo). Cancer cells cytotoxic assay were done by using MTS. Bacterial cell survival and tumour burden were determined using molecular imaging techniques. SL7838 generated nitric oxide (NO) in anaerobic cell suspensions, inside infected cancer cells in vitro and in implanted 4T1 tumours in live mice, the last, as measured using microsensors. Thus, under these conditions, the NO generating pathway is more active than the decomposition pathway. The latter was eliminated, in strain SL7842, by the deletion of hmp- and norV genes, making SL7842 more proficient at generating NO than SL7838. SL7842 killed cancer cells more effectively than SL7838 in vitro, and this was dependent on nitrate availability. This strain was also ca. 100% more effective in treating implanted 4T1 mouse tumours than SL7838. NO generation capability is important in the killing of cancer cells by Salmonella strains

  20. Control of Intracellular Francisella tularensis by Different Cell Types and the Role of Nitric Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstead, Sarah L.; Gates, Amanda J.; Hartley, M. Gillian; Rowland, Caroline A.; Williamson, E. Diane; Lukaszewski, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen is critical for the clearance of Francisella tularensis infections. Here we assess the role of nitric oxide in control of intracellular infections in two murine macrophage cell lines of different provenance: the alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, and the widely used peritoneal macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Cells were infected with the highly virulent Schu S4 strain or with the avirulent live vaccine strain (LVS) with and without stimuli. Compared to MH-S cells, J774A.1 cells were unresponsive to stimulation and were able to control the intracellular replication of LVS bacteria, but not of Schu S4. In MH-S cells, Schu S4 demonstrated control over cellular NO production. Despite this, MH-S cells stimulated with LPS or LPS and IFN-γ were able to control intracellular Schu S4 numbers. However, only stimulation with LPS induced significant cellular NO production. Combined stimulation with LPS and IFN-γ produced a significant reduction in intracellular bacteria that occurred whether high levels of NO were produced or not, indicating that NO secretion is not the only defensive cellular mechanism operating in virulent Francisella infections. Understanding how F. tularensis interacts with host macrophages will help in the rational design of new and effective therapies. PMID:25170518

  1. Control of Intracellular Francisella tularensis by Different Cell Types and the Role of Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Newstead

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive nitrogen is critical for the clearance of Francisella tularensis infections. Here we assess the role of nitric oxide in control of intracellular infections in two murine macrophage cell lines of different provenance: the alveolar macrophage cell line, MH-S, and the widely used peritoneal macrophage cell line, J774A.1. Cells were infected with the highly virulent Schu S4 strain or with the avirulent live vaccine strain (LVS with and without stimuli. Compared to MH-S cells, J774A.1 cells were unresponsive to stimulation and were able to control the intracellular replication of LVS bacteria, but not of Schu S4. In MH-S cells, Schu S4 demonstrated control over cellular NO production. Despite this, MH-S cells stimulated with LPS or LPS and IFN-γ were able to control intracellular Schu S4 numbers. However, only stimulation with LPS induced significant cellular NO production. Combined stimulation with LPS and IFN-γ produced a significant reduction in intracellular bacteria that occurred whether high levels of NO were produced or not, indicating that NO secretion is not the only defensive cellular mechanism operating in virulent Francisella infections. Understanding how F. tularensis interacts with host macrophages will help in the rational design of new and effective therapies.

  2. Measurement of nitric oxide in single cells and tissue using a porphyrinic microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, T; Huk, I

    2001-05-01

    This unit describes the preparation and applications of porphyrinic sensors for quantitative measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in single cells and in tissues. The determination of NO is based on the electrochemical oxidation of NO on a carbon fiber electrode covered with a thin layer of a conducting polymeric metalloporphyrin catalyst, overlaid with another thin film of Nafion, a cation exchange material. The electric current generated during NO oxidation on the surface of the polymeric porphyrin is linearly proportional to the concentration of NO, so this current is used as an analytical signal which can be measured in either the amperometric or the voltammetric mode. Both methods provide a quantitative signal. This unit describes the electrochemical setup for measurement of NO in single cells and tissue. Support protocols describe porphyrin synthesis, sensor preparation, and sensor calibration. PMID:18428525

  3. Ibrutinib enhances IL-17 response by modulating the function of bone marrow derived dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Gayathri; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Varikuti, Sanjay; Dubovsky, Jason A.; Byrd, John C.; Satoskar, Abhay R.

    2015-01-01

    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is an irreversible dual Btk/Itk inhibitor shown to be effective in treating several B cell malignancies. However, limited studies have been conducted to study the effect of this drug on myeloid cell function. Hence, we studied the effect of ibrutinib treatment on TLR-4 mediated activation of bone marrow derived dendritic cell culture (DCs). Upon ibrutinib treatment, LPS-treated DCs displayed lower synthesis of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) and higher induction of IL-6, TGF...

  4. Nitric oxide in guard cells as an important secondary messenger during stomatal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunja eGayatri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available he modulation of guard cell function is the basis of stomatal closure, essential for optimizing water use and CO2 uptake by leaves. Nitric oxide (NO in guard cells plays a very important role as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure induced by effectors, including hormones. For example, exposure to abscisic acid (ABA triggers a marked increase in NO of guard cells, well before stomatal closure. In guard cells of multiple species, like Arabidopsis, Vicia and pea, exposure to ABA or methyl jasmonate or even microbial elicitors (e.g. chitosan induces production of NO as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS. The role of NO in stomatal closure has been confirmed by using NO donors (e.g. SNP and NO scavengers (like cPTIO and inhibitors of NOS (L-NAME or NR (tungstate. Two enzymes: a L-NAME-sensitive, nitric oxide synthase (NOS-like enzyme and a tungstate-sensitive nitrate reductase (NR, can mediate ABA-induced NO rise in guard cells. However, the existence of true NOS in plant tissues and its role in guard cell NO-production are still a matter of intense debate. Guard cell signal transduction leading to stomatal closure involves the participation of several components, besides NO, such as cytosolic pH, ROS, free Ca2+ and phospholipids. Use of fluorescent dyes has revealed that the rise in NO of guard cells occurs after the increase in cytoplasmic pH and ROS. The rise in NO causes an elevation in cytosolic free Ca2+ and promotes the efflux of cations as well as anions from guard cells. Stomatal guard cells have become a model system to study the signalling cascade mechanisms in plants, particularly with NO as a dominant component. The interrelationships and interactions of NO with cytosolic pH, ROS, and free Ca2+ are quite complex and need further detailed examination. While assessing critically the available literature, the present review projects possible areas of further work related to NO-action in stomatal guard cells.

  5. Nitric Oxide Modulates the Temporal Properties of the Glutamate Response in Type 4 OFF Bipolar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielma, Alex H.; Agurto, Adolfo; Valdés, Joaquín; Palacios, Adrián G.; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in retinal signal processing, but its cellular actions are only partly understood. An established source of retinal NO are NOACs, a group of nNOS-expressing amacrine cells which signal onto bipolar, other amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner plexiform layer. Here, we report that NO regulates glutamate responses in morphologically and electrophysiologically identified type 4 OFF cone bipolar cells through activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase-cGMP-PKG pathway. The glutamate response of these cells consists of two components, a fast phasic current sensitive to kainate receptor agonists, and a secondary component with slow kinetics, inhibited by AMPA receptor antagonists. NO shortened the duration of the AMPA receptor-dependent component of the glutamate response, while the kainate receptor-dependent component remained unchanged. Application of 8-Br-cGMP mimicked this effect, while inhibition of soluble guanylate cyclase or protein kinase G prevented it, supporting a mechanism involving a cGMP signaling pathway. Notably, perfusion with a NOS-inhibitor prolonged the duration of the glutamate response, while the NO precursor L-arginine shortened it, in agreement with a modulation by endogenous NO. Furthermore, NO accelerated the response recovery during repeated stimulation of type 4 cone bipolar cells, suggesting that the temporal response properties of this OFF bipolar cell type are regulated by NO. These results reveal a novel cellular mechanism of NO signaling in the retina, and represent the first functional evidence of NO modulating OFF cone bipolar cells. PMID:25463389

  6. Study on nitric oxide enhancement effect of radiation damage to L1210 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study whether nitric oxide(NO) could enhance the damage effect of radiation on L1210 cells irt vitro. Methods: L1210 cells co-cultured with different transfected 3T3 cells. The cells were divided into three groups, iPT group, PT group, and iPT plus DEVD-CHO group. The direct effect of NO and NO-induced apoptosis of L1210 cells in different groups at 12,24,48 and 72 h were detected by trypan blue rejecting dyeing (TRD) and TUNNEL, respectively. The cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. Results: The rate of TRD of L1210 cells during the time period of 12-72 h since irradiation was significantly lower in iPT group than that in PT group (P1 phase at 4 h since irradiation increased more quickly in iPT group but declined more slowly during the time period of 24-72 h since irradiation than that in PT group (P1 phase increased more slowly at 4 h than that in iPT group but declined more quickly during the time period of 24-72 h since irradiation (P1 phase are dependent on Caspase-3 activation. (authors)

  7. The impact of N-nitrosomelatonin as nitric oxide donor in cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Tug, Suzan; Trinidad, Buena; Becker, Maria; Oehme, Felix; Flamme, Ingo; Fandrey, Joachim; Kirsch, Michael

    2008-11-01

    N-nitrosomelatonin (NOMela) is well-known for its capabilities of transnitrosating nucleophiles such as thiols and ascorbate, thereby generating nitric oxide (NO)-releasing compounds. It is unknown, however, whether NOMela can be successfully applied as a precursor of NO in a complex biological environment like a cell culture system. NO donors may be useful to induce the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), which coordinates the protection of cells and tissues from the lack of oxygen (hypoxia). In this study, the effects of NOMela in an in vitro cell-free assay [NO-release, inhibition of prolylhydroxylase1 (PHD1)] and in living cells (upregulation of HIF-1, reduction of HIF-1 hydroxylation, upregulation of the HIF-1-target gene PHD2) were compared with those of the frequently applied NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In contrast to GSNO, NOMela released NO in a predictable manner and this release in vitro was found to be independent of the composition of the buffer system. The NOMela-mediated effects in oxygenated cells were in all cases comparable to the hypoxic response, whereas unphysiological strong effects were observed with GSNO. Probably, because of the antioxidative power of the NOMela-dependent formation of melatonin, cells were completely protected against the attack of reactive nitrogen oxygen species, which are generated by autoxidation of NO. In conclusion, NOMela had to be an excellent NO precursor for cells in culture and potentially tissues. PMID:18673420

  8. COX-2 inhibition improves immunotherapy and is associated with decreased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mesothelioma. Celecoxib influences MDSC function

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman, Joris; Lambers, Margaretha E. H.; Nimwegen, Menno; Hendriks, Rudi; Hoogsteden, Henk; Aerts, Joachim; Hegmans, Joost

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells that accumulates in tumour-bearing hosts. These cells are induced by tumour-derived factors (e.g. prostaglandins) and have a critical role in immune suppression. MDSC suppress T and NK cell function via increased expression of arginase I and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Immune suppression by MDSC was found to be one of the main factors for immu...

  9. COX-2 inhibition improves immunotherapy and is associated with decreased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mesothelioma. Celecoxib influences MDSC function

    OpenAIRE

    Veltman Joris D; Lambers Margaretha EH; van Nimwegen Menno; Hendriks Rudi W; Hoogsteden Henk C; Aerts Joachim GJV; Hegmans Joost PJJ

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells that accumulates in tumour-bearing hosts. These cells are induced by tumour-derived factors (e.g. prostaglandins) and have a critical role in immune suppression. MDSC suppress T and NK cell function via increased expression of arginase I and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Immune suppression by MDSC was found to be one of the main factors for immunoth...

  10. Hydrogen sulfide increases nitric oxide production from endothelial cells by an Akt-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ArturoJCardounel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S and nitric oxide (NO are both gasotransmitters that can elicit synergistic vasodilatory responses in the in the cardiovascular system, but the mechanisms behind this synergy are unclear. In the current study we investigated the molecular mechanisms through which H2S regulates endothelial NO production. Initial studies were performed to establish the temporal and dose-dependent effects of H2S on NO generation using EPR spin trapping techniques. H2S stimulated a two-fold increase in NO production from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which was maximal 30 min after exposure to 25-150 µM H2S. Following 30 min H2S exposure, eNOS phosphorylation at Ser 1177 was significantly increased compared to control, consistent with eNOS activation. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt, the kinase responsible for Ser 1177 phosphorylation, attenuated the stimulatory effect of H2S on NO production. Taken together, these data demonstrate that H2S up-regulates NO production from eNOS through an Akt-dependent mechanism. These results implicate H2S in the regulation of NO in endothelial cells, and suggest that deficiencies in H2S signaling can directly impact processes regulated by NO.

  11. Nitric oxide production by cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells: stimulation by fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, M.; Tilton, R. G.; Eskin, S. G.; McIntire, L. V.

    1998-01-01

    This study demonstrated that exposure of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMC) to fluid flow resulted in nitric oxide (NO) production, monitored by nitrite and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production. A rapid burst in nitrite production rate was followed by a more gradual increase throughout the period of flow exposure. Neither the initial burst nor the prolonged nitrite production was dependent on the level of shear stress in the range of 1.1-25 dyn/cm2. Repeated exposure to shear stress after a 30-min static period restimulated nitrite production similar to the initial burst. Ca(2+)-calmodulin antagonists blocked the initial burst in nitrite release. An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) blocked nitrite production, indicating that changes in nitrite reflect NO production. Treatment with dexamethasone or cycloheximide had no effect on nitrite production. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the inducible and endothelial NOS isoforms showed no immunoreactivity on Western blots, whereas monoclonal antibodies directed against the neuronal NOS gave specific products. These findings suggest that human aortic SMC express a constitutive neuronal NOS isoform, the enzymatic activity of which is modulated by flow.

  12. A novel coumarin derivative, 8-methoxy chromen-2-one alleviates collagen induced arthritis by down regulating nitric oxide, NFκB and proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Debasis; Raghav, Sunil Kumar; Gautam, Hemlata; Das, Hasi R

    2015-12-01

    Ruta graveolens (Rue) is a well-known medicinal plant having anti-inflammatory and other healing properties. This contains many active phytochemicals such as coumarins which possess anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The present study was carried out to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a newly isolated coumarin derivative from rue plant, 8-methoxy-chromen-2-one (MCO) in the collagen induced arthritic (CIA) rat model. MCO showed inhibition of cytokines and NF-κB in LPS stimulated J774 cells which prompted its possible use in animal. In CIA, arthritic index and arthritic score reduced markedly within 15days of MCO treatment at doses of 2mg and 20mg per kg body weight. Alleviation of joint damage in CIA animals on treatment with MCO was evident from radiographic and histological data. Behavioral studies by open field tests also showed convalescence in the MCO treated CIA rats. Further, escalated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and also nitric oxide reduced significantly with the treatment. All these results indicate the therapeutic efficacy of MCO and its possible use as an anti-arthritic drug. PMID:26440401

  13. Relationships between systemic vascular resistance, blood rheology and nitric oxide in children with sickle cell anemia or sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease. : Hemodynamics in sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lamarre, Yann; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Lalanne-Mistrih, Marie-Laure; Waltz, Xavier; Petras, Marie; Doumdo, Lydia; Blanchet-Deverly, Anne; Martino, Jean; Tressières, Benoît; Maillard, Frederic; Tarer, Vanessa; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Vascular function has been found to be impaired in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The present study investigated the determinants of systemic vascular resistance in two main SCD syndromes in children: sickle cell anemia (SCA) and sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease (SCC). Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), hematological, hemorheological, and hemodynamical parameters were investigated in 61 children with SCA and 49 children with SCC. While mean arterial pressure was not different between S...

  14. Atorvastatin enhance efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells treatment for swine myocardial infarction via activation of nitric oxide synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a swine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, Statins can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs transplantation. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims at assessing whether atorvastatin (Ator facilitates the effects of MSCs through activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, especially endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, which is known to protect against ischemic injury. METHODS AND RESULTS: 42 miniswines were randomized into six groups (n = 7/group: Sham operation; AMI control; Ator only; MSC only, Ator+MSCs and Ator+MSCs+NG-nitrol-L-arginine (L-NNA, an inhibitor of NOS. In an open-heart surgery, swine coronary artery ligation and reperfusion model were established, and autologous bone-marrow MSCs were injected intramyocardium. Four weeks after transplantation, compared with the control group, Ator+MSCs animals exhibited decreased defect areas of both "perfusion" defined by Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (-6.2±1.8% vs. 2.0±5.1%, P = 0.0001 and "metabolism" defined by Positron Emission Tomography (-3.00±1.41% vs. 4.20±4.09%, P = 0.0004; Ejection fraction by Magnetic Resonance Imaging increased substantially (14.22±12.8% vs. 1.64±2.64%, P = 0.019. In addition, indices of inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced and survivals of MSCs or MSC-derived cells were increased in Ator+MSCs animals. In Ator or MSCs alone group, perfusion, metabolism, inflammation, fibrosis or apoptosis were reduced but there were no benefits in terms of heart function and cell survival. Furthermore, the above benefits of Ator+MSCs treatment could be partially blocked by L-NNA. CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin facilitates survival of implanted MSCs, improves function and morphology of infarcted hearts, mediated by activation of eNOS and alleviated by NOS inhibitor. The data reveal the cellular and molecular mechanism for anti-AMI therapy with a combination of statin and

  15. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism is associated with sickle cell disease patients in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Singh, Mendi Prema Shyam Sunder; Yadav, Rajiv; Gupta, Rasik Bihari; Gadge, Vijay Sadashiv; Gwal, Anil

    2013-12-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) produce significantly low levels of plasma nitric oxide (NO) during acute vaso-occlusive crisis. In transgenic sickle cell mice, NO synthesized by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme of vascular endothelial cells has been found to protect the mice from vaso-occlusive events. Therefore, the present study aims to explore possible association of eNOS gene polymorphism as a potential genetic modifier in SCD patients. A case control study involving 150 SCD patients and age- and ethnicity-matched 150 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques for three important eNOS gene polymorphisms-eNOS 4a/b, eNOS 894G>T and eNOS -786T>C. It was observed that SCD patients had significantly higher frequencies of mutant alleles besides heterozygous and homozygous mutant genotypes of these three eNOS gene polymorphisms and low levels of plasma nitrite (NO2) as compared with control groups. The SCD severe group had significantly lower levels of plasma NO2 and higher frequencies of mutant alleles of these three SNPs of eNOS gene in contrast to the SCD mild group of patients. Haplotype analysis revealed that frequencies of one mutant haplotype '4a-T-C' (alleles in order of eNOS 4a/b, eNOS 894G>T and eNOS -786T>C) were significantly high in the severe SCD patients (Phaplotype '4b-G-T' was found to be significantly high (P<0.0001) in the SCD mild patients, which indicates that eNOS gene polymorphisms are associated with SCD patients in India and may act as a genetic modifier of the phenotypic variation of SCD patients. PMID:24088668

  16. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE ACTIVITY AND PEROXYNITRITE CONTENT IN CELLS OF RAT’S MUCOUS COAT OF STOMACH UNDER EXPERIMENTAL STRESS-INDUCED ULCER

    OpenAIRE

    I. S. Maksymovych; M. V. Mylenko; O. V. Drobinska; L.I. Ostapchenko

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase activity in gastric mucosal cells as well as peroxynitrite generation in experimental stress-induced gastric ulcer formation in rats were studied. There was made the conclusion that nitric oxide synthase activity is growing during the stress. It causes increasing of peroxynitrite’ production and ulcer formation. It was established that destructive gastric mucosal damages depend on stress’ duration. It was determined that nitric oxide is involved in complex pathogenetic m...

  17. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass in coronary artery bypass surgeries (on-pump versus off-pump) on erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide levels

    OpenAIRE

    Onder Canguven; Selami Albayrak; Ahmet Selimoglu; Muhsin Balaban; Ahmet Sasmazel; Ayse Baysal

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on the erectile function and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (eNO) levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients were randomized into two groups depending on use of cardiopulmonary bypass in CABG surgery. The erectile function was evaluated by using the IIEF-5 questionnaire. The plasma eNO levels were determined at baseline and after reactive hyperemia before and after surger...

  18. Secondary Amines Containing One Aromatic Nitro Group: Preparation, Nitrosation, Sustained Nitric Oxide Release, and the Synergistic Effects of Released Nitric Oxide and an Arginase Inhibitor on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Brandon; Payne, Thomas J.; Ash, David E.; Mohanty, Dillip K.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death worldwide, is associated with the excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Nitrogen monoxide, more commonly known as nitric oxide, inhibits this uncontrolled proliferation. Herein we report the preparation of two families of nitric oxide donors; beginning with the syntheses of secondary amine precursors, obtained through the reaction between two equivalents of various monoamines with 2,4 or 2,6-difluoronitrobenzene. The purified second...

  19. Dexamethasone prevents granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in a skin dendritic cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Carlos B.; M. Celeste Lopes; Américo Figueiredo; M. Teresa Cruz; Margarida Gonçalo; Ana Luísa Vital

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory skin diseases, namely in allergic contact dermatitis. In this work, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on NO production induced by the epidermal cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in a mouse fetal skin dendritic cell line. METHODS: NO production was assessed by the method of Griess. Expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein was evaluated by wester...

  20. Regulatory mechanism of the flavoprotein Tah18-dependent nitric oxide synthesis and cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yuki; Nasuno, Ryo; Kawahara, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Akira; Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule involved in the regulation of a large number of cellular functions. The regulatory mechanism of NO generation in unicellular eukaryotic yeast cells is poorly understood due to the lack of mammalian and bacterial NO synthase (NOS) orthologues, even though yeast produces NO under oxidative stress conditions. Recently, we reported that the flavoprotein Tah18, which was previously shown to transfer electrons to the iron-sulfur cluster protein Dre2, is involved in NOS-like activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. On the other hand, Tah18 was reported to promote apoptotic cell death after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Here, we showed that NOS-like activity requiring Tah18 induced cell death upon treatment with H2O2. Our experimental results also indicate that Tah18-dependent NO production and cell death are suppressed by enhancement of the interaction between Tah18 and its molecular partner Dre2. Our findings indicate that the Tah18-Dre2 complex regulates cell death as a molecular switch via Tah18-dependent NOS-like activity in response to environmental changes. PMID:27178802

  1. DWPF nitric-glycolic flowsheet chemical process cell chemistry. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-01

    The conversions of nitrite to nitrate, the destruction of glycolate, and the conversion of glycolate to formate and oxalate were modeled for the Nitric-Glycolic flowsheet using data from Chemical Process Cell (CPC) simulant runs conducted by SRNL from 2011 to 2015. The goal of this work was to develop empirical correlations for these variables versus measureable variables from the chemical process so that these quantities could be predicted a-priori from the sludge composition and measurable processing variables. The need for these predictions arises from the need to predict the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of the glass from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. This report summarizes the initial work on these correlations based on the aforementioned data. Further refinement of the models as additional data is collected is recommended.

  2. Nitric oxide suppresses stomatal opening by inhibiting inward-rectifying Kin channels in Arabidopsis guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE ShaoWu; YANG Pin; HE YiKun

    2008-01-01

    We explore nitric oxide (NO) effect on K+in channels in Arabidopsis guard cells. We observed NO inhib-ited K+in currents when Ca2+ chelator EGTA (Ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'tetraacetic acid) was not added in the pipette solution; K+in currents were not sensitive to NO when cytosolic Ca2+ was chelated by EGTA. NO inhibited the Arabidopsis stomatal opening, but when EGTA was added in the bath solution, inhibition effect of NO on stomatal opening vanished. Thus, it implies that NO ele-vates cytosolic Ca2+ by activating plasma membrane Ca2+ channels firstly, then inactivates K+in chan-nels, resulting in stomatal opening suppressed subsequently.

  3. Decreasing methylation of pectin caused by nitric oxide leads to higher aluminium binding in cell walls and greater aluminium sensitivity of wheat roots

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chengliang; Lu, Lingli; Yu, Yan; Liu, Lijuan; Hu, Yan; Ye, Yiquan; Jin, Chongwei; Lin, Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlight Aluminium-induced nitric oxide production enhances the aluminium sensitivity of wheat by decreasing pectin methylation of root cell-wall pectin, resulting in greater aluminium binding in root cell walls.

  4. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V.R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Knott, Jason G. [Developmental Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, Michigan State University (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University, 333 Bostwick NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group (United States)

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro.

  5. Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Epithelial-like phenotype of trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells. •Trophoblast lineage cells derived from human iPS cells exhibit trophoblast function. •Trophoblasts from iPS cells provides a proof-of-concept in regenerative medicine. -- Abstract: Background: During implantation, the blastocyst trophectoderm attaches to the endometrial epithelium and continues to differentiate into all trophoblast subtypes, which are the major components of a placenta. Aberrant trophoblast proliferation and differentiation are associated with placental diseases. However, due to ethical and practical issues, there is almost no available cell or tissue source to study the molecular mechanism of human trophoblast differentiation, which further becomes a barrier to the study of the pathogenesis of trophoblast-associated diseases of pregnancy. In this study, our goal was to generate a proof-of-concept model for deriving trophoblast lineage cells from induced pluripotency stem (iPS) cells from human fibroblasts. In future studies the generation of trophoblast lineage cells from iPS cells established from patient’s placenta will be extremely useful for studying the pathogenesis of individual trophoblast-associated diseases and for drug testing. Methods and results: Combining iPS cell technology with BMP4 induction, we derived trophoblast lineage cells from human iPS cells. The gene expression profile of these trophoblast lineage cells was distinct from fibroblasts and iPS cells. These cells expressed markers of human trophoblasts. Furthermore, when these cells were differentiated they exhibited invasive capacity and placental hormone secretive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Conclusion: Trophoblast lineage cells can be successfully derived from human iPS cells, which provide a proof-of-concept tool to recapitulate pathogenesis of patient placental trophoblasts in vitro

  6. Myelin basic protein peptide 45–89 induces the release of nitric oxide from microglial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Shanshiashvili, L.; Pichkhadze, B.; Machaidze, G.; Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Mikeladze, D.

    2002-01-01

    Continuous (24 h) exposure of mixed oligodendrocyte/microglial cells to peptides 45–89 derived from citrullinated C8 isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP) induces cell death. In contrast, MBP-C8 at the same molecular concentration is not toxic to oligodendrocyte/microglial cells as detected by the MTT test and trypan blue exclusion method. The loss of oligodendrocyte/microglial cells resulted in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, suggesting MBP 45–89-induced apo...

  7. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Tran

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC. Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1 colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  8. Nitric oxide stimulates insulin gene transcription in pancreatic β-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies have identified a positive role for nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of pancreatic β-cell function. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term exposure to NO on β-cell gene expression and the activity of the transcription factor PDX-1. NO stimulated the activity of the insulin gene promoter in Min6 β-cells and endogenous insulin mRNA levels in both Min6 and isolated islets of Langerhans. Addition of wortmannin prior to NO stimulation blocked the observed increases in insulin gene promoter activity. Although NO addition stimulated the phosphorylation of p38, inhibition by SB203580 did not block the effect of NO on the insulin gene promoter. NO addition also stimulated both the nuclear accumulation and the DNA binding activity of PDX-1. This study has shown that over 24 h, NO stimulates insulin gene expression, PI-3-kinase activity and the activity of the critical β-cell transcription factor PDX-1

  9. The effect of PVDF-TrFE scaffolds on stem cell derived cardiovascular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitscherich, Pamela; Wu, Siliang; Gordan, Richard; Xie, Lai-Hua; Arinzeh, Treena; Lee, Eun Jung

    2016-07-01

    Recently, electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) scaffolds have been developed for tissue engineering applications. These materials have piezoelectric activity, wherein they can generate electric charge with minute mechanical deformations. Since the myocardium is an electroactive tissue, the unique feature of a piezoelectric scaffold is attractive for cardiovascular tissue engineering applications. In this study, we examined the cytocompatibility and function of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiovascular cells including mouse embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (mES-CM) and endothelial cells (mES-EC) on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds. MES-CM and mES-EC adhered well to PVDF-TrFE and became highly aligned along the fibers. When cultured on scaffolds, mES-CM spontaneously contracted, exhibited well-registered sarcomeres and expressed classic cardiac specific markers such as myosin heavy chain, cardiac troponin T, and connexin43. Moreover, mES-CM cultured on PVDF-TrFE scaffolds responded to exogenous electrical pacing and exhibited intracellular calcium handling behavior similar to that of mES-CM cultured in 2D. Similar to cardiomyocytes, mES-EC also demonstrated high viability and maintained a mature phenotype through uptake of low-density lipoprotein and expression of classic endothelial cell markers including platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and the arterial specific marker, Notch-1. This study demonstrates the feasibility of PVDF-TrFE scaffold as a candidate material for developing engineered cardiovascular tissues utilizing stem cell-derived cells. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1577-1585. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26705272

  10. Sildenafil Effect on Nitric Oxide Secretion by Normal Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells Cultured In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Chobsaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil is a selective inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monphosphat-specificphosphodiesterase type 5. It increases intracellular nitric oxide (NO production in some cells.There are reports on its positive effect on uterine circulation, endometrial thickness, and infertilityimprovement. Endometrial epithelial cells (EEC play an important role in embryo attachment andimplantation. The present work investigates the effect of sildenafil on human EEC and their NOsecretion in vitro.Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, endometrial biopsies (n=10 werewashed in a phosphate buffered solution (PBS and digested with collagenase I (2 mg/ml in DMEM/F12 medium at 37°C for 90 minutes. Epithelial glands were collected by sequential filtrationthrough nylon meshes (70 and 40 μm pores, respectively. Epithelial glands were then treated withtrypsin to obtain individual cells. The cells were counted and divided into four groups: control and1, 10, and 20 μM sildenafil concentrations. Cells were cultured for 15 days at 37ºC and 5% CO2; themedia were changed every 3 days, and their supernatants were collected for the NO assay. NO wasmeasured by standard Greiss methods. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: There was no significant difference between groups in cell count and NO secretion, but thelevel of NO increased slightly in the experimental groups. The 10 μM dose showed the highest cellcount. EEC morphology changed into long spindle cells in the case groups.Conclusion: Sildenafil (1, 10, and 20 μM showed a mild proliferative effect on human EECnumbers, but no significant change was seen in NO production.

  11. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  12. Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor Release by Nitric Oxide through Cyclic GMP Pathway in Cortical Glial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Huabao; YAMADA, Kiyofumi; Jourdi, Hussam; KAWAMURA, MEIKO; TAKEI, NOBUYUKI; HAN, DAIKEN; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Nawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we found that S-nitroso-N-acetyl-dl-penicillamine, a spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) generator, dose-dependently inhibited basal nerve growth factor (NGF) release from mixed glial cells. To elucidate the function of endogenous NO in the regulation of NGF release, the mixed glial cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS plus interfer-on-γ (IFNγ). The results showed that LPS alone induced NGF release and moderate NO production. However, costimulation with L...

  13. Sleep-active neuronal nitric oxide synthase-positive cells of the cerebral cortex: a local regulator of sleep?

    OpenAIRE

    Wisor, Jonathan P.; Gerashchenko, Dmitry; Kilduff, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Our recent report demonstrated that a small subset of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex of rodents expresses Fos protein, a marker for neuronal activity, during slow wave sleep (Gerashchenko et al., 2008). The population of sleep-active neurons consists of strongly immunohistochemically-stained cells for the enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase. By virtue of their widespread localization within the cerebral cortex and their widespread projections to other cortical cell types, cor...

  14. Nitric oxide from inflammatory origin impairs neural stem cell proliferation by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Pereira Carreira; Maria Inês Morte; Ana Isabel Santos; Ana Sofia Lourenço; António Francisco Ambrósio; Carvalho, Caetana M.; Araújo, Inês M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is characterized by activation of microglial cells, followed by production of nitric oxide (NO), which may have different outcomes on neurogenesis, favoring or inhibiting this process. In the present study, we investigated how the inflammatory mediator NO can affect proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs), and explored possible mechanisms underlying this effect. We investigated which mechanisms are involved in the regulation of NSC proliferation following treatment with an...

  15. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  16. Tartary buckwheat on nitric oxide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effects of tartary buckwheat (TB, Fagopyrum tataricum) on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of TB against the LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We fractionated TB to obtain 4 fractions including the n-hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol fractions. In addition, rutin was isolated and identified from the EtOAc fraction. The 4 fractions and rutin effectively inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-6. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors including nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible NO synthase were down-regulated in LPS- and IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with the 4 fractions and rutin. The present study suggests that TB could induce anti-inflammation by regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators. PMID:26134972

  17. Effects of chronic noradrenaline on the nitric oxide pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachetti, T; Comini, L; Agnoletti, L; Pedersini, P; Gaia, G; Cargnoni, A; Bellet, M; Curello, S; Ferrari, R

    1998-08-01

    Altered endothelium-dependent vasodilation has been observed in congestive heart failure (CHF), a disease characterized by a sustained adrenergic activation. The purpose of our study was to test the hypothesis that chronically elevated catecholamines influence the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the human endothelium. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were exposed for 7 days to a concentration of noradrenaline (NA, 1 ng/mL) similar to that found in the blood of patients with CHF. Kinetics of endothelial constitutive NO synthase (ecNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity, measured by [3H]L-arginine to [3H]L-citrulline conversion, and protein expression of ecNOS and iNOS, assessed by Western blot analysis, were unaffected by chronic NA treatment. Furthermore, no changes in subcellular fraction-associated ecNOS were found; this indirectly shows that chronic NA did not cause phosphorylation of the enzyme. Moreover, [3H]L-arginine transport through the plasma membrane was conserved in chronically NA-treated cells. The data demonstrate that prolonged in vitro exposure to pathologic CHF-like NA does not affect the L-arginine: NO pathway in human endothelial cells. PMID:9782366

  18. Nitric oxide decreases intestinal haemorrhagic lesions in rat anaphylaxis independently of mast cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carvalho Tavares

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the role of nitric oxide (NO in the intestinal lesions of passive anaphylaxis, since this experimental model resembles necrotizing enterocolitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were sensitized with IgE anti-dinitrophenol monoclonal antibody. Extravasation of protein-rich plasma and haemorrhagia were measured in the small intestine. Plasma histamine was measured to assess mast cell activation. The effect of exogenous NO on the lesions was assessed by using two structurally unrelated NO-donors: sodium nitroprusside and S-nitroso-Nacetyl-penicillamine (SNAP. An increased basal production of NO was observed in cells taken after anaphylaxis, associated with a reduced response to platelet-activating factor, interleukin 1beta, and IgE/DNP-bovine serum albumin complexes. The response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP was enhanced 24 h after challenge, but at earlier times was not significantly different from that observed in controls. Treatment with either sodium nitroprusside or SNAP produced a significant reduction of the haemorrhagic lesions, which are a hallmark of rat anaphylaxis. The extravasation of protein-rich plasma was not influenced by NO-donors. The increase of plasma histamine elicited by the anaphylactic challenge was not influenced by SNAP treatment. NO-donors protect intestinal haemorrhagic lesions of rat anaphylaxis by a mechanism apparently independent of mast cell histamine release.

  19. Release of nitric oxide during the T cell-independent pathway of macrophage activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckerman, K.P.; Rogers, H.W.; Corbett, J.A.; Schreiber, R.D.; McDaniel, M.L.; Unanue, E.R. (Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Immunodeficient mice are remarkably resistant to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) infection. The authors examined the role that nitric oxide (NO) plays in the CB-17/lcr SCID (SCID) response to LM. SCID spleen cells produced large quantities of NO (as measured by nitrite formation) when incubated in the presence of heat-killed LM. NO produced large quantities of nitrite in response to LM, but only in the presence of IFN-[gamma]. The production of NO induced by LM was not affected by neutralizing antibodies to TNF or IL-1. The production of NO was inhibited by addition of either of two inhibitors of NO synthase, N[sup G]-monomethyl arginine, or aminoguanidine. In a different situation, NK cells that were stimulated by TNF and Listeria products to release IFN-[gamma] did not produce NO. Macrophages cultured with IFN-[gamma] killed live LM. This increased killing of LM was significantly inhibited by amino-guanidine. In vivo, administration of aminoguanidine resulted in a marked increase in the mortality and spleen bacterial loads of LM-infected SCID or immunocompetent control mice. It is concluded that NO is a critical effector molecule of T cell-independent natural resistence of LM as studied in the SCID mouse, and that the NO-mediated response is essential for both SCID and immunocompetent host to survive after LM infection. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi, Melissa A; Fabiola Rizzatti; Barbora Piknova; Nathawut Sibmooh; Stroncek, David F; Schechter, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB), leukoreduced (LR), and non-leukoreduced (NLR) components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in...

  1. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaadany, Mostafa; Subramanian, Gayathri; Ayan, Halim; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage-current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases.

  2. Exogenous nitric oxide (NO) generated by NO-plasma treatment modulates osteoprogenitor cells early differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated whether nitric oxide (NO) generated using a non-thermal plasma system can mediate osteoblastic differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells without creating toxicity. Our objective was to create an NO delivery mechanism using NO-dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma that can generate and transport NO with controlled concentration to the area of interest to regulate osteoprogenitor cell activity. We built a non-thermal atmospheric pressure DBD plasma nozzle system based on our previously published design and similar designs in the literature. The electrical and spectral analyses demonstrated that N2 dissociated into NO under typical DBD voltage–current characteristics. We treated osteoprogenitor cells (MC3T3-E1) using NO-plasma treatment system. Our results demonstrated that we could control NO concentration within cell culture media and could introduce NO into the intracellular space using NO-plasma treatment with various treatment times. We confirmed that NO-plasma treatment maintained cell viability and did not create any toxicity even with prolonged treatment durations. Finally, we demonstrated that NO-plasma treatment induced early osteogenic differentiation in the absence of pro-osteogenic growth factors/proteins. These findings suggest that through the NO-plasma treatment system we are able to generate and transport tissue-specific amounts of NO to an area of interest to mediate osteoprogenitor cell activity without subsequent toxicity. This opens up the possibility to develop DBD plasma-assisted tissue-specific NO delivery strategies for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of bone diseases. (paper)

  3. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in trigeminal ganglion cells during culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Zhou, MingFang; Zinck, Tina Jovanovic; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signalling molecule that has been suggested to be a key molecule for induction and maintenance of migraine attacks based on clinical studies, animal experimental studies and the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunoreactivity within the trigeminovascul...

  4. Human odontoblast-like cells produce nitric oxide with antibacterial activity upon TLR2 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe FARGES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of cariogenic oral bacteria into enamel and dentin during the caries process triggers an immune/inflammatory response in the underlying pulp tissue, the reduction of which is considered a prerequisite to dentinogenesis-based pulp regeneration. If the role of odontoblasts in dentin formation is well known, their involvement in the antibacterial response of the dental pulp to cariogenic microorganisms has yet to be elucidated. Our aim here was to determine if odontoblasts produce nitric oxide (NO with antibacterial activity upon activation of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2, a cell membrane receptor involved in the recognition of cariogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Human odontoblast-like cells differentiated from dental pulp explants were stimulated with the TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that NOS1, NOS2 and NOS3 gene expression was increased in Pam2CSK4-stimulated odontoblast-like cells compared to unstimulated ones. NOS2 was the most up-regulated gene. NOS1 and NOS3 proteins were not detected in Pam2CSK4-stimulated or control cultures. NOS2 protein synthesis, NOS activity and NO extracellular release were all augmented in stimulated samples. Pam2CSK4-stimulated cell supernatants reduced Streptococcus mutans growth, an effect counteracted by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In vivo, the NOS2 gene was up-regulated in the inflamed pulp of carious teeth compared with healthy ones. NOS2 protein was immunolocalized in odontoblasts situated beneath the caries lesion but not in pulp cells from healthy teeth. These results suggest that odontoblasts may participate to the antimicrobial pulp response to dentin-invading Gram-positive bacteria through NOS2-mediated NO production. They might in this manner pave the way for accurate dental pulp healing and regeneration.

  5. Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaoka Teruyasu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular hydrogen (H2 functions as an extensive protector against oxidative stress, inflammation and allergic reaction in various biological models and clinical tests; however, its essential mechanisms remain unknown. H2 directly reacts with the strong reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite (ONOO- as well as hydroxyl radicals (•OH, but not with nitric oxide radical (NO•. We hypothesized that one of the H2 functions is caused by reducing cellular ONOO-, which is generated by the rapid reaction of NO• with superoxides (•O2-. To verify this hypothesis, we examined whether H2 could restore cytotoxicity and transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO- derived from NO• in chondrocytes. Methods We treated cultured chondrocytes from porcine hindlimb cartilage or from rat meniscus fibrecartilage with a donor of NO•, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP in the presence or absence of H2. Chondrocyte viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit. Gene expressions of the matrix proteins of cartilage and the matrix metalloproteinases were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-coupled real-time PCR method. Results SNAP treatment increased the levels of nitrated proteins. H2 decreased the levels of the nitrated proteins, and suppressed chondrocyte death. It is known that the matrix proteins of cartilage (including aggrecan and type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (such as MMP3 and MMP13 are down- and up-regulated by ONOO-, respectively. H2 restoratively increased the gene expressions of aggrecan and type II collagen in the presence of H2. Conversely, the gene expressions of MMP3 and MMP13 were restoratively down-regulated with H2. Thus, H2 acted to restore transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO-. Conclusions These results imply that one of the functions of H2 exhibits cytoprotective effects and transcriptional alterations through reducing ONOO-. Moreover, novel pharmacological strategies

  6. Stemness is derived from thyroid cancer cells

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    RishengMa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One hypothesis for thyroid cancer development is its derivation from thyroid cancer stem cells (CSCs. Such cells could arise via different paths including from mutated resident stem cells within the thyroid gland or via epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT from malignant cells since EMT is known to confer stem-like characteristics. Methods: To examine the status of stemness in thyroid papillary cancer we employed a murine model of thyroid papillary carcinoma and examined the expression of stemness and EMT using qPCR and histochemistry in mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre. This construct is only activated at the time of thyroid peroxidase (TPO expression in differentiating thyroid cells and cannot be activated by undifferentiated stem cells which do not express TPO. Results: There was decreased expression of thyroid specific genes such as Tg and NIS and increased expression of stemness markers such as Oct4, Rex1, CD15 and Sox2 in the thyroid carcinoma tissue from 6 week old BRAFV600E mice. The decreased expression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased EMT regulators including Snail, Slug, and TGF-β1 and TGF-β3, and the mesenchymal marker vimentin demonstrated the simultaneous progression of EMT and the CSC-like phenotype. Stemness was also found in a derived cancer thyroid cell line in which overexpression of Snail caused up-regulation of vimentin expression and up regulation of stemness markers Oct4, Rex1, CD15 with enhanced migration ability of the cells. Conclusions: Our findings support our earlier hypothesis that stemness in thyroid cancer is derived via EMT rather than from resident thyroid stem cells. In mice with a thyroid-specific knock-in of oncogenic Braf (LSL-Braf(V600E/TPO-Cre the neoplastic changes were dependent on thyroid cell differentiation and the onset of stemness must have been derived from differentiated thyroid epithelial cells.

