WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell demonstration plant

  1. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  2. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); O`Shea, T.P. [Santa Clara Demonstration Project, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  3. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  4. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume I. Demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this project is for Babcock Contractors Inc. (BCI) to provide process designs, and gasifier retort design for a fuel gas demonstration plant for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lake, Minnesota. The fuel gas produced will be used to supplement natural gas and fuel oil for iron ore pellet induration. The fuel gas demonstration plant will consist of five stirred, two-stage fixed-bed gasifier retorts capable of handling caking and non-caking coals, and provisions for the installation of a sixth retort. The process and unit design has been based on operation with caking coals; however, the retorts have been designed for easy conversion to handle non-caking coals. The demonstration unit has been designed to provide for expansion to a commercial plant (described in Commercial Plant Package) in an economical manner.

  5. Förster resonance energy transfer demonstrates a flavonoid metabolon in living plant cells that displays competitive interactions between enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crosby, K.C.; Pietraszewska-Bogiel, A.; Gadella (jr.), T.W.J.; Winkel, B.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    We have used Förster resonance energy transfer detected by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM-FRET) to provide the first evidence from living plants cells for the existence of a flavonoid metabolon. The distribution of flux within this system may be regulated by the direct competition of

  6. Environmental analysis for pipeline gas demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, L.H.

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has implemented programs for encouraging the development and commercialization of coal-related technologies, which include coal gasification demonstration-scale activities. In support of commercialization activities the Environmental Analysis for Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plants has been prepared as a reference document to be used in evaluating potential environmental and socioeconomic effects from construction and operation of site- and process-specific projects. Effluents and associated impacts are identified for six coal gasification processes at three contrasting settings. In general, impacts from construction of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant are similar to those caused by the construction of any chemical plant of similar size. The operation of a high-Btu gas demonstration plant, however, has several unique aspects that differentiate it from other chemical plants. Offsite development (surface mining) and disposal of large quantities of waste solids constitute important sources of potential impact. In addition, air emissions require monitoring for trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, and other emissions. Potential biological impacts from long-term exposure to these emissions are unknown, and additional research and data analysis may be necessary to determine such effects. Possible effects of pollutants on vegetation and human populations are discussed. The occurrence of chemical contaminants in liquid effluents and the bioaccumulation of these contaminants in aquatic organisms may lead to adverse ecological impact. Socioeconomic impacts are similar to those from a chemical plant of equivalent size and are summarized and contrasted for the three surrogate sites.

  7. Hybrid Photocatalytic-Biological Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado, M. I.; Malato, S.; Blanco, J.; Oller, I.; Gernjak, W.; Perez-Estrada, L.

    2006-07-01

    This contribution is presenting the tests and operational results performed for designing a new hybrid solar photocatalytic-biological demonstration plant built in a chemical industry located near Almeria (Spain). It will treat saline wastewater (sea water) containing a nonbiodegradable compound up to 550 mg/L and a Total Organic Carbon up to 600 mg/L. Initially, the wastewater (WW) is partly oxidized by solar photo-Fenton process to render the wastewater biodegradable. At pilot-plant scale the wastewater was successfully treated and the conditions for coupling with a biological treatment using Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) as pre-treatment were determined. Samples were collected along the AOP process and their biodegradability was evaluated with the Zahn-Wellens (ZW) test. Enhancement of WW biodegradability was confirmed (>70% biodegradable). Hydrogen peroxide management for reduced consumption is also discussed in detail and the principal parameters for designing the demonstration plant have been obtained. (Author)

  8. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronske, K. [Clean Energy Systems Inc. (USA)

    2007-06-15

    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  9. Coal-fired CCS demonstration plants, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The present report reviews activities taking place focused on the eventual large-scale deployment of carbon capture systems on coal-fired power plants. With this aim in mind, there are three main CO2 capture technology streams currently being developed and tested; these comprise pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture, and systems based on oxyfuel technology. Although numerous other capture systems have been proposed, these three are currently the focus of most RD&D efforts and this report concentrates on these. More speculative technologies still at early stages in their development are not addressed. The overall aims of this report are to provide an update of recent technological developments in each of the main categories of CO2 capture, and to review the current state of development of each, primarily through an examination of larger-scale development activities taking place or proposed. However, where appropriate, data generated by smaller-scale testing is noted, especially where this is feeding directly into ongoing programmes aimed at developing further, or scaling-up the particular technology. Each is reviewed and the status of individual coal-based projects and proposals described. These are limited mainly to what are generally described as pilot and/or demonstration scale. Where available, learning experiences and operational data being generated by these projects is noted. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) of individual projects have been used to provide an indication of technology scale and maturity. For pre-combustion capture, post-combustion capture and oxyfuel systems, an attempt has been made to identify the technological challenges and gaps in the knowledge that remain, and to determine what technology developers are doing in terms of RD&D to address these. However, issues of commercial confidentiality have meant that in some cases, information in the public domain is limited, hence it has only been possible to identify overarching

  10. Heber geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The binary power plant is to be a 45 MW net electrical facility deriving energy from the low salinity (14,000 ppM), moderate temperature (360/sup 0/F, 182/sup 0/C) Heber reservoir in Southern California. The optimized baseline design established for the power plant is described, and the design and optimization work that formed the basis for the baseline design is documented. The work accomplished during Phase II, Preliminary Design is also recorded, and a base provided from which detailed plant design could be continued. Related project activities in the areas of licensing, environmental, cost, and schedule are also described. The approach used to establish the Phase II optimized baseline design was to (1) review the EPRI Phase I conceptual design and feasibility studies; (2) identify current design criteria and state-of-the-art technology; and (3) develop a preliminary design optimized to the Heber site based on utiliity standards.

  11. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume 1. Demonstration plant environmental analysis (Deliverable No. 27)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Robert W.; Swift, Richard J.; Krause, Arthur J.; Berkey, Edgar

    1979-08-01

    This environmental report describes the proposed action to construct, test and operate a coal gasification demonstration plant in Memphis, Tennessee, under the co-sponsorship of the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document is Volume I of a three-volume Environmental Report. Volume I consists of the Summary, Introduction and the Description of the Proposed Action. Volume II consists of the Description of the Existing Environment. Volume III contains the Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action, Mitigating Measures and Alternatives to the Proposed Action.

  12. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume III. Demonstration plant environmental analysis (Deliverable No. 27)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    An Environmental Report on the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Demonstration Plant was prepared for submission to the US Department of Energy under Contract ET-77-C-01-2582. This document is Volume III of a three-volume Environmental Report. Volume I consists of the Summary, Introduction and the Description of the Proposed Action. Volume II consists of the Description of the Existing Environment. Volume III contains the Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action, Mitigating Measures and Alternatives to the Proposed Action.

  13. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July--September 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    The objective of DOE's demonstration plant program is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded, 50% from industry and 50% from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Twenty-two projects involving demonstration plants or support projects for such plants are reviewed, including a summary for each of progress in the quarter. (LTN)

  14. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, October-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The Department of Energy's demonstration plant program was started in 1974 by one of the Department of Energy's predecessor agencies: the Office of Coal Research, US Department of the Interior. The objective of the program is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Under the DOE program, contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operating phases being co-funded, 50% from industry and 50% from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Individual demonstration plant contracts are described briefly.

  15. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The objective of DOE's demonstration plant program is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Under the DOE program, contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded, 50% from industry and 50% from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Six of these demonstration plant projects are described and progress in the quarter is summarized. Several support and complementary projects are described (fuel feeding system development, performance testing and comparative evaluation, engineering support, coal grinding equipment development and a critical components test facility). (LTN)

  16. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, January--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The Department of Energy's demonstration plant program was started in 1974 by one of the Department of Energy's predecessor agencies, the Office of Coal Research, US Department of the Interior. The objective of the program is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Under the DOE program, contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded, 50% from industry and 50% from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Seventeen projects in this program are discussed briefly with identification of the company involved, funding, flow sheets, history and progress during the quarter. (LTN)

  17. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, October--December 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-01

    DOE's demonstration plant program's objective is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Under the DOE program, contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded, 50 percent from industry and 50 percent from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Eighteen projects related to the program are described with emphasis on funding, planning, status, and progress. (LTN)

  18. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's demonstration plant program is to establish the technical and financial feasibility of coal conversion technologies proven during pilot plant testing. Demonstration plants will minimize the technical and economic risks of commercialization by providing a near commercial size plant for testing and production. Thus, DOE is sponsoring the development of a series of demonstration plants, each of which will be a smaller version of commercial plants envisioned for the 1980's. These plants will be wholly integrated, self-sufficient in terms of heat generation, and dependent only on feedstock of coal, water, and air. Under the DOE program, contracts for designing, constructing, and operating the demonstration plants will be awarded through competitive procedures and will be jointly funded. The conceptual design phase will be funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded, 50 percent from industry and 50 percent from the government. The cost involved in building and operating a demonstration plant will probably be between $200 million and $500 million, depending on the size of the plant. Two coal liquefaction and 5 coal gasification projects are described; these are mostly at an advanced design stage. Support projects for fuel feeding systems, values, instrumentation and process control, etc. are also described. (LTN)

  19. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  20. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Demonstration plant operation plan (Deliverable No. 38)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The Demo Plant Operating Plan is composed of the following sequence of events starting with the training or personnel, familiarizing of the personnel with the plant and completing the long-term run in the following sequences: inspection during construction, plant completion, shakedown of equipment, process unit startup, shakedown of process units, variable run operation and a turnaround. During the construction period, technical personnel from DRC, MLGW and IGT will be at the plant site becoming familiar with the equipment, its installation and all of the auxiliaries so that on completion of construction they will be well grounded on the plant detail and its configuration. At the same time the supervisory operating personnel will have hands on training the gasifier operation at the IGT pilot plant to develop a field for gasifier operation. As a plant sections are completed, they will be checked out in accordance with the contractor and operator (client) procedure as outlined. Subsequent to this, various vendor designs and furnished equipment will be checked out operating-wise and a performance test run if feasible. The actual startup of the plant will be subsequential with the support areas as utilities, coal handling and waste treatment being placed in operation first. Subsequent to this the process units will be placed in operation starting from the rear of the process train and working forward. Thus the downstream units will be operating before the reactor is run on coal. The reactor will be checked out on coke operation.

  1. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  2. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE PROJECT 2 MW FUEL CELL DEMONSTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FuelCell Energy

    2005-05-16

    With about 50% of power generation in the United States derived from coal and projections indicating that coal will continue to be the primary fuel for power generation in the next two decades, the Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) has been conducted since 1985 to develop innovative, environmentally friendly processes for the world energy market place. The 2 MW Fuel Cell Demonstration was part of the Kentucky Pioneer Energy (KPE) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) project selected by DOE under Round Five of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The participant in the CCTDP V Project was Kentucky Pioneer Energy for the IGCC plant. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE), under subcontract to KPE, was responsible for the design, construction and operation of the 2 MW fuel cell power plant. Duke Fluor Daniel provided engineering design and procurement support for the balance-of-plant skids. Colt Engineering Corporation provided engineering design, fabrication and procurement of the syngas processing skids. Jacobs Applied Technology provided the fabrication of the fuel cell module vessels. Wabash River Energy Ltd (WREL) provided the test site. The 2 MW fuel cell power plant utilizes FuelCell Energy's Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) technology, which is based on the internally reforming carbonate fuel cell. This plant is capable of operating on coal-derived syngas as well as natural gas. Prior testing (1992) of a subscale 20 kW carbonate fuel cell stack at the Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) site using the Dow/Destec gasification plant indicated that operation on coal derived gas provided normal performance and stable operation. Duke Fluor Daniel and FuelCell Energy developed a commercial plant design for the 2 MW fuel cell. The plant was designed to be modular, factory assembled and truck shippable to the site. Five balance-of-plant skids incorporating fuel processing, anode gas oxidation, heat recovery

  3. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  4. A simple demonstration of corrosion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichelaar, Philip J.; Williams, Molly W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to reinforce and enhance the understanding of galvanic cells, anode cathode reactions and polarization phenomena. Complete instructions are given for laboratory demonstration to be performed by students.

  5. The Plant Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt

    2010-01-01

    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  6. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    The objective of the US DOE demonstration program is to demonstrate and verify second-generation technologies and validate the economic, environmental and productive capacity of a near commercial-size plant by integrating and operating a modular unit using commercial size equipment. These facilities are the final stage in the RD and D process aimed at accelerating and reducing the risks of industrial process implementation. Under the DOE program, contracts for the design, construction, and operation of the demonstration plants are awarded through competitive procedures and are cost shared with the industrial partner. The conceptual design phase is funded by the government, with the detailed design, procurement, construction, and operation phases being co-funded between industry and the government. The government share of the cost involved for a demonstration plant depends on the plant size, location, and the desirability and risk of the process to be demonstrated. The various plants and programs are discussed: Description and status, funding, history, flowsheet and progress during the current quarter. (LTN)

  7. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Demonstration plant design manual, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The plant will utilize fixed bed, stirred, two stage gasifiers. The lower stage will be a standard gasifier configuration. The upper stage will be an undivided distillation section containing a slowly rotating stirrer which will move vertically through the bed. The bottom of the gasifier will contain a standard dry grate and will have lock hoppers to discharge the ash. This type of gasifier provides high coal utilization. It also distills the tars and oils from the coal in the upper zone at minimum temperatures, thereby providing minimum viscosity liquid fuels which can be used for the induration of iron ore pellets. The very hot bottom gases leaving the combustion zone, after passing through a cyclone to remove coal and ash dust can be used to generate steam. This steam is in addition to the steam generated in the water jacket of the lower zone which is used in the steam air blast to the bottom of the gasifier retort.

  8. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Demonstration plant design and economic evaluation, Phase I. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program envisions a coal gasification facility to provide low Btu gas to the Erie Mining Company taconite pelletizing operations at Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. Initially, it will consist of a Demonstration Plant which will be sized to supply 7.4 billion Btu (HHV) of fuel energy per day, which is approximately 37% of the Erie Mining Company's daily energy requirement for the induration of pellets. The Demonstration Plant will be designed to permit ultimate expansion to a Commercial Plant capable of supplying the entire fuel gas requirement of the pellet plant. Erie Mining Company is one of the largest producers of iron ore pellets in the United States. Its plant consists of 27 shaft furnaces with an annual production capacity of 10.3 million tons. The furnaces now operate on natural gas and use ful oil as a backup energy supply. Fuel consumption is normally equivalent to 20 billion Btu per day. The contract arrangement between the Department of Energy and Erie Mining Company provides mutually advantageous opportunity and means for: employing coal gasification technology and equipment which is now commercially available, for production and use of low Btu gas in an industrial environment under actual operating conditions; identifying, defining and resolving problems and operational unknowns that have heretofore retarded industrial use of synthetic gas; establishing parameters for retrofitting existing industrial furnaces for use of low Btu gas; and determining and demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  9. Process monitoring in international safeguards for reprocessing plants: A demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    In the period 1985--1987, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory investigated the possible role of process monitoring for international safeguards applications in fuel reprocessing plants. This activity was conducted under Task C.59, ''Review of Process Monitoring Safeguards Technology for Reprocessing Facilities'' of the US program of Technical Assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards program. The final phase was a demonstration of process monitoring applied in a prototypical reprocessing plant test facility at ORNL. This report documents the demonstration and test results. 35 figs.

  10. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  11. Nuclear lamina in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 杨澄; 翟中和

    1996-01-01

    By using selective extraction and diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and embedment-free electron microscopy, the nuclear lamina was demonstrated in carrot and Ginkgo male generative cells. Western blotting revealed that the nuclear lamina was composed of A-type and B-type lamins which contained at least 66-ku and 84-ku or 66-ku and 86-ku polypeptides, respectively. These lamin proteins were localized at the nudear periphery as shown by immunogold-labelling. In situ hybridization for light microscope and electron microscope showed that plant cells have the homologous sequences of animal lamin cDNA. The sorting site of lamin mRNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm near the nudear envelope. The data have verified that there indeed exists nudear lamina in plant cells.

  12. Hydrogen energy demonstration plant in Patagonia: Description and safety issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aprea, Jose Luis [CNEA (Argentine Atomic Energy Commission), AAH, IRAM, Comahue University, CC 805, 8300 Neuquen (Argentina)

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogen safety issues and especially hydrogen hazard's address are key points to remove any safety-related barrier in the implementation process of hydrogen energy systems. Demonstrative systems based on hydrogen technologies represent a clear contribution to the task of showing the feasibility of the new technologies and their beneficial capabilities among the public. In this paper, the safety features of the first hydrogen energy demonstrative plant conceived in Latin America are analyzed. The facilities, located in the village of Pico Truncado, Patagonia, Argentina, serve to gain day-to-day experience in the production, storage, distribution, conversion and use of hydrogen in several applications. The plant uses electrolysis to generate pure hydrogen from renewable primary sources, taking advantage of the installed wind power capacity that is continually growing in the region. The installations were designed to accomplish with two primary objectives: total safety assurance and minimization of human errors. Some details of the plant, including a general layout, are presented here, in addition with design criteria, hydrogen hazards, structural precautions, gas monitoring system, existing regulations and safety requirements. (author)

  13. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  14. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrates a pattern of rare and ancient horizontal gene transfer between plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Soanes, Darren M; Foster, Peter G; Leonard, Guy; Thornton, Christopher R; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. The role of HGT in plant evolutionary history is, however, largely unexplored. Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. We constructed a phylogeny for all 1689 genes identified and all homolog groups available from the rice (Oryza sativa) genome (3177 gene families) and used these to define 14 candidate plant-fungi HGT events. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of these 14 data sets, using methods that account for site rate heterogeneity, demonstrated support for nine HGT events, demonstrating an infrequent pattern of HGT between plants and fungi. Five HGTs were fungi-to-plant transfers and four were plant-to-fungi HGTs. None of the fungal-to-plant HGTs involved angiosperm recipients. These results alter the current view of organismal barriers to HGT, suggesting that phagotrophy, the consumption of a whole cell by another, is not necessarily a prerequisite for HGT between eukaryotes. Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. Our study suggests that genetic exchange between plants and fungi is exceedingly rare, particularly among the angiosperms, but has occurred during their evolutionary history and added important metabolic traits to plant lineages.

  15. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  16. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  17. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  18. Synthesis gas demonstration plant program, Phase I. Site confirmation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    With few reservations, the Baskett, Kentucky site exhibits the necessary characteristics to suggest compatibility with the proposed Synthesis Gas Demonstration Plant Project. An evaluation of a broad range of technical disciplinary criteria in consideration of presently available information indicated generally favorable conditions or, at least, conditions which could be feasibly accommodated in project design. The proximity of the Baskett site to market areas and sources of raw materials as well as a variety of transportation facilities suggests an overall favorable impact on Project economic feasibility. Two aspects of environmental engineering, however, have been identified as areas where the completion or continuation of current studies are required before removing all conditions on site suitability. The first aspect involves the current contradictory status of existing land use and planning ordinances in the site area. Additional investigation of the legality of, and local attitudes toward, these present plans is warranted. Secondly, terrestrial and aquatic surveys of plant and animal life species in the site area must be completed on a seasonal basis to confirm the preliminary conclusion that no exclusionary conditions exist.

  19. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: environmental permit compliance plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodamer, Jr., James W.; Bocchino, Robert M.

    1979-11-01

    This Environmental Permit Compliance Plan is intended to assist the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division in acquiring the necessary environmental permits for their proposed Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant in a time frame consistent with the construction schedule. Permits included are those required for installation and/or operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste sources and disposal areas. Only those permits presently established by final regulations are described. The compliance plan describes procedures for obtaining each permit from identified federal, state and local agencies. The information needed for the permit application is presented, and the stepwise procedure to follow when filing the permit application is described. Information given in this plan was obtained by reviewing applicable laws and regulations and from telephone conversations with agency personnel on the federal, state and local levels. This Plan also presents a recommended schedule for beginning the work necessary to obtain the required environmental permits in order to begin dredging operations in October, 1980 and construction of the plant in September, 1981. Activity for several key permits should begin as soon as possible.

  20. A Study of a nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jong Hwa and others [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ki Kwang [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kwang Deog [Korea Institute od Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The current energy supply system is burdened environmental and supply problems. The concept of a hydrogen economy has been actively discussed worldwide. KAERI has set up a plan to demonstrate massive production of hydrogen using a VHTR by the early 2020s. The technological gap to meet this goal was identified during the past few years. The hydrogen production process, a process heat exchanger, the efficiency of an I/S thermochemical cycle, the manufacturing of components, the analysis tools of VHTR, and a coated particle fuel are key areas that require urgent development. Candidate NHDD plant designs based on a 200 MWth VHTR core and I/S thermochemical process have been studied and some of analysis results are presented in this paper.

  1. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  2. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  3. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  4. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  5. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Volume II. Commercial plant design (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume II presents the commercial plant design and various design bases and design analyses. The discussion of design bases includes definition of plant external and internal considerations. The basis is described for process configuration selection of both process units and support facilities. Overall plant characteristics presented include a summary of utilities/chemicals/catalysts, a plant block flow diagram, and a key plot plan. Each process unit and support facility is described. Several different types of process analyses are presented. A synopsis of environmental impact is presented. Engineering requirements, including design considerations and materials of construction, are summarized. Important features such as safety, startup, control, and maintenance are highlighted. The last section of the report includes plant implementation considerations that would have to be considered by potential owners including siting, coal and water supply, product and by-product characteristics and uses, overall schedule, procurement, construction, and spare parts and maintenance philosophy.

  6. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  7. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  8. Plant cells in vitro under altered gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchuk, D O

    1998-07-01

    Establishing the role of gravity in plant requires information about how gravity regulates the metabolism of individual cells. Plant cells and tissues in vitro are valuable models for such purpose. Disrupted intercellular relations in such models have allowed to elucidate both the gravity role in non-specialised to gravity plant cells and the correlative relation role of an intact plant organism. The data obtained from non-numerous space and clinostat experiments with plant cells in vitro have demonstrated that their metabolism is sensitive to g-environment. The most experiments have shown a decrease in the biomass production and cell proliferation of spaceflight samples compared with ground controls, although there is study reporting of increased biomass production in an anise suspension culture and D. carota crown gall tissue culture. At the same time, results of experiments with single carrot cells and tomato callus culture demonstrated similarities in differentiation process in microgravity and in ground controls. Noted ultrastructural arrangement in cells, especially mitochondria and plastids, have been related to altered energy load and functions of organelles in microgravity, as well as changes in the lipid peroxidation and the content of malonic dyaldehyde in a haplopappus tissue culture under altered gravity supposed with modification of membrane structural-functional state. This article focuses on growth aspects of the cultured cells in microgravity and under clinostat conditions and considers those aspects that require further analysis.

  9. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton

    2012-01-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  10. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  11. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  12. In vitro translocation experiments with RxLR-reporter fusion proteins of Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae and AVR3a from Phytophthora infestans fail to demonstrate specific autonomous uptake in plant and animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawra, Stephan; Djamei, Armin; Albert, Isabell; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Kahmann, Regine; van West, Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes have a large set of secreted effectors that can be translocated into their host cells during infection. One group of these effectors are the RxLR effectors for which it has been shown, in a few cases, that the RxLR motif is important for their translocation. It has been suggested that the RxLR-leader sequences alone are enough to translocate the respective effectors into eukaryotic cells through binding to surface-exposed phosphoinositol-3-phosphate. These conclusions were primary based on translocation experiments conducted with recombinant fusion proteins whereby the RxLR leader of RxLR effectors (i.e., Avr1b from Phytophthora sojae) were fused to the green fluorescent protein reporter-protein. However, we failed to observe specific cellular uptake for a comparable fusion protein where the RxLR leader of the P. infestans AVR3a was fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein. Therefore, we reexamined the ability of the reported P. sojae AVR1b RxLR leader to enter eukaryotic cells. Different relevant experiments were performed in three independent laboratories, using fluorescent reporter fusion constructs of AVR3a and Avr1b proteins in a side-by-side comparative study on plant tissue and human and animal cells. We report that we were unable to obtain conclusive evidence for specific RxLR-mediated translocation.

  13. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...

  14. Light and Plants. A Series of Experiments Demonstrating Light Effects on Seed Germination, Plant Growth, and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, R. J.; And Others

    A brief summary of the effects of light on plant germination, growth and development, including photoperiodism and pigment formation, introduces 18 experiments and demonstrations which illustrate aspects of these effects. Detailed procedures for each exercise are given, the expected results outlined, and possible sources of difficulty discussed.…

  15. Data Analysis for ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Presentation about ARRA Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations, including an overview of the ARRE Fuel Cell Project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's data analysis objectives, deployment composite data products, and planned analyses.

  16. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  17. Recovery Act. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, Gail E. [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Gillingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-30

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Diesel Auxilliary Power Unit Demonstration Project. Summarizing development of Delphi’s next generation SOFC system as the core power plant to prove the viability of the market opportunity for a 3-5 kW diesel SOFC system. Report includes test and demonstration results from testing the diesel APU in a high visibility fleet customer vehicle application.

  18. 78 FR 44575 - Sickle Cell Disease Treatment Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Sickle Cell Disease Treatment Demonstration... Services (HHS). ACTION: Request for Class Deviation for Non-Competitive Extension: Sickle Cell Disease... nine programs that are funded through competitive grant awards under the Sickle Cell Disease...

  19. Thin-Layer Fuel Cell for Teaching and Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanzadeh, M.

    2009-01-01

    A thin-layer fuel cell is described that is simple and easy to set up and is particularly useful for teaching and classroom demonstrations. The cell is both an electrolyzer and a fuel cell and operates using a thin layer of electrolyte with a thickness of approximately 127 micrometers and a volume of approximately 40 microliters. As an…

  20. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  1. Establishment of QA system for ACP hot cell demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, K. S.; Nam J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Lim, N. J.; Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Kook, D. H.; Park, S. W. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process(ACP), which is being developed by KAERI, is now in the 2nd research phase. This phase has a goal to design the total system of active demonstration of ACP. The facilities for the ACP process demonstration will be constructed by some modification works of the future hot cell located at the basement floor of IMEF in KAERI. The QA system for the ACP Hot Cell demonstration was established in the 1st year in the 2nd research phase and have been utilized in the remain two years, and will be also utilized in construction and process demonstration periods in the 3rd research phase.

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    to the system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a

  3. Spectro-Microscopy of Living Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Klaus Harter; Alfred J. Meixner; Frank Schleifenbaum

    2012-01-01

    Spectro-microscopy,a combination of fluorescence microscopy with spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques,provides new and exciting tools for functional cell biology in living organisms.This review focuses on recent developments in spectro-microscopic applications for the investigation of living plant cells in their native tissue context.The application of spectro-microscopic methods led to the recent discovery of a fast signal response pathway for the brassinosteroide receptor BRI1 in the plasma membrane of living plant cells.Moreover,the competence of different plant cell types to respond to environmental or endogenous stimuli was determined in vivo by correlation analysis of different optical and spectroscopic readouts such as fluorescence lifetime (FLT).Furthermore,a new spectro-microscopic technique,fluorescence intensity decay shape analysis microscopy (FIDSAM),has been developed.FIDSAM is capable of imaging lowexpressed fluorophore-tagged proteins at high spatial resolution and precludes the misinterpretation of autofluorescence artifacts.In addition,FIDSAM provides a very effective and sensitive tool on the basis of F(o)rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of protein-protein interaction.Finally,we report on the quantitative analysis of the photosystem Ⅰ and Ⅱ (PSⅠ/PSⅡ) ratio in the chloroplasts of living Arabidopsis plants at room temperature,using high-resolution,spatially resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.With this technique,it was not only possible to measure PSⅠ/PSⅡ ratios,but also to demonstrate the differential competence of wild-type and carbohydrate-deficient plants to adapt the PSⅠ/PSⅡ ratio to different light conditions.In summary,the information content of standard microscopic images is extended by several dimensions by the use of spectro-microscopic approaches.Therefore,novel cell physiological and molecular topics can be addressed and valuable insights into molecular and

  4. In-Situ Propellant Production on Mars: A Sabatier/Electrolysis Demonstration Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David L.

    1997-01-01

    An efficient, reliable propellant production plant has been developed for use on Mars. Using a Sabatier reactor in conjunction with a water electrolysis system, a complete demonstration plant has produced methane and liquid oxygen from simulated Martian atmosphere. The production plant has demonstrated high efficiency, extended duration production and autonomous operations. This paper presents the results and conclusions relating to eventual use in a Mars sample return mission. This work was funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The production plant was built and tested at the Propulsion Center of Lockheed Martin at the Denver Colorado facility.

  5. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  6. Regio- and stereoselectivities in plant cell biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, H. [Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The ability of plant cultured cells to convert foreign substrates into more useful substances is of considerable interest. Therefore I have studied biotransformation of foreign substrate by plant cell suspension cultures. In this presentation, I report regio- and stereoselectivities in biotransformation of steroids and indole alkaloids and taxol by plant (tobacco, periwinkle, moss, orchid) cell suspension cultures.

  7. Biological support media influence the bacterial biofouling community in reverse osmosis water reclamation demonstration plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, Isabel; Mas, Jordi; Taberna, Elisenda; Sanz, Joan; Sánchez, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of the bacterial community developed in different stages of two reverse osmosis (RO) water reclamation demonstration plants designed in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Tarragona (Spain) was characterized by applying 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The plants were fed by secondary treated effluent to a conventional pretreatment train prior to the two-pass RO system. Plants differed in the material used in the filtration process, which was sand in one demonstration plant and Scandinavian schists in the second plant. The results showed the presence of a highly diverse and complex community in the biofilms, mainly composed of members of the Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in all stages, with the presence of some typical wastewater bacteria, suggesting a feed water origin. Community similarities analyses revealed that samples clustered according to filter type, highlighting the critical influence of the biological supporting medium in biofilm community structure.

  8. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  9. Immunohistochemical demonstration of airway epithelial cell markers of guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Wang, Jing; He, Hai Yan; Ma, Ling Jie; Zeng, Jin; Deng, Guang Cun; Liu, Xiaoming; Engelhardt, John F; Wang, Yujiong

    2011-10-01

    The guinea pig (Cavea porcellus) is a mammalian non-rodent species in the Caviidae family. The sensitivity of the respiratory system and the susceptibility to infectious diseases allows the guinea pig to be a useful model for both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases such as asthma and tuberculosis. In this report, we demonstrated for the first time, the major cell types and composition in the guinea pig airway epithelium, using cell type-specific markers by immunohistochemical staining using the commercial available immunological reagents that cross-react with guinea pig. Our results revealed the availability of antibodies cross-reacting with airway epithelial cell types of basal, non-ciliated columnar, ciliated, Clara, goblet and alveolar type II cells, as well as those cells expressing Mucin 5AC, Mucin 2, Aquaporin 4 and Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide. The distribution of these various cell types were quantified in the guinea pig airway by immunohistochemical staining and were comparable with morphometric studies using an electron microscopy assay. Moreover, this study also demonstrated that goblet cells are the main secretory cell type in the guinea pig's airway, distinguishing this species from rats and mice. These results provide useful information for the understanding of airway epithelial cell biology and mechanisms of epithelial-immune integration in guinea pig models.

  10. Emission counter-measures in post-combustion CO2 capture: demonstration at pilot plant scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miguel Mercader, F. de; Khakharia, P.M.; Ham, L.V. van der; Huizinga, A.; Kester, L.G.C.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer. E.L.V.

    2013-01-01

    One of the objectives of the OCTAVIUS project is the demonstration of emission countermeasures for post-combustion CO2 capture. To accomplish it, an acid wash was designed and commissioned at TNO’s CO2 capture pilot plant, which is connected to a coal-fired power plant.

  11. A Good Neighborhood for Cells: Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leland W. K.; Goodwin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good neighborhoods help you grow. As with a city, the lives of a cell are governed by its neighborhood connections Connections that do not work are implicated in a range of diseases. One of those connections - between prostate cancer and bone cells - will be studied on STS-107 using the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05). To improve the prospects for finding novel therapies, and to identify biomarkers that predict disease progression, scientists need tissue models that behave the same as metastatic or spreading cancer. This is one of several NASA-sponsored lines of cell science research that use the microgravity environment of orbit in an attempt to grow lifelike tissue models for health research. As cells replicate, they "self associate" to form a complex matrix of collagens, proteins, fibers, and other structures. This highly evolved microenvironment tells each cell who is next door, how it should grow arid into what shapes, and how to respond to bacteria, wounds, and other stimuli. Studying these mechanisms outside the body is difficult because cells do not easily self-associate outside a natural environment. Most cell cultures produce thin, flat specimens that offer limited insight into how cells work together. Ironically, growing cell cultures in the microgravity of space produces cell assemblies that more closely resemble what is found in bodies on Earth. NASA's Bioreactor comprises a miniature life support system and a rotating vessel containing cell specimens in a nutrient medium. Orbital BDS experiments that cultured colon and prostate cancers have been highly promising.

  12. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. This report serves as one of many mechanisms to help transfer knowledge and lessons learned within various parts of DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program, as well as externally to other stakeholders. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  13. National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Learning Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ramsden, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report discusses key analysis results based on data from early 2005 through September 2011 from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Validation and Demonstration Project, also referred to as the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration. It is the fifth and final such report in a series, with previous reports being published in July 2007, November 2007, April 2008, and September 2010.

  14. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    cell types (e.g. quiescent center cells). Lastly, a growth setup for Arabidopsis seedlings is demonstrated that enables uncomplicated treatment of the plants prior to cell sorting (e.g. for the cell type-specific analysis of biotic or abiotic stress responses). Potential supplementary uses for FACS of plant protoplasts are discussed.

  15. Plant caspase-like proteases in plant programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qixian; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-controlled disassembly of the cell. In animal systems, the central core execution switch for apoptotic PCD is the activation of caspases (Cysteine-containing Aspartate-specific proteases). Accumulating evidence in recent years suggests the existence of caspase-like activity in plants and its functional involvement in various types of plant PCD, although no functional homologs of animal caspases were identified in plant genome. In this mini-review, ...

  16. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    to the system, was demonstrated. System analyses of 40 MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, were carried out using CHEMCAD simulation software. The analyses included systems for near-term and long-term deployment. A new concept was developed that was based on clusters of one-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant, including the key equipment layout and the site plan, was completed. The process information and operational data from the proof-of-concept tests were used in the design of 40 MW high efficiency DFC/T power plants. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant was also prepared. Pilot-scale tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were conducted. The tests demonstrated that the concept has the potential to offer higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output and fuel utilization capabilities were also evaluated. Detailed design of the packaged sub-MW DFC/T Alpha Unit was completed, including equipment and piping layouts, instrumentation, electrical, and structural drawings. The lessons learned from the proof-of-concept tests were incorporated in the design of the Alpha Unit. The sub-MW packaged unit was fabricated, including integration of the Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) stack module with the mechanical balance-of-plant and electrical balance-of-plant. Factory acceptance tests of the Alpha DFC/T power plant were conducted at Danbury, CT. The Alpha Unit achieved an unsurpassed electrical efficiency of 58% (LHV natural gas) during the factory tests. The resulting high efficiency in conversion of chemical energy to electricity far exceeded any sub-MW class power generation equipment presently in the market. After successful completion of the factory tests, the unit was shipped to the Billings Clinic in Billings, MT, for field demonstration tests. The DFC/T unit accomplished a

  17. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  18. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  19. Construction and start-up of a 250 kW natural gas fueled MCFC demonstration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, R.A.; Carter, J.; Rivera, R.; Otahal, J. [San Diego Gas & Electric, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    San Diego Gas & Electric (SDG&E) is participating with M-C Power in the development and commercialization program of their internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) carbonate fuel cell technology. Development of the IMHEX technology base on the UNOCAL test facility resulted in the demonstration of a 250 kW thermally integrated power plant located at the Naval Air Station at Miramar, California. The members of the commercialization team lead by M-C Power (MCP) include Bechtel Corporation, Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). MCP produced the fuel cell stack, Bechtel was responsible for the process engineering including the control system, Stewart & Stevenson was responsible for packaging the process equipment in a skid (pumps, desulfurizer, gas heater, turbo, heat exchanger and stem generator), IHI produced a compact flat plate catalytic reformer operating on natural gas, and SDG&E assumed responsibility for plant construction, start-up and operation of the plant.

  20. Autometallographic demonstration of zinc ions in rat sperm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, M; Sørensen, M B; Danscher, G; Juhl, S; Andreasen, A; Ernst, E

    1997-09-01

    An in-vitro technique for autometallographic (AMG) demonstration of chelatable zinc in electroejaculated sperm cells and spermatozoa from the epididymis is presented and the localization of zinc ions in rat spermatozoa is described. Sperm cells from caput epididymis showed zinc staining in all parts of the tail and a sparse, dispersed staining in the acrosome. Spermatozoa from cauda epididymis showed heavy staining in the acrosome but no staining in the tail, or post-acrosomal part of the sperm head. This distinct acrosomal AMG staining was also found in ejaculated spermatozoa, but additionally a segmentation of the tail was seen based on differences in staining intensity. The membrane penetrating chelator diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC) was found to block the AMG staining whereas calcium-EDTA, known not to pass through cell membranes, did not influence the staining, proving that the detected zinc ions are intracellularly located. Two different approaches for demonstrating the presence of a chelatable zinc pool at electron microscope levels are presented, and the ultrastructural presence of AMG grains located in the acrosome and in the mitochondria of the midpiece is demonstrated. It is postulated that an exchange of zinc ions takes place between the epididymal epithelium and the sperm cells as they pass along the epididymal duct.