  7. Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Production in BV2 Microglial Cells by Triterpenes from Tetrapanax papyriferus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Namki; Moon, Eun Hye; Kim, Hyun Woo; Hong, Jaewoo; Beutler, John A; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that activated microglia produce nitric oxide (NO), which has an important role in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In the course of searching for novel therapeutic agents from medicinal plants against neuroinflammatory diseases, the methanolic extract of Tetrapanax papyriferus was found to have significant NO inhibitory activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells. Nine oleanane-type triterpenes, including two new compounds, epipapyriogenin C-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) and 11-O-butylpapyrioside LIIc (9), were isolated from the leaves and stems of Tetrapanax papyriferus. The structures of these compounds were elucidated with 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS data. Among these Δ(11,13) oleanane-type triterpenes, compound 3 showed significant NO inhibitory activity in BV-2 cells, reducing the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. Compounds 7 and 9 also showed NO inhibitory activities among the Δ(12) oleanane-type triterpene saponins. These results show that oleanane-type triterpenes isolated from T. papyriferus could be a potential natural resource of NO inhibitors used in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27070561

  8. Red blood cell ATP/ADP & nitric oxide: The best vasodilators in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiari Nuredin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Inspired by previous report the release of ATP from RBCs, which may participate in vessel dilation by stimulating NO production in the endothelium through purinergic receptor signaling and so, the aim of this study is to clearly determined relationship between RBC ATP/ADP ratio with nitric oxide. Methods The ATP/ADP ratio of erythrocytes among four groups of normal individuals (young & middle age, athletes’ subjects and diabetic patients were compared and the relationship between ATP/ADP ratio and NO level of plasma was determined with AVOVA test and bioluminescence method. Results ATP/ADP level in four groups normal (young & middle age, athletes, diabetes] are measured and analyzed with ANOVA test that show a significant difference between groups (P-value Conclusion In this study, a positive relationship between RBC ATP/ADP ratio and NO was found. Based on the obtained result, higher RBC ATP/ADP content may control the ratio of plasma NO in different individuals, also this results show that ATP can activate endothelial cells in NO production and is a main factor in releasing of NO from endothelial cells.

  9. Guard cell hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediate elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Li, Xin; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Guanqun; Liu, Yaru; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jingquan

    2015-10-01

    Climate change as a consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2 influences plant photosynthesis and transpiration. Although the involvement of stomata in plant responses to elevated CO2 has been well established, the underlying mechanism of elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement remains largely unknown. We used diverse techniques, including laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, biochemical methodologies and gene silencing to investigate the signaling pathway for elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Elevated CO2 -induced stomatal closure was dependent on the production of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (RBOH1)-mediated hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) and NITRATE REDUCTASE (NR)-mediated nitric oxide (NO) in guard cells in an abscisic acid (ABA)-independent manner. Silencing of OPEN STOMATA 1 (OST1) compromised the elevated CO2 -induced accumulation of H2 O2 and NO, upregulation of SLOW ANION CHANNEL ASSOCIATED 1 (SLAC1) gene expression and reduction of stomatal aperture, whereas silencing of RBOH1 or NR had no effects on the expression of OST1. Our results demonstrate that as critical signaling molecules, RBOH1-dependent H2 O2 and NR-dependent NO act downstream of OST1 that regulate SLAC1 expression and elevated CO2 -induced stomatal movement. This information is crucial to deepen the understanding of CO2 signaling pathway in guard cells. PMID:26308648

  10. Nitric oxide gas phase release in human small airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Vinod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an imbalance in both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO is elevated in asthma, and is a potentially useful non-invasive marker of airway inflammation. However, the origin and underlying mechanisms of intersubject variability of exhaled NO are not yet fully understood. We have previously described NO gas phase release from normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEs, tracheal origin. However, smaller airways are the major site of morbidity in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-13 or cytomix (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ stimulation of differentiated small airway epithelial cells (SAECs, generation 10–12 and A549 cells (model cell line of alveolar type II cells in culture would enhance NO gas phase release. Methods Confluent monolayers of SAECs and A549 cells were cultured in Transwell plates and SAECs were allowed to differentiate into ciliated and mucus producing cells at an air-liquid interface. The cells were then stimulated with IL-13 (10 ng/mL or cytomix (10 ng/mL for each cytokine. Gas phase NO release in the headspace air over the cells was measured for 48 hours using a chemiluminescence analyzer. Results In contrast to our previous result in NHBE, baseline NO release from SAECs and A549 is negligible. However, NO release is significantly increased by cytomix (0.51 ± 0.18 and 0.29 ± 0.20 pl.s-1.cm-2, respectively reaching a peak at approximately 10 hours. iNOS protein expression increases in a consistent pattern both temporally and in magnitude. In contrast, IL-13 only modestly increases NO release in SAECs reaching a peak (0.06 ± 0.03 pl.s-1.cm-2 more slowly (30 to 48 hours, and does not alter NO release in A549 cells. Conclusion We conclude that the airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath, and intersubject variability may be due, in part, to variability in the type (Th1 vs Th2 and location (large vs small airway

  11. Pathogenic cycle between the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethylarginine and the leukocyte-derived hemoprotein myeloperoxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    von Leitner, E.C.; Klinke, A.; Atzler, D.; Slocum, J.L.; Lund, N.; Kielstein, J.T.; Maas, R.; Schmidt-Haupt, R.; Pekarová, Michaela; Hellwinkel, O.; Tsikas, D.; D'Alecy, L.G.; Lau, D.; Willems, S.; Kubala, Lukáš; Ehmke, H.; Meinertz, T.; Blankenberg, S.; Schwedhelm, E.; Gadegbeku, C.A.; Boger, R.H.; Baldus, S.; Sydow, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2011), s. 2735-U342. ISSN 0009-7322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : arteriosclerosis * leukocytes * nitric oxide synthase Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 14.739, year: 2011

  12. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of Taxus chinensis suspension cells through the reactive oxygen species-dependent and-independent signal pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maojun; DONG Jufang

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are two important signal molecules that play key roles in plant defense responses. Nitric oxide generation and oxidative burst and accumulation of reactive oxygen species are the early reactions of Taxus chinensis suspension cells to fungal elicitor prepared from the cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. In order to investigate the relationship and/or interactions of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells, we treated the cells with nitric oxide specific scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetra- methylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S,S(-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-eth- anediyl)-bis-isothiourea (PBITU), membrane NAD(P) H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase. The results show that pretreatment of T. chinensis cells with cPITO and DPI inhibited not only the elicitor-induced nitric oxide biosynthesis and oxidative burst, but also the elicitor-induced Taxol production, suggesting that both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are involved in elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with cPITO and PBITU suppressed the elicitor-induced oxidative burst, indicating that the oxidative burst might be dependent on NO. Application of nitric oxide via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) triggered Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis cells. The nitric oxide-induced Taxol production was suppressed by DPI, showing that the oxidative burst is involved in NO-triggered Taxol biosynthesis. However, nitric oxide and the fungal elicitor induced Taxol biosynthesis even though the accumulation of reactive oxygen species wass completely abolished in T. chinensis cells. Our data show that nitric oxide may mediate the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells through both reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent signal

  13. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Coxiella burnetii Replication and Parasitophorous Vacuole Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Dale; Barrows, Lorraine F.; Lindstrom, Nicole M.; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a recognized cytotoxic effector against facultative and obligate intracellular bacteria. This study examined the effect of nitric oxide produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) up-regulated in response to cytokine stimulation, or by a synthetic nitric oxide donor, on replication of obligately intracellular Coxiella burnetii in murine L-929 cells. Immunoblotting and nitrite assays revealed that C. burnetii infection of L-929 cells augments expression of iNOS up-regulated in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Infection in the absence of cytokine stimulation did not result in demonstrable up-regulation of iNOS expression or in increased nitrite production. Nitrite production by cytokine-treated cells was significantly inhibited by the iNOS inhibitor S-methylisothiourea (SMT). Treatment of infected cells with IFN-γ and TNF-α or the synthetic nitric oxide donor 2,2′-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (DETA/NONOate) had a bacteriostatic effect on C. burnetii replication. Inhibition of replication was reversed upon addition of SMT to the culture medium of cytokine-treated cells. Microscopic analysis of infected cells revealed that nitric oxide (either cytokine induced or donor derived) inhibited formation of the mature (large) parasitophorous vacuole that is characteristic of C. burnetii infection of host cells. Instead, exposure of infected cells to nitric oxide resulted in the formation of multiple small, acidic vacuoles usually containing one C. burnetii cell. Removal of nitrosative stress resulted in the coalescence of small vacuoles to form a large vacuole harboring multiple C. burnetii cells. These experiments demonstrate that nitric oxide reversibly inhibits replication of C. burnetii and formation of the parasitophorous vacuole. PMID:12183564

  14. Kinetics of reduction of nitric acid by electrochemical method and validation of cell design for plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing electrochemical method, the concentration of nitric acid had been reduced from 4 to about 0.5 M, under constant current/potential conditions in batch mode, for the purpose of optimizing the process parameters for the destruction of nitric acid in radioactive liquid waste, with good energy efficiency. Based on the rate constants determined from the batch process, a cell assembly in cylindrical configuration was designed for the electro-reduction of nitric acid in continuous mode, in radioactive environment. The steady state concentration of the acid at the outlet was compared with that concentration calculated using model equation and the agreement between the two sets of data was found to be reasonable. Cyclic voltammetric runs were recorded to understand the reduction behavior of nitric acid on platinum electrode. The results revealed the reduction of nitrate ion to be a quasi–reversible process and for the scan rate of 0.1 V s−1, values of 3.3 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 and 1.37 × 10−3 cm s−1 were computed for the diffusion coefficient and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant, respectively

  15. Nitric oxide-releasing prodrug triggers cancer cell death through deregulation of cellular redox balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Maciag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available JS-K is a nitric oxide (NO-releasing prodrug of the O2-arylated diazeniumdiolate family that has demonstrated pronounced cytotoxicity and antitumor properties in a variety of cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. The current study of the metabolic actions of JS-K was undertaken to investigate mechanisms of its cytotoxicity. Consistent with model chemical reactions, the activating step in the metabolism of JS-K in the cell is the dearylation of the diazeniumdiolate by glutathione (GSH via a nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction. The resulting product (CEP/NO anion spontaneously hydrolyzes, releasing two equivalents of NO. The GSH/GSSG redox couple is considered to be the major redox buffer of the cell, helping maintain a reducing environment under basal conditions. We have quantified the effects of JS-K on cellular GSH content, and show that JS-K markedly depletes GSH, due to JS-K's rapid uptake and cascading release of NO and reactive nitrogen species. The depletion of GSH results in alterations in the redox potential of the cellular environment, initiating MAPK stress signaling pathways, and inducing apoptosis. Microarray analysis confirmed signaling gene changes at the transcriptional level and revealed alteration in the expression of several genes crucial for maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis, as well as cell proliferation and survival, including MYC. Pre-treating cells with the known GSH precursor and nucleophilic reducing agent N-acetylcysteine prevented the signaling events that lead to apoptosis. These data indicate that multiplicative depletion of the reduced glutathione pool and deregulation of intracellular redox balance are important initial steps in the mechanism of JS-K's cytotoxic action.

  16. Nitric Oxide Inducing Function and Intracellular Movement of Chicken Interleukin-18 in Cultured Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XU; Tong-Le DENG; Long LI; Zhen-Qiang YOU; Wang-Jun WAN; Lian YU

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of chicken interleukin-18 (ChIL-18) in different forms in vitro,the ChIL-18 full-length gene (ChIL-18-F) and the ChIL-18 presumed mature protein gene (ChIL-18-M) were cloned and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pCI, to construct recombinant pCI-ChIL-18-F and pCI-ChIL-18-M. The recombinant plasmids were then transferred into chicken splenic lymphocytes (CSLs). Western blot showed that ChIL-18-F, with a molecular weight of 23.0 kDa, was produced in CSLs transfected by pCI-ChIL-18-F; ChIL-18-M, with a molecular weight of 19.5 kDa, was produced in CSLs transfected by pCI-ChIL-18-M. The nitric oxide (NO) level in the transfected CSLs and the culture medium at different time points was further examined under confocal microscopy using 4,5-diaminofluorescein staining. The results showed that both pCI-ChIL-18-F and pCI-ChIL-18-M groups showed significant increase in intracellular and extracellular NO production compared with pCI transfected control cells. These results suggest that both ChIL-18-F and ChIL-18-M could stimulate NO secretion in CSLs. To characterize the intracellular distribution of ChIL-18, ChIL-18-F and ChIL-18-M were each fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and expressed in Vero cells. The results showed that the ChIL-18-F tended to the membranous region in Vero cells, while ChIL-18-M did not. This indicates that the N-terminal 27 amino acid peptide helped ChIL-18 target to Vero cell membranes.

  17. Effect of Nitric Oxide on Potassium Channels of Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚东; 徐永健; 熊盛道; 张珍祥; 刘先胜; 倪望

    2002-01-01

    Summary: The effect of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on resting membrane potential (Em) and potassium currents of the bronchial smooth muscle cells from rats was investigated. All experiments were conducted in conventional whole-cell configuration. The changes of Em and potassium currents after addition of 0. 1 mmol/L SNP were measured under the current-clamp mode and the voltage-clamp mode respectively. Results showed that (1) SNP could decrease the Em from --33. 8±7.4 mV to -43. 7±6. 7mV (n=10, P<0. 01); (2) SNP could increase the Ca2+-activated K+ channel peak currents under ramp protocol from 466.9±180. 1 pA to 597. 7±237. 6 pA (n= 7, P<0. 01), and the currents under pulse protocol at +50 mV were increased from 544.2±145.4 pA to 678.1±206. 2 pA (n=6, P<0.05); (3) SNP also could increase voltage-gated K+ channel peak currents under ramp protocol from 389. 6±84. 1 pA to 526. 7±98. 7 pA (n=7, P<0. 01), the currents under pulse protocol at +50 mV were increased from 275.7±85.2 pA to 444.3±128.5 pA(n=6,P<0. 01). It was concluded that SNP increases the activities of Ca2+-activated K+ channels and voltage-gated K+ channels and leads to K+ efflux and hyperpolarization of the cell membrane, resulting in a decrease of the cell excitement.

  18. Essential role of nitric oxide in sepsis-induced impairment of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated relaxation in rat pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Jaganathan; Leo, Marie Dennis Marcus; Kathirvel, Kandaswamy; Arunadevi, Rathinam; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Prakash, Vellanki Ravi; Mishra, Santosh Kumar

    2010-03-25

    Both endothelial nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are important vasodilators in pulmonary circulation. Sepsis is known to impair endothelium-dependent dilation in the pulmonary vasculature, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We have examined the relative contribution of EDHF/NO to the attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery in sepsis, and the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived NO in this mechanism. Sepsis was induced in male adult Wistar rats by caecal ligation and puncture. At 18h after surgery, left and right branches of pulmonary arteries were isolated for tension recording, NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) measurements, mRNA and protein expressions. Despite a marked decrease in the arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and phosphorylated-eNOS (p-eNOS) protein expressions in sepsis, endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) mediated by NO, acetylcholine-stimulated NO release and tissue cGMP levels were moderately inhibited. Sepsis however abolished the N(G)-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)/indomethacin-resistant arterial relaxation (EDHF response) to acetylcholine in this vessel. In vitro treatment of the arterial rings from septic rats with 1400W, a selective inhibitor of iNOS restored the EDHF response, but had no effect on the acetylcholine-induced relaxation mediated by endothelial NO. The functional role of iNOS-derived NO in impairing EDHF-mediated relaxation was coincident with an increased basal NO production, iNOS mRNA and protein expressions in the rat pulmonary artery. In conclusion, the loss of the EDHF response may be primarily responsible for the endothelial dysfunction in sepsis, and its restoration by a selective iNOS inhibitor may improve pulmonary vasodilation. PMID:20035746

  19. Biocompatibility of Poly-ε-caprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite on mouse bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooley Paul H

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue-engineered bone may be developed by seeding the cells capable of both osteogenesis and vascularization on biocompatible composite scaffolds. The current study investigated the performance of mice bone marrow-derived osteogenic cells and endothelial cells as seeded on hydroxyapatite (HA and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL composite scaffolds. Methods Mononuclear cells were induced to osteoblasts and endothelial cells respectively, which were defined by the expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and deposits of calcium-containing crystal for osteoblasts, or by the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 and von Willebrand factor (vWF, and the formation of a capillary network in Matrigel™ for endothelial cells. Both types of cell were seeded respectively on PCL-HA scaffolds at HA to PCL weight ratio of 1:1, 1:4, or 0:1 and were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, ALP activity (of osteoblasts and nitric oxide production (of endothelial cells plus the assessment of cell viability. Results The results indicated that HA led to a positive stimulation of osteoblasts viability and ALP activity, while HA showed less influence on endothelial cells viability. An elevated nitric oxide production of endothelial cells was observed in HA-containing group. Conclusion Supplement of HA into PCL improved biocompatible for bone marrow-derived osteoblasts and endothelial cells. The PCL-HA composite integrating with two types of cells may provide a useful system for tissue-engineered bone grafts with vascularization.

  20. Endothelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Golub, Justin S.; Amit, Michal; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph; Langer, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to differentiate into various cell types and, thus, may be useful as a source of cells for transplantation or tissue engineering. We describe here the differentiation steps of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells forming vascular-like structures. The human embryonic-derived endothelial cells were isolated by using platelet endothelial cell-adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) antibodies, their behavior was characterized in vitro and in vivo, and their potential in tissue engineering was examined. We show that the isolated embryonic PECAM1+ cells, grown in culture, display characteristics similar to vessel endothelium. The cells express endothelial cell markers in a pattern similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, their junctions are correctly organized, and they have high metabolism of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. In addition, the cells are able to differentiate and form tube-like structures when cultured on matrigel. In vivo, when transplanted into SCID mice, the cells appeared to form microvessels containing mouse blood cells. With further studies, these cells could provide a source of human endothelial cells that could be beneficial for potential applications such as engineering new blood vessels, endothelial cell transplantation into the heart for myocardial regeneration, and induction of angiogenesis for treatment of regional ischemia.

  1. Adipose derived stem cells and nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Faroni; Richard JP Smith; Adam J Reid

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to peripheral nerves are common and cause life-changing problems for patients along-side high social and health care costs for society. Current clinical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries predominantly relies on sacriifcing a section of nerve from elsewhere in the body to pro-vide a graft at the injury site. Much work has been done to develop a bioengineered nerve graft, precluding sacriifce of a functional nerve. Stem cells are prime candidates as accelerators of re-generation in these nerve grafts. This review examines the potential of adipose-derived stem cells to improve nerve repair assisted by bioengineered nerve grafts.

  2. Myeloid derived suppressor cells in human diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Greten, Tim F.; Manns, Michael P.; Korangy, Firouzeh

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been described as a heterogeneous cell population with potent immune suppressor function in mice. Limited data are available on MDSC in human diseases. Interpretation of these data is complicated by the fact that different markers have been used to analyze human MDSC subtypes in various clinical settings. Human MDSC are CD11b+, CD33+, HLA-DRneg/low and can be divided into granulocytic CD14− and monocytic CD14+ subtypes. Interleukin 4Rα, VEGFR, CD15...

  3. Insulin-stimulated production of nitric oxide is inhibited by wortmannin. Direct measurement in vascular endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, G.; Quon, M J

    1996-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with insulin-resistant states such as diabetes and obesity. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to regulation of blood pressure. To gain insight into potential mechanisms linking hypertension with insulin resistance we directly measured and characterized NO production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to insulin using an amperometric NO-selective electrode. Insulin stimulation of HUVEC resulted in rapid, dose-dependent production of NO with a...

  4. Dynamin2- and endothelial nitric oxide synthase–regulated invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhimin; Humphrey, Ceba; Frilot, Nicole; Wang, Gaofeng; Nie, Zhongzhen; Moniri, Nader H.; Daaka, Yehia

    2011-01-01

    Invasion of bladder epithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contributes to antibiotic-resistant and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), but this process is incompletely understood. In this paper, we provide evidence that the large guanosine triphosphatase dynamin2 and its partner, endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS [eNOS]), mediate bacterial entry. Overexpression of dynamin2 or treatment with the NO donor S-nitrosothiols increases, whereas targeted reduction ...

  5. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide and uric acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Salian; Farah Demeri; Suchetha Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) being the most common head and neck cancer, involves the interplay of several free radicals and antioxidant molecules. The potential role of salivary nitric oxide (NO) and uric acid in cancer development needs to be explored as there are a few studies highlighting their association with each other and with oral cancer. Aims: The present study was designed to measure the NO and uric acid levels in the saliva of patients with OSCC as compared with...

  6. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    OpenAIRE

    Teeratad Sudsai; Chatchai Wattanapiromsakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2013-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO) was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1), kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2), rhamnazin (3), pinostrobin (4), together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5), curcumin (6), demethoxycurcumin (7) and bisdem...

  7. Nitric Oxide Induces Early Viral Transcription Coincident with Increased DNA Damage and Mutation Rates in Human Papillomavirus–Infected Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Lanlan; Gravitt, Patti E.; Song, Hebin; Maldonado, Anastacia M.; Ozbun, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient causes of cervical cancers. Other risk factors for cervical cancer (e.g., pregnancy, smoking, infections causing inflammation) can lead to high and sustained nitric oxide (NO) concentrations in the cervix, and high NO levels are related to carcinogenesis through DNA damage and mutation. However, the effects of NO exposure in HPV-infected cells have not been investigated. In this study, we used the NO donor DETA-NO ...

  8. Mechanisms of suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in RAW 264.7 cells by andrographolide

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chen, Chieh-Fu; Lin, Jin-Jung

    2000-01-01

    Andrographolide, an active component found in leaves of Andrographis paniculata, has been reported to exhibit nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory property in endotoxin-stimulated macrophages, however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of andrographolide on the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus interferon-γ (IFN-γ).RAW 264.7 cells sti...

  9. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide generator, induces DNA double-strand breaks, activates DNA damage response pathways, and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in human multiple myeloma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Hideshima, Teru; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Ocio, Enrique M.; Raje, Noopur; Catley, Laurence; Li, Chun-Qi; Trudel, Laura J.; Yasui, Hiroshi; Vallet, Sonia; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Chauhan, Dharminder; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Saavedra, Joseph E.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2007-01-01

    Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of JS-K, a prodrug designed to release nitric oxide (NO•) following reaction with glutathione S-transferases, in multiple myeloma (MM). JS-K showed significant cytotoxicity in both conventional therapy-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines, as well as patient-derived MM cells. JS-K induced apoptosis in MM cells, which was associated with PARP, caspase-8, and caspase-9 cleavage; increased Fas/CD95 expression; Mcl-1 cleavage; and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, as ...

  10. Nitric oxide mediates increased P-glycoprotein activity in interferon-{gamma}-stimulated human intestinal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Santosh G; Zingarelli, Basilia; Buckley, Donna J; Buckley, Arthur R; Pauletti, Giovanni M

    2005-03-01

    Patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) exhibit increased expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as elevated luminal IFN-gamma and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Using the in vitro Caco-2 cell culture model, we investigated whether these pathological mediators associated with the etiology of IBD affect functional activity of intestinal efflux systems. IFN-gamma reduced cellular uptake of cyclosporin A (CysA) but not methotrexate (MTX) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, P-gp expression increased by approximately twofold. Coincubation with the inducible NO synthase inhibitor l-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (l-NIL) dramatically reduced production of intracellular NO in response to IFN-gamma stimulus. The presence of l-NIL also abrogated the cytokine-mediated increase in P-gp expression and function suggesting that NO is required for IFN-gamma-mediated activation of this efflux system. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to the chemical NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in intracellular CysA accumulation that was paralleled by an increase in P-gp expression. Both IFN-gamma and SNAP enhanced DNA binding of NF-kappaB, whereas inclusion of l-NIL dramatically decreased this cytokine-induced effect on NF-kappaB binding. These results suggest that NO mediates IFN-gamma-induced increase in expression and function of intestinal P-gp in the human Caco-2 cell culture model by altering DNA binding of NF-kappaB, which may enhance transcription of the ABCB1 gene encoding for this efflux system. PMID:15486347

  11. Modulatory Effects of Chrysanyhemi Flos Pharmacopuncture on Nitric-oxide (NO Production in Murin Macrophagy Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hwa-Young

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Much evidence exists that herbs have effective immunomodulatory activities. Chrysanthemi Flos (CF is effective in clearing heat, reducing inflammation, dropping blood pressure and treating headache and is used as a pharmaceutical raw material for an immune enhancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of Chrysanthemi Flos pharmacopuncture on nitric-oxide (NO production in activating macrophages. Methods: After a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, was cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, immune-modulating abilities of CF were evaluated by using NO, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α production and phagocytic activity of macrophages. Results: CF enhanced the activities of macrophages by increasing the phagocytic activity and decreasing NO production. Especially, both LPS and CF, 200 ㎍/ml, treatment could significantly reduce the NO production, but did not change the production of IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that CF may be of immunomodulatory value, especially for adverse diseases due to increased NO production. It may have potential for use as immunoenhancing pharmacopuncture.

  12. Nitric oxide acts through different signaling pathways in maturation of cumulus cell-enclosed mouse oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abbasi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Nitric oxide (NO have a dual action in mouse oocyte meiotic maturation which depends on its concentration, but the mechanisms by which it influences oocyte maturation has not been exactly clarified. In this study different signaling mechanisms which exist for in vitro maturation of meiosis was examined in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEOs after injection of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG to immature female mice. Methods: The CEOs were cultured in spontaneous maturation and hypoxanthine (HX arrested model. Results: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP, an NO donor, 10mM delayed germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD significantly during the first 5 hrs of incubation and inhibited the formation of first polar body (PB1 at the end of 24 hrs of incubation. SNP (10-5M stimulated the meiotic maturation of oocytes significantly by overcoming the inhibition of HX. Sildenafil (a cGMP stimulator, 100 nM, had a significant inhibitory effects on both spontaneous meiotic maturation and HX-arrested meiotic maturation. Forskolin (an adenylate cyclase stimulator, 6µM and SNP (10mM had the same effects on GVBD. Forskolin reversed the SNP (10-5M stimulated meiotic maturation. Conclusion: These results suggest that differences in pathways are present between SNP-inhibited spontaneous meiotic maturation and SNP-stimulated meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes

  13. Dual microelectrodes for distance control and detection of nitric oxide from endothelial cells by means of scanning electrochemical microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Sonnur; Etienne, Mathieu; Oni, Joshua; Blöchl, Andrea; Reiter, Sabine; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2004-11-01

    Dual Pt disk microelectrodes consisting of a 10-microm distance sensor and a 50-microm nitric oxide sensor were prepared. The 50-microm electrode was modified with Ni(4-N-tetramethyl)pyridyl porphyrin enclosed in the polymer network of a negatively charged electrodeposition paint. This paint prevented the dissolution of the otherwise soluble porphyrin in the aqueous test medium due to charge interactions. It also denied negatively charged ions in the analyte solution access to the electrode surface by electrostatic repulsion, thereby preventing interference from anions such as nitrite, nitrate, and ascorbate. With the aid of a scanning electrochemical microscope, it was possible to use the distance sensor by recording the negative feedback effect on the reduction of molecular oxygen to "guide" the nitric oxide sensor to various known distances from a layer of adherently growing human umbilical vein endothelial cells for the detection of nitric oxide released from the cells upon stimulation with bradykinin. The use of the distance sensor made it possible to preserve the integrity of the adherently growing cells concomitantly with the modified electrode by preventing the deterioration of the modifying layer during the distance adjustment step. PMID:15516132

  14. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Huiwen [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Mollica, Molly Y.; Lee, Shin Hee [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Wang, Lei [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A., E-mail: velazque@ualberta.ca [Chemistry Section, Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis and Basic Research Program, SAIC-Frederick Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton Alberta, Canada T6G 2N8 (Canada); Wu, Shiyong, E-mail: wus1@ohio.edu [Edison Biotechnology Institute, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  15. Effects of nitric oxide-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) on melanoma cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new class of nitric oxide (NO•)-releasing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NONO-NSAIDs) were developed in recent years and have shown promising potential as NSAID substitutes due to their gentle nature on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Since nitric oxide plays a role in regulation of cell adhesion, we assessed the potential use of NONO-NSAIDs as anti-metastasis drugs. In this regard, we compared the effects of NONO-aspirin and a novel NONO-naproxen to those exerted by their respective parent NSAIDs on avidities of human melanoma M624 cells. Both NONO-NSAIDs, but not the corresponding parent NSAIDs, reduced M624 adhesion on vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) by 20–30% and fibronectin by 25–44% under fluid flow conditions and static conditions, respectively. Only NONO-naproxen reduced (∼ 56%) the activity of β1 integrin, which binds to α4 integrin to form very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), the ligand of VCAM-1. These results indicate that the diazeniumdiolate (NO•)-donor moiety is critical for reducing the adhesion between VLA-4 and its ligands, while the NSAID moiety can impact the regulation mechanism of melanoma cell adhesion. -- Highlights: ► NONO-naproxen, a novel nitric oxide-releasing NSAID, was synthesized. ► NONO-NSAIDs, but not their parent NSAIDs, reduced melanoma adhesion. ► NONO-naproxen, but not NONO-aspirin and NSAIDs, reduced activity of β1 integrin.

  16. Determination of Nitric Oxide-Derived Nitrite and Nitrate in Biological Samples by HPLC Coupled to Nitrite Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Anguo; Duan, Tingting; Tang, Dan; Xu, Youhua; Feng, Liang; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Zhu, Jiaxiao; Wang, Rushang; Zhu, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite and nitrate are main stable products of nitric oxide, a pivotal cellular signaling molecule, in biological fluids. Therefore, accurate measurement of the two ions is profoundly important. Nitrite is difficult to be determined for a larger number of interferences and unstable in the presence of oxygen. In this paper, a simple, cost-effective and accurate HPLC method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate was developed. On the basis of the reaction that nitrite is oxidized rapidly...

  17. Demystified … Nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Smith, K

    2002-01-01

    The discovery of nitric oxide (NO) demonstrated that cells could communicate via the manufacture and local diffusion of an unstable lipid soluble molecule. Since the original demonstration of the vascular relaxant properties of endothelium derived NO, this fascinating molecule has been shown to have multiple, complex roles within many biological systems. This review cannot hope to cover all of the recent advances in NO biology, but seeks to place the discovery of NO in its historical context, and show how far our understanding has come in the past 20 years. The role of NO in mitochondrial respiration, and consequently in oxidative stress, is described in detail because these processes probably underline the importance of NO in the development of disease. PMID:12456772

  18. Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in stress-induced depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wang; Shucheng An

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accumulated evidence indicates an important role for hippocampal dendrite atrophy in development of depression, while brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in hippocampal dendrite growth. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the role of BDNF and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in chronic and unpredictable stress-induced depression and the pathogenesis of depression.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled animal experiment. The experiment was carried out from October 2006 to May 2007 at the Department of Animal Physiology, College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University.MATERIALS: Thirty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g at the beginning of the experiment were obtained from Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Xi'an, China). BDNF antibody and nNOS antibody were provided by Santa Cruz (USA). K252a (BDNF inhibitor) and 7-NI (nNOS inhibitor) were provided by Sigma (USA). METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into five groups: Control group, chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) group, K252a group, K252a+7-NI group and 7-NI+CUMS group. While the Control, K252a and K252a+7-NI groups of rats not subjected to stress had free access to food and water, other groups of rats were subjected to nine stressors randomly applied for 21 days, with each stressor applied 2-3 times. On days 1, 7, 14 and 21 during CUMS, rats received microinjection of 1 μL of physiological saline in the Control and CUMS groups, 1 μL of K252a in the K252a group, 1 μL of K252a and 7-NI in the K252a+7-NI group, and 1 μL of 7-NI in the 7-NI+CUMS group. We observed a variety of alterations in sucrose preference, body weight change, open field test and forced swimming test, and observed the expression of BDNF and nNOS in rat hippocampus by immunohistochemistry;RESULTS: Compared with the Control group, the behavior of the CUMS rats was significantly depressed, the expression of BDNF decreased (P < 0.01) but the expression of n

  19. Do tobacco stimulate the production of nitric oxide by up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in cancer: Immunohistochemical determination of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A comparative study in tobacco habituers and non-habituers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate the enhanced expression in OSCC of tobacco habituers when compared to OSCC of tobacco non-habituers indicating the effect of tobacco on nitric oxide. Carcinogenic chemical compounds in Tobacco induce nitric oxide production by iNOS, by its tumor-promoting effects which may enhance the process of carcinogenesis.

  20. Vaspin increases nitric oxide bioavailability through the reduction of asymmetric dimethylarginine in vascular endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Vaspin is an adipocytokine recently identified in the visceral adipose tissue of diabetic rats and having anti-diabetic effects. We have recently shown that vaspin has anti-atherogenic effect through Akt-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis. Decreased activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a well-known endogenous competitive inhibitor of eNOS and risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether vaspin might protect against atherosclerosis through its beneficial effects on the ADMA-eNOS system. Treatment of vaspin significantly increased NO secretion from endothelial cells and isolated aorta from Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Furthermore, treatment of vaspin prevented fatty acid-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated aorta of SD rat. For the mechanism of vaspin-induced NO biosynthesis, vaspin activated the STAT3 signaling pathway and stimulated eNOS phosphorylation (Ser 1177, a marker of eNOS activation, through STAT3-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, vaspin treatment increased the expression of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH II, the responsible enzyme for the degradation of ADMA, leading to a reduction in ADMA levels. Vaspin-induced increase in DDAH II gene expression was through STAT3-mediated stimulation of DDAH II promoter activity. These results suggest that vaspin increases eNOS activity by reducing ADMA level through STAT3-mediated regulation of DDAH II expression. Our findings provide a novel molecular mechanism of antiatherogenic actions of vaspin.

  1. Magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle catalyzed chemiluminescence for detection of nitric oxide in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiliang; Li, Mei; Wang, Bing; Wang, Meng; Kurash, Ibrahim; Zhang, Xiangzhi; Feng, Weiyue

    2016-08-01

    Direct and real-time measurement of nitric oxide (NO) in biological media is very difficult due to its transient nature. Fe3O4 nanoparticles (nanoFe3O4) because of their unique catalytic activities have attracted much attention as catalysts in a variety of organic and inorganic reactions. In this work, we have developed a magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticle-based rapid-capture system for real-time detection of cellular NO. The basic principle is that the nanoFe3O4 can catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 in the system to generate superoxide anion (O2 (·-)) and the O2 (·-) can serve as an effective NO(·) trapping agent yielding peroxynitrite oxide anion, ONOO(-). Then the concentration of NO in cells can be facilely determined via peroxynitrite-induced luminol chemiluminescence. The linear range of the method is from 10(-4) to 10(-8) mol/L, and the detection of limit (3σ, n = 11) is as low as 3.16 × 10(-9) mol/L. By using this method, the NO concentration in 0.1 and 0.5 mg/L LPS-stimulated BV2 cells was measured as 4.9 and 11.3 μM, respectively. Surface measurements by synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SRXPS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) demonstrate the catalytic mechanism of the nanoFe3O4-based system is that the significantly excess Fe(II) exists on the surface of nanoFe3O4 and mediates the rapid heterogeneous electron transfer, thus presenting a new Fe2O3 phase on the surface. PMID:27289465

  2. Packed red blood cells are an abundant and proximate potential source of nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F Zwemer

    Full Text Available We determined, for packed red blood cells (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma, the maximum content, and ability to release the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitors asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and monomethylarginine (LNMMA.ADMA and LNMMA are near equipotent NOS inhibitors forming blood's total NOS inhibitory content. The balance between removal from, and addition to plasma determines their free concentrations. Removal from plasma is by well-characterized specific hydrolases while formation is restricted to posttranslational protein methylation. When released into plasma they can readily enter endothelial cells and inhibit NOS. Fresh rat and human whole blood contain substantial protein incorporated ADMA however; the maximum content of ADMA and LNMMA in PRBC and fresh frozen plasma has not been determined.We measured total (free and protein incorporated ADMA and LNMMA content in PRBCs and fresh frozen plasma, as well as their incubation induced release, using HPLC with fluorescence detection. We tested the hypothesis that PRBC and fresh frozen plasma contain substantial inhibitory methylarginines that can be released chemically by complete in vitro acid hydrolysis or physiologically at 37°C by enzymatic blood proteolysis.In vitro strong-acid-hydrolysis revealed a large PRBC reservoir of ADMA (54.5 ± 9.7 µM and LNMMA (58.9 ± 28.9 μM that persisted over 42-d at 6° or -80°C. In vitro 5h incubation at 37°C nearly doubled free ADMA and LNMMNA concentration from PRBCs while no change was detected in fresh frozen plasma.The compelling physiological ramifications are that regardless of storage age, 1 PRBCs can rapidly release pathologically relevant quantities of ADMA and LNMMA when incubated and 2 PRBCs have a protein-incorporated inhibitory methylarginines reservoir 100 times that of normal free inhibitory methylarginines in blood and thus could represent a clinically relevant and proximate risk for iatrogenic NOS inhibition upon

  3. Hepatocytes Determine the Hypoxic Microenvironment and Radiosensitivity of Colorectal Cancer Cells Through Production of Nitric Oxide That Targets Mitochondrial Respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether host hepatocytes may reverse hypoxic radioresistance through nitric oxide (NO)-induced oxygen sparing, in a model relevant to colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Hepatocytes and a panel of CRC cells were incubated in a tissue-mimetic coculture system with diffusion-limited oxygenation, and oxygen levels were monitored by an oxygen-sensing fluorescence probe. To activate endogenous NO production, cocultures were exposed to a cytokine mixture, and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was analyzed by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and NO/nitrite production. The mitochondrial targets of NO were examined by enzymatic activity. To assess hypoxic radioresponse, cocultures were irradiated and reseeded for colonies. Results: Resting hepatocytes consumed 10-40 times more oxygen than mouse CT26 and human DLD-1, HT29, HCT116, and SW480 CRC cells, and thus seemed to be the major effectors of hypoxic conditioning. As a result, hepatocytes caused uniform radioprotection of tumor cells at a 1:1 ratio. Conversely, NO-producing hepatocytes radiosensitized all CRC cell lines more than 1.5-fold, similar to the effect of selective mitochondrial inhibitors. The radiosensitizing effect was associated with a respiratory self-arrest of hepatocytes at the level of aconitase and complex II, which resulted in profound reoxygenation of tumor cells through oxygen sparing. Nitric oxide–producing hepatocytes were at least 10 times more active than NO-producing macrophages to reverse hypoxia-induced radioresistance. Conclusions: Hepatocytes were the major determinants of the hypoxic microenvironment and radioresponse of CRC cells in our model of metabolic hypoxia. We provide evidence that reoxygenation and radiosensitization of hypoxic CRC cells can be achieved through oxygen sparing induced by endogenous NO production in host hepatocytes

  4. Pulmonary neutrophil recruitment and bronchial reactivity in formaldehyde-exposed rats are modulated by mast cells and differentially by neuropeptides and nitric oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used a pharmacological approach to study the mechanisms underlying the rat lung injury and the airway reactivity changes induced by inhalation of formaldehyde (FA) (1% formalin solution, 90 min once a day, 4 days). The reactivity of isolated tracheae and intrapulmonary bronchi were assessed in dose-response curves to methacholine (MCh). Local and systemic inflammatory phenomena were evaluated in terms of leukocyte countings in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, blood, bone marrow lavage and spleen. Whereas the tracheal reactivity to MCh did not change, a significant bronchial hyporesponsiveness (BHR) was found after FA inhalation as compared with naive rats. Also, FA exposure significantly increased the total cell numbers in BAL, in peripheral blood and in the spleen, but did not modify the counts in bone marrow. Capsaicin hindered the increase of leukocyte number recovered in BAL fluid after FA exposure. Both compound 48/80 and indomethacin were able to prevent the lung neutrophil influx after FA, but indomethacin had no effect on that of mononuclear cells. Following FA inhalation, the treatment with sodium cromoglycate (SCG), but not with the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, significantly reduced the total cell number in BAL. Compound 48/80, L-NAME and SCG significantly prevented BHR to MCh after FA inhalation, whereas capsaicin was inactive in this regard. On the other hand, indomethacin exacerbated BHR. These data suggest that after FA inhalation, the resulting lung leukocyte influx and BHR may involve nitric oxide, airway sensory fibers and mast cell-derived mediators. The effect of NO seemed to be largely restricted to the bronchial tonus, whereas neuropeptides appeared to be linked to the inflammatory response, therefore indicating that the mechanisms responsible for the changes of airway responsiveness caused by FA may be separate from those underlying its inflammatory lung effects

  5. Anti-thrombogenic properties of a nitric oxide-releasing dextran derivative: evaluation of platelet activation and whole blood clotting kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vinod B.; Leszczak, Victoria; Wold, Kathryn A.; Lantvit, Sarah M.; Popat, Ketul C.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Controlling platelet activation and clotting initiated by cardiovascular interventions remains a major challenge in clinical practice. In this work, the anti-thrombotic properties of a polysaccharide-based nitric oxide (NO)-releasing dextran derivative are presented. Total platelet adhesion, platelet morphology and whole blood clotting kinetics were used as indicators to evaluate the anti-clotting properties of this material. With a total NO delivery of 0.203±0.003 μmol, the NO-releasing dextran derivative (Dex-SNO) mixed with blood plasma demonstrated a significantly lower amount of platelet adhesion and activation onto a surface and reduced whole blood clotting kinetics. Nearly 75% reduction in platelet adhesion and a significant retention of platelet morphology were observed with blood plasma treated with Dex-SNO, suggesting this to be a potential anti-platelet therapeutic agent for preventing thrombosis that does not have an adverse effect on circulating platelets. PMID:24349705

  6. Admittance spectroscopy of CdTe/CdS solar cells subjected to varied nitric-phosphoric etching conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Proskuryakov, Y. Y.; Durose, K; Taele, B.; Welch, G. P.; Oelting, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigate the electric and structural properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells subjected to a nitric-phosphoric (NP) acid etching procedure, employed for the formation of a Te-rich layer before back contacting. The etching time is used as the only variable parameter in the study, while admittance spectroscopy is employed for the characterization of the cells' electric properties as well as for the analysis of the defect energy levels. Particular attention was also given to the cha...

  7. Stimulation of nitric oxide synthesis by the aqueous extract of Panax ginseng root in RAW 264.7 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America.Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose depen...

  8. Correlation of Cell Strain in Single Osteocytes with Intracellular Calcium, but not Intracellular Nitric Oxide, in Response to Fluid Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Amber L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Ling, Jian; Jiang, Jean X.; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Nicolella, Daniel P

    2010-01-01

    Osteocytes compose 90–95% of all bone cells and are the mechanosensors of bone. In this study, the strain experienced by individual osteocytes resulting from an applied fluid flow shear stress was quantified and correlated to two biological responses measured in real-time within the same individual osteocytes: 1) the upregulation of intracellular calcium and 2) changes in intracellular nitric oxide. Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were loaded with Fluo-4 AM and DAR-4M and exposed to uniform lamin...

  9. New naphthoquinone derivatives against glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Marco; Mucignat-Caretta, Carla; Isse, Abdirisak Ahmed; Gennaro, Armando; Pezzani, Raffaele; Pasquale, Riccardo; Pavan, Valeria; Crisma, Marco; Ribaudo, Giovanni; Zagotto, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed to the development of a set of new naphtoquinone derivatives that can act against glioma. The compounds were tested in order to find out their ability to inhibit the growth of glioma cells, and the results of these assays were correlated with electrochemical analysis and NMR-based reoxidation kinetic studies, suggesting that a redox mechanism underlies and may explain the observed biological behavior. In addition to a full description of the synthetic pathways, electrochemistry, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are provided. PMID:25916907

  10. Abnormal nitric oxide production in aged rat mesenteric arteries is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase-derived peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaosun; Bohlen, H. Glenn; Unthank, Joseph L.; Miller, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory showed increased basal periarterial nitric oxide (NO) and H2O2 concentrations in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, characterized by oxidant stress, as well as impaired flow-mediated NO production that was corrected by a reduction of periarterial H2O2. Aging is also associated with an increase in vascular reactive oxygen species and results in abnormal vascular function. The current study was designed to assess the role of H2O2 in regulating NO production duri...

  11. Biphasic Effects of Nitric Oxide Radicals on Radiation-Induced Lethality and Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lung Cancer Cells Carrying Different p53 Gene Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on radiation-induced cell killing and chromosome aberrations in two human lung cancer cell lines with a different p53 gene status. Methods and Materials: We used wild-type (wt) p53 and mutated (m) p53 cell lines that were derived from the human lung cancer H1299 cell line, which is p53 null. The wtp53 and mp53 cell lines were generated by transfection of the appropriate p53 constructs into the parental cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) (an NO donor) and/or 2-(4-Carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) (an NO scavenger) and then exposed to X-rays. Cell survival, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored by use of a colony-forming assay, Hoechst 33342 staining assay and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP [deoxyuridine triphosphate] nick end labeling) assay, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In wtp53 cells the induction of radioresistance and the inhibition of apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in the presence of ISDN at low 2- to 10-μmol/L concentrations before X-irradiation. The addition of c-PTIO and ISDN into the culture medium 6 h before irradiation almost completely suppressed these effects. However, at high concentrations of ISDN (100-500 μmol/L), clear evidence of radiosensitization, enhancement of apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations was detected. However, these phenomena were not observed in mp53 cells at either concentration range with ISDN. Conclusions: These results indicate that low and high concentrations of NO radicals can choreograph inverse radiosensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations in human lung cancer cells and that NO radicals can affect the fate of wtp53 cells.

  12. Nitric oxide releasing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications: cell viability, apoptosis and cell death evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in several physiological and pathophysiological processes, such as control of vascular tone and immune responses against microbes. Thus, there is great interest in the development of NO-releasing materials to carry and deliver NO for biomedical applications. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been used in important pharmacological applications, including drug-delivery. In this work, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were coated with thiol-containing hydrophilic ligands: mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Free thiol groups on the surface of MSA- or DMSA- coated nanoparticles were nitrosated, leading to the formation of NO-releasing iron oxide nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of MSA- or DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) (thiolated nanoparticles) and nitrosated MSA- or nitrosated DMSA- coated MNPs (NO-releasing nanoparticles) were evaluated towards human lymphocytes. The results showed that MNP-MSA and MNP-DMSA have low cytotoxicity effects. On the other hand, NO-releasing MNPs were found to increase apoptosis and cell death compared to free NO-nanoparticles. Therefore, the cytotoxicity effects observed for NO-releasing MNPs may result in important biomedical applications, such as the treatment of tumors cells.

  13. Involvement of nitric oxide signaling in mammalian Bax-induced terpenoid indole alkaloid production of Catharanthus roseus cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, has been demonstrated to be a potential regulatory factor for plant secondary metabolite biosynthesis recently. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Bax-induced secondary metabolite biosynthesis, we determined the contents of nitric oxide (NO) of the transgenic Catharanthus roseus cells overexpressing a mouse Bax protein and checked the effects of NO specific scavenger 2,4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1- oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) on Bax-induced terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) production of the cells. The data showed that overexpression of the mouse Bax in C. roseus cells triggered NO generation of the cells. Treatment of cPITO not only inhibited the Bax-triggered NO burst but also suppressed the Bax-induced TIA production. The results indicated that the mouse Bax might activate the NO signaling in C. roseus cells and induce TIA production through the NO-dependent signal pathway in the cells. Furthermore, the activities of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were significantly increased in the transgenic Bax cells as compared to those in the control cells, showing that the mouse Bax may induce NOS of C. roseus cells. Treatment of the transgenic Bax cells with NOS inhibitor PBITU blocked both Bax-induced NO generation and TIA production, which suggested that the mouse Bax might trigger NO generation and TIA production through NOS. However, the NOS-like activities and NO generation in the transgenic Bax cells did not match kinetically and the Bax-induced NOS-like activity was much later and lower than NO production. Moreover, the Bax-induced NO generation and TIA production were only partially inhibited by PBITU. Thus, our results suggested that the Bax-induced NO production and secondary metabolite biosynthesis in C. roseus cells was not entirely dependent on NOS or NOS-like enzymes.

  14. Effects of aqueous saffron extract on nitric oxide production by two human carcinoma cell lines: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and laryngeal carcinoma (Hep2)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Parizadeh; Fahime Ghafoori Gharib; Ali Reza Abbaspour; Jalil Tavakol Afshar; Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A number of studies have demonstrated the potential antitumor effects of saffron and its constituents on different malignant cells in vitro. It has been reported that a novel glycoconjugate isolated from corms and callus of saffron possesses cytotoxic activity against different tumor cellswith nitric oxide (NO) production. These data suggest that the cytotoxic effect of saffron extract may be related to an effect on nitric oxide production. The aim of the study was to investigate t...

  15. H2O2-induced Leaf Cell Death and the Crosstalk of Reactive Nitric/Oxygen Species([F])

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqin Wang; Aihong Lin; Gary J.Loake; Chengcai Chu

    2013-01-01

    In plants,the chloroplast is the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing site under high light stress.Catalase (CAT),which decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),is one of the controlling enzymes that maintains leaf redox homeostasis.The catalase mutants with reduced leaf catalase activity from different plant species exhibit an H2O2-induced leaf cell death phenotype.This phenotype was differently affected by light intensity or photoperiod,which may be caused by plant species,leaf redox status or growth conditions.In the rice CAT mutant nitric oxide excess 1 (noe1),higher H2O2 levels induced the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and higher S-nitrosothiol (SNO) levels,suggesting that NO acts as an important endogenous mediator in H2O2-induced leaf cell death.As a free radical,NO could also react with other intracellular and extracellular targets and form a series of related molecules,collectively called reactive nitrogen species (RNS).Recent studies have revealed that both RNS and ROS are important partners in plant leaf cell death.Here,we summarize the recent progress on H2O2-induced leaf cell death and the crosstalk of RNS and ROS signals in the plant hypersensitive response (HR),leaf senescence,and other forms of leaf cell death triggered by diverse environmental conditions.

  16. Enriched retinal ganglion cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Katherine P; Hung, Sandy S C; Sharov, Alexei; Lo, Camden Y; Needham, Karina; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Jackson, Stacey; Crombie, Duncan E; Nayagam, Bryony A; Cook, Anthony L; Hewitt, Alex W; Pébay, Alice; Wong, Raymond C B

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuropathies are characterised by a loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) that lead to vision impairment. Development of cell therapy requires a better understanding of the signals that direct stem cells into RGCs. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent an unlimited cellular source for generation of human RGCs in vitro. In this study, we present a 45-day protocol that utilises magnetic activated cell sorting to generate enriched population of RGCs via stepwise retinal differentiation using hESCs. We performed an extensive characterization of these stem cell-derived RGCs by examining the gene and protein expressions of a panel of neural/RGC markers. Furthermore, whole transcriptome analysis demonstrated similarity of the hESC-derived RGCs to human adult RGCs. The enriched hESC-RGCs possess long axons, functional electrophysiological profiles and axonal transport of mitochondria, suggestive of maturity. In summary, this RGC differentiation protocol can generate an enriched population of functional RGCs from hESCs, allowing future studies on disease modeling of optic neuropathies and development of cell therapies. PMID:27506453

  17. The energy-conserving nitric-oxide-reductase system in Paracoccus denitrificans. Distinction from the nitrite reductase that catalyses synthesis of nitric oxide and evidence from trapping experiments for nitric oxide as a free intermediate during denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G J; Page, M D; Ferguson, S J

    1989-02-15

    antimycin- or myxothiazol-sensitive manner. However, nitric oxide was not detected by the electrode during the reduction of nitrate. Nitric-oxide synthesis from nitrate could be detected with cells in the presence of very low concentrations of Triton X-100 which selectively inhibits nitric-oxide reductase activity. 5. Nitric oxide was detected as an intermediate in denitrification by including haemoglobin with an anaerobic suspension of cells that was reducing nitrate. The characteristic spectrum of the nitric oxide derivative of haemoglobin was observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2920732

  18. Some phenolic compounds increase the nitric oxide level in endothelial cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appeldoorn, M.M.; Venema, D.P.; Peters, T.H.F.; Koenen, M.E.; Arts, I.C.W.; Vincken, J.-P.; Gruppen, H.; Keuer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The vasorelaxing properties of chocolate and wine might relate to the presence of phenolic compounds. One of the potential mechanisms involved is stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production, as NO is a major regulator of vasodilatation. This study aimed to develop an in vitro assay using

  19. SENP1 inhibits the IH-induced apoptosis and nitric oxide production in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Wang, Zhong-hua; Xu, Bo; Chen, Kui; Sun, Jin-yuan; Ren, Lian-ping

    2015-11-27

    To reveal SUMOylation and the roles of Sentrin-specific proteases (SENP)s in microglial cells under Intermittent hypoxia (IH) condition would provide more intensive view of understanding the mechanisms of IH-induced central nervous system (CNS) damage. Hence, in the present study, we detected the expression levels of SENPs in microglial cells under IH and normoxia conditions via RT-PCR assay. We found that SENP1 was significantly down-regulated in cells exposure to IH. Subsequently, the effect of IH for the activation of microglia and the potential roles of SENP1 in the SENP1-overexpressing cell lines were investigated via Western blotting, RT-PCR and Griess assay. The present study demonstrated the apoptosis-inducing and activating role of IH on microglia. In addition, we revealed that the effect of IH on BV-2 including apoptosis, nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) induction can be attenuated by SENP1 overexpression. The results of the present study are of both theoretical and therapeutic significance to explore the potential roles of SENP1 under IH condition and elucidated the mechanisms underlying microglial survival and activation. PMID:26499079

  20. Nitric oxide mediated DNA double strand breaks induced in proliferating bystander cells after {alpha}-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Shaopeng [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-02-03

    Low-dose {alpha}-particle exposures comprise 55% of the environmental dose to the human population and have been shown to induce bystander responses. Previous studies showed that bystander effect could induce stimulated cell growth or genotoxicity, such as excessive DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), micronuclei (MN), mutation and decreased cell viability, in the bystander cell population. In the present study, the stimulated cell growth, detected with flow cytometry (FCM), and the increased MN and DSB, detected with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) immunofluorescence, were observed simultaneously in the bystander cell population, which were co-cultured with cells irradiated by low-dose {alpha}-particles (1-10 cGy) in a mixed system. Further studies indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) played very important roles in mediating cell proliferation and inducing MN and DSB in the bystander population through treatments with NO scavenger and TGF-{beta}1 antibody. Low-concentrations of NO, generated by spermidine, were proved to induce cell proliferation, DSB and MN simultaneously. The proliferation or shortened cell cycle in bystander cells gave them insufficient time to repair DSBs. The increased cell division might increase the probability of carcinogenesis in bystander cells since cell proliferation increased the probability of mutation from the mis-repaired or un-repaired DSBs.

  1. The level of nitric oxide regulates lipocalin-2 expression under inflammatory condition in RINm5F beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seo-Yoon; Kim, Dong-Bin; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Jang, Hyun-Jong; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Kim, Myung-Jun

    2016-07-15

    We previously reported that proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and interferon-γ) induced the expression of lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) together with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RINm5F beta-cells. Therefore, we examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on LCN-2 expression in cytokines-treated RINm5F beta-cells. Additionally, we observed the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability. First, we found the existence of LCN-2 receptor and the internalization of exogenous recombinant LCN-2 peptide in RINm5F and INS-1 beta-cells. Next, the effects of NO on LCN-2 expression were evaluated. Aminoguanidine, an iNOS inhibitor and iNOS gene silencing significantly inhibited cytokines-induced LCN-2 expression while sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor potentiated it. Luciferase reporter assay showed that transcription factor NF-κB was not involved in LCN-2 expression. Both LCN-2 mRNA and protein stability assays were conducted. SNP did not affect LCN-2 mRNA stability, however, it significantly reduced LCN-2 protein degradation. The LCN-2 protein degradation was significantly attenuated by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor. Finally, the effect of LCN-2 on cell viability was evaluated. LCN-2 peptide treatment and LCN-2 overexpression significantly reduced cell viability. FACS analysis showed that LCN-2 induced the apoptosis of the cells. Collectively, NO level affects LCN-2 expression via regulation of LCN-2 protein stability under inflammatory condition and LCN-2 may reduce beta-cell viability by promoting apoptosis. PMID:27233602

  2. Prostaglandins but not nitric oxide are endothelium-derived relaxing factors in the trout aorta%前列腺素而非一氧化氮是鳟主动脉内皮细胞 舒血管因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Virginia M MIL LER; Paul M VANHOUTTE

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify the type of prostanoids produced by endothelial cells of trout aorta and to determine whether or not the smooth muscle responds to nitric oxide. METHODS: Ventral aortas, with and without endothelium from rainbow trout ( S gairdneri ), were incubated in a buffered salt solution. RESULTS: Addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 caused a significant increase in prostaglandin E's and a consistent increase in the stable metabolite of prostacyclin (6-keto-prostaglandin Fla) in the incubation media only when the endothelium was present. This production was inhibited by methylene blue (10μmol/L). In rings of trout aorta without endothelium suspended for the measurement of isometric force in organ chambers, prostacyclin and prostaglandin E1 but not prostaglandin F2 caused concentration-dependent decreases in tension when the tings were contracted with acetylcholine. The smooth muscle did not relax to nitric oxide but did so to sodium nitropmsside. Relaxations to the latter nitrovasodilator were not inhibited by methylene blue. Descending aorta without endothelium from frogs relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner to nitric oxide. CONCLUSION: Predominant endothelium-derived relaxing factors in trout aorta are prostaglandins, the synthesis of which can be inhibited by methylene blue.A phylogenetic appearance of nitric-oxide sensitive mechanism for vasodilatation,perhaps is associated with the transition from water to air respiration.

  3. Amorphous silica nanoparticles trigger nitric oxide/peroxynitrite imbalance in human endothelial cells: inflammatory and cytotoxic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbalan JJ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available J Jose Corbalan1,2, Carlos Medina1, Adam Jacoby2, Tadeusz Malinski2, Marek W Radomski11School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Panoz Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of noxious effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on human endothelial cells.Methods: Nanoparticle uptake was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical nanosensors were used to measure the nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO- released by a single cell upon nanoparticle stimulation. The downstream inflammatory effects were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase assay.Results: We found that the silica nanoparticles penetrated the plasma membrane and rapidly stimulated release of cytoprotective NO and, to a greater extent, production of cytotoxic ONOO-. The low [NO]/[ONOO-] ratio indicated increased nitroxidative/oxidative stress and correlated closely with endothelial inflammation and necrosis. This imbalance was associated with nuclear factor κB activation, upregulation of key inflammatory factors, and cell death. These effects were observed in a nanoparticle size-dependent and concentration-dependent manner.Conclusion: The [NO]/[ONOO-] imbalance induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles indicates a potentially deleterious effect of silica nanoparticles on vascular endothelium.Keywords: amorphous silica nanoparticles, nanotoxicology, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, inflammation, risk factors

  4. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in red blood cells: Key to a new erythrocrine function?

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Malte Kelm

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) have been considered almost exclusively as a transporter of metabolic gases and nutrients for the tissues. It is an accepted dogma that RBCs take up and inactivate endothelium-derived NO via rapid reaction with oxyhemoglobin to form methemoglobin and nitrate, thereby limiting NO available for vasodilatation. Yet it has also been shown that RBCs not only act as “NO sinks”, but exert an erythrocrine function – i.e an endocrine function of RBC – by synthesizing, transportin...

  5. Resistance to Streptozotocin-Induced Autoimmune Diabetes in Absence of Complement C3: Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Play a Role

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaogang; Liu, Huanhai; He, Bin; Fu, Zhiren

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of complement to the development of autoimmune diabetes has been proposed recently. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesize that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which act as regulators in autoimmunity, play a role in resistance to diabetes in absence of complement C3. Indeed, MDSC number was increased significantly in STZ-treated C3−/− mice. These cells highly expressed arginase I and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Import...

  6. The effects of dithiaden on nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Králová, Jana; Pekarová, Michaela; Drábiková, K.; Jančinová, V.; Nosál, R.; Číž, Milan; Lojek, Antonín

    Trenčianske Teplice, 2008. s. 82-83. ISSN 1337-6853. [TOXCON 2008, Integration of Toxicological Research Within V4, 13th Interdisciplinary Toxicology Conference. 27.05.2008-30.05.2008, Trenčianske Teplice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : dithiaden * nitric oxide * RAW 264.7 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. Trans Fatty Acids Induce Vascular Inflammation and Reduce Vascular Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Naomi G.; Pham, Matilda; Rizzo, Norma O.; Cheng, Andrew M.; Maloney, Ezekiel; Kim, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), which are consumed by eating foods made from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This relation can be explained by many factors including TFA's negative effect on endothelial function and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. In this study we investigated the effects of three different TFA (2 common isomers of C18 found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil and a C18 isomer found from rumi...

  8. Correlation between Nitric oxide (NO) & Asymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA) Hemoglobin Concentration in sickle cell patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kadkhodaei ElyaderaniM; Rostami M; Keikhaie B; PedramM

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The importance of Nitric oxide (NO) andAsymmetric dimethylargininie (ADMA) in pathophysiology of Sickle celldisease (SCD) is being increasingly clarified. Since very few of the studieshave been conducted in the word and no study has been carried out in Iran,especially in Khuzestan province where is the main center of Sickle Celldisorder (SCD) in Iran, We decided to conduct the present study.Material and Methods: EDTA anticoagulated plasma samples were obtainedfrom 3...

  9. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Psoriasis Are an Expanded Population Exhibiting Diverse T-Cell-Suppressor Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lauren Y; Chung, Jin-Sung; Teshima, Takahiro; Feigenbaum, Lawrence; Cruz, Ponciano D; Jacobe, Heidi T; Chong, Benjamin F; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disease caused by hyperactivated T cells regulated by positive and negative mechanisms; although the former have been much studied, the latter have not. We studied the regulatory mechanism mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and showed that MDSCs expanded in melanoma patients express dendritic cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent integrin ligand, a critical mediator of T-cell suppressor function. We examined expansion of DC-HIL(+) MDSCs in psoriasis and characterized their functional properties. Frequency of DC-HIL(+) monocytic MDSCs (CD14(+)HLA-DR(no/low)) in blood and skin was markedly increased in psoriatic patients versus healthy control subjects, but there was no statistically significant relationship with disease severity (based on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score). Blood DC-HIL(+) MDSC levels in untreated patients were significantly higher than in treated patients. Compared with melanoma-derived MDSCs, psoriatic MDSCs exhibited significantly reduced suppressor function and were less dependent on DC-HIL, but they were capable of inhibiting proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-17 responses of autologous T cells. Psoriatic MDSCs were functionally diverse among patients in their ability to suppress allogeneic T cells and in the use of either IL-17/arginase I or IFN-γ/inducible nitric oxide synthase axis as suppressor mechanisms. Thus, DC-HIL(+) MDSCs are expanded in psoriasis patients, and their mechanistic heterogeneity and relative functional deficiency may contribute to the development of psoriasis. PMID:27236103

  10. In vitro lifespan and senescent behaviour of human periosteal derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozzi, Giovanni; Lucarini, Guendalina; Dicarlo, Manuela; Andreoni, Chiara; Salvolini, Eleonora; Ferretti, Concetta; Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica

    2016-07-01

    Periosteum derived progenitor cells (PDPCs) represent promising mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for skeletal regeneration and to test bone cell based tissue engineering strategies. Most of regenerative medicine approaches based on MSCs require a noteworthy amount of cells that must be expanded in vitro prior to their use. As culture expansion method may impact on cell behaviour, we assessed the replicative and metabolic capacity (nitric oxide production and glucose consumption), senescence hallmarks of PDPCs serially passaged as well as the expression of selected genes specifically related to early osteoblastic differentiation, bone remodelling and stemness during PDPC sequential passaging. We also scouted a Systems Biology approach to examine and elucidate the experimental results through mathematical modelling and in silico simulations. PDPC subculture led to a progressive proliferative decline but, despite this, PDPCs maintained almost constant their metabolic activity. In vitro, senescent PDPCs displayed the typical "replicative senescence" features, involving p16 and not p53 in the regulation of this phenomenon. Gene expression analysis evidenced the tendency of sub-cultured PDPCs to increase the expression of genes involved in bone resorption. The mathematical analysis of the experimental results showed a strict similarity between replicative senescence and age-related changes, enabling the definition of an in silico model mimicking PDPC behaviour in terms of nitric oxide (NO) production. The relationship between NO production and subculture passages could represent a cutting edge "replicative senescence index". Overall, our findings suggest the possibility to use early-passage PDPCs for bone regenerative approaches based on the local recruitment of stem cells, whilst the later cell passages could be a suitable in vitro tool to validate scaffolds intended for bone regeneration in elderly subjects. PMID:27102545

  11. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 impairs the insulin-dependent nitric oxide pathway in vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aragonès Gemma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4 plasma levels are associated with impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D. In this work, we analysed the effect of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated nitric oxide (NO production by endothelial cells in vitro. Methods In human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, we measured the effects of FABP4 on the insulin-mediated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS expression and activation and on NO production. We also explored the impact of exogenous FABP4 on the insulin-signalling pathway (insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 and Akt. Results We found that eNOS expression and activation and NO production are significantly inhibited by exogenous FABP4 in HUVECs. FABP4 induced an alteration of the insulin-mediated eNOS pathway by inhibiting IRS1 and Akt activation. These results suggest that FABP4 induces endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting the activation of the insulin-signalling pathway resulting in decreased eNOS activation and NO production. Conclusion These findings provide a mechanistic linkage between FABP4 and impaired endothelial function in diabetes, which leads to an increased cardiovascular risk.

  12. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bozic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation.

  13. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Jovanovic, Marija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Laketa, Danijela; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Pekovic, Sanja; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM) modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM) to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation. PMID:26413464

  14. Secondary amines containing one aromatic nitro group: preparation, nitrosation, sustained nitric oxide release, and the synergistic effects of released nitric oxide and an arginase inhibitor on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brandon; Payne, Thomas J; Ash, David E; Mohanty, Dillip K

    2013-03-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death worldwide, is associated with the excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Nitrogen monoxide, more commonly known as nitric oxide, inhibits this uncontrolled proliferation. Herein we report the preparation of two families of nitric oxide donors; beginning with the syntheses of secondary amine precursors, obtained through the reaction between 2 equiv of various monoamines with 2,4 or 2,6-difluoronitrobenzene. The purified secondary amines were nitrosated then subjected to a Griess reagent test to examine the slow and sustained nitric oxide release rate for each compound in both the absence and presence of reduced glutathione. The release rate profiles of these two isomeric families of NO-donors were strongly dependent on the number of side chain methylene units and the relative orientations of the nitro groups with respect to the N-nitroso moieties. The nitrosated compounds were then added to human aortic smooth muscle cell cultures, individually and in tandem with S-2-amino-6-boronic acid (ABH), a potent arginase inhibitor. Cell viability studies indicated a lack of toxicity of the amine precursors, in addition to anti-proliferative effects exhibited by the nitrosated compounds, which were enhanced in the presence of ABH. PMID:23375096

  15. Genome-scale transcriptome analysis in response to nitric oxide in birch cells: implications of the triterpene biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansuo Zeng

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting nitric oxide (NO as a mediator of plant biochemistry continues to grow, but its functions at the molecular level remains poorly understood and, in some cases, controversial. To study the role of NO at the transcriptional level in Betula platyphylla cells, we conducted a genome-scale transcriptome analysis of these cells. The transcriptome of untreated birch cells and those treated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP were analyzed using the Solexa sequencing. Data were collected by sequencing cDNA libraries of birch cells, which had a long period to adapt to the suspension culture conditions before SNP-treated cells and untreated cells were sampled. Among the 34,100 UniGenes detected, BLASTX search revealed that 20,631 genes showed significant (E-values≤10-5 sequence similarity with proteins from the NR-database. Numerous expressed sequence tags (i.e., 1374 were identified as differentially expressed between the 12 h SNP-treated cells and control cells samples: 403 up-regulated and 971 down-regulated. From this, we specifically examined a core set of NO-related transcripts. The altered expression levels of several transcripts, as determined by transcriptome analysis, was confirmed by qRT-PCR. The results of transcriptome analysis, gene expression quantification, the content of triterpenoid and activities of defensive enzymes elucidated NO has a significant effect on many processes including triterpenoid production, carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis.

  16. New ambuic acid derivatives from the solid culture of Pestalotiopsis neglecta and their nitric oxide inhibitory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu-Yue Qi; Er-Wei Li; Jun-Jie Han; Yun-Fei Pei; Ke Ma; Li Bao; Ying Huang; Feng Zhao; Hong-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Four new ambuic acid derivatives (1–4), and four known derivatives (5–8), were isolated from the solid culture of a plant pathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis neglecta. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR experiments. The absolute configuration of the C-16 secondary alcohol in 1 was deduced via the CD data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex with the acetonide derivative of 1. The absolute configuration in 3 was assigned by comparison of the experimental and simulated elect...

  17. Computation of Plasma Hemoglobin Nitric Oxide Scavenging in Hemolytic Anemias

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffers, Anne; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Intravascular hemoglobin limits the amount of endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) available for vasodilation. Cell-free hemoglobin scavenges NO more efficiently than red blood cell encapsulated hemoglobin. Hemolysis has recently been suggested to contribute to endothelial dysfunction based on a mechanism of NO scavenging by cell-free hemoglobin. Although experimental evidence for this phenomenon has been presented, support from a theoretical approach has, until now, been missing. Indeed, du...

  18. Thrombin has biphasic effects on the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells and contributes to experimental pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin F Nickel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A potential role for coagulation factors in pulmonary arterial hypertension has been recently described, but the mechanism of action is currently not known. Here, we investigated the interactions between thrombin and the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in pulmonary endothelial cells and experimental pulmonary hypertension. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chronic treatment with the selective thrombin inhibitor melagatran (0.9 mg/kg daily via implanted minipumps reduced right ventricular hypertrophy in the rat monocrotaline model of experimental pulmonary hypertension. In vitro, thrombin was found to have biphasic effects on key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in endothelial cells (HUVECs. Acute thrombin stimulation led to increased expression of the cGMP-elevating factors endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC subunits, leading to increased cGMP levels. By contrast, prolonged exposition of pulmonary endothelial cells to thrombin revealed a characteristic pattern of differential expression of the key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, in which specifically the factors contributing to cGMP elevation (eNOS and sGC were reduced and the cGMP-hydrolyzing PDE5 was elevated (qPCR and Western blot. In line with the differential expression of key regulators of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, a reduction of cGMP by prolonged thrombin stimulation was found. The effects of prolonged thrombin exposure were confirmed in endothelial cells of pulmonary origin (HPAECs and HPMECs. Similar effects could be induced by activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a link between thrombin generation and cGMP depletion in lung endothelial cells through negative regulation of the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, possibly mediated via PAR-1, which could be of relevance in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  19. Effect of Skin Sensitizers on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in Skin Dendritic Cells: Role of Different Immunosuppressive Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, M. T.; Neves, B. M.; Gonçalo, M; Figueiredo, A; C. B. Duarte; Lopes, M C

    2007-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, namely in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). However, the mechanism by which NO acts in ACD remains elusive. The present study focuses on the effects of different contact sensitizers (2,4-dinitrofluorbenzene, 1,4-phenylenediamine, nickel sulfate), the inactive analogue of DNFB, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene, and two irritants (sodium dodecyl sulphate and benzalkonium chloride) on the expression of the i...

  20. Trimethyltin-induced apoptosis is associated with upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and Bax in a hippocampal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimethyltin (TMT) produces selective neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS), in which the hippocampus is the most sensitive area. Since previous studies have been conducted in either non-neural cells or mixed primary cultures, an immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT-22 cell) was used to assess the mechanism and mode of death produced by TMT. The compound produced a time- and concentration-dependent apoptotic death that was caspase-mediated. Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) were involved in the cytotoxicity. Scavenging of ROS by a free radical trapping agent or inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore significantly reduced cell death. Additionally, TMT increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by activation of the redox-sensitive transcription factor NFκB. Pharmacologic inhibition studies showed that the iNOS-mediated NO generation increased expression of Bax and then mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. It was concluded that excessive ROS generation initiated the apoptotic cell death by upregulating iNOS followed by increased Bax expression which then led to loss of ΔΨm and caspase-executed cell death. This study is the first to report in a neuronal cell model that TMT stimulates induction of iNOS, which then increases cellular levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) to initiate apoptotic death

  1. Role of nitric oxide in obesity-induced beta cell disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimabukuro, M; Ohneda, M; Lee, Y.; Unger, R H

    1997-01-01

    Here we report that free fatty acid-induced suppression of insulin output in prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats is mediated by NO. When normal islets were cultured in 2 mM FFA, NO production and basal insulin secretion increased slightly. In cultured prediabetic ZDF islets, FFA induced a fourfold greater rise in NO, upregulated mRNA of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduced insulin output; both nicotinamide and aminoguanidine, which lower NO, prevented the FFA-mediated ...

  2. New approach to beta cell function screening by nitric oxide assessment of obese individuals at the population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaim EA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Elinton Adami Chaim, Renata Cristina GobatoUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Surgery, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, BrazilBackground: Approximately 27% of Americans today are obese, and this condition increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The UK Prospective Diabetes Study suggests that loss of beta cell function can begin at least 10 years before diagnosis, and mean beta cell function is already less than 50% at diagnosis. The aim of this research was to assess the possibility of detecting loss of beta cell function in obese patients by a novel approach involving nitric oxide assessment using a combination of technologies.Materials and methods: One hundred and fifteen obese patients (93 women, 22 men of mean age 39 (range 17–62 years, who were candidates for bariatric surgery were included in the study, and underwent laboratory tests, including fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin plasma, and examination with the Electro Sensor complex. The Electro Sensor complex offers a new way to assess nitric oxide production using five technologies managed by software, ie, the galvanic skin response, photoelectrical plethysmography, heart rate variability analysis, bioimpedance analysis, and blood pressure oscillometric measurements. The homeostasis model assessment 2% beta cell function (HOMA2% β algorithm was calculated from fasting blood glucose and fasting insulin plasma using free software provided by The University of Oxford Diabetes Trial Unit. The Electro Sensor complex percent beta (ESC% β algorithm was calculated from the Electro Sensor complex data and statistical neural network. Statistical analysis was performed to correlate ESC% β and HOMA2% β using the coefficient of correlation and Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were also constructed to determine the specificity and sensitivity of ESC% β in

  3. Effects of Litchi chinensis fruit isolates on prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide production in J774 murine macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Litchi chinensis is regarded as one of the 'heating' fruits in China, which causes serious inflammation symptoms to people. Methods In the current study, the effects of isolates of litchi on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO production in J774 murine macrophage cells were investigated. Results The AcOEt extract (EAE of litchi was found effective on stimulating PGE2 production, and three compounds, benzyl alcohol, hydrobenzoin and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfurolaldehyde (5-HMF, were isolated and identified from the EAE. Benzyl alcohol caused markedly increase in PGE2 and NO production, compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS as positive control, and in a dose-dependent manner. Hydrobenzoin and 5-HMF were found in litchi for the first time, and both of them stimulated PGE2 and NO production moderately in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA expression and NF-κB (p50 activation might be involved in mechanism of the stimulative process. Conclusion The study showed, some short molecular compounds in litchi play inflammatory effects on human.

  4. Differentiation potential of the fetal rat liver-derived cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Zygmunt Pojda; Jerzy Moraczewski; Tomasz Oldak; Marzena Jastrzewska; Agnieszka Gajkowska; Iwona Grabowska; Eugeniusz K Machaj

    2005-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow or several fetal tissues can be expanded and differentiated into other cell lines. The fetal liver is the source of early hematopoietic cells and also, as a fetal tissue, may be considered as a source of pluripotent stem cells. The differentiation potential of fetal rat liver cells have been examined. Freshly isolated liver cells from 14-d fetuses were cultured in Dulbecco medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The plastic-adherent cells were then pa...

  5. Two N-(2-phenylethyl)nitroaniline derivatives as precursors for slow and sustained nitric oxide release agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badour, Alec R; Wisniewski, John A; Mohanty, Dillip K; Squattrito, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Notwithstanding its simple structure, the chemistry of nitric oxide (NO) is complex. As a radical, NO is highly reactive. NO also has profound effects on the cardiovascular system. In order to regulate NO levels, direct therapeutic interventions include the development of numerous NO donors. Most of these donors release NO in a single high-concentration burst, which is deleterious. N-Nitrosated secondary amines release NO in a slow, sustained, and rate-tunable manner. Two new precursors to sustained NO-releasing materials have been characterized. N-[2-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl]-2,4-dinitroaniline, C16H17N3O6, (I), crystallizes with one independent molecule in the asymmetric unit. The adjacent amine and nitro groups form an intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond. The anti conformation about the phenylethyl-to-aniline C-N bond leads to the planes of the arene and aniline rings being approximately perpendicular. Molecules are linked into dimers by weak intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds such that each amine H atom participates in a three-center interaction with two nitro O atoms. The dimers pack so that the arene rings of adjacent molecules are not parallel and π-π interactions do not appear to be favored. N-(4-Methylsulfonyl-2-nitrophenyl)-L-phenylalanine, C16H16N2O6S, (II), with an optically active center, also crystallizes with one unique molecule in the asymmetric unit. The L enantiomer was established via the configuration of the starting material and was confirmed by refinement of the Flack parameter. As in (I), there is an intramolecular N-H...O hydrogen bond between adjacent amine and nitro groups. The conformation of the molecule is such that the arene rings display a dihedral angle of ca 60°. Unlike (I), molecules are not linked via intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen bonds. Rather, the carboxylic acid H atom forms a classic, approximately linear, O-H...O hydrogen bond with a sulfone O atom. Pairs of molecules related by twofold rotation axes are linked

  6. Human cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells reduce murine acute Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapka Miteva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Under conventional heart failure therapy, inflammatory cardiomyopathy typically has a progressive course, indicating a need for alternative therapeutic strategies to improve long-term outcomes. We recently isolated and identified novel cardiac-derived cells from human cardiac biopsies: cardiac-derived adherent proliferating cells (CAPs. They have similarities with mesenchymal stromal cells, which are known for their anti-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties. We explored whether CAPs application could be a novel strategy to improve acute Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3-induced myocarditis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the safety of our approach, we first analyzed the expression of the coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR and the co-receptor CD55 on CAPs, which are both required for effective CVB3 infectivity. We could demonstrate that CAPs only minimally express both receptors, which translates to minimal CVB3 copy numbers, and without viral particle release after CVB3 infection. Co-culture of CAPs with CVB3-infected HL-1 cardiomyocytes resulted in a reduction of CVB3-induced HL-1 apoptosis and viral progeny release. In addition, CAPs reduced CD4 and CD8 T cell proliferation. All CAPs-mediated protective effects were nitric oxide- and interleukin-10-dependent and required interferon-γ. In an acute murine model of CVB3-induced myocarditis, application of CAPs led to a decrease of cardiac apoptosis, cardiac CVB3 viral load and improved left ventricular contractility parameters. This was associated with a decline in cardiac mononuclear cell activity, an increase in T regulatory cells and T cell apoptosis, and an increase in left ventricular interleukin-10 and interferon-γ mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CAPs are a unique type of cardiac-derived cells and promising tools to improve acute CVB3-induced myocarditis.

  7. Combination of nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy as a novel therapeutic application to manage the pain and treat many clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Salaheldin; Dickinson, Eva

    2014-02-01

    From hypertension to diabetes, cancer to HIV, stroke to memory loss and learning disorders to septic shock, male impotence to tuberculosis, there is probably no pathological condition where nitric oxide does not play an important role. Nitric oxide is an analgesic, immune-modulator, vasodilator, anti-apoptotic, growth modulator, angiogenetic, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulator. Because of the above actions of nitric oxide, many clinical conditions associated with abnormal Nitric oxide (NO) production and bioavailability. Our novel therapeutic approach is to restore the homeostasis of nitric oxide and replace the lost cells by combining nitric oxide therapy, anti-oxidative therapy, low level laser therapy, plasma rich platelet therapy and stem cell therapy.

  8. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase in red blood cells: Key to a new erythrocrine function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam M. Cortese-Krott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC have been considered almost exclusively as a transporter of metabolic gases and nutrients for the tissues. It is an accepted dogma that RBCs take up and inactivate endothelium-derived NO via rapid reaction with oxyhemoglobin to form methemoglobin and nitrate, thereby limiting NO available for vasodilatation. Yet it has also been shown that RBCs not only act as “NO sinks”, but exert an erythrocrine function – i.e an endocrine function of RBC – by synthesizing, transporting and releasing NO metabolic products and ATP, thereby potentially controlling systemic NO bioavailability and vascular tone. Recent work from our and others laboratory demonstrated that human RBCs carry an active type 3, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, constitutively producing NO under normoxic conditions, the activity of which is compromised in patients with coronary artery disease. In this review we aim to discuss the potential role of red cell eNOS in RBC signaling and function, and to critically revise evidence to this date showing a role of non-endothelial circulating eNOS in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

  9. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells and bone marrow-derived stem cells in a myocardial infarction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe; Frøbert, Ole; Holst-Hansen, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of myocardial infarction with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and recently also adipose-derived stem cells has shown promising results. In contrast to clinical trials and their use of autologous bone marrow-derived cells from the ischemic patient, the animal...... myocardial infarction models are often using young donors and young, often immune-compromised, recipient animals. Our objective was to compare bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells from an elderly ischemic patient in the treatment of myocardial infarction, using a fully...... grown non-immunecompromised rat model. Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adipose tissue and bone marrow and compared with respect to surface markers and proliferative capability. To compare the regenerative potential of the two stem cell populations, male Sprague-Dawley rats were...

  10. Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Wakako; Rubin, J. Peter; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and dise...

  11. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O.; OCHOA, OSCAR; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R.; Centonze, Victoria E.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Joel E. Michalek; McManus, Linda M.; Shireman, Paula K.