  1. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: Main results of a demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)]. E-mail: Sixto.malato@psa.es; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Maldonado, Manuel I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Oller, Isabel [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Gernjak, Wolfgang [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Perez-Estrada, Leonidas [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500 mg L{sup -1}) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine at 500 mg L{sup -1}), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe{sup 2+} = 20 mg L{sup -1}. Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100 m{sup 2} of CPC collectors for a 250 L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500 L h{sup -1} at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9 W m{sup -2}, under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  2. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: main results of a demonstration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julián; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, Isabel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500mgL(-1)) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance (alpha-methylphenylglycine at 500mgL(-1)), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe(2+)=20mgL(-1). Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100m(2) of CPC collectors for a 250L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500Lh(-1) at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9Wm(-2), under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  3. Microfluidic platforms for plant cells studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati Nezhad, A

    2014-09-07

    Conventional methods of plant cell analysis rely on growing plant cells in soil pots or agarose plates, followed by screening the plant phenotypes in traditional greenhouses and growth chambers. These methods are usually costly, need a large number of experiments, suffer from low spatial resolution and disorderly growth behavior of plant cells, with lack of ability to locally and accurately manipulate the plant cells. Microfluidic platforms take advantage of miniaturization for handling small volume of liquids and providing a closed environment, with the purpose of in vitro single cell analysis and characterizing cell response to external cues. These platforms have shown their ability for high-throughput cellular analysis with increased accuracy of experiments, reduced cost and experimental times, versatility in design, ability for large-scale and combinatorial screening, and integration with other miniaturized sensors. Despite extensive research on animal cells within microfluidic environments for high-throughput sorting, manipulation and phenotyping studies, the application of microfluidics for plant cells studies has not been accomplished yet. Novel devices such as RootChip, RootArray, TipChip, and PlantChip developed for plant cells analysis, with high spatial resolution on a micrometer scale mimicking the internal microenvironment of plant cells, offering preliminary results on the capability of microfluidics to conquer the constraints of conventional methods. These devices have been used to study different aspects of plant cell biology such as gene expression, cell biomechanics, cellular mechanism of growth, cell division, and cells fusion. This review emphasizes the advantages of current microfluidic systems for plant science studies, and discusses future prospects of microfluidic platforms for characterizing plant cells response to diverse external cues.

  4. Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project. [for solar cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Deyo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Test and Demonstration Project was initiated by NASA in June, 1975, to develop economically feasible photovoltaic power systems suitable for a variety of terrestrial applications. Objectives include the determination of operating characteristic and lifetimes of a variety of solar cell systems and components and development of methodology and techniques for accurate measurements of solar cell and array performance and diagnostic measurements for solar power systems. Initial work will be concerned with residential applications, with testing of the first prototype system scheduled for June, 1976. An outdoor 10 kW array for testing solar power systems is under construction.

  5. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. Current working estimate. Phase III and III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) executed a contract with Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW) which requires MLGW to perform process analysis, design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, and evaluation of a plant which will demonstrate the feasibility of converting high sulfur bituminous coal to industrial fuel gas with a heating value of 300 +- 30 Btu per standard cubic foot (SCF). The demonstration plant is based on the U-Gas process, and its product gas is to be used in commercial applications in Memphis, Tenn. The contract specifies that the work is to be conducted in three phases. The Phases are: Phase I - Program Development and Conceptual Design; Phase II - Demonstration Plant Final Design, Procurement and Construction; and Phase III - Demonstration Plant Operation. Under Task III of Phase I, a Cost Estimate for the Demonstration Plant was completed as well as estimates for other Phase II and III work. The output of this Estimate is presented in this volume. This Current Working Estimate for Phases II and III is based on the Process and Mechanical Designs presented in the Task II report (second issue) and the 12 volumes of the Task III report. In addition, the capital cost estimate summarized in the appendix has been used in the Economic Analysis (Task III) Report.

  6. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry`s initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants.

  7. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-08-01

    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  8. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific plan

  9. Safety demonstration tests on pressure rise in ventilation system and blower integrity of a fuel-reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Suzuki, Motoe; Tsukamoto, Michio; Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In JAERI, the demonstration test was carried out as a part of safety researches of the fuel-reprocessing plant using a large-scale facility consist of cells, ducts, dumpers, HEPA filters and a blower, when an explosive burning due to a rapid reaction of thermal decomposition for solvent/nitric acid occurs in a cell of the reprocessing plant. In the demonstration test, pressure response propagating through the facility was measured under a blowing of air from a pressurized tank into the cell in the facility to elucidate an influence of pressure rise in the ventilation system. Consequently, effective pressure decrease in the facility was given by a configuration of cells and ducts in the facility. In the test, transient responses of HEPA filters and the blower by the blowing of air were also measured to confirm the integrity. So that, it is confirmed that HEPA filters and the blower under pressure loading were sufficient to maintain the integrity. The content described in this report will contribute to safety assessment of the ventilation system in the event of explosive burning in the reprocessing plant. (author)

  10. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.; O' Fallon, N.M.

    1977-09-01

    Progress during the quarter of January through March 1977 on ANL 189a 49622R2, Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP) is reported. Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), on development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. Progress in these areas is described.

  11. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Project. Management plan (Deliverable No. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-05-31

    This Project Management Plan establishes the organization and procedures by which the Memphis Medium-Btu Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant will be managed and defines the responsibilities and functions of project participants. This plan should not be construed as modifying contract provisions or documents in any way. It applies mainly to Phase I activities; the conceptual design and development of the demonstration plant. Plans for Phases II and III will be prepared before these phases are initiated. This management plan is intended to be a working document to be revised as the needs of the project dictate. The looseleaf format will facilitate changes by making it possible to add and remove pages.

  12. Cell-penetrating peptides: From mammalian to plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eudes, François; Chugh, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Internalization of cell-penetrating peptides, well described in mammalian cell system, has recently been reported in a range of plant cells by three independent groups. Despite fundamental differences between animal cell and plant cell composition, the CPP uptake pattern between the mammalian system and the plant system is very similar. Tat, Tat-2 pVEC and transportan internalisation is concentration dependent and non saturable, enhanced at low temperature (4°C), and receptor independent. The...

  13. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have

  14. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  15. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration Project for Utility-Scale PV Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neill, Barbara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-21

    A typical photovoltaic (PV) power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. The availability and dissemination of actual test data showing the viability of advanced utility-scale PV controls among all industry stakeholders can leverage PV's value from being simply an energy resource to providing additional ancillary services that range from variability smoothing and frequency regulation to power quality. Strategically partnering with a selected utility and/or PV power plant operator is a key condition for a successful demonstration project. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office selected the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to be a principal investigator in a two-year project with goals to (1) identify a potential partner(s), (2) develop a detailed scope of work and test plan for a field project to demonstrate the gird-friendly capabilities of utility-scale PV power plants, (3) facilitate conducting actual demonstration tests, and (4) disseminate test results among industry stakeholders via a joint NREL/DOE publication and participation in relevant technical conferences. The project implementation took place in FY 2014 and FY 2015. In FY14, NREL established collaborations with AES and First Solar Electric, LLC, to conduct demonstration testing on their utility-scale PV power plants in Puerto Rico and Texas, respectively, and developed test plans for each partner. Both Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and the Electric Reliability Council of Texas expressed interest in this project because of the importance of such advanced controls for the reliable operation of their power systems under high penetration levels of variable renewable generation. During FY15, testing was completed on both plants, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of

  16. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  17. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  18. Aqueous semi-solid flow cell: demonstration and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z; Smith, KC; Dong, YJ; Baram, N; Fan, FY; Xie, J; Limthongkul, P; Carter, WC; Chiang, YM

    2013-01-01

    An aqueous Li-ion flow cell using suspension-based flow electrodes based on the LiTi2(PO4)(3)-LiFePO4 couple is demonstrated. Unlike conventional flow batteries, the semi-solid approach utilizes fluid electrodes that are electronically conductive. A model of simultaneous advection and electrochemical transport is developed and used to separate flow-induced losses from those due to underlying side reactions. The importance of plug flow to achieving high energy efficiency in flow batteries utilizing highly non-Newtonian flow electrodes is emphasized.

  19. Texas LPG fuel cell development and demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-07-26

    The State Energy Conservation Office has executed its first Fuel Cell Project which was awarded under a Department of Energy competitive grant process. The Texas LPG Fuel Processor Development and Fuel Cell Demonstration Program is a broad-based public/private partnership led by the Texas State Energy Conservation Office (SECO). Partners include the Alternative Fuels Research and Education Division (AFRED) of the Railroad Commission of Texas; Plug Power, Inc., Latham, NY, UOP/HyRadix, Des Plaines, IL; Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), San Antonio, TX; the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC), and the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The team proposes to mount a development and demonstration program to field-test and evaluate markets for HyRadix's LPG fuel processor system integrated into Plug Power's residential-scale GenSys(TM) 5C (5 kW) PEM fuel cell system in a variety of building types and conditions of service. The program's primary goal is to develop, test, and install a prototype propane-fueled residential fuel cell power system supplied by Plug Power and HyRadix in Texas. The propane industry is currently funding development of an optimized propane fuel processor by project partner UOP/HyRadix through its national checkoff program, the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC). Following integration and independent verification of performance by Southwest Research Institute, Plug Power and HyRadix will produce a production-ready prototype unit for use in a field demonstration. The demonstration unit produced during this task will be delivered and installed at the Texas Department of Transportation's TransGuide headquarters in San Antonio, Texas. Simultaneously, the team will undertake a market study aimed at identifying and quantifying early-entry customers, technical and regulatory requirements, and other challenges and opportunities that need to be addressed in planning commercialization of the units

  20. Heber geothermal binary demonstration plant: Design, construction, and early startup: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. R.

    1987-10-01

    Study of the concept for a large commercial size binary-cycle geothermal demonstration plant began in 1974. It was perceived that such a project would fill the need to advance the art of binary-cycle technology to the point that it could be used on a large scale for the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The Plant is rated at 45 MWe (net) and is located near Heber in the Imperial Valley of California. Construction began in June 1983 and as completed in June 1985. This report presents the results of design studies and field experiments that provided the data for detailed design. It discusses the plant's final design, highlights the logic behind key design decisions, and gives project costs. It describes the planned three-year test and demonstration program. It also includes a list of reports, studies, project documents, and technical papers related to the project.

  1. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  2. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE-supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in US DOE-supported demonstration plants for the gasification and liquefaction of coal is reported: company, contract number, process description and flowsheet, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects involve coal feeders, lock hoppers, values, etc. for feeding coal into high pressure systems, coal grinding equipment and measuring and process control instrumentation. (LTN)

  3. Proceedings of the 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 symposium on instrumentation and control for fossil demonstration plants was held at Newport Beach, California, June 19--21, 1978. It was sponsored by Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy - Fossil Energy, and the Instrument Society of America - Orange County Section. Thirty-nine papers have been entered individually into the data base. (LTN)

  4. A Miniature Wastewater Cleaning Plant to Demonstrate Primary Treatment in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Cardoso, Catia; Perret, Didier; Bakker, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A small-scale wastewater cleaning plant is described that includes the key physical pretreatment steps followed by the chemical treatment of mud by flocculation. Water, clay particles, and riverside deposits mimicked odorless wastewater. After a demonstration of the optimization step, the flocculation process was carried out with iron(III)…

  5. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.L. [Berea College, KY (United States); Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Straw, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station, Crossville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  6. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.;

    2011-01-01

    the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death......Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about......, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during...

  7. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyl...

  8. Plant Cell Adaptive Responses to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaev, Alexandr

    simulated microgravity and temperature elevation have different effects on the small HSP genes belonging to subfamilies with different subcellular localization: cytosol/nucleus - PsHSP17.1-СІІ and PsHSP18.1-СІ, cloroplasts - PsHSP26.2-Cl, endoplasmatic reticulum - PsHSP22.7-ER and mitochondria - PsHSP22.9-M: unlike high temperature, clinorotation does not cause denaturation of cell proteins, that confirms the sHSP chaperone function. Dynamics of investigated gene expression in pea seedlings growing 5 days after seed germination under clinorotation was similar to that in the stationary control. Similar patterns in dynamics of sHSP gene expression in the stationary control and under clinorotation may be one of mechanisms providing plant adaptation to simulated microgravity. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in cell organelle functional load. Thus, next certain changes in the structure and function of plant cells may be considered as adaptive: 1) an increase in the unsaturated fatty acid content in the plasmalemma, 2) rearrangements of organelle ultrastructure and an increase in their functional load, 3) an increase in cortical F-actin under destabilization of tubulin microtubules, 4) the level of gene expression and synthesis of heat shock proteins, 5) alterations of the enzyme and antioxidant system activity. The dynamics of these patterns demonstrated that the adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems in the limits of physiological norm reaction. The very importance of changed expression of genes involved in different cellular processes, especially HSP genes, in cell adaptation to altered gravity is discussed.

  9. PECULIARITIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES BIOSYNTHESIS IN PLANT CELL CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. NOSOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available metabolites formation in plant cell cultures of Panax spp., (ginsenosides; Dioscorea deltoidea (steroid glycosides; Ajuga reptans, Serratula coronata, Rhaponticum carthamoides (ecdisteroids; Polyscias spp., (triterpene glycosides, Taxus spp. (taxoids, Stevia rebaudiana (diterpene steviol-glycosides, Stephania glabra (alkaloids. They are some regular trends of secondary metabolites synthesis in the plant cell culture:It can be noted the stable synthesis of the compound promoting cell proliferation. Indeed, cell cultures of Dioscorea deltoidea were demonstrated to accumulate only furostanol glycosides, which promoted cell division. Furostanol glycoside content of Dioscorea strain DM-0.5 was up to 6 - 12% by dry biomass.Panax ginseng and P. japonicus plant cell cultures synthesize as minimum seven triterpene glycosides (ginsenosides, the productivity of these compounds was up to 6.0 - 8.0% on dry biomass.By contrast, the detectable synthesis of diterpene steviol-glycosides in cultivated cells of Stevia rebaudiana initiated in the mixotrophic cultures during chloroplast formation only.Despite these differences, or mainly due to them, plant cell cultures have become an attractive source of phytochemicals in alternative to collecting wild plants. It provides a guideline to bioreactor-based production of isoprenoids using undifferentiated plant cell cultures. 

  10. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  11. Plant cells: immobilization and oxygen transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The study described in this thesis is part of the integrated project 'Biotechnological production of non-persistent bioinsecticides by means of plant cells invitro ' and was done in close cooperation with the research Institute Ital within the framework of NOVAPLANT. The plant cells us

  12. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by a 300-MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutan, Clyde; Klauer, Peter; Chowdhury, Sirajul; Hall, Stephen; Morjaria, Mahesh; Chadliev, Vladimir; Milam, Nick; Milan, Christopher; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-03-24

    The California Independent System Operator (CAISO), First Solar, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a demonstration project on a large utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant in California to test its ability to provide essential ancillary services to the electric grid. With increasing shares of solar- and wind-generated energy on the electric grid, traditional generation resources equipped with automatic governor control (AGC) and automatic voltage regulation controls -- specifically, fossil thermal -- are being displaced. The deployment of utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plants that incorporate advanced capabilities to support grid stability and reliability is essential for the large-scale integration of PV generation into the electric power grid, among other technical requirements. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, PV power plants can be used to mitigate the impact of variability on the grid, a role typically reserved for conventional generators. In August 2016, testing was completed on First Solar's 300-MW PV power plant, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to use grid-friendly controls to provide essential reliability services. These data showed how the development of advanced power controls can enable PV to become a provider of a wide range of grid services, including spinning reserves, load following, voltage support, ramping, frequency response, variability smoothing, and frequency regulation to power quality. Specifically, the tests conducted included various forms of active power control such as AGC and frequency regulation; droop response; and reactive power, voltage, and power factor controls. This project demonstrated that advanced power electronics and solar generation can be

  13. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  14. Guard cell protoplasts: isolation, culture, and regeneration of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Guard cell protoplasts have been used extensively in short-term experiments designed to elucidate the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate stomatal movements. The utility of uard cell protoplasts for other types of longer-term signal transduction experiments is just now being realized. Because highly purified, primary isolates of guard cell protoplasts are synchronous initially, they are uniform in their responses to changes in culture conditions. Such isolates have demonstrated potential to reveal mechanisms that underlie hormonal signalling for plant cell survival, cell cycle re-entry, reprogramming of genes during dedifferentiation to an embryogenic state, and plant cell thermotolerance. Plants have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of two species: Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, and Beta vulgaris, sugar beet. Plants genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance have been regenerated from cultured guard cell protoplasts of B. vulgaris. The method for isolating, culturing, and regenerating plants from guard cell protoplasts of N. glauca is described here. A recently developed procedure for large-scale isolation of these cells from as many as nine leaves per experiment is described. Using this protocol, yields of 1.5-2 x 10(7) per isolate may be obtained. Such yields are sufficient for standard methods of molecular, biochemical, and proteomic analysis.

  15. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments......Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...

  16. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  17. Proceedings of the 1977 symposium on instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The 1977 Symposium on Instrumentation and Process Control for Fossil Demonstration Plants was held at Hyatt Regency O'Hare, Chicago, Illinois, July 13 to 15, 1977. It was sponsored by the Argonne National Laboratory, the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration and the Instrument Society of America (Chicago Section). Seventeen papers from thee proceedings were entered individually into EDB and ERA (three papers weree entered previously). (LTN)

  18. Engineering study of a 20 MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Final report for the period ending October 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-10-01

    The Research and Engineering Operation of Bechtel Corporation conducted an engineering study of a 20-MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Ten alternative designs were evaluated. Basically, the configurations proposed for the demonstration plants are those of the mature plants which would follow. The designs of the individual plants are based on the cell designs and the means used to house the cells. Initially, proposed cell designs from five manufacturers were considered. To conform with the level of effort allowed for this engineering study, two manufacturers' cells (one open-tank design and one sealed cell design) were selected by ERDA and Bechtel as being representative. These designs formed the basis for the detailed evaluation conducted in this study. The plant and battery configurations evaluated in the study are a large open-tank cell, configured in rows and housed in four buildings; a sealed cell, configured in a single layer of close packed rows in a single building; a sealed cell, configured in a three-tiered arrangement in a single building; and a sealed cell, configured with groups of cells housed in weatherproof modules and placed outdoors. Annual operating costs based on these mature plant costs show lead--acid load-leveling plants are generally not economically competitive with the alternatives when no consideration is given to their other possible benefits to the power system. However, application of credits (e.g., transmission line or spinning reserve credits) can make such plants economically competitive with gas turbine peaking units in specific situations. 46 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)

  19. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  20. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  1. Electron Tomography in Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of electron tomography-based techniques to our understanding of cellular processes in plant cells. Electron microscopy techniques have evolved to provide better three-dimensional resolution and improved preservation of the subcellular components. In particular, the combination of cryofixation/freeze substitution and electron tomography have allowed plant cell biologists to image organelles and macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context with unprecedented three-dimensional resolution (4-7 nm). Until now, electron tomography has been applied in plant cell biology for the study of cytokinesis, Golgi structure and trafficking, formation of plant endosome/prevacuolar compartments, and organization of photosynthetic membranes. We discuss in this review the new insights that these tomographic studies have brought to the plant biology field.

  2. Demonstration of the economic feasibility of plant tissue culture for jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sluis, C.

    1980-09-01

    The economic feasibility of plant tissue culture was demonstrated as applied to two plants: jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) and Euphorbia spp. The gopher weed (Euphorbia lathyris) was selected as the species of Euphorbia to research due to the interest in this plant as a potential source of hydrocarbon-like compounds. High yield female selections of jojoba were chosen from native stands and were researched to determine the economic feasibility of mass producing these plants via a tissue culture micropropagation program. The female jojoba selection was successfully mass produced through tissue culture. Modifications in initiation techniques, as well as in multiplication media and rooting parameters, were necessary to apply the tissue culture system, which had been developed for juvenile seedling tissue, to mature jojobas. Since prior attempts at transfer of tissue cultured plantlets were unsuccessful, transfer research was a major part of the project and has resulted in a system for transfer of rooted jojoba plantlets to soil. Euphorbia lathyris was successfully cultured using shoot tip cultures. Media and procedures were established for culture initiation, multiplication of shoots, callus induction and growth, and root initiation. Well-developed root systems were not attained and root initiation percentages should be increased if the system is to become commercially feasible.

  3. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Bid packages for materials (Deliverable No. 28)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Fixed-price supply type bid packages for materials and/or service essentially are comprised of two parts, namely: (1) a technical requisition of the material, equipment, or service to be supplied; and (2) commercial and legal requirements, normally referred to as terms and conditions. Requisitions, providing technical requirements, for all equipment items identified for the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant may be found in the 12 volumes of the Demonstration Plant Mechanical Design. The requisitions have been included within separate sections of the design report, sorted by appropriate plant unit. Combined with any General Notes Requisition and the necessary FWEC Job Standards, these various item requisitions provide all technical information for the prospective vendor to furnish his bid. The terms and conditions (boiler plate) to be included in the bid package identify all the contractual requirements which will be imposed upon the bidder. These requirements cover the conditions he must meet to bid on the particular item as well as the clauses to be included within the eventual purchase order/subcontract. A typical package of such terms and conditions is included.

  4. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  5. Polarity establishment, morphogenesis, and cultured plant cells in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1989-01-01

    Plant development entails an orderly progression of cellular events both in terms of time and geometry. There is only circumstantial evidence that, in the controlled environment of the higher plant embryo sac, gravity may play a role in embryo development. It is still not known whether or not normal embryo development and differentiation in higher plants can be expected to take place reliably and efficiently in the micro g space environment. It seems essential that more attention be given to studying aspects of reproductive biology in order to be confident that plants will survive seed to seed to seed in a space environment. Until the time arrives when successive generations of plants can be grown, the best that can be done is utilize the most appropriate systems and begin, piece meal, to accumulate information on important aspects of plant reproduction. Cultured plant cells can play an important role in these activities since they can be grown so as to be morphogenetically competent, and thus can simulate those embryogenic events more usually identified with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary. Also, they can be manipulated with relative ease. The extreme plasticity of such demonstrably totipotent cell systems provides a means to test environmental effects such as micro g on a potentially free-running entity. The successful manipulation and management of plant cells and propagules in space also has significance for exploitation of biotechnologies in space since such systems, perforce, are an important vehicle whereby many genetic engineering manipulations are achieved.

  6. Simplified heavy metal staining techniques demonstrated with Fast Plant leaf tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HARRISJOSEPHB; THOMASG.GUILLIAMS; 等

    1992-01-01

    Fast Plant (Brassica rapa,Cruciferae)leaf tissue fixed in glutaradehyde-acrolein and post-fixed in osmium,was examined for response to several easilyprepared heavy metal stains.Lead and uranium,separately and in combination,gave typical results across the spectrum of cell orgeanelles.As s single stain following osmium,bismuth produced images seemingly equivalent to lead and uranium.Phosphotungstic acid produced very good membrane delineation but produced a washed-out background image similar to that from lead staining .Carbohydrate compounds were especially responsive to ruthenium;the cytoplasm and the matrix of all organelles were also stained very well.The procedures were no more demanding than traditional staining methods and may be easily used in research and teaching .Fast Plant materials are a reliable,quick nand easy source of living material.

  7. Peroxisome Ca(2+) homeostasis in animal and plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alex; Drago, Ilaria; Zottini, Michela; Pizzo, Paola; Pozzan, Tullio

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) homeostasis in peroxisomes has been an unsolved problem for many years. Recently novel probes to monitor Ca(2+) levels in the lumen of peroxisomes in living cells of both animal and plant cells have been developed. Here we discuss the contrasting results obtained in mammalian cells with chemiluminecsent (aequorin) and fluorescent (cameleon) probes targeted to peroxisomes. We briefly discuss the different characteristics of these probes and the possible pitfalls of the two approaches. We conclude that the contrasting results obtained with the two probes may reflect a heterogeneity among peroxisomes in mammalian cells. We also discuss the results obtained in plant peroxisomes. In particular we demonstrate that Ca(2+) increases in the cytoplasm are mirrored by similar rises of Ca(2+) concentration the lumen of peroxisomes. The increases in peroxisome Ca(2+) level results in the activation of a catalase isoform, CAT3. Other functional roles of peroxisomal Ca(2+) changes in plant physiology are briefly discussed.

  8. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  9. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Gisèle; Charmont, Stéphane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F

    2007-01-01

    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (i) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (ii) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (iii) the presence of proteins ...

  10. A study of hazardous air pollutants at the Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCD Program is a joint effort between government and industry to develop a new generation of coal utilization processes. In 1986, the Ohio Power Company, a subsidiary of American Electric Power (AEP), was awarded cofunding through the CCT program for the Tidd Pressure Fluidized Bed Combustor (PFBC) Demonstration Plant located in Brilliant, Ohio. The Tidd PFBC unit began operation in 1990 and was later selected as a test site for an advanced particle filtration (APF) system designed for hot gas particulate removal. The APF system was sponsored by the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) through their Hot Gas Cleanup Research and Development Program. A complementary goal of the DOE CCT and METC R&D programs has always been to demonstrate the environmental acceptability of these emerging technologies. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have focused that commitment toward evaluating the fate of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with advanced coal-based and hot gas cleanup technologies. Radian Corporation was contacted by AEP to perform this assessment of HAPs at the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant. The objective of this study is to assess the major input, process, and emission streams at Plant Tidd for the HAPs identified in Title III of the CAAA. Four flue gas stream locations were tested: ESP inlet, ESP outlet, APF inlet, and APF outlet. Other process streams sampled were raw coal, coal paste, sorbent, bed ash, cyclone ash, individual ESP hopper ash, APF ash, and service water. Samples were analyzed for trace elements, minor and major elements, anions, volatile organic compounds, dioxin/furan compounds, ammonia, cyanide, formaldehyde, and semivolatile organic compounds. The particle size distribution in the ESP inlet and outlet gas streams and collected ash from individual ESP hoppers was also determined.

  11. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L.G.

    1977-07-01

    Work has been performed on updating the study of the state-of-the-art of instrumentation for Fossil Demonstration Plants (FDP), development of mass-flow and other on-line instruments for FDP, process control analysis for FDP, and organization of a symposium on instrumentation and control for FDP. A Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility (S/GFTF) under construction for instrument development, testing, evaluation, and calibration is described. The development work for several mass-flow and other on-line instruments is described: acoustic flowmeter, capacitive density flowmeter, neutron activation flowmeter and composition analysis system, gamma ray correlation flowmeter, optical flowmeter, and capacitive liquid interface level meter.

  12. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  13. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  14. Full scale demonstration plant for anaerobic digestion of sorted municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikriszt, G.; Koehlin, S.-E.; Kaellersjoe, L. (BIOMET AB, Sundbyberg (SE)); Frostell, B. (Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (SE))

    1992-01-01

    A possible future alternative for the treatment of organic material inmunicipal solid waste is anaerobic digestion at a TS concentration of around 10%. The results from a successful pilot plant experiment were reported. An existing 900 m{sup 3} full scale anaerobic digester for municipal sludge was reconstructed for digestion of a mixture of sorted municipal solid waste and municipal sludge. The reconstruction of the anaerobic digester system involved the installation of a novel milling stage for size reduction of incoming waste, removal of unsuitable materials, such as glass, metals etc and preparation of a feedstock with a TS concentration of 10%. The anaerobic digester has been equipped with a mechanical mixing system. The system also comprises an internal water recirculation system, allowing a minimal production of waste water for further treatment. The retrofitted digester was started in September 1991 and the milling station and the separation system in April 1992. During the demonstration operation, the interest is focused on the following key areas: May the succesful results in a 20 m{sup 3} pilot plant be realised also on a full scale Is it possible to solve potential accumulation problems Is the reliability and durability of the milling equipment chosen In the paper, the full scale plant is presented as well as initial results of operation. (au).

  15. Quantitative Aspects of Cyclosis in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, K. F.; Fell, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exercise which is currently used in a course in cell physiology at Oxford Polytechnic in England. This exercise can give students some idea of the molecular events involved in bringing about movement of chloroplasts (and other organelles) in plant cells. (HM)

  16. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process.

  17. Light microscopical demonstration and zonal distribution of parasinusoidal cells (Ito cells) in normal human liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, T; Junge, Jette; Nielsen, O;

    1988-01-01

    The parasinusoidal cells of the liver (Ito cells) were demonstrated light microscopically in autopsy specimens fixed in formalin and stained with Oil red O after dichromate treatment. The method allows examination of large samples containing numerous acini. Quantitative assessment showed a zonal...

  18. Adaptive Sampling approach to environmental site characterization at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant: Phase 2 demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujewski, G.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Environmental Restoration Technologies Dept.; Johnson, R.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Adaptive sampling programs provide real opportunities to save considerable time and money when characterizing hazardous waste sites. This Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project demonstrated two decision-support technologies, SitePlanner{trademark} and Plume{trademark}, that can facilitate the design and deployment of an adaptive sampling program. A demonstration took place at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP), and was unique in that it was tightly coupled with ongoing Army characterization work at the facility, with close scrutiny by both state and federal regulators. The demonstration was conducted in partnership with the Army Environmental Center`s (AEC) Installation Restoration Program and AEC`s Technology Development Program. AEC supported researchers from Tufts University who demonstrated innovative field analytical techniques for the analysis of TNT and DNT. SitePlanner{trademark} is an object-oriented database specifically designed for site characterization that provides an effective way to compile, integrate, manage and display site characterization data as it is being generated. Plume{trademark} uses a combination of Bayesian analysis and geostatistics to provide technical staff with the ability to quantitatively merge soft and hard information for an estimate of the extent of contamination. Plume{trademark} provides an estimate of contamination extent, measures the uncertainty associated with the estimate, determines the value of additional sampling, and locates additional samples so that their value is maximized.

  19. Optical Property Analyses of Plant Cells for Adaptive Optics Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, Yosuke; Murata, Takashi; Hattori, Masayuki; Oya, Shin; Hayano, Yutaka; Kamei, Yasuhiro; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2014-04-01

    In astronomy, adaptive optics (AO) can be used to cancel aberrations caused by atmospheric turbulence and to perform diffraction-limited observation of astronomical objects from the ground. AO can also be applied to microscopy, to cancel aberrations caused by cellular structures and to perform high-resolution live imaging. As a step toward the application of AO to microscopy, here we analyzed the optical properties of plant cells. We used leaves of the moss Physcomitrella patens, which have a single layer of cells and are thus suitable for optical analysis. Observation of the cells with bright field and phase contrast microscopy, and image degradation analysis using fluorescent beads demonstrated that chloroplasts provide the main source of optical degradations. Unexpectedly, the cell wall, which was thought to be a major obstacle, has only a minor effect. Such information provides the basis for the application of AO to microscopy for the observation of plant cells.

  20. Laser-mediated perforation of plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Jacobs, Philipp; Esser, Dominik; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    The functional analysis of plant cells at the cellular and subcellular levels requires novel technologies for the directed manipulation of individual cells. Lasers are increasingly exploited for the manipulation of plant cells, enabling the study of biological processes on a subcellular scale including transformation to generate genetically modified plants. In our setup either a picosecond laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength or a continuous wave laser diode emitting at 405 nm are coupled into an inverse microscope. The beams are focused to a spot size of about 1.5 μm and the tobacco cell protoplasts are irradiated. Optoporation is achieved when targeting the laser focal spot at the outermost edge of the plasma membrane. In case of the picosecond laser a single pulse with energy of about 0.4 μJ was sufficient to perforate the plasma membrane enabling the uptake of dye or DNA from the surrounding medium into the cytosol. When the ultraviolet laser diode at a power level of 17 mW is employed an irradiation time of 200 - 500 milliseconds is necessary to enable the uptake of macromolecules. In the presence of an EYFP encoding plasmid with a C-terminal peroxisomal signal sequence in the surrounding medium transient transformation of tobacco protoplasts could be achieved in up to 2% of the optoporated cells. Single cell perforation using this novel optoporation method shows that isolated plant cells can be permeabilized without direct manipulation. This is a valuable procedure for cell-specific applications, particularly where the import of specific molecules into plant cells is required for functional analysis.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of cholangiocarcinoma cell inhibition by medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelawat, Surang; Leelawat, Kawin

    2017-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated mortality in Thailand. Certain phytochemicals have been demonstrated to modulate apoptotic signaling pathways, which may be targeted for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of specific medicinal plants on the inhibition of CCA cell proliferation, and to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this. A WST-1 cell proliferation assay was performed using an RMCCA1 cell line, and apoptotic signaling pathways were also investigated using a PathScan Stress and Apoptosis Signaling Antibody Array Kit. The cell proliferation assay indicated that extracts from the Phyllanthus emblica fruit pulp (PEf), Phyllanthus emblica seed (PEs), Terminalia chebula fruit pulp (TCf), Terminalia chebula seed (TCs), Areca catechu seed (ACs), Curcuma longa (CL) and Moringa oleifera seed (MOs) exerted anti-proliferative activity in RMCCA1 cells. In addition, the PathScan assay revealed that certain pro-apoptotic molecules, including caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, checkpoint kinase 2 and tumor protein 53, exhibited increased activity in RMCCA1 cells treated with the aforementioned selected plant extracts, with the exception of PEf. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (including ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK) expression level was significantly increased in RMCCA1 cells pre-treated with extracts of PEs, TCf, CL and MOs. The activation of protein kinase B (Akt) was significantly demonstrated in RMCCA1 cells pre-treated with extracts of TCf, ACs and MOs. In summary, the present study demonstrated that extracts of PEs, TCf, TCs, ACs, CL and MOs exhibited anti-proliferative effects in CCA cells by inducing pro-apoptotic signals and modulating signal transduction molecules. Further studies in vivo are required to demonstrate the potential applications of specific plant extracts for the treatment of human cancer.

  2. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  3. Quantification of plant cell coupling with live-cell microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    cell wall interface. Transport through plasmodesmata, the cell wall channels that directly connect plant cells, is regulated not only by a fixed size exclusion limit, but also by physiological and pathological adaptation. The noninvasive approach described here offers the possibility of precisely......Movement of nutrients and signaling compounds from cell to cell is an essential process for plant growth and development. To understand processes such as carbon allocation, cell communication, and reaction to pathogen attack it is important to know a specific molecule’s capacity to pass a specific...... determining the plasmodesmata-mediated cell wall permeability for small molecules in living cells. The method is based on photoactivation of the fluorescent tracer caged fluorescein. Non-fluorescent caged fluorescein is applied to a target tissue, where it is taken up passively into all cells. Imaged...

  4. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ho Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm, plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm, UV-B (280–320 nm and UV-A (320–390 nm. The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS. Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8 is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1 gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD.

  5. LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION OF A MULTISENSOR UNATTENDED CYLINDER VERIFICATION STATION FOR URANIUM ENRICHMENT PLANT SAFEGUARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, David I [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rowland, Kelly L [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sheriden [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Miller, Karen A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Flynn, Eric B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-10

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of the diversion of a significant quantity of nuclear materials, and safeguarding uranium enrichment plants is especially important in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA’s proposed Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) for UF6 cylinder verification would combine the operator’s accountancy scale with a nondestructive assay system such as the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM) and cylinder identification and surveillance systems. In this project, we built a laboratory-scale UCVS and demonstrated its capabilities using mock UF6 cylinders. We developed a signal processing algorithm to automate the data collection and processing from four continuous, unattended sensors. The laboratory demonstration of the system showed that the software could successfully identify cylinders, snip sensor data at the appropriate points in time, determine the relevant characteristics of the cylinder contents, check for consistency among sensors, and output the cylinder data to a file. This paper describes the equipment, algorithm and software development, laboratory demonstration, and recommendations for a full-scale UCVS.

  6. Plant recombinant erythropoietin attenuates inflammatory kidney cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Andrew J; Mohib, Kanishka; Jevnikar, Anthony M; Brandle, Jim E

    2009-02-01

    Human erythropoietin (EPO) is a pleiotropic cytokine with remarkable tissue-protective activities in addition to its well-established role in red blood cell production. Unfortunately, conventional mammalian cell cultures are unlikely to meet the anticipated market demands for recombinant EPO because of limited capacity and high production costs. Plant expression systems may address these limitations to enable practical, cost-effective delivery of EPO in tissue injury prevention therapeutics. In this study, we produced human EPO in tobacco and demonstrated that plant-derived EPO had tissue-protective activity. Our results indicated that targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) provided the highest accumulation levels of EPO, with a yield approaching 0.05% of total soluble protein in tobacco leaves. The codon optimization of the human EPO gene for plant expression had no clear advantage; furthermore, the human EPO signal peptide performed better than a tobacco signal peptide. In addition, we found that glycosylation was essential for the stability of plant recombinant EPO, whereas the presence of an elastin-like polypeptide fusion had a limited positive impact on the level of EPO accumulation. Confocal microscopy showed that apoplast and ER-targeted EPO were correctly localized, and N-glycan analysis demonstrated that complex plant glycans existed on apoplast-targeted EPO, but not on ER-targeted EPO. Importantly, plant-derived EPO had enhanced receptor-binding affinity and was able to protect kidney epithelial cells from cytokine-induced death in vitro. These findings demonstrate that tobacco plants may be an attractive alternative for the production of large amounts of biologically active EPO.