    2009-01-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type ...

  12. In vivo and in situ monitoring of the nitric oxide stimulus response of single cancer cells by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopy is capable of studying time-resolved information of selected biomolecular distributions inside individual cells without labeling. In this study, Raman spectroscopy was for the first time utilized to in vivo and in situ monitor the cellular response to nitric oxide (NO) in single oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells over a period of 24 h. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was chosen as a NO donor to be incubated with the OSCC cell line (TCA8113) for certain time intervals. In vivo and in situ Raman analysis revealed that the degradation and conformational changes of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins could be directly observed by changes in the characteristic Raman bands. In comparison with conventional flow cytometric analysis, Raman spectroscopy not only detected more subtle NO-induced chemical changes of cells, where the SNP concentration could be even less than 1 mM, but also provided a full view of the whole chemical components of single cells. Raman spectroscopy therefore is an important candidate for label-free, nondestructive and in situ monitoring of cellular changes in response to chemotherapeutic agents, which could potentially be used in rapid screening of novel drugs. (letter)

  13. Interaction between abscisic acid and nitric oxide in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Chen, Zunwei; Lu, Li; Jin, Haihong; Sun, Lina; Yu, Qin; Xu, Hongke; Yang, Fengxia; Fu, Mengna; Li, Shengchao; Wang, Huizhong; Xu, Maojun

    2013-01-01

    Elicitations are considered to be an important strategy to improve production of secondary metabolites of plant cell cultures. However, mechanisms responsible for the elicitor-induced production of secondary metabolites of plant cells have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we report that treatment of Catharanthus roseus cell suspension cultures with PB90, a protein elicitor from Phytophthora boehmeriae, induced rapid increases of abscisic acid (ABA) and nitric oxide (NO), subsequently followed by the enhancement of catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc, two important genes in catharanthine biosynthesis. PB90-induced catharanthine production and the gene expression were suppressed by the ABA inhibitor and NO scavenger respectively, showing that ABA and NO are essential for the elicitor-induced catharanthine biosynthesis. The relationship between ABA and NO in mediating catharanthine biosynthesis was further investigated. Treatment of the cells with ABA triggered NO accumulation and induced catharanthine production and up-regulation of Str and Tdc. ABA-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions were suppressed by the NO scavenger. Conversely, exogenous application of NO did not stimulate ABA generation and treatment with ABA inhibitor did not suppress NO-induced catharanthine production and gene expressions. Together, the results showed that both NO and ABA were involved in PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that ABA acted upstream of NO in the signaling cascade leading to PB90-induced catharanthine biosynthesis of C. roseus cells. PMID:23554409

  14. Erythropoietin and a nonerythropoietic peptide analog promote aortic endothelial cell repair under hypoxic conditions: role of nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikal L

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lamia Heikal,1 Pietro Ghezzi,1 Manuela Mengozzi,1 Blanka Stelmaszczuk,2 Martin Feelisch,2 Gordon AA Ferns1 1Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Falmer, Brighton, 2Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital and Institute for Life Sciences, Southampton, UK Abstract: The cytoprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO and an EPO-related nonerythropoietic analog, pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP, were investigated in an in vitro model of bovine aortic endothelial cell injury under normoxic (21% O2 and hypoxic (1% O2 conditions. The potential molecular mechanisms of these effects were also explored. Using a model of endothelial injury (the scratch assay, we found that, under hypoxic conditions, EPO and pHBSP enhanced scratch closure by promoting cell migration and proliferation, but did not show any effect under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, EPO protected bovine aortic endothelial cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis under hypoxic conditions. The priming effect of hypoxia was associated with stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, EPO receptor upregulation, and decreased Ser-1177 phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS; the effect of hypoxia on the latter was rescued by EPO. Hypoxia was associated with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO production as assessed by its oxidation products, nitrite and nitrate, consistent with the oxygen requirement for endogenous production of NO by endothelial NOS. However, while EPO did not affect NO formation in normoxia, it markedly increased NO production, in a manner sensitive to NOS inhibition, under hypoxic conditions. These data are consistent with the notion that the tissue-protective actions of EPO-related cytokines in pathophysiological settings associated with poor oxygenation are mediated by NO. These findings may be particularly relevant to atherogenesis and postangioplasty restenosis. Keywords

  15. Bone marrow-derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongxu; Martinez, Carlo O; Ochoa, Oscar; Ruiz-Willhite, Lourdes; Bonilla, Jose R; Centonze, Victoria E; Waite, Lindsay L; Michalek, Joel E; McManus, Linda M; Shireman, Paula K

    2009-02-01

    Limb regeneration requires the coordination of multiple stem cell populations to recapitulate the process of tissue formation. Therefore, bone marrow (BM) -derived cell regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration was examined in mice lacking the CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2). Myofiber size, numbers of myogenic progenitor cells (MPCs), and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were assessed after cardiotoxin-induced injury of chimeric mice produced by transplanting BM from wild-type (WT) or CCR2(-/-) mice into irradiated WT or CCR2(-/-) host mice. Regardless of the host genotype, muscle regeneration and recruitment of BM-derived cells and macrophages were similar in mice replenished with WT BM, whereas BM-derived cells and macrophage accumulation were decreased and muscle regeneration was impaired in all animals receiving CCR2(-/-) BM. Furthermore, numbers of MPCs (CD34(+)/Sca-1(-)/CD45(-) cells) were significantly increased in mice receiving CCR2(-/-) BM despite the decreased size of regenerated myofibers. Thus, the expression of CCR2 on BM-derived cells regulated macrophage recruitment into injured muscle, numbers of MPC, and the extent of regenerated myofiber size, all of which were independent of CCR2 expression on host-derived cells. Future studies in regenerative medicine must include consideration of the role of BM-derived cells, possibly macrophages, in CCR2-dependent events that regulate effective skeletal muscle regeneration. PMID:18827026

  16. Radiosensitizing effect of nitric oxide in tumor cells and experimental tumors irradiated with gamma rays and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been reported to be a radiosensitizer of mammalian cells under hypoxic conditions. In a previous study, we demonstrated an enhancement in radiation response induced by NO in mouse tumor cells under aerobic conditions, with an increasing effect as a function of malignancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NO in tumor cells and in experimental tumors irradiated with γ rays and proton beams. Irradiations were performed with a 137Cs γ source and with proton beams generated by the TANDAR accelerator. Tumor cells were treated with the NO donor DETA-NO and the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) was calculated using the α parameter of the survival curve fitted to the linear-quadratic model. Tumor cells irradiated with protons were radio sensitized by DETA-NO only in the more malignant cells irradiated with low LET protons (2.69±0.08 keV/μm). For higher LET protons there were no radiosensitizing effect. For human tumor cells pre-treated with DETA-NO and irradiated with γ rays, a significantly greater effect was demonstrated in the malignant cells (MCF-7) as compared with the near normal cells (HBL-100). Moreover, a significant decrease in tumor growth was demonstrated in mice pre-treated with the NO donor spermine and irradiated with γ rays and low LET protons as compared with mice irradiated without pre-treatment with the NO donor. In conclusion, we demonstrated a differential effect of NO as a radiosensitizer of malignant cells, both with γ rays and low LET protons. This selectivity, coupled to the in vivo inhibition of tumor growth, is of great interest for the potential use of NO releasing agents in radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Nitric oxide contributes to cytokine-induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells via potentiation of JNK activity and inhibition of Akt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, J; Binzer, J; Andersson, Annica; Züllig, R A; Tonnesen, M; Knudsen, René Lehmann Pulz; Spinas, G A; Sandler, S; Billestrup, N; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines cause beta cell secretory dysfunction and apoptosis--a process implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Cytokines induce the expression of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) leading to NO production. NO contributes to cytokine-induced apoptosis, but t...

  18. Natural Helper cells derive from lymphoid progenitors1

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qi; Saenz, Steven A.; Zlotoff, Daniel A.; Artis, David; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Natural Helper (NH) cells are recently discovered innate immune cells that confer protective type 2 immunity during helminth infection and mediate influenza induced airway hypersensitivity. Little is known about the ontogeny of NH cells. We now report NH cells derive from bone marrow lymphoid progenitors. Using RAG-1Cre/ROSA26YFP mice, we show that the majority of NH cells are marked with a history of RAG-1 expression, implying lymphoid developmental origin. The development of NH cells depend...

  19. Triptolide Inhibits Cyclooxygenase-2 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Human Colon Cancer and Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangmin TONG; Shui ZHENG; Jie JIN; Lifen ZHU; Yinjun LOU; Hangping YAO

    2007-01-01

    Triptolide (TP), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and exerting antineoplastic activity in several human tumor cell lines. This study investigates the antitumor effect of TP in human colon cancer cells (SW114) and myelocytic leukemia (K562), and elucidates the possible molecular mechanism involved. SW114 and K562 cells were treated with different doses of TP (0, 5, 10, 20, or 50 ng/ml). The cell viability was assessed by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Results demonstrated that TP inhibited the proliferation of both tumor cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate its mechanisms, the products prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our data showed that TP strongly inhibited the production of NO and PGE2. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was up-regulated both at the mRNA level and the protein expression level, as shown by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. These results indicated that the inhibition of the inflammatory factor COX-2 and iNOS activity could be involved in the antitumor mechanisms of TP.

  20. [Multiplication of Brucella abortus and production of nitric oxide in two macrophage cell lines of different origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafino, J; Conde, S; Zabal, O; Samartino, L

    2007-01-01

    Brucella abortus is a bacterium which causes abortions and infertility in cattle and undulant fever in humans. It multiplies intracellularly, evading the mechanisms of cellular death. Nitric oxide (NO) is important in the regulation of the immune response. In the present work, we studied the ability of three B. abortus strains to survive intracellularly in two macrophage cell lines. The bacterial multiplication in both cell lines was determined at two different times in UFC/ ml units. Moreover the inoculated cells were also observed under light-field and fluorescence microscopy stained with Giemsa and acridine orange, respectively. The stain of both cellular lines showed similar results with respect to the UFC/ml determination. The presence of B. abortus was confirmed by electronic microscopy. In both macrophage cell lines inoculated with the rough strain RB51, the multiplication diminished and the level of NO was higher, compared with cells inoculated with smooth strains (S19 and 2308). These results suggest that the absence of O-chain of LPS probably affects the intracellular growth of B. abortus. PMID:18390151

  1. Inhibition of viral replication by nitric oxide and its reversal by ferrous sulfate and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    IFN-gamma-induced nitric oxide (NO) in the murine macrophage-derived cell line RAW 264.7 was previously shown to inhibit replication of the poxviruses ectromelia and vaccinia (VV) and HSV-1. In the current study we demonstrate that murine macrophages activated as a consequence of VV infection express inducible nitric oxide synthase. These activated macrophages were resistant to infection with VV and efficiently blocked the replication of VV and HSV-1 in infected bystander cells of epithelial ...

  2. Nitric oxide-releasing polysaccharide derivative exhibits 8-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Wold, Kathryn A; Joslin, Jessica M; Neufeld, Bella H; Arabea, Kristin A; Suazo, Lucas A; McDaniel, Stephen L; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2015-11-10

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of multi-drug resistant strains is increasing exponentially, demonstrating that current treatments are inefficient. Thus, the quest for new methods to eradicate bacterial infection is increasingly important in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biomaterials research. Herein, the bactericidal activity of a water-soluble NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative was evaluated in nutrient broth media against three bacteria strains that are commonly responsible for HAIs. Data confirmed that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative induced an 8-log reduction in bacterial growth after 24h for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the absence of bacteria after 72h of exposure to NO illustrates the inability of the bacteria to recover and the prevention of biofilm formation. The presented 8-log reduction in bacterial survival after 24h is among the highest reduction reported for NO delivery systems to date, and reaches the desired standard for industrially-relevant reduction. More specifically, this system represents the only water-soluble antimicrobial to reach such a significant bacterial reduction in nutrient rich media, wherein experimental conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment than those in previous reports. Furthermore, the absence of bacterial activity after 72h and the versatility of using a water-soluble compound suggest that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative is a promising route for treating HAIs. PMID:26374942

  3. Reprint of: Nitric oxide-releasing polysaccharide derivative exhibits 8-log reduction against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegalajar-Jurado, Adoracion; Wold, Kathryn A; Joslin, Jessica M; Neufeld, Bella H; Arabea, Kristin A; Suazo, Lucas A; McDaniel, Stephen L; Bowen, Richard A; Reynolds, Melissa M

    2015-12-28

    Health-care associated infections (HAIs) and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains remain significant public health threats worldwide. Although the number of HAIs has decreased by using improved sterilization protocols, the cost related to HAIs is still quantified in billions of dollars. Furthermore, the development of multi-drug resistant strains is increasing exponentially, demonstrating that current treatments are inefficient. Thus, the quest for new methods to eradicate bacterial infection is increasingly important in antimicrobial, drug delivery and biomaterials research. Herein, the bactericidal activity of a water-soluble NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative was evaluated in nutrient broth media against three bacteria strains that are commonly responsible for HAIs. Data confirmed that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative induced an 8-log reduction in bacterial growth after 24h for Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Additionally, the absence of bacteria after 72 h of exposure to NO illustrates the inability of the bacteria to recover and the prevention of biofilm formation. The presented 8-log reduction in bacterial survival after 24h is among the highest reduction reported for NO delivery systems to date, and reaches the desired standard for industrially-relevant reduction. More specifically, this system represents the only water-soluble antimicrobial to reach such a significant bacterial reduction in nutrient rich media, wherein experimental conditions more closely mimic the in vivo environment than those in previous reports. Furthermore, the absence of bacterial activity after 72 h and the versatility of using a water-soluble compound suggest that this NO-releasing polysaccharide derivative is a promising route for treating HAIs. PMID:26686492

  4. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  5. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension

  6. Effects of a New Glutamic Acid Derivative on Myocardial Contractility of Stressed Animals under Conditions of Nitric Oxide Synthesis Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N; Sadikova, N V; Berestovitskaya, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2015-07-01

    Glufimet (glutamic acid derivative) in a dose of 28.7 mg/kg limited the reduction of the cardiac functional reserve in animals subjected to 24-h stress under conditions of nonselective NO synthase blockade with L-NAME (10 mg/kg). Adrenoreactivity and increased afterload tests showed that the increment of myocardial contraction/relaxation rates, left-ventricular pressure, and HR were significantly higher in glufimet-treated stressed animals with NO synthesis blockade than in animals which received no glufimet. The efficiency of glufimet was higher than that of phenibut (the reference drug). PMID:26205724

  7. Tumor-expressed iNOS controls induction of functional myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) through modulation of VEGF release1

    OpenAIRE

    Jayaraman, Padmini; Parikh, Falguni; Lopez-Rivera, Esther; Hailemichael, Yared; Clark, Amelia; Ma, Ge; Cannan, David; Ramacher, Marcel; Kato, Masashi; Overwijk, Willem W.; Chen, Shu-hsia; Umansky, Viktor Y.; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a hallmark of chronic inflammation which is also overexpressed in melanoma and other cancers. While iNOS is a known effector of myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC)-mediated immunosuppression, its pivotal position at the interface of inflammation and cancer also makes it an attractive candidate regulator of MDSC recruitment. We hypothesized that tumor-expressed iNOS controls MDSC accumulation and acquisition of suppressive activity in melanoma. CD11...

  8. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  9. Ginsenoside Rg3 attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling and the B‑cell lymphoma/B‑cell lymphoma‑associated X protein pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Hu, Zhaohui; Sun, Bing; Xu, Jiahong; Jiang, Jinfa; Luo, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that ginsenoside Rg3 (GSRg3) extract from the medicinal plant Panax ginseng, may increase nitric oxide production via increases in the phosphorylation and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The present study used an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of anoxia‑reoxygenation injury and an in vivo rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Hemodynamic, histopathological and biochemical assessment of the myocardial injury was performed and the expression levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase and creatine kinase (CK) were measured in serum from the animal model, which may reflect myocardial injury. NRC injury was determined using a Cell Counting kit‑8. The GSRg3 anti‑apoptotic effects were assessed using flow cytometry to investigate the number of early‑late apoptotic cells and western blot analysis was performed to analyze the protein expression levels of caspase‑3, caspase‑9, B‑cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), phosphorylated (p‑)Akt and eNOS. The results suggested that pretreatment with GSRg3 (60 mg/kg) significantly improved rat cardiac function, as demonstrated by increased left ventricular systolic pressure, heart rate and first derivative of left ventricular pressure. GSRg3 also reduced the size of the myocardial infarct and LDH/CK levels in the blood following MI/R. In vitro investigations revealed that GSRg3 (10 mM) decreased NRC apoptosis through inhibiting the activation of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9, and increasing the expression levels of p‑Akt, eNOS and the ratio of Bcl‑2/Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax). Overall, the present study revealed that GSRg3 mediated a cardioprotective effect against MI/R‑induced apoptosis via Akt/eNOS signaling and the Bcl‑2/Bax pathway. PMID:25672441

  10. The influence of propofol on P-selectin expression and nitric oxide production in re-oxygenated human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corcoran, T B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Reperfusion injury is characterized by free radical production and endothelial inflammation. Neutrophils mediate much of the end-organ injury that occurs, requiring P-selectin-mediated neutrophil-endothelial adhesion, and this is associated with decreased endothelial nitric oxide production. Propofol has antioxidant properties in vitro which might abrogate this inflammation. METHODS: Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to 20 h of hypoxia and then returned to normoxic conditions. Cells were treated with saline, Diprivan 5 microg\\/l or propofol 5 microg\\/l for 4 h after re-oxygenation and were then examined for P-selectin expression and supernatant nitric oxide concentrations for 24 h. P-selectin was determined by flow cytometry, and culture supernatant nitric oxide was measured as nitrite. RESULTS: In saline-treated cells, a biphasic increase in P-selectin expression was demonstrated at 30 min (P = 0.01) and 4 h (P = 0.023) after re-oxygenation. Propofol and Diprivan prevented these increases in P-selectin expression (P < 0.05). Four hours after re-oxygenation, propofol decreased endothelial nitric oxide production (P = 0.035). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to demonstrate an effect of propofol upon endothelial P-selectin expression. Such an effect may be important in situations of reperfusion injury such as cardiac transplantation and coronary artery bypass surgery. We conclude that propofol attenuates re-oxygenation-induced endothelial inflammation in vitro.

  11. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by L-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1-30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis. PMID:18595894

  12. Effects of osteotropic hormones on the nitric oxide production in culture of ROS17/2.8 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed the present study to investigate whether osteotropic hormones play roles on the nitric oxide (NO) production in culture of ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. The osteoblastic cell line ROS17/2.8 cells were cultured in F12 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37.deg. C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. ROS17/2.8 cells were plated in 96-well plants at a density of 2-3 x 103 cells/well and grown to confluence. Then the cells were pretreated with osteotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone (PTH) 20-500 ng/mL, 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1, 25[OH]2D3) 1-100nM ; prostaglandin E2(PGE2) 20-500 ng/mL) in the medium supplemented with 0.4% FBS for (72 hours and the cells were treated with cytokines (TNFα and IFNγ) in phenol red-free F12 medium for an additional 48 hours. NO synthesis was assessed by measuring the nitrite anion concentration, the reation product of NO, in the cell culture medium using Griess reagent. PTH and 1, 25[OH]2D4 pretreatment induced a significant increase in NO production in the presence of TNFα and IFNγ. PGE2 slightly induced NO production compared to the control group. But, PGE2 pretreatment did not affect in NO production in the presence of TNFα and IFNγ. These results suggest that the actions of osteotropic hormones in bone metabolism may be partially mediated by NO in the presence of cytokines

  13. Effects of osteotropic hormones on the nitric oxide production in culture of ROS17/2.8 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seon Yil; Kim, Min Sung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Jung Keun [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We performed the present study to investigate whether osteotropic hormones play roles on the nitric oxide (NO) production in culture of ROS17/2.8 osteoblastic cells. The osteoblastic cell line ROS17/2.8 cells were cultured in F12 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37.deg. C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO{sub 2} in air. ROS17/2.8 cells were plated in 96-well plants at a density of 2-3 x 10{sup 3} cells/well and grown to confluence. Then the cells were pretreated with osteotropic hormones (parathyroid hormone (PTH) 20-500 ng/mL, 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1, 25[OH]{sub 2}D{sub 3}) 1-100nM ; prostaglandin E{sub 2}(PGE{sub 2}) 20-500 ng/mL) in the medium supplemented with 0.4% FBS for (72 hours and the cells were treated with cytokines (TNF{alpha} and IFN{gamma}) in phenol red-free F12 medium for an additional 48 hours. NO synthesis was assessed by measuring the nitrite anion concentration, the reation product of NO, in the cell culture medium using Griess reagent. PTH and 1, 25[OH]{sub 2}D{sub 4} pretreatment induced a significant increase in NO production in the presence of TNF{alpha} and IFN{gamma}. PGE{sub 2} slightly induced NO production compared to the control group. But, PGE{sub 2} pretreatment did not affect in NO production in the presence of TNF{alpha} and IFN{gamma}. These results suggest that the actions of osteotropic hormones in bone metabolism may be partially mediated by NO in the presence of cytokines.

  14. Direct demonstration of insulin-like growth factor-I-induced nitric oxide production by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, H; Gordienko, D V; Tonshoff, B; Gelato, M C; Goligorsky, M S

    1994-02-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent mediator of vasodilation. To elucidate the mechanism and site of action of IGF-I, we performed continuous monitoring of nitric oxide (NO) release from endothelial cells using a highly-sensitive amperometric NO-sensor. Two types of cultured cells were used: human umbilical vein endothelial cells and immortalized rat renal interlobar artery endothelial cells. In separate experiments, [Ca2+]i changes in response to IGF-I were measured spectrofluorometrically in fura-2-loaded cells. Stimulation with IGF-I resulted in a rapid, dose-dependent increase in [NO] as detected by the NO-probe positioned 1 mm above the monolayers, followed by a sustained elevation lasting for at least five minutes. The effect of IGF-I was significantly suppressed by pretreatment with anti-IGF-I antibody, suggesting that it was specific for IGF-I. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NO synthesis, significantly blunted responses to IGF-I, but dexamethasone preincubation did not reduce the IGF-I-induced release of NO. These results indicate that the observed IGF-I-induced release of NO is a result of activation of the constitutive, rather than the inducible type of NO synthase in endothelial cells. Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, resulted in a profound suppression of the IGF-I-induced release of NO. IGF-I did not affect [Ca2+]i in either type of cells. Therefore, IGF-I-induced NO production by both types of endothelial cells is mediated via a tyrosine kinase-dependent mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7513035

  15. Technical Challenges in the Derivation of Human Pluripotent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been discovered that human pluripotent cells could be isolated from the blastocyst state of embryos and called human embryonic stem cells (ESCs. These cells can be adapted and propagated indefinitely in culture in an undifferentiated manner as well as differentiated into cell representing the three major germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. However, the derivation of human pluripotent cells from donated embryos is limited and restricted by ethical concerns. Therefore, various approaches have been explored and proved their success. Human pluripotent cells can also be derived experimentally by the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells. These techniques include somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, cell fusion and overexpression of pluripotent genes. In this paper, we discuss the technical challenges of these approaches for nuclear reprogramming, involving their advantages and limitations. We will also highlight the possible applications of these techniques in the study of stem cell biology.

  16. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita,Masayuki; Noguchi,Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation...

  17. Silymarin suppressed lung cancer growth in mice via inhibiting myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiancong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Zhu, Xixu

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of Silymarin in a mouse model of colon cancer xenograft of Lewis lung cancer (LLC) cells. Silymarin significantly suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis of cells in tumor tissues at a dose of 25 and 50mg/kg. Silymarin treatment enhanced the infiltration and function of CD8(+) T cells. In the meantime, Silymarin decreased the level of IL-10 while elevated the level of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the serum of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, Silymarin reduced the proportion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the tumor tissue and also the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthases-2 (iNOS2), arginase-1 (Arg-1) and MMP9, which indicated that the function of MDSC in tumor tissues were suppressed. Altogether, our data here showed that Silymarin inhibited the MDSC and promoted the infiltration and function of CD8(+) T cells thus suppressed the growth of LLC xenografts, which provides evidence for the possible use of Silymarin against lung cancer. PMID:27261626

  18. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). PMID:27282583

  19. Theoretical and experimental investigations on corrosion control of 65Cu–35Zn brass in nitric acid by two thiophenol derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimzadeh, M.; Gholami, M.; Momeni, M. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kosari, A., E-mail: Akosari.ali@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moayed, M.H. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad 91775-1111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoodi, A. [Materials Engineering Department, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar 391 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Two organic compounds were studied as corrosion inhibitor for brass. • Three equivalent circuits were used to fit the impedance spectra. • Langmuir isotherm was used to determine the inhibitor adsorption type. • An increase in corrosion resistance of brass in the range of 20–35 was detected. • Correlation between quantum chemical and experimental efficiencies was acquired. - Abstract: Inhibitive performance of two thiophenol derivatives namely 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) and 4-amino phenol disulfide (4-APD) on corrosion behavior of 65Cu–35Zn brass in 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} was investigated. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and also quantum chemical study were used. 4-APD showed higher efficiency at low temperatures while for higher temperatures the 4-ATP is more efficient. The inhibitors obey Langmuir isotherm and its adsorption is both chemical and physical type. Quantum chemical study reveals that the benzene ring, S and N atoms can be suitable sites for adsorption onto surface. Finally, an acceptable correlation between the theoretical and experimental inhibitor efficiency was acquired.

  20. Nitro-oxidative Stress Is Involved in Anticancer Activity of 17β-Estradiol Derivative in Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Magdalena; Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Milczarek, Ryszard; Wozniak, Michal

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most common childhood malignancies and the primary cause of death from pediatric cancer. Derivatives of 17β-estradiol, 2-methoxyestradiol, as well as selective estrogen receptor modulators, such as fulvestrant, are novel potentially active anticancer agents. In particular, 2-methoxyestradiol is effective in treatment of numerous malignancies, including breast and prostate cancer, Ewing sarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Herein, we treated neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with physiologically and pharmacologically relevant concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol. We used flow cytometry in order to determine cell viability, cell death, level of nitric oxide and mitochondrial membrane potential. We demonstrated that at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, 2-methoxyestradiol results in induction of apoptosis of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells via nitric oxide generation and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential. Based on the obtained data, we propose that 2-methoxyestradiol may be a natural modulator of cancer cell death and survival through nitro-oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the results confirm the efficiency of 2-methoxyestradiol in treatment of neuroblastoma. PMID:27069147

  1. Iron-sulfur Proteins Are the Major Source of Protein-bound Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes Formed in Escherichia coli Cells under Nitric Oxide Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Aaron P.; Duan, Xuewu; Huang, Hao; Ding, Huangen

    2011-01-01

    Protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNICs) have been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells under nitric oxide (NO) stress. The identity of proteins that bind DNICs, however, still remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that iron-sulfur proteins are the major source of protein-bound DNICs formed in Escherichia coli cells under NO stress. Expression of recombinant iron-sulfur proteins, but not the proteins without iron-sulfur clusters, almost doubles the amount of protein-bound DNICs ...

  2. Suppression of PKG by PDGF or nitric oxide in differentiated aortic smooth muscle cells: obligatory role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Daming; Balani, Poonam; Pu, Qinghua; Thakran, Shalini; Hassid, Aviv

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of aortic smooth muscle cells with PDGF induces the upregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). PTP1B, in turn, decreases the function of several growth factor receptors, thus completing a negative feedback loop. Studies have reported that PDGF induces the downregulation of PKG as part of a repertoire of dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Other studies have reported that chronic nitric oxide (NO) treatment also induces the downregulation of PKG. In the p...

  3. Cyclic Stretch Induces Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and Soluble Guanylate Cyclase in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn N. Farrow

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the pulmonary vasculature, mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch induce changes in vascular signaling, tone and remodeling. Nitric oxide is a potent regulator of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC, which drives cGMP production, causing vasorelaxation. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and while iNOS expression increases during late gestation, little is known about how cyclic stretch impacts this pathway. In this study, PASMC were subjected to cyclic stretch of 20% amplitude and frequency of 1 Hz for 24 h and compared to control cells maintained under static conditions. Cyclic stretch significantly increased cytosolic oxidative stress as compared to static cells (62.9 ± 5.9% vs. 33.3 ± 5.7% maximal oxidation, as measured by the intracellular redox sensor roGFP. Cyclic stretch also increased sGCβ protein expression (2.5 ± 0.9-fold, sGC activity (1.5 ± 0.2-fold and cGMP levels (1.8 ± 0.2-fold, as well as iNOS mRNA and protein expression (3.0 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.7-fold, respectively relative to control cells. An antioxidant, recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD, significantly decreased stretch-induced cytosolic oxidative stress, but did not block stretch-induced sGC activity. Inhibition of iNOS with 1400 W or an iNOS-specific siRNA inhibited stretch-induced sGC activity by 30% and 68% respectively vs. static controls. In conclusion, cyclic stretch increases sGC expression and activity in an iNOS-dependent manner in PASMC from fetal lambs. The mechanism that produces iNOS and sGC upregulation is not yet known, but we speculate these effects represent an early compensatory mechanism to counteract the effects of stretch-induced oxidative stress. A better understanding of the interplay between these two distinct pathways could provide key insights into future avenues to treat infants with pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Nitric oxide decreases the sensitivity of pulmonary endothelial cells to LPS-induced apoptosis in a zinc-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zi-Lue; Wasserloos, Karla J; Liu, Xianghong; Stitt, Molly S; Reynolds, Ian J; Pitt, Bruce R; St Croix, Claudette M

    2002-01-01

    We hypothesized that: (a) S-nitrosylation of metallothionein (MT) is a component of pulmonary endothelial cell nitric oxide (NO) signaling that is associated with an increase in labile zinc; and (b) NO mediated increases in labile zinc in turn reduce the sensitivity of pulmonary endothelium to LPS-induced apoptosis. We used microspectrofluorometric techniques to show that exposing mouse lung endothelial cells (MLEC) to the NO-donor, S-nitrosocysteine, resulted in a 45% increase in fluorescence of the Zn2+-specific fluorophore, Zinquin, that was rapidly reversed by exposure to the Zn2+ chelator, NNN'N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine; TPEN). The absence of a NO-mediated increase in labile Zn2+ in MLEC from MT-I and -II knockout mice inferred a critical role for MT in the regulation of Zn2+ homeostasis by NO. Furthermore, we found that prior exposure of cultured endothelial cells from sheep pulmonary artery (SPAEC), to the NO-donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) reduced their sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of NO were significantly inhibited by Zn2+ chelation with low doses of TPEN (10 microM). Collectively, these data suggest that S-nitrosylation of MT is associated with an increase in labile (TPEN chelatable) zinc and NO-mediated MT dependent zinc release is associated with reduced sensitivity to LPS-induced apoptosis in pulmonary endothelium. PMID:12162436

  5. Investigation of the effect of tanshinone IIA on nitric oxide production in human vascular endothelial cells by fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke-Jing; Wang, Hong; Xie, Wan-Zhen; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2007-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been proved to be a potent vasodilator that played an important role in regulating vascular tones. Tanshinone, one of the active components of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, was used widely in clinics in China for treating cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to sensitively and specifically investigate the effects of tanshinone IIA, one important pharmacological constituent of tanshinone, on the release of NO from human vascular endothelial cells (HVECs) by fluorescence imaging with an excellent fluorescent probe 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-dicarbethoxy-8-(3',4'-diaminophenyl)-difluoroboradiaza- s-indacence (TMDCDABODIPY). After cells were incubated with tanshinone IIA, TMDCDABODIPY was employed to label NO. Following the tagging, real-time imaging of NO release from the cells was performed with inverted fluorescence microscope. The results of the experiments showed that tanshinone IIA could induce NO production significantly enhanced in HVECs. The activation of NO by tanshinone IIA may be employed therapeutically in modulating NO production in HVECs.

  6. Molecular Role of Nitric Oxide in Secondary Products Production in Ginkgo biloba Cell Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor treatment on the enhancement of secondary metabolites production, oxidative stress mediators (O2-. accumulation and antioxidant defense enzymes of Ginkgo biloba callus culture was investigated. On one hand, the obtained data showed a highly metabolic modification of chemical constituents, PAL activity and various antioxidant defense enzymes (APX, SOD, which gradually increased in response to SNP treatments. On the other hands the high NO levels significantly increased the accumulation of various oxidative burst of O2-.. MS basal medium supplemented with casein hydrolase (500 mg/L, NAA and BA at equal concentration (0.5 mg/L recorded the highest number of regenerated shoots (4.81 cm and shoot height (4.96 cm as well as root number (2.25 cm and root length (4.5 cm. The highest survival (40 % was shown in acclimatization on the mixture containing sand, peat moss and vermiculite (1: 1: 1, v/v/v, which significantly confirmed and reflected the variation in survival percentage. Meanwhile, higher treatment (500 μM of NO positively enhanced secondary products accumulation of total tannins, saponins, phenols and total flavonoids in G. biloba callus culture.

  7. Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles and Immune-Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrello, Jacopo; Monticone, Silvia; Gai, Chiara; Gomez, Yonathan; Kholia, Sharad; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) are bilayer membrane structures enriched with proteins, nucleic acids, and other active molecules and have been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes over the past decade. Recently, evidence suggests EVs to play a more dichotomic role in the regulation of the immune system, whereby an immune response may be enhanced or supressed by EVs depending on their cell of origin and its functional state. EVs derived from antigen (Ag)-presenting cells for instance, have been involved in both innate and acquired (or adaptive) immune responses, as Ag carriers or presenters, or as vehicles for delivering active signaling molecules. On the other hand, tumor and stem cell derived EVs have been identified to exert an inhibitory effect on immune responses by carrying immuno-modulatory effectors, such as transcriptional factors, non-coding RNA (Species), and cytokines. In addition, stem cell-derived EVs have also been reported to impair dendritic cell maturation and to regulate the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of B cells. They have been shown to control natural killer cell activity and to suppress the innate immune response (IIR). Studies reporting the role of EVs on T lymphocyte modulation are controversial. Discrepancy in literature may be due to stem cell culture conditions, methods of EV purification, EV molecular content, and functional state of both parental and target cells. However, mesenchymal stem cell-derived EVs were shown to play a more suppressive role by shifting T cells from an activated to a T regulatory phenotype. In this review, we will discuss how stem cell-derived EVs may contribute toward the modulation of the immune response. Collectively, stem cell-derived EVs mainly exhibit an inhibitory effect on the immune system. PMID:27597941

  8. Effects of aspirin on number,activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase of endothelial progenitor cells from peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu-gang CHEN; Jun-zhu CHEN; Xu-dong XIE

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To investigate whether aspirin has an influence on endothelial progenitor cells (EPC).Methods:Total mononuclear cells (MNC) were isolated from peripheral blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation,then cells were plated on fibronectin-coated culture dishes.After 7 d of culture,attached cells were stimulated with aspirin (to achieve final concentrations of 1,2,5,and 10 mmol/L) for 3,6,12,and 24 h.EPC were characterized as adherent cells that were double positive for 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine low density lipoprotein (DiLDL) uptake and lectin binding by direct fluorescent staining.EPC proliferation and migration were assayed using a 3- (4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl) -2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and a modified Boyden chamber assay.respectively.An EPC adhesion assay was performed by replating the EPC on fibronectin-coated dishes,and then adherent cells were counted.In vitro vasculogenesis activity was assayed by using an in vitro vasculogenesis kit. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was assayed by Westem blotting.Results:Incubation of isolated human MNC with aspirin decreased the number of EPC.Aspirin also decreased the proliferative,migratory,adhesive,and in vitro Vasculogenesis capacity of EPC,and also their iNOS levels in a concentration-and time-dependent manner.Conclusion:Aspirin decreases (1) the number of EPC; (2) the proliferative,migratory,adhesive and in vitro vasculogenesis capacities of EPC;and (3) iNOS levels in EPC.

  9. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Aspirin Suppresses NF-κB Signaling in Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Nath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor negative (ER(− breast cancer is aggressive, responds poorly to current treatments and has a poor prognosis. The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in ER(− tumorigenesis. Aspirin (ASA is chemopreventive against ER(+ but not for ER(− breast cancers. Nitric oxide-releasing aspirin (NO-ASA is a safer ASA where ASA is linked to an NO-releasing moiety through a spacer. In vitro, we investigated anti-proliferation effects of NO-ASA (para- and meta-isomers against ER(− breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-23, effects on NF-κB signaling, and reactive oxygen species by standard techniques. In vivo, effects of NO-ASA were evaluated in a mouse xenograft model using MDA-MB-231 cells. p-NO-ASA inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells at 24 h, the respective IC50s were 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2 μM; ASA had an IC50 of >3000 μM in both cell lines. The IC50s for m-NO-ASA in MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 were 173 ± 15 and 185 ± 12 μM, respectively, therefore, implying p-NO-ASA as a stronger inhibitor of growth p-NO-ASA reduced cell growth by inhibiting proliferation, inducing apoptosis and causing G0/G1 cell cycle block. Activation of NF-κB was inhibited by both isomers as demonstrated by decreases in NF-κB-DNA binding and luciferase activity at 24 h, However, m-NO-ASA produced transient effects at 3 h such as increased NF-κB-DNA-binding, increased levels of nuclear p50, even though both isomers inhibited IκB degradation. Increase in nuclear p50 by m-NO-ASA was associated with translocation of p50 in to the nucleus as observed by immunoflouresence at 3 h. NO-ASA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS as evidenced by overall increases in both H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein and DHE (dihydroethidium-derived fluorescence. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-cysteine reversed the m-NO-ASA-mediated translocation of p50 in to the nucleus. In xenografts, p-NO-ASA inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting proliferation (PCNA and

  10. Inducible nitric-oxide synthase plays a minimal role in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Nansen, A; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    . This might suggest a role of NO in regulating vascular reactivity in the context of T cell-mediated inflammation. In conclusion, these findings indicate a minimal role for iNOS/NO in the host response to LCMV. Except for a reduced local oedema in the knockout mice, iNOS/NO seems to be redundant in......By using mice with a targetted disruption in the gene encoding inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), we have studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)-induced, T cell-mediated protective immunity and immunopathology. The afferent phase of the T cell...... the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine genes significantly, nor did it influence the development of fatal meningitis. However, a reduced virus-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was observed in iNOS-deficient mice compared with both IFN-gamma-deficient and wild-type mice...

  11. Modeling human liver biology using stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Pingnan; Zhou, XiaoLing; Farnworth, Sarah; Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  12. Modeling Human Liver Biology Using Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Pingnan Sun; Xiaoling Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  13. 0Adipose-derived stem cells: Implications in tissue regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wakako; Tsuji; J; Peter; Rubin; Kacey; G; Marra

    2014-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells(ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro, and have the capacity to differ-entiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrow-derived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs dam-aged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.

  14. Monocyte cell membrane-derived nanoghosts for targeted cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Gnanasammandhan, M. K.; Xie, C.; Huang, K.; Cui, M. Y.; Chan, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.Core-shell type `nanoghosts' were synthesized with a drug-loaded biodegradable PLGA core and a monocyte cell membrane-derived shell. The nanoghosts were monodisperse with an average size coated nanoparticle controls in metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07588b

  15. Schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells do not respond to extracellular reelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls. Automated high-throughput imaging and analysis were used to track motility of individual living cells on reelin-coated surfaces produced from reelin secreted into the medium by HEK293FT cells transfected with the full-length reelin plasmid pCrl. Automated assays were used to quantify intracellular cytoskeleton composition, cell morphology, and focal adhesions. Expression of reelin and components of the reelin signaling pathway were measured by western blot and flow cytometry. Reelin inhibited the motility of control cells but not patient cells, and increased the number and size of focal adhesions in control cells but not patient cells. Patient and control cells expressed similar levels of the reelin receptors and the reelin signaling protein, Dab1, but patient cells expressed less reelin. Patient cells were smaller than control cells and had less actin and acetylated α-tubulin, components of the cytoskeleton. These findings are the first direct evidence that cellular responses to reelin are impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with the role of reelin in cytoarchitectural deficits observed in schizophrenia patient brains. PMID:27602387

  16. Schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells do not respond to extracellular reelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jing Yang; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Fan, Yongjun; Mackay-Sim, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Reelin expression is reduced in various regions in the post-mortem brain of schizophrenia patients but the exact role of reelin function in the neurobiology of schizophrenia remains elusive. Absence of reelin in knockout mouse causes inverted lamination of the neocortex due to aberrant neuronal migration. The aim of this study was to utilize patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived (ONS) cells to investigate whether extracellular reelin alters cell motility in schizophrenia patient-derived cells. ONS cells from nine patients were compared with cells from nine matched healthy controls. Automated high-throughput imaging and analysis were used to track motility of individual living cells on reelin-coated surfaces produced from reelin secreted into the medium by HEK293FT cells transfected with the full-length reelin plasmid pCrl. Automated assays were used to quantify intracellular cytoskeleton composition, cell morphology, and focal adhesions. Expression of reelin and components of the reelin signaling pathway were measured by western blot and flow cytometry. Reelin inhibited the motility of control cells but not patient cells, and increased the number and size of focal adhesions in control cells but not patient cells. Patient and control cells expressed similar levels of the reelin receptors and the reelin signaling protein, Dab1, but patient cells expressed less reelin. Patient cells were smaller than control cells and had less actin and acetylated α-tubulin, components of the cytoskeleton. These findings are the first direct evidence that cellular responses to reelin are impaired in schizophrenia and are consistent with the role of reelin in cytoarchitectural deficits observed in schizophrenia patient brains.

  17. Cell-specific expression and immunolocalization of nitric oxide synthase isoforms and the related nitric oxide/cyclic GMP signaling pathway in the ovaries of neonatal and immature rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG; Quan-wei WEI; Zheng-chao WANG; Wei DING; Wei WANG; Fang-xiong SHI

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study is designed to investigate the cellular expressions and immunolocalizations of three different nitric oxide synthase(NOS)isoforms and the related nitric oxide(NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP)signaling pathway in the ovaries of neonatal and immature rats.Methods: The ovaries were obtained from ICR(Institute for Cancer Research)female Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal days 1,5,7,10,and 19.Then we carried out the histologic examination,immunohistochemistry,measurement of NOS activity,and modifications within the NO/cGMP pathway.Results: During postnatal days 1,5,7,10,and 19,all three isoforms of NOS were mainly localized to the oocytes and expressed as a gradual increase in granulosa cells and theca cells within the growing follicle.The ovarian total NOS activities and NO levels were increased at postnatal days 7 and 10 compared with other days.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the locally produced NO and the NO/NOS signaling systems are involved in the follicular development to puberty.

  18. Nitric oxide protects the quiescent human normal lung fibroblast cells after γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal tissue radiation response involves morphological and functional changes and is of great importance to populations subjected to medical, accidental or intentional exposure. Furthermore, Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi disasters have demonstrated that the first responders to such emergencies show high risk of radiation exposure. The kinetics of these responses appears to vary with radiation dose, quality (low and high linear energy transfer), phases in the cell cycle and cell type. It is known that radiation alters the genome of the proliferating cell(s). However, in addition to the four conventional phases of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2 and M), G0, a fifth phase, which denotes the quiescent state (non-proliferating) of cells that have withdrawn from the active cell cycle is poorly understood. As most organs are composed of both proliferating and quiescent cells, understanding the effects of radiation on the quiescent cells and their damage response may represent a key aspect in tissue response to radiation exposure. Quiescent cells are considered to be dormant with reduced metabolic activity. However, recent reports have challenged this notion, suggesting that they retain the capacity to reenter the cell cycle and divide again. Therefore, quiescence is critical for cell survival and tissue homeostasis

  19. Derivation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Immunosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alice E.; Melton, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    The ability of human embryonic stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into all cell types of the body suggests that they hold great promise for both medical applications and as a research tool for addressing fundamental questions in development and disease. Here, we provide a concise, step-by-step protocol for the derivation of human embryonic stem cells from embryos by immunosurgical isolation of the inner cell mass.

  20. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, D; Marino, M H

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), derived from L-arginine (L-Arg) by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), is involved in acute and chronic inflammatory events. In view of the complexity associated with the inflammatory response, the dissection of possible mechanisms by which NO modulates this response will be profitable in designing novel and more efficacious NOS inhibitors. In this review we describe the consequences associated with the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and its therapeutic implications. PMID:15991919

  1. Fluorescence turn-on for the highly selective detection of nitric oxide in vitro and in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Liu, Shuang; Liang, Gaolin

    2016-04-21

    Nitric oxide (NO) is the first ubiquitous signaling molecule in the human body. The selective and sensitive detection of NO in vitro and in vivo is of high importance but remains challenging. Previous fluorescent probes for NO detection either are of poor water solubility or lack selectivity over intracellular biomolecules. Herein, we rationally designed a water-soluble, biocompatible, small molecular probe o-phenylenediamine-Phe-Phe-OH (1) for the highly selective and sensitive detection of NO in vitro and in living cells. 1 can react with NO and turn on the fluorescence emission at 367 nm via an ICT mechanism. In vitro tests indicated that 1 showed high selectivity for NO detection without interference from common anions, ROS/RNS, and intracellular biomolecules DHA, AA, or MGO. In PBS buffer, 1 was applied for detecting NO within the range of 0-12 μM with a LOD of 6 nM. Moreover, 1 was successfully applied to sense intracellularly generated NO in living cells. We anticipate that 1 could be potentially employed for studying the toxicity and bioactivity of NO in the near future. PMID:27041064

  2. Single dose of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor induces prolonged inflammatory cell accumulation and fibrosis around injured tendon and synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, Homa; Crossan, James C; Curtis, Adam

    2004-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production after injury on inflammatory cell accumulation and fibrosis around digital flexor tendon and synovium. A standard crush injury was applied to the flexor tendons of the middle digit of the hindpaw and the overlying muscle and synovium of female Wistar rats. Thirty animals received an intraperitoneal injection of either isotonic saline or N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 5 mg/kg) immediately following the crush injury, and five animals were then sacrificed at various intervals and the paws processed for histology. Another group of five animals was sacrificed after 3 days for nitrite determinations. The results showed that nitrite production and hence NO synthase activity is doubled at the acute phase of tendon wound healing, and we can prevent this by administering a single dose of L-NAME immediately after injury. The incidence and severity of fibrocellular adhesions between tendon and synovium was much more marked in animals treated with L-NAME. Treatment with L-NAME elicited a chronic inflammatory response characterised by a persistent and extraordinarily severe accumulation of large numbers of inflammatory cells in the subcutaneous tissues, in muscle and in tendon. These findings indicate that in the case of injured tendon and synovium, NO could act to protect the healing tissue from an uncontrolled inflammatory response. PMID:15223606

  3. Fish/flaxseed oil protect against nitric oxide-induced hepatotoxicity and cell death in the rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M W; Priyamvada, S; Khan, S A; Khan, S; Gangopadhyay, A; Yusufi, A N K

    2016-03-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) is an antihypertensive drug with proven toxic effects attributed mainly to the production of nitric oxide (NO). Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are widely regarded as functional foods and have been shown to ameliorate the harmful effects of many toxicants. This study examined whether feeding of fish oil (FO)/flaxseed oil (FXO) would have any protective effect against SNP-induced hepatotoxicity and cell death. Male Wistar rats were fed either on normal diet or with 15% FO/FXO for 15 days, following which SNP (1.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days. Animals were killed after treatment, and livers were collected for further analysis. We observed that SNP significantly elevated tissue nitrite levels and lipid peroxidation (LPO) with concomitant perturbation in antioxidant defense systems accompanied with dysregulated glucose metabolism and pronounced cellular death. FO/FXO supplementation to SNP-treated rats caused reversal of tissue injury/cell death and markedly decreased LPO and improved antioxidant defense systems. FO/FXO appear to protect against SNP-induced hepatotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism. PMID:25964379

  4. Nitric Oxide synthases and atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CynthiaAnnCarnes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. There are multiple systems in the myocardium which contribute to redox homeostasis, and loss of homeostasis can result in oxidative stress. Potential sources of oxidants include nitric oxide synthases, which normally produce nitric oxide in the heart. Two nitric oxide synthase isoforms (1 and 3 are normally expressed in the heart. During pathologies such as heart failure, there is induction of nitric oxide synthase 2 in multiple cell types in the myocardium. In certain conditions, the NOS enzymes may become uncoupled, shifting from production of nitric oxide to superoxide anion, a potent free radical and oxidant. Multiple lines of evidence suggest a role for nitric oxide synthases in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Therapeutic approaches to reduce atrial fibrillation by modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity may be beneficial, although further investigation of this strategy is needed.

  5. Generation and characterization of functional cardiomyocytes derived from human T cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Seki

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have been proposed as novel cell sources for genetic disease models and revolutionary clinical therapies. Accordingly, human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes are potential cell sources for cardiomyocyte transplantation therapy. We previously developed a novel generation method for human peripheral T cell-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs that uses a minimally invasive approach to obtain patient cells. However, it remained unknown whether TiPSCs with genomic rearrangements in the T cell receptor (TCR gene could differentiate into functional cardiomyocyte in vitro. To address this issue, we investigated the morphology, gene expression pattern, and electrophysiological properties of TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes differentiated by floating culture. RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry showed that the TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes properly express cardiomyocyte markers and ion channels, and show the typical cardiomyocyte morphology. Multiple electrode arrays with application of ion channel inhibitors also revealed normal electrophysiological responses in the TiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes in terms of beating rate and the field potential waveform. In this report, we showed that TiPSCs successfully differentiated into cardiomyocytes with morphology, gene expression patterns, and electrophysiological features typical of native cardiomyocytes. TiPSCs-derived cardiomyocytes obtained from patients by a minimally invasive technique could therefore become disease models for understanding the mechanisms of cardiac disease and cell sources for revolutionary cardiomyocyte therapies.

  6. Hypergravity differentially modulates cGMP efflux in human melanocytic cells stimulated by nitric oxide and natriuretic peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, K.; Stieber, C.; Lambers, B.; Block, I.; Krieg, R.; Wellmann, A.; Gerzer, R.

    Nitric oxide NO plays a key role in many patho physiologic processes including inflammation and skin cancer The diverse cellular effects of NO are mainly mediated by activation of the soluble guanylyl cyclase sGC isoform that leads to increases in intracellular cGMP levels whereas the membrane-bound isoforms serve as receptors for natriuretic peptides e g ANP In human skin epidermal melanocytes represent the principal cells for skin pigmentation by synthesizing the pigment melanin Melanin acts as a scavenger for free radicals that may arise during metabolic stress as a result of potentially harmful effects of the environment In previous studies we found that long-term exposure to hypergravity stimulated cGMP efflux in normal human melanocytes NHMs and non-metastatic melanoma cells at least partly by an enhanced expression of the multidrug resistance proteins MRP and cGMP transporters MRP4 5 The present study investigated whether hypergravity generated by centrifugal acceleration may modulate the cGMP efflux in NO-stimulated NHMs and melanoma cells MCs with different metastatic potential The NONOates PAPA-NO and DETA-NO were used as direct NO donors for cell stimulation In the presence of 0 1 mM DETA-NO t 1 2 sim 20 h long-term application of hypergravity up to 5 g for 24 h reduced intracellular cGMP levels by stimulating cGMP efflux in NHMs and non-metastatic MCs in comparison to 1 g whereas exposure to 5 g for 6 h in the presence of 0 1 mM PAPA-NO t 1 2 sim 30 min was not effective The hypergravity-stimulated

  7. GABAB Receptors Expressed in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells Mediate Intracellular Calcium Concentration Regulation and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Ping Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAB receptors regulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in a number of cells (e.g., retina, airway epithelium and smooth muscle, but whether they are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and similarly regulate the [Ca2+]i is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of GABAB receptors, a subclass of receptors to the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs, and to explore if altering receptor activation modified [Ca2+]i and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS translocation. Real-time PCR, western blots and immunofluorescence were used to determine the expression of GABAB1 and GABAB2 in cultured HAECs. The effects of GABAB receptors on [Ca2+]i in cultured HAECs were demonstrated using fluo-3. The influence of GABAB receptors on eNOS translocation was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Both GABAB1 and GABAB2 mRNA and protein were expressed in cultured HAECs, and the GABAB1 and GABAB2 proteins were colocated in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. One hundred μM baclofen caused a transient increase of [Ca2+]i and eNOS translocation in cultured HAECs, and the effects were attenuated by pretreatment with the selective GABAB receptor antagonists CGP46381 and CGP55845. GABAB receptors are expressed in HAECs and regulate the [Ca2+]i and eNOS translocation. Cultures of HAECs may be a useful in vitro model for the study of GABAB receptors and vascular biology.

  8. Effect of Zinc and Nitric Oxide on Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells under Shear Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungmun; Eskin, Suzanne G.; Shah, Ankit K.; Schildmeyer, Lisa A.; McIntire, Larry V.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the effect of zinc on monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under different shear stress regimens, which may trigger atherogenesis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to steady shear stress (15 dynes/cm2 or 1 dyne/cm2) or reversing shear stress (time average 1 dyne/cm2) for 24 hours. In all shear stress regimes, zinc deficiency enhanced THP-1 cell adhesion, while heparinase III reduced monocyte adhesion following reversing shear stress exposure. Unlike o...

  9. Towards the Maturation and Characterization of Smooth Muscle Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Vazão; Ricardo Pires das Neves; Mário Grãos; Lino Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have higher smooth muscle cell (SMC) potential than CD34(-) cells. We report that from all inductive signals tested, retinoic acid (RA) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF(BB)) are the most effective agents in guiding the differentiation of CD34(+) cells into smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs) characterized by the expression of SMC genes and proteins, secretion of SMC-related cytokines, co...

  10. Stem cell-derived vascular endothelial cells and their potential application in regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although a 'vascular stem cell' population has not been identified or generated, vascular endothelial and mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) can be derived from currently known pluripotent stem cell sources, including human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. We rev...

  11. Basic polyamino acids rich in arginine, lysine, or ornithine cause both enhancement of and refractoriness to formation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide in pulmonary artery and vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignarro, L J; Gold, M E; Buga, G M; Byrns, R E; Wood, K S; Chaudhuri, G; Frank, G

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which polyamino acids containing L-arginine, L-lysine or L-ornithine cause endothelium-dependent relaxation of bovine intrapulmonary artery and vein. Basic but not acidic or neutral polypeptides ranging in average molecular weights from 17 to 225 kDa elicited time- and concentration-dependent relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in precontracted rings of artery and vein by endothelium-dependent mechanisms. Vascular responses were markedly inhibited by oxyhemoglobin, methylene blue, or potassium. The basic polyamino acids stimulated the formation and/or release of an endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) identified as nitric oxide (NO) in perfused segments of both artery and vein as assessed by bioassay. The polyamino acids and A23187 released a similar endothelium-derived NO (EDNO) from artery and vein, as assessed by the similar half-life (3-5 seconds), antagonism by superoxide anion or oxyhemoglobin, enhancement by superoxide dismutase, and lack of influence by indomethacin. The basic polyamino acids elicited potent relaxant responses with EC50 values ranging from 3 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-7) M, and a direct correlation was obtained between molecular weight and relaxation potency irrespective of the basic amino acid incorporated. Prolonged contact of arterial or venous rings with basic polyamino acids resulted in the rapid development of marked refractoriness to relaxation and cyclic GMP formation on addition of polyamino acid. Moreover, refractoriness developed to the vascular responses of other endothelium-dependent vasodilators but not to glyceryl trinitrate or isoproterenol. The mechanism of refractory responses was attributed to interference with EDNO formation and release as assessed by bioassay and chemical assay. The hypothesis is forwarded that the basic polyamino acids serve as partial substrates for the enzyme system that catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to NO. Prolonged contact

  12. Absolute stereostructures of three new sesquiterpenes from the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla with inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi; Toguchida, Iwao; Ueda, Kazuho; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2002-10-01

    The 80% aqueous acetone extract and the ethyl acetate-soluble portion from the dried fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla MIQUEL were found to show inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages and antigen-induced degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, oxyphyllol A, and two eremophilane-type sesquiterpenes, oxyphyllols B and C, were isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble portion, together with 16 known constituents. The absolute stereostructures of oxyphyllols A, B, and C were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The effects of isolated components on nitric oxide production were examined, and nine constituents including oxyphyllol A and nootkatone were found to show inhibitory activity. On the other hand, five constituents inhibited the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells. PMID:12398545

  13. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  14. Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Beta-cells Guided by the Expression of Urocortin 3

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, Talitha; Huising, Mark O.

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a devastating disease precipitated by an autoimmune response directed at the insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas for which no cure exists. Stem cell-derived beta-cells show great promise for a cure as they have the potential to supply unlimited numbers of cells that could be derived from a patient's own cells, thus eliminating the need for immunosuppression. Current in vitro protocols for the differentiation of stem cell-derived beta-cells can successfully ge...

  15. Endothelial cell-derived interleukin-6 regulates tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial cells play a complex role in the pathobiology of cancer. This role is not limited to the making of blood vessels to allow for influx of oxygen and nutrients required for the high metabolic demands of tumor cells. Indeed, it has been recently shown that tumor-associated endothelial cells secrete molecules that enhance tumor cell survival and cancer stem cell self-renewal. The hypothesis underlying this work is that specific disruption of endothelial cell-initiated signaling inhibits tumor growth. Conditioned medium from primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC) stably transduced with silencing RNA for IL-6 (or controls) was used to evaluate the role of endothelial-derived IL-6 on the activation of key signaling pathways in tumor cells. In addition, these endothelial cells were co-transplanted with tumor cells into immunodefficient mice to determine the impact of endothelial cell-derived IL-6 on tumor growth and angiogenesis. We observed that tumor cells adjacent to blood vessels show strong phosphorylation of STAT3, a key mediator of tumor progression. In search for a possible mechanism for the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway, we observed that silencing interleukin (IL)-6 in tumor-associated endothelial cells inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in tumor cells. Notably, tumors vascularized with IL-6-silenced endothelial cells showed lower intratumoral microvessel density, lower tumor cell proliferation, and slower growth than tumors vascularized with control endothelial cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that IL-6 secreted by endothelial cells enhance tumor growth, and suggest that cancer patients might benefit from targeted approaches that block signaling events initiated by endothelial cells

  16. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joles, JA; Vos, IH; Grone, HJ; Rabelink, TJ

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been well established. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide has been shown to be essential for vascular homeostasis and modulation of eNOS has thus become a target in prevention of cardiovascular disease. The role of the induc

  17. Inhibition of nitric oxide production by compounds from Boesenbergia longiflora using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeratad Sudsai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activity of extract and compounds isolated from Boesenbergia longiflora against nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using RAW264.7 cells. Isolation of the chloroform extract of B. longiflora rhizomes afforded four known flavonoids, which were identified as kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether (1, kaempferol-7,4'-dimethyl ether (2, rhamnazin (3, pinostrobin (4, together with four known diarylheptanoids, dihydrobisdemethoxycurcumin (5, curcumin (6, demethoxycurcumin (7 and bisdemethoxycurcumin (8, as well as one sterol, -sitosterol-D-glucoside (9. Compound 6 exhibited the highest inhibitory activity against NO release with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM, followed by 7 (IC50 = 11.7 μM, 8 (IC50 = 15.7 μM, 5 (IC50 = 23.0 μM and 1 (IC50 = 23.5 μM, respectively. This study demonstrated that diarylheptanoids and some methoxyflavonoidsfound in B. longiflora are responsible for anti-inflammatory activity and this is the first report the safety, chemicalconstituents and biological activity of this plant.

  18. Estimation of salivary nitric oxide and uric acid levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Salian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC being the most common head and neck cancer, involves the interplay of several free radicals and antioxidant molecules. The potential role of salivary nitric oxide (NO and uric acid in cancer development needs to be explored as there are a few studies highlighting their association with each other and with oral cancer. Aims: The present study was designed to measure the NO and uric acid levels in the saliva of patients with OSCC as compared with healthy controls and to highlight any possible correlations between them. Materials and Methods: The present study involved 50 subjects, 25 with OSCC (study and 25 healthy individuals (controls. Saliva samples collected from patients were subjected to NO and uric acid analysis by griess method and uricase method, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The results were analyzed using Student′s t-test and Pearson′s Chi-square test. Results: A significant increase in the salivary levels of NO was seen in study subjects as compared to healthy controls. On the contrary, a significant decrease in salivary uric acid level was observed in the study group as compared to healthy controls. In addition, there exists an inverse correlation between NO and uric acid levels in study and control groups. Conclusion: Salivary levels of NO and uric acid may act as key bimolecular markers in the detection of oral cancer, which could be further confirmed by larger sample size and future studies.

  19. Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition and cytotoxicity of Korean horse mussel Modiolus modiolus extracts on cancer cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikarta, Jumeri Mangun; Kim, Sang Moo

    2016-08-01

    The Korean horse mussel extract was purified and fractionated by a bioassay-guided purification step. The final fraction contained seven steroid and one polycyclic aromatic compounds, in which cholest-7-en-3-ol, (3β,5α)- (58.7 %) was a main component followed by ergosta-7,22dien-3-ol (3β,5α,22E) (13.0 %). This extract exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activity determined solely through the nitric oxide inhibition assay in a dose-dependant manner with the IC50 value of 9.6 µg/mL and no cytotoxic effect on the macrophages. Moreover, it also exhibited strong cytotoxicity with the IC50 values of 21.4, 36.4, and 37.1 µg/mL against AGS, DLD-1, and HeLa cells, respectively. These results indicated that the horse mussel extract might be a functional ingredient in the prevention of inflammation and human cancers. PMID:25875500

  20. Leptin Inhibits the Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by Angiotensin II through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Rodríguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to investigate whether leptin modifies angiotensin (Ang II-induced proliferation of aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs from 10-week-old male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and the possible role of nitric oxide (NO. Methods. NO and NO synthase (NOS activity were assessed by the Griess and 3H-arginine/citrulline conversion assays, respectively. Inducible NOS (iNOS and NADPH oxidase subutnit Nox2 expression was determined by Western-blot. The proliferative responses to Ang II were evaluated through enzymatic methods. Results. Leptin inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferative response of VSMCs from control rats. This inhibitory effect of leptin was abolished by NOS inhibitor, NMMA, and iNOS selective inhibitor, L-NIL, and was not observed in leptin receptor-deficient fa/fa rats. SHR showed increased serum leptin concentrations and lipid peroxidation. Despite a similar leptin-induced iNOS up-regulation, VSMCs from SHR showed an impaired NOS activity and NO production induced by leptin, and an increased basal Nox2 expression. The inhibitory effect of leptin on Ang II-induced VSMC proliferation was attenuated. Conclusion. Leptin blocks the proliferative response to Ang II through NO-dependent mechanisms. The attenuation of this inhibitory effect of leptin in spontaneous hypertension appears to be due to a reduced NO bioavailability in VSMCs.

  1. Adipose-derived Stem Cells: Isolation, Expansion and Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bunnell, Bruce A; Flaat, Mette; Gagliardi, Christine; Patel, Bindiya; Ripoll, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of regenerative medicine will require a reliable source of stem cells in addition to biomaterial scaffolds and cytokine growth factors. Adipose tissue has proven to serve as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. There has been increased interest in Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering applications. Here, methods for the isolation, expa...

  2. Induction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by tumor exosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Xiaoyu; Poliakov, Anton; Liu, Cunren; Liu, Yuelong; Deng, Zhong-Bin; wang, Jianhua; Cheng, Ziqiang; Shah, Spandan V.; Wang, Gui-Jun; Zhang, Liming; Grizzle, William E.; Mobley, Jim; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) promote tumor progression. The mechanisms of MDSC development during tumor growth remain unknown. Tumor exosomes (T-exosomes) have been implicated to play a role in immune regulation, however the role of exosomes in the induction of MDSCs is unclear. Our previous work demonstrated that exosomes isolated from tumor cells are taken up by bone marrow myeloid cells. Here, we extend those findings showing that exosomes isolated from T-exosomes switch the di...

  3. Stromal cell-derived factors in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, E.; Ehsan Abdel-Meguid, I.; Shatla, R.; Korraa, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by increased muscle damage and an abnormal blood flow after muscle contraction leading to a state of functional ischemia. Abundant evidence suggests that endothelial circulating progenitor cells (EPCs) play an important role in mediating vascular and muscle repair mechanisms and that the stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 α chemokine is responsible for both progenitor cell mobilization from the bone marrow to peripheral blood and homing to t...

  4. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in transplantation and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ochando, Jordi C.; Chen, Shu Hsia

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are myeloid cells that suppress the immune response, a definition that reflects both their origin and their function. As negative regulators of the immune response, MDSC represent a novel therapeutic approach for manipulating the immune system toward tolerance or immunity. MDSC are present in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice and are in part responsible for the inhibition of the cell-mediated immune response against the tumor. Our laboratories inve...

  5. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Michael; Singh, Anurag; Peschel, Andreas; Mehling, Roman; Rieber, Nikolaus; Hartl, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) comprise monocytic and granulocytic innate immune cells with the capability of suppressing T- and NK-cell responses. While the role of MDSCs has been studied in depth in malignant diseases, the understanding of their regulation and function in infectious disease conditions has just begun to evolve. Here we summarize and discuss the current view how MDSCs participate in bacterial infections and how this knowledge could be exploited for potential future therapeutics. PMID:27066459

  6. Cardiopulmonary Complications of Sickle Cell Disease: Role of Nitric Oxide and Hemolytic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2005-01-01

    Medical advances in the management of patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemolytic anemias have led to significant increases in life expectancy. Improved public health, neonatal screening, parental and patient education, advances in red cell transfusion medicine, iron chelation therapy, penicillin prophylaxis for children, pneumococcal immunization, and hydroxyurea therapy have all likely contributed to this effect on longevity.1,2 Importantly, as a generation of patien...

  7. Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan Sabire; Muniappan Latha

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus results from an autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, which produce insulin. The lack of insulin leads to chronic hyperglycemia and secondary complications, such as cardiovascular disease. The currently approved clinical treatments for diabetes mellitus often fail to achieve sustained and optimal glycemic control. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of surrogate beta cells as a treatment for type 1 diabetes. Norma...

  8. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  9. Part I. Molecular and cellular characterization of high nitric oxide-adapted human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Vesper, B; Onul, A; Haines III, G; Tarjan, G; Xue, J; Elseth, K; Aydogan, B.; Altman, M.; Roeske, J; Paradise, W; De Vitto, H; Radosevich, J

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the casual mechanisms behind the observation that some breast adenocarcinomas have identical morphology and comparatively different cellular growth behavior. This is exemplified by a differential response to radiation, chemotherapy, and other biological intervention therapies. Elevated concentrations of the free radical nitric oxide (NO), coupled with the up-regulated enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which produces NO, are activities which impact tumor gr...

  10. Neuronal Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Using Exosomes Derived from Differentiating Neuronal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takeda, Yuji S.; Qiaobing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes deliver functional proteins and genetic materials to neighboring cells, and have potential applications for tissue regeneration. One possible mechanism of exosome-promoted tissue regeneration is through the delivery of microRNA (miRNA). In this study, we hypothesized that exosomes derived from neuronal progenitor cells contain miRNAs that promote neuronal differentiation. We treated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) daily with exosomes derived from PC12 cells, a neuronal cell line, for 1...

  11. Differentiation potential of the fetal rat liver-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Pojda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow or several fetal tissues can be expanded and differentiated into other cell lines. The fetal liver is the source of early hematopoietic cells and also, as a fetal tissue, may be considered as a source of pluripotent stem cells. The differentiation potential of fetal rat liver cells have been examined. Freshly isolated liver cells from 14-d fetuses were cultured in Dulbecco medium supplemented with 10% FCS. The plastic-adherent cells were then passaged up to 10 times. Freshly isolated cells and cells from every passage were cultured in hematopoiesis-promoting environment that consists of methylcelulose supplemented with FCS, rat IL-3, human IL-6 and Epo. Parallely these cells were incubated in co-culture with rat muscle satellite cells (Dulbecco medium with 10% FCS and 10% HS to examine their myogenic potential. Culture in methylcelulose resulted in a high number of GM and Mix colonies in case of freshly isolated liver cells and the number of colonies decreased according to the number of passages. In case of cells from 4th passage, there ware no hematopoietic colonies in culture. In contrast--freshly isolated cells were not able to fuse with rat satellite cells and form the myotubes. This ability appeared in plastic-adherent cells just from the second passage and increases to 5th passage. The cells from every next passage up to 10th when co-cultured with satellite cells participated in myotube formation at the same high level. This result may suggest that in the 14-d rat liver there exist at least two subpopulations of cells: the non-adherent hematopoietic cell population, and the population of plastic-adherent cells capable of differentiating into myotubes. Since the attempts to redifferentiate hematopoietic subpopulation into myopoiesis, or myopoietic subpopulation into hematopoiesis failed, it may be concluded that at least under our experimental conditions the fetal liver cells do not reveal the

  12. Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes Stimulate Stronger CD8+ CTL Responses and Antitumor Immunity than Tumor Cell-Derived Exosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siguo Hao; Ou Bai; Jinying Yuan; Mabood Qureshi; Jim Xiang

    2006-01-01

    Exosomes (EXO) derived from dendritic cells (DC) and tumor cells have been used to stimulate antitumor immune responses in animal models and in clinical trials. However, there has been no side-by-side comparison of the stimulatory efficiency of the antitumor immune responses induced by these two commonly used EXO vaccines. In this study, we selected to study the phenotype characteristics of EXO derived from a transfected EG7 tumor cells expressing ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-pulsed DC by flow cytometry. We compared the stimulatory effect in induction of OVA-specific immune responses between these two types of EXO. We found that OVA protein-pulsed DCovA-derived EXO (EXODC) can more efficiently stimulate naive OVA-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and differentiation into cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo, and induce more efficient antitumor immunity than EG7 tumor cell-derived EXO (EXOEG7). In addition, we elucidated the important role of the host DC in EXO vaccines that the stimulatory effect of EXO is delivered to T cell responses by the host DC. Therefore, DC-derived EXO may represent a more effective EXO-based vaccine in induction of antitumor immunity.

  13. Neural mechanisms in nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M.; Victor, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide is hypothesized to be an inhibitory modulator of central sympathetic nervous outflow, and deficient neuronal nitric oxide production to cause sympathetic overactivity, which then contributes to nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension. The biochemical and neuroanatomical basis for this concept revolves around nitric oxide modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission within brainstem vasomotor centers. The functional consequence of neuronal nitric oxide in blood pressure regulation is, however, marked by an apparent conflict in the literature. On one hand, conscious animal studies using sympathetic blockade suggest a significant role for neuronal nitric oxide deficiency in the development of nitric-oxide-deficient hypertension, and on the other hand, there is evidence against such a role derived from 'knock-out' mice lacking nitric-oxide synthase 1, the major source of neuronal nitric oxide.

  14. Large Scale Production of Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigerdt, Robert

    Stem cells have been envisioned to become an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Notably, the interest in stem cells lies beyond direct therapeutic applications. They might also provide a previously unavailable source of valuable human cell types for screening platforms, which might facilitate the development of more efficient and safer drugs. The heterogeneity of stem cell types as well as the numerous areas of application suggests that differential processes are mandatory for their in vitro culture. Many of the envisioned applications would require the production of a high number of stem cells and their derivatives in scalable, well-defined and potentially clinical compliant manner under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). In this review we provide an overview on recent strategies to develop bioprocesses for the expansion, differentiation and enrichment of stem cells and their progenies, presenting examples for adult and embryonic stem cells alike.

  15. Reduced Immunogenicity of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Sertoli Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoying Wang; Jie Qin; Robert Chunhua Zhao; Martin Zenke

    2014-01-01

    Sertoli cells constitute the structural framework in testis and provide an immune-privileged environment for germ cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) resemble embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and are generated from somatic cells by expression of specific reprogramming transcription factors. Here, we used C57BL/6 (B6) Sertoli cells to generate iPS cells (Ser-iPS cells) and compared the immunogenicity of Ser-iPS cells with iPS cells derived from mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF-iPS ...

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare and Melilotus officinalis onproduction of nitric oxide (NO in cultured vascular endothelial cells (mouse endothelioma F-2 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ansari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: During recent years, nitric oxide (NO has been considered as a molecule involved in migraine headaches. This free radical involves in initiation of migraine headaches via NO/cGMP signaling pathway and vascular relaxation specially big intracranial arteries. Therefore, we studied the effects of aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare and Melilotus officinalis prescribed in migraine treatment in traditional & modern medicine, on NO level in cultured endothelial cells.Materials and Methods: Each crude herb (25g was mixed with 200 ml distilled water. End extract obtained after filtering and drying. Endothelial cells propagated in DMEM medium containing 10% FCS and 1-2% penicillin-streptomycin. The nitrite concentration was measured as an indicator of nitric oxide production according to the Griess reaction and with ELISA in 540 nm.Results: Concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 g/ml of Origanum vulgare, reduced NO levels compared with control to 13.1 % (p<0.05, 25.8% (p<0.01 and 33.9% (p<0.001 respectively. However, despite our expectation melilotus officinalis increased NO level. The concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 g/ml of the herb, increased NO levels to 12.7 (p<0.05, 36.5% (p<0.001 & 72.9% (p<0.001 respectively.Conclusion: We concluded that aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare probably decreases migraine headaches by reducing NO and aqueous extract of Melilotus officinalis does not act through this mechanism.

  17. Formation of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in rat skeletal muscle cells during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silveira, Leonardo R.; Pereira-Da-Silva, Lucia; Juel, Carsten;

    2003-01-01

    We examined intra- and extracellular H(2)O(2) and NO formation during contractions in primary rat skeletal muscle cell culture. The fluorescent probes DCFH-DA/DCFH (2,7-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate/2,7-dichlorofluorescein) and DAF-2-DA/DAF-2 (4,5-diaminofluorescein-diacetate/4,5-diaminofluoresce...

  18. Clara cell protein in nasal lavage fluid and nasal nitric oxide - biomarkers with anti-inflammatory properties in allergic rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irander Kristina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clara cell protein (CC16 is ascribed a protective and anti-inflammatory role in airway inflammation. Lower levels have been observed in asthmatic subjects as well as in subjects with intermittent allergic rhinitis than in healthy controls. Nasal nitric oxide (nNO is present in high concentrations in the upper airways, and considered a biomarker with beneficial effects, due to inhibition of bacteria and viruses along with stimulation of ciliary motility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presumed anti-inflammatory effects of nasal CC16 and nNO in subjects with allergic rhinitis. Methods The levels of CC16 in nasal lavage fluids, achieved from subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (n = 13, intermittent allergic rhinitis in an allergen free interval (n = 5 and healthy controls (n = 7, were analyzed by Western blot. The levels of nNO were measured by the subtraction method using NIOX®. The occurrences of effector cells in allergic inflammation, i.e. metachromatic cells (MC, mast cells and basophiles and eosinophils (Eos were analyzed by light microscopy in samples achieved by nasal brushing. Results The levels of CC16 correlated with nNO levels (r2 = 0.37; p = 0.02 in allergic subjects. The levels of both biomarkers showed inverse relationships with MC occurrence, as higher levels of CC16 (p = 0.03 and nNO (p = 0.05 were found in allergic subjects with no demonstrable MC compared to the levels in subjects with demonstrable MC. Similar relationships, but not reaching significance, were observed between the CC16 and nNO levels and Eos occurrence. The levels of CC16 and nNO did not differ between the allergic and the control groups. Conclusions The correlation between nasal CC16 and nNO levels in patients with allergic rhinitis, along with an inverse relationship between their levels and the occurrences of MC in allergic inflammation, may indicate that both biomarkers have anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of

  19. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  20. Foetal stem cell derivation & characterization for osteogenic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mangala Gowri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mesencymal stem cells (MSCs derived from foetal tissues present a multipotent progenitor cell source for application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The present study was carried out to derive foetal mesenchymal stem cells from ovine source and analyze their differentiation to osteogenic linage to serve as an animal model to predict human applications. Methods: Isolation and culture of sheep foetal bone marrow cells were done and uniform clonally derived MSC population was collected. The cells were characterized using cytochemical, immunophenotyping, biochemical and molecular analyses. The cells with defined characteristics were differentiated into osteogenic lineages and analysis for differentiated cell types was done. The cells were analyzed for cell surface marker expression and the gene expression in undifferentiated and differentiated osteoblast was checked by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT PCR analysis and confirmed by sequencing using genetic analyzer. Results: Ovine foetal samples were processed to obtain mononuclear (MNC cells which on culture showed spindle morphology, a characteristic oval body with the flattened ends. MSC population CD45 - /CD14 - was cultured by limiting dilution to arrive at uniform spindle morphology cells and colony forming units. The cells were shown to be positive for surface markers such as CD44, CD54, integrinβ1, and intracellular collagen type I/III and fibronectin. The osteogenically induced MSCs were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and mineral deposition. The undifferentiated MSCs expressed RAB3B, candidate marker for stemness in MSCs. The osteogenically induced and uninduced MSCs expressed collagen type I and MMP13 gene in osteogenic induced cells. Interpretation & conclusions: The protocol for isolation of ovine foetal bone marrow derived MSCs was simple to perform, and the cultural method of obtaining pure spindle morphology cells was established

  1. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Future Regenerative System Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Lina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of disease. Despite the advances, the availability of stem cells remaining a challenge for both scientist and clinicians in pursuing regenerative medicine. CONTENT: Subcutaneous human adipose tissue is an abundant and accessible cell source for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Routinely, the adipose issue is digested with collagenase or related lytic enzymes to release a heterogeneous population for stromal vascular fraction (SVF cells. The SVF cells can be used directly or can be cultured in plastic ware for selection and expansion of an adherent population known as adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs. Their potential in the ability to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and other mesenchymal lineages, as well in their other clinically useful properties, includes stimulation of angiogenesis and suppression of inflammation. SUMMARY: Adipose tissue is now recognized as an accessible, abundant and reliable site for the isolation of adult stem cels suitable for the application of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of preclinical data relating to the isolation, characterization, cryopreservation, differentiation, and transplantation of freshly isolated stromal vascular fraction cells and adherent, culture-expanded, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells in vitro and in animal models. KEYWORDS: adipose tissue, adult stem cells, regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells.

  2. Cryopreservation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi-Shiohira, Chika; Kurima, Kiyoto; Kobayashi, Naoya; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Masami; Noguchi, Yasufumi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Noguchi, Hirofumi

    2015-12-17

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin such as osteoblasts, adipocytes, myocytes, and chondrocytes. They possess an immunosuppressive effect, which makes them a viable cell population for the cell-based therapy of treatment-resistant immune diseases. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) have been demonstrated to have the ability to acquire the properties of subcutaneous adipose tissue particularly easily, and cryopreservation is currently performed as a routine method for preserving ASCs to safely acquire large numbers of cells. However, many studies have reported that cellular activity after freezing and thawing may be affected by the solutions used for cryopreservation. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is commonly used as a cryopreservation medium as it diffuses into the cell through the plasma membrane and protects the cells from the damage caused by freezing. As substitutes for DMSO or animal-derived serum, cell banker series, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), sericin and maltose, and methyl cellulose (MC) have been investigated for their clinical applications. It is critical to develop a reliable cell cryopreservation protocol for regenerative medicine using MSCs. PMID:26858903

  3. Supplementation with l-arginine stabilizes plasma arginine and nitric oxide metabolites, suppresses elevated liver enzymes and peroxidation in sickle cell anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, S I; Ogungbemi, S O; Kehinde, M O; Anigbogu, C N

    2016-06-01

    The effect of l-arginine on liver function in SCD has received little or no attention. The effect of a chronic, oral, low-dose supplementation with l-arginine (1gm/day for 6 weeks) on some liver enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide metabolites was studied in 20 normal (non-sickle cell anaemia; NSCA) subjects and 20 sickle cell anaemia (SCA) subjects. Ten milliliters of blood was withdrawn from an ante-cubital vein for the estimation of plasma arginine concentration ([R]), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), plasma total bilirubin concentration [TB], malondialdehyde concentration [MDA] and nitric oxide metabolites concentration [NOx]. Before supplementation, ALT, AST, ALP (pNOx] were higher in NSCA subjects (pNOX] in SCA than in NSCA subjects (plow-dose supplementation with l-arginine improved liver function, oxidative stress, plasma arginine concentration and nitric oxide metabolites levels in NSCA and SCA subjects. Responses in SCA subjects to l-arginine were more sensitive than in NSCA subjects. PMID:27156372

  4. The effects of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and inhibition on human uveal melanoma cell proliferation and macrophage nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression has previously been identified in uveal melanoma although the biological role of COX-2 in this intraocular malignancy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a COX-2 inhibitor on the proliferation rate of human uveal melanoma cells, as well as its effect on the cytotoxic response of macrophages. Methods Human uveal melanoma cell lines were transfected to constitutively express COX-2 and the proliferative rate of these cells using two different methods, with and without the addition of Amfenac, was measured. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was measured after exposure to melanoma-conditioned medium from both groups of cells as well as with and without Amfenac, the active metabolite of Nepafenac. Results Cells transfected to express COX-2 had a higher proliferation rate than those that did not. The addition of Amfenac significantly decreased the proliferation rate of all cell lines. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was inhibited by the addition of melanoma conditioned medium, the addition of Amfenac partially overcame this inhibition. Conclusion Amfenac affected both COX-2 transfected and non-transfected uveal melanoma cells in terms of their proliferation rates as well as their suppressive effects on macrophage cytotoxic activity.

  5. Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  6. Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  7. Derivation of Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line

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    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea015 was demonstrated with 80% of cells expressing Nanog, 97% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 29.52, Novelty score of 1.3 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  8. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea023 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  9. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1–60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  10. Derivation of Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea042 was demonstrated with 81% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.06, Novelty score of 1.24 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  11. Infrared Imaging of Nitric Oxide-Mediated Blood Flow in Human Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbach, Alexander M; Hans C Ackerman; Liu, Wei-Min; Meyer, Joseph M.; Littel, Patricia L.; Seamon, Catherine; Footman, Eleni; Chi, Amy; Zorca, Suzana; Krajewski, Megan L.; Cuttica, Michael J.; Machado, Roberto F; Cannon, Richard O.; Kato, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction is an important pathophysiologic manifestation of sickle cell disease (SCD), a condition that increases risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) imaging would detect changes in cutaneous blood flow reflective of vascular function. We performed IR imaging and conventional strain gauge plethysmography in twenty-five adults with SCD at baseline and during intra-arterial infusions of an endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh)...

  12. Myelin Basic Protein Priming Reduces the Expression of Foxp3 in T Cells via Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Brahmachari, Saurav; Pahan, Kalipada

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a vital role in autoimmune disorders. Among several markers, forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) is the most specific with regard to Treg activity. Therefore, understanding mechanisms that regulate Foxp3 expression is a critical step for unraveling the complicacy of autoimmune pathophysiology. The present study was undertaken to investigate the crosstalk between NO and Tregs. Interestingly, after myelin basic protein (MBP) priming, the expression of Foxp3 decreased in MBP-...