  7. Follow-up study of the MASSAHAKE-demonstration plant; MASSAHAKE-demonstraatiolaitoksen seuranta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T. [Pohjois-Satakunnan Massahake Oy, Kankaanpaeae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    First thinnings of high harvesting costs and low timber accumulation have often remained unharvested in Northern Satakunta due to unprofitability of harvesting. One possible solution for the problem is a harvesting chain based on partial-tree harvesting combined with the MASSAHAKE method. The pulpwood-chipping plant owned by Pohjois-Satakunnan MASSAHAKE Oy started operation in May 1995. The objective of this research is to clear-up the technical operability and profitability of the Kankaanpaeae demonstration plant, and the suitability of the products for industrial purposes. The second aim is to develop a delivery method, based on partial-tree harvesting, and the delivery organisation suitable for the conditions in Pohjois-Satakunta. The wood delivery of the MASSAHAKE is concentrated to first thinning forests. The first thinning area, given in the felling plan, located at the delivery area of MASSAHAKE, is 8870 ha/a. This corresponds to 283 000 m{sup 3} pulpwood, the total amount of biomass being 360 000 m{sup 3}. Felling is mainly carried out as labour input using conveyance-felling method. The biomass yield in typical birch first-thinning cut as partial-trees with top diameter of 4 cm is about 40 % higher than in harvesting with short-wood method. The unit costs of harvesting are about a third lower

  8. Industrial fuel gas demonstration plant program. Construction permit. Compliance plan. (Deliverable No. 31)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this compliance plan is to insure that all required permits are filed and obtained prior to the start of construction of the U-gas demonstration plant. This plan addresses the permits in the following areas: construction, electrical, mechanical, plumbing, federal aviation lighting, and as-required permits. Each permit area is introduced by a brief summary of the permits required and the significant circumstances and/or conditions affecting permit acquisition. Each permit is then discussed in detail according to a format which includes the following: brief introduction of permit, responsible regulator agency, other potential reviewing agency(s), information needed for permit, filing procedures, normal review period, permit duration period, and permit fees. Copies of the actual application forms, guidelines for completing the applications, statements on required information and agency contacts are contained in the Appendices.

  9. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime).

  10. Osmosis in Poisoned Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatina, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes two simple laboratory exercises that allow students to test hypotheses concerning the requirement of cell energy for osmosis. The first exercise involves osmotically-caused changes in the length of potato tubers and requires detailed quantitative observations. The second exercise involves osmotically-caused changes in turgor of Elodea…

  11. Control of the actin cytoskeleton in plant cell growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, P.J.; Ketelaar, M.J.; Deeks, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Plant cells grow through increases in volume and cell wall surface area. The mature morphology of a plant cell is a product of the differential rates of expansion between neighboring zones of the cell wall during this process. Filamentous actin arrays are associated with plant cell growth, and the a

  12. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Recent advances in plant cell wall proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Albenne, Cécile; Boudart, Georges; Irshad, Muhammad; Canut, Hervé; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    The plant extracellular matrix contains typical polysaccharides such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins that interact to form dense interwoven networks. Plant cell walls play crucial roles during development and constitute the first barrier of defense against invading pathogens. Cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to the description of the protein content of a compartment specific to plants. Around 400 cell wall proteins (CWPs) of Arabidopsis, representing about one fourth of its estimated cell wall proteome, have been described. The main points to note are that: (i) the diversity of enzymes acting on polysaccharides suggests a great plasticity of cell walls; (ii) CWPs such as proteases, polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes, and lipases may contribute to the generation of signals; (iii) proteins of unknown functions were identified, suggesting new roles for cell walls. Recently, the characterization of PTMs such as N- and O-glycosylations improved our knowledge of CWP structure. The presence of many glycoside hydrolases and proteases suggests a complex regulation of CWPs involving various types of post-translational events. The first 3-D structures to be resolved gave clues about the interactions between CWPs, or between CWPs and polysaccharides. Future work should include: extracting and identifying CWPs still recalcitrant to proteomics, describing the cell wall interactome, improving quantification, and unraveling the roles of each of the CWPs.

  14. Human pancreatic islet progenitor cells demonstrate phenotypic plasticity in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Maithili P Dalvi; Malati R Umrani; Mugdha V Joglekar; Anandwardhan A Hardikar

    2009-10-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a phenomenon that describes the occurrence of 2 or more distinct phenotypes under diverse conditions. This article discusses the work carried out over the past few years in understanding the potential of human pancreatic islet-derived progenitors for cell replacement therapy in diabetes. The phenotypic plasticity exhibited by pancreatic progenitors during reversible epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and possible role of microRNAs in regulation of this process is also presented herein.

  15. Ames expedited site characterization demonstration at the former manufactured gas plant site, Marshalltown, Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevolo, A.J.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Wonder, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Ames Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) project is to evaluate and promote both innovative technologies (IT) and state-of-the-practice technologies (SOPT) for site characterization and monitoring. In April and May 1994, the ESC project conducted site characterization, technology comparison, and stakeholder demonstration activities at a former manufactured gas plant (FMGP) owned by Iowa Electric Services (IES) Utilities, Inc., in Marshalltown, Iowa. Three areas of technology were fielded at the Marshalltown FMGP site: geophysical, analytical and data integration. The geophysical technologies are designed to assess the subsurface geological conditions so that the location, fate and transport of the target contaminants may be assessed and forecasted. The analytical technologies/methods are designed to detect and quantify the target contaminants. The data integration technology area consists of hardware and software systems designed to integrate all the site information compiled and collected into a conceptual site model on a daily basis at the site; this conceptual model then becomes the decision-support tool. Simultaneous fielding of different methods within each of the three areas of technology provided data for direct comparison of the technologies fielded, both SOPT and IT. This document reports the results of the site characterization, technology comparison, and ESC demonstration activities associated with the Marshalltown FMGP site. 124 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Immunostimulatory acivity of Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Matayba elaeagnoides demonstrated by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Marina Elisa; Duarte, Bruna Momm; Da Silva, Carolina Vieira; De Souza, Michel Thomaz; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Bueno, Edneia Casagranda

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of methanol extracts of three Brazilian medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human mononuclear cells. Lymphoproliferation assay was carried out by incubating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (1 x 10(6) cells/mL) with extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense (roots), Ipomoea pes-caprae (whole plant) and Matayba elaeagnoides (bark), both at 10, 50, 100 and 200 microg/mL, alone or with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 microg/mL), in 96-well microplates at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2, for 72 h. The quantification of cell proliferation assay was performed by blue tetrazolium (MTT) reduction with reading at 540 nm. Cells incubated with only the culture medium were used as negative control for cell proliferation, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The results suggest that the extracts of all three studied plants induce T lymphocyte proliferation. I. pes-caprae showed immunostimulatory activity three times higher than the C. brasiliense extract, while that of the M. elaeagnoides extract was 1.5 times higher. The results demonstrate immunostimulatory effects of these three plants, therefore the continuity of these studies is recommended, in order to determine the active principles.

  17. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Commercial plant design and economic evaluation, Phase I. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    This report contains the description of a proposed Commercial Coal Gasification Plant to be built for Erie Mining Company at Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. It also contains a Capital Cost Estimate for the plant and examines the economics of the plant operations. A Commercial Plant to utilize Eastern coal can be built at a capital cost of $95.8 million based on 1978 costs. This plant, utilizing Eastern coal costing $40 per ton, must sell low Btu gas at $6.64 per million Btu to produce a 12% internal rate of return. A Commercial Plant to utilize Western coal can be built at a capital cost of $81.6 million based on 1978 costs. This plant, utilizing Western coal costing $31 per ton, must sell low Btu gas at $6.39 per million Btu to produce a 12% internal rate of return.

  18. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  19. Plant microbial fuel cell applied in wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, Koen; Liu, Jia; Buisman, Cees; Strik, David

    2015-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) has to be applied in wetlands to be able to generate electricity on a large scale. The objective of this PMFC application research is to clarify the differences in electricity generation between a Spartina anglica salt marsh and Phragmites australis peat soil

  20. Inducible cell death in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G;

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack,...

  1. Intergovernmental Advanced Stationary PEM Fuel Cell System Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich Chartrand

    2011-08-31

    A program to complete the design, construction and demonstration of a PEMFC system fuelled by Ethanol, LPG or NG for telecom applications was initiated in October 2007. Early in the program the economics for Ethanol were shown to be unfeasible and permission was given by DOE to focus on LPG only. The design and construction of a prototype unit was completed in Jun 2009 using commercially available PEM FC stack from Ballard Power Systems. During the course of testing, the high pressure drop of the stack was shown to be problematic in terms of control and stability of the reformer. Also, due to the power requirements for air compression the overall efficiency of the system was shown to be lower than a similar system using internally developed low pressure drop FC stack. In Q3 2009, the decision was made to change to the Plug power stack and a second prototype was built and tested. Overall net efficiency was shown to be 31.5% at 3 kW output. Total output of the system is 6 kW. Using the new stack hardware, material cost reduction of 63% was achieved over the previous Alpha design. During a November 2009 review meeting Plug Power proposed and was granted permission, to demonstrate the new, commercial version of Plug Power's telecom system at CERL. As this product was also being tested as part of a DOE Topic 7A program, this part of the program was transferred to the Topic 7A program. In Q32008, the scope of work of this program was expanded to include a National Grid demonstration project of a micro-CHP system using hightemperature PEM technology. The Gensys Blue system was cleared for unattended operation, grid connection, and power generation in Aug 2009 at Union College in NY state. The system continues to operate providing power and heat to Beuth House. The system is being continually evaluated and improvements to hardware and controls will be implemented as more is learned about the system's operation. The program is instrumental in improving the

  2. How-To-Do-It: Using Cauliflower to Demonstrate Plant Tissue Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldeman, Janice H.; Ellis, Jane P.

    1988-01-01

    Presents techniques used for disinfestation of plant material, preparation of equipment and media, and laboratory procedures for tissue culture using cauliflower. Details methods for preparing solutions and plant propagation by cloning. (CW)

  3. Development of analytical cell support for vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, F.H.; Borek, T.T.; Christopher, J.Z. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analytical and Process Chemistry (A&PC) support is essential to the high-level waste vitrification campaign at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). A&PC characterizes the waste, providing information necessary to formulate the recipe for the target radioactive glass product. High-level waste (HLW) samples are prepared and analyzed in the analytical cells (ACs) and Sample Storage Cell (SSC) on the third floor of the main plant. The high levels of radioactivity in the samples require handling them in the shielded cells with remote manipulators. The analytical hot cells and third floor laboratories were refurbished to ensure optimal uninterrupted operation during the vitrification campaign. New and modified instrumentation, tools, sample preparation and analysis techniques, and equipment and training were required for A&PC to support vitrification. Analytical Cell Mockup Units (ACMUs) were designed to facilitate method development, scientist and technician training, and planning for analytical process flow. The ACMUs were fabricated and installed to simulate the analytical cell environment and dimensions. New techniques, equipment, and tools could be evaluated m in the ACMUs without the consequences of generating or handling radioactive waste. Tools were fabricated, handling and disposal of wastes was addressed, and spatial arrangements for equipment were refined. As a result of the work at the ACMUs the remote preparation and analysis methods and the equipment and tools were ready for installation into the ACs and SSC m in July 1995. Before use m in the hot cells, all remote methods had been validated and four to eight technicians were trained on each. Fine tuning of the procedures has been ongoing at the ACs based on input from A&PC technicians. Working at the ACs presents greater challenges than had development at the ACMUs. The ACMU work and further refinements m in the ACs have resulted m in a reduction m in analysis turnaround time (TAT).

  4. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolai Obel; Veronika Erben; Tatjana Schwarz; Stefan Kühne; Andrea Fodor; Markus Pauly

    2009-01-01

    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first iso-lating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apo-plastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level.

  5. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  6. Measuring the Mechanical Properties of Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Vogler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The size, shape and stability of a plant depend on the flexibility and integrity of its cell walls, which, at the same time, need to allow cell expansion for growth, while maintaining mechanical stability. Biomechanical studies largely vanished from the focus of plant science with the rapid progress of genetics and molecular biology since the mid-twentieth century. However, the development of more sensitive measurement tools renewed the interest in plant biomechanics in recent years, not only to understand the fundamental concepts of growth and morphogenesis, but also with regard to economically important areas in agriculture, forestry and the paper industry. Recent advances have clearly demonstrated that mechanical forces play a crucial role in cell and organ morphogenesis, which ultimately define plant morphology. In this article, we will briefly review the available methods to determine the mechanical properties of cell walls, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and microindentation assays, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. But we will focus on a novel methodological approach, called cellular force microscopy (CFM, and its automated successor, real-time CFM (RT-CFM.

  7. Characterization of Cellulose Synthesis in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Maleki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the most significant structural component of plant cell wall. Cellulose, polysaccharide containing repeated unbranched β (1-4 D-glucose units, is synthesized at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex (CSC from bacteria to plants. The CSC is involved in biosynthesis of cellulose microfibrils containing 18 cellulose synthase (CesA proteins. Macrofibrils can be formed with side by side arrangement of microfibrils. In addition, beside CesA, various proteins like the KORRIGAN, sucrose synthase, cytoskeletal components, and COBRA-like proteins have been involved in cellulose biosynthesis. Understanding the mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis is of great importance not only for improving wood production in economically important forest trees to mankind but also for plant development. This review article covers the current knowledge about the cellulose biosynthesis-related gene family.

  8. Plant thin cell layers: update and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin cell layers (TCLs are small and versatile explants for the in vitro culture of plants. At face value, their morphogenic productivity may appear to be less than conventional explants, but once the plant growth correction factor and geometric factor have been applied, the true (potential productivity exceeds that of a conventional explant. It is for this reason that for almost 45 years, TCLs have been applied to the in vitro culture of almost 90 species or hybrids, mainly ornamentals and orchids, but also to field and vegetable crops and medicinal plants. Focusing on 12 new studies that have emerged in the recent past (2013-2015, this paper brings promise to other horticultural species that could benefit from the use of TCLs.

  9. Isolation of plant cell wall proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Elisabeth; Boudart, Georges; Borderies, Giséle; Charmont, Stephane; Lafitte, Claude; Rossignol, Michel; Canut, Herve; Pont-Lezica, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    The quality of a proteomic analysis of a cell compartment strongly depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific drawbacks: (1) the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP) during the isolation procedure; (2) polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins; (3) the presence of proteins interacting in many different ways with the polysaccharide matrix require different procedures to elute them from the cell wall. Three categories of CWP are distinguished: labile proteins that have little or no interactions with cell wall components, weakly bound proteins extractable with salts, and strongly bound proteins. Two alternative protocols are decribed for cell wall proteomics: (1) nondestructive techniques allowing the extraction of labile or weakly bound CWP without damaging the plasma membrane; (2) destructive techniques to isolate cell walls from which weakly or strongly bound CWP can be extracted. These protocols give very low levels of contamination by intracellular proteins. Their application should lead to a realistic view of the cell wall proteome at least for labile and weakly bound CWP extractable by salts.

  10. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  11. Optimized solar heat production in a liberalised electricity market. Demonstration of full-scale plant in Braedstrup; Optimeret solvarmeproduktion i et liberaliseret elmarked. Demonstration af fuldskalaanlaeg i Braedstrup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.A. (PlanEnergi, Skoerping (Denmark)); Kristensen, Per (Braedstrup Fjernvarme, Braedstrup (Denmark)); Furbo, S. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ. DTU BYG, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Ulbjerg, F. (Ramboell, Odense (Denmark)); Holm, L. (Marstal Fjernvarme, Marstal (Denmark)); Schmidt, T. (Steinbeis-Research Institute for Solar and Sustainable Thermal Systems, Stuttgart (Denmark))

    2009-03-15

    The project demonstrates for the first time a combination between CHP and solar power systems. 8,019 m2 solar collectors producing 8% of the annual consumption in Braedstrup, Denmark, and nearly the total consumption on a good summer day were combined with a natural gas-fired CHP plant. An optimised ARCON HT2006 collector was developed for this purpose, and the control system was designed to ensure that supply-pipe temperature from solar collectors is always as low as possible and that the temperature in the existing water storage tank does not drop below 90 deg. C. (ln)

  12. The potential of single-cell profiling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efroni, Idan; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2016-04-05

    Single-cell transcriptomics has been employed in a growing number of animal studies, but the technique has yet to be widely used in plants. Nonetheless, early studies indicate that single-cell RNA-seq protocols developed for animal cells produce informative datasets in plants. We argue that single-cell transcriptomics has the potential to provide a new perspective on plant problems, such as the nature of the stem cells or initials, the plasticity of plant cells, and the extent of localized cellular responses to environmental inputs. Single-cell experimental outputs require different analytical approaches compared with pooled cell profiles and new tools tailored to single-cell assays are being developed. Here, we highlight promising new single-cell profiling approaches, their limitations as applied to plants, and their potential to address fundamental questions in plant biology.

  13. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Monthly and quarterly progress report, September 1, 1978-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-10-01

    Work during the July-September period was concentrated on the preparation of the Task I report. The Commercial Plant estimate was completed and reviewed by MLGW. A MRC review of the estimate was also conducted. A Plant Configuration study was completed and reviewed by MLGW for enclosure in the Demonstration Plant recommendations. The economic analysis was completed. A preliminary draft of the four volumes of the Task I report was provided to all Industrial Team members and MRC for comments, which were received by the week of September 25th.

  14. The first in Poland demonstrative ORC power plant of low power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Wladyslaw; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Stachel, Aleksander A. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Klonowicz, Wojciech; Hanausek, Pawel [Turboservice Sp. z o.o., Lodz (Poland); Klonowicz, Piotr; Magiera, Radomir [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A description of the power plant working according to the organic Clausius-Rankine cycle (ORC) and developed at the Department of Heat Engineering (KTC), West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, is presented. The ORC power plant is powered by the low temperature heat of hot water with the temperature of up to 100 C. The hot water heat is here converted into mechanical energy that is generated by a turbine and used to drive a centrifugal air compressor. The ORC turbine is supplied with dry, saturated vapour of the R227ea working fluid of low boiling point. The working fluid vapour is generated in a combined preheater-evaporator heat exchanger. The results of calculations and experimental measurements are presented and supplemented with conclusions derived from the ORC power plant operation. Perspective modernization of the ORC power plant scheme is also outlined. (orig.)

  15. The economic impact of the proposed demonstration plant for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor design

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the history of the South African Pebble Bed Modular Reactor, a new design of nuclear power plant. It illustrates the serious delays in developing the design and the huge increases in cost of the technology.

  16. Integrated LED/Imaging Illumination Panels Demonstrated within a Small Plant Growth Chamber Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LED light sources are ideal for plant growth systems. However, commercially available multi-color LED illumination panels are designed and manufactured to produce a...

  17. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Conceptual design and evaluation of commercial plant. Volume III. Economic analyses (Deliverable Nos. 15 and 16)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of Task I of Phase I in the form of a Conceptual Design and Evaluation of Commercial Plant report. The report is presented in four volumes as follows: I - Executive Summary, II - Commercial Plant Design, III - Economic Analyses, IV - Demonstration Plant Recommendations. Volume III presents the economic analyses for the commercial plant and the supporting data. General cost and financing factors used in the analyses are tabulated. Three financing modes are considered. The product gas cost calculation procedure is identified and appendices present computer inputs and sample computer outputs for the MLGW, Utility, and Industry Base Cases. The results of the base case cost analyses for plant fenceline gas costs are as follows: Municipal Utility, (e.g. MLGW), $3.76/MM Btu; Investor Owned Utility, (25% equity), $4.48/MM Btu; and Investor Case, (100% equity), $5.21/MM Btu. The results of 47 IFG product cost sensitivity cases involving a dozen sensitivity variables are presented. Plant half size, coal cost, plant investment, and return on equity (industrial) are the most important sensitivity variables. Volume III also presents a summary discussion of the socioeconomic impact of the plant and a discussion of possible commercial incentives for development of IFG plants.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE I FINAL REPORT: CONCEPTUAL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses results of a conceptual design, cost, and evaluation study of energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The conceptual design of the fuel cell energy recovery system is described, and its economic and environm...

  19. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  20. Molecular regulation of plant cell wall extensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Gravity responses in plants often involve spatial and temporal changes in cell growth, which is regulated primarily by controlling the ability of the cell wall to extend. The wall is thought to be a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a hydrated matrix of complex polysaccharides and a small amount of structural protein. The wall extends by a form of polymer creep, which is mediated by expansins, a novel group of wall-loosening proteins. Expansins were discovered during a molecular dissection of the "acid growth" behavior of cell walls. Expansin alters the rheology of plant walls in profound ways, yet its molecular mechanism of action is still uncertain. It lacks detectable hydrolytic activity against the major components of the wall, but it is able to disrupt noncovalent adhesion between wall polysaccharides. The discovery of a second family of expansins (beta-expansins) sheds light on the biological role of a major group of pollen allergens and implies that expansins have evolved for diverse developmental functions. Finally, the contribution of other processes to wall extensibility is briefly summarized.

  1. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidstra, R.; Sabatini, S.

    2014-01-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into n

  2. The potential of single-cell profiling in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Efroni, Idan; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Single-cell transcriptomics has been employed in a growing number of animal studies, but the technique has yet to be widely used in plants. Nonetheless, early studies indicate that single-cell RNA-seq protocols developed for animal cells produce informative datasets in plants. We argue that single-cell transcriptomics has the potential to provide a new perspective on plant problems, such as the nature of the stem cells or initials, the plasticity of plant cells, and the extent of localized ce...

  3. Demonstration of S-100 protein in sustentacular cells of phaeochromocytomas and paragangliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroder, H D; Johannsen, L

    1986-01-01

    Eighteen phaeochromocytomas, including both sporadic and familial cases, four cervical paragangliomas, two jugular paragangliomas, and one abdominal paraganglioma were examined immunohistochemically for the presence of S-100 protein. Positive staining in cells morphologically similar...... protein further supporting their Schwann cell relationship. The number of S-100 positive cells varied considerably. They demonstrated a spindle celled or elongated configuration with long slender processes. The nature of the sustentacular cell proliferation, neoplastic versus reactive, is discussed....

  4. Non-Flow-Through Fuel Cell System Test Results and Demonstration on the SCARAB Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Brianne, T.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the demonstration of a non-flow-through PEM fuel cell as part of a power system on the SCARAB rover. A 16-cell non-flow-through fuel cell stack from Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen, Inc. was incorporated into a power system designed to act as a range extender by providing power to the rover s hotel loads. This work represents the first attempt at a ground demonstration of this new technology aboard a mobile test platform. Development and demonstration were supported by the Office of the Chief Technologist s Space Power Systems Project and the Advanced Exploration System Modular Power Systems Project.

  5. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  6. Manufacturing demonstration of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles in pilot-plant scale reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Phelps, Tommy J; Fitzgerald, Curtis L; Lind, Randall F; Elkins, James G; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C; Kidder, Michelle; Armstrong, Beth L; Watkins, Thomas R; Ivanov, Ilia N; Graham, David E

    2016-09-01

    The thermophilic anaerobic metal-reducing bacterium Thermoanaerobacter sp. X513 efficiently produces zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles (NPs) in laboratory-scale (≤ 24-L) reactors. To determine whether this process can be up-scaled and adapted for pilot-plant production while maintaining NP yield and quality, a series of pilot-plant scale experiments were performed using 100-L and 900-L reactors. Pasteurization and N2-sparging replaced autoclaving and boiling for deoxygenating media in the transition from small-scale to pilot plant reactors. Consecutive 100-L batches using new or recycled media produced ZnS NPs with highly reproducible ~2-nm average crystallite size (ACS) and yields of ~0.5 g L(-1), similar to the small-scale batches. The 900-L pilot plant reactor produced ~320 g ZnS without process optimization or replacement of used medium; this quantity would be sufficient to form a ZnS thin film with ~120 nm thickness over 0.5 m width × 13 km length. At all scales, the bacteria produced significant amounts of acetic, lactic, and formic acids, which could be neutralized by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide without the use of an organic pH buffer, eliminating 98 % of the buffer chemical costs. The final NP products were characterized using XRD, ICP-OES, TEM, FTIR, PL, DLS, HPLC, and C/N analyses, which confirmed that the growth medium without organic buffer enhanced the ZnS NP properties by reducing carbon and nitrogen surface coatings and supporting better dispersivity with similar ACS.

  7. Mitochondria and cell death pathways in plants: Actions speak louder than words

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Iain; Logan, David C

    2008-01-01

    The mitochondrion has a central role during programmed cell death (PCD) in animals, acting as both a sensor of death signals, and as an initiator of the biochemical processes which lead to the controlled destruction of the cell. In contrast to our extensive knowledge of animal cell death, the part played by mitochondria in the death of plant cells has received relatively little attention. Using a combination of whole-organism and cell-based models, we recently demonstrated that changes in mit...

  8. Great gas plants : these five natural gas processing facilities demonstrate decades of top-flight technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byfield, M.

    2010-07-15

    The natural gas purification and pipeline sector is a major economic driver in Canada. Gas processing facilities are growing in number, and several large gas projects are being planned for future construction in the western provinces. This article outlined 5 gas plants in order to illustrate the sector's history and breadth in Canada. The Shell Jumping Pound gas complex was constructed in 1951 after a sulfur-rich gas discovery near Calgary in 1944. The Empress Straddle plant was built in 1971 in southeastern Alberta and is one of the largest single industrial consumers of electrical power in the province. The Fort Nelson gas processing plant is North America's largest sour gas processing facility. The Shell Caroline complex was built 1993. The Sable offshore energy project is located on the coast of Nova Scotia to handle gas produced from the Thebaud wells. A consortium is now considering the development of new gas fields in the Sable area. 5 figs.

  9. Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program: Small-Scale Industrial Project. Environmental assessment statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Solid, liquid, and gaseous by-products and wastes are generated during coal storage and processing, gasification, and gas cleanup. Recovery systems have been designed to collect and utilize by-products. Wastes will be placed in storage areas designed to prevent release of the materials to the environment. The coal gasification plant along with the solid waste disposal area will occupy approximately 115 acres. To prevent, to the fullest extent possible, degradation of groundwater and surface water resources, the coal stockpile, landfill, collection pond, settling basin, and drainage ditches will be constructed to prevent the seepage of potential contaminants into groundwater or the drainage of runoff into surface waters. Cooling water is the primary water requirement of the project. None of the water utilized in the gasification plant will be released into the area surface water system, but will be either recycled or directed into the settling basin. The gasification facility has the potential of emitting a broad spectrum of pollutants into the atmosphere. However, effective emission control procedures such as off-gas recycling, hydrogen sulfide removal, particulate removal, and flaring will be applied to minimize the plant's emissions. The necessity of monitoring the more exotic pollutants such as acid gases, trace elements, metal carbonyls, and a multitude of organic compounds, will be determined as the gasification facility becomes more of a reality and the latest literature and research developments can be surveyed to evaluate the emission rates, biological significance, and monitoring techniques for these pollutants.

  10. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  11. Plant Cell Wall Matrix Polysaccharide Biosynthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ajay Pal S. Sandhu; Gursharn S. Randhawa; Kanwarpal S. Dhugga

    2009-01-01

    The wall of an expanding plant cell consists primarily of cellulose microfibrils embedded in a matrix of hemi-cellulosic and pectic polysaccharides along with small amounts of structural and enzymatic proteins. Matrix polysacchar-ides are synthesized in the Golgi and exported to the cell wall by exocytosis, where they intercalate among cellulose microfibrUs, which are made at the plasma membrane and directly deposited into the cell wall. Involvement of Golgi glucan synthesis in auxin-induced cell expansion has long been recognized; however, only recently have the genes corresponding to glucan synthases been identified. Biochemical purification was unsuccessful because of the labile nature and very low abundance of these enzymes. Mutational genetics also proved fruitless. Expression of candidate genes identified through gene expression profiling or comparative genomics in heterologous systems followed by functional characterization has been relatively successful. Several genes from the cellulose synthase-like (Cs/) family have been found to be involved in the synthesis of various hemicellulosic glycans. The usefulness of this approach, however, is limited to those enzymes that probably do not form complexes consisting of unrelated proteins. Nonconventional approaches will continue to incre-mentally unravel the mechanisms of Golgi polysaccharide biosynthesis.

  12. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I demonstration plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix D. Impact assessment. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-21

    In appendix D, the air quality condition for various pollutants in the areas surrounding the proposed demonstration plant site is given with respect to attainment or non-attainment of US EPA regulations. The minimum pollutant emission rates for these regulated and for several other pollutants are given. Then the estimated emission rates from the proposed plant are given for a dozen pollutants which exceed these limits and therefore require an ambient air quality analysis. This involves taking into account the estimated emission of these pollutants from the proposed plant and from other sources in the surrounding area. Finally, background data from the surrounding area including meteorological data and sampling of regulated pollutants are given. (LTN)

  13. SRC-1 quarterly technical report, April-June 1981. [Review of analytical methods needed in SRC Demonstration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    Twenty-three papers involving the design, materials and equipment for the SRC-1 demonstration coal liquefaction plant near Newman, Daviess County, Kentucky, have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. A number of the papers deal also with the analytical methodology required for the plant, including a rather detailed evaluation of the accuracy requirements and careful evaluation of several methods such as gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, etc. Flexibility of design is stressed so that products can be optimized for the market and charged if the market requires different products. (LTN)

  14. Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) targets arabinosyl residues in plant cell walls to mediate adhesion to fresh produce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossez, Yannick; Holmes, Ashleigh; Lodberg-Pedersen, Henriette; Birse, Louise; Marshall, Jacqueline; Willats, William G T; Toth, Ian K; Holden, Nicola J

    2014-12-05

    Outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli are often associated with fresh produce. However, the molecular basis to adherence is unknown beyond ionic lipid-flagellum interactions in plant cell membranes. We demonstrate that arabinans present in different constituents of plant cell walls are targeted for adherence by E. coli common pilus (ECP; or meningitis-associated and temperature-regulated (Mat) fimbriae) for E. coli serotypes O157:H7 and O18:K1:H7. l-Arabinose is a common constituent of plant cell wall that is rarely found in other organisms, whereas ECP is widespread in E. coli and other environmental enteric species. ECP bound to oligosaccharides of at least arabinotriose or longer in a glycan array, plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides, and plant glycoproteins. Recognition overlapped with the antibody LM13, which binds arabinanase-sensitive pectic epitopes, and showed a preferential affinity for (1→5)-α-linked l-arabinosyl residues and longer chains of arabinan as demonstrated with the use of arabinan-degrading enzymes. Functional adherence in planta was mediated by the adhesin EcpD in combination with the structural subunit, EcpA, and expression was demonstrated with an ecpR-GFP fusion and ECP antibodies. Spinach was found to be enriched for ECP/LM13 targets compared with lettuce. Specific recognition of arabinosyl residues may help explain the persistence of E. coli in the wider environment and association of verotoxigenic E. coli with some fresh produce plants by exploitation of a glycan found only in plant, not animal, cells.

  15. Final Technical Report: Residential Fuel Cell Demonstration by the Delaware County Electric Cooperative, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Hilson Schneider

    2007-06-06

    This demonstration project contributes to the knowledge base in the area of fuel cells in stationary applications, propane fuel cells, edge-of-grid applications for fuel cells, and energy storage in combination with fuel cells. The project demonstrated that it is technically feasible to meet the whole-house electrical energy needs of a typical upstate New York residence with a 5-kW fuel cell in combination with in-home energy storage without any major modifications to the residence or modifications to the consumption patterns of the residents of the home. The use of a fuel cell at constant output power through a 120-Volt inverter leads to system performance issues including: • relatively poor power quality as quantified by the IEEE-defined short term flicker parameter • relatively low overall system efficiency Each of these issues is discussed in detail in the text of this report. The fuel cell performed well over the 1-year demonstration period in terms of availability and efficiency of conversion from chemical energy (propane) to electrical energy at the fuel cell output terminals. Another strength of fuel cell performance in the demonstration was the low requirements for maintenance and repair on the fuel cell. The project uncovered a new and important installation consideration for propane fuel cells. Alcohol added to new propane storage tanks is preferentially absorbed on the surface of some fuel cell reformer desulfurization filters. The experience on this project indicates that special attention must be paid to the volume and composition of propane tank additives. Size, composition, and replacement schedules for the de-sulfurization filter bed should be adjusted to account for propane tank additives to avoid sulfur poisoning of fuel cell stacks. Despite good overall technical performance of the fuel cell and the whole energy system, the demonstration showed that such a system is not economically feasible as compared to other commercially available

  16. Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.; Coenen, G.J.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pectin or pectic substances are collective names for a group of closely associated polysaccharides present in plant cell walls where they contribute to complex physiological processes like cell growth and cell differentiation and so determine the integrity and rigidity of plant tissue. They also pla

  17. Ultrastructure of autophagy in plant cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Papini, Alessio

    2013-12-01

    Just as with yeasts and animal cells, plant cells show several types of autophagy. Microautophagy is the uptake of cellular constituents by the vacuolar membrane. Although microautophagy seems frequent in plants it is not yet fully proven to occur. Macroautophagy occurs farther away from the vacuole. In plants it is performed by autolysosomes, which are considerably different from the autophagosomes found in yeasts and animal cells, as in plants these organelles contain hydrolases from the onset of their formation. Another type of autophagy in plant cells (called mega-autophagy or mega-autolysis) is the massive degradation of the cell at the end of one type of programmed cell death (PCD). Furthermore, evidence has been found for autophagy during degradation of specific proteins, and during the internal degeneration of chloroplasts. This paper gives a brief overview of the present knowledge on the ultrastructure of autophagic processes in plants.

  18. Auxin regulation of cell polarity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue; Chen, Jisheng; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2015-12-01

    Auxin is well known to control pattern formation and directional growth at the organ/tissue levels via the nuclear TIR1/AFB receptor-mediated transcriptional responses. Recent studies have expanded the arena of auxin actions as a trigger or key regulator of cell polarization and morphogenesis. These actions require non-transcriptional responses such as changes in the cytoskeleton and vesicular trafficking, which are commonly regulated by ROP/Rac GTPase-dependent pathways. These findings beg for the question about the nature of auxin receptors that regulate these responses and renew the interest in ABP1 as a cell surface auxin receptor, including the work showing auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) interacts with the extracellular domain of the transmembrane kinase (TMK) receptor-like kinases in an auxin-dependent manner, as well as the debate on this auxin binding protein discovered about 40 years ago. This review highlights recent work on the non-transcriptional auxin signaling mechanisms underscoring cell polarity and shape formation in plants.

  19. Demonstration using field collections that Argentina fall armyworm populations exhibit strain-specific host plant preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations ...

  20. Demonstrating compliance with WAPS 1.3 in the Hanford waste vitrification plant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.; Simpson, D.B.

    1996-03-01

    The high-level waste (HLW) vitrification plant at the Hanford Site was being designed to immobilize transuranic and high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass. This document describes the statistical procedure to be used in verifying compliance with requirements imposed by Section 1.3 of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS, USDOE 1993). WAPS 1.3 is a specification for ``product consistency,`` as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT, Jantzen 1992b), for each of three elements: lithium, sodium, and boron. Properties of a process batch and the resulting glass are largely determined by the composition of the feed material. Empirical models are being developed to estimate some property values, including PCT results, from data on feed composition. These models will be used in conjunction with measurements of feed composition to control the HLW vitrification process and product.

  1. Demonstration of different modes of cell death upon herpes simplex virus 1 infection in different types of oral cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C R; Lin, S S; Chou, M Y; Ho, C C; Wang, L; Lee, Y L; Chen, C S; Yang, C C

    2005-01-01

    The effects of Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection on five different types of oral cancerous cells (neck metastasis of gingival carcinoma (GNM) cells and tongue squamous cells of carcinoma (TSCCa) and non-cancerous cells (buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BF), gingival fibroblasts (GF), oral submucosal fibrosis cells (OSF)) and one type of non-oral cancerous cells (KB cells) were investigated. In HSV-1-infected cells the cell viability, CPE, viral antigens accumulation, caspase-3 activity, annexin V binding and DNA fragmentation were estimated. Three different forms or pathways of cell death were considered: apoptosis (the presence or rise of caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation and annexin V binding), slow cell death (the presence or rise of DNA fragmentation, the absence or decline of caspase-3 activity and annexin V binding), and necrosis (the absence of decline of caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation and annexin V binding). The viability of all cell types, except for KB cells, was reduced by the infection. CPE and viral antigens data demonstrated that all six types of cells could be infected with HSV-1. Upon HSV-1 infection there occurred (i) a classical apoptosis in GF cells, (ii) apoptosis in the early phase of infection and necrosis in the late phase of infection in GNM and TSCCa cells, (iii) slow cell death followed by necrosis in BF and OSF cells (however, these cells showed a different type of CPE), (iv) a classical slow cell death in KB cells. It is hypothesized that HSV-1 infection has a potential to induce several distinct pathways leading to cell death or several forms of cell death. Moreover, more than one pathway may be involved in the death of particular cell type. As HSV-1 was demonstrated to infect different oral and non-oral cells and cause different pathways or forms of cell death, the safety of using HSV-1 as a vector for gene therapy should be re-considered.

  2. Expanded Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Reselected for High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity Demonstrate Islet Regenerative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Ayesh K; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Cooper, Tyler T; Putman, David M; Hess, David A

    2016-04-01

    Human umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) purified for high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) ) stimulate islet regeneration after transplantation into mice with streptozotocin-induced β cell deletion. However, ALDH(hi) cells represent a rare progenitor subset and widespread use of UCB ALDH(hi) cells to stimulate islet regeneration will require progenitor cell expansion without loss of islet regenerative functions. Here we demonstrate that prospectively purified UCB ALDH(hi) cells expand efficiently under serum-free, xeno-free conditions with minimal growth factor supplementation. Consistent with the concept that ALDH-activity is decreased as progenitor cells differentiate, kinetic analyses over 9 days revealed the frequency of ALDH(hi) cells diminished as culture time progressed such that total ALDH(hi) cell number was maximal (increased 3-fold) at day 6. Subsequently, day 6 expanded cells (bulk cells) were sorted after culture to reselect differentiated progeny with low ALDH-activity (ALDH(lo) subset) from less differentiated progeny with high ALDH-activity (ALDH(hi) subset). The ALDH(hi) subset retained primitive cell surface marker coexpression (32.0% ± 7.0% CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, 37.0% ± 6.9% CD34(+) /CD133(+) cells), and demonstrated increased hematopoietic colony forming cell function compared with the ALDH(lo) subset. Notably, bulk cells or ALDH(lo) cells did not possess the functional capacity to lower hyperglycemia after transplantation into streptozotocin-treated NOD/SCID mice. However, transplantation of the repurified ALDH(hi) subset significantly reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and increased islet-associated cell proliferation and capillary formation. Thus, expansion and delivery of reselected UCB cells that retain high ALDH-activity after short-term culture represents an improved strategy for the development of cellular therapies to enhance islet regeneration in situ.

  3. A Demonstration of the Molecular Basis of Sickle-Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marty; Gaynor, John J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that permits the separation of different hemoglobin molecules within two to three hours. Introduces students to the powerful technique of gel electrophoresis and illustrates the molecular basis of sickle-cell anemia. (JRH)

  4. Plant and animal stem cells: similar yet different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidstra, Renze; Sabatini, Sabrina

    2014-05-01

    The astonishingly long lives of plants and their regeneration capacity depend on the activity of plant stem cells. As in animals, stem cells reside in stem cell niches, which produce signals that regulate the balance between self-renewal and the generation of daughter cells that differentiate into new tissues. Plant stem cell niches are located within the meristems, which are organized structures that are responsible for most post-embryonic development. The continuous organ production that is characteristic of plant growth requires a robust regulatory network to keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating progeny. Components of this network have now been elucidated and provide a unique opportunity for comparing strategies that were developed in the animal and plant kingdoms, which underlie the logic of stem cell behaviour.

  5. Programmed cell death in the plant immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, N S; Epple, P; Dangl, J L

    2011-08-01

    Cell death has a central role in innate immune responses in both plants and animals. Besides sharing striking convergences and similarities in the overall evolutionary organization of their innate immune systems, both plants and animals can respond to infection and pathogen recognition with programmed cell death. The fact that plant and animal pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert specific cell death modalities emphasizes the essential role of cell death during immune responses. The hypersensitive response (HR) cell death in plants displays morphological features, molecular architectures and mechanisms reminiscent of different inflammatory cell death types in animals (pyroptosis and necroptosis). In this review, we describe the molecular pathways leading to cell death during innate immune responses. Additionally, we present recently discovered caspase and caspase-like networks regulating cell death that have revealed fascinating analogies between cell death control across both kingdoms.

  6. Haida Gwaii / Queen Charlotte Islands demonstration tidal power plant feasibility study : summary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, A. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Remote communities may benefit from using tidal energy in terms of reduced diesel fuel consumption and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to assess the feasibility for a tidal demonstration project on the Haida Gwaii, Queen Charlotte Islands. Candidate communities were scanned for resource potential, load profile, infrastructure distribution and community interest. This presentation focused on choosing an appropriate site for a given tidal power technology. Three hotspots in Masset Sound were identified as well as one hotspot at Juskatla Narrows. Technology providers were solicited for information on unit performance, cost, and trials to date. The presentation noted that demonstration or future commercial deployment is limited by resource and by the ability of the grid to accommodate tidal power. The presentation concluded with next steps which include publishing the study. tabs., figs.

  7. Specific insulin binding in bovine chromaffin cells; demonstration of preferential binding to adrenalin-storing cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serck-Hanssen, G.; Soevik, O.

    1987-12-28

    Insulin binding was studied in subpopulations of bovine chromaffin cells enriched in adrenalin-producing cells (A-cells) or noradrenalin-producing cells (NA-cells). Binding of /sup 125/I-insulin was carried out at 15/sup 0/C for 3 hrs in the absence or presence of excess unlabeled hormone. Four fractions of cells were obtained by centrifugation on a stepwise bovine serum albumin gradient. The four fractions were all shown to bind insulin in a specific manner and the highest binding was measured in the cell layers of higher densities, containing mainly A-cells. The difference in binding of insulin to the four subpopulations of chromaffin cells seemed to be related to differences in numbers of receptors as opposed to receptor affinities. The authors conclude that bovine chromaffin cells possess high affinity binding sites for insulin and that these binding sites are mainly confined to A-cells. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. Nordic 1000 plant 2, demonstration plant for wind power. Final report; Nordic 1000 aggregat 2, demonstrationsanlaeggning foer vindkraft. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoen, J. [Renewable Energy in Sweden AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-06-01

    In 1995 Nordic Windpower AB erected the prototype of a 1 MW wind turbine, Nordic 1000. In September 1999 the National Energy Administration (STEM) decided to support Renewable Energy AB for demonstration of a Nordic 1000 wind turbine adapted for offshore conditions. STEM also decided to support the purchase of a Nordic 1000 by Vattenfall AB. Additional support was received from the Thermie programme of the European Union. The design work that started in 1999 aimed at achieving a design that is adapted for series production, to solve a noise problem and to adapt the design for offshore use. According to the initial time plan the Renewable wind turbine was to be erected during the spring of 2000, before the one of Vattenfall. The Vattenfall turbine was erected in June 2000 and has since the commissioning produced electrical power with a 95% availability. Due to an appeal, the building permit of the Renewable turbine was not granted until September 2000. Thus this turbine was erected after the one of Vattenfall and was finally installed during the end of May 2001, after further severe delay due to the gear box delivery. During the commissioning some minor problems in connection with the control system were solved.

  9. International test and demonstration of a 1-MW wellhead generator: Helical screw expander power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R. A.

    1984-06-01

    A 1-MW wellhead generator was tested in 1980, 1981, and 1982 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand at Cerro Prieto, Cesano, and Broadlands, respectively. The total flow helical screw expander portable power plant, Model 76-1, had been built for the U.S. Government and field-tested in Utah, USA, in 1978 and 1979. The expander had oversized internal clearances designed for self-cleaning operation on fluids that deposit adherent scale normally detrimental to the utiliation of liquid dominated fields. Conditions with which the expander was tested included inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0% to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, electrial loads of idle and 110 to 933 kW, electrical frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, male rotor speeds of 2500 to 4000 rpm, and fluid characteristics to 310,000 ppm total dissolved solids and noncondensables to 38 wt % of the vapor. Some testing was done on-grid. Typical expander isentropic efficiency was 40% to 50% with the clearances not closed, and 5 percentage points or more higher with the clearances partly closed. The expander efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power for most operations, while inlet quality, speed, and pressure ratio across the machine had only small effects. These findings are all in agreement with the Utah test results.

  10. Explicit memory creation during sleep demonstrates a causal role of place cells in navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavilléon, Gaetan; Lacroix, Marie Masako; Rondi-Reig, Laure; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-04-01

    Hippocampal place cells assemblies are believed to support the cognitive map, and their reactivations during sleep are thought to be involved in spatial memory consolidation. By triggering intracranial rewarding stimulations by place cell spikes during sleep, we induced an explicit memory trace, leading to a goal-directed behavior toward the place field. This demonstrates that place cells' activity during sleep still conveys relevant spatial information and that this activity is functionally significant for navigation.

  11. Using Tissue Culture To Investigate Plant Cell Differentiation and Dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzone, Donna M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experimental project that uses plant tissue culture techniques to examine cell differentiation in the carrot. Allows students to gain experience in some important techniques and to explore fundamental questions about cell differentiation. (DDR)

  12. Epigenetic memory and cell fate reprogramming in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Roudier, François

    2017-02-01

    Plants have a high intrinsic capacity to regenerate from adult tissues, with the ability to reprogram adult cell fates. In contrast, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. The question is whether epigenetic memory creates a barrier to reprogramming that needs to be erased or circumvented in plant regeneration. Early evidence suggests that, while chromatin dynamics impact gene expression in the meristem, a lasting constraint on cell fate is not established until late stages of plant cell differentiation. It is not yet clear whether the plasticity of plant cells arises from the ability of cells to erase identity memory or to deploy cells that may exhibit cellular specialization but still lack an epigenetic restriction on cell fate alteration.

  13. Instrumentation and process control for fossil demonstration plants. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSage, L. G.; O' Fallon, N. M; Bump, T. R.; Cohn, C. E.; Doering, R. W.; Duffey, D.; Kirsch,; Lipinski, W. C.; Managan, W. W.; Porges, K. G.; Raptis, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The final report of the state-of-the-art study of instrumentation for process control and safety in large-scale coal conversion and fluidized-bed combustion systems was distributed in November. A conceptual design for the Solids/Gas Flow Test Facility has been initiated, the major components identified, and vendors located. Work on acoustic flow measurement has included theoretical feasibility studies of acoustic/ultrasonic techniques for mass-flow measurements of slurries and solid/gas media. Initial planning was conducted to establish a laboratory facility necessary to verify theoretical findings. A survey of the literature relating to capacitive measurements was begun to provide a basis for conceptual designs and preliminary bench tests of the feasibility of these designs. Conceptual design of a capacitive on-line solids density measuring device and calculations to select the type of system for initial feasibility tests were carried out. Preliminary tests of neutron capture gamma analysis for on-line elemental composition of liquid and solid streams in coal plants indicate that most coal elements can be detected quantitatively through the pipe walls. A computer program for peak-fitting in the gamma spectrum was modified for requirements of this work. A literature search was started to determine the state-of-the-art in dynamic process modeling of fossil energy system components, physical property models, and process control models. A partial review of abstracts from a computerized literature search has identified over 50 references having possible application to process analysis activities in this program.

  14. Formative cell divisions: principal determinants of plant morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarkiewicz, Michalina; Dhonukshe, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    Formative cell divisions utilizing precise rotations of cell division planes generate and spatially place asymmetric daughters to produce different cell layers. Therefore, by shaping tissues and organs, formative cell divisions dictate multicellular morphogenesis. In animal formative cell divisions, the orientation of the mitotic spindle and cell division planes relies on intrinsic and extrinsic cortical polarity cues. Plants lack known key players from animals, and cell division planes are determined prior to the mitotic spindle stage. Therefore, it appears that plants have evolved specialized mechanisms to execute formative cell divisions. Despite their profound influence on plant architecture, molecular players and cellular mechanisms regulating formative divisions in plants are not well understood. This is because formative cell divisions in plants have been difficult to track owing to their submerged positions and imprecise timings of occurrence. However, by identifying a spatiotemporally inducible cell division plane switch system applicable for advanced microscopy techniques, recent studies have begun to uncover molecular modules and mechanisms for formative cell divisions. The identified molecular modules comprise developmentally triggered transcriptional cascades feeding onto microtubule regulators that now allow dissection of the hierarchy of the events at better spatiotemporal resolutions. Here, we survey the current advances in understanding of formative cell divisions in plants in the context of embryogenesis, stem cell functionality and post-embryonic organ formation.

  15. Cell Fate Switch during In Vitro Plant Organogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yu Zhao; Ying Hua Su; Zhi Juan Cheng; Xian Sheng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Plant mature cells have the capability to reverse their state of differenUation and produce new organs under cultured conditions. Two phases, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation, are commonly characterized during in vitro organogenesis.In these processes, cells undergo fate switch several times regulated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which are associated with reentry to the cell cycle, the balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin, reprogramming of gene expression, and so forth. This short article reviews the advances in the mechanism of organ regeneration from plant somatic cells in molecular, genomic and epigenetic aspects, aiming to provide important information on the mechanism underlying cell fate switch during in vitro plant organogenesis.

  16. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  17. Plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and their secretion in plant-pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Christian P; Starr, Trevor L; Glass, N Louise

    2014-01-01

    Approximately a tenth of all described fungal species can cause diseases in plants. A common feature of this process is the necessity to pass through the plant cell wall, an important barrier against pathogen attack. To this end, fungi possess a diverse array of secreted enzymes to depolymerize the main structural polysaccharide components of the plant cell wall, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Recent advances in genomic and systems-level studies have begun to unravel this diversity and have pinpointed cell wall-degrading enzyme (CWDE) families that are specifically present or enhanced in plant-pathogenic fungi. In this review, we discuss differences between the CWDE arsenal of plant-pathogenic and non-plant-pathogenic fungi, highlight the importance of individual enzyme families for pathogenesis, illustrate the secretory pathway that transports CWDEs out of the fungal cell, and report the transcriptional regulation of expression of CWDE genes in both saprophytic and phytopathogenic fungi.

  18. The First Observation on Plant Cell Fossils in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; CUI Jinzhong

    2007-01-01

    For a long time, paleontologists have been focusing on hard parts of organisms during different geological periods while soft parts are rarely reported. Well-preserved plant cells, if found in fossils, are treated only as a rarity. Recent progress in research on fossil cytoplasm indicates that plant cytoplasm not only has excellent ultrastructures preserved but also may be a quite commonly seen fossil in strata. However, up to now there is no report of plant cell fossils in China yet. Here plant cell fossils are reported from Huolinhe Coal Mine (the early Cretaceous), Inner Mongolia, China. The presence of plant cytoplasm fossils in two cones on the same specimen not only provides further support for the recently proposed hypothesis on plant cytoplasm fossilization but also marks the first record of plant cytoplasm fossils in China, which suggests a great research potential in this new area.

  19. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  20. Development and demonstration plant operation of an opposed multi-burner coal-water slurry gasification technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fuchen; ZHOU Zhijie; DAI Zhenhua; GONG Xin; YU Guangsuo; LIU Haifeng; WANG Yifei; YU Zunhong

    2007-01-01

    The features of the opposed multi-burner (OMB) gasification technology,the method and process of the research,and the operation results of a pilot plant and demon stration plants have been introduced.The operation results of the demonstration plants show that when Beisu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Yankuang Cathy Coal Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 8%,and a lower specific carbon consumption of 2%-3% than that of Texaco CWS gasification at the Lunan Fertilizer Plant.When Shenfu coal was used as feedstock,the OMB CWS gasification process at Hua-lu Heng-sheng Chemical Co.Ltd had a higher carbon conversion of more than 3%,a lower specific oxygen consumption of about 2%,and a lower specific coal consumption of about 8% than that of the Texaco CWS gasification process at Shanghai Coking & Chemical Corporation.The OMB CWS gasification technology is proven by industrial experience to have a high product yield,low oxygen and coal consumption and robust and safe operation.

  1. A field experiment demonstrating plant life-history evolution and its eco-evolutionary feedback to seed predator populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Johnson, Marc T J; Hastings, Amy P; Maron, John L

    2013-05-01

    The extent to which evolutionary change occurs in a predictable manner under field conditions and how evolutionary changes feed back to influence ecological dynamics are fundamental, yet unresolved, questions. To address these issues, we established eight replicate populations of native common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Each population was planted with 18 genotypes in identical frequency. By tracking genotype frequencies with microsatellite DNA markers over the subsequent three years (up to three generations, ≈5,000 genotyped plants), we show rapid and consistent evolution of two heritable plant life-history traits (shorter life span and later flowering time). This rapid evolution was only partially the result of differential seed production; genotypic variation in seed germination also contributed to the observed evolutionary response. Since evening primrose genotypes exhibited heritable variation for resistance to insect herbivores, which was related to flowering time, we predicted that evolutionary changes in genotype frequencies would feed back to influence populations of a seed predator moth that specializes on O. biennis. By the conclusion of the experiment, variation in the genotypic composition among our eight replicate field populations was highly predictive of moth abundance. These results demonstrate how rapid evolution in field populations of a native plant can influence ecological interactions.

  2. Chemical- and pathogen-induced programmed cell death in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Atanassov, A.; Woltering, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This review focuses on recent update in the understanding of programmed cell death regarding the differences and similarities between the diverse types of cell death in animal and plant systems and describes the morphological and some biochemical determinants. The role of PCD in plant development an

  3. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Reem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as Cell Wall Integrity control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, increased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant cell wall integrity, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  4. Experimental demonstration of programmable multi-functional spin logic cell based on spin Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, C. H.; Yuan, Z. H.; Fang, C.; Kong, W. J.; Wu, H.; Zhang, Q. T.; Tao, B. S.; Han, X. F.

    2017-04-01

    Confronting with the gigantic volume of data produced every day, raising integration density by reducing the size of devices becomes harder and harder to meet the ever-increasing demand for high-performance computers. One feasible path is to actualize more logic functions in one cell. In this respect, we experimentally demonstrate a prototype spin-orbit torque based spin logic cell integrated with five frequently used logic functions (AND, OR, NOT, NAND and NOR). The cell can be easily programmed and reprogrammed to perform desired function. Furthermore, the information stored in cells is symmetry-protected, making it possible to expand into logic gate array where the cell can be manipulated one by one without changing the information of other undesired cells. This work provides a prospective example of multi-functional spin logic cell with reprogrammability and nonvolatility, which will advance the application of spin logic devices.

  5. The role of root border cells in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-01

    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  6. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  7. Animal and plant stem cells concepts, propagation and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlović, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a multifaceted look into the world of stem cells and explains the similarities and differences between plant and human stem cells. It explores the intersection between animals and plants and explains their cooperative role in bioengineering studies. The book treats both theoretical and practical aspects of stem cell research. It covers the advantages and limitations of many common applications related to stem cells: their sources, categories, engineering of these cells, reprogramming of their functions, and their role as novel cellular therapeutic approach. Written by experts in the field, the book focuses on aspects of stem cells ranging from expansion-propagation to metabolic reprogramming. It introduces the emergence of cancer stem cells and different modalities in targeted cancer stem cell therapies. It is a valuable source of fresh information for academics and researchers, examining molecular mechanisms of animal and plant stem cell regulation and their usage for therapeutic applicati...

  8. Plant programmed cell death, ethylene and flower senescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, E.J.; Jong, de A.; Hoeberichts, F.A.; Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina, V.

    2005-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) applies to cell death that is part of the normal life of multicellular organisms. PCD is found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms; it is an active process in which a cell suicide pathway is activated resulting in controlled disassembly of the cell. Most cases of PCD

  9. Dynamics and Regulation of Actin Cytoskeleton in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Haiyun

    2007-01-01

    @@ The actin cytoskeleton constituted of globular actin (G-actin) is a ubiquitous component of eukaryotic cells and plays crucial roles in diverse physiological processes in plant cells, such as cytoplasmic streaming, organelle and nucleus positioning, cell morphogenesis, cell division, tip growth, etc.

  10. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile eALBENNE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cells walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last ten years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions.

  11. Plant cell wall proteomics: the leadership of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell wall proteins (CWPs) progressively emerged as crucial components of cell walls although present in minor amounts. Cell wall polysaccharides such as pectins, hemicelluloses, and cellulose represent more than 90% of primary cell wall mass, whereas hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignins are the main components of lignified secondary walls. All these polymers provide mechanical properties to cell walls, participate in cell shape and prevent water loss in aerial organs. However, cell walls need to be modified and customized during plant development and in response to environmental cues, thus contributing to plant adaptation. CWPs play essential roles in all these physiological processes and particularly in the dynamics of cell walls, which requires organization and rearrangements of polysaccharides as well as cell-to-cell communication. In the last 10 years, plant cell wall proteomics has greatly contributed to a wider knowledge of CWPs. This update will deal with (i) a survey of plant cell wall proteomics studies with a focus on Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) the main protein families identified and the still missing peptides; (iii) the persistent issue of the non-canonical CWPs; (iv) the present challenges to overcome technological bottlenecks; and (v) the perspectives beyond cell wall proteomics to understand CWP functions.

  12. Super-resolution Microscopy in Plant Cell Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komis, George; Šamajová, Olga; Ovečka, Miroslav; Šamaj, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    Although the development of super-resolution microscopy methods dates back to 1994, relevant applications in plant cell imaging only started to emerge in 2010. Since then, the principal super-resolution methods, including structured-illumination microscopy (SIM), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), and stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED), have been implemented in plant cell research. However, progress has been limited due to the challenging properties of plant material. Here we summarize the basic principles of existing super-resolution methods and provide examples of applications in plant science. The limitations imposed by the nature of plant material are reviewed and the potential for future applications in plant cell imaging is highlighted.

  13. Fluorescent Probes for Exploring Plant Cell Wall Deconstruction: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Paës

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant biomass is a potential resource of chemicals, new materials and biofuels that could reduce our dependency on fossil carbon, thus decreasing the greenhouse effect. However, due to its chemical and structural complexity, plant biomass is recalcitrant to green biological transformation by enzymes, preventing the establishment of integrated bio-refineries. In order to gain more knowledge in the architecture of plant cell wall to facilitate their deconstruction, many fluorescent probes bearing various fluorophores have been devised and used successfully to reveal the changes in structural motifs during plant biomass deconstruction, and the molecular interactions between enzymes and plant cell wall polymers. Fluorescent probes are thus relevant tools to explore plant cell wall deconstruction.

  14. Multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy of plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; Hong, Mei

    2016-09-01

    Plant biomass has become an important source of bio-renewable energy in modern society. The molecular structure of plant cell walls is difficult to characterize by most atomic-resolution techniques due to the insoluble and disordered nature of the cell wall. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is uniquely suited for studying native hydrated plant cell walls at the molecular level with chemical resolution. Significant progress has been made in the last five years to elucidate the molecular structures and interactions of cellulose and matrix polysaccharides in plant cell walls. These studies have focused on primary cell walls of growing plants in both the dicotyledonous and grass families, as represented by the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, and Zea mays. To date, these SSNMR results have shown that 1) cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins form a single network in the primary cell wall; 2) in dicot cell walls, the protein expansin targets the hemicellulose-enriched region of the cellulose microfibril for its wall-loosening function; and 3) primary wall cellulose has polymorphic structures that are distinct from the microbial cellulose structures. This article summarizes these key findings, and points out future directions of investigation to advance our fundamental understanding of plant cell wall structure and function.

  15. Dnd knockout ablates germ cells and demonstrates germ cell independent sex differentiation in Atlantic salmon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wargelius, Anna; Leininger, Sven; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Kleppe, Lene; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Schulz, Rüdiger W; Edvardsen, Rolf B

    2016-01-01

    Introgression of farmed salmon escapees into wild stocks is a major threat to the genetic integrity of wild populations. Using germ cell-free fish in aquaculture may mitigate this problem. Our study investigated whether it is possible to produce germ cell-free salmon in F0 by using CRISPR-Cas9 to kn

  16. The Hardware Implementation of Demonstrator Air Independent Electric Supply System Based on Pem Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzeczka G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research project whose the main goal was to build a technology demonstrator of an electric supply system based on the PEM fuel cell. The electric supply system is dedicated to operation on a board of a submarine during emergency situations. The underwater conditions influence on a specific architecture of supply subsystems of the PEM fuel cell system. In this case the fuel cell stack is supplied by both clean hydrogen and clean oxygen stored in pressurized tanks. The hydrogen has to be delivered in a closed loop, while the oxygen can be delivered in a closed or an open loop. In the technology demonstrator, the supply of the fuel cell stack by the hydrogen in the closed loop and the oxygen in the open loop with a precise control of its flow were used.

  17. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  18. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  19. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  20. Cell wall assembly and intracellular trafficking in plant cells are directly affected by changes in the magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Chebli

    Full Text Available Plants are able to sense the magnitude and direction of gravity. This capacity is thought to reside in selected cell types within the plant body that are equipped with specialized organelles called statoliths. However, most plant cells do not possess statoliths, yet they respond to changes in gravitational acceleration. To understand the effect of gravity on the metabolism and cellular functioning of non-specialized plant cells, we investigated a rapidly growing plant cell devoid of known statoliths and without gravitropic behavior, the pollen tube. The effects of hyper-gravity and omnidirectional exposure to gravity on intracellular trafficking and on cell wall assembly were assessed in Camellia pollen tubes, a model system with highly reproducible growth behavior in vitro. Using an epi-fluorescence microscope mounted on the Large Diameter Centrifuge at the European Space Agency, we were able to demonstrate that vesicular trafficking is reduced under hyper-gravity conditions. Immuno-cytochemistry confirmed that both in hyper and omnidirectional gravity conditions, the characteristic spatial profiles of cellulose and callose distribution in the pollen tube wall were altered, in accordance with a dose-dependent effect on pollen tube diameter. Our findings suggest that in response to gravity induced stress, the pollen tube responds by modifying cell wall assembly to compensate for the altered mechanical load. The effect was reversible within few minutes demonstrating that the pollen tube is able to quickly adapt to changing stress conditions.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS - PHASE III. DEMONSTRATION TESTS - PHASE IV. GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS- VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes the results of a four-phase program to demonstrate that fuel cell energy recovery using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell is both environmentally sound and commercially feasible. Phase I, a conceptual design and evaluation study, addressed the technical...

  2. Measuring NO Production by Plant Tissues and Suspension Cultured Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Vitecek; Vilem Reinohl; Russell L.Jones

    2008-01-01

    We describe an inexpensive and reliable detector for measuring NO emitted in the gas phase from plants.The method relies on the use of a strong oxidizer to convert NO to NO2 and subsequent capture of NO2 by a Griess reagent trap.The set-up approaches the sensitivity for NO comparable to that of instruments based on chemiluminescence and photoacoustic detectors.We demonstrate the utility of our set-up by measuring NO produced by a variety of well established plant sources.NO produced by nitrate reductase (NR) in tobacco leaves and barley aleurone was readily detected,as was the production of NO from nitrite by the incubation medium of barley aleurone.Arabidopsis mutants that overproduce NO or lack NO-synthase (AtNOS1) also displayed the expected NO synthesis phenotype when assayed by our set-up.We could also measure NO production from elicitor-treated suspension cultured cells using this set-up.Further,we have focused on the detection of NO by a widely used fluorescent probe 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM).Our work points to the pitfalls that must be avoided when using DAF-FM to detect the production of NO by plant tissues.In addition to the dramatic effects that pH can have on fluorescence from DAF-FM,the widely used NO scavengers 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-l-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) and 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) can produce anomalous and unexpected results.Perhaps the most serious drawback of DAF-FM is its ability to bind to dead cells and remain NO-sensitive.

  3. Analysis of plant Pb tolerance at realistic submicromolar concentrations demonstrates the role of phytochelatin synthesis for Pb detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sina; Kühnlenz, Tanja; Thieme, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan

    2014-07-01

    Lead (Pb) ranks first among metals with respect to tonnage produced and released into the environment. It is highly toxic and therefore an important pollutant of worldwide concern. Plant Pb uptake, accumulation, and detoxification mobilize Pb into food webs. Still, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is very limited. This is largely due to serious experimental challenges with respect to Pb availability. In most studies, Pb(II) concentrations in the millimolar range have been used even though the toxicity threshold is in the nanomolar range. We therefore developed a low-phosphate, low-pH assay system that is more realistic with respect to soil solution conditions. In this system the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was significantly affected by the addition of only 0.1 μM Pb(NO3)2. Involvement of phytochelatins in the detoxification of Pb(II) could be demonstrated by investigating phytochelatin synthase mutants. They showed a stronger inhibition of root growth and a lack of Pb-activated phytochelatin synthesis. In contrast, other putative Pb hypersensitive mutants were unaffected under these conditions, further supporting the essential role of phytochelatins for Pb detoxification. Our findings demonstrate the need to monitor plant Pb responses at realistic concentrations under controlled conditions and provide a strategy to achieve this.

  4. Membrane associated qualitative differences in cell ultrastructure of chemically and high pressure cryofixed plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Bernd; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther

    2007-06-01

    Membrane contrast can sometimes be poor in biological samples after high pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS). The addition of water to the FS-medium has been shown to improve membrane contrast in animal tissue and yeast. In the present study we tested the effects of 1% and 5% water added to the FS-medium (2% osmium with 0.2% uranyl acetate in anhydrous acetone) on the quality and visibility of membranes in high pressure frozen leaf samples of Cucurbita pepo L. plants and compared them to chemically fixed cells (3% glutaraldehyde post-fixed with 1% osmium tetroxide). The addition of water to the FS-medium drastically decreased the amounts of well preserved cells and did not significantly improve the quality nor visibility of membranes. In samples that were freeze substituted in FS-media containing 1% and 5% water the width of thylakoid membranes was found to be significantly increased of about 20% and the perinuclear space was up to 76% wider in comparison to what was found in samples which were freeze substituted without water. No differences were found in the thickness of membranes between chemically and cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted in the FS-medium without water. Nevertheless, in chemically fixed cells the intrathylakoidal space was about 120% wider than in cryofixed cells that were freeze substituted with or without water. The present results demonstrate that the addition of water to the FS-medium does not improve membrane contrast but changes the width of thylakoid membranes and the perinuclear space in the present plant material. The addition of water to the FS-medium is therefore not as essential for improved membrane contrast in the investigated plant samples as it was observed in cells of animal tissues and yeast cells.

  5. {sup 137}Cs sorption into bentonite from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya as buffer material for disposal demonstration plant facility at Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, B., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Sriwahyuni, H., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Ekaningrum, NE., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id; Sumantry, T., E-mail: bravo@batan.go.id [Radwaste Technology Center-National Nuclear Energy Agency, PUSPIPTEK, Serpong-Tangerang 15310 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    According to co-location principle, near surface disposal type the disposal demonstration plant facility will be build at Serpong nuclear area. The facility also for anticipation of future needs to provide national facility for the servicing of radwaste management of non-nuclear power plant activity in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is needs to study the material of buffer and backfill for the safety of demonstration plant facility. A local bentonite rock from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya was used as the buffer materials. Objective of experiment is to find out the specific data of sorption characteristic of Cidadap bentonite as buffer material in a radwaste disposal system. Experiments were performed in batch method, where bentonite samples were contacted with CsCl solution labeled with Cs-137 in 100 ml/g liquid:solid ratio. Initial Cs concentration was 10{sup −8} M and to study the effects of ionic strength and Cs concentration in solution, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl also CsCl concentration ranging 10{sup −8} - 10{sup −4} M were added in solution. As the indicator of Cs saturated in bentonite samples, Kd value was applied. Affected parameters in the experiment were contact time, effects of ionic strength and concentration of CsCl. Results showed that sorption of Cs by bentonite reached constantly after 16 days contacted, and Kd value was 10.600 ml/g. Effect of CsCl concentration on Kd value may decreased in increased in CsCl concentration. Effect of ionic strength increased according to increased in concentration of background and would effect to Kd value due to competition of Na ions and Cs in solution interacts with bentonite. By obtaining the bentonite character data as buffer material, the results could be used as the basis for making of design and the basic of performance assessment the near surface disposal facility in terms of isolation capacity of radwaste later.

  6. Amnion-Epithelial-Cell-Derived Exosomes Demonstrate Physiologic State of Cell under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sheller

    Full Text Available At term, the signals of fetal maturity and feto-placental tissue aging prompt uterine readiness for delivery by transitioning quiescent myometrium to an active stage. It is still unclear how the signals reach the distant myometrium. Exosomes are a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EVs that transport molecular signals between cells, and are released from a wide range of cells, including the maternal and fetal cells. In this study, we hypothesize that i exosomes act as carriers of signals in utero-placental compartments and ii exosomes reflect the physiologic status of the origin cells. The primary aims of this study were to determine exosomal contents in exosomes derived from primary amnion epithelial cells (AEC. We also determined the effect of oxidative stress on AEC derived exosomal cargo contents. AEC were isolated from amniotic membrane obtained from normal, term, not in labor placentae at delivery, and culture under standard conditions. Oxidative stress was induced using cigarette smoke extract for 48 hours. AEC-conditioned media were collected and exosomes isolated by differential centrifugations. Both growth conditions (normal and oxidative stress induced produced cup shaped exosomes of around 50 nm, expressed exosomes enriched markers, such as CD9, CD63, CD81 and HSC70, embryonic stem cell marker Nanog, and contained similar amounts of cell free AEC DNA. Using confocal microscopy, the colocalization of histone (H 3, heat shock protein (HSP 70 and activated form of pro-senescence and term parturition associated marker p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK (P-p38 MAPK co-localized with exosome enrich marker CD9. HSP70 and P-p38 MAPK were significantly higher in exosomes from AEC grown under oxidative stress conditions than standard conditions (p<0.05. Finally, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis identified 221 different proteins involved in immunomodulatory response and cell-to-cell communication. This study determined

  7. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

  8. Electrochemical Polishing of Silverware: A Demonstration of Voltaic and Galvanic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Michelle M.; Smith, Eugene T.

    2008-01-01

    In this demonstration, the students use their knowledge of electrochemistry to determine that tarnish can be removed from silverware by electrochemically converting it back to silver using items commonly available in the kitchen: aluminum foil and baking soda. In addition to using this system as an example of a galvanic cell, an electrolytic cell…

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM LANDFILL GAS: PHASE II. PRETREATMENT SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes Phase II of a demonstration of the utilization of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cells to recover energy from landfill gas. This phase consisted primarily of the construction and testing of a Gas Pretreatment Unit (GPU) whose function is to remove those impu...

  10. Effects of several salt marsh plants on mouse spleen and thymus cell proliferation using mtt assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwan; Lee, Hee-Jung; Kim, You Ah; Youn, Hyun Joo; Lee, Burm-Jong

    2005-12-01

    In the present study, we have tested the effects of 21 salt marsh plants on cell proliferation of mouse immune cells (spleen and thymus) using MTT assay in culture. The methanolic extracts of six salt marsh plants ( Rosa rugosa, Ixeris tamagawaensis, Artemisia capillaris, Tetragonia tetragonoides, Erigeron annus, and Glehnia littoralis) showed very powerful suppressive effects of mouse immune cell death and significant activities of cell proliferation in vitro. Especially, the methanolic extract of Rosa rugosa was found to have fifteen times compared to the control treatment, demonstrating that Rosa rugosa may have a potent stimulation effect on immune cell proliferation. These results suggest that several salt marsh plants including Rosa rugosa could be useful for further study as an immunomodulating agent.

  11. Small molecule probes for plant cell wall polysaccharide imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian eWallace

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed of interlinked polymer networks consisting of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectins, proteins, and lignin. The ordered deposition of these components is a dynamic process that critically affects the development and differentiation of plant cells. However, our understanding of cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as the diverse cell wall architectures that result from these processes, has been limited by a lack of suitable chemical probes that are compatible with live-cell imaging. In this review, we summarize the currently available molecular toolbox of probes for cell wall polysaccharide imaging in plants, with particular emphasis on recent advances in small molecule-based fluorescent probes. We also discuss the potential for further development of small molecule probes for the analysis of cell wall architecture and dynamics.

  12. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  13. Graphene-augmented nanofiber scaffolds demonstrate new features in cells behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantseva, Jekaterina; Ivanov, Roman; Gasik, Michael; Neuman, Toomas; Hussainova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) customized scaffolds capable to mimic a native extracellular matrix open new frontiers in cells manipulation and advanced therapy. The major challenge is in a proper substrate for in vitro models on engineered scaffolds, capable to modulate cells differentiation. Here for the first time we demonstrate novel design and functionality of the 3D porous scaffolds of aligned, self-assembled ceramic nanofibers of ultra-high anisotropy ratio (~107), augmented into graphene shells. This unique hybrid nano-network allows an exceptional combination of selective guidance stimuli of stem cells differentiation, immune reactions variations, and local immobilization of cancer cells, which was not available before. The scaffolds were shown to be able to direct human mesenchymal stem cells (important for stimulation of neuronal and muscle cells) preferential orientation, to suppress major inflammatory factors, and to localize cancer cells; all without additions of specific culture media. The selective downregulation of specific cytokines is anticipated as a new tool for understanding of human immune system and ways of treatment of associated diseases. The effects observed are self-regulated by cells only, without side effects, usually arising from use of external factors. New scaffolds may open new horizons for stem cells fate control such as towards axons and neurites regeneration (Alzheimer’s disease) as well as cancer therapy development.

  14. An introduction to plant cell culture: the future ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola-Vargas, Víctor M; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell, tissue, and organ culture (PTC) techniques were developed and established as an experimental necessity for solving important fundamental questions in plant biology, but they currently represent very useful biotechnological tools for a series of important applications such as commercial micropropagation of different plant species, generation of disease-free plant materials, production of haploid and doublehaploid plants, induction of epigenetic or genetic variation for the isolation of variant plants, obtention of novel hybrid plants through the rescue of hybrid embryos or somatic cell fusion from intra- or intergeneric sources, conservation of valuable plant germplasm, and is the keystone for genetic engineering of plants to produce disease and pest resistant varieties, to engineer metabolic pathways with the aim of producing specific secondary metabolites or as an alternative for biopharming. Some other miscellaneous applications involve the utilization of in vitro cultures to test toxic compounds and the possibilities of removing them (bioremediation), interaction of root cultures with nematodes or mycorrhiza, or the use of shoot cultures to maintain plant viruses. With the increased worldwide demand for biofuels, it seems that PTC will certainly be fundamental for engineering different plants species in order to increase the diversity of biofuel options, lower the price marketing, and enhance the production efficiency. Several aspects and applications of PTC such as those mentioned above are the focus of this edition.

  15. Decreased Polysaccharide Feruloylation Compromises Plant Cell Wall Integrity and Increases Susceptibility to Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reem, Nathan T; Pogorelko, Gennady; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Chambers, Lauran; Held, Michael A; Bellincampi, Daniela; Zabotina, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of cell wall composition and structure determines the strength, flexibility, and function of the primary cell wall in plants. However, the contribution of the various components to cell wall integrity (CWI) and function remains unclear. Modifications of cell wall composition can induce plant responses known as CWI control. In this study, we used transgenic expression of the fungal feruloyl esterase AnFAE to examine the effect of post-synthetic modification of Arabidopsis and Brachypodium cell walls. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing AnFAE showed a significant reduction of monomeric ferulic acid, decreased amounts of wall-associated extensins, and increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, compared with wild type. Transgenic Brachypodium showed reductions in monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids and increased susceptibility to Bipolaris sorokiniana. Upon infection, transgenic Arabidopsis and Brachypodium plants also showed increased expression of several defense-related genes compared with wild type. These results demonstrate a role, in both monocot and dicot plants, of polysaccharide feruloylation in plant CWI, which contributes to plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens.

  16. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  17. Hosting the plant cells in vitro: recent trends in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Milen I; Eibl, Regine; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Biotechnological production of high-value metabolites and therapeutic proteins by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an attractive alternative of classical technologies. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have illustrated the feasibility of scaling up plant in vitro system-based processes while keeping their biosynthetic potential. Moreover, several commercial processes have been established so far. Though the progress on the field is still limited, in the recent years several bioreactor configurations has been developed (e.g., so-called single-use bioreactors) and successfully adapted for growing plant cells in vitro. This review highlights recent progress and limitations in the bioreactors for plant cells and outlines future perspectives for wider industrialization of plant in vitro systems as "green cell factories" for sustainable production of value-added molecules.