  13. Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential

  14. Tumorigenicity studies for human pluripotent stem cell-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sato, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), i.e. human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Because of these abilities, numerous attempts have been made to utilize hPSCs in regenerative medicine/cell therapy. hPSCs are, however, also tumorigenic, that is, they can give rise to the progressive growth of tumor nodules in immunologically unresponsive animals. Therefore, assessing and managing the tumorigenicity of all final products is essential in order to prevent ectopic tissue formation, tumor development, and/or malignant transformation elicited by residual pluripotent stem cells after implantation. No detailed guideline for the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products has yet been issued for regenerative medicine/cell therapy, despite the urgent necessity. Here, we describe the current situations and issues related to the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products and we review the advantages and disadvantages of several types of tumorigenicity-associated tests. We also refer to important considerations in the execution and design of specific studies to monitor the tumorigenicity of hPSC-derived products. PMID:23370350

  15. Derivation of multipotent mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells provide access to the earliest stages of human development and may serve as a source of specialized cells for regenerative medicine. Thus, it becomes crucial to develop protocols for the directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells into tissue-restricted precursors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we present culture conditions for the derivation of unlimited numbers of pure mesenchymal precursors from human embryonic stem cells and demonstrate multilineage differentiation into fat, cartilage, bone, and skeletal muscle cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings will help to elucidate the mechanism of mesoderm specification during embryonic stem cell differentiation and provide a platform to efficiently generate specialized human mesenchymal cell types for future clinical applications.

  16. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L.; Burns, Alan R.; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute ≈60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the ...

  17. TheEffect of bevacizumab and hydroalcohlic Extract of Matricaria chamomilla on cell viability and nitric oxide production of the colorectal cancer cell line (HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Danaei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Angiogenesis is associated with tumor growth and metastasis of tumor cells, this processes directly linked with the production of nitric oxide. In this study anticancer effects of hydroalcohoic extract of M. chamomilla and avastin (bevacizumab were investigated via dimethyl thiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT cell viability assay and nitric oxide (NO production level in colon cancer cell line (HT-29. Methods: In the present experimental study, the HT-29 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 media supplemented with 10% (v/v fetal bovine serum (FBS, 1% antibiotic solution (consisting of100 U/mL penicillin and 100 µg/ml streptomycin. After growing to a favorite confluent, 104cells were seeded into separate 96-well culture microtiter plates and incubated at 370C in an incubator with 5% CO2 for 24 h prior to treatment. Every plate was treated with different   concentrations of the extract (1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 2600 µg/ml of medium and bevacizumab (100,200,300 µg/ml.  The production of NO was assessed by Griess reagent and the cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The results were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer. Result: The results of MTT assay indicated that the extract and bevacizumab anticancer effect is time and dose dependent. The highest percentage of cell death was observed after 48 h incubation which increased in the bevacizumab concentration (P<0.01. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50 of extract in 24 h and 48h was 1881 and 1669 µg/ml, respectively. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production was maximum in 2600 µg/ml extract concentration.                                                                                                                                               Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated

  18. Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediate viral entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims B

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brian Sims,1,2,* Linlin Gu,3,* Alexandre Krendelchtchikov,3 Qiana L Matthews3,4 1Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Cell, Developmental, and Integrative Biology, 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 4Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Viruses enter host cells through interactions of viral ligands with cellular receptors. Viruses can also enter cells in a receptor-independent fashion. Mechanisms regarding the receptor-independent viral entry into cells have not been fully elucidated. Exosomal trafficking between cells may offer a mechanism by which viruses can enter cells.Methods: To investigate the role of exosomes on cellular viral entry, we employed neural stem cell-derived exosomes and adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 for the proof-of-principle study. Results: Exosomes significantly enhanced Ad5 entry in Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR-deficient cells, in which Ad5 only had very limited entry. The exosomes were shown to contain T-cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 (TIM-4, which binds phosphatidylserine. Treatment with anti-TIM-4 antibody significantly blocked the exosome-mediated Ad5 entry.Conclusion: Neural stem cell-derived exosomes mediated significant cellular entry of Ad5 in a receptor-independent fashion. This mediation may be hampered by an antibody specifically targeting TIM-4 on exosomes. This set of results will benefit further elucidation of virus/exosome pathways, which would contribute to reducing natural viral infection by developing therapeutic agents or vaccines. Keywords: neural stem cell-derived exosomes, adenovirus type 5, TIM-4, viral entry, phospholipids

  19. The similarity between human embryonic stem cell-derived epithelial cells and ameloblast-lineage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Wei Zheng; Logan Linthicum; Pamela K DenBesten; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to human ameloblast-lineage cells (ALCs), as a way to determine their potential use as a cell source for ameloblast regeneration. Induced by various concentrations of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), retinoic acid (RA) and lithium chloride (LiCI) for 7 days, hESCs adopted cobble-stone epithelial phenotype (hESC-derived epithelial cells (ES-ECs)) and expressed cytokeratin 14. Compared with ALCs and oral epithelial cells (OE), ES-ECs expressed amelogenesis-associated genes similar to ALCs. ES-ECs were compared with human fetal skin epithelium, human fetal oral buccal mucosal epithelial cells and human ALCs for their expression pattern of cytokeratins as well. ALCs had relatively high expression levels of cytokeratin 76, which ,vas also found to be upregulated in ES-ECs. Based on the present study, with the similarity of gene expression with ALCs, ES-ECs are a promising potential cell source for regeneration, which are not available in erupted human teeth for regeneration of enamel.

  20. Derivation and characterization of human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ruenn Chai; Choo, Andre; Lim, Sai Kiang

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have been isolated from numerous sources including human embryonic stem cells (hES). Derivation from hES is unique in that hES must be differentiated. In our hands, trypsinizing hES into single cells and plating them on gelatin coated plates in a DMEM medium supplemented with serum replacement media and FGF2 with either PDGF AB or EGF will induce differentiation of hES and selectively enhance the survival of MSCs over hES. Repeated passaging by trypsinization results in a highly enriched MSC culture. Enriched MSC cultures can be further purified to homogeneity by limiting dilution or FACS sorting for a CD105+ or CD73+ and CD24- cell population. The resulting hES-MSCs fulfill the ISCT minimal defining criteria for human MSCs, namely adherence to plastic, a surface antigen expression profile of CD29+, CD44+, CD49a+ CD49e+, CD73+, CD105+, CD166+, CD34-, CD45-, and a differentiation potential that includes adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis. Finally, hES-MSCs can be extensively and stably propagated. This method of deriving hES-MSCs without the need for a xenogeneic feeder and use of animal serum could be used to derive clinically compliant MSCs from hESCs. PMID:21431516

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide and Nitric Oxide are Involved in Salicylic Acid-Induced Salvianolic Acid B Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Cell Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbo Guo; Xiaolin Dang; Juane Dong

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) are key signaling molecules in cells whose levels are increased in response to various stimuli and are involved in plant secondary metabolite synthesis. In this paper, the roles of H2O2 and NO on salvianolic acid B (Sal B) production in salicylic acid (SA)-induced Salvia miltiorrhiza cell cultures were investigated. The results showed that H2O2 could be significantly elicited by SA, even though IMD (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase) or DMTU (a quenc...

  2. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanishi, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; YAMAGUCHI, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    We found that CEL-I, a GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Holothuroidea (Cucumaria echinata), induces inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production in RAW264.7 cells. The NO production was inhibited by an iNOS inhibitor, L-NAME, but was not by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibitor, polymyxin B. In the presence of 0.1-M GalNAc, increased NO production by CEL-I-treated RAW264.7 cells was observed rather than the inhibition. Bovine serum albu...

  3. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Gene Polymorphism is Associated with Age Onset of Menarche in Sickle Cell Disease Females of India

    OpenAIRE

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Females with sickle cell disease (SCD) often show late onset of menarche. In transgenic sickle cell mouse, deficiency of gene encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been reported to be associated with late onset of menarche. Thus to explore the possible association of eNOS gene polymorphism with age of onset of menarche in SCD females, 3 important eNOS gene polymorphisms- eNOS 4a/b, eNOS 894G>T (rs1799983) and eNOS-786 T>C (rs2070744) and plasma nitrite...

  4. ENDOTHELIAL NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE (ENOS) GENE POLYMORPHISM IS ASSOCIATED WITH AGE ONSET OF MENARCHE IN SICKLE CELL DISEASE FEMALES OF INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhansu Sekhar Nishank

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Background and Objective :  Females with sickle cell disease (SCD) often show late onset of menarche. In transgenic sickle cell mouse, deficiency of gene encoding endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been reported to be associated with late onset of menarche. Thus to explore the possible association of eNOS gene polymorphism with age of onset of menarche in SCD females, 3 important eNOS gene polymorphism- eNOS 4a/b, eNOS 894G>T and eNOS-786 T>C  and  plasma ...

  5. Differentiation and function of mouse monocyte-derived dendritic cells in steady state and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Pilar M; Ardavín, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    Although monocytes were originally described as precursors to all the different subpopulations of macrophages found in the steady state and formed under inflammatory and infectious conditions, recent data have demonstrated conclusively that monocytes can also differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs). Monocytes are the precursors to different subsets of DCs, such as Langerhans cells and DCs found in the lamina propria of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. In addition, monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs), newly formed during inflammatory reactions, appear to fulfill an essential role in defense mechanisms against pathogens by participating in the induction of both adaptive and innate immune responses. In this regard, moDCs have the capacity to activate antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses and to cross-prime CD8(+) T cells, during viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. In addition, monocytes have been recently described as the precursors to a subset of DCs specialized in innate immunity against pathogens, named TipDCs [for TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha)-iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase)-producing DCs] that display a remarkable microbicidal activity and also provide iNOS-dependent help for antibody production by B cells. Importantly, in contrast to DCs developing in the steady state, moDCs formed during inflammatory and infectious processes are subjected to diverse soluble mediators that determine the multiple functional specificities displayed by moDCs, as a result of the remarkable developmental plasticity of monocytes. In this review, we discuss recent findings dealing with the differentiation and functional relevance of moDCs that have widened the frontiers of DC immunobiology in relation to innate and adaptive immunity and the etiology of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:20193014

  6. Immunomodulatory effects of mesenchymal stromal cells-derived exosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wancheng; Huang, Yukai; Han, Jiaochan; Yu, Lili; Li, Yanli; Lu, Ziyuan; Li, Hongbo; Liu, Zenghui; Shi, Chenyan; Duan, Fengqi; Xiao, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying immunomodulatory ability of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remain unknown. Recently, studies suggested that the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs is largely mediated by paracrine factors. Among which, exosome is considered to play a major role in the communication between MSCs and target tissue. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of MSCs-derived exosome on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), especially T cells. We find that the MSCs-derived exosome extracted from healthy donors' bone marrow suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-1β, but increased the concentration of anti-inflammatory factor TGF-β during in vitro culture. In addition, exosome may induce conversion of T helper type 1 (Th1) into T helper type 2 (Th2) cells and reduced potential of T cells to differentiate into interleukin 17-producing effector T cells (Th17). Moreover, the level of regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 were also increased. These results suggested that MSC-derived exosome possesses the immunomodulatory properties. However, it showed no effects on the proliferation of PBMCs or CD3+ T cells, but increases the apoptosis of them. In addition, indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was previously shown to mediate the immunoregulation of MSCs, which was increased in PBMCs co-cultured with MSCs. In our study, IDO showed no significant changes in PBMCs exposed to MSCs-derived exosome. We conclude that exosome and MSCs might differ in their immune-modulating activities and mechanisms. PMID:27115513

  7. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: Natural regulators for transplant tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Boros, Peter; Ochando, Jordi C.; Chen, Shu-hsia; Bromberg, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) contribute to the negative regulation of immune response in cancer patients. This review summarizes results on important issues related to MDSC biology, including expansion and activation of MDSC, phenotype, and subsets as well pathways and different mechanisms by which these cells exert their suppressive effect. Recent observations suggesting that MDSC may have roles in transplant tolerance are presented. Although therapeutic targeting and destruction ...

  8. Laminar shear flow increases hydrogen sulfide and activates a nitric oxide producing signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Chen, Chang-Ting; Chen, Chi-Shia; Wang, Yun-Ming; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Wang, Danny Ling

    2015-09-01

    Laminar shear flow triggers a signaling cascade that maintains the integrity of endothelial cells (ECs). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a new gasotransmitter is regarded as an upstream regulator of nitric oxide (NO). Whether the H2S-generating enzymes are correlated to the enzymes involved in NO production under shear flow conditions remains unclear as yet. In the present study, the cultured ECs were subjected to a constant shear flow (12 dyn/cm(2)) in a parallel flow chamber system. We investigated the expression of three key enzymes for H2S biosynthesis, cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercapto-sulfurtransferase (3-MST). Shear flow markedly increased the level of 3-MST. Shear flow enhanced the production of H2S was determined by NBD-SCN reagent that can bind to cysteine/homocystein. Exogenous treatment of NaHS that can release gaseous H2S, ECs showed an increase of phosphorylation in Akt(S473), ERK(T202/Y204) and eNOS(S1177). This indicated that H2S can trigger the NO-production signaling cascade. Silencing of CSE, CBS and 3-MST genes by siRNA separately attenuated the phosphorylation levels of Akt(S473) and eNOS(S1177) under shear flow conditions. The particular mode of shear flow increased H2S production. The interplay between H2S and NO-generating enzymes were discussed in the present study. PMID:26212441

  9. GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SLUDGE AND SUPERNATE SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Stone, M.; Newell, J.; Best, D.; Zamecnik, J.

    2012-08-28

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet to improve processing cycle times. This will enable the facility to support higher canister production while maximizing waste loading. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the DWPF gas chromatographs (GC) and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, reducing or eliminating the amount of formic acid used in the CPC is being developed. Earlier work at Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with an 80:20 molar blend of glycolic and formic acids has the potential to remove mercury in the SRAT without any significant catalytic hydrogen generation. This report summarizes the research completed to determine the feasibility of processing without formic acid. In earlier development of the glycolic-formic acid flowsheet, one run (GF8) was completed without formic acid. It is of particular interest that mercury was successfully removed in GF8, no formic acid at 125% stoichiometry. Glycolic acid did not show the ability to reduce mercury to elemental mercury in initial screening studies, which is why previous testing focused on using the formic/glycolic blend. The objective of the testing detailed in this document is to determine the viability of the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet in processing sludge over a wide compositional range as requested by DWPF. This work was performed under the guidance of Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The details regarding the simulant preparation and analysis have been documented previously.

  10. Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells express neuronal phenotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立业; 刘相名; 孙兵; 惠国桢; 费俭; 郭礼和

    2004-01-01

    Background Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) can be greatly expanded in vitro, and induced to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell types, including osteogenic, chondrogenic, myogenic, and adipogenic cells. This study was designed to investigate the possibility of ADSCs differentiating into neurons.Methods Adipose tissue from rats was digested with collagenase, and adherent stromal cells were cultured. A medium containing a low concentration of fetal bovine serum was adopted to induce the cells to differentiate. ADSCs were identified by immunocytochemistry, and semi-quantitative RT-PCR was applied to detect mRNA expression of neurofilament 1 (NF1), nestin, and neuron-specific enolase (NSE).Results Nestin-positive cells were found occasionally among ADSCs. ADSCs were found to express NSE mRNA and nestin mRNA, but not NF1 mRNA. ADSCs could differentiate into neuron-like cells in a medium composed of a low concentration of fetal bovine serum, and these differentiated cells displayed complicated neuron-like morphologies.Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that adipose tissue contains stem cells capable of differentiating into neurons. These stem cells can overcome their mesenchymal commitment, and may represent an alternative autologous stem cell source for CNS cell transplantation.

  11. Nitric oxide: Orchestrator of endothelium-dependent responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Félétou, Michel; Köhler, Ralf; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2012-01-01

    interventions may improve the bioavailability of NO and thus prevent/cure endothelial dysfunction. Then, the role of other endothelium-derived mediators (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing (EDHF) and contracting (EDCF) factors, endothelin-1) and signals (myoendothelial coupling) is summarized also, with......Abstract The present review first summarizes the complex chain of events, in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, that leads to endothelium-dependent relaxations (vasodilatations) due to the generation of nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and how therapeutic...... special emphasis on their interaction(s) with the NO pathway, which make the latter not only a major mediator but also a key regulator of endothelium-dependent responses....

  12. Kaempferia parviflora ethanolic extract promoted nitric oxide production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Herunsalee, Angkana; Niumsakul, Somchit; Charuchongkolwongse, Suphan; Chansuvanich, Nuchattra

    2007-04-01

    The rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) (Zingiberaceae) have been used in Thai traditional medicine for health promotion and for the treatment of digestive disorders and gastric ulcer. This study investigated effect of KP on endothelial function. Studies in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) showed that KP dose-dependently increased nitrite concentrations in culture media after 48 h incubation. eNOS mRNA and protein expression were also enhanced. The induction of eNOS mRNA was detected at 4 h and plateau at 48 h while iNOS expression was not observed. These data demonstrate that KP has a great potential for a supplemental use in vascular endothelial health promotion. PMID:17113256

  13. Bone marrow-derived pancreatic stellate cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparmann, Gisela; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Hofmeister-Mielke, Nicole; Koczan, Dirk; Jaster, Robert; Liebe, Stefan; Wolff, Daniel; Emmrich, Jörg

    2010-03-01

    Origin and fate of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) before, during and after pancreatic injury are a matter of debate. The crucial role of PSCs in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis is generally accepted. However, the turnover of the cells remains obscure. The present study addressed the issue of a potential bone marrow (BM) origin of PSCs. We used a model of stable hematopoietic chimerism by grafting enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP)-expressing BM cells after irradiation of acceptor rats. Chimerism was detected by FACS analysis of eGFP-positive cells in the peripheral blood. Dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was used to induce acute pancreatic inflammation with subsequent recovery over 4 weeks. Investigations have been focused on isolated cells to detect the resting PSC population. The incidence of eGFP-positive PSC obtained from the pancreas of chimeric rats was approximately 7% in healthy pancreatic tissue and increased significantly to a mean of 18% in the restored pancreas 4 weeks after DBTC-induced acute inflammation. Our results suggest that BM-derived progenitor cells represent a source of renewable stellate cells in the pancreas. Increased numbers of resting PSCs after regeneration point toward enhanced recruitment of BM-derived cells to the pancreas and/or re-acquisition of a quiescent state after inflammation-induced activation. PMID:20101265

  14. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is involved in the oxidation stress induced by HIV-1 gp120 in human retina pigment epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 has been implicated in the development of AIDS-associated retinopathy. The present study tested the hypothesis that gp120 may induce oxidative stress including up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) to mediate retinopathy in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods Human RPE cell line D407 was cultured and treated with gp120. HIV-1 gp120 protein induced lipid peroxidation product MDA. NO production and iNOS expression were examined in vitro by spectrophomtometry, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscope. Results Addition of gp120 was able to induce RPE cells to produce NO and MDA in time- and dose-dependent manners (P<0.05). Similarly, gp120 was also capable of up-regulating iNOS mRNA and protein in D407 cells in time- and dose-dependent manners. Conclusions Gp120 induces oxidative stress in D407 cell by stimulating MDA and NO production, which is mediated by up-regulating iNOS expression. Gp120 may mediate oxidation stress in AIDS-associated retinopathy.

  15. Production of reactive oxygen species and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat isolated Kupffer cells stimulated by Leptospira interrogans and Borrelia burgdorferi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonella Marangoni; Silvia Accardo; Rita Aldini; Massimo Guardigli; Francesca Cavrini; Vittorio Sambri; Marco Montagnani; Aldo Roda; Roberto Cevenini

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of indudble nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in rat isolated Kupffer cells (KCs) stimulated by Leptospira interrogans and Borrelia burgdorferi.METHODS: Rat Kupffer cells were separated by perfusion of the liver with 0.05% collagenase, and purified by Percoll gradients. Purified Kupffer cells were tested in vitro with alive L.interogans and B. burgdorferi preparations. The production of ROS was determined by chemiluminescence, whereas iNOS protein expression was evaluated by Western blot assay using anti-iNOS antibodies.RESULTS: B. burgdorferi and to a less extent L. interrogans induced ROS production with a peak 35 min after infection. The chemiluminescence signal progressively diminished and was undetectable by 180 min of incubation. Leptospirae and borreliae induced an increased iNOS expression in Kupffer cells that peaked at 6 hours and was still evident 22 h after infection.CONCLUSION: Both genera of spirochetes induced ROS and iNOS production in rat Kupffer cells. Since the cause of liver damage both in leptospiral as well as in borrelial infections are still unknown, we suggest that leptospira and borrelia damage of the liver can be initially mediated by oxygen radicals, and is then maintained at least in part by nitric oxide.

  16. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (−786T>C) and Endothelin-1 (5665G>T) Gene Polymorphisms as Vascular Dysfunction Risk Factors in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Wendell; Figueiredo, Camylla V. B.; Pitanga, Thassila N.; Carvalho, Magda O. S.; Santiago, Rayra P.; Santana, Sânzio S.; Guarda, Caroline C.; Zanette, Angela M. D.; Cerqueira, Bruno A. V.; Gonçalves, Marilda S.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients have vascular complications, and polymorphisms in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genes were associated with ET-1 and nitric oxide disturbance. We investigate the association of ET-1 5665G>T and eNOS −786T>C polymorphisms with soluble adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1), biochemical markers, and medical history. We studied 101 SCA patients; carriers of eNOS minor allele (C) had the highest levels of sVCAM-1, and carriers of ET-1 minor allele had more occurrence of acute chest syndrome (ACS). The multivariate analysis suggested the influence of the ET-1 gene on ACS outcome and an association of the eNOS gene with upper respiratory tract infection. We suggest that eNOS and ET-1 gene polymorphisms can influence SCA pathophysiology and that eNOS variant in SCA patients might be important to nitric oxide activity and vascular alteration. We found an association of the ET-1 minor allele in ACS, showing the importance of genetic screening in SCA. PMID:27486304

  17. Derivation of Insulin-Producing Beta-Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schiesser, Jacqueline V.; Micallef, Suzanne J.; Hawes, Susan; Elefanty, Andrew G.; Stanley, Edouard G.

    2014-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have been advanced as a source of insulin-producing cells that could potentially replace cadaveric-derived islets in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. To this end, protocols have been developed that promote the formation of pancreatic progenitors and endocrine cells from human pluripotent stem cells, encompassing both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we examine these methods and place them in the context of the developmental a...

  18. Derivation of hair-inducing cell from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnedeva, Ksenia; Vorotelyak, Ekaterina; Cimadamore, Flavio; Cattarossi, Giulio; Giusto, Elena; Terskikh, Vasiliy V; Terskikh, Alexey V

    2015-01-01

    Dermal Papillae (DP) is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC). Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs) express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g., p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase) and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science. PMID:25607935

  19. Derivation of hair-inducing cell from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia Gnedeva

    Full Text Available Dermal Papillae (DP is a unique population of mesenchymal cells that was shown to regulate hair follicle formation and growth cycle. During development most DP cells are derived from mesoderm, however, functionally equivalent DP cells of cephalic hairs originate from Neural Crest (NC. Here we directed human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to generate first NC cells and then hair-inducing DP-like cells in culture. We showed that hESC-derived DP-like cells (hESC-DPs express markers typically found in adult human DP cells (e.g., p-75, nestin, versican, SMA, alkaline phosphatase and are able to induce hair follicle formation when transplanted under the skin of immunodeficient NUDE mice. Engineered to express GFP, hESC-derived DP-like cells incorporate into DP of newly formed hair follicles and express appropriate markers. We demonstrated that BMP signaling is critical for hESC-DP derivation since BMP inhibitor dorsomorphin completely eliminated hair-inducing activity from hESC-DP cultures. DP cells were proposed as the cell-based treatment for hair loss diseases. Unfortunately human DP cells are not suitable for this purpose because they cannot be obtained in necessary amounts and rapidly loose their ability to induce hair follicle formation when cultured. In this context derivation of functional hESC-DP cells capable of inducing a robust hair growth for the first time shown here can become an important finding for the biomedical science.

  20. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, A.M.; A.L.M. Yamada; M.A. Golim; L.E.C. Álvarez; L.L. Jorge; M.L. Conceição; E. Deffune; C.A. Hussni; A.L.G. Alves

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) in horses through (1) the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2) flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to...

  1. Bone marrow-derived CD13+ cells sustain tumor progression

    OpenAIRE

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-malignant cells found within neoplastic lesions express alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase (ANPEP, best known as CD13), and CD13-null mice exhibit limited tumor growth and angiogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that a subset of bone marrow-derived CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells accumulate within neoplastic lesions in several murine models of transplantable cancer to promote angiogenesis. If these findings were confirmed in clinical settings, CD11b+CD13+ myeloid cells could become a non-mali...

  2. Adipocyte-derived stem and regenerative cells in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven R; Mailey, Brian

    2012-10-01

    The identification of regenerative cells in adult human fat has invigorated the field of facial fat grafting. This article reviews traditional and cell-enriched fat grafting methods and the use of fat to create or refine aesthetic results. The rationale and potential applications of adipocyte-derived stem and regenerative cells in facial surgery are also described. The reader is presented with surgical techniques for harvesting and delivering fat grafts to optimize engraftment. Mesotherapy and related applications currently under investigation are also discussed. PMID:23036296

  3. Plant-Derived Substances and Cardiovascular Diseases : Effects of Flavonoids, Terpenes and Sterols on Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Nitric Oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Diet has for many years been known to play a key role in the development of chronic diseases. There are clear associations between consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries, and risk of cardiovascular diseases, the number one cause of death in the world. To maintain homeostasis of the vascular wall the balance between angiotensin II, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species is of great importance in order to affect the development of cardiovascular diseases. Angiotensin II, a potent vasoc...

  4. Glucagon-like peptide-1 activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li DING; Jin ZHANG

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs),and elucidate whether GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and GLP-1(9-36) are involved in these effects.Methods:HUVECs were used.The activity of eNOS was measured with NOS assay kit.Phosphorylated and total eNOS proteins were detected using Western blot analysis.The level of eNOS mRNA was quantified with real-time RT-PCR.Results:Incubation of HUVECs with GLP-1 (50-5000 pmol/L) for 30 min significantly increased the activity of eNOS.Incubation of HUVECs with GLP-1 (500-5000 pmol/L) for 5 or 10 min increased eNOS phosphorylated at ser-1177.Incubation with GLP-1 (5000 pmol/L) for 48 h elevated the level of eNOS protein,did not affect the level of eNOS mRNA.GLP-1R agonists exenatide and GLP-1(9-36) at the concentration of 5000 pmol/L increased the activity,phosphorylation and protein level of eNOS.GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39) or DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin,which abolished GLP-1(9-36) formation,at the concentration of 5000 pmol/L partially blocked the effects of GLP-1 on eNOS.Conclusion:GLP-1 upregulated the activity and protein expression of eNOS in HUVECs through the GLP-1R-dependent and GLP-1(9-36)-related pathways.GLP-1 may prevent or delay the formation of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus by improving the function of eNOS.

  5. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Beatriz; Ardavín, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Monocytes have been classically considered essential elements in relation with innate immune responses against pathogens, and inflammatory processes caused by external aggressions, infection and autoimmune disease. However, although their potential to differentiate into dendritic cells (DCs) was discovered 14 years ago, their functional relevance with regard to adaptive immune responses has only been uncovered very recently. Studies performed over the last years have revealed that monocyte-derived DCs play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, due to their microbicidal potential, capacity to stimulate CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses and ability to regulate Immunoglobulin production by B cells. In addition, monocyte-derived DCs not only constitute a subset of DCs formed at inflammatory foci, as previously thought, but also comprise different subsets of DCs located in antigen capture areas, such as the skin and the intestinal, respiratory and reproductive tracts. PMID:18362945

  6. Follicular dendritic-like cells derived from human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters J Hinrich

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs play a central role in controlling B-cell response maturation, isotype switching and the maintenance of B-cell memory. These functions are based on prolonged preservation of antigen and its presentation in its native form by FDCs. However, when entrapping entire pathogens, FDCs can turn into dangerous long-term reservoirs that may preserve viruses or prions in highly infectious form. Despite various efforts, the ontogeny of FDCs has remained elusive. They have been proposed to derive either from bone marrow stromal cells, myeloid cells or local mesenchymal precursors. Still, differentiating FDCs from their precursors in vitro may allow addressing many unsolved issues associated with the (patho- biology of these important antigen-presenting cells. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that FDC-like cells can be deduced from monocytes, and to develop a protocol in order to quantitatively generate them in vitro. Results Employing highly purified human monocytes as a starter population, low concentrations of Il-4 (25 U/ml and GM-CSF (3 U/ml in combination with Dexamethasone (Dex (0.5 μM in serum-free medium trigger the differentiation into FDC-like cells. After transient de-novo membrane expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP, such cells highly up-regulate surface expression of complement receptor I (CD35. Co-expression of CD68 confirms the monocytic origin of both, APpos and CD35pos cells. The common leukocyte antigen CD45 is strongly down-regulated. Successive stimulation with TNF-α up-regulates adhesion molecules ICAM-1 (CD54 and VCAM (CD106. Importantly, both, APpos as well as APneg FDC-like cells, heterotypically cluster with and emperipolese B cells and exhibit the FDC characteristic ability to entrap functionally preserved antigen for prolonged times. Identical characteristics are found in monocytes which were highly expanded in vitro by higher doses of GM-CSF (25 U/ml in the absence of

  7. Generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells using prostaglandin E2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermajer Nataša

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs are natural immunosuppressive cells and endogenous inhibitors of the immune system. We describe a simple and clinically compatible method of generating large numbers of MDSCs using the cultures of peripheral blood-isolated monocytes supplemented with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. We observed that PGE2 induces endogenous cyclooxygenase (COX2 expression in cultured monocytes, blocking their differentiation into CD1a+ dendritic cells (DCs and inducing the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1, IL-4Rα, nitric oxide synthase 2 and IL-10 - typical MDSC-associated suppressive factors. The establishment of a positive feedback loop between PGE2 and COX2, the key regulator of PGE2 synthesis, is both necessary and sufficient to promote the development of CD1a+ DCs to CD14+CD33+CD34+ monocytic MDSCs in granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor/IL-4-supplemented monocyte cultures, their stability, production of multiple immunosuppressive mediators and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-suppressive function. In addition to PGE2, selective E-prostanoid receptor (EP2- and EP4-agonists, but not EP3/1 agonists, also induce the MDSCs development, suggesting that other activators of the EP2/4- and EP2/4-driven signaling pathway (adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA/CREB may be used to promote the development of suppressive cells. Our observations provide a simple method for generating large numbers of MDSCs for the immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammatory disorders and transplant rejection.

  8. Caveolin-1 is important for nitric oxide-mediated angiogenesis in fibrin gels with human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ming PAN; Yong-zhong YAO; Zhang-hua ZHU; Xi-tai SUN; Yu-dong QIU; Yi-tao DING

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The role of caveolin-l (Cav-1) in angiogenesis remains poorly understood. The endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS), a caveolin-interacting protein, was demonstrated to play a predominant role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -induced angiogenesis. The purpose of our study was to examine the role of Cav-1 and the eNOS complex in NO-mediated angiogenesis. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were isolated and cultured in 3-D fibrin gels to form capillary-like tubules by VEGF stimulation. The expression of Cav-1 and eNOS was detected by semiquantitative RT-PCR. The HUVEC were treated with antisense oligonucleotides to downregulate Cav-1 expression. Both transduced and non-infected HUVEC were cultured in fibrin gels in the presence or absence of VEGF (20 ng/mL) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 5 mmol/L). NO was measured using a NO assay kit and capillary-like tubules were quantified by tubule formation index using the Image J program. Results: RT-PCR analysis revealed that Cav-1 levels steadily increased in a time-dependent manner and reached their maximum after 5 d of incubation, but there were no obvious changes in eNOS mRNA expression in response to VEGF in the fibrin gel model. VEGF (20 ng/mL) can promote NO production and the formation of capillary-like tubules, and this promoting effect of VEGF was blocked by the addition of L-NAME (5 mmol/L). When transduced HUVEC with the antisense Cav-1 oligonucleotides were plated in the fibrin gels, the capillary-like tubules were significantly fewer than those of the non-infected cells. The capillary-like tubules formation and NO production of transduced HUVEC with the antisense Cav-1 oligonucleotides cultured in fibrin gels showed no responses to the addition of VEGF (20 ng/mL) and L-NAME (5.0 mmol/L). Conclusion: NO was a critical angiogenic mediator in this model. Cav-1 was essential for NO-mediated angiogenesis and may be an important target of anti

  9. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells during anti-angiogenic therapy in GBM : Bone marrow derived cell in GBM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jennifer C.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M. E.; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly vascular tumor characterized by rapid and invasive tumor growth, followed by oxygen depletion, hypoxia and neovascularization, which generate a network of disorganized, tortuous and permeable vessels. Recruitment of bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) is crucial for vascu

  10. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  11. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. → For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. → This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the underlying

  12. Myocardial regeneration potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: baixw01@yahoo.com [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Alt, Eckhard, E-mail: ealt@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving tremendous attention from basic scientists and clinicians and hold great promise for myocardial regeneration. {yields} For practical reasons, human adipose tissue-derived stem cells are attractive stem cells for future clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium. {yields} This review summarizes the characteristics of cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential and the, underlying mechanisms, and safety issues. -- Abstract: Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold promise for myocardial regeneration. For practical reasons, adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are attractive cells for clinical application in repairing damaged myocardium based on the following advantages: abundant adipose tissue in most patients and easy accessibility with minimally invasive lipoaspiration procedure. Several recent studies have demonstrated that both cultured and freshly isolated ASCs could improve cardiac function in animal model of myocardial infarction. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of ASCs on myocardial regeneration are not fully understood. Growing evidence indicates that transplantation of ASCs improve cardiac function via the differentiation into cardiomyocytes and vascular cells, and through paracrine pathways. Paracrine factors secreted by injected ASCs enhance angiogenesis, reduce cell apoptosis rates, and promote neuron sprouts in damaged myocardium. In addition, Injection of ASCs increases electrical stability of the injured heart. Furthermore, there are no reported cases of arrhythmia or tumorigenesis in any studies regarding myocardial regeneration with ASCs. This review summarizes the characteristics of both cultured and freshly isolated stem cells obtained from adipose tissue, their myocardial regeneration potential, and the

  13. Alloantigen-induced, T-cell-dependent production of nitric oxide by macrophages infiltrating skin allografts in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krulová, Magdalena; Zajícová, Alena; Frič, Jan; Holáň, Vladimír

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2002), s. 108-116. ISSN 0934-0874 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/0360; GA MZd NI6659; GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : Allograft rejection , nitric oxide Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2002

  14. Distinct functional responses to stressors of bone marrow derived dendritic cells from diverse inbred chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Goor, Angelica; Slawinska, Anna; Schmidt, Carl J; Lamont, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Differences in responses of chicken bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC) to in vitro treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), heat, and LPS + heat were identified. The Fayoumi is more disease resistant and heat tolerant than the Leghorn line. Nitric Oxide (NO) production, phagocytic ability, MHC II surface expression and mRNA expression were measured. NO was induced in BMDC from both lines in response to LPS and LPS + heat stimulation; Fayoumi produced more NO with LPS treatment. Fayoumi had higher phagocytic ability and MHC II surface expression. Gene expression for the heat-related genes BAG3, HSP25, HSPA2, and HSPH1 was strongly induced with heat and few differences existed between lines. Expression for the immune-related genes CCL4, CCL5, CD40, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and iNOS was highly induced in response to LPS and different between lines. This research contributes to the sparse knowledge of genetic differences in chicken BMDC biology and function. PMID:27238770

  15. Fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Dongbo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hee Un; Xu, Fei; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Energy is currently one of the most important problems humankind faces. Depletion of traditional energy sources such as coal and oil results in the need to develop new ways to create, transport, and store electricity. In this regard, the sun, which can be considered as a giant nuclear fusion reactor, represents the most powerful source of energy available in our solar system. For photovoltaic cells to gain widespread acceptance as a source of clean and renewable energy, the cost per watt of solar energy must be decreased. Organic photovoltaic cells, developed in the past two decades, have potential as alternatives to traditional inorganic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, which suffer from high environmental pollution and energy consumption during production. Organic photovoltaic cells are composed of a blended film of a conjugated-polymer donor and a soluble fullerene-derivative acceptor sandwiched between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated indium tin oxide positive electrode and a low-work-function metal negative electrode. Considerable research efforts aim at designing and synthesizing novel fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors with up-raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, better light-harvesting properties, higher electron mobility, and better miscibility with the polymer donor for improving the power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we systematically review novel fullerene acceptors synthesized through chemical modification for enhancing the photovoltaic performance by increasing open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor, which determine the performance of organic photovoltaic cells. PMID:24749413

  16. Derivation, characterization and retinal differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subba Rao Mekala; Vasundhara Vauhini; Usha Nagarajan; Savitri Maddileti; Subhash Gaddipati; Indumathi Mariappan

    2013-03-01

    Millions of people world over suffer visual disability due to retinal dystrophies which can be age-related or a genetic disorder resulting in gradual degeneration of the retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells and photoreceptors. Therefore, cell replacement therapy offers a great promise in treating such diseases. Since the adult retina does not harbour any stem cells, alternative stem cell sources like the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a great promise for generating different cell types of the retina. Here, we report the derivation of four iPSC lines from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) using a cocktail of recombinant retroviruses carrying the genes for Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc. The iPS clone MEF-4F3 was further characterized for stemness marker expression and stable reprogramming by immunocytochemistry, FACS and RT-PCR analysis. Methylation analysis of the nanog promoter confirmed the reprogrammed epigenetic state. Pluripotency was confirmed by embryoid body (EB) formation and lineage-specific marker expression. Also, upon retinal differentiation, patches of pigmented cells with typical cobble-stone phenotype similar to RPE cells are generated within 6 weeks and they expressed ZO-1 (tight junction protein), RPE65 and bestrophin (mature RPE markers) and showed phagocytic activity by the uptake of fluorescent latex beads.

  17. Gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡庆柳; 朴英杰; 邹飞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the gene expression profiles of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells.Methods Total RNA extracted from human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and tendon cells underwent reverse transcription, and the products were labeled with α-32P dCTP. The cDNA probes of total RNA were hybridized to cDNA microarray with 1176 genes, and then the signals were analyzed by AtlasImage analysis software Version 1.01a.Results Fifteen genes associated with cell proliferation and signal transduction were up-regulated, and one gene that takes part in cell-to-cell adhesion was down-regulated in tendon cells.Conclusion The 15 up-regulated and one down-regulated genes may be beneficial to the orientational differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into tendon cells.

  18. Derivation and characterization of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Zhao

    Full Text Available The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were generated by activating FGF and BMP pathways and were then purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting using a newly identified surface marker, N-cadherin. After co-culture with STO feeder cells, these purified hepatic endoderm cells yielded hepatic progenitor colonies, which possessed the proliferation potential to be cultured for an extended period of more than 100 days. With extensive expansion, they co-expressed the hepatic marker AFP and the biliary lineage marker KRT7 and maintained bipotential differentiation capacity. They were able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which expressed ALB and AAT, and into cholangiocyte-like cells, which formed duct-like cyst structures, expressed KRT19 and KRT7, and acquired epithelial polarity. In conclusion, this is the first report of the generation of proliferative and bipotential hepatic progenitor cells from hES cells. These hES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells could be effectively used as an in vitro model for studying the mechanisms of hepatic stem/progenitor cell origin, self-renewal and differentiation.

  19. Neuronal-like cell differentiation of non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuxin; Zhang, Jinghan; Ben, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells from C57BL/6J mice were separated and cultured using the “pour-off” method. Non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells developed colony-forming unit-fibroblasts, and could be expanded by supplementation with epidermal growth factor. Immunocytochemistry showed that the non-adherent bone marrow cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed to basic fibroblast growth factor/epidermal growth factor/nerve growth factor ex...

  20. Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Support Ex Vivo Expansion of Cord Blood-Derived CD34+ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are known to support the characteristic properties of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs in the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment. MSCs are used in coculture systems as a feeder layer for the ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (CB to increase the relatively low number of HSPCs in CB. Findings increasingly suggest that MSC-derived microvesicles (MSC-MVs play an important role in the biological functions of their parent cells. We speculate that MSC-MVs may recapitulate the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of their parent cells. In the current study, we found MSC-MVs containing microRNAs that are involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis. We also demonstrated that MSC-MVs could improve the expansion of CB-derived mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells and generate a greater number of primitive progenitor cells in vitro. Additionally, when MSC-MVs were added to the CB-MSC coculture system, they could improve the hematopoiesis-supporting effects of MSCs. These findings highlight the role of MSC-MVs in the ex vivo expansion of CB, which may offer a promising therapeutic approach in CB transplantation.