  18. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  19. A fuel cell balance of plant test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, A. L.; Martin, P. A.

    Much attention is focused in the fuel cell community on the development of reliable stack technology, but to successfully exploit fuel cells, they must form part of integrated power generation systems. No universal test facilities exist to evaluate SOFC stacks and comparatively little research has been undertaken concerning the issues of the rest of the system, or balance of plant (BOP). BG, in collaboration with Eniricerche, has therefore recently designed and built a test facility to evaluate different configurations of the BOP equipment for a 1-5 kWe solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Within this BOP project, integrated, dynamic models have been developed. These have shown that three characteristic response times exist when the stack load is changed and that three independent control loops are required to manage the almost instantaneous change in power output from an SOFC stack, maintain the fuel utilisation and control the stack temperature. Control strategies and plant simplifications, arising from the dynamic modelling, have also been implemented in the BOP test facility. An SOFC simulator was designed and integrated into the control system of the test rig to behave as a real SOFC stack, allowing the development of control strategies without the need for a real stack. A novel combustor has been specifically designed, built and demonstrated to be capable of burning the low calorific anode exhaust gas from an SOFC using the oxygen depleted cathode stream. High temperature, low cost, shell and tube heat exchangers have been shown to be suitable for SOFC systems. Sealing of high temperature anode recirculation fans has, however, been shown to be a major issue and identified as a key area for further investigation.

  20. Cytokinesis in plant and animal cells: endosomes 'shut the door'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluska, Frantisek; Menzel, Diedrik; Barlow, Peter W

    2006-06-01

    For many years, cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells was considered to be a process that took a variety of forms. This is rather surprising in the face of an apparently conservative mitosis. Animal cytokinesis was described as a process based on an actomyosin-based contractile ring, assembling, and acting at the cell periphery. In contrast, cytokinesis of plant cells was viewed as the centrifugal generation of a new cell wall by fusion of Golgi apparatus-derived vesicles. However, recent advances in animal and plant cell biology have revealed that many features formerly considered as plant-specific are, in fact, valid also for cytokinetic animal cells. For example, vesicular trafficking has turned out to be important not only for plant but also for animal cytokinesis. Moreover, the terminal phase of animal cytokinesis based on midbody microtubule activity resembles plant cytokinesis in that interdigitating microtubules play a decisive role in the recruitment of cytokinetic vesicles and directing them towards the cytokinetic spaces which need to be plugged by fusing endosomes. Presently, we are approaching another turning point which brings cytokinesis in plant and animal cells even closer. As an unexpected twist, new studies reveal that both plant and animal cytokinesis is driven not so much by Golgi-derived vesicles but rather by homotypically and heterotypically fusing endosomes. These are generated from cytokinetic cortical sites defined by preprophase microtubules and contractile actomyosin ring, which induce local endocytosis of both the plasma membrane and cell wall material. Finally, plant and animal cytokinesis meet together at the physical separation of daughter cells despite obvious differences in their preparatory events.

  1. The role of the cell wall in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Willats, William George Tycho

    2014-01-01

    The battle between plants and microbes is evolutionarily ancient, highly complex, and often co-dependent. A primary challenge for microbes is to breach the physical barrier of host cell walls whilst avoiding detection by the plant's immune receptors. While some receptors sense conserved microbial...

  2. The Nucleolonema of Plant and Animal Cells: A Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Deltour, Roger; Motte, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Depending on the author and the animal or plant origin of the material under study, the term "nucleolonema" is used in different contexts and thus indicates nucleolar ultrastructures that are different. In this paper, we attempt to clarify this state of affairs and to propose a definition for the plant cell nucleolonema. Peer reviewed

  3. Simulated microgravity allows to demonstrate cell-to-cell communication in bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Felice; van Houdt, Rob; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    Through the MELiSSA project, the European Space Agency aims to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forth-coming long term space exploration missions. This production is based on the recycling of the missions organic waste, including CO2 and minerals. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospir-illum rubrum S1H is used in MELiSSA to degrade organics with light energy and is the first MELiSSA organism that has been studied in space related environmental conditions (Mastroleo et al., 2009). It was tested in actual space flight to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as in ground simulations of ISS-like ionizing radiation and microgravity. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in liquid medium in 2 devices simulating microgravity conditions, i.e. the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) and the Random Positioning Machine (RPM). The re-sponse of the bacterium was evaluated at both the transcriptomic and proteomic levels using respectively a dedicated whole-genome microarray and high-throughput gel-free quantitative proteomics. Both at transcriptomic and proteomic level, the bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity. The response to low fluid shear modeled microgravity in RWV was different than to randomized microgravity in RPM. Nevertheless, both tests pointed out a change in and a likely interrelation between cell-to-cell communica-tion (i.e. quorum sensing) and cell pigmentation (i.e. photosynthesis) for R. rubrum S1H in microgravity conditions. A new type of cell-to-cell communication molecule in R. rubrum S1H was discovered and characterized. It is hypothised that the lack of convection currents and the fluid quiescence in (simulated) microgravity limits communications molecules to be spread throughout the medium. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated micro-gravity has showed new properties of this well know bacterium

  4. Optimization and Demonstration of a Solid Oxide Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. McElroy; Darren B. Hickey; Fred Mitlitsky

    2006-09-30

    Single cell solid oxide regenerative fuel cells (SORFCs) have been demonstrated for over 1000 hours of operation at degradation rates as low as 0.5% per thousand hours for current densities as high as 300mA/cm{sup 2}. Efficiency levels (fuel cell power out vs. electrolysis power in) have been demonstrated in excess of 80% at 100mA/cm{sup 2}. All testing has been performed with metallic based interconnects and non-noble metal electrodes in order to limit fabrication costs for commercial considerations. The SORFC cell technology will be scaled up to a 1kW sized stack which will be demonstrated in Year 2 of the program. A self contained SORFC system requires efficient thermal management in order to maintain operating temperatures during exothermic and endothermic operational modes. The use of LiF as a phase change material (PCM) was selected as the optimum thermal storage medium by virtue of its superior thermal energy density by volume. Thermal storage experiments were performed using LiF and a simulated SORFC stack. The thermal storage concept was deemed to be technically viable for larger well insulated systems, although it would not enable a high efficiency thermally self-sufficient SORFC system at the 1 kW level.

  5. Penium margaritaceum as a model organism for cell wall analysis of expanding plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydahl, Maja Gro; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard

    2015-01-01

    organization of the polymeric networks of the cell wall around the protoplast also contributes to the direction of growth, the shape of the cell, and the proper positioning of the cell in a tissue. In essence, plant cell expansion represents the foundation of development. Most studies of plant cell expansion...... have focused primarily upon late divergent multicellular land plants and specialized cell types (e.g., pollen tubes, root hairs). Here, we describe a unicellular green alga, Penium margaritaceum (Penium), which can serve as a valuable model organism for understanding cell expansion and the underlying...

  6. Demonstration of the use of ADAPT to derive predictive maintenance algorithms for the KSC central heat plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H. E.

    1972-01-01

    The Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) were employed to determine laws capable of detecting failures in a heat plant up to three days in advance of the occurrence of the failure. The projected performance of algorithms yielded a detection probability of 90% with false alarm rates of the order of 1 per year for a sample rate of 1 per day with each detection, followed by 3 hourly samplings. This performance was verified on 173 independent test cases. The program also demonstrated diagnostic algorithms and the ability to predict the time of failure to approximately plus or minus 8 hours up to three days in advance of the failure. The ADAPT programs produce simple algorithms which have a unique possibility of a relatively low cost updating procedure. The algorithms were implemented on general purpose computers at Kennedy Space Flight Center and tested against current data.

  7. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration-Plant Program. Volume II. The environment (Deliverable No. 27). [Baseline environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    The proposed site of the Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant (IFGDP) is located on a small peninsula extending eastward into Lake McKeller from the south shore. The peninsula is located west-southwest of the City of Memphis near the confluence of Lake McKeller and the Mississippi River. The environmental setting of this site and the region around this site is reported in terms of physical, biological, and human descriptions. Within the physical description, this report divides the environmental setting into sections on physiography, geology, hydrology, water quality, climatology, air quality, and ambient noise. The biological description is divided into sections on aquatic and terrestrial ecology. Finally, the human environment description is reported in sections on land use, demography, socioeconomics, culture, and visual features. This section concludes with a discussion of physical environmental constraints.

  8. Solar cells. Proposal for a national strategy for research, development and demonstration; Solceller. Oplaeg til en national strategi for forskning, udvikling og demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Danish Energy Authority, Elkraft System and Eltra have initiated collaboration on the development of national R and D strategies for a number of energy technologies including solar cells. The aim is to ensure a coordinated national effort as regards research, development and demonstration within societal and energy political frames, and, furthermore, to ensure coordination with similar international initiatives, especially within the European Union. The overall aim is for the Danish solar cell strategy to contribute to support Danish national energy policy and to ensure and improve Danish competence, which can manifest itself internationally. The efforts within solar cell technology must aim at increasing solar cell systems' efficiency and service life, and furthermore, aim at reducing production costs. Hereby the efforts can contribute to an improvement of solar cell systems' competitive power in relation to other power production technologies with a view to make installation of solar cell systems attractive, both in Denmark and internationally. (BA)

  9. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  10. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  11. T cells targeting NY-ESO-1 demonstrate efficacy against disseminated neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nathan; Kulikovskaya, Irina; Barrett, David M.; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn; Jakobsen, Bent; Martinez, Daniel; Pawel, Bruce; June, Carl H.; Kalos, Michael D.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    The cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is expressed by many solid tumors and has limited expression by mature somatic tissues, making it a highly attractive target for tumor immunotherapy. Targeting NY-ESO-1 using engineered T cells has demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of some adult tumors. Neuroblastoma is a significant cause of cancer mortality in children, and is a tumor type shown to be responsive to immunotherapies. We evaluated a large panel of primarily resected neuroblastom...

  12. The Untapped Potential Of Plant Thin Cell Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin cell layers (TCLs, which contain a small number of cells or tissues, are explants excised from different organs (stems, leaves, roots, inflorescences, flowers, cotyledons, hypocotyls/epicotyls, and embryos. After almost 45 years of research, this culture system has been used for several monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants of commercial importance, and for model plants. The limited amount of cells in a TCL is of paramount importance because marker molecules/genes of differentiation can be easily localized in situ in the target/responsive cells. Thus, the use of TCLs has allowed, and continues to allow, for the expansion of knowledge in plant research in a practical and applied manner into the fields of tissue culture and micropropagation, cell and organ genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and development. Starting from a brief historical background, the actual and potential uses of the TCL system are briefly reviewed.

  13. Cancer cell-oriented migration of mesenchymal stem cells engineered with an anticancer gene (PTEN: an imaging demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang ZS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhuo-Shun Yang,1,* Xiang-Jun Tang,2,* Xing-Rong Guo,1 Dan-Dan Zou,1 Xu-Yong Sun,3 Jing-Bo Feng,1 Jie Luo,1 Long-Jun Dai,1,4 Garth L Warnock4 1Hubei Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, People’s Republic of China; 3Guangxi Key Laboratory for Transplant Medicine, 303 Hospital of PLA, Nanning, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have been considered to hold great potential as ideal carriers for the delivery of anticancer agents since the discovery of their tumor tropism. This study was performed to demonstrate the effects of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN engineering on MSCs’ capacity for cancer cell-oriented migration. Methods: MSCs were engineered with a PTEN-bearing plasmid and the expression was confirmed with Western blotting. A human glioma cell line (DBTRG was used as the target cell; DBTRG cell-oriented migration of MSCs was monitored with a micro speed photographic system. Results: The expression of transfected PTEN in MSCs was identified by immunoblotting analysis and confirmed with cell viability assessment of target cells. The DBTRG cell-oriented migration of PTEN-engineered MSCs was demonstrated by a real-time dynamic monitoring system, and a phagocytosis-like action of MSCs was also observed. Conclusion: MSCs maintained their capacity for cancer cell-directed migration after they were engineered with anticancer genes. This study provides the first direct evidence of MSCs’ tropism post-anticancer gene engineering. Keywords: gene therapy, mesenchymal stem cells, phosphatase and tensin homolog, cancer

  14. Plant cell culture strategies for the production of natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Villarreal, Marisol; Howat, Susan; Hong, SunMi; Jang, Mi Ok; Jin, Young-Woo; Lee, Eun-Kyong; Loake, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved a vast chemical cornucopia to support their sessile lifestyles. Man has exploited this natural resource since Neolithic times and currently plant-derived chemicals are exploited for a myriad of applications. However, plant sources of most high-value natural products (NPs) are not domesticated and therefore their production cannot be undertaken on an agricultural scale. Further, these plant species are often slow growing, their populations limiting, the concentration of the target molecule highly variable and routinely present at extremely low concentrations. Plant cell and organ culture constitutes a sustainable, controllable and environmentally friendly tool for the industrial production of plant NPs. Further, advances in cell line selection, biotransformation, product secretion, cell permeabilisation, extraction and scale-up, among others, are driving increases in plant NP yields. However, there remain significant obstacles to the commercial synthesis of high-value chemicals from these sources. The relatively recent isolation, culturing and characterisation of cambial meristematic cells (CMCs), provides an emerging platform to circumvent many of these potential difficulties. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(3): 149-158].

  15. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  16. Immunological Signatures after Bordetella pertussis Infection Demonstrate Importance of Pulmonary Innate Immune Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Jolanda; van der Maas, Larissa; Tilstra, Wichard; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Han, Wanda G. H.; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; van Riet, Elly; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Metz, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Effective immunity against Bordetella pertussis is currently under discussion following the stacking evidence of pertussis resurgence in the vaccinated population. Natural immunity is more effective than vaccine-induced immunity indicating that knowledge on infection-induced responses may contribute to improve vaccination strategies. We applied a systems biology approach comprising microarray, flow cytometry and multiplex immunoassays to unravel the molecular and cellular signatures in unprotected mice and protected mice with infection-induced immunity, around a B. pertussis challenge. Pre-existing systemic memory Th1/Th17 cells, memory B-cells, and mucosal IgA specific for Ptx, Vag8, Fim2/3 were detected in the protected mice 56 days after an experimental infection. In addition, pre-existing high activity and reactivation of pulmonary innate cells such as alveolar macrophages, M-cells and goblet cells was detected. The pro-inflammatory responses in the lungs and serum, and neutrophil recruitment in the spleen upon an infectious challenge of unprotected mice were absent in protected mice. Instead, fast pulmonary immune responses in protected mice led to efficient bacterial clearance and harbored potential new gene markers that contribute to immunity against B. pertussis. These responses comprised of innate makers, such as Clca3, Retlna, Glycam1, Gp2, and Umod, next to adaptive markers, such as CCR6+ B-cells, CCR6+ Th17 cells and CXCR6+ T-cells as demonstrated by transcriptome analysis. In conclusion, besides effective Th1/Th17 and mucosal IgA responses, the primary infection-induced immunity benefits from activation of pulmonary resident innate immune cells, achieved by local pathogen-recognition. These molecular signatures of primary infection-induced immunity provided potential markers to improve vaccine-induced immunity against B. pertussis. PMID:27711188

  17. From plants to animals; the role of plant cell death in ruminant herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston-Smith, Alison H; Davies, Teri E; Edwards, Joan E; Theodorou, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    Plant cell death occurring as a result of adverse environmental conditions is known to limit crop production. It is less well recognized that plant cell death processes can also contribute to the poor environmental footprint of ruminant livestock production. Although the forage cells ingested by grazing ruminant herbivores will ultimately die, the lack of oxygen, elevated temperature, and challenge by microflora experienced in the rumen induce regulated plant stress responses resulting in DNA fragmentation and autolytic protein breakdown during the cell death process. Excessive ruminal proteolysis contributes to the inefficient conversion of plant to microbial and animal protein which results in up to 70% of the ingested nitrogen being returned to the land as the nitrogenous pollutants ammonia and urea. This constitutes a significant challenge for sustainable livestock production. As it is estimated that 25% of cultivated land worldwide is assigned to livestock production, it is clear that understanding the fundamental biology underlying cell death in ingested forage will have a highly significant role in minimizing the impact of human activities. This review examines our current understanding of plant metabolism in the rumen and explores opportunities for exploitation of plant genetics to advance sustainable land use.

  18. Online operations optimization of waste incineration plants. Phase 3: Control concept and demonstration; Online driftsoptimering af affaldsfyrede anlaeg. Fase 3: Reguleringskoncept og demonstration. Hovedrapport ver. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Rassing Stoltze, K.; Solberg, B.; Hansen, Lars Henrik (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Cramer, J.; Andreasen, L.B. (FORCE Technology (Denmark)); Nymann Thomsen, S.; West, F. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (Denmark)); Clausen, S.; Fateev, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The long-term vision of the project is to develop a system for online optimisation of waste incineration. The fundamental idea is to base the system on advanced measuring technique, dynamic process models and advanced control technique. In the present phase 3 project the intention is to implement several of the improvement measures specified in phase 2 - both at Haderslev CHP Plant and at Reno-Nord - and not least evaluate the results from the two widely different plants. In addition to that, it is essential to test the new NIR camera system online at Reno-Nord and to carry out a complete measuring campaign where dynamic characteristics are pursued and must be compared with similar tests from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant. The measuring campaign at Reno-Nord was performed differently from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant, i.e. at Reno-Nord both traditional manual steps in series with input (pusher, grate, primary air) and manual control and pseudo random parallel pulse effects of all input with partly automatic control were performed. Pulse effects are made automatically from a sequence in the control room. The new method requires considerably less involvement from operating staff and engineers during the tests, and it is capable of producing good model estimation data as the control will automatically lead the incineration back to the fixed incineration point. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to follow the quality of the boiler responses in the process because of several concurrent step effects. Therefore, another data processing is necessary to be able to estimate the correct dynamic models and extract dynamic furnace characteristics. However, the potential of the new method is that it can be activated directly by the operating staff from the control room and that it is capable of operating for a long time with eg considerably different fuel types. As to modelling, both SISO (single input single output) and MIMO (multi input multi output) model estimates

  19. Online operations optimization of waste incineration plants. Phase 3: Control concept and demonstration; Online driftsoptimering af affaldsfyrede anlaeg. Fase 3: Reguleringskoncept og demonstration. Hovedrapport ver. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecher Poulsen, K.; Rassing Stoltze, K.; Solberg, B.; Hansen, Lars Henrik (DONG Energy (Denmark)); Cramer, J.; Andreasen, L.B. (FORCE Technology (Denmark)); Nymann Thomsen, S.; West, F. (Babcock and Wilcox Voelund (Denmark)); Clausen, S.; Fateev, A. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The long-term vision of the project is to develop a system for online optimisation of waste incineration. The fundamental idea is to base the system on advanced measuring technique, dynamic process models and advanced control technique. In the present phase 3 project the intention is to implement several of the improvement measures specified in phase 2 - both at Haderslev CHP Plant and at Reno-Nord - and not least evaluate the results from the two widely different plants. In addition to that, it is essential to test the new NIR camera system online at Reno-Nord and to carry out a complete measuring campaign where dynamic characteristics are pursued and must be compared with similar tests from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant. The measuring campaign at Reno-Nord was performed differently from phase 2 at Haderslev CHP Plant, i.e. at Reno-Nord both traditional manual steps in series with input (pusher, grate, primary air) and manual control and pseudo random parallel pulse effects of all input with partly automatic control were performed. Pulse effects are made automatically from a sequence in the control room. The new method requires considerably less involvement from operating staff and engineers during the tests, and it is capable of producing good model estimation data as the control will automatically lead the incineration back to the fixed incineration point. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to follow the quality of the boiler responses in the process because of several concurrent step effects. Therefore, another data processing is necessary to be able to estimate the correct dynamic models and extract dynamic furnace characteristics. However, the potential of the new method is that it can be activated directly by the operating staff from the control room and that it is capable of operating for a long time with eg considerably different fuel types. As to modelling, both SISO (single input single output) and MIMO (multi input multi output) model estimates

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  1. Programmed cell death in C. elegans, mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Christina E N; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2012-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is the regulated removal of cells within an organism and plays a fundamental role in growth and development in nearly all eukaryotes. In animals, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has aided in elucidating many of the pathways involved in the cell death process. Various analogous PCD processes can also be found within mammalian PCD systems, including vertebrate limb development. Plants and animals also appear to share hallmarks of PCD, both on the cellular and molecular level. Cellular events visualized during plant PCD resemble those seen in animals including: nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cytoplasmic condensation, and plasma membrane shrinkage. Recently the molecular mechanisms involved in plant PCD have begun to be elucidated. Although few regulatory proteins have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotes, molecular features such as the participation of caspase-like proteases, Bcl-2-like family members and mitochondrial proteins appear to be conserved between plant and animal systems. Transgenic expression of mammalian and C. elegans pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in plants has been observed to dramatically influence the regulatory pathways of plant PCD. Although these genes often show little to no sequence similarity they can frequently act as functional substitutes for one another, thus suggesting that action may be more important than sequence resemblance. Here we present a summary of these findings, focusing on the similarities, between mammals, C. elegans, and plants. An emphasis will be placed on the mitochondria and its role in the cell death pathway within each organism. Through the comparison of these systems on both a cellular and molecular level we can begin to better understand PCD in plant systems, and perhaps shed light on the pathways, which are controlling the process. This manuscript adds to the field of PCD in plant systems by profiling apoptotic factors, to scale on a protein

  2. Delivering DNA into Plant Cell by Gene Carriers of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yu-qin; LI Lu-hua; WANG Pi-wu; QU Jing; FU Yong-ping; WANG Hui; SUN Jing-ran; L(U) Chang-li

    2012-01-01

    The development.of nanotechnology provides a new method for genetic engineering.However,the nanoparticles as gene carriers have been mainly used in the mammalian cells so far.We observed that ZnS nanoparticles modified with positively charged poly-L-lysine(PLL) successfully delivered GUS-encoding plasmid DNA into tobacco cells by means of ultrasound-assisted method.Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) detection,Southern blot analysis and GUS histochemical staining were carried out for the regenerated plants.The stable genetic modified plants mediated by ZnS nanoparticles can be obtained.This article demonstrates the great potential of nanoparticles as gene carrier in plant transformation and proves a novel approach for plant genetic decoration.

  3. Space radiation effects on plant and mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Macaeva, E.; Quintens, R.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on organisms is related to different research aims. The current review emphasizes the studies on the effects of different doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on living organisms, with the final purpose of highlighting specific and common effects of space radiation in mammals and plants. This topic is extremely relevant in the context of radiation protection from space environment. The response of different organisms to ionizing radiation depends on the radiation quality/dose and/or the intrinsic characteristics of the living system. Macromolecules, in particular DNA, are the critical targets of radiation, even if there is a strong difference between damages encountered by plant and mammalian cells. The differences in structure and metabolism between the two cell types are responsible for the higher resistance of the plant cell compared with its animal counterpart. In this review, we report some recent findings from studies performed in Space or on Earth, simulating space-like levels of radiation with ground-based facilities, to understand the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian and plant cells. In particular, our attention is focused on genetic alterations and repair mechanisms in mammalian cells and on structures and mechanisms conferring radioresistance to plant cells.

  4. Structure and function of endosomes in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contento, Anthony L; Bassham, Diane C

    2012-08-01

    Endosomes are a heterogeneous collection of organelles that function in the sorting and delivery of internalized material from the cell surface and the transport of materials from the Golgi to the lysosome or vacuole. Plant endosomes have some unique features, with an organization distinct from that of yeast or animal cells. Two clearly defined endosomal compartments have been studied in plant cells, the trans-Golgi network (equivalent to the early endosome) and the multivesicular body (equivalent to the late endosome), with additional endosome types (recycling endosome, late prevacuolar compartment) also a possibility. A model has been proposed in which the trans-Golgi network matures into a multivesicular body, which then fuses with the vacuole to release its cargo. In addition to basic trafficking functions, endosomes in plant cells are known to function in maintenance of cell polarity by polar localization of hormone transporters and in signaling pathways after internalization of ligand-bound receptors. These signaling functions are exemplified by the BRI1 brassinosteroid hormone receptor and by receptors for pathogen elicitors that activate defense responses. After endocytosis of these receptors from the plasma membrane, endosomes act as a signaling platform, thus playing an essential role in plant growth, development and defense responses. Here we describe the key features of plant endosomes and their differences from those of other organisms and discuss the role of these organelles in cell polarity and signaling pathways.

  5. Fluids as Dynamic Templates for Cytoskeletal Proteins in Plant Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lofthouse, J T

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Template model of biological cell membranes and the cytoplasm as spatially organised fluid layers is extended to plant cells, and is shown to offer a feasible shear driven mechanism for the co-alignment of internal and external fibres observed during growth and tropic responses

  6. A xylogalacturonan epitope is specifically associated with plant cell detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willats, William George Tycho; McCartney, L.; Steele-King, C.G.;

    2004-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LM8) was generated with specificity for xyloglacturonan (XGA) isolated from pea (Pisum sativum L.) testae. Characterization of the LM8 epitope indicates that it is a region of XGA that is highly substituted with xylose. Immunocytochemical analysis indicates that this epitop...... that is specifically associated with a plant cell separation process that results in complete cell detachment....

  7. Plant organelle proteomics: collaborating for optimal cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Bourguignon, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Ferro, Myriam; Jaquinod, Michel; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Chardot, Thierry; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Jolivet, Pascale; Doonan, John H; Rakwal, Randeep

    2011-01-01

    Organelle proteomics describes the study of proteins present in organelle at a particular instance during the whole period of their life cycle in a cell. Organelles are specialized membrane bound structures within a cell that function by interacting with cytosolic and luminal soluble proteins making the protein composition of each organelle dynamic. Depending on organism, the total number of organelles within a cell varies, indicating their evolution with respect to protein number and function. For example, one of the striking differences between plant and animal cells is the plastids in plants. Organelles have their own proteins, and few organelles like mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genome to synthesize proteins for specific function and also require nuclear-encoded proteins. Enormous work has been performed on animal organelle proteomics. However, plant organelle proteomics has seen limited work mainly due to: (i) inter-plant and inter-tissue complexity, (ii) difficulties in isolation of subcellular compartments, and (iii) their enrichment and purity. Despite these concerns, the field of organelle proteomics is growing in plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize. The available data are beginning to help better understand organelles and their distinct and/or overlapping functions in different plant tissues, organs or cell types, and more importantly, how protein components of organelles behave during development and with surrounding environments. Studies on organelles have provided a few good reviews, but none of them are comprehensive. Here, we present a comprehensive review on plant organelle proteomics starting from the significance of organelle in cells, to organelle isolation, to protein identification and to biology and beyond. To put together such a systematic, in-depth review and to translate acquired knowledge in a proper and adequate form, we join minds to provide discussion and viewpoints on the collaborative nature of organelles in

  8. Primary Cell Wall Structure in the Evolution of Land Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of the primary cell walls of lower plants improves our understanding of the cell biology of these organisms but also has the potential to improve our understanding of cell wall structure and function in angiosperms that evolved from lower plants. Cell walls were prepared from eight species, ranging from a moss to advanced gymnosperms, and subjected to sequential chemical extraction to separate the main polysaccharide fractions. The glycosyl compositions of these fractions were then determined by gas chromatography. The results were compared among the eight plants and among data from related studies reported in the existing published reports to identify structural features that have been either highly conserved or clearly modified during evolution. Among the highly conserved features are the presence of a cellulose framework, the presence of certain hemicelluloses such as xyloglucan, and the presence of rhamnogalacturonan Ⅱ, a domain in pectic polysaccharides. Among the modified features are the abundance of mannosyl-containing hemicelluloses and the presence of methylated sugars.

  9. Localization of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in plant guard cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), as an important neurotransmitter in animals, also plays a significant role in various kinds of physiological functions in plants. But relatively little is known about its receptors in plants. A green fluorescence BODIPY FL-labeled ABT, which is a high affinity ligand of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR), was used to localize mAChR in plant guard cells. In Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L., mAChR was found both on the plasma membrane of guard cells. mAChR may also be distributed on guard cell chloroplast membrane of Vicia faba L. The evidence that mAChR localizes in the guard cells provides a new possible signal transduction pathway in ACh mediated stomata movement.

  10. Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; de Magalhães, Pérola; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE GLYCOLIC-FORMIC FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS USING ACTUAL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2011-11-07

    Glycolic acid was effective at dissolving many metals, including iron, during processing with simulants. Criticality constraints take credit for the insolubility of iron during processing to prevent criticality of fissile materials. Testing with actual waste was needed to determine the extent of iron and fissile isotope dissolution during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The Alternate Reductant Project was initiated by the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Company to explore options for the replacement of the nitric-formic flowsheet used for the CPC at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The goals of the Alternate Reductant Project are to reduce CPC cycle time, increase mass throughput of the facility, and reduce operational hazards. In order to achieve these goals, several different reductants were considered during initial evaluations conducted by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). After review of the reductants by SRR, SRNL, and Energy Solutions (ES) Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL), two flowsheets were further developed in parallel. The two flowsheet options included a nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet, and a nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet. As of July 2011, SRNL and ES/VSL have completed the initial flowsheet development work for the nitric-formic-glycolic flowsheet and nitric-formic-sugar flowsheet, respectively. On July 12th and July 13th, SRR conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to down select the alternate reductant flowsheet. The SEE team selected the Formic-Glycolic Flowsheet for further development. Two risks were identified in SEE for expedited research. The first risk is related to iron and plutonium solubility during the CPC process with respect to criticality. Currently, DWPF credits iron as a poison for the fissile components of the sludge. Due to the high iron solubility observed during the flowsheet demonstrations with simulants, it was necessary to determine if the plutonium in the radioactive sludge slurry

  12. Demonstration of a novel HIV-1 restriction phenotype from a human T cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxing Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although retroviruses may invade host cells, a productive infection can be established only after the virus counteracts inhibition from different types of host restriction factors. Fv1, APOBEC3G/F, TRIM5alpha, ZAP, and CD317 inhibit the replication of different retroviruses by interfering with viral uncoating, reverse transcription, nuclear import, RNA stability, and release. In humans, although APOBEC3G/3F and CD317 block HIV-1 replication, their antiviral activities are neutralized by viral proteins Vif and Vpu. So far, no human gene has been found to effectively block wild type HIV-1 replication under natural condition. Thus, identification of such a gene product would be of great medical importance for the development of HIV therapies. METHOD AND FINDINGS: In this study, we discovered a new type of host restriction against the wild type HIV-1 from a CD4/CXCR4 double-positive human T cell line. We identified a CEM-derived cell line (CEM.NKR that is highly resistant to productive HIV-1 infection. Viral production was reduced by at least 1000-fold when compared to the other permissive human T cell lines such as H9, A3.01, and CEM-T4. Importantly, this resistance was evident at extremely high multiplicity of infection. Further analyses demonstrated that HIV-1 could finish the first round of replication in CEM.NKR cells, but the released virions were poorly infectious. These virions could enter the target cells, but failed to initiate reverse transcription. Notably, this restriction phenotype was also present in CEM.NKR and 293T heterokaryons. CONCLUSIONS: These results clearly indicate that CEM.NKR cells express a HIV inhibitory gene(s. Further characterization of this novel gene product(s will reveal a new antiretroviral mechanism that directly inactivates wild type HIV-1.

  13. Beyond ectomycorrhizal bipartite networks: projected networks demonstrate contrasted patterns between early- and late-successional plants in Corsica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eTaudiere

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal (ECM symbiosis connects mutualistic plants and fungal species into bipartite networks. While links between one focal ECM plant and its fungal symbionts have been widely documented, systemic views of ECM networks are lacking, in particular, concerning the ability of fungal species to mediate indirect ecological interactions between ECM plant species (projected-ECM networks. We assembled a large dataset of plant-fungi associations at the species level and at the scale of Corsica using molecular data and unambiguously host-assigned records to: (i examine the correlation between the number of fungal symbionts of a plant species and the average specialization of these fungal species, (ii explore the structure of the plant-plant projected network and (iii compare plant association patterns in regard to their position along the ecological succession. Our analysis reveals no trade-off between specialization of plants and specialization of their partners and a saturation of the plant projected network. Moreover, there is a significantly lower-than-expected sharing of partners between early- and late-successional plant species, with fewer fungal partners for early-successional ones and similar average specialization of symbionts of early- and late-successional plants. Our work paves the way for ecological readings of Mediterranean landscapes that include the astonishing diversity of below-ground interactions.

  14. Demonstration Results for the Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soil at the Twin Cities Army Ammunition Plant, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    fertilization, plant physiology, plant botany , heavy metals chemistry in soil and plants, and application of soil amendments. ATK, the operating...replaced without it being detected. Two styles have been useful for samples or sample containers. Adhesive seals advertised as meeting forensic science

  15. Advanced technologies for plant cell wall evolution and diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik

    Plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides, glycoproteins and phenolic polymers interlinked together in a highly complex network. The detailed analysis of cell walls is challenging because of their inherent complexity and heterogeneity. Also, complex carbohydrates, unlike proteins and nucleotides...... probes (monoclonal antibodies mAbs and carbohydrate binding modules, CBMs) to rapidly profile polysaccharides across a sample set. During my PhD I have further developed the CoMPP technique and used it for cell wall analysis within the context of a variety of applied and fundamental projects. The data...... produced has provided new insight into cell wall evolution and biosynthesis and has contributed to the commercial development of cell wall materials. A major focus of the work has been the wide scale sampling of cell wall diversity across the plant kingdom, from unicellular algae to highly evolved...

  16. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  17. Dynamic metabolic flux analysis of plant cell wall synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuewen; Alonso, Ana P; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of plant cell wall synthesis pathways remains poorly understood. This has become a bottleneck in designing bioenergy crops. The goal of this study was to analyze the regulation of plant cell wall precursor metabolism using metabolic flux analysis based on dynamic labeling experiments. Arabidopsis T87 cells were cultured heterotrophically with (13)C labeled sucrose. The time course of ¹³C labeling patterns in cell wall precursors and related sugar phosphates was monitored using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry until steady state labeling was reached. A kinetic model based on mass action reaction mechanisms was developed to simulate the carbon flow in the cell wall synthesis network. The kinetic parameters of the model were determined by fitting the model to the labeling time course data, cell wall composition, and synthesis rates. A metabolic control analysis was performed to predict metabolic regulations that may improve plant biomass composition for biofuel production. Our results describe the routes and rates of carbon flow from sucrose to cell wall precursors. We found that sucrose invertase is responsible for the entry of sucrose into metabolism and UDP-glucose-4-epimerase plays a dominant role in UDP-Gal synthesis in heterotrophic Aradidopsis cells under aerobic conditions. We also predicted reactions that exert strong regulatory influence over carbon flow to cell wall synthesis and its composition.

  18. Are kinesins required for organelle trafficking in plant cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampiero eCai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells exhibit active movement of membrane-bounded materials, which is more pronounced in large cells but is also appreciable in medium-sized cells and in tip-growing cells (such as pollen tubes and root hairs. Trafficking of organelles (such as Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, and mitochondria and vesicles is essential for plant cell physiology and allows a more or less homogeneous distribution of the cell content. It is well established that the long-range trafficking of organelles is dependent essentially on the network of actin filaments and is powered by the enzyme activity of myosins. However, some lines of evidence suggest that microtubules and members of the kinesin microtubule-based motor superfamily might have a role in the positioning and/or short-range movement of cell organelles and vesicles. Data collected in different cells (such as trichomes and pollen tubes, in specific stages of the plant cell life cycle (for example during phragmoplast development and for different organelle classes (mitochondria, Golgi bodies and chloroplasts encourage the hypothesis that microtubule-based motors might play subtle yet unclarified roles in organelle trafficking. In some cases, this function could be carried out in cooperation with actin filaments according to the model of functional cooperation by which motors of different families are associated with the organelle surface. Since available data did not provide an unambiguous conclusion with regard to the role of kinesins in organelle transport, here we want to debate such hypothesis.

  19. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sorbom, B N; Palmer, T R; Mangiarotti, F J; Sierchio, J M; Bonoli, P; Kasten, C; Sutherland, D A; Barnard, H S; Haakonsen, C B; Goh, J; Sung, C; Whyte, D G

    2014-01-01

    The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design study aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q_p~13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ~63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ~23 T peak field on coil with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External cu...

  20. A1 demonstrates restricted tissue distribution during embryonic development and functions to protect against cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrió, R.; López-Hoyos, M.; Jimeno, J.; Benedict, M. A.; Merino, R.; Benito, A.; Fernández-Luna, J. L.; Núñez, G.; García-Porrero, J. A.; Merino, J.

    1996-01-01

    Members of the bcl-2 gene family are essential regulators of cell survival in a wide range of biological processes. A1, a member of the family, is known to be expressed in certain adult tissues. However, the precise tissue distribution and function of A1 remains poorly understood. We show here that A1 is expressed in multiple tissues during murine embryonic development. In the embryo, A1 was detected first at embryonic day 11.5 in liver, brain, and limbs. At day 13.5 of gestation, A1 expression was observed in the central nervous system, liver, perichondrium, and digital zones of developing limbs in a pattern different from that of bcl-X. In the central nervous system of 15.5-day embryos, A1 was expressed at high levels in the ventricular zone and cortical plate of brain cortex. Significantly, the interdigital zones of limbs and the intermediate region of the developing brain cortex, two sites associated with extensive cell death, were devoid of A1 and bcl-X. The expression of A1 was retained in many adult tissues. To assess the ability of A1 to modulate cell death, stable transfectants expressing different amounts of A1 protein were generated in K562 cells. Expression of A1 was associated with retardation of apoptotic cell death induced by actinomycin D and cycloheximide as well as by okadaic acid. Confocal microscopy showed that the A1 protein was localized to the cytoplasm in a pattern similar to that of Bcl-2. These results demonstrate that the expression of A1 is wider than previously reported in adult tissues. Furthermore, its distribution in multiple tissues of the embryo suggests that A1 plays a role in the regulation of physiological cell death during embryonic development. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8952545

  1. How do filamentous pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Petre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens.

  2. How Do Filamentous Pathogens Deliver Effector Proteins into Plant Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Kamoun, Sophien

    2014-01-01

    Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens. PMID:24586116

  3. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation.

  4. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  5. The Endoplasmic Reticulum: A Social Network in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Caitlin Doyle; Xingyun Qi; Huanquan Zheng

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network comprised of ribosome-studded sheets and smooth tubules.The ER plays crucial roles in the biosynthesis and transport of proteins and lipids,and in calcium (Ca2+) regulation in compartmentalized eukaryotic cells including plant cells.To support its well-segregated functions,the shape of the ER undergoes notable changes in response to both developmental cues and outside influences.In this review,we will discuss recent findings on molecular mechanisms underlying the unique morphology and dynamics of the ER,and the importance of the interconnected ER network in cell polarity.In animal and yeast cells,two family proteins,the reticulons and DP1/Yop1,are required for shaping high-curvature ER tubules,while members of the atlastin family of dynamin-like GTPases are involved in the fusion of ER tubules to make an interconnected ER network.In plant cells,recent data also indicate that the reticulons are involved in shaping ER tubules,while RHD3,a plant member of the atlastin GTPases,is required for the generation of an interconnected ER network.We will also summarize the current knowledge on how the ER interacts with other membrane-bound organelles,with a focus on how the ER and Golgi interplay in plant cells.

  6. Role of the plant cell wall in gravity resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki

    2015-04-01

    Gravity resistance, mechanical resistance to the gravitational force, is a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. The cell wall is responsible for the final step of gravity resistance. The gravity signal increases the rigidity of the cell wall via the accumulation of its constituents, polymerization of certain matrix polysaccharides due to the suppression of breakdown, stimulation of cross-link formation, and modifications to the wall environment, in a wide range of situations from microgravity in space to hypergravity. Plants thus develop a tough body to resist the gravitational force via an increase in cell wall rigidity and the modification of growth anisotropy. The development of gravity resistance mechanisms has played an important role in the acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses and the evolution of land plants.

  7. Plant cell, tissue and organ culture: the most flexible foundations for plant metabolic engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Shinjiro

    2015-05-01

    Significant advances in plant cell, tissue and organ culture (PCTOC) have been made in the last five decades. PCTOC is now thought to be the underlying technique for understanding general or specific biological functions of the plant kingdom, and it is one of the most flexible foundations for morphological, physiological and molecular biological applications of plants. Furthermore, the recent advances in the field of information technology (IT) have enabled access to a large amount of information regarding all aspects of plant biology. For example, sequencing information is stored in mega repositories such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), which can be easily accessed by researchers worldwide. To date, the PCTOC and IT combination strategy for regulation of target plant metabolism and the utilization of bioactive plant metabolites for commercial purposes is essential. In this review, the advantages and the limitations of these methodologies, especially regarding the production of bioactive plant secondary metabolites and metabolic engineering in target plants are discussed mainly from the phenotypic view point.

  8. ARC: A compact, high-field, fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant with demountable magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorbom, B.N., E-mail: bsorbom@mit.edu; Ball, J.; Palmer, T.R.; Mangiarotti, F.J.; Sierchio, J.M.; Bonoli, P.; Kasten, C.; Sutherland, D.A.; Barnard, H.S.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Goh, J.; Sung, C.; Whyte, D.G.

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • ARC reactor designed to have 500 MW fusion power at 3.3 m major radius. • Compact, simplified design allowed by high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • ARC has innovative plasma physics solutions such as inboardside RF launch. • High temperature superconductors allow high magnetic fields and jointed magnets. • Liquid immersion blanket and jointed magnets greatly simplify tokamak reactor design. - Abstract: The affordable, robust, compact (ARC) reactor is the product of a conceptual design study aimed at reducing the size, cost, and complexity of a combined fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion Pilot power plant. ARC is a ∼200–250 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils, which have joints to enable disassembly. This allows the vacuum vessel to be replaced quickly, mitigating first wall survivability concerns, and permits a single device to test many vacuum vessel designs and divertor materials. The design point has a plasma fusion gain of Q{sub p} ≈ 13.6, yet is fully non-inductive, with a modest bootstrap fraction of only ∼63%. Thus ARC offers a high power gain with relatively large external control of the current profile. This highly attractive combination is enabled by the ∼23 T peak field on coil achievable with newly available REBCO superconductor technology. External current drive is provided by two innovative inboard RF launchers using 25 MW of lower hybrid and 13.6 MW of ion cyclotron fast wave power. The resulting efficient current drive provides a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing fluorine lithium beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket is low-risk technology and provides effective neutron moderation and shielding, excellent

  9. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obel, N.; Erben, V.; Schwarz, T.; Kühnel, S.; Fodor, A.; Pauly, M.

    2009-01-01

    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the s

  10. Calcium signaling in plant cells in altered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, E. L.

    2003-10-01

    Changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in altered gravity (microgravity and clinostating) evidence that Ca 2+ signaling can play a fundamental role in biological effects of microgravity. Calcium as a second messenger is known to play a crucial role in stimulus - response coupling for many plant cellular signaling pathways. Its messenger functions are realized by transient changes in the cytosolic ion concentration induced by a variety of internal and external stimuli such as light, hormones, temperature, anoxia, salinity, and gravity. Although the first data on the changes in the calcium balance in plant cells under the influence of altered gravity have appeared in 80 th, a review highlighting the performed research and the possible significance of such Ca 2+ changes in the structural and metabolic rearrangements of plant cells in altered gravity is still lacking. In this paper, an attempt was made to summarize the available experimental results and to consider some hypotheses in this field of research. It is proposed to distinguish between cell gravisensing and cell graviperception; the former is related to cell structure and metabolism stability in the gravitational field and their changes in microgravity (cells not specialized to gravity perception), the latter is related to active use of a gravitational stimulus by cells presumebly specialized to gravity perception for realization of normal space orientation, growth, and vital activity (gravitropism, gravitaxis) in plants. The main experimental data concerning both redistribution of free Ca 2+ ions in plant cell organelles and the cell wall, and an increase in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration under the influence of altered gravity are presented. Based on the gravitational decompensation hypothesis, the consequence of events occurring in gravisensing cells not specialized to gravity perception under altered gravity are considered in the following order: changes in the cytoplasmic membrane surface

  11. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  12. Plant Cell and Signaling Biology Blooms in the Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Eighth International Conference on Plant Biology Fron-tiers, organized by Zhenbiao Yang, Chentao Lin, and Xing-wang Deng, was convened in the Wuyi Mountain Yeohwa Resort in Fujian, China, 23-27 September 2010.The meeting's main theme was Cells and Signals, featuring four keynote speeches, 45 plenary talks, and over 40 poster presentations that covered a wide range of topics, from dynamic cellular structures to how developmental and environmental signals control various plant processes at the juncture of cells.

  13. Gravity research on plants: use of single cell experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eChebli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Future space missions and implementation of permanent bases on Moon and Mars will greatly depend on the availability of ambient air and sustainable food supply. Therefore, understanding the effects of altered gravity conditions on plant metabolism and growth is vital for space missions and extra-terrestrial human existence. In this mini-review we summarize how plant cells are thought to perceive changes in magnitude and orientation of the gravity vector. The particular advantages of several single celled model systems for gravity research are explored and an overview over recent advancements and potential use of these systems is provided.

  14. Specific organization of Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildanova, M S; Wang, W; Smirnova, E A

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules, actin filaments, and Golgi apparatus are connected both directly and indirectly, but it is manifested differently depending on the cell organization and specialization, and these connections are considered in many original studies and reviews. In this review we would like to discuss what underlies differences in the structural organization of the Golgi apparatus in animal and plant cells: specific features of the microtubule cytoskeleton organization, the use of different cytoskeleton components for Golgi apparatus movement and maintenance of its integrity, or specific features of synthetic and secretory processes. We suppose that a dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in higher plant cells cannot be explained only by specific features of the microtubule system organization and by the absence of centrosome as an active center of their organization because the Golgi apparatus is organized similarly in the cells of other organisms that possess the centrosome and centrosomal microtubules. One of the key factors determining the Golgi apparatus state in plant cells is the functional uniformity or functional specialization of stacks. The functional specialization does not suggest the joining of the stacks to form a ribbon; therefore, the disperse state of the Golgi apparatus needs to be supported, but it also can exist "by default". We believe that the dispersed state of the Golgi apparatus in plants is supported, on one hand, by dynamic connections of the Golgi apparatus stacks with the actin filament system and, on the other hand, with the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum.

  15. New aspects of gravity responses in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki; Soga, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    Plants show two distinct responses to gravity: gravity-dependent morphogenesis (gravimorphogenesis) and gravity resistance. In gravitropism, a typical mechanism of gravimorphogenesis, gravity is utilized as a signal to establish an appropriate form. The response has been studied in a gravity-free environment, where plant seedlings were found to perform spontaneous morphogenesis, termed automorphogenesis. Automorphogenesis consists of a change in growth direction and spontaneous curvature in dorsiventral directions. The spontaneous curvature is caused by a difference in the capacity of the cell wall to expand between the dorsal and the ventral sides of organs, which originates from the inherent structural anisotropy. Gravity resistance is a response that enables the plant to develop against the gravitational force. To resist the force, the plant constructs a tough body by increasing the cell wall rigidity that suppresses growth. The mechanical properties of the cell wall are changed by modification of the cell wall metabolism and cell wall environment, especially pH. In gravitropism, gravity is perceived by amyloplasts in statocytes, whereas gravity resistance may be mediated by mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane.

  16. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Monthly and quarterly progress report, 1 April 1978-30 June 1978 (Deliverable No. 12)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The design of the commercial plant was completed and a cost estimate prepared. Most work remaining on Task I relates to: Demonstration Plant recommendations and includes a configuration study, at DOE's request, to evaluate alternatives for the Demo Plant Configuration to achieve the required reliability. The specific alternatives being considered are: A base U-Gas Plant designed to produce 50 MMM Btu/day 365 days per year (the High Reliability case); a base U-Gas Plant plus product storage; and a base U-Gas Plant, plus a small methanation facility to upgrade a small portion of the product to obtain credits. Other studies in support of the demonstration plant recommendations include: economic study of U-Gas versus coal-fired boilers for internal steam generation; an assessment of the cost/benefit of designing the Demo Plant for an operating pressure higher than the current data allows; and evaluation of the costs of providing a zero discharge wastewater treatment system.

  17. The plant cell nucleus: a true arena for the fight between plants and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslandes, Laurent; Rivas, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Communication between the cytoplasm and the nucleus is a fundamental feature shared by both plant and animal cells. Cellular factors involved in the transport of macromolecules through the nuclear envelope, including nucleoporins, importins and Ran-GTP related components, are conserved among a variety of eukaryotic systems. Interestingly, mutations in these nuclear components compromise resistance signalling, illustrating the importance of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking in plant innate immunity. Indeed, spatial restriction of defence regulators by the nuclear envelope and stimulus-induced nuclear translocation constitute an important level of defence-associated gene regulation in plants. A significant number of effectors from different microbial pathogens are targeted to the plant cell nucleus. In addition, key host factors, including resistance proteins, immunity components, transcription factors and transcriptional regulators shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and their level of nuclear accumulation determines the output of the defence response, further confirming the crucial role played by the nucleus during the interaction between plants and pathogens. Here, we discuss recent findings that situate the nucleus at the frontline of the mutual recognition between plants and invading microbes.

  18. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  19. Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaban, Beatrix; Liu, Wenwen; Jiang, Xingyu; Nick, Peter

    2014-07-28

    Cell movement is the central mechanism for animal morphogenesis. Plant cell development rather relies on flexible alignment of cell axis adjusting cellular differentiation to directional cues. As central input, vectorial fields of mechanical stress and gradients of the phytohormone auxin have been discussed. In tissue contexts, mechanical and chemical signals will always act in concert; experimentally it is difficult to dissect their individual roles. We have designed a novel approach, based on cells, where directionality has been eliminated by removal of the cell wall. We impose a new axis using a microfluidic set-up to generate auxin gradients. Rectangular microvessels are integrated orthogonally with the gradient. Cells in these microvessels align their new axis with microvessel geometry before touching the wall. Auxin efflux is necessary for this touch-independent geometry exploration and we suggest a model, where auxin gradients can be used to align cell axis in tissues with minimized mechanical tensions.

  20. Mechanical Response of Single Plant Cells to Cell Poking: A Numerical Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Wang; Qun-Ying Jiao; De-Qiang Wei

    2006-01-01

    Cell poking is an experimental technique that is widely used to study the mechanical properties of plant cells. A full understanding of the mechanical responses of plant cells to poking force is helpful for experimental work. The aim of this study was to numerically investigate the stress distribution of the cell wall,cell turgor, and deformation of plant cells in response to applied poking force. Furthermore, the locations damaged during poking were analyzed. The model simulates cell poking, with the cell treated as a spherical,homogeneous, isotropic elastic membrane, filled with incompressible, highly viscous liquid. Equilibrium equations for the contact region and the non-contact regions were determined by using membrane theory.The boundary conditions and continuity conditions for the solution of the problem were found. The forcedeformation curve, turgor pressure and tension of the cell wall under cell poking conditions were obtained.The tension of the cell wall circumference was larger than that of the meridian. In general, maximal stress occurred at the equator around. When cell deformation increased to a certain level, the tension at the poker tip exceeded that of the equator. Breakage of the cell wall may start from the equator or the poker tip,depending on the deformation. A nonlinear model is suitable for estimating turgor, stress, and stiffness,and numerical simulation is a powerful method for determining plant cell mechanical properties.

  1. Arsenal of plant cell wall degrading enzymes reflects host preference among plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrom Gary C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discovery and development of novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes is a key step towards more efficient depolymerization of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars for the production of liquid transportation biofuels and other bioproducts. The industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is known to be highly cellulolytic and is a major industrial microbial source for commercial cellulases, xylanases and other cell wall degrading enzymes. However, enzyme-prospecting research continues to identify opportunities to enhance the activity of T. reesei enzyme preparations by supplementing with enzymatic diversity from other microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic potential of a broad range of plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi for their ability to degrade plant biomass and isolated polysaccharides. Results Large-scale screening identified a range of hydrolytic activities among 348 unique isolates representing 156 species of plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify groups of species with similar hydrolytic profiles. Among moderately and highly active species, plant pathogenic species were found to be more active than non-pathogens on six of eight substrates tested, with no significant difference seen on the other two substrates. Among the pathogenic fungi, greater hydrolysis was seen when they were tested on biomass and hemicellulose derived from their host plants (commelinoid monocot or dicot. Although T. reesei has a hydrolytic profile that is highly active on cellulose and pretreated biomass, it was less active than some natural isolates of fungi when tested on xylans and untreated biomass. Conclusions Several highly active isolates of plant pathogenic fungi were identified, particularly when tested on xylans and untreated biomass. There were statistically significant preferences for biomass type reflecting the monocot or dicot host preference of the

  2. Arsenal of plant cell wall degrading enzymes reflects host preference among plant pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery and development of novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes is a key step towards more efficient depolymerization of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars for production of liquid transportation biofuels and other bioproducts. The industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is known to be highly c...

  3. Mechanisms of Organelle Inheritance in Dividing Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Organelles form essential compartments of all eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms that ensure the unbiased inheritance of organelles during cell division are therefore necessary to maintain the viability of future cell generations. Although inheritance of organelles represents a fundamental component of the cell cycle, surprisingly little is known about the underlying mechanisms that facilitate unbiased organelle inheritance. Evidence from a select number of studies, however,indicates that ordered organelle inheritance strategies exist in dividing cells of higher plants. The basic requirement for unbiased organelle inheritance is the duplication of organelle volume and distribution of the resulting organelle populations in a manner that facilitates unbiased partitioning of the organelle population to each daughter cell. Often, partitioning strategies are specific to the organelle, being influenced by the functional requirements of the organelle and whether the cells are mitotically active or re-entering into the cell cycle. Organelle partitioning mechanisms frequently depend on interactions with either the actin or microtubule cytoskeleton. In this focused review, we attempt to summarize key findings regarding organelle partitioning strategies in dividing cells of higher plants. We particularly concentrate on the role of the cytoskeleton in mediating unbiased organelle partitioning.

  4. Demonstrating hydrogen production from ammonia using lithium imide - Powering a small proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Hazel M. A.; Makepeace, Joshua W.; Wood, Thomas J.; Mylius, O. Simon; Kibble, Mark G.; Nutter, Jamie B.; Jones, Martin O.; David, William I. F.

    2016-10-01

    Accessing the intrinsic hydrogen content within ammonia, NH3, has the potential to play a very significant role in the future of a CO2-free sustainable energy supply. Inexpensive light metal imides and amides are effective at decomposing ammonia to hydrogen and nitrogen (2NH3 → 3H2 + N2), at modest temperatures, and thus represent a low-cost approach to on-demand hydrogen production. Building upon this discovery, this paper describes the integration of an ammonia cracking unit with a post-reactor gas purification system and a small-scale PEM fuel cell to create a first bench-top demonstrator for the production of hydrogen using light metal imides.

  5. Aspergillus enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.P.; Visser, J.

    2001-01-01

    Degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides is of major importance in the food and feed, beverage, textile, and paper and pulp industries, as well as in several other industrial production processes. Enzymatic degradation of these polymers has received attention for many years and is becoming a m

  6. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Applied to Living Plant Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hink, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, photon counting histogram, intracellular, plant, AtSERK1In order to survive organisms have to be capable to adjust theirselves to changes in the environment. Cells, the building blocks of an organism react to these

  7. Involvement of the plant antioxidative response in the differential growth sensitivity to salinity of leaves vs roots during cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Shoresh, Michal; Xu, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2010-10-15

    Sensitivity to salinity varies between plant organs and between cells of different developmental stages within a single organ. The physiological and molecular bases for the differential responses are not known. Exposure of plants to salinity is known to induce formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in damage mechanisms but also in cell growth processes. The objective of this study was to elucidate developmental-stage-specific and organ-specific involvement of oxidative defense in the plant response to salinity in maize (Zea mays L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution containing 1mM NaCl (control) or 80mM NaCl. The oxidative stress response and damage symptoms along the cell developmental gradient in growing and mature tissue of leaves and roots were examined. Unlike leaves, roots did not suffer oxidative damage in either growing or mature cells and demonstrated reduced antioxidant response. This may reflect different requirements of ROS for growth mechanisms of leaf and root cells. In leaves, growing tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity under salinity than mature tissue, whereas mature tissue demonstrated higher stimulation of catalase. These results indicate differential roles for these ROS-scavenging enzymes at different cell developmental stages. Because ROS are required for cell expansion, the higher increase in SOD and APX activities in the growing leaf cells that resulted in reduction of ROS content under salinity could lead to the inhibition of cell growth under salinity.

  8. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  9. Model for long QT syndrome type 2 using human iPS cells demonstrates arrhythmogenic characteristics in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L. Lahti

    2012-03-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS is caused by functional alterations in cardiac ion channels and is associated with prolonged cardiac repolarization time and increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Inherited type 2 LQTS (LQT2 and drug-induced LQTS both result from altered function of the hERG channel. We investigated whether the electrophysiological characteristics of LQT2 can be recapitulated in vitro using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC technology. Spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes were differentiated from two iPSC lines derived from an individual with LQT2 carrying the R176W mutation in the KCNH2 (HERG gene. The individual had been asymptomatic except for occasional palpitations, but his sister and father had died suddenly at an early age. Electrophysiological properties of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes were studied using microelectrode array and patch-clamp, and were compared with those of cardiomyocytes derived from control cells. The action potential duration of LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes was significantly longer than that of control cardiomyocytes, and the rapid delayed potassium channel (IKr density of the LQT2 cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced. Additionally, LQT2-derived cardiac cells were more sensitive than controls to potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, including sotalol, and demonstrated arrhythmogenic electrical activity. Consistent with clinical observations, the LQT2 cardiomyocytes demonstrated a more pronounced inverse correlation between the beating rate and repolarization time compared with control cells. Prolonged action potential is present in LQT2-specific cardiomyocytes derived from a mutation carrier and arrhythmias can be triggered by a commonly used drug. Thus, the iPSC-derived, disease-specific cardiomyocytes could serve as an important platform to study pathophysiological mechanisms and drug sensitivity in LQT2.

  10. Quantification of plant cell coupling with live-cell microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    by confocal microscopy, loaded tracer is activated by UV illumination in a target cell and its spread to neighboring cells monitored. When combined with high-speed acquisition by resonant scanning or spinning disc confocal microscopy, the high signal-to-noise ratio of photoactivation allows collection...

  11. Introducing the Cell Concept with Both Animal and Plant Cells: A Historical and Didactic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    In France, as well as in several other countries, the cell concept is introduced at school by two juxtaposed drawings, a plant cell and an animal cell. After indicating the didactic obstacles associated with this presentation, this paper focuses on the reasons underlying the persistence of these two prototypes, through three complementary…

  12. Plant Cell Cancer: May Natural Phenolic Compounds Prevent Onset and Development of Plant Cell Malignancy? A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Hassan; Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Mansouri, Kamran; Mohammadzadeh, Sara; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-08-23

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) are known as a chemically diverse category of secondary and reactive metabolites which are produced in plants via the shikimate-phenylpropanoid pathways. These compounds-ubiquitous in plants-are an essential part of the human diet, and are of considerable interest due to their antioxidant properties. Phenolic compounds are essential for plant functions, because they are involved in oxidative stress reactions, defensive systems, growth, and development. A large body of cellular and animal evidence carried out in recent decades has confirmed the anticancer role of PCs. Phytohormones-especially auxins and cytokinins-are key contributors to uncontrolled growth and tumor formation. Phenolic compounds can prevent plant growth by the endogenous regulation of auxin transport and enzymatic performance, resulting in the prevention of tumorigenesis. To conclude, polyphenols can reduce plant over-growth rate and the development of tumors in plant cells by regulating phytohormones. Future mechanistic studies are necessary to reveal intracellular transcription and transduction agents associated with the preventive role of phenolics versus plant pathological malignancy cascades.

  13. Micrasterias as a Model System in Plant Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its complex star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 μm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells. PMID:27462330

  14. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  15. Micrasterias as a model system in plant cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Luetz-Meindl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular freshwater alga Micrasterias denticulata is an exceptional organism due to its extraordinary star-shaped, highly symmetric morphology and has thus attracted the interest of researchers for many decades. As a member of the Streptophyta, Micrasterias is not only genetically closely related to higher land plants but shares common features with them in many physiological and cell biological aspects. These facts, together with its considerable cell size of about 200 µm, its modest cultivation conditions and the uncomplicated accessibility particularly to any microscopic techniques, make Micrasterias a very well suited cell biological plant model system. The review focuses particularly on cell wall formation and composition, dictyosomal structure and function, cytoskeleton control of growth and morphogenesis as well as on ionic regulation and signal transduction. It has been also shown in the recent years that Micrasterias is a highly sensitive indicator for environmental stress impact such as heavy metals, high salinity, oxidative stress or starvation. Stress induced organelle degradation, autophagy, adaption and detoxification mechanisms have moved in the center of interest and have been investigated with modern microscopic techniques such as 3-D- and analytical electron microscopy as well as with biochemical, physiological and molecular approaches. This review is intended to summarize and discuss the most important results obtained in Micrasterias in the last 20 years and to compare the results to similar processes in higher plant cells.

  16. Putting On The Breaks: Regulating Organelle Movements in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julianna K.Vick; Andreas Nebenführ

    2012-01-01

    A striking characteristic of plant cells is that their organelles can move rapidly through the cell.This movement,commonly referred to as cytoplasmic streaming,has been observed for over 200 years,but we are only now beginning to decipher the mechanisms responsible for it.The identification of the myosin motor proteins responsible for these movements allows us to probe the regulatory events that coordinate organelle displacement with normal cell physiology.This review will highlight several recent developments that have provided new insight into the regulation of organelle movement,both at the cellular level and at the molecular level.

  17. Engineering controlled mammalian type O-Glycosylation in plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian Paul; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Human mucins are large heavily O-glycosylated glycoproteins (>200 kDa), which account for the majority of proteins in mucus layers that e.g. hydrate, lubricate and protect cells from proteases as well as from pathogens. O-linked mucin glycans are truncated in many cancers, yielding truncated cancer...... specific glyco-peptide epitopes, such as the Tn epitope (GalNAc sugar attached to either Serine or Threonine), which are antigenic to the immune system. In the present study, we have identified plant cells as the only eukaryotic cells without mammalian type O-glycosylation or competing (for sites) O...

  18. Homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie eHu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a membrane-bounded organelle whose membrane comprises a network of tubules and sheets. The formation of these characteristic shapes and maintenance of their continuity through homotypic membrane fusion appears to be critical for the proper functioning of the ER. The atlastins (ATLs, a family of ER-localized dynamin-like GTPases, have been identified as fusogens of the ER membranes in metazoans. Mutations of the ATL proteins in mammalian cells cause morphological defects in the ER, and purified Drosophila ATL mediates membrane fusion in vitro. Plant cells do not possess ATL, but a family of similar GTPases, named root hair defective 3 (RHD3, are likely the functional orthologs of ATLs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how RHD3 proteins play a role in homotypic ER fusion. We also discuss the possible physiological significance of forming a tubular ER network in plant cells.

  19. 1000kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. Outline of the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinobe, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hideo

    1988-02-10

    The outline of the 1000KW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant, developed as part of the Moonlight plan, was described. The plant was composed of 4 stacks of 260KW DC output. They were devided into two train with 680V and 765A. The generation efficiency of the plant was 40% and more. Steam reforming of natural gas was used. As the fuel, fuel cell exhaust gas was used in composition with the natural gas. The DC-AC inverter had an efficiency of 96%. The capacity of hot water generator and demineralized water plant for cell cooling were 2t/h and 1.6t/h, respectively, and air-system was incorporated. In September of 1987, the plant has succeeded in 1000KW power generation, and put in operation now. Under the 100% loaded condition, each cell had a voltage of 0.7V with little variation, and the current was 200mA/cm/sup 2/. No problems were found in cooling conditions and in the control of interpole differential pressure. The reformer has been operated for 1200h scince its commisioning, and had experiences of 100 times on start up-shut down operations, the reformer also indicated good performances in the gas compositions. The starting time of 8h and the load follow-up rate 10%/min remain as the subjects for shortening. DC-AC conversion was good. The concentration of NOx and the noise level satisfied the target values. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  20. Production of therapeutic proteins through plant tissue and cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza S. Gharelo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pharmaceutical recombinant protein is increasingly used in treatment of many diseases such as hepatitis, anemia, diabetes and cancer. Different protein expression systems have been used for the expression of recombinant proteins in which each of them face obstacles that make utilizing them as comprehensive expression system in order to express wide variety of proteins difficult. Plant cell as a eukaryotic expression system have many advantages compared to other hosts. They are very "safe" and significantly decrease concerns about the contamination of recombinant proteins with human pathogens. In addition to this, plants as eukaryotic expression system perform proper post-translational modification, in case of eukaryotic proteins, and appropriate folding resulting in right function in biological environments. Therefore, the production of pharmaceutical protein through plant cells can be absolutely promising approach. In this review, the production of pharmaceutical protein in plant cells, advantages and disadvantages, offered methods and techniques for developing recombinant protein yields, and affective factors on the whole process of pharmaceutical protein expression in the molecular level will be reviewed.

  1. Mass spectrometry for characterizing plant cell wall polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometry is a selective and powerful technique to obtain identification and structural information on compounds present in complex mixtures. Since it requires only small sample amount it is an excellent tool for researchers interested in detecting changes in composition of complex carbohydrates of plants. This mini-review gives an overview of common mass spectrometry techniques applied to the analysis of plant cell wall carbohydrates. It presents examples in which mass spectrometry has been used to elucidate the structure of oligosaccharides derived from hemicelluloses and pectins and illustrates how information on sequence, linkages, branching and modifications are obtained from characteristic fragmentation patterns.

  2. Oxidative stress in plant cell culture: a role in production of beta-thujaplicin by Cupresssus lusitanica suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2005-06-05

    Oxidative stress is a common physiological stress that often challenges plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major factors in oxidative stress that significantly affect plant cell growth and secondary metabolism. Here we used beta-thujaplicin production by Cupressus lusitanica cell culture as an example to demonstrate the common occurrence of oxidative stress in cultivated plant cells and its effect on multiple aspects of cell culture process. C. lusitanica cells cultivated under Fe(2+) stress generate a significant level of ROS, and oxidative stress also occurs at late stages of C. lusitanica cell cultures under normal conditions. ROS production inhibited cell growth, induced lipid peroxidation and cell death, and enhanced ethylene and beta-thujaplicin production. It is demonstrated that Fe(2+) stress enhances ROS production via the Fenton reaction and promotes beta-thujaplicin production via ROS-induced lipid peroxidation that may activate cyclic oxylipin and ethylene pathways. Results further indicate that H(2)O(2) is a positive signal for beta-thujaplicin production, whereas superoxide anion radical (O(2) (- )) negatively affects beta-thujaplicin induction and strongly induces cell death. The study suggests that evaluating the oxidative stress and plant responses in a cell culture process is very necessary and important for understanding biochemical processes and for gaining the maximal productivity of target secondary metabolites.

  3. Metabolism of fluoranthene in different plant cell cultures and intact plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, M.; Harms, H.

    2000-05-01

    The metabolism of fluoranthene was investigated in 11 cell cultures of different plant species using a [{sup 14}C]-labeled standard. Most species metabolized less than 5% of fluoranthene to soluble metabolites and formed less than 5% nonextractable residues during the standardized 48-h test procedure. Higher metabolic rates were observed in lettuce (Lactuca sativa, 6%), wheat (Tricitum aestivum, 9%), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, 15%). A special high metabolic rate of nearly 50% was determined for the rose species Paul's Scarlet. Chromatographic analysis of metabolites extracted from aseptically grown tomato plants proved that the metabolites detected in the cell cultures were also formed in the intact plants. Metabolites produced in tomato and rose cells from [{sup 14}C]-fluoranthene were conjugated with glucose, glucuronic acid, and other cell components. After acid hydrolyses, the main metabolite of both species was 1-hydroxyfluoranthene as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The second metabolite formed by both species was 8-hydroxyfluoranthene. A third metabolite in tomatoes was 3-hydroxyfluoranthene.

  4. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP while demonstrating the ICCT CT-121 FGD Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-16

    The US Department of Energy is performing comprehensive assessments of toxic emissions from eight selected coal-fired electric utility units. This program responds to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utility power plants for Potential health risks. The resulting data will be furnished to EPA utility power plants and health risk determinations. The assessment of emissions involves the collection and analysis of samples from the major input, process, and output streams of each of the eight power plants for selected hazardous Pollutants identified in Title III of the Clean Air Act. Additional goals are to determine the removal efficiencies of pollution control subsystems for these selected pollutants and the Concentrations associated with the particulate fraction of the flue gas stream as a function of particle size. Material balances are being performed for selected pollutants around the entire power plant and several subsystems to identify the fate of hazardous substances in each utility system. Radian Corporation was selected to perform a toxics assessment at a plant demonstrating an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) Project. The site selected is Plant Yates Unit No. 1 of Georgia Power Company, which includes a Chiyoda Thoroughbred-121 demonstration project.

  5. Can plant oncogenes inhibit programmed cell death? The rolB oncogene reduces apoptosis-like symptoms in transformed plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Y; Aminin, Dmitry L; Vereshchagina, Yuliya V; Shkryl, Yuri N; Veremeichik, Galina N; Tchernoded, Galina K; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2012-09-01

    The rolB oncogene was previously identified as an important player in ROS metabolism in transformed plant cells. Numerous reports indicate a crucial role for animal oncogenes in apoptotic cell death. Whether plant oncogenes such as rolB can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in transformed plant cells is of particular importance. In this investigation, we used a single-cell assay based on confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes capable of discriminating between apoptotic and necrotic cells. Our results indicate that the expression of rolB in plant cells was sufficient to decrease the proportion of apoptotic cells in steady-state conditions and diminish the rate of apoptotic cells during induced PCD. These data suggest that plant oncogenes, like animal oncogenes, may be involved in the processes mediating PCD.

  6. Dynamic Memory Cells Using MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors Demonstrating Femtoampere Leakage Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshirsagar, Chaitanya U; Xu, Weichao; Su, Yang; Robbins, Matthew C; Kim, Chris H; Koester, Steven J

    2016-09-27

    Two-dimensional semiconductors such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are of tremendous interest for scaled logic and memory applications. One of the most promising TMDs for scaled transistors is molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and several recent reports have shown excellent performance and scalability for MoS2 MOSFETs. An often overlooked feature of MoS2 is that its wide band gap (1.8 eV in monolayer) and high effective masses should lead to extremely low off-state leakage currents. These features could be extremely important for dynamic memory applications where the refresh rate is the primary factor affecting the power consumption. Theoretical predictions suggest that leakage currents in the 10(-18) to 10(-15) A/μm range could be possible, even in scaled transistor geometries. Here, we demonstrate the operation of one- and two-transistor dynamic memory circuits using MoS2 MOSFETs. We characterize the retention times in these circuits and show that the two-transistor memory cell reveals MoS2 MOSFETs leakage currents as low as 1.7 × 10(-15) A/μm, a value that is below the noise floor of conventional DC measurements. These results have important implications for the future use of MoS2 MOSFETs in low-power circuit applications.

  7. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Ventral Hernia Repair Patients Demonstrate Decreased Vasculogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lisiecki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In adipose tissue healing, angiogenesis is stimulated by adipose-derived stromal stem cells (ASCs. Ventral hernia repair (VHR patients are at high risk for wound infections. We hypothesize that ASCs from VHR patients are less vasculogenic than ASCs from healthy controls. Methods. ASCs were harvested from the subcutaneous fat of patients undergoing VHR by the component separation technique and from matched abdominoplasty patients. RNA and protein were harvested on culture days 0 and 3. Both groups of ASCs were subjected to hypoxic conditions for 12 and 24 hours. RNA was analyzed using qRT-PCR, and protein was used for western blotting. ASCs were also grown in Matrigel under hypoxic conditions and assayed for tubule formation after 24 hours. Results. Hernia patient ASCs demonstrated decreased levels of VEGF-A protein and vasculogenic RNA at 3 days of growth in differentiation media. There were also decreases in VEGF-A protein and vasculogenic RNA after growth in hypoxic conditions compared to control ASCs. After 24 hours in hypoxia, VHR ASCs formed fewer tubules in Matrigel than in control patient ASCs. Conclusion. ASCs derived from VHR patients appear to express fewer vasculogenic markers and form fewer tubules in Matrigel than ASCs from abdominoplasty patients, suggesting decreased vasculogenic activity.

  8. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-05-25

    Volume 2 contains flowsheets and equipment specifications for the following parts of the plant: cooling water systems, process water supply, potable water supply, nitrogen system, compressed air system, flares, incinerators, fuels and interconnecting systems (pipes). The instrumentation requirements are included. (LTN)

  9. Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis and signaling in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The increases of H2O2 concentrations in plant cells often occur under biotic and abiotic stress conditions (e.g. light, environmental stresses and plant hormone abscisic acid).Atmospheric H2O2 as an ancient signal molecule not only plays the key role in inducing evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, but also modulates many physiological events, such as stomatal movement, hypersensitive responses, programmed cell death and gene expressions. H2O2 levels in cells must sustain a fine equilibrium between production and scavenging. H2O2 enters cells from the apoplast or generated sources, and in turn is distributed in sub-cellular compartments.H2O2 can modulate the activities of many components in signaling, such as protein phosphatases,protein kinases, transcription factors (TFs), and calcium channels. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations will initiate further downstream responses, via the action of calcium-binding proteins. On the other hand, the research of H2O2 as a signal molecule is still in a comparatively juvenile stage, for example, little is known about how the cells sense H2O2, what the rate-limiting steps and most important cellular events are in cell signaling and what kind of genes is specific or necessary to H2O2 signaling. The answers to all the questions depend on the functional genomic and molecular genetics analysis.

  11. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  12. Secondary Metabolite Localization by Autofluorescence in Living Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Talamond

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autofluorescent molecules are abundant in plant cells and spectral images offer means for analyzing their spectra, yielding information on their accumulation and function. Based on their fluorescence characteristics, an imaging approach using multiphoton microscopy was designed to assess localization of the endogenous fluorophores in living plant cells. This method, which requires no previous treatment, provides an effective experimental tool for discriminating between multiple naturally-occurring fluorophores in living-tissues. Combined with advanced Linear Unmixing, the spectral analysis extends the possibilities and enables the simultaneous detection of fluorescent molecules reliably separating overlapping emission spectra. However, as with any technology, the possibility for artifactual results does exist. This methodological article presents an overview of the applications of tissular and intra-cellular localization of these intrinsic fluorophores in leaves and fruits (here for coffee and vanilla. This method will provide new opportunities for studying cellular environments and the behavior of endogenous fluorophores in the intracellular environment.

  13. Plant phosphoglycerolipids: the gatekeepers of vascular cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan eGujas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In higher plants, the plant vascular system has evolved as an inter-organ communication network essential to deliver a wide range of signaling factors among distantly separated organs. To become conductive elements, phloem and xylem cells undergo a drastic differentiation program that involves the degradation of the majority of their organelles. While the molecular mechanisms regulating such complex process remain poorly understood, it is nowadays clear that phosphoglycerolipids display a pivotal role in the regulation of vascular formation. In animal cells, this class of lipids is known to mediate acute responses as signal transducers and also act as constitutive signals that help defining organelle identity. Their rapid turnover, asymmetrical distribution across subcellular compartments as well as their ability to rearrange cytoskeleton fibers make phosphoglycerolipids excellent candidates to regulate complex morphogenetic processes such as vascular differentiation. Therefore, in this review we aim to summarize, emphasize and connect our current understanding about the involvement of phosphoglycerolipids in phloem and xylem differentiation.