  1. Umbilical cord-derived stem cells (MODULATISTTM show strong immunomodulation capacity compared to adipose tissue-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show great promise in regenerative medicine. Clinical applications of MSCs have recently increased significantly, especially for immune diseases. Autologous transplantation is considered a safe therapy. However, its main disadvantages are poor stability and quality of MSCs from patient to patient, and labor-intensive and time-consuming culture procedures. Therefore, allogeneic MSC transplantation has recently emerged as a potential replacement for autologous transplantation. and ldquo;Off the shelf and rdquo; MSC products, or so-called and ldquo;stem cell drugs and rdquo;, have rapidly developed; these products have already been approved in various countries, including Canada, Korea and Japan. This study aims to evaluate a new stem cell product or and ldquo;drug and rdquo;, termed ModulatistTM, derived from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs, which have strong immunomodulatory properties, compared to bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMMSCs or adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs. Methods: ModulatistTM was produced from MSCs derived from whole umbilical cord (UC tissue (which includes Wharton's jelly and UC, according to GMP compliant procedures. Bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs were isolated and proliferated in standard conditions, according to GMP compliant procedures. Immunomodulation mediated by MSCs was assessed by allogenic T cell suppression and cytokine release; role of prostaglandin E2 in the immunomodulation was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that ModulatistTM exhibited stronger immunomodulation than BMMSC and ADSC in vitro. ModulatistTM strongly suppressed allogeneic T cells proliferation and decreased cytokine production, compared to BMMSCs and ADSCs. Conclusion: ModulatistTM is a strong immunomodulator and promising MSC product. It may be useful to modulate or treat autoimmune diseases. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 687-696

  2. Selection of Phage Display Peptides Targeting Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Progenitor Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignone, Paola A; Krupa, Rachel A; West, Michael D; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPS) to both self-renew and differentiate into virtually any cell type makes them a promising source of cells for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, stem cell identity, purity, and scalability remain formidable challenges that need to be overcome for translation of pluripotent stem cell research into clinical applications. Directed differentiation from hPS cells is inefficient and residual contamination with pluripotent cells that have the potential to form tumors remains problematic. The derivation of scalable (self-renewing) embryonic progenitor stem cell lines offers a solution because they are well defined and clonally pure. Clonally pure progenitor stem cell lines also provide a means for identifying cell surface targeting reagents that are useful for identification, tracking, and repeated derivation of the corresponding progenitor stem cell types from additional hPS cell sources. Such stem cell targeting reagents can then be applied to the manufacture of genetically diverse banks of human embryonic progenitor cell lines for drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Here we present methods to identify human embryonic progenitor stem cell targeting peptides by selection of phage display libraries on clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines and demonstrate their use for targeting quantum dots (Qdots) for stem cell labeling. PMID:25410289

  3. Modulatory role of nitric oxide in cardiac performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljić Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide is produced by almost all cardiac cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and nerve fibers. It is synthesized by an enzyme, a nitric oxide synthase, which occurs in endothelial, neural and inducible form. The distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the heart is characterized by a pronounced non-uniformity. Nitric oxide exerts its effects in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The physiological effects of low concentrations of nitric oxide, which is released in the normal conditions under the influence of constituent enzymes, occur via cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The synthesized nitric oxide exhibits its effect in the cells where it is produced, in an autocrine manner, or by diffusing into the neighboring cells, in a paracrine manner. Nitric oxide acts by regulating the coronary vessel tonus, affecting the contractility of cardiomyocytes, generating an inotropic effect in a dose-dependent manner and controlling the cellular respiration. Other effects of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system include the hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle cells in blood vessels, the inhibition of the monocyte adhesion, the inhibition of platelet migration, adhesion and aggregation and the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. The anti-atherosclerotic effects of nitric oxide are based on these effects. Nitric oxide is a weak free radical in gaseous state, and the cytotoxic and/or the cytoprotective effects of the higher concentrations of nitric oxide are related to the chemical structure of nitric oxide as a free radical. The excessive production of nitric oxide by the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase can lead to major irregularities in the function of cardiomyocytes and cardiac insufficiency. Understanding the nitric oxide molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways in the heart can provide a new strategic approach to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Combination of nitric oxide stimulation with high-dose 18F-FDG promotes apoptosis and enhances radiation therapy of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: High-dose 18F-FDG can provide targeted nuclear therapy of cancer. Endothelial cell injury is a key determinant of tumor response to radiotherapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that activation of endothelial cell glycolytic metabolism with nitric oxide can enhance the therapeutic effect of high-dose 18F-FDG. Methods: Calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were treated with graded doses of 18F-FDG. Glycolysis was stimulated by 24 h of exposure to the nitric oxide donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Cell viability was assessed by MTT and clonogenic assays. Apoptosis was evaluated by ELISA of cytosolic DNA fragments and Western blots of cleaved caspase-3. Results: SNP stimulation (0.1 and 1 mM) augmented CPAE cell 18F-FDG uptake to 2.6- and 4.6-fold of controls without adverse effects. Treatment with 333 μCi/ml 18F-FDG alone reduced viable cell number to 35.4% of controls by Day 3. Combining 0.1 mM SNP stimulation significantly enhanced the killing effect, reducing cell numbers to 19.2% and 39.2% of controls by 333 and 167 μCi/ml of 18F-FDG, respectively. 18F-FDG also suppressed clonogenic survival to 80.8% and 43.2% of controls by 83 and 167 μCi/ml, which was again intensified by SNP to 59.7% and 21.1% of controls. The cytotoxic effect of 18F-FDG was attributed to induction of apoptosis as shown by increased cytosolic fragmented DNA and cleaved caspase-3 levels (26.4% and 30.7% increases by 167 μCi/ml). Combining SNP stimulation significantly increased both of these levels to 1.8-fold of control cells. Conclusion: High-dose 18F-FDG combined with nitric oxide-stimulated glycolysis is an effective method to inhibit endothelial cell survival and promote apoptosis. These results suggest a potential role of this strategy for targeted radiotherapy of angiogenic vasculature.

  5. β-Escin sodium inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression via downregulation of the JAK/STAT pathway in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Deng Bo; Xu, Bo; Liu, Jing Tao; Ran, Fu Xiang; Cui, Jing Rong

    2011-12-01

    β-escin, a triterpene saponin, is one of the major active compounds extracted from horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) seed. Previous work has found that β-escin sodium has antiinflammatory and antitumor effects. In the present study, we investigated its effect on cell proliferation and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. β-escin sodium (5-40 µg/mL) inhibited cytokine mixture (CM)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in A549 cells by reducing the expression of iNOS. β-escin sodium suppressed phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 (Tyr701) and STAT3 (Tyr705) induced by CM but did not affect the activation of c-Jun and NF-κB. β-escin sodium inhibited the activation of protein tyrosine kinase JAK2. Pervanadate treatment reversed the β-escin sodium-induced downregulation of STAT3 and STAT1. β-escin sodium treatment enhanced an activating phosphorylation of the phosphatase SHP2. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of SHP2 inhibited β-escin sodium-induced phospho-STAT dephosphorylation. Moreover β-escin sodium reduced the activation of p38 MAPK. Finally, β-escin sodium inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, did not change the cell membrane's permeability, nuclear morphology and size and the mitochondria's transmembrane potential of A549 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that β-escin sodium could downregulate iNOS expression through inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling and p38 MAPK activation in A549 cells. β-escin sodium has a marked antiproliferative effect on A549 cells at least in part by inhibiting the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, but not by a cytotoxic effect. β-escin sodium would be useful as a chemopreventive agent or a therapeutic against inflammatory-associated tumor. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21400616

  6. Do tobacco stimulate the production of nitric oxide by up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in cancer: Immunohistochemical determination of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A comparative study in tobacco habituers and non-habituers

    OpenAIRE

    B Karthik; D K Shruthi; Jasmin Singh; Anand S Tegginamani; Shailesh Kudva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer accounts for 6% of all cancers. The most prevalent form of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which accounts for 90% of the oral cancer cases. The major risk factor for development of OSCC is the use of tobacco in various forms. NO has been studied widely over the years due to its role in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including its complex role in carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 cases of OSCC in tobacco...

  7. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  8. Hair regeneration using adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Eon; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2016-03-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been used in tissue repair and regeneration. Recently, it was reported that ASC transplantation promotes hair growth in animal experiments, and a conditioned medium of ASCs (ASC-CM) induced the proliferation of hair-compositing cells in vitro. However, ASCs and their conditioned medium have shown limited effectiveness in clinical settings. ASC preconditioning is one strategy that can be used to enhance the efficacy of ASCs and ASC-CM. Therefore, we highlighted the functional role of ASCs in hair cycle progression and also the advantages and disadvantages of their application in hair regeneration. In addition, we introduced novel ASC preconditioning methods to enhance hair regeneration using ASC stimulators, such as vitamin C, platelet-derived growth factor, hypoxia, and ultraviolet B. PMID:26536569

  9. Carotid Repair Using Autologous Adipose-Derived Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Harald; Gulati, Rajiv; Boilson, Barry; Witt, Tyra; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Kleppe, Laurel; Dietz, Allan B.; Lerman, Amir; Simari, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Adipose tissue is an abundant source of endothelial cells as well as stem and progenitor cells which can develop an endothelial phenotype. It has been demonstrated that these cells have distinct angiogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. However, whether these cells have the capacity to directly improve large vessel form and function following vascular injury remains unknown. To define whether delivery of adipose-derived endothelial cells (ADECs) would improve healing of injured carotid arteries, a rabbit model of acute arterial injury was employed. Methods Autologous rabbit ADECS were generated utilizing defined culture conditions. To test the ability of ADECs to enhance carotid artery repair, cells were delivered intra-arterially following acute balloon injury. Additional delivery studies were performed following functional selection of cells prior to delivery. Results Following rabbit omental fat harvest and digestion, a proliferative, homogenous, and distinctly endothelial population of ADECs was identified. Direct delivery of autologous ADECs resulted in marked re-endothelialization 48 hours following acute vascular injury as compared to saline controls (82.2 ±26.9% vs 4.2±3.0% pADECs that were selected for their ability to take up acetylated LDL significantly improved vasoreactivity and decreased intimal formation following vascular injury. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that ADECs represent an autologous source of proliferative endothelial cells which demonstrate the capacity to rapidly improve re-endothelialization, improve vascular reactivity, and decrease intimal formation in a carotid artery injury model. PMID:19286583

  10. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from equine fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kristina; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Zhang, Puzheng; Laflamme, Simon; Vincent, Patrick; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Woltjen, Knut; Monetti, Claudio; Michael, Iacovos Prodromos; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Nagy, Andras

    2011-09-01

    The domesticated horse represents substantial value for the related sports and recreational fields, and holds enormous potential as a model for a range of medical conditions commonly found in humans. Most notable of these are injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have sparked tremendous hopes for future regenerative therapies of conditions that today are not possible to cure. Equine iPS (EiPS) cells, in addition to bringing promises to the veterinary field, open up the opportunity to utilize horses for the validation of stem cell based therapies before moving into the human clinical setting. In this study, we report the generation of iPS cells from equine fibroblasts using a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based method to deliver transgenes containing the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, expressed in a temporally regulated fashion. The established iPS cell lines express hallmark pluripotency markers, display a stable karyotype even during long-term culture, and readily form complex teratomas containing all three embryonic germ layer derived tissues upon in vivo grafting into immunocompromised mice. Our EiPS cell lines hold the promise to enable the development of a whole new range of stem cell-based regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine, as well as aid the development of preclinical models for human applications. EiPS cell could also potentially be used to revive recently extinct or currently threatened equine species. PMID:21347602

  11. Phenotypic characterizations and comparison of adult dental stem cells with adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Alipour

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: Both cell populations derived from adipose tissue and dental pulp showed common phenotypic markers of mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells could be isolated and cultured successfully from dental pulp of human exfo-liated deciduous teeth, they are very good candidates for treatment and prevention of human diseases.

  12. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mediates human embryonic germ cell derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Marc; Liu, Cyndi; Blumenthal, Paul D; Gearhart, John D; Kerr, Candace L

    2011-02-01

    Human primordial germ cells (PGCs) have proven to be a source of pluripotent stem cells called embryonic germ cells (EGCs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, virtually little is known regarding the factors that regulate EGC survival and maintenance. In mice, the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been shown to be required for maintaining mouse embryonic stem cells, and disruptions in this gene lead to defects in mouse PGC specification. Here, we sought to determine whether recombinant human BMP4 could influence EGC derivation and/or human PGC survival. We found that the addition of recombinant BMP4 increased the number of human PGCs after 1 week of culture in a dose-responsive manner. The efficiency of EGC derivation and maintenance in culture was also enhanced by the presence of recombinant BMP4 based on alkaline phosphatase and OCT4 staining. In addition, an antagonist of the BMP4 pathway, Noggin, decreased PGC proliferation and led to an increase in cystic embryoid body formation. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-polymerase chain reaction analyses and immunostaining confirmed that the constituents of the BMP4 pathway were upregulated in EGCs versus PGCs. Downstream activators of the BMP4 pathway such as ID1 and phosphorylated SMADs 1 and 5 were also expressed, suggesting a role of this growth factor in EGC pluripotency. PMID:20486775

  13. Therapeutic Lymphangiogenesis With Implantation of Adipose‐Derived Regenerative Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yuuki; Shibata, Rei; Shintani, Satoshi; Ishii, Masakazu; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymphedema is one of the serious clinical problems that can occur after surgical resection of malignant tumors such as breast cancer or intra‐pelvic cancers. However, no effective treatment options exist at present. Here, we report that implantation of adipose‐derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) can induce lymphangiogenesis in a mouse model of reparative lymphedema. Methods and Results ADRCs were isolated from C57BL/6J mice. To examine the therapeutic efficacy of ADRC implantation i...

  14. Exosomes from myeloid derived suppressor cells carry biologically active proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Meghan; Choksawangkarn, Waeowalee; Edwards, Nathan; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Fenselau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are present in most cancer patients where they inhibit natural anti-tumor immunity and are an obstacle to anti-cancer immunotherapies. They mediate immune suppression through their production of proteins and soluble mediators that prevent the activation of tumor-reactive T lymphyocytes, polarize macrophages towards a tumor-promoting phenotype, and facilitate angiogenesis. The accumulation and suppressive potency of MDSC is regulated by inflammation with...

  15. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells: Linking Inflammation and Cancer1

    OpenAIRE

    Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Sinha, Pratima

    2009-01-01

    Many cancer immunotherapies developed in experimental animals have been tested in clinical trials. Although some have shown modest clinical effects, most have not been effective. Recent studies have identified myeloid-origin cells that are potent suppressors of tumor immunity and therefore a significant impediment to cancer immunotherapy. “Myeloid-derived suppressor cells” (MDSC) accumulate in the blood, lymph nodes, and bone marrow and at tumor sites in most patients and experimental animals...

  16. Polarization and reprogramming of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wen-Chin; Ma, Ge; Chen, Shu-hsia; Pan, Ping-Ying

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have recently emerged as one of the central regulators of the immune system. In recent years, interest in understanding MDSC biology and applying MDSC for therapeutic purpose has exploded exponentially. Despite recent progress in MDSC biology, the mechanisms underlying MDSC development from expansion and activation to polarization in different diseases remain poorly understood. More recent studies have demonstrated that two MDSC subsets, M (monocytic)-M...

  17. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as a Trojan horse

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Ping-Ying; Chen, Hui-Ming; Chen, Shu-Hsia

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses can be efficiently and selectively delivered to neoplastic lesions by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Importantly, the loading of viruses onto MDSCs inhibited their immunosuppressive properties and endowed them with immunostimulatory and tumoricidal functions. Our study demonstrates the potential use of MDSCs as a Trojan horse for the tumor-targeted delivery of various anticancer therapeutics.

  18. Differential sensitivities of the prostacyclin and nitric oxide biosynthetic pathways to cytosolic calcium in bovine aortic endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaee, H.; McEwan, J R; Joseph, S.; MacDermot, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were cultured in vitro, and shown to release both prostacyclin (PGI2; Kact = 24.1 nM) and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF, NO; Kact = 0.7 nM) in a concentration-dependent manner when exposed to bradykinin. 2. The bradykinin-dependent release of PGI2 (but not EDRF) was inhibited by 1 microM isoprenaline or 5 microM forskolin, and the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline could be reversed by the beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118551. In contrast, i...

  19. Endothelin-1 supports clonal derivation and expansion of cardiovascular progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Boon-Seng; Ng, Shi-Yan; Wu, Hao; Buac, Kristina; Park, Joo-Hye C; Lian, Xiaojun; Xu, Jiejia; Foo, Kylie S; Felldin, Ulrika; He, Xiaobing; Nichane, Massimo; Yang, Henry; Bu, Lei; Li, Ronald A; Lim, Bing; Chien, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    Coronary arteriogenesis is a central step in cardiogenesis, requiring coordinated generation and integration of endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cells. At present, it is unclear whether the cell fate programme of cardiac progenitors to generate complex muscular or vascular structures is entirely cell autonomous. Here we demonstrate the intrinsic ability of vascular progenitors to develop and self-organize into cardiac tissues by clonally isolating and expanding second heart field cardiovascular progenitors using WNT3A and endothelin-1 (EDN1) human recombinant proteins. Progenitor clones undergo long-term expansion and differentiate primarily into endothelial and smooth muscle cell lineages in vitro, and contribute extensively to coronary-like vessels in vivo, forming a functional human-mouse chimeric circulatory system. Our study identifies EDN1 as a key factor towards the generation and clonal derivation of ISL1(+) vascular intermediates, and demonstrates the intrinsic cell-autonomous nature of these progenitors to differentiate and self-organize into functional vasculatures in vivo. PMID:26952167

  20. Nitric oxide derived from L-arginine impairs cytoplasmic pH regulation by vacuolar-type H+ ATPases in peritoneal macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    The ability of macrophages (Mos) to function within an acidic environment has been shown to depend on cytoplasmic pH (pHi) regulation by vacuolar-type H+ ATPases. Mos metabolize L-arginine via an oxidative pathway that generates nitric oxide, nitrate, and nitrite. Since each of these products could potentially inhibit vacuolar-type H+ ATPases, we investigated the effect of L-arginine metabolism on Mo pHi regulation in thioglycolate-elicited murine peritoneal Mos. H+ ATPase- mediated pHi recov...

  1. Participation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide but not prostacyclin in the gastric mucosal hyperaemia due to acid back-diffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Lippe, I. T.; Holzer, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. The possible participation of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO) in the gastric mucosal hyperaemic response to acid back-diffusion through a disrupted gastric mucosal barrier was examined. The experiments were carried out on anaesthetized rats in which acid back-diffusion was elicited by gastric perfusion with dilute ethanol in 0.15 M HCl and gastric mucosal blood flow (MBF) was measured by the hydrogen gas clearance technique. 2. Indomethacin (28 mumols kg-1, s.c.), an inhibitor of the fo...

  2. Expansive effects of aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived stromal cells on hematopoietic stem cells from embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jin-rong; LIU Wen-li; ZHOU Yu-feng; ZHOU Jian-feng; SUN Han-ying; LUO Li; ZHANG Heng; XU Hui-zhen

    2005-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to all blood and immune cells and are used in clinical transplantation protocols to treat a wide variety of refractory diseases, but the amplification of HSCs has been difficult to achieve in vitro. In the present study, the expansive effects of aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region derived stromal cells on HSCs were explored, attempting to improve the efficiency of HSC transplantation in clinical practice.Methods The murine stromal cells were isolated from the AGM region of 12 days postcoitum (dpc) murine embryos and bone marrow(BM)of 6 weeks old mice, respectively. After identification with flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry, the stromal cells were co-cultured with ESCs-derived, cytokines-induced HSCs. The maintenance and expansion of ESCs-derived HSCs were evaluated by detecting the population of CD34+ and CD34+Sca-1+cells with flow cytometry and the blast colony-forming cells (BL-CFCs), high proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFCs) by using semi-solid medium colonial culture. Finally, the homing and hematopoietic reconstruction abilities of HSCs were evaluated using a murine model of HSC transplantation in vivo.Results AGM and BM-derived stromal cells were morphologically and phenotypically similar, and had the features of stromal cells. When co-cultured with AGM or BM stromal cells, more primitive progenitor cells (HPP-CFCs ) could be detected in ESCs derived hematopoietic precursor cells, but BL-CFC's expansion could be detected only when co-cultured with AGM-derived stromal cells. The population of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells were expanded 3 times,but no significant expansion in the population of CD34+Sca-1+ cells was noted when co-cultured with BM stromal cells. While both CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and CD34+Sca-1+ cells were expanded 4 to 5 times respectively when co-cultured with AGM stromal cells. AGM region-derived stromal cells, like BM-derived stromal

  3. Inhibitory effects of constituents from Morus alba var. multicaulis on differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Gang; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Takamatsu, Satoshi; Kitanaka, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    A new arylbenzofuran, 3',5'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-7-prenyl-2-arylbenzofuran (1), and 25 known compounds, including moracin R (2), moracin C (3), moracin O (4), moracin P (5), artoindonesianin O (6), moracin D (7), alabafuran A (8), mulberrofuran L (9), mulberrofuran Y (10), kuwanon A (11), kuwanon C (12), kuwanon T (13), morusin (14), kuwanon E (15), sanggenon F (16), betulinic acid (17), uvaol (18), ursolic acid (19), β-sitosterol (20), oxyresveratrol 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21), mulberroside A (22), mulberroside B (23), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (24), 5,7-dihydroxycoumarin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (25) and adenosine (26), were isolated from Morus alba var. multicaulis Perro. (Moraceae). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The prenyl-flavonoids 11-14, 16, triterpenoids 17,18 and 20 showed significant inhibitory activity towards the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The arylbenzofurans 1-10 and prenyl-flavonoids 11-16 also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory effects in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:21772233

  4. Research Advancements in Porcine Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Dinesh; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Subbarao, Raghavendra Baregundi; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In the present era of stem cell biology, various animals such as Mouse, Bovine, Rabbit and Porcine have been tested for the efficiency of their mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs before their actual use for stem cell based application in humans. Among them pigs have many similarities to humans in the form of organ size, physiology and their functioning, therefore they have been considered as a valuable model system for in vitro studies and preclinical assessments. Easy assessability, few ethical issues, successful MSC isolation from different origins like bone marrow, skin, umbilical cord blood, Wharton's jelly, endometrium, amniotic fluid and peripheral blood make porcine a good model for stem cell therapy. Porcine derived MSCs (pMSCs have shown greater in vitro differentiation and transdifferention potential towards mesenchymal lineages and specialized lineages such as cardiomyocytes, neurons, hepatocytes and pancreatic beta cells. Immunomodulatory and low immunogenic profiles as shown by autologous and heterologous MSCs proves them safe and appropriate models for xenotransplantation purposes. Furthermore, tissue engineered stem cell constructs can be of immense importance in relation to various osteochondral defects which are difficult to treat otherwise. Using pMSCs successful treatment of various disorders like Parkinson's disease, cardiac ischemia, hepatic failure, has been reported by many studies. Here, in this review we highlight current research findings in the area of porcine mesenchymal stem cells dealing with their isolation methods, differentiation ability, transplantation applications and their therapeutic potential towards various diseases. PMID:26201864

  5. Are human dental papilla-derived stem cell and human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantations suitable for treatment of Parkinson's disease?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyung Ho Yoon; Joongkee Min; Nari Shin; Yong Hwan Kim; Jin-Mo Kim; Yu-Shik Hwang; Jun-Kyo Francis Suh; Onyou Hwang; Sang Ryong Jeon

    2013-01-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells has been reported as a possible approach for replacing impaired dopaminergic neurons. In this study, we tested the efficacy of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells and human brain-derived neural stem cells in rat models of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease. Rats received a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into right medial forebrain bundle, followed 3 weeks later by injections of PBS, early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells, or human brain-derived neural stem cells into the ipsilateral striatum. All of the rats in the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group died from tumor formation at around 2 weeks following cell transplantation. Postmortem examinations revealed homogeneous malignant tumors in the striatum of the human dental papilla-derived stem cell group. Stepping tests revealed that human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation did not improve motor dysfunction. In apomorphine-induced rotation tests, neither the human brain-derived neural stem cell group nor the control groups (PBS injection) demonstrated significant changes. Glucose metabolism in the lesioned side of striatum was reduced by human brain-derived neural stem cell transplantation. [18 F]-FP-CIT PET scans in the striatum did not demonstrate a significant increase in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. Tyrosine hydroxylase (dopaminergic neuronal marker) staining and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (A9 dopaminergic neuronal marker) were positive in the lesioned side of striatum in the human brain-derived neural stem cell group. The use of early-stage human dental papilla-derived stem cells confirmed its tendency to form tumors. Human brain-derived neural stem cells could be partially differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, but they did not secrete dopamine.

  6. Nanostructured Tendon-Derived Scaffolds for Enhanced Bone Regeneration by Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Alberti, Kyle; Lee, Jong Seung; Yang, Kisuk; Jin, Yoonhee; Shin, Jisoo; Yang, Hee Seok; Xu, Qiaobing; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2016-09-01

    Decellularized matrix-based scaffolds can induce enhanced tissue regeneration due to their biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical similarity to native tissues. In this study, we report a nanostructured decellularized tendon scaffold with aligned, nanofibrous structures to enhance osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone formation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Using a bioskiving method, we prepared decellularized tendon scaffolds from tissue slices of bovine Achilles and neck tendons with or without fixation, and investigated the effects on physical and mechanical properties of decellularized tendon scaffolds, based on the types and concentrations of cross-linking agents. In general, we found that decellularized tendon scaffolds without fixative treatments were more effective in inducing osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of hADSCs in vitro. When non-cross-linked decellularized tendon scaffolds were applied together with hydroxyapatite for hADSC transplantation in critical-sized bone defects, they promoted bone-specific collagen deposition and mineralized bone formation 4 and 8 weeks after hADSC transplantation, compared to conventional collagen type I scaffolds. Interestingly, stacking of decellularized tendon scaffolds cultured with osteogenically committed hADSCs and those containing human cord blood-derived endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs) induced vascularized bone regeneration in the defects 8 weeks after transplantation. Our study suggests that biomimetic nanostructured scaffolds made of decellularized tissue matrices can serve as functional tissue-engineering scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis of stem cells. PMID:27502160

  7. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  8. Human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells retain stem cell properties after expansion in myosphere culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Li, Yuan [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guang Zhou (China); Chen, Chao; Stoelzel, Katharina [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Kaufmann, Andreas M. [Clinic for Gynecology CCM/CBF, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Albers, Andreas E., E-mail: andreas.albers@charite.de [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Human skeletal muscle contains an accessible adult stem-cell compartment in which differentiated myofibers are maintained and replaced by a self-renewing stem cell pool. Previously, studies using mouse models have established a critical role for resident stem cells in skeletal muscle, but little is known about this paradigm in human muscle. Here, we report the reproducible isolation of a population of cells from human skeletal muscle that is able to proliferate for extended periods of time as floating clusters of rounded cells, termed 'myospheres' or myosphere-derived progenitor cells (MDPCs). The phenotypic characteristics and functional properties of these cells were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. Our results showed that these cells are clonogenic, express skeletal progenitor cell markers Pax7, ALDH1, Myod, and Desmin and the stem cell markers Nanog, Sox2, and Oct3/4 significantly elevated over controls. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 20 weeks and passaged at least 18 times, despite an average donor-age of 63 years. Individual clones (4.2%) derived from single cells were successfully expanded showing clonogenic potential and sustained proliferation of a subpopulation in the myospheres. Myosphere-derived cells were capable of spontaneous differentiation into myotubes in differentiation media and into other mesodermal cell lineages in induction media. We demonstrate here that direct culture and expansion of stem cells from human skeletal muscle is straightforward and reproducible with the appropriate technique. These cells may provide a viable resource of adult stem cells for future therapies of disease affecting skeletal muscle or mesenchymal lineage derived cell types.

  9. Involvement of nitric oxide synthase in matrix metalloproteinase-9- and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-mediated glioma cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Src tyrosine kinase activates inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and, in turn, nitric oxide production as a means to transduce cell migration. Src tyrosine kinase plays a key proximal role to control α9β1 signaling. Our recent studies have clearly demonstrated the role of α9β1 integrin in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and/or urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR)-mediated glioma cell migration. In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of α9β1 integrin-iNOS pathway in MMP-9- and/or uPAR-mediated glioma cell migration. MMP-9 and uPAR shRNAs and overexpressing plasmids were used to downregulate and upregulate these molecules, respectively in U251 glioma cells and 5310 glioma xenograft cells. The effect of treatments on migration and invasion potential of these glioma cells were assessed by spheroid migration, wound healing, and Matrigel invasion assays. In order to attain the other objectives we also performed immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR, Western blot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the prominent association of iNOS with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Immunofluorescence analysis showed prominent expression of iNOS in glioma cells. MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown by respective shRNAs reduced iNOS expression in these glioma cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed elevated iNOS mRNA expression in either MMP-9 or uPAR overexpressed glioma cells. The migration potential of MMP-9- and/or uPAR-overexpressed U251 glioma cells was significantly inhibited after treatment with L-NAME, an inhibitor of iNOS. Similarly, a significant inhibition of the invasion potential of the control or MMP-9/uPAR-overexpressed glioma cells was noticed after L-NAME treatment. A prominent reduction of iNOS expression was observed in the tumor regions of nude mice brains, which were injected with 5310 glioma cells, after MMP-9 and/or uPAR knockdown. Protein expressions of cSrc, phosphoSrc and p

  10. Nitric oxide (NO) production in mammalian non-tumorigenic epithelial cells of the small intestine and macrophages induced by individual strains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipenbaher, Natasa; Møller, Peter Lange; Dolinsek, Jan;

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) affects multiple gastrointestinal functions, including mucosal inflammation and antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study was to screen the ability of probiotic bacteria to stimulate NO production in porcine intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages in the presence and...... absence of interferon gamma (INF-¿). Production of NO in intestinal epithelium was stimulated by individual strains of lactobacilli without INF-¿ priming. While none of the tested bifidobacteria were capable of inducing NO production, most constitutively secreted NO. Most tested strains induced a...... significant increase in NO production compared with the control cells in the macrophage cell line 3D4/21. Results support the protective role of the individual strains of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and may lead to new approaches for manipulating and regulating immune responses at the mucosal...

  11. High-Yield Method for Isolation and Culture of Endothelial Cells from Rat Coronary Blood Vessels Suitable for Analysis of Intracellular Calcium and Nitric Oxide Biosynthetic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistri, Silvia; Mazzetti, Luca; Failli, Paola

    2002-01-01

    We describe here a method for isolating endothelial cells from rat heart blood vessels by means of coronary microperfusion with collagenase. This methods makes it possible to obtain high amounts of endothelial cells in culture which retain the functional properties of their in vivo counterparts, including the ability to uptake fluorescently-labeled acetylated low-density lipoproteins and to respond to vasoactive agents by modulating intracellular calcium and by upregulating intrinsic nitric oxide generation. The main advantages of our technique are: (i) good reproducibility, (ii) accurate sterility that can be maintained throughout the isolation procedure and (iii) high yield of pure endothelial cells, mainly due to microperfusion and temperature-controlled incubation with collagenase which allow an optimal distribution of this enzyme within the coronary vascular bed. PMID:12734571

  12. Nitric oxide produced endogenously is responsible for hypoxia-induced HIF-1α stabilization in colon carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Rajdeep; Godoy, Luiz C.; Thiantanawat, Apinya; Trudel, Laura J.; Deen, William M.; Wogan, Gerald N.

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) is a critical regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, cellular HIF-1α level is regulated by hydroxylation by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. During hypoxia, degradation decreases and its intracellular level is increased. Exogenously administered nitric oxide (NO)-donor drugs stabilize HIF-1α, and thus NO is suggested to mimic hypoxia. However, the role of low levels of endogenously...

  13. Techniques for quantifying effects of dietary antioxidants on transcription factor translocation and nitric oxide production in cultured cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ewins, B. A.; Vassiliadou, M.; Minihane, A. M.; Rimbach, G. H.; Weinberg, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary antioxidants can affect cellular processes relevant to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. We have used non-standard techniques to quantify effects of the antioxidant soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein on translocation of Nuclear Factor-KB (NF-KB) and nitric oxide (NO) production, which are important in these diseases. Translocation was quantified using confocal immunofluoresecence microscopy and ratiometric image analysis. NO was quantified by an electrochemica...

  14. Alloantigen-induced, T-cell dependent production of nitric oxide by macrophages infiltrating skin allografts in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krulová, Magdalena; Zajícová, Alena; Frič, Jan; Holáň, Vladimír

    15, 2002, 2-3 (2002), s. 108-116. ISSN 0934-0874 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/99/D044; GA ČR GA310/99/0360; GA MZd NI6659; GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse * allograft rejection * nitric oxide Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.520, year: 2002

  15. Natural killer (NK cells for cancer immunotherapy: pluripotent stem cells-derived NK cells as an immunotherapeutic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eEguizabal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play an essential role in the fight against tumor development. Over the last years, the progress made in the NK cell biology field and in deciphering how NK cell function is regulated, is driving efforts to utilize NK cell-based immunotherapy as a promising approach for the treatment of malignant diseases. Therapies involving NK cells may be accomplished by activating and expanding endogenous NK cells by means of cytokine treatment or by transferring exogenous cells by adoptive cell therapy and/or by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. NK cells that are suitable for adoptive cell therapy can be derived from different sources, including ex vivo expansion of autologous NK cells, unstimulated or expanded allogeneic NK cells from peripheral blood, derived from CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors from peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood, and NK cell lines. Besides, genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs or cytokines genes may also have a relevant future as therapeutic tools. Recently, it has been described the derivation of large numbers of functional and mature NK cells from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, both embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which adds another tool to the expanding NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy arsenal.

  16. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  17. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived) Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived) Mast Cell Precursors from Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, Steffen K.; Neß, Melanie; Weiskirchen, Sabine; Kim, Philipp; Tag, Carmen G.; Kauffmann, Marlies; Huber, Michael; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC) or mucosal (MMC) type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT) and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs) and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM). The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC). These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research. PMID:27337047

  18. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zou; Fahad K. Kidwai; Ross A. Kopher; Jason Motl; Cory A. Kellum; Jennifer J. Westendorf; Dan S. Kaufman

    2015-01-01

    Summary We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow me...

  19. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell therapies for spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Corinne A Lee-Kubli; Paul Lu

    2015-01-01

    The greatest challenge to successful treatment of spinal cord injury is the limited regenerative capacity of the central nervous system and its inability to replace lost neurons and severed axons following injury. Neural stem cell grafts derived from fetal central nervous system tissue or embryonic stem cells have shown therapeutic promise by differentiation into neurons and glia that have the potential to form functional neuronal relays across injured spinal cord segments. However, implementation of fetal-derived or embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell ther-apies for patients with spinal cord injury raises ethical concerns. Induced pluripotent stem cells can be generated from adult somatic cells and differentiated into neural stem cells suitable for therapeutic use, thereby providing an ethical source of implantable cells that can be made in an autologous fashion to avoid problems of immune rejection. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cell transplantation for treatment of spinal cord injury, as well as addressing potential mechanisms, future perspectives and challenges.

  20. Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells as a New Host Cell in Latent Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Melahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Baydar, Serap Yesilkir; Findikli, Necati; Oztel, Olga N.

    2011-01-01

    Some protozoan infections such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, and Plasmodium can be transmitted through stem cell transplantations. To our knowledge, so far, there is no study about transmission of Leishmania parasites in stem cell transplantation and interactions between parasites and stem cells in vitro. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between different species of Leishmania parasites and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). ADMSCs hav...

  1. Growth regulation of skin cells by epidermal cell-derived factors: implications for wound healing.

    OpenAIRE

    Eisinger, M; Sadan, S; Silver, I. A.; Flick, R B

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal cell-derived factors (EDF), present in extracts and supernatant fluids of cultured epidermal cells, were found to stimulate the proliferation of keratinocytes but to inhibit fibroblasts. In vitro, the effect of EDF on epidermal cells resulted in an increased number of rapidly proliferating colonies composed mainly of basal keratinocytes. Control cultures grown in the absence of EDF had a high proportion of terminally differentiated cells. In fibroblast cultures EDF inhibited the abi...

  2. Near neighbour analysis of variant cell lines derived from the promyeloid cell line HL60.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, C. M.; Lord, J M; Wong, A K; Brown, G.

    1988-01-01

    The human promyeloid cell line H60 can be induced to differentiate towards either neutrophils or monocytes. Variant cell lines, derived from HL60, which show reduced capacities for neutrophil and monocyte differentiation can be arranged in a developmental sequence which suggests that the potentials for neutrophil and monocyte differentiation are expressed sequentially by HL60 cells in this order. Analysis of the patterns of total cellular phosphoproteins within HL60 and 5 variant cell lines, ...

  3. Characterization of the myeloid-derived suppressor cell subset regulated by NK cells in malignant lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yusuke; Shimizu, Kanako; Shinga, Jun; Hidaka, Michihiro; Kawano, Fumio; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Yamasaki, Satoru; Asakura, Miki; Fujii, Shin-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population with the ability to suppress immune responses and are currently classified into three distinct MDSC subsets: monocytic, granulocytic and non-monocytic, and non-granulocytic MDSCs. Although NK cells provide an important first-line defense against newly transformed cancer cells, it is unknown whether NK cells can regulate MDSC populations in the context of cancer. In this study, we initially found that the frequency of MDSC...

  4. Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell: A Source for Cell-Based Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, M.; Geramizadeh, B; Zakerinia, M; M Ramzi; Yaghobi, R.; Hadadi, P.; Rezvani, A. R.; Aghdai, M.; N Azarpira; Karimi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into many cell types, and modulate immune responses, makes them an attractive therapeutic tool for cell transplantation and tissue engineering. Objective: This project was designed for isolation, culture, and characterization of human marrow-derived MSCs based on the immunophenotypic markers and the differentiation potential. Methods: Bone marrow of healthy donors was aspirated from the iliac crest. Mononuclear cells we...

  5. Variability of Action Potentials Within and Among Cardiac Cell Clusters Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Renjun Zhu; Millrod, Michal A.; Zambidis, Elias T.; Leslie Tung

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological variability in cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells continues to be an impediment for their scientific and translational applications. We studied the variability of action potentials (APs) recorded from clusters of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) using high-resolution optical mapping. Over 23,000 APs were analyzed through four parameters: APD30, APD80, triangulation and fractional repolarization. Although measures were taken to re...

  6. Rho GTPase/Rho Kinase Negatively Regulates Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Phosphorylation through the Inhibition of Protein Kinase B/Akt in Human Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xiu-Fen; Viswambharan, Hema; Barandier, Christine; Ruffieux, Jean; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Rusconi, Sandro; Yang, Zhihong

    2002-01-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of cardiovascular homeostasis by production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelial cells. It can be activated by protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt via phosphorylation at Ser-1177. We are interested in the role of Rho GTPase/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in regulation of eNOS expression and activation. Using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we show here that both active RhoA and ROCK not only downregulate eNOS gene expression as reported previously but also inhibit eNOS phosphorylation at Ser-1177 and cellular NO production with concomitant suppression of PKB activation. Moreover, coexpression of a constitutive active form of PKB restores the phosphorylation but not gene expression of eNOS in the presence of active RhoA. Furthermore, we show that thrombin inhibits eNOS phosphorylation, as well as expression via Rho/ROCK pathway. Expression of the active PKB reverses eNOS phosphorylation but has no effect on downregulation of eNOS expression induced by thrombin. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Rho/ROCK pathway negatively regulates eNOS phosphorylation through inhibition of PKB, whereas it downregulates eNOS expression independent of PKB. PMID:12446767

  7. File list: Unc.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Pluripotent s...edbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.PSC.10.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells.bed ... ...tem cell hESC derived mesendodermal cells SRX702060,SRX702061,SRX149642,SRX702059 http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  10. File list: Unc.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Pluripotent s...edbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.PSC.50.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells.bed ... ...tem cell hESC derived mesendodermal cells SRX702060,SRX149642,SRX702059,SRX702061 http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  12. File list: Unc.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.PSC.20.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Pluripotent s...edbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.PSC.05.AllAg.hESC_derived_mesendodermal_cells.bed ... ...tem cell hESC derived mesendodermal cells SRX702060,SRX702061,SRX149642,SRX702059 http://dbarchive.bioscienc

  15. Protective effects of andrographolide derivative AL-1 on high glucose-induced oxidative stress in RIN-m cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Li, Yongmei; Yang, Yali; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Yu, Pei; Wang, Yuqiang; Xu, Lipeng

    2016-01-01

    AL-1 is a novel andrographolide derivative synthesized by conjugating andrographolide and alpha lipoic acid. AL-1 has been found to increase insulin secretion, decrease blood glucose level and protect β-cell mass and function in alloxan-induced diabetic mouse model. However, the protective mechanism of AL-1 on high glucose-induced pancreatic β-cell injury is still not clear. In the present study, we found that AL-1 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation induced by high glucose in RIN-m cells, and which elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). In addition, AL-1 increased the expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO- 1) proteins in RIN-m cells. These results suggest that AL-1 prevented RIN-m cells from high glucose-induced oxidative damage via upregulation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. PMID:26391852

  16. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Yijing; Tang, Huijuan; Guo, Yan; Guo, Jing; Huang, Bangxing; Fang, Fang; Cai, Jing, E-mail: caijingmmm@hotmail.com; Wang, Zehua, E-mail: zehuawang@163.net

    2015-09-10

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs.

  17. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells promote cell proliferation and invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) is an important component of tumor microenvironment. However, whether ADSCs have a hand in ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the impact of human ADSCs derived from the omentum of normal donors on human epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Direct and indirect co-culture models including ADSCs and human EOC cell lines were established and the effects of ADSCs on EOC cell proliferation were evaluated by EdU incorporation and flow cytometry. Transwell migration assays and detection of MMPs were performed to assess the invasion activity of EOC cells in vitro. Mouse models were established by intraperitoneal injection of EOC cells with or without concomitant ADSCs to investigate the role of ADSCs in tumor progression in vivo. We found that ADSCs significantly promoted proliferation and invasion of EOC cells in both direct and indirect co-culture assays. In addition, after co-culture with ADSCs, EOC cells secreted higher levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMP2 and MMP9 partially relieved the tumor-promoting effects of ADSCs in vitro. In mouse xenograft models, we confirmed that ADSCs promoted EOC growth and metastasis and elevated the expression of MMP2 and MMP9. Our findings indicate that omental ADSCs play a promotive role during ovarian cancer progression. - Highlights: • Omental adipose derived stem cells enhanced growth and invasion properties of ovarian cancer cells. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in mice models. • Adipose derived stem cells promoted MMPs expression and secretion of ovarian cancer cells. • Elevated MMPs mediated the tumor promoting effects of ADSCs

  18. Low antigenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Kim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Mi Kim1, Nicholas Zavazava1,21Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 2Immunology Graduate Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USAAbstract: Human embryonic stem (hES cells are essential for improved understanding of diseases and our ability to probe new therapies for use in humans. Currently, bone marrow cells and cord blood cells are used for transplantation into patients with hematopoietic malignancies, immunodeficiencies and in some cases for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, due to the high immunogenicity of these hematopoietic cells, toxic regimens of drugs are required for preconditioning and prevention of rejection. Here, we investigated the efficiency of deriving hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs from the hES cell line H13, after co-culturing with the murine stromal cell line OP9. We show that HPCs derived from the H13 ES cells poorly express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and no detectable class II antigens (HLA-DR. These characteristics make hES cell-derived hematopoietic cells (HPCs ideal candidates for transplantation across MHC barriers under minimal immunosuppression.Keywords: human embryonic stem cells, H13, hematopoiesis, OP9 stromal cells, immunogenicity

  19. Neural Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells as an Origin of Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinya Noisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs. hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson’s disease.