  14. Plant cell walls: New insights from ancient species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Iben; Willats, William George Tycho

    2008-01-01

    Cell walls are a defining feature of plants and have numerous crucial roles in growth and development. They are also the largest source of terrestrial biomass and have many important industrial applications - ranging from bulk products to functional food ingredients. There is considerable interest......¿4)-linked ß-D-Glcp are joined by occasional (1¿3)-linkages. This mixed linkage glucan (MLG) has been the subject of extensive research because of the economic importance of several Poales species including rice, barley and wheat and because MLG has proven health benefits. The recent discovery of MLG......-D-glucan is not unique to the Poales and is an abundant component of Equisetum arvense cell walls. Plant J 2008; 54:510-21....

  15. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Chen; Huafang Lai

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene d...

  16. Single-Cell Analysis of the Plasmablast Response to Vibrio cholerae Demonstrates Expansion of Cross-Reactive Memory B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Robert C.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R.; Nakajima, Rie; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Rahman, Atiqur; Bhaumik, Siddhartha K.; Harris, Levelle; O'Neal, Justin T.; Trost, Jessica F.; Alam, Nur Haq; Jasinskas, Algis; Dotsey, Emmanuel; Kelly, Meagan; Charles, Richelle C.; Xu, Peng; Kováč, Pavol; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Felgner, Phillip L.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We characterized the acute B cell response in adults with cholera by analyzing the repertoire, specificity, and functional characteristics of 138 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated from single-cell-sorted plasmablasts. We found that the cholera-induced responses were characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and large clonal expansions. A majority of the expansions targeted cholera toxin (CT) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a novel proteomics approach, we were able to identify sialidase as another major antigen targeted by the antibody response to Vibrio cholerae infection. Antitoxin MAbs targeted both the A and B subunits, and most were also potent neutralizers of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. LPS-specific MAbs uniformly targeted the O-specific polysaccharide, with no detectable responses to either the core or the lipid moiety of LPS. Interestingly, the LPS-specific antibodies varied widely in serotype specificity and functional characteristics. One participant infected with the Ogawa serotype produced highly mutated LPS-specific antibodies that preferentially bound the previously circulating Inaba serotype. This demonstrates durable memory against a polysaccharide antigen presented at the mucosal surface and provides a mechanism for the long-term, partial heterotypic immunity seen following cholera. PMID:27999163

  17. Single-Cell Analysis of the Plasmablast Response to Vibrio cholerae Demonstrates Expansion of Cross-Reactive Memory B Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Kauffman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We characterized the acute B cell response in adults with cholera by analyzing the repertoire, specificity, and functional characteristics of 138 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs generated from single-cell-sorted plasmablasts. We found that the cholera-induced responses were characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and large clonal expansions. A majority of the expansions targeted cholera toxin (CT or lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Using a novel proteomics approach, we were able to identify sialidase as another major antigen targeted by the antibody response to Vibrio cholerae infection. Antitoxin MAbs targeted both the A and B subunits, and most were also potent neutralizers of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin. LPS-specific MAbs uniformly targeted the O-specific polysaccharide, with no detectable responses to either the core or the lipid moiety of LPS. Interestingly, the LPS-specific antibodies varied widely in serotype specificity and functional characteristics. One participant infected with the Ogawa serotype produced highly mutated LPS-specific antibodies that preferentially bound the previously circulating Inaba serotype. This demonstrates durable memory against a polysaccharide antigen presented at the mucosal surface and provides a mechanism for the long-term, partial heterotypic immunity seen following cholera.

  18. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki eHatsugai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an orthologue of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain. VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1.

  19. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  20. Two endogenous proteins that induce cell wall extension in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen-Mason, S.; Durachko, D. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Plant cell enlargement is regulated by wall relaxation and yielding, which is thought to be catalyzed by elusive "wall-loosening" enzymes. By employing a reconstitution approach, we found that a crude protein extract from the cell walls of growing cucumber seedlings possessed the ability to induce the extension of isolated cell walls. This activity was restricted to the growing region of the stem and could induce the extension of isolated cell walls from various dicot stems and the leaves of amaryllidaceous monocots, but was less effective on grass coleoptile walls. Endogenous and reconstituted wall extension activities showed similar sensitivities to pH, metal ions, thiol reducing agents, proteases, and boiling in methanol or water. Sequential HPLC fractionation of the active wall extract revealed two proteins with molecular masses of 29 and 30 kD associated with the activity. Each protein, by itself, could induce wall extension without detectable hydrolytic breakdown of the wall. These proteins appear to mediate "acid growth" responses of isolated walls and may catalyze plant cell wall extension by a novel biochemical mechanism.

  1. Morphological Transformation of Plant Cells in vitro and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhigang; ZENG Zhaolin; LIU Ruizhi; DENG Ying

    2005-01-01

    Enhancement of cell growth in suspension cultures is urgently needed in plant cell culture engineering. This study investigates the relationship between morphological transformation and cell growth in callus and suspension cultures of saffron cells belonging to the cell line C96 induced from Crocus sativus L. In the suspension culture, an unbalanced osmotic pressure between the intracell and extracell regions induced a large morphological transformation which affected normal division of the saffron cells. An increase in osmotic pressure caused by the addition of sucrose inhibits the vacuolation and shrinkage of cytoplasm in the cells. As the sucrose concentration increases, the total amount of accumulated biomass also increases. Besides the sucrose concentration, increased ionic strength and inoculation ratio also help restrain to a large extent the vacuolation and shrinkage of the cytoplasm in the suspended cells, which results in increased biomass. The conditions for optimal biomass are: Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 40 g/L sucrose and 60% (v/v) inoculation ratio.

  2. FY13 GLYCOLIC-NITRIC ACID FLOWSHEET DEMONSTRATIONS OF THE DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL WITH SIMULANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Best, D.

    2014-03-13

    Savannah River Remediation is evaluating changes to its current Defense Waste Processing Facility flowsheet to replace formic acid with glycolic acid in order to improve processing cycle times and decrease by approximately 100x the production of hydrogen, a potentially flammable gas. Higher throughput is needed in the Chemical Processing Cell since the installation of the bubblers into the melter has increased melt rate. Due to the significant maintenance required for the safety significant gas chromatographs and the potential for production of flammable quantities of hydrogen, eliminating the use of formic acid is highly desirable. Previous testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory has shown that replacing formic acid with glycolic acid allows the reduction and removal of mercury without significant catalytic hydrogen generation. Five back-to-back Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycles and four back-to-back Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycles were successful in demonstrating the viability of the nitric/glycolic acid flowsheet. The testing was completed in FY13 to determine the impact of process heels (approximately 25% of the material is left behind after transfers). In addition, back-to-back experiments might identify longer-term processing problems. The testing was designed to be prototypic by including sludge simulant, Actinide Removal Product simulant, nitric acid, glycolic acid, and Strip Effluent simulant containing Next Generation Solvent in the SRAT processing and SRAT product simulant, decontamination frit slurry, and process frit slurry in the SME processing. A heel was produced in the first cycle and each subsequent cycle utilized the remaining heel from the previous cycle. Lower SRAT purges were utilized due to the low hydrogen generation. Design basis addition rates and boilup rates were used so the processing time was shorter than current processing rates.

  3. Immunohistochemical demonstration of lysozyme in normal, reactive and neoplastic cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi,Makoto

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the peroxidase antiperoxidase (PAP method, lysozyme (LZM was shown to exist in normal, reactive and neoplastic cells belonging to the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS, but was not detected in histiocytosis X cells. Immunostaining for cytoplasmic LZM by the PAP method is useful for identification of mononuclear phagocytes and for diagnosis of the diseases in which these cells participate.

  4. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Firas Bou; Braybrook, Siobhan A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbors, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell’s life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such as organ abscission, dehiscence, and ripening. In these instances, the pectin-rich middle lamella must be actively altered to allow cell separation, a process which also requires cell wall modification. In this review, we will focus on the role of pectin and its modification in cell adhesion and separation. Recent insights gained in pectin gel mechanics will be discussed in relation to existing knowledge of pectin chemistry as it relates to cell adhesion. As a whole, we hope to begin defining the physical mechanisms behind a cells’ ability to hang on, and how it lets go. PMID:26236321

  5. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eBou Daher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells do not, in general, migrate. They maintain a fixed position relative to their neighbours, intimately linked through growth and differentiation. The mediator of this connection, the pectin-rich middle lamella, is deposited during cell division and maintained throughout the cell’s life to protect tissue integrity. The maintenance of adhesion requires cell wall modification and is dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. There are developmental processes that require cell separation, such as organ abscission, dehiscence, and ripening. In these instances, the pectin-rich middle lamella must be actively altered to allow cell separation, a process which also requires cell wall modification. In this review, we will focus on the role of pectin and its modification in cell adhesion and separation. Recent insights gained in pectin gel mechanics will be discussed in relation to existing knowledge of pectin chemistry as it relates to cell adhesion. As a whole, we hope to begin defining the physical mechanisms behind a cells’ ability to hang on, and how it lets go.

  6. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  7. Thymoquinone causes multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Sameh E; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Azeiz, Ahmed Z Abdel; Mohammed, Rasha A; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Kamal, Khalid B H; Rabah, Samar; Sabir, Jamal S M; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Martin, Gregory B; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a major constituent of Nigella sativa oil with reported anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity in animal cells. It also inhibits proliferation and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human skin cancer cells. The present study sought to detect the influence of TQ on dividing cells of three plant systems and on expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene-like (BAG-like) genes that might be involved during the process of cell death. BAG genes are known for the regulation of diverse physiological processes in animals, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, stress responses, and cell division. Synthetic TQ at 0.1mg/mL greatly reduced wheat seed germination rate, whereas 0.2mg/mL completely inhibited germination. An Evans blue assay revealed moderate cell death in the meristematic zone of Glycine max roots after 1h of TQ treatment (0.2mg/mL), with severe cell death occurring in this zone after 2h of treatment. Light microscopy of TQ-treated (0.2mg/mL) onion hairy root tips for 1h revealed anti-mitotic activity and also cell death-associated changes, including nuclear membrane disruption and nuclear fragmentation. Transmission electron microscopy of TQ-treated cells (0.2mg/mL) for 1h revealed shrinkage of the plasma membrane, leakage of cell lysate, degradation of cell walls, enlargement of vacuoles and condensation of nuclei. Expression of one BAG-like gene, previously associated with cell death, was induced 20 min after TQ treatment in Glycine max root tip cells. Thus, TQ has multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells and plants may serve as a useful system to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the response of eukaryotic cells to TQ.

  8. Geothermal power plant R and D: an analysis of cost-performance tradeoffs and the Heber Binary-Cycle Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.

    1983-06-30

    A study of advancements in power plant designs for use at geothermal resources in the low to moderate (300 to 400F) temperature range is reported. In 3 case studies, the benefits of R and D to achieve these advancements are evaluated in terms of expected increases in installed geothermal generating capacity over the next 2 decades. A parametric sensitivity study is discussed which analyzes differential power development for combinations of power plant efficiency and capitol cost. Affordable tradeoffs between plant performance and capital costs are illustrated. The independent review and analysis of the expected costs of construction, operation and maintenance of the Heber Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Demonstration Plant are described. Included in this assessment is an analysis of each of the major cost components of the project, including (1) construction cost, (2) well field development costs, (3) fluid purchase costs, and (4) well field and power plant operation and maintenance costs. The total cost of power generated from the Heber Plant (in terms of mills per kWh) is then compared to the cost of power from alternative fossil-fueled base load units. Also evaluated are the provisions of both: (a) the Cooperative Agreement between the federal government and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and E); and (b) the Geothermal Heat Sales Contract with Union Oil Company.

  9. DOD Residential Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell Demonstration Program. Volume 1. Summary of the Fiscal Year 2001 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    electricity, heat, and water There are several kinds of fuel cells, categorized by the type of electrolyte the re- action uses. This project used...Residential PEM Fuel Cell Demonstration Program.” Subse- quent funding in FY02 and FY03 has extended the Program, and has placed additional fuel...for large-scale Phos- phoric Acid Fuel Cells ( PAFC ), set the groundwork for program management. The release of a Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for

  10. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defense responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apone, Fabio; Tito, Annalisa; Carola, Antonietta; Arciello, Stefania; Tortora, Assunta; Filippini, Lucio; Monoli, Irene; Cucchiara, Mirna; Gibertoni, Simone; Chrispeels, Maarten J; Colucci, Gabriella

    2010-02-15

    Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.

  11. Anhydrobiosis and programmed cell death in plants: Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Anhydrobiosis is an adaptive strategy of certain organisms or specialised propagules to survive in the absence of water while programmed cell death (PCD is a finely tuned cellular process of the selective elimination of targeted cell during developmental programme and perturbed biotic and abiotic conditions. Particularly during water stress both the strategies serve single purpose i.e., survival indicating PCD may also function as an adaptive process under certain conditions. During stress conditions PCD cause targeted cells death in order to keep the homeostatic balance required for the organism survival, whereas anhydrobiosis suspends cellular metabolic functions mimicking a state similar to death until reestablishment of the favourable conditions. Anhydrobiosis is commonly observed among organisms that have ability to revive their metabolism on rehydration after removal of all or almost all cellular water without damage. This feature is widely represented in terrestrial cyanobacteria and bryophytes where it is very common in both vegetative and reproductive stages of life-cycle. In the course of evolution, with the development of advanced vascular system in higher plants, anhydrobiosis was gradually lost from the vegetative phase of life-cycle. Though it is retained in resurrection plants that primarily belong to thallophytes and a small group of vascular angiosperm, it can be mostly found restricted in orthodox seeds of higher plants. On the contrary, PCD is a common process in all eukaryotes from unicellular to multicellular organisms including higher plants and mammals. In this review we discuss physiological and biochemical commonalities and differences between anhydrobiosis and PCD.

  12. Possible dual regulatory circuits involving AtS6K1 in the regulation of plant cell cycle and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-jeong; Kim, Sunghan; Du, Hui; Choi, Soonyoung; Verma, Desh Pal S; Cheon, Choong-Ill

    2012-05-01

    The role of Arabidopsis S6 Kinase 1 (AtS6K1), a downstream target of TOR kinase, in controlling plant growth and ribosome biogenesis was characterized after generating transgenic plants expressing AtS6K1 under auxin-inducible promoter. Down regulation of selected cell cycle regulatory genes upon auxin treatment was observed in the transgenic plants, confirming the negative regulatory role of AtS6K1 in the plant cell cycle progression reported earlier. Callus tissues established from these transgenic plants grew to larger cell masses with more number of enlarged cells than untransformed control, demonstrating functional implication of AtS6K1 in the control of plant cell size. The observed negative correlation between the expression of AtS6K1 and the cell cycle regulatory genes, however, was completely reversed in protoplasts generated from the transgenic plants expressing AtS6K1, suggesting a possible existence of dual regulatory mechanism of the plant cell cycle regulation mediated by AtS6K1. An alternative method of kinase assay, termed "substrate-mediated kinase pull down", was employed to examine the additional phosphorylation on other domains of AtS6K1 and verified the phosphorylation of both amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, which is a novel finding regarding the phosphorylation target sites on plant S6Ks by upstream regulatory kinases. In addition, this kinase assay under the stress conditions revealed the salt- and sugar-dependencies of AtS6K1 phosphorylations.

  13. A rapid and robust assay for detection of S-phase cell cycle progression in plant cells and tissues by using ethynyl deoxyuridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horváth Gábor V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in plant cell cycle research is highly dependent on reliable methods for detection of cells replicating DNA. Frequency of S-phase cells (cells in DNA synthesis phase is a basic parameter in studies on the control of cell division cycle and the developmental events of plant cells. Here we extend the microscopy and flow cytometry applications of the recently developed EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-based S-phase assay to various plant species and tissues. We demonstrate that the presented protocols insure the improved preservation of cell and tissue structure and allow significant reduction in assay duration. In comparison with the frequently used detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and tritiated-thymidine incorporation, this new methodology offers several advantages as we discuss here. Results Applications of EdU-based S-phase assay in microscopy and flow cytometry are presented by using cultured cells of alfalfa, Arabidopsis, grape, maize, rice and tobacco. We present the advantages of EdU assay as compared to BrdU-based replication assay and demonstrate that EdU assay -which does not require plant cell wall digestion or DNA denaturation steps, offers reduced assay duration and better preservation of cellular, nuclear and chromosomal morphologies. We have also shown that fast and efficient EdU assay can also be an efficient tool for dual parameter flow cytometry analysis and for quantitative assessment of replication in thick root samples of rice. Conclusions In plant cell cycle studies, EdU-based S-phase detection offers a superior alternative to the existing S-phase assays. EdU method is reliable, versatile, fast, simple and non-radioactive and it can be readily applied to many different plant systems.

  14. Music Generated by a Zn/Cu Electrochemical Cell, a Lemon Cell, and a Solar Cell: A Demonstration for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    The circuit board found in a commercial musical greeting card is used to supply music for electrochemical cell demonstrations. Similar to a voltmeter, the "modified" musical device is connected to a chemical reaction that produces electricity. The commercial 1 V battery inside the greeting card circuit board can be replaced with an…

  15. Argyrophilic cells in the larynx of the guinea-pig demonstrated by the method of Grimelius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Romert, P

    1977-01-01

    Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could not be identi......Argyrophilic cells with branching processes are shown in both the surface epithelium and in the glands in the larynx of adult guinea-pigs using the Grimelius silver technique after GPA fixation. When Bouin's fixative or neutral formalin were used as fixatives argrophilic cells could...

  16. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater.

  17. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truernit Elisabeth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell death is a normal process during plant development. Mutant plants may exhibit misregulation of this process, which can lead to severe growth defects. Simple ways of visualising cell death in living plant tissues can aid the study of plant development and physiology. Results Spectral variants of the fluorescent SYTOX dyes were tested for their usefulness for the detection of non-viable cells within plant embryos and roots using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The dyes were selective for non-viable cells and showed very little background staining in living cells. Simultaneous detection of SYTOX dye and fluorescent protein (e.g. GFP fluorescence was possible. Conclusion The fluorescent SYTOX dyes are useful for an easy and quick first assay of plant cell viability in living plant samples using fluorescence and confocal laser-scanning microscopy.

  18. Bonellia albiflora: A Mayan Medicinal Plant That Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Moo-Puc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been carried out on the medical flora of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula in search for new therapeutic agents, in particular against cancer. In this paper, we evaluated the cytotoxic potential of the extract of Bonellia albiflora, a plant utilized in the traditional Mayan medicine for treatment of chronic injuries of the mouth. We carried out the methanolic extracts of different parts of the plant by means of extraction with the Soxhlet equipment. We conducted liquid-liquid fractions on each extract with solvents of increasing polarity. All extracts and fractions were evaluated for cytotoxic activity versus four human cancer cell lines and one normal cell line through a tetrazolium dye reduction (MTT assay in 96-well cell culture plates. The methanolic root-bark extract possessed much greater cytotoxic activity in the human oropharyngeal cancer cell line (KB; its hexanic fraction concentrated the active metabolites and induced apoptosis with the activation of caspases 3 and 8. The results demonstrate the cytotoxic potential of the B. albiflora hexanic fraction and substantiate the importance of the study of the traditional Mayan medicinal plants.

  19. Effect of Thai medicinal plant extracts on cell aggregation of Escherichia coli O157: H7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limsuwan, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used for treating diarrhoea but the interference mechanisms are not clearly understood. One possible hypothesis is that of an effect on cell surface hydrophobicity of microbial cells. In this study, we examined cell aggregation affected by crude extracts of Thai medicinal plants on cell surface hydrophobicity of Escherichia coli strains by salt aggregation test. Correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration and cell aggregation was performed. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 8 medicinal plants including Acacia catechu, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Piper sarmentosum, Psidium guajava, Punica granatum, Quercus infectoria, and Tamarindus indica were tested with E. coli O157: H7 and other E. coli strains isolated from human, porcine, and foods. Aqueous extracts of Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava, and Punica granatum were highly effective against E. coli O157: H7 with the MIC values of 0.09 to 0.39, 0.19 to 0.78, and 0.09 to 1.56 mg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic extract of Quercus infectoria and Punica granatum demonstrated good MIC values of 0.09 to 0.78, and 0.19 to 0.78 mg/ml, respectively. It was established that aqueous extracts of Punica granatum and Piper sarmentosum at high concentration (25 mg/ml enhanced cell aggregation of almost all E. coli strains while aqueous and ethanolic extracts ofQuercus infectoria enhanced cell aggregation of some E. coli strains. Correlation between minimal inhibitory concentration and cell aggregation was not found in this study.

  20. Plant cell nucleolus as a hot spot for iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschzttardtz, Hannetz; Grillet, Louis; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Conéjéro, Geneviève; Ortega, Richard; Curie, Catherine; Mari, Stéphane

    2011-08-12

    Many central metabolic processes require iron as a cofactor and take place in specific subcellular compartments such as the mitochondrion or the chloroplast. Proper iron allocation in the different organelles is thus critical to maintain cell function and integrity. To study the dynamics of iron distribution in plant cells, we have sought to identify the different intracellular iron pools by combining three complementary imaging approaches, histochemistry, micro particle-induced x-ray emission, and synchrotron radiation micro X-ray fluorescence. Pea (Pisum sativum) embryo was used as a model in this study because of its large cell size and high iron content. Histochemical staining with ferrocyanide and diaminobenzidine (Perls/diaminobenzidine) strongly labeled a unique structure in each cell, which co-labeled with the DNA fluorescent stain DAPI, thus corresponding to the nucleus. The unexpected presence of iron in the nucleus was confirmed by elemental imaging using micro particle-induced x-ray emission. X-ray fluorescence on cryo-sectioned embryos further established that, quantitatively, the iron concentration found in the nucleus was higher than in the expected iron-rich organelles such as plastids or vacuoles. Moreover, within the nucleus, iron was particularly accumulated in a subcompartment that was identified as the nucleolus as it was shown to transiently disassemble during cell division. Taken together, our data uncover an as yet unidentified although abundant iron pool in the cell, which is located in the nuclei of healthy, actively dividing plant tissues. This result paves the way for the discovery of a novel cellular function for iron related to nucleus/nucleolus-associated processes.

  1. A monofunctional trinuclear platinum complex with steric hindrance demonstrates strong cytotoxicity against tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shangnong; Wang, Xiaoyong; He, Yafeng; Zhu, Zhenzhu; Zhu, Chengcheng; Guo, Zijian

    2014-10-01

    Polynuclear platinum complexes constitute a special class of hopeful antitumor agents. In this study, a Y-type monofunctional trinuclear platinum complex (MTPC) with 1,3,5-tris(pyridin-2-ylmethoxy)benzene, ammine and chloride as ligands was synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The DNA binding mode of MTPC was investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy and gel electrophoresis, and the reactivity of MTPC towards glutathione was studied by (1)H NMR and ESI-MS. The results show that MTPC can affect the conformation of calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) significantly and tends to form 1,4-GG rather than 1,2-GG intrastrand crosslinks, which are different from the instance of cisplatin. MTPC reacts with glutathione quite slowly in comparison with cisplatin because of the steric hindrance. The cytotoxicity of MTPC was tested on the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, the human non-small-cell lung cancer cell line A549, and the human ovarian cancer cell line Skov-3 by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. MTPC is more potent than or comparable to cisplatin. The cellular inhibition mode of MTPC was examined by flow cytometry using MCF-7 cells. MTPC arrests the cell cycle mainly in G2 or M phase, while cisplatin arrests the cell cycle in S phase. Similar to cisplatin, MTPC kills the cells predominantly through an apoptotic pathway.

  2. Plant traits demonstrate that temperate and tropical giant eucalypt forests are ecologically convergent with rainforest not savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tng, David Y P; Jordan, Greg J; Bowman, David M J S

    2013-01-01

    Ecological theory differentiates rainforest and open vegetation in many regions as functionally divergent alternative stable states with transitional (ecotonal) vegetation between the two forming transient unstable states. This transitional vegetation is of considerable significance, not only as a test case for theories of vegetation dynamics, but also because this type of vegetation is of major economic importance, and is home to a suite of species of conservation significance, including the world's tallest flowering plants. We therefore created predictions of patterns in plant functional traits that would test the alternative stable states model of these systems. We measured functional traits of 128 trees and shrubs across tropical and temperate rainforest - open vegetation transitions in Australia, with giant eucalypt forests situated between these vegetation types. We analysed a set of functional traits: leaf carbon isotopes, leaf area, leaf mass per area, leaf slenderness, wood density, maximum height and bark thickness, using univariate and multivariate methods. For most traits, giant eucalypt forest was similar to rainforest, while rainforest, particularly tropical rainforest, was significantly different from the open vegetation. In multivariate analyses, tropical and temperate rainforest diverged functionally, and both segregated from open vegetation. Furthermore, the giant eucalypt forests overlapped in function with their respective rainforests. The two types of giant eucalypt forests also exhibited greater overall functional similarity to each other than to any of the open vegetation types. We conclude that tropical and temperate giant eucalypt forests are ecologically and functionally convergent. The lack of clear functional differentiation from rainforest suggests that giant eucalypt forests are unstable states within the basin of attraction of rainforest. Our results have important implications for giant eucalypt forest management.

  3. A comparative mechanical analysis of plant and animal cells reveals convergence across kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand-Smet, Pauline; Chastrette, Nicolas; Guiroy, Axel; Richert, Alain; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Szecsi, Judit; Boudaoud, Arezki; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Bendhamane, Mohammed; Hamant, Oliver; Asnacios, Atef

    2014-11-18

    Plant and animals have evolved different strategies for their development. Whether this is linked to major differences in their cell mechanics remains unclear, mainly because measurements on plant and animal cells relied on independent experiments and setups, thus hindering any direct comparison. In this study we used the same micro-rheometer to compare animal and plant single cell rheology. We found that wall-less plant cells exhibit the same weak power law rheology as animal cells, with comparable values of elastic and loss moduli. Remarkably, microtubules primarily contributed to the rheological behavior of wall-less plant cells whereas rheology of animal cells was mainly dependent on the actin network. Thus, plant and animal cells evolved different molecular strategies to reach a comparable cytoplasmic mechanical core, suggesting that evolutionary convergence could include the internal biophysical properties of cells.

  4. Fuel Cell Balance-of-Plant Reliability Testbed Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sproat, Vern [Stark State College of Technology, North Canton, OH (United States); LaHurd, Debbie [Lockheed Martin Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-29

    Reliability of the fuel cell system balance-of-plant (BoP) components is a critical factor that needs to be addressed prior to fuel cells becoming fully commercialized. Failure or performance degradation of BoP components has been identified as a life-limiting factor in fuel cell systems.1 The goal of this project is to develop a series of test beds that will test system components such as pumps, valves, sensors, fittings, etc., under operating conditions anticipated in real Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Results will be made generally available to begin removing reliability as a roadblock to the growth of the PEM fuel cell industry. Stark State College students participating in the project, in conjunction with their coursework, have been exposed to technical knowledge and training in the handling and maintenance of hydrogen, fuel cells and system components as well as component failure modes and mechanisms. Three test beds were constructed. Testing was completed on gas flow pumps, tubing, and pressure and temperature sensors and valves.

  5. Th17 cells demonstrate stable cytokine production in a proallergic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson-Byers, Nicole L; Sehra, Sarita; Stritesky, Gretta L; Yu, Qing; Awe, Olufolakemi; Pham, Duy; Bruns, Heather A; Kaplan, Mark H

    2014-09-15

    Th17 cells are critical for the clearance of extracellular bacteria and fungi, but also contribute to the pathology of autoimmune diseases and allergic inflammation. After exposure to an appropriate cytokine environment, Th17 cells can acquire a Th1-like phenotype, but less is known about their ability to adopt Th2 and Th9 effector programs. To explore this in more detail, we used an IL-17F lineage tracer mouse strain that allows tracking of cells that formerly expressed IL-17F. In vitro-derived Th17 cells adopted signature cytokine and transcription factor expression when cultured under Th1-, Th2-, or Th9-polarizing conditions. In contrast, using two models of allergic airway disease, Th17 cells from the lungs of diseased mice did not adopt Th1, Th2, or Th9 effector programs, but remained stable IL-17 secretors. Although in vitro-derived Th17 cells expressed IL-4Rα, those induced in vivo during allergic airway disease did not, possibly rendering them unresponsive to IL-4-induced signals. However, in vitro-derived, Ag-specific Th17 cells transferred in vivo to OVA and aluminum hydroxide-sensitized mice also maintained IL-17 secretion and did not produce alternative cytokines upon subsequent OVA challenge. Thus, although Th17 cells can adopt new phenotypes in response to some inflammatory environments, our data suggest that in allergic inflammation, Th17 cells are comparatively stable and retain the potential to produce IL-17. This might reflect a cytokine environment that promotes Th17 stability, and allow a broader immune response at tissue barriers that are susceptible to allergic inflammation.

  6. A radioimmunoassay for lignin in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Lignin detection and determination in herbaceous tissue requires selective, specific assays which are not currently available. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to study lignin metabolism in these tissues. A {beta}-aryl ether lignin model compound was synthesized, linked to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using a water-soluble carbodiimide, and injected into rabbits. The highest titer of the antiserum obtained was 34 {eta}g/mL of model derivatized BSA. An in vitro system was developed to characterize the RIA. The model compound was linked to amino activated polyacrylamide beads to mimic lignin in the cell walls. {sup 125}I Radiolabelled protein A was used to detect IgG antibody binding. The RIA was shown in the in vitro system to exhibit saturable binding. The amount of antibody bound decreased when the serum was diluted. Immunoelectrophoresis and competitive binding experiments confirmed that both aromatic rings of the lignin model compound had been antigenic. Chlorogenic acid, a phenolic known to be present in plant cells, did not compete for antibody binding. The RIA was used to measure lignin in milled plant samples and barley seedlings. Antiserum binding to wheat cell walls and stressed barley segments was higher than preimmune serum binding. Antibody binding to stressed barley tissue decreased following NaClO{sub 2} delignification. The RIA was found to be less sensitive than expected, so several avenues for improving the method are discussed.

  7. Microfluidic monitoring of programmed cell death in living plant seed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Christina; Heiskanen, Arto; Zor, Kinga

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly regulated process in which cells are dismantled. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in PCD in plants, but the relationship between and mechanisms behind ROS and PCD are only poorly understood in plant cells compared to in animal cells (Gechev, Tsanko...

  8. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-01

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (>=800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  9. Demonstration of pectic polysaccharides in cork cell wall from Quercus suber L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, S M; Coimbra, M A; Delgadillo, I

    2000-06-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis were used to observe the cell wall changes that occur in cork with "mancha amarela", when compared to a standard cork. To mimic the microbial attack exhibited in cork with mancha amarela, the standard cork was treated enzymatically with commercial pectinase and hemicellulase preparations. The tissues treated with pectinase were comparable with those attacked with mancha amarela. Both were composed by deformed and wrinkly cells and exhibited cell wall separation at the middle lamella level, which suggests solubilization/removal of the pectic polysaccharides. The cork cell wall material, prepared as alcohol-insoluble residue, was fractionated by hot water (Pect(H)()2(O)) and hot dilute acid (Pect(acid)). The relatively large amount of hexuronic acid and the occurrence of Ara in the SPect(H)()2(O) and SPect(acid) allow to confirm, as far as we know, for the first time the presence of pectic polysaccharides in the cell walls of cork from Quercus suber L. They accounted for ca. 1.5% of the cork and may consist of polymers with long side chains of arabinosyl residues. These polymers have to be taken into account in any realistic model of the cork cell wall. Cork with mancha amarela contained a smaller amount of pectic polysaccharides (ca. 0.5%), which confirms that the cellular separation observed by SEM is related to the degradation/removal of the middle lamella pectic polysaccharides.

  10. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application.

  11. Direct demonstration of tubular fluid flow sensing by macula densa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Arnold; Vargas, Sarah; Peti-Peterdi, János

    2010-11-01

    Macula densa (MD) cells in the cortical thick ascending limb (cTAL) detect variations in tubular fluid composition and transmit signals to the afferent arteriole (AA) that control glomerular filtration rate [tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF)]. Increases in tubular salt at the MD that normally parallel elevations in tubular fluid flow rate are well accepted as the trigger of TGF. The present study aimed to test whether MD cells can detect variations in tubular fluid flow rate per se. Calcium imaging of the in vitro microperfused isolated JGA-glomerulus complex dissected from mice was performed using fluo-4 and fluorescence microscopy. Increasing cTAL flow from 2 to 20 nl/min (80 mM [NaCl]) rapidly produced significant elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in AA smooth muscle cells [evidenced by changes in fluo-4 intensity (F); F/F(0) = 1.45 ± 0.11] and AA vasoconstriction. Complete removal of the cTAL around the MD plaque and application of laminar flow through a perfusion pipette directly to the MD apical surface essentially produced the same results even when low (10 mM) or zero NaCl solutions were used. Acetylated α-tubulin immunohistochemistry identified the presence of primary cilia in mouse MD cells. Under no flow conditions, bending MD cilia directly with a micropipette rapidly caused significant [Ca(2+)](i) elevations in AA smooth muscle cells (fluo-4 F/F(0): 1.60 ± 0.12) and vasoconstriction. P2 receptor blockade with suramin significantly reduced the flow-induced TGF, whereas scavenging superoxide with tempol did not. In conclusion, MD cells are equipped with a tubular flow-sensing mechanism that may contribute to MD cell function and TGF.

  12. Antiproliferative activity of Eremanthus crotonoides extracts and centratherin demonstrated in brain tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas F. R. Lobo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eremanthus is recognized by the predominance of sesquiterpene lactones from the furanoheliangolide type, a class of substances extensively tested against cancer cell lines. Thus, the species E. crotonoides (DC. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae, obtained on "restinga" vegetation was evaluated against U251 and U87-MG glioma cell lines using the MTT colorimetric assay. Dichloromethane fraction was cytotoxic to both glioblastoma multiforme cell lines. We then conducted UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the dichloromethane fraction, which allowed the identification of the sesquiterpene lactones centratherin and goyazensolide. The isolation of centratherin was performed using chromatographic techniques and the identification of this substance was confirmed according to NMR data. Cytotoxic activity of centratherin alone was also evaluated against both U251 and U87-MG cells, which showed IC50 values comparable with those obtained for the commercial anticancer drug doxorubicin. All the tested samples showed cytotoxic activity against glioblastoma multiforme cells which suggests that E. crotonoides extracts may be important sources of antiproliferative substances and that the centratherin may serve as prototype for developing new antiglioblastoma drugs.

  13. Novel roles of plant RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) protein in cell proliferation and asymmetric cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvoyes, Bénédicte; de Mendoza, Alex; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2014-06-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein was identified as a human tumour suppressor protein that controls various stages of cell proliferation through the interaction with members of the E2F family of transcription factors. It was originally thought to be specific to animals but plants contain homologues of Rb, called RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR). In fact, the Rb-E2F module seems to be a very early acquisition of eukaryotes. The activity of RBR depends on phosphorylation of certain amino acid residues, which in most cases are well conserved between plant and animal proteins. In addition to its role in cell-cycle progression, RBR has been shown to participate in various cellular processes such as endoreplication, transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodelling, cell growth, stem cell biology, and differentiation. Here, we discuss the most recent advances to define the role of RBR in cell proliferation and asymmetric cell division. These and other reports clearly support the idea that RBR is used as a landing platform of a plethora of cellular proteins and complexes to control various aspects of cell physiology and plant development.

  14. Human ortholog of a plant salicylic acid receptor found in SK-N-SH cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skubatz, Hanna; Howald, William N

    2013-12-01

    Our previous studies have described the purification and characterization of a novel plant NAD(P)-reductase like protein (RL) from the thermogenic appendix of the Sauromatum guttatum inflorescence. RL is mainly located in cytoplasm of thermogenic plants and it can act like a bistable switch. It adopts a compact conformation during heat-production and a more expanded conformation when heat is not generated. Addition of salicylic acid, a natural thermogenic inducer, at picomolar concentration to a solution of purified RL induced a discontinuous volume phase transition in which the volume of RL in the oligomeric form expanded and shrunk repeatedly every 4-5 min. In the present study using ESI-MS analysis we have demonstrated the existence of RL in the human SK-N-SH cell line and in mouse brain tissue. The molecular mass of human RL is in the same range as of its plant counterpart, 34,140 ± 34 Da. The charge state distribution of the human RL is identical to its plant counterpart from the Sauromatum appendix during heat-production. Human RL was present in the compact state when it was purified from the SK-N-SH cell line When these cells were treated with salicylic acid (10 μM) a shift to a much more compact conformation was observed. It seems that the potential of RL to respond to salicylic acid was conserved. These results may reveal the existence of a thermoregulation system that is evolutionarily conserved and is operating by conformational changes. This discovery may also represent an opportunity for a better understanding of some of the diverse functions of salicylic acid and aspirin in plants and humans.

  15. Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells: the role of wall slip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, K; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E

    2012-06-01

    We present a computer simulation study, via lattice Boltzmann simulations, of a microscopic model for cytoplasmic streaming in algal cells such as those of Chara corallina. We modelled myosin motors tracking along actin lanes as spheres undergoing directed motion along fixed lines. The sphere dimension takes into account the fact that motors drag vesicles or other organelles, and, unlike previous work, we model the boundary close to which the motors move as walls with a finite slip layer. By using realistic parameter values for actin lane and myosin density, as well as for endoplasmic and vacuole viscosity and the slip layer close to the wall, we find that this simplified view, which does not rely on any coupling between motors, cytoplasm and vacuole other than that provided by viscous Stokes flow, is enough to account for the observed magnitude of streaming velocities in intracellular fluid in living plant cells.