  20. Quantum dots for labeling adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Hiroshi; Mizufune, Shogo; Mamori, Chiharu; Kagami, Yukimasa; Oishi, Koichi; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Takeshi, Manabu; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Shuji

    2009-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) have a self-renewing ability and can be induced to differentiate into various types of mesenchymal tissue. Because of their potential for clinical application, it has become desirable to label the cells for tracing transplanted cells and for in vivo imaging. Quantum dots (QDs) are novel inorganic probes that consist of CdSe/ZnS-core/shell semiconductor nanocrystals and have recently been explored as fluorescent probes for stem cell labeling. In this study, negatively charged QDs655 were applied for ASCs labeling, with the cationic liposome, Lipofectamine. The cytotoxicity of QDs655-Lipofectamine was assessed for ASCs. Although some cytotoxicity was observed in ASCs transfected with more than 2.0 nM of QDs655, none was observed with less than 0.8 nM. To evaluate the time dependency, the fluorescent intensity with QDs655 was observed until 24 h after transfection. The fluorescent intensity gradually increased until 2 h at the concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4 nM, while the intensity increased until 4 h at 0.8 nM. The ASCs were differentiated into both adipogenic and osteogenic cells with red fluorescence after transfection with QDs655, thus suggesting that the cells retain their potential for differentiation even after transfected with QDs655. These data suggest that QDs could be utilized for the labeling of ASCs. PMID:19775521

  1. Innervation of Cochlear Hair Cells by Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunewardene, Niliksha; Crombie, Duncan; Dottori, Mirella; Nayagam, Bryony A.

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may serve as an autologous source of replacement neurons in the injured cochlea, if they can be successfully differentiated and reconnected with residual elements in the damaged auditory system. Here, we explored the potential of hiPSC-derived neurons to innervate early postnatal hair cells, using established in vitro assays. We compared two hiPSC lines against a well-characterized hESC line. After ten days' coculture in vitro, hiPSC-derived neural processes contacted inner and outer hair cells in whole cochlear explant cultures. Neural processes from hiPSC-derived neurons also made contact with hair cells in denervated sensory epithelia explants and expressed synapsin at these points of contact. Interestingly, hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured with hair cells at an early stage of differentiation formed synapses with a higher number of hair cells, compared to hiPSC-derived neurons cocultured at a later stage of differentiation. Notable differences in the innervation potentials of the hiPSC-derived neurons were also observed and variations existed between the hiPSC lines in their innervation efficiencies. Collectively, these data illustrate the promise of hiPSCs for auditory neuron replacement and highlight the need to develop methods to mitigate variabilities observed amongst hiPSC lines, in order to achieve reliable clinical improvements for patients. PMID:26966437

  2. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide generator, induces DNA double-strand breaks, activates DNA damage response pathways, and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in human multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Hideshima, Teru; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Ocio, Enrique M; Raje, Noopur; Catley, Laurence; Li, Chun-Qi; Trudel, Laura J; Yasui, Hiroshi; Vallet, Sonia; Kutok, Jeffery L; Chauhan, Dharminder; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wogan, Gerald N; Keefer, Larry K; Shami, Paul J; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2007-07-15

    Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of JS-K, a prodrug designed to release nitric oxide (NO(*)) following reaction with glutathione S-transferases, in multiple myeloma (MM). JS-K showed significant cytotoxicity in both conventional therapy-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines, as well as patient-derived MM cells. JS-K induced apoptosis in MM cells, which was associated with PARP, caspase-8, and caspase-9 cleavage; increased Fas/CD95 expression; Mcl-1 cleavage; and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, as well as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G (EndoG) release. Moreover, JS-K overcame the survival advantages conferred by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), or by adherence of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that JS-K-induced cytotoxicity was mediated via NO(*) in MM cells. Furthermore, JS-K induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activated DNA damage responses, as evidenced by neutral comet assay, as well as H2AX, Chk2 and p53 phosphorylation. JS-K also activated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MM cells; conversely, inhibition of JNK markedly decreased JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Importantly, bortezomib significantly enhanced JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, JS-K is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival in a human MM xenograft mouse model. Taken together, these data provide the preclinical rationale for the clinical evaluation of JS-K to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:17384201

  3. Low immunogenicity of endothelial derivatives from rat embryonic stem cell-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliane Ladhoff; Michael Bader; Sabine Br(o)sel; Elke Effenberger; Dirk Westermann; Hans-Dieter Volk; Martina Seifert

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are suggested to be immune-privileged, but they carry the risk of uncontrolled expansion and malignancy. Upon differentiation they lose their tumor-forming capacity, but they become immunogenic by the expression of a normal set of MHC molecules. This immunogenicity might trigger rejection after application in regenerative therapies. In this study MHC expression of and immune responses to endothelial derivatives of rat embryonic stem cell-like cells (RESC) under inflammatory conditions were determined in comparison to primary rat aortic endothelial cells (ECs). Cellular as well as humoral allo-recognition was analyzed in vitro. In addition, immune reactions in vivo were assessed by allo-antibody production and determination of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting allo-reactive T cells. RESC derivatives expressed low but significant levels of MHC class I, and no MHC class II. In response to IFNγ MHC class I expression was enhanced, while class II transactivator induction failed completely in these cells; MHC class II expression remained consistently absent. Functionally, the RESC derivatives showed a reduced allo-stimulatory capacity, protection against humoral allo-recognition in vitro and a slightly diminished susceptibility to cytotoxic T cell lysis. Furthermore, in vivo experiments demonstrated that these cells do not trigger host immune reactions, characterized by no allo-antibody production and no induction of allo-reactive memory T cells. Our results show that endothelial derivatives of RESC have a distinctive reduced immunogenic potency even under inflammatory conditions.

  4. 5-Azacytidine Is Insufficient For Cardiogenesis In Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Safwani Wan Kamarul Zaman; Makpol Suzana; Sathapan Somasundaram; Chua Kien

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adipose tissue is a source of multipotent adult stem cells and it has the ability to differentiate into several types of cell lineages such as neuron cells, osteogenic cells and adipogenic cells. Several reports have shown adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have the ability to undergo cardiomyogenesis. Studies have shown 5-azacytidine can successfully drive stem cells such as bone marrow derived stem cells to differentiate into cardiomyogenic cells. Therefore, in this study...

  5. Prolonged exposure of chromaffin cells to nitric oxide down-regulates the activity of soluble guanylyl cyclase and corresponding mRNA and protein levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Rut; Torres, Magdalena

    2002-01-01

    Background Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the main receptor for nitric oxide (NO) when the latter is produced at low concentrations. This enzyme exists mainly as a heterodimer consisting of one α and one β subunit and converts GTP to the second intracellular messenger cGMP. In turn, cGMP plays a key role in regulating several physiological processes in the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of a NO donor on sGC activity and its protein and subunit mRNA levels in a neural cell model. Results Continuous exposure of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells in culture to the nitric oxide donor, diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA/NO), resulted in a lower capacity of the cells to synthesize cGMP in response to a subsequent NO stimulus. This effect was not prevented by an increase of intracellular reduced glutathione level. DETA/NO treatment decreased sGC subunit mRNA and β1 subunit protein levels. Both sGC activity and β1 subunit levels decreased more rapidly in chromaffin cells exposed to NO than in cells exposed to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, suggesting that NO decreases β1 subunit stability. The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) inhibitors effectively prevented the DETA/NO-induced down regulation of sGC subunit mRNA and partially inhibited the reduction in β1 subunits. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of PKG mediates the drop in sGC subunit mRNA levels, and that NO down-regulates sGC activity by decreasing subunit mRNA levels through a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and by reducing β1 subunit stability. PMID:12350235

  6. Drafting the proteome landscape of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, María; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Zudaire, Maribel; de Morentin, Xabier Martínez; Perez-Valderrama, Estela; Zabaleta, Aintzane; Kochan, Grazyna; Escors, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquín; Santamaría, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that are defined by their myeloid origin, immature state, and ability to potently suppress T-cell responses. They regulate immune responses and the population significantly increases in the tumor microenvironment of patients with glioma and other malignant tumors. For their study, MDSCs are usually isolated from the spleen or directly of tumors from a large number of tumor-bearing mice although promising ex vivo differentiated MDSC production systems have been recently developed. During the last years, proteomics has emerged as a powerful approach to analyze MDSCs proteomes using shotgun-based mass spectrometry (MS), providing functional information about cellular homeostasis and metabolic state at a global level. Here, we will revise recent proteome profiling studies performed in MDSCs from different origins. Moreover, we will perform an integrative functional analysis of the protein compilation derived from these large-scale proteomic studies in order to obtain a comprehensive view of MDSCs biology. Finally, we will also discuss the potential application of high-throughput proteomic approaches to study global proteome dynamics and post-translational modifications (PTMs) during the differentiation process of MDSCs that will greatly boost the identification of novel MDSC-specific therapeutic targets to apply in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26403437

  7. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dachun; Haviland, David L; Burns, Alan R; Zsigmond, Eva; Wetsel, Rick A

    2007-03-13

    Alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells are small, cuboidal cells that constitute approximately 60% of the pulmonary alveolar epithelium. These cells are crucial for repair of the injured alveolus by differentiating into alveolar epithelial type I cells. ATII cells derived from human ES (hES) cells are a promising source of cells that could be used therapeutically to treat distal lung diseases. We have developed a reliable transfection and culture procedure, which facilitates, via genetic selection, the differentiation of hES cells into an essentially pure (>99%) population of ATII cells (hES-ATII). Purity, as well as biological features and morphological characteristics of normal ATII cells, was demonstrated for the hES-ATII cells, including lamellar body formation, expression of surfactant proteins A, B, and C, alpha-1-antitrypsin, and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance receptor, as well as the synthesis and secretion of complement proteins C3 and C5. Collectively, these data document the successful generation of a pure population of ATII cells derived from hES cells, providing a practical source of ATII cells to explore in disease models their potential in the regeneration and repair of the injured alveolus and in the therapeutic treatment of genetic diseases affecting the lung. PMID:17360544

  8. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen, and the expression of ESC markers was as expected for alkaline phosphatase, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and there was absence of expression of negative markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Expression of genes specific for different embryonic germ layers was detected from the embryoid bodies (EBs) of both hESC lines, suggesting their differentiation potential in vitro. However, in vivo, only hPES-1 formed teratoma consisting of all three embryonic germ layers (hPES-2 did not). Interestingly, after continuous proliferation for more than 100 passages, hPES-1 cells still maintained a normal 46 XX karyotype; hPES-2 displayed abnormalities such as chromosome translocation after long term passages. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) results demonstrated that the hPES lines were genetic matches with the egg donors, and gene imprinting data confirmed the parthenogenetic origin of these ES cells. Genome-wide SNP analysis showed a pattern typical of parthenogenesis. All of these results demonstrated the feasibility to isolate and establish human parthenogenetic ESC lines, which provides an important tool for studying epigenetic effects in ESCs as well as for future therapeutic interventions in a clinical setting.

  9. Stem cell-derived systems in toxicology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter-Dick, Laura; Alves, Paula M; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bremm, Klaus-Dieter; Brito, Catarina; Coecke, Sandra; Flick, Burkhard; Fowler, Paul; Hescheler, Jürgen; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Jennings, Paul; Kelm, Jens M; Manou, Irene; Mistry, Pratibha; Moretto, Angelo; Roth, Adrian; Stedman, Donald; van de Water, Bob; Beilmann, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Industrial sectors perform toxicological assessments of their potential products to ensure human safety and to fulfill regulatory requirements. These assessments often involve animal testing, but ethical, cost, and time concerns, together with a ban on it in specific sectors, make appropriate in vitro systems indispensable in toxicology. In this study, we summarize the outcome of an EPAA (European Partnership of Alternatives to Animal Testing)-organized workshop on the use of stem cell-derived (SCD) systems in toxicology, with a focus on industrial applications. SCD systems, in particular, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived, provide physiological cell culture systems of easy access and amenable to a variety of assays. They also present the opportunity to apply the vast repository of existing nonclinical data for the understanding of in vitro to in vivo translation. SCD systems from several toxicologically relevant tissues exist; they generally recapitulate many aspects of physiology and respond to toxicological and pharmacological interventions. However, focused research is necessary to accelerate implementation of SCD systems in an industrial setting and subsequent use of such systems by regulatory authorities. Research is required into the phenotypic characterization of the systems, since methods and protocols for generating terminally differentiated SCD cells are still lacking. Organotypical 3D culture systems in bioreactors and microscale tissue engineering technologies should be fostered, as they promote and maintain differentiation and support coculture systems. They need further development and validation for their successful implementation in toxicity testing in industry. Analytical measures also need to be implemented to enable compound exposure and metabolism measurements for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation. The future of SCD toxicological tests will combine advanced cell culture technologies and biokinetic measurements to support regulatory and

  10. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in Chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesarina eGiallongo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The suppression of the immune system create a permissive environment for development and progression of cancer. One population of immunosuppressive cells that have become the focus of intense study is myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, immature myeloid cells able to induce immune-escape, angiogenesis and tumor progression. Two different subpopulations have been identified and studied: granulocytic and monocytic MDSCs, with a different immunophenotype and immunosuppressive properties. Recently, an accumulation of both Gr-MDSCs and Mo-MDSCs cells has been found in the peripheral blood of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients. They are part of the tumor clone showing BCR/ABL expression. Imatinib therapy decreases both MDSCs and arginase 1 levels to normal ones. This review will focus on actual knowledge for human MDSCs and their immunosuppressive activity in CML patients with a critical attention to comparison of Gr-MDSCs and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs. We will then suggest the monitoring of MDSCs in patients who have discontinued tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs therapy to evaluate if their increase could correlate with disease relapse.

  11. Human adipose-derived stem cells stimulate neuroregeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masgutov, Ruslan F; Masgutova, Galina A; Zhuravleva, Margarita N; Salafutdinov, Ilnur I; Mukhametshina, Regina T; Mukhamedshina, Yana O; Lima, Luciana M; Reis, Helton J; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Palotás, András; Rizvanov, Albert A

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injuries and degenerative neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's dementia, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and many others are characterized by loss of brain cells and supporting structures. Restoring microanatomy and function using stem cells is a promising therapeutic approach. Among the many various sources, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are one of the most easily harvested alternatives, they multiply rapidly, and they demonstrate low immunogenicity with an ability to differentiate into several cell types. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of xenotransplanted human ADSCs on post-traumatic regeneration of rat sciatic nerve. Peripheral reconstruction following complete sciatic transection and autonerve grafting was complemented by intra-operative injection of hADSCs into the proximal and distal stumps. The injury caused gliosis and apoptosis of sensory neurons in the lumbar 5 (L5) ganglia in the control rodents; however, animals treated with hADSCs demonstrated a smaller amount of cellular loss. Formation of amputation neuroma, which hinders axonal repair, was less prominent in the experimental group, and immunohistochemical analysis of myelin basic protein showed good myelination 65 days after surgery. At this point, control groups still exhibited high levels of microglia/macrophage-specific marker Iba-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, the mark of an ongoing inflammation and incomplete axonal growth 2 months after the injury. This report demonstrates that hADSCs promote neuronal survival in the spinal ganglion, fuel axonal repair and stimulate the regeneration of peripheral nerves. PMID:26047869

  12. Large-scale generation of cell-derived nanovesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, W.; Kim, J.; Yoon, J.; Jeong, D.; Cho, S.; Jeong, H.; Yoon, Y. J.; Kim, S. C.; Gho, Y. S.; Park, J.

    2014-09-01

    Exosomes are enclosed compartments that are released from cells and that can transport biological contents for the purpose of intercellular communications. Research into exosomes is hindered by their rarity. In this article, we introduce a device that uses centrifugal force and a filter with micro-sized pores to generate a large quantity of cell-derived nanovesicles. The device has a simple polycarbonate structure to hold the filter, and operates in a common centrifuge. Nanovesicles are similar in size and membrane structure to exosomes. Nanovesicles contain intracellular RNAs ranging from microRNA to mRNA, intracellular proteins, and plasma membrane proteins. The quantity of nanovesicles produced using the device is 250 times the quantity of naturally secreted exosomes. Also, the quantity of intracellular contents in nanovesicles is twice that in exosomes. Nanovesicles generated from murine embryonic stem cells can transfer RNAs to target cells. Therefore, this novel device and the nanovesicles that it generates are expected to be used in exosome-related research, and can be applied in various applications such as drug delivery and cell-based therapy.

  13. Polycystin 2 is involved in the nitric oxide production in responding to oscillating fluid shear in MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huiyun; Guan, Ying; Wu, Jiawei; Zhang, Jian; Duan, Jin; An, Long; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-22

    As a mechano-calcium channel, polycystin2 (PC2) play an important role in the response of renal epithelial cells to fluid flow shear stress. In bone tissue, osteocytes are well known as the main mechanosensory cells, and sensitive to fluid flow stimulus in vitro. In the study, we investigated the effects of oscillating fluid flow (OFF, 2 h, 1 Hz, 1.0 Pa) on the release of Nitric Oxide (NO) and ProstaglandinE2 (PGE2), and the role of PC2 on the release. Our findings demonstrate that PC2 expression increases after 2 h of OFF, and silencing PC2 by RNAi inhibits downstream NO production and iNOS expression, but does not affect the response of PGE2 to OFF. PMID:24268313

  14. Induced Differentiation of Adipose-derived Stromal Cells into Myoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂珠; 郑秀; 江忠清; 王金华; 宋岩峰

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to induce the differentiation of isolated and purified adipose-derived stromal cells(ADSCs) into myoblasts,which may provide a new strategy for tissue engineering in patients with stress urinary incontinence(SUI).ADSCs,isolated and cultured ex vivo,were identified by flow cytometry and induced to differentiate into myoblasts in the presence of an induction solution consisting of DMEM supplemented with 5-azacytidine(5-aza),5% FBS,and 5% horse serum.Cellular morphology was observed under an i...

  15. New perylene derivative dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafer, Ceylan; Turkmen, Gulsah; Demic, Serafettin; Icli, Siddik [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, TR-35040 Izmir (Turkey); Kus, Mahmut [Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, TR-35040 Izmir (Turkey); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Mugla University, TR-48000 Mugla (Turkey); Dincalp, Haluk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Celal Bayar University, TR-45030 Manisa (Turkey); Kuban, Baha; Teoman, Yildirim [Tuerkiye Sise ve Cam Fabrikalari A.S. (SiSECAM), TR-80620 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-06

    We have studied the influence of the spacer alkyl chain length of perylenemonoimide (PMI) dyes on the device performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We observed that the dyes with longer and brunched alkyl chains exhibit higher efficiencies in DSSCs. In line with these statements we now report the highest efficiency obtained under standard conditions for a perylene imide derivative with PMI-DA1 that performs 300 mV open circuit voltage, 9.79 mA/cm{sup 2} short-circuit current and 1.61% overall conversion efficiency. (author)

  16. Myeloid derived suppressor cells enhance IgE-mediated mast cell responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously demonstrated that enhanced development of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in ADAM10 transgenic mice yielded resistance to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, and that co-culturing MDSC with IgE-activated mast cells enhanced cytokine production. In the current...

  17. Nitric oxide inhibits neuroendocrine CaV1 L-channel gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, Valentina; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Carbone, Emilio; Grassi, Claudio

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla but the molecular targets of its action are not yet well identified. Here we show that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 μM) causes a marked depression of the single CaV1 L-channel activity in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells. SNP action was complete within 3-5 min of cell superfusion. In multichannel patches the open probability (NPo) decreased by ∼60 % between 0 and +20 mV. Averaged currents over a number of traces were proportionally reduced and showed no drastic changes to their time course. In single-channel patches the open probability (Po) at +10 mV decreased by the same amount as that of multichannel patches (∼61 %). Such a reduction was mainly associated with an increased probability of null sweeps and a prolongation of mean shut times, while first latency, mean open time and single-channel conductance were not significantly affected. Addition of the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or cell treatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ prevented the SNP-induced inhibition. 8-Bromo-cyclicGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 400 μM) mimicked the action of the NO donor and the protein kinase G blocker KT-5823 prevented this effect. The depressive action of SNP was preserved after blocking the cAMP-dependent up-regulatory pathway with the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Similarly, the inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP proceeded regardless of the elevation of cAMP levels, suggesting that cGMP/PKG and cAMP/PKA act independently on L-channel gating. The inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP was also independent of the G protein-induced inhibition of L-channels mediated by purinergic and opiodergic autoreceptors. Since Ca2+ channels contribute critically to both the local production of NO and catecholamine release, the NO/PKG-mediated inhibition of neuroendocrine L-channels described here may represent an important autocrine signalling mechanism for controlling the rate of

  18. Nitric oxide inhibits neuroendocrine Ca(V)1 L-channel gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabelli, Valentina; D'Ascenzo, Marcello; Carbone, Emilio; Grassi, Claudio

    2002-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla but the molecular targets of its action are not yet well identified. Here we show that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 200 microM) causes a marked depression of the single Ca(V)1 L-channel activity in cell-attached patches of bovine chromaffin cells. SNP action was complete within 3-5 min of cell superfusion. In multichannel patches the open probability (NP(o)) decreased by approximately 60 % between 0 and +20 mV. Averaged currents over a number of traces were proportionally reduced and showed no drastic changes to their time course. In single-channel patches the open probability (P(o)) at +10 mV decreased by the same amount as that of multichannel patches (approximately 61 %). Such a reduction was mainly associated with an increased probability of null sweeps and a prolongation of mean shut times, while first latency, mean open time and single-channel conductance were not significantly affected. Addition of the NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO or cell treatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ prevented the SNP-induced inhibition. 8-Bromo-cyclicGMP (8-Br-cGMP; 400 microM) mimicked the action of the NO donor and the protein kinase G blocker KT-5823 prevented this effect. The depressive action of SNP was preserved after blocking the cAMP-dependent up-regulatory pathway with the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Similarly, the inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP proceeded regardless of the elevation of cAMP levels, suggesting that cGMP/PKG and cAMP/PKA act independently on L-channel gating. The inhibitory action of 8-Br-cGMP was also independent of the G protein-induced inhibition of L-channels mediated by purinergic and opiodergic autoreceptors. Since Ca(2+) channels contribute critically to both the local production of NO and catecholamine release, the NO/PKG-mediated inhibition of neuroendocrine L-channels described here may represent an important autocrine signalling mechanism

  19. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  20. Hypothyroidism Impairs Human Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cell Maturation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Saber, Nelly; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Fox, Jessica K; Mojibian, Majid; Arora, Payal; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are a potential source of transplantable cells for treating diabetes and are currently being tested in clinical trials. Yet, how the milieu of pancreatic progenitor cells, including exposure to different factors after transplant, may influence their maturation remains unclear. Here, we examined the effect of thyroid dysregulation on the development of hESC-derived progenitor cells in vivo. Hypothyroidism was generated in SCID-beige mice using an iodine-deficient diet containing 0.15% propyl-2-thiouracil, and hyperthyroidism was generated by addition of L-thyroxine (T4) to drinking water. All mice received macroencapsulated hESC-derived progenitor cells, and thyroid dysfunction was maintained for the duration of the study ("chronic") or for 4 weeks posttransplant ("acute"). Acute hyperthyroidism did not affect graft function, but acute hypothyroidism transiently impaired human C-peptide secretion at 16 weeks posttransplant. Chronic hypothyroidism resulted in severely blunted basal human C-peptide secretion, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and elevated plasma glucagon levels. Grafts from chronic hypothyroid mice contained fewer β-cells, heterogenous MAFA expression, and increased glucagon(+) and ghrelin(+) cells compared to grafts from euthyroid mice. Taken together, these data suggest that long-term thyroid hormone deficiency may drive the differentiation of human pancreatic progenitor cells toward α- and ε-cell lineages at the expense of β-cell formation. PMID:26740603

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong ZHANG; Zhijun NING; Hongcui PEI; Wenjun WU

    2009-01-01

    Three organic dyes based on bisindolylmaleimide derivatives (11, 12 and 13) were synthesized and investigated as sensitizers for the application in nanocrystalline TiO2 solar cells. The indole group,maleimide group and carboxylic group functioned as electron donor, acceptor and anchoring group, respec-tively. Solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiencies under simulated amplitude-modulated 1.5 irradiation based on 12 and of 1.87% and 1.50% for 13 and 11,respectively. The open circuit voltage Voc was demon-strated to be enhanced by the introduction of dodecyl or benzyl moieties on the indole groups. The nonplanar structure of bisindolylmaleimide was proven to be effective in aggregation resistance. This work suggests that organic sensitizers with maleimide as electron acceptor are promising candidates as organic sensiti-zers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  2. Stress depended changes in activityof gp red blood cells receptors and its correction by therahertz waves at nitric oxide frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichuk V.F.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range frequencies of molecular spectrum of emission and absorption of nitric oxide 150.176–150.664 GHz for the restoration of the impaired carbohydrate component and functional activity glikoproteid receptors of erythrocytes of white rats in a state of acute imm obilization stress. Shown that exposure to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies is the normalization of the increased content of b-D-galactose in the carbohydrate component and the restoration of the impaired activity of the receptors glikoproteid erythrocytes

  3. Pivotal Role of PGE2 and IL-10 in the Cross-Regulation of Dendritic Cell-Derived Inflammatory Mediators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hedi Harizi; Norbert Gualde

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to pathogens induces antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) to produce various endogenous mediators, including arachidonic acid (AA)-derived eicosanoids, cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO). Many secreted products of activated APC can act by themselves in an autocrine manner and modulate their function. Moreover, the cross-interaction between endogenous bioactive molecules regulates the function of professional APC with important consequences for their ability to activate and sustain immune and inflammatory responses, and to regulate immune homeostasis. Although neglected for many years when compared to their role in cardiovascular homeostasis, cancer and inflammation, the importance of eicosanoids in immunology is becoming more defined. The role of prostaglandin (PG) E2 (PGE2), one of the best known and most well studied eicosanoids,is of particular interest. It modulates the activities of professional DC by acting on their differentiation, maturation and their ability to secrete cytokines. Uniquely among haematopoietic cytokines, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic molecule that displays both immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory activities. IL-10 has attached much attention because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It modulates expression of cytokines, soluble mediators and cell surface molecules by cells of myeloid origin, particularly macrophages and DC. We previously reported that PGE2 is a potent inducer of IL-10 in bone marrow-derived DC (BM-DC), and PGE2-induced IL-10 is a key regulator of the BM-DC pro-inflammatory phenotype. BM-DC may be considered as an important model to study complex interactions between endogenous mediators, and autocrine IL-10 plays a pivotal role in the crossregulation of AA-derived lipid mediators, cytokines, and NO, with critical effects on immune and inflammatory responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):271-277.

  4. Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Muschler, George F.; Nitto, Hironori; Matsukura, Yoichi; Boehm, Cynthia; Valdevit, Antonio; Kambic, Helen; Davros, William; Powell, Kimerly; Easley, Kirk

    2003-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells including osteoblastic progenitors can be concentrated rapidly from bone marrow aspirates using the surface of selected implantable matrices for selective cell attachment. Concentration of cells in this way to produce an enriched cellular composite graft improves graft efficacy. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that the biologic milieu of a bone marrow clot will significantly improve the efficacy of such a graft. An established posterior spinal f...

  5. Detection of embryonic stem cell markers in adult human adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sarasa Bharati Arumugam; Omana A Trentz; Devi Arikketh; Vijayalakshmi Senthinathan; Barry Rosario; P. V. A Mohandas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow transplantation is already an established therapy, which is now widely used in medicine to treat leukemia, lymphoma, and several inherited blood disorders. The culture of multilineage cells from easily available adipose tissue is another source of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, and is referred to as adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). While ADSCs are being used to treat various conditions, some lacuna exists regarding the specific proteins in these. It was ...

  6. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and anti-tumor T cells: a complex relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Monu, Ngozi R.; Frey, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC) are immature myeloid cells that are potent inhibitors of immune cell function and which accumulate under conditions of inflammation, especially cancer. MDSC are suggested to promote the growth of cancer by both enhancement of tumor angiogenesis and metastasis and also inhibition of antitumor immune responses. The presence of deficient and/or defective antitumor adaptive and innate immune responses, coincident with accumulation of MDSC in lymphoid organs...

  7. Reciprocal relationship between myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraj, Srinivas; Youn, Je-in; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous group of myeloid cells that play a major role in the regulation of immune responses in many pathological conditions. These cells have a common myeloid origin, relatively immature state, common genetic and biochemical profiles, and, most importantly, the ability to inhibit immune responses. Although initial studies of MDSC were almost exclusively performed in tumor-bearing mice or cancer patients, in recent years, it became clear that...

  8. Pretreatment of Cardiac Stem Cells With Exosomes Derived From Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhances Myocardial Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Yang, Junjie; Yan, Weiya; Li, Yangxin; Shen, Zhenya; Asahara, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were proved to boost cell proliferation and angiogenic potency. We explored whether cardiac stem cells (CSCs) preconditioned with MSC exosomes could survive and function better in a myocardial infarction model. Methods and Results DiI‐labeled exosomes were internalized with CSCs. They stimulated proliferation, migration, and angiotube formation of CSCs in a dose‐dependent manner. In a rat myocardial infarction model, MSC exosome–p...

  9. Mechanism of T-cell tolerance induced by myeloid-derived suppressor cells1

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraj, Srinivas; Schrum, Adam G.; Cho, Hyun-Il; Celis, Esteban; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.

    2010-01-01

    Antigen-specific T-cell tolerance plays a critical role in tumor escape. Recent studies implicated myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the induction of CD8+ T-cell tolerance in tumor-bearing hosts. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remained unclear. We have found that incubation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, with peptide-loaded MDSC, did not induce signaling downstream of TCR. However, it prevented subsequent signaling from peptide-loaded dendritic cells. Using double TCR t...

  10. Calcium-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in the cytoprotective properties of n-acetylcysteine in glycochenodeoxycholic acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intracellular oxidative stress has been involved in bile acid-induced cell death in hepatocytes. Nitric oxide (NO) exerts cytoprotective properties in glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA)-treated hepatocytes. The study evaluated the involvement of Ca2+ on the regulation of NO synthase (NOS)-3 expression during N-acetylcysteine (NAC) cytoprotection against GCDCA-induced cell death in hepatocytes. The regulation of Ca2+ pools (EGTA or BAPTA-AM) and NO (L-NAME or NO donor) production was assessed during NAC cytoprotection in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance was induced by A23187 in HepG2. Cell death, Ca2+ mobilization, NOS-1, -2 and -3 expression, AP-1 activation, and NO production were evaluated. GCDCA reduced intracellular Ca2+ concentration and NOS-3 expression, and enhanced cell death in HepG2. NO donor prevented, and L-NAME enhanced, GCDCA-induced cell death. The reduction of Ca2+ entry by EGTA, but not its release from intracellular stores by BAPTA-AM, enhanced cell death in GCDCA-treated cells. The stimulation of Ca2+ entrance by A23187 reduced cell death and enhanced NOS-3 expression in GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The cytoprotective properties of NAC were related to the recovery of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, NOS-3 expression and NO production induced by GCDCA-treated HepG2 cells. The increase of NO production by Ca2+-dependent NOS-3 expression during NAC administration reduces cell death in GCDCA-treated hepatocytes.

  11. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, S.Q.; Cao, J. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Q.Y.; Li, Y.Y. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Yan, Y.Q. [Department of Liver Surgery I, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yu, F.X. [Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China)

    2013-09-27

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis.

  12. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and the possible mechanism involved, ADSCs were cocultured with pancreatic cancer cells, and a cell counting kit (CCK-8) was used to detect the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. ELISA was used to determine the concentration of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in the supernatants. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in pancreatic cancer cells and ADSCs. An in vitro invasion assay was used to measure invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. SDF-1 was detected in the supernatants of ADSCs, but not in pancreatic cancer cells. Higher CXCR4 mRNA levels were detected in the pancreatic cancer cell lines compared with ADSCs (109.3±10.7 and 97.6±7.6 vs 18.3±1.7, respectively; P<0.01). In addition, conditioned medium from ADSCs promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, and AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist, significantly downregulated these growth-promoting effects. We conclude that ADSCs can promote the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells, which may involve the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis

  13. Generation of cloned mice and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines from urine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Eiji; Torikai, Kohei; Wakayama, Sayaka; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Ohinata, Yasuhide; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer provides the opportunity to preserve endangered mammalian species. However, there are risks associated with the collection of donor cells from the body such as accidental injury to or death of the animal. Here, we report the production of cloned mice from urine-derived cells collected noninvasively. Most of the urine-derived cells survived and were available as donors for nuclear transfer without any pretreatment. After nuclear transfer, 38-77% of the reconstructed embryos developed to the morula/blastocyst, in which the cell numbers in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were similar to those of controls. Male and female cloned mice were delivered from cloned embryos transferred to recipient females, and these cloned animals grew to adulthood and delivered pups naturally when mated with each other. The results suggest that these cloned mice had normal fertility. In additional experiments, 26 nuclear transfer embryonic stem cell lines were established from 108 cloned blastocysts derived from four mouse strains including inbreds and F1 hybrids with relatively high success rates. Thus, cells derived from urine, which can be collected noninvasively, may be used in the rescue of endangered mammalian species by using nuclear transfer without causing injury to the animal. PMID:27033801

  14. Hypoxia promotes adipose-derived stem cell proliferation via VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs are a promising mesenchymal stem cell source with therapeutic applications. Recent studies have shown that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from the stromal vascular fraction obtained from adipose tissue in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured under two conditions: hypoxia (5% O2 and normal oxygen (21% O2. The effects of the oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were examined by cell cycle and doubling time. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by the ELISA assay. The role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. We found that the ADSC proliferation rate was significantly higher under hypoxia compared with normoxia. In hypoxia, ADSCs also triggered VEGF expression. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggest that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation in association with VEGF production. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(1.000: 476-482

  15. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Carvalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown promising results in tendinitis and osteoarthritis in equine medicine. The purpose of this work was to characterize the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs in horses through (1 the assessment of the capacity of progenitor cells to perform adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation; and (2 flow cytometry analysis using the stemness related markers: CD44, CD90, CD105 and MHC Class II. Five mixed-breed horses, aged 2-4 years-old were used to collect adipose tissue from the base of the tail. After isolation and culture of AdMSCs, immunophenotypic characterization was performed through flow cytometry. There was a high expression of CD44, CD90 and CD105, and no expression of MHC Class II markers. The tri-lineage differentiation was confirmed by specific staining: adipogenic (Oil Red O, osteogenic (Alizarin Red, and chondrogenic (Alcian Blue. The equine AdMSCs are a promising type of adult progenitor cell for tissue engineering in veterinary medicine.

  16. Fullerene derivatives as electron donor for organic photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated the performance of unconventional, all-fullerene-based, planar heterojunction (PHJ) organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells using fullerene derivatives indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) and phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester as the electron donors with fullerene C70 as the electron acceptor. Two different charge generation processes, including charge generation in the fullerene bulk and exciton dissociation at the donor-acceptor interface, have been found to exist in such all-fullerene-based PHJ cells and the contribution to the total photocurrent from each process is strongly dependent on the thickness of fullerene donor. The optimized 5 nm ICBA/40 nm C70 PHJ cell gives clear external quantum efficiency responses for the long-wavelength photons corresponding to the dissociation of strongly bound Frenkel excitons, which is hardly observed in fullerene-based single layer reference devices. This approach using fullerene as a donor material provides further possibilities for developing high performance OPV cells

  17. Case Reports of Adipose-derived Stem Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Su Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the gradual increase of cases using fillers, cases of patients treated by non-medicalprofessionals or inexperienced physicians resulting in complications are also increasing. Weherein report 2 patients who experienced acute complications after receiving filler injectionsand were successfully treated with adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs therapy. Case 1 wasa 23-year-old female patient who received a filler (Restylane injection in her forehead,glabella, and nose by a non-medical professional. The day after her injection, inflammationwas observed with a 3×3 cm skin necrosis. Case 2 was a 30-year-old woman who receiveda filler injection of hyaluronic acid gel (Juvederm on her nasal dorsum and tip at a privateclinic. She developed erythema and swelling in the filler-injected area A solution containingADSCs harvested from each patient’s abdominal subcutaneous tissue was injected intothe lesion at the subcutaneous and dermis levels. The wounds healed without additionaltreatment. With continuous follow-up, both patients experienced only fine linear scars 6months postoperatively. By using adipose-derived stem cells, we successfully treated theacute complications of skin necrosis after the filler injection, resulting in much less scarring,and more satisfactory results were achieved not only in wound healing, but also in esthetics.

  18. Polymer photovoltaic cells by using manganese phthalocyanine derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel near-infrared absorbing manganese phthalocyanine bisphenol A epoxy derivative (MnPc-DGEBPA) was synthesized and characterized by infrared, UV–Vis and fluorescence spectra. The absorption spectrum of the derivative exhibited a Q-band in the near-infrared region and its fluorescence quantum yield reached 0.36 in N, N-dimethylformamide. MnPc-DGEBPA has high solubility and good film forming ability as well. The MnPc-DGEBPA films with a planar electrode were prepared by the dip-coating process using 2, 9, 16, 23-tetra-amino manganese phthalocyanine (TAMnPc) as a solidifying reagent. The current–voltage characteristics of the films were measured and photoconductivity was increased by an order of magnitude compared with dark conductivity, which indicates that MnPc-DGEBPA films have good photoelectric response. Schottky-type and pn-junction-type photovoltaic cells with ITO/MnPc-DGEBPA/Al and ITO/MnPc-DGEBPA/C60/Al structures were achieved by spin coating (using TAMnPc as a solidifying reagent) and vacuum evaporation. The open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of the Schottky device were 0.6 V and 4.7 nA cm−2, while Voc and Jsc of the pn-junction device were 0.14 V and 0.45 µA cm−2, respectively. The photocurrent efficiency of the pn-junction cell was about 0.1%

  19. Neuro-muscular differentiation of adult porcine skin derived stem cell-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Lermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the genetic relationship to humans, porcine stem cells are a very important model system to investigate cell differentiation, associated cell signaling pathways, and cell fate. Porcine skin derived stem cells have been isolated from mid-gestation porcine fetus recently. To our knowledge, stem cells from the skin of the adult porcine organism have not been isolated until now. Hence, to our knowledge, we here describe the isolation, expansion, characterization and differentiation of multipotent porcine skin derived stem cell-like cells (pSSCs from the adult porcine organism for the first time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: pSSCs had a spindle shaped morphology similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. They could be maintained proliferatively active in vitro for more than 120 days and were able to form colonies from single cells. pSSCs expressed Sox2 and Oct3/4, both transcription factors essential to the pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes of embryonic stem cells, which recently gained attention due to their function in inducing pluripotent stem cells. Furthermore, the expression of the progenitor marker nestin, the somatic stem cell markers Bcrp1/ABCG2, Bmi1, and Stat3 was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR in undifferentiated pSSCs. Flow cytometry revealed the expression of the MSC related proteins CD9, CD29, CD44 and CD105, but not CD90. After neuronal differentiation cells with a characteristic morphology of neuronal and smooth muscle-like cells were present in the cultures. Subsequent immunochemistry and flow cytometry revealed the down-regulation of nestin and the up-regulation of the neuron specific protein beta-III-tubulin and the astrocyte marker GFAP. Also, alpha-SMA expressing cells increased during differentiation suggesting the neuro-muscular differentiation of these skin derived cells. pSSCs could also be induced to differentiate into adipocyte-like cells when cultured under

  20. Radiosensitization of hypoxic cells treated with some imidazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive investigations to seek more effective and less toxic radiosensitizers to hypoxic cells than misonidazole were carried out. It has been considered that the neurotoxicity of misonidazole was mainly due to the nitro substituent which is bounded to the imidazole ring. Instead of the nitro group, many types of sulfur group were introduced to the imidazole ring. Usually the radiosensitizing ability of the compound is supposed to be related to the electron affinity. Therefore, as an indicator of the electron affinity, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) level of these compounds was determined by the MO calculation using the CNDO/2 method. The LUMO level of these compounds was almost the same as that of misonidazole. Expecting good radiosensitizing effect of these compounds, the radiation enhancement ratio to the hypoxic cells was tested in vitro. To get the hypoxic cells in vitro, HeLa S3 cells were flushed by 95% N2 + 5% CO2 gas in minimum essential medium. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was measured at about 3 in this system. Unfortunately, the sulfur compounds have no radiosensitization to the hypoxic cells. Since the radiosensitizing ability seemed not directly to be related to the electron affinity and the radiosensitizing effect of misonidazole must be mainly due to the nitro substituent, certain dinitroimidazole derivatives (e.g. 2.4-dinitroimidazole-1-ethanol) were further studied for the screening test. It was found that this compound had a radiosensitizing effect on the hypoxic cells about ten times greater than misonidazole. The cytotoxicity of this compound was also investigated in our hypoxic system and it was found to have twice as much as misonidazole. Further investigation of this compound is necessary to apply animal experiments and clinical use. (author)