  16. Case report demonstrating effectiveness of sorafenib in multiple lung and bone metastases of renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    HOSHI, MANABU; OEBISU, NAOTO; Takada, Jun; IWAI, TDASHI; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    The current study presents the case of a 59-year-old male with advanced-stage renal cell carcinoma and bone metastases in the proximal femur and ilium (cT3aN3M1; stage IV). Resection of the primary renal cell cancer and palliative surgery with a γ-nail for an impending fracture of the right proximal femur were performed, followed by radiotherapy. Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that blocks the raf and tyrosine kinases of the vascular endothelial and platelet-derived growth factor receptor...

  17. The Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Phytophthora infestans Translocates the CRN8 Kinase into Host Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cakir, Cahid; Schornack, Sebastian; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host nucleus and triggers cell death when the protein is expressed in planta. Cell death induction by CRN8 is dependent on its localization to the plant nucleus, which requires a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS). The C-terminal sequence of CRN8 has similarity to a serine/threonine RD kinase domain. We demonstrated that CRN8 is a functional RD kinase and that its auto-phosphorylation is dependent on an intact catalytic site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CRN8 forms a dimer or multimer. Heterologous expression of CRN8 in planta resulted in enhanced virulence by P. infestans. In contrast, in planta expression of the dominant-negative CRN8R469A;D470A resulted in reduced P. infestans infection, further implicating CRN8 in virulence. Overall, our results indicate that similar to animal parasites, plant pathogens also translocate biochemically active kinase effectors inside host cells. PMID:22927814

  18. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans translocates the CRN8 kinase into host plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille van Damme

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host nucleus and triggers cell death when the protein is expressed in planta. Cell death induction by CRN8 is dependent on its localization to the plant nucleus, which requires a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS. The C-terminal sequence of CRN8 has similarity to a serine/threonine RD kinase domain. We demonstrated that CRN8 is a functional RD kinase and that its auto-phosphorylation is dependent on an intact catalytic site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CRN8 forms a dimer or multimer. Heterologous expression of CRN8 in planta resulted in enhanced virulence by P. infestans. In contrast, in planta expression of the dominant-negative CRN8(R469A;D470A resulted in reduced P. infestans infection, further implicating CRN8 in virulence. Overall, our results indicate that similar to animal parasites, plant pathogens also translocate biochemically active kinase effectors inside host cells.

  19. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans translocates the CRN8 kinase into host plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Damme, Mireille; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Cakir, Cahid; Schornack, Sebastian; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra M E; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogenic oomycetes, such as Phytophthora infestans, secrete an arsenal of effector proteins that modulate plant innate immunity to enable infection. We describe CRN8, a host-translocated effector of P. infestans that has kinase activity in planta. CRN8 is a modular protein of the CRN effector family. The C-terminus of CRN8 localizes to the host nucleus and triggers cell death when the protein is expressed in planta. Cell death induction by CRN8 is dependent on its localization to the plant nucleus, which requires a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS). The C-terminal sequence of CRN8 has similarity to a serine/threonine RD kinase domain. We demonstrated that CRN8 is a functional RD kinase and that its auto-phosphorylation is dependent on an intact catalytic site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CRN8 forms a dimer or multimer. Heterologous expression of CRN8 in planta resulted in enhanced virulence by P. infestans. In contrast, in planta expression of the dominant-negative CRN8(R469A;D470A) resulted in reduced P. infestans infection, further implicating CRN8 in virulence. Overall, our results indicate that similar to animal parasites, plant pathogens also translocate biochemically active kinase effectors inside host cells.

  20. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity.

  1. Cell-cycle fate-monitoring distinguishes individual chemosensitive and chemoresistant cancer cells in drug-treated heterogeneous populations demonstrated by real-time FUCCI imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Mako; Toneri, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yasunori; Uehara, Fuminari; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Murakami, Takashi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Norio; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Essentially every population of cancer cells within a tumor is heterogeneous, especially with regard to chemosensitivity and resistance. In the present study, we utilized the fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) imaging system to investigate the correlation between cell-cycle behavior and apoptosis after treatment of cancer cells with chemotherapeutic drugs. HeLa cells expressing FUCCI were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) (5 μM) or cisplatinum (CDDP) (5 μM) for 3 h. Cell-cycle progression and apoptosis were monitored by time-lapse FUCCI imaging for 72 h. Time-lapse FUCCI imaging demonstrated that both DOX and CDDP could induce cell cycle arrest in S/G2/M in almost all the cells, but a subpopulation of the cells could escape the block and undergo mitosis. The subpopulation which went through mitosis subsequently underwent apoptosis, while the cells arrested in S/G2/M survived. The present results demonstrate that chemoresistant cells can be readily identified in a heterogeneous population of cancer cells by S/G2/M arrest, which can serve in future studies as a visible target for novel agents that kill cell-cycle-arrested cells.

  2. Teaching the Toolkit: A Laboratory Series to Demonstrate the Evolutionary Conservation of Metazoan Cell Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.

    2008-01-01

    A major finding of comparative genomics and developmental genetics is that metazoans share certain conserved, embryonically deployed signaling pathways that instruct cells as to their ultimate fate. Because the DNA encoding these pathways predates the evolutionary split of most animal groups, it should in principle be possible to clone…

  3. Demonstrating the potential of yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte for high-performance fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kiho; Jang, Dong Young; Choi, Hyung Jong; Kim, Donghwan; Hong, Jongsup; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Jong-Ho; Son, Ji-Won; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2017-02-23

    In reducing the high operating temperatures (≥800 °C) of solid-oxide fuel cells, use of protonic ceramics as an alternative electrolyte material is attractive due to their high conductivity and low activation energy in a low-temperature regime (≤600 °C). Among many protonic ceramics, yttrium-doped barium zirconate has attracted attention due to its excellent chemical stability, which is the main issue in protonic-ceramic fuel cells. However, poor sinterability of yttrium-doped barium zirconate discourages its fabrication as a thin-film electrolyte and integration on porous anode supports, both of which are essential to achieve high performance. Here we fabricate a protonic-ceramic fuel cell using a thin-film-deposited yttrium-doped barium zirconate electrolyte with no impeding grain boundaries owing to the columnar structure tightly integrated with nanogranular cathode and nanoporous anode supports, which to the best of our knowledge exhibits a record high-power output of up to an order of magnitude higher than those of other reported barium zirconate-based fuel cells.

  4. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  5. Experiences from Swedish demonstration projects with phosphoric acid fuel cells; Erfarenheter fraan svenska demonstrationsprojekt med fosforsyrabraensleceller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sarkoezi, Laszlo [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    In Sweden, there are today two phosphoric acid fuel cells installed, one PC25A which have been in operation in more than 4 years, and one PC25C which have been in operation for two years. The aim with this project has been two compare operation characteristics, performance, and operation experiences for these two models.

  6. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  7. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  8. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates the cell-to-cell movement of diverse plant viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako eUchiyama

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptotagmins are a large gene family in animals that have been extensively characterized due to their role as calcium sensors to regulate synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis in neurons, and dense core vesicle exocytosis for hormone secretion from neuroendocrine cells. Thought to be exclusive to animals, synaptotagmins have recently been characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana, in which they comprise a five gene family. Using infectivity and leaf-based functional assays, we have shown that Arabidopsis SYTA regulates endocytosis and marks an endosomal vesicle recycling pathway to regulate movement protein-mediated trafficking of the Begomovirus Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV and the Tobamovirus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV through plasmodesmata (Lewis and Lazarowitz, 2010. To determine whether SYTA has a central role in regulating the cell-to-cell trafficking of a wider range of diverse plant viruses, we extended our studies here to examine the role of SYTA in the cell-to-cell movement of additional plant viruses that employ different modes of movement, namely the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, the Caulimovirus Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and the Tobamovirus Turnip vein clearing virus (TVCV, which in contrast to TMV does efficiently infect Arabidopsis. We found that both TuMV and TVCV systemic infection, and the cell-to-cell trafficking of the their movement proteins, were delayed in the Arabidopsis Col-0 syta-1 knockdown mutant. In contrast, CaMV systemic infection was not inhibited in syta-1. Our studies show that SYTA is a key regulator of plant virus intercellular movement, being necessary for the ability of diverse cell-to-cell movement proteins encoded by Begomoviruses (CaLCuV MP, Tobamoviruses (TVCV and TMV 30K protein and Potyviruses (TuMV P3N-PIPO to alter PD and thereby mediate virus cell-to-cell spread.

  9. Proteome analysis demonstrates profound alterations in human dendritic cell nature by TX527, an analogue of vitamin D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, G. B.; van Etten, E.; Lage, K.

    2009-01-01

    Structural analogues of vitamin D have been put forward as therapeutic agents able to exploit the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D, without its undesired calcemic side effects. We have demonstrated that TX527 affects dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, resulting in the generation of a t...

  10. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  11. Beyond Demonstration: The Role of Fuel Cells in DoD’s Energy Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    CARBON FOOTPRINT AND OUR USE OF THE LOCAL POWER GRID.” Ron Lewis, Vice President of Supply Chain, Coca - Cola . UTC POWER FUEL CELL SYSTEM, COCA - COLA ...Connecticut and Massa- chusetts, with another installation planned in San Jose, CA); Price Chopper; Albertson’s; and Star Market Coca - Cola Refreshments...system at its cam- pus in San Jose, CA Staples, with a 300 kW installation at its distribution center in Ontario, CA The Coca - Cola Company

  12. Experimental demonstration of bindingless signal delivery in human cells via microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Chuang, Fang-Tzu; Wu, Pei-Yi; Lin, Yueh-Chien; Liu, Hao-Kai; Huang, Guan-Syuan; Tsai, Tzu-Ching; Chi, Cheng-Yu; Wo, Andrew M.; Lee, Hsinyu; Lee, Si-Chen

    2014-07-01

    The cellular signal transduction is commonly believed to rely on the direct "contact" or "binding" of the participating molecule reaction that depends positively on the corresponding molecule concentrations. In living systems, however, it is somewhat difficult to precisely match the corresponding rapid "binding," depending on the probability of molecular collision, existing in the cellular receptor-ligand interactions. Thus, a question arises that if there is another mechanism (i.e., bindingless) that could promote this signal communication. According to this hypothesis, we report a cellular model based on the examination of intracellular calcium concentration to explore whether the unidentified signal delivery in cells exists, via a microfluidic device. This device was designed to isolate the cells from directly contacting with the corresponding ligands/molecules by the particular polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with different thicknesses. Results show a significant increment of calcium mobilization in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells by the stimulation of endothelin-1, even up to a separated distance of 95 μm. In addition, these stimulated signals exhibited a bump-shaped characteristics depending on the membrane thickness. When the PDMS membrane is capped by SiO2, a particular trait that resembles the ballistic signal conduction was observed. A theoretical model was developed to describe the signal transport process across the PDMS membrane. Taken together, these results indicate that the unidentified signal (ligand structural information) delivery could occur in cells and be examined by the proposed approach, exhibiting a bindingless communication manner. Moreover, this approach and our finding may offer new opportunities to establish a robust and cost-effective platform for the study of cellular biology and new drug development.

  13. In vitro reactivity to implant metals demonstrates a person-dependent association with both T-cell and B-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallab, Nadim James; Caicedo, Marco; Epstein, Rachel; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2010-02-01

    Hypersensitivity to metallic implants remains relatively unpredictable and poorly understood. We initially hypothesized that metal-induced lymphocyte proliferation responses to soluble metal challenge (ions) are mediated exclusively by early T-cell activation (not B-cells), typical of a delayed-type-hypersensitivity response. We tested this by comparing proliferation (6 days) of primary lymphocytes with early T-cell and B-cell activation (48 h) in three groups of subjects likely to demonstrate elevated metal reactivity: group 1 (n = 12) history of metal sensitivity with no implant; group 2a (n = 6) well performing metal-on-metal THRs, and group 2b (n = 20) subjects with poorly performing metal-on-polymer total joint arthroplasties (TJA). Group 1 showed 100% (12/12) metal reactivity (stimulation index > 2) to Ni. Groups 2a and 2b were 83% (5/6) and 75% (15/22) metal reactive (to Co, Cr, or Ni), respectively. Of the n = 32 metal-reactive subjects to Co, Cr, or Ni (SI > 2), n = 22/32 demonstrated >2-fold elevations in % of T-cell or B-cell activation (CD25+, CD69+) to metal challenge when compared with untreated control. 18/22 metal-activated subjects demonstrated an exclusively T-cell or B-cell activation response to metal challenge, where 6/18 demonstrated exclusively B-cell activation and 12/18 demonstrated a T-cell only response, as measured by surface activation markers CD25+ and CD69+. However, there was no direct correlation (R(2) metal reactivity than did subject-dependent results of flow-cytometry analysis of T-cell or B-cell activation. The high incidence of lymphocyte reactivity and activation indicate that more complex than initially hypothesized immune responses may contribute to the etiology of debris-induced osteolysis in metal-sensitive individuals.

  14. Phenotypes of articular disc cells in the rat temporomandibular joint as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry for nestin and GFAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyako, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Akiko; Nozawa-Inoue, Kayoko; Magara, Jin; Kawano, Yoshiro; Ono, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Takeyasu

    2011-10-01

    The articular disc is a dense collagenous tissue containing disc cells that are phenotypically described as chondrocyte-like cells or fibrochondrocytes. Despite the possible existence of these phenotypes in systemic joints, little is known about the detailed classification of the articular disc cells in the temporomandibular joint. In this immunocytochemical study we examined the localization and distribution patterns of nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the articular disc of the rat temporomandibular joint at postnatal day 1, and weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8, based on the status of tooth eruption and occlusion. Nestin and GFAP are intermediate filament proteins whose expression patterns are closely related to cell differentiation and cell migration. Both types of immunopositive cell greatly increased postnatally to a stable level after postnatal week 4, but they showed different distribution patterns and cell morphologies. Nestin-reactive disc cells, which were characterized by a meagre cytoplasm and thin cytoplasmic processes, were scattered in the articular disc, whereas GFAP-positive cells, characterized by broader processes, existed exclusively in the deeper area. In mature discs, the major proportion of articular disc cells exhibited GFAP immunoreactivity. Furthermore, a double-immunostaining demonstrated that the nestin-negative cells, consisting of GFAP-positive and -negative cells, exhibited immunoreactions for heat shock protein 25. These findings indicate that the articular disc cells comprise at least three types in the rat temporomandibular joint and suggest that their expressions closely relate to mechanical loading forces within the joint, including occlusal force, as observed through postnatal development.

  15. Demonstration of the Protein Involvement in Cell Electropermeabilization using Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azan, Antoine; Untereiner, Valérie; Gobinet, Cyril; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Breton, Marie; Piot, Olivier; Mir, Lluis M.

    2017-01-01

    Confocal Raman microspectroscopy was used to study the interaction between pulsed electric fields and live cells from a molecular point of view in a non-invasive and label-free manner. Raman signatures of live human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells exposed or not to pulsed electric fields (8 pulses, 1 000 V/cm, 100 μs, 1 Hz) were acquired at two cellular locations (nucleus and cytoplasm) and two spectral bands (600–1 800 cm−1 and 2 800–3 100 cm−1). Vibrational modes of proteins (phenylalanine and amide I) and lipids were found to be modified by the electropermeabilization process with a statistically significant difference. The relative magnitude of four phenylalanine peaks decreased in the spectra of the pulsed group. On the contrary, the relative magnitude of the amide I band at 1658 cm−1 increased by 40% when comparing pulsed and control group. No difference was found between the control and the pulsed group in the high wavenumber spectral band. Our results reveal the modification of proteins in living cells exposed to pulsed electric fields by means of confocal Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:28102326

  16. Guiding plant virus particles to integrin-displaying cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovlid, Marisa L.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Laufer, Burkhardt; Lau, Jolene L.; Kuzelka, Jane; Wang, Qian; Hyypiä, Timo; Nemerow, Glen R.; Kessler, Horst; Manchester, Marianne; Finn, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity for several different cancer cell lines that express RGD-binding integrin receptors.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) are structurally regular, highly stable, tunable nanomaterials that can be conveniently produced in high yields. Unmodified VNPs from plants and bacteria generally do not show tissue specificity or high selectivity in binding to or entry into mammalian cells. They are, however, malleable by both genetic and chemical means, making them useful scaffolds for the display of large numbers of cell- and tissue-targeting ligands, imaging moieties, and/or therapeutic agents in a well-defined manner. Capitalizing on this attribute, we modified the genetic sequence of the Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) coat protein to display an RGD oligopeptide sequence derived from human adenovirus type 2 (HAdV-2). Concurrently, wild-type CPMV was modified via NHS acylation and Cu(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry to attach an integrin-binding cyclic RGD peptide. Both types of particles showed strong and selective affinity

  17. Exocytosis and polarity in plant cells: insights by studying cellulose synthase complexes and the exocyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ying Zhang, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers aspects of exocytosis, plant cell growth and cell wall formation. These processes are strongly linked as cell growth and cell wall formation occur simultaneously and exocytosis is the process that delivers cell wall components to the existing cell wall and in

  18. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...... material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial...

  19. Plant protoplast fusion and growth of intergeneric hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, K N; Constabel, F; Michayluk, M R; Gamborg, O L

    1974-01-01

    Interspecific and intergeneric fusions of plant protoplasts were induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1540 or 4000. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation (or rate of fusion) was much higher when PEG was eluted with a high pH-high Ca(2+) solution or a salt solution than when it was eluted with a protoplast culture medium. The frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was also affected by the types of enzymes used for wall degradation, duration of enzyme incubation and molality of the PEG solutions.The maximum frequency of heterokaryocyte formation was 23% for V. hajastana Grossh.-soybean (Glycine max L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)-soybean, 35% for pea (Pisum sativum L.)-soybean, 20% for pea-V. hajastana, 14% for corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean and 10% for V. villosa Roth-V. hajastana.40% of the barley-soybean, corn-soybean and pea-soybean heterokaryocytes divided at least once. Some divided many times and formed clusters of up to 100 cells in 2 weeks. The heterokaryocytes of soybean-V. hajastana, V. villosa-V. hajastana also divided. Of the PEG-treated protoplasts of N. langsdorffii and N. glauca 13.5% developed into tumor-like calli. The morphology of these calli was very much like that of the tumors produced on amphidiploid plants of N. langsdorffii x glauca.Nuclear staining indicated that heterokaryocytes of V. hajastana-soybean, pea-soybean, corn-soybean and barley-soybean could undergo mitosis. Nuclear divisions in a heterokaryocyte were usually synchronized or almost synchronized. Nuclear fusion and true hybrid formation usually occurred during the first mitotic division after protoplast fusion. A hybrid of barley-soybean in third cell division was observed. The frequency of heterokaryocytes which underwent nuclear fusion has not been determined. Multipole formation and chimeral cell colonies were also observed.

  20. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Ty...

  1. Failure to demonstrate human T cell lymphotropic virus type I in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P;

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed in searching for human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) gag, env and pol sequences in samples of DNA prepared from two HTLV-I seropositive patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), the Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS...... and detection probes. In MS patients and healthy individuals, no signals were obtained with gag and env. In occasional experiments, weak signals were seen for the pol segment for a single MS patient and/or healthy individuals, but these signals were not reproducible in subsequent experiments. Thus, the present...

  2. Multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy : experimental demonstration and potential applications for living cell measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Galland, Rémi; Kloster, Meike; Herbomel, Gaetan; Destaing, Olivier; Balland, Martial; Souchier, Catherine; Usson, Yves; Derouard, Jacques; Wang, Irène; Delon, Antoine; 10.2741/e263

    2011-01-01

    We report, for the first time, a multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mFCS) technique which allows parallel measurements at different locations, by combining a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), with an Electron Multiplying-CCD camera (EM-CCD). The SLM is used to produce a series of laser spots, while the pixels of the EM-CCD play the roles of virtual pinholes. The phase map addressed to the SLM is calculated by using the spherical wave approximation and makes it possible to produce several diffraction limited laser spots, either aligned or spread over the field of view. To attain fast enough imaging rates, the camera has been used in different acquisition modes, the fastest of which leads to a time resolution of 100 $\\mu$s. We qualified the experimental set-up by using solutions of sulforhodamine G in glycerol and demonstrated that the observation volumes are similar to that of a standard confocal set-up. To demonstrate that our mFCS method is suitable for intracellular studies, experiments have...

  3. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Iren Kittang Jost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days on single cells (plant protoplasts. Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  4. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station. PMID:27135317

  5. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station-The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-20

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8-14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  6. Demonstration of actin filament stress fibers in microvascular endothelial cells in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, V; Drenckhahn, D

    1991-07-01

    We have developed a method for immunostaining the microvascular tree of rat mesenteric windows in situ. The procedure consists of three steps, i.e., mild fixation with formaldehyde, controlled proteolytic digestion of the mesothelial layer, and permeabilization with acetone. Discrimination between different microvascular segments was possible by double-fluorescent staining with antibodies to the smooth muscle isoform of alpha-actin and to nonmuscle myosin from platelets. Antibodies to nonmuscle myosin labeled numerous longitudinally oriented cables in endothelial cells of all microvascular segments (arterioles, metarterioles, pre-, mid-, and postcapillaries, small venules). Occasionally, the myosin-containing cables displayed the interrupted sarcomere-like staining pattern that is diagnostic for stress fibers. In contrast, staining of actin filaments with phalloidin-rhodamin resulted in a noninterrupted, continuous fluorescence of the stress fibers. A possible functional role of microvascular endothelial stress fibers is to serve as a tensile cytoskeletal scaffold that stabilizes the tubular, three-dimensional geometry of microvessels and, in addition, to help the endothelium resist the shear forces created by blood flow and by collision with red and white blood cells.

  7. KTN0158, a Humanized Anti-KIT Monoclonal Antibody, Demonstrates Biologic Activity against both Normal and Malignant Canine Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A; Gardner, Heather L; Rippy, Sarah; Post, Gerald; La Perle, Krista; Crew, Linda; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Garton, Andrew J; McMahon, Gerald; LaVallee, Theresa M; Gedrich, Richard

    2016-11-04

    Purpose: KTN0158 is a novel anti-KIT antibody that potently inhibits wild-type and mutant KIT. This study evaluated the safety, biologic activity, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profile of KTN0158 in dogs with spontaneous mast cell tumors (MCT) as a prelude to human clinical applications.Experimental Design: Cell proliferation, KIT phosphorylation, and mast cell degranulation were evaluated in vitro KTN0158 was administered to 4 research dogs to assess clinical effects and cutaneous mast cell numbers. Thirteen dogs with spontaneous MCT were enrolled into a prospective phase I dose-escalating open-label clinical study of KTN0158 evaluating 3 dose levels and 2 schedules and with weekly assessments for response and clinical toxicities.Results: KTN0158 was a potent inhibitor of human and dog KIT activation and blocked mast cell degranulation in vitro In dogs, KTN0158 was well tolerated and reduced cutaneous mast cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical benefit of KTN0158 administration in dogs with MCT (n = 5 partial response; n = 7 stable disease) was observed regardless of KIT mutation status, and decreased KIT phosphorylation was demonstrated in tumor samples. Histopathology after study completion demonstrated an absence of neoplastic cells in the primary tumors and/or metastatic lymph nodes from 4 dogs. Reversible hematologic and biochemical adverse events were observed at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The MTD was established as 10 mg/kg.Conclusions: KTN0158 inhibits KIT phosphorylation, demonstrates an acceptable safety profile in dogs, and provides objective responses in canine MCT patients with and without activating KIT mutations, supporting future clinical evaluation of KTN0158 in people. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2016 AACR.

  8. Imaging Nuclear Morphology and Organization in Cleared Plant Tissues Treated with Cell Cycle Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Junior, José Dijair Antonino; de Sa, Maria Fatima Grossi; Engler, Gilbert; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization of root cells through chemical treatment can generate a large number of cells blocked in specific cell cycle phases. In plants, this approach can be employed for cell suspension cultures and plant seedlings. To identify plant cells in the course of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis in meristematic tissues, chemical inhibitors can be used to block cell cycle progression. Herein, we present a simplified and easy-to-apply protocol to visualize mitotic figures, nuclei morphology, and organization in whole Arabidopsis root apexes. The procedure is based on tissue clearing, and fluorescent staining of nuclear DNA with DAPI. The protocol allows carrying out bulk analysis of nuclei and cell cycle phases in root cells and will be valuable to investigate mutants like overexpressing lines of genes disturbing the plant cell cycle.

  9. Hypermodular Distributed Solar Power Satellites -- Exploring a Technology Option for Near-Term LEO Demonstration and GLPO Full-Scale Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Leitgab, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new and innovative design for scaleable space solar power systems based on satellite self-assembly and microwave spatial power combination. Lower system cost of utility-scale space solar power is achieved by independence of yet-to-be-built in-space assembly and transportation infrastructure. Using current and expected near-term technology, this study explores a design for near-term space solar power low-Earth orbit demonstrators and for mid-term utility-scale power plants in geosynchronous Laplace plane orbits. High-level economic considerations in the context of current and expected future launch costs are given as well.

  10. Demonstration of Experimental Infrastructure for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-11

    Low Range ZRE High Range ZRE Carbon dioxide CO2 0-5% N/A Carbon monoxide CO 0-200 ppm 0-1000 ppm Sulfur dioxide SO2 0-500 ppm 0-1000 ppm Oxygen...O2 0-25% (paramagnetic) 0-25% (fuel cell) Methane CH4 N/A 0-500 ppm carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxygen (O2...data to capture the impact on nearby cells of high temperatures, gas venting , fire, and shrapnel due to cell failure as related to Navy and

  11. Microtubules in Plant Cells: Strategies and Methods for Immunofluorescence, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Live Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celler, Katherine; Fujita, Miki; Kawamura, Eiko; Ambrose, Chris; Herburger, Klaus; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are required throughout plant development for a wide variety of processes, and different strategies have evolved to visualize and analyze them. This chapter provides specific methods that can be used to analyze microtubule organization and dynamic properties in plant systems and summarizes the advantages and limitations for each technique. We outline basic methods for preparing samples for immunofluorescence labelling, including an enzyme-based permeabilization method, and a freeze-shattering method, which generates microfractures in the cell wall to provide antibodies access to cells in cuticle-laden aerial organs such as leaves. We discuss current options for live cell imaging of MTs with fluorescently tagged proteins (FPs), and provide chemical fixation, high pressure freezing/freeze substitution, and post-fixation staining protocols for preserving MTs for transmission electron microscopy and tomography. PMID:26498784

  12. Demonstration of neutron detection utilizing open cell foam and noble gas scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, C. M., E-mail: christopher.lavelle@jhuapl.edu; Miller, E. C. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Asymmetric Operations Department, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Coplan, M. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Thompson, Alan K.; Vest, Robert E.; Yue, A. T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Kowler, A. L. [Department of Chemical Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Koeth, T. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); Al-Sheikhly, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Clark, Charles W. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland 20142 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    We present results demonstrating neutron detection via a closely spaced converter structure coupled to low pressure noble gas scintillation instrumented by a single photo-multiplier tube (PMT). The converter is dispersed throughout the gas volume using a reticulated vitreous carbon foam coated with boron carbide (B{sub 4}C). A calibrated cold neutron beam is used to measure the neutron detection properties, using a thin film of enriched {sup 10}B as a reference standard. Monte Carlo computations of the ion energy deposition are discussed, including treatment of the foam random network. Results from this study indicate that the foam shadows a significant portion of the scintillation light from the PMT. The high scintillation yield of Xe appears to overcome the light loss, facilitating neutron detection and presenting interesting opportunities for neutron detector design.

  13. Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.

    1987-04-01

    An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

  14. Manufacture, integration and demonstration of polymer solar cells in a lamp for the Lighting Africa initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Damgaard Nielsen, Torben; Fyenbo, Jan

    2010-01-01

    . The discrete components were white light LEDs, a blocking diode, a lithium ion battery, vias and button contacts in two adjacent corners. The completed lamp has outside dimensions of 22.5 × 30.5 cm, a weight of 50 g and a very flat outline. The battery and components were the thickest elements and measured ... mm. A hole with a ring was punched in one corner to enable mechanical fixation or tying. The lamp has two states. In the charging state it has a completely flat outline and will charge the battery when illuminated from either side while the front side illumination is preferable. When used as a lamp...... two adjacent corners are joined via button contacts whereby the device can stand on a horizontal surface and the circuit is closed such that the battery discharges through the LEDs that illuminate the surface in front of the lamp. Several different lamps were prepared using the same solar cell...

  15. Plasma membrane protein trafficking in plant-microbe interactions: a plant cell point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eLeborgne-Castel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure their physiological and cellular functions, plasma membrane (PM proteins must be properly conveyed from their site of synthesis, i.e. the endoplasmic reticulum, to their final destination, the PM, through the secretory pathway. PM protein homeostasis also relies on recycling and/or degradation, two processes that are initiated by endocytosis. Vesicular membrane trafficking events to and from the PM have been shown to be altered when plant cells are exposed to mutualistic or pathogenic microbes. In this review, we will describe the fine-tune regulation of such alterations, and their consequence in PM protein activity. We will consider the formation of intracellular perimicrobial compartments, the PM protein trafficking machinery of the host, and the delivery or retrieval of signaling and transport proteins such as pattern-recognition receptors, producers of reactive oxygen species, and sugar transporters.

  16. Single-Cell Analysis of the Plasmablast Response to Vibrio cholerae Demonstrates Expansion of Cross-Reactive Memory B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kauffman, Robert C.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R.; Nakajima, Rie; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M.; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Rahman, Atiqur; Bhaumik, Siddhartha K.; Harris, Levelle; O'Neal, Justin T.; Trost, Jessica F.; Alam, Nur Haq; Jasinskas, Algis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We characterized the acute B cell response in adults with cholera by analyzing the repertoire, specificity, and functional characteristics of 138 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated from single-cell-sorted plasmablasts. We found that the cholera-induced responses were characterized by high levels of somatic hypermutation and large clonal expansions. A majority of the expansions targeted cholera toxin (CT) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a novel proteomics approach, we were able...

  17. Recognition and degradation of plant cell wall polysaccharides by two human gut symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Martens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic bacteria inhabiting the human gut have evolved under intense pressure to utilize complex carbohydrates, primarily plant cell wall glycans in our diets. These polysaccharides are not digested by human enzymes, but are processed to absorbable short chain fatty acids by gut bacteria. The Bacteroidetes, one of two dominant bacterial phyla in the adult gut, possess broad glycan-degrading abilities. These species use a series of membrane protein complexes, termed Sus-like systems, for catabolism of many complex carbohydrates. However, the role of these systems in degrading the chemically diverse repertoire of plant cell wall glycans remains unknown. Here we show that two closely related human gut Bacteroides, B. thetaiotaomicron and B. ovatus, are capable of utilizing nearly all of the major plant and host glycans, including rhamnogalacturonan II, a highly complex polymer thought to be recalcitrant to microbial degradation. Transcriptional profiling and gene inactivation experiments revealed the identity and specificity of the polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs that encode individual Sus-like systems that target various plant polysaccharides. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that B. ovatus possesses several unique PULs that enable degradation of hemicellulosic polysaccharides, a phenotype absent from B. thetaiotaomicron. In contrast, the B. thetaiotaomicron genome has been shaped by increased numbers of PULs involved in metabolism of host mucin O-glycans, a phenotype that is undetectable in B. ovatus. Binding studies of the purified sensor domains of PUL-associated hybrid two-component systems in conjunction with transcriptional analyses demonstrate that complex oligosaccharides provide the regulatory cues that induce PUL activation and that each PUL is highly specific for a defined cell wall polymer. These results provide a view of how these species have diverged into different carbohydrate niches by evolving genes that target

  18. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera V Peremyslov

    Full Text Available Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI, cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  19. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  20. Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

  1. Programmed cell cycle arrest is required for infection of corn plants by the fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2014-12-01

    Ustilago maydis is a plant pathogen that requires a specific structure called infective filament to penetrate the plant tissue. Although able to grow, this filament is cell cycle arrested on the plant surface. This cell cycle arrest is released once the filament penetrates the plant tissue. The reasons and mechanisms for this cell cycle arrest are unknown. Here, we have tried to address these questions. We reached three conclusions from our studies. First, the observed cell cycle arrest is the result of the cooperation of at least two distinct mechanisms: one involving the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) cascade; and the other relying on the transcriptional downregulation of Hsl1, a kinase that modulates the G2/M transition. Second, a sustained cell cycle arrest during the infective filament step is necessary for the virulence in U. maydis, as a strain unable to arrest the cell cycle was severely impaired in its ability to infect corn plants. Third, production of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, is incompatible with an active cell cycle. The inability to infect plants by strains defective in cell cycle arrest seems to be caused by their failure to induce the appressorium formation process. In summary, our findings uncover genetic circuits to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on the plant surface, thus allowing the penetration into plant tissue.

  2. Towards high-yield production of pharmaceutical proteins with plant cell suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Ge, Xumeng; Dolan, Maureen C

    2011-01-01

    "Molecular farming" in plants with significant advantages in cost and safety is touted as a promising platform for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins. While whole-plant produced biopharmaceuticals account for a significant portion of the preclinical and clinical pipeline, plant cell suspension culture, which integrates the merits of whole-plant systems with those of microbial fermentation, is emerging as a more compliant alternative "factory". However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of plant cell bioproduction platform. This review highlights the advantages and recent progress in plant cell culture technology and outlines viable strategies at both the biological and process engineering levels for advancing the economic feasibility of plant cell-based protein production. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include non-mammalian glycosylation and genetic instability will also be discussed.

  3. The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MWe High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM Demonstration Power Plant: An Engineering and Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After the first concrete was poured on December 9, 2012 at the Shidao Bay site in Rongcheng, Shandong Province, China, the construction of the reactor building for the world's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM demonstration power plant was completed in June, 2015. Installation of the main equipment then began, and the power plant is currently progressing well toward connecting to the grid at the end of 2017. The thermal power of a single HTR-PM reactor module is 250 MWth, the helium temperatures at the reactor core inlet/outlet are 250/750 °C, and a steam of 13.25 MPa/567 °C is produced at the steam generator outlet. Two HTR-PM reactor modules are connected to a steam turbine to form a 210 MWe nuclear power plant. Due to China's industrial capability, we were able to overcome great difficulties, manufacture first-of-a-kind equipment, and realize series major technological innovations. We have achieved successful results in many aspects, including planning and implementing R&D, establishing an industrial partnership, manufacturing equipment, fuel production, licensing, site preparation, and balancing safety and economics; these obtained experiences may also be referenced by the global nuclear community.

  4. Fusion and metabolism of plant cells as affected by microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampp, R; Hoffmann, E; Schönherr, K; Johann, P; De Filippis, L

    1997-01-01

    Plant cell protoplasts derived from leaf tissue of two different tobacco species (Nicotiana tabacum., N. rustica L.) were exposed to short-term (sounding rocket experiments) and long-term (spacelab) microgravity environments in order to study both (electro) cell fusion and cell metabolism during early and later stages of tissue regeneration. The period of exposure to microgravity varied from 10 min (sounding rocket) to 10 d (space shuttle). The process of electro fusion of protoplasts was improved under conditions of microgravity: the time needed to establish close membrane contact between protoplasts (alignment time) was reduced (5 as compared to 15 s under 1 g) and numbers of fusion products between protoplasts of different specific density were increased by a factor of about 10. In addition, viability of fusion products, as shown by the ability to form callus, increased from about 60% to more than 90%. Regenerated fusion products obtained from both sounding-rocket and spacelab experiments showed a wide range of intermediate properties between the two parental plants. This was verified by isozyme analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). In order to address potential metabolic responses, more general markers such as the overall energy state (ATP/ADP ratio), the redox charge of the diphosphopyridine nucleotide system (NADH/NAD ratio), and the pool size of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru 2,6 bisp), a regulator of the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, were determined. Responses of these parameters were different with regard to short-term and long-term exposure. Shortly after transition to reduced gravitation (sounding rocket) ratios of ATP/ADP exhibited strong fluctuation while the pool size of NAD decreased (indicating an increased NADH/NAD ratio) and that of Fru 2,6 bisp increased. As similar changes can be observed under stress conditions, this response is probably indicative of a metabolic stress

  5. 3D Plant Cell Architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae Using Focused Ion Beam–Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Focused ion beam–scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM combines the ability to sequentially mill the sample surface and obtain SEM images that can be used to create 3D renderings with micron-level resolution. We have applied FIB-SEM to study Arabidopsis cell architecture. The goal was to determine the efficacy of this technique in plant tissue and cellular studies and to demonstrate its usefulness in studying cell and organelle architecture and distribution. Methods: Seed aleurone, leaf mesophyll, stem cortex, root cortex, and petal lamina from Arabidopsis were fixed and embedded for electron microscopy using protocols developed for animal tissues and modified for use with plant cells. Each sample was sectioned using the FIB and imaged with SEM. These serial images were assembled to produce 3D renderings of each cell type. Results: Organelles such as nuclei and chloroplasts were easily identifiable, and other structures such as endoplasmic reticula, lipid bodies, and starch grains were distinguishable in each tissue. Discussion: The application of FIB-SEM produced 3D renderings of five plant cell types and offered unique views of their shapes and internal content. These results demonstrate the usefulness of FIB-SEM for organelle distribution and cell architecture studies.

  6. Comparison of phenotypes between different vangl2 mutants demonstrates dominant effects of the Looptail mutation during hair cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Yin

    Full Text Available Experiments utilizing the Looptail mutant mouse, which harbors a missense mutation in the vangl2 gene, have been essential for studies of planar polarity and linking the function of the core planar cell polarity proteins to other developmental signals. Originally described as having dominant phenotypic traits, the molecular interactions underlying the Looptail mutant phenotype are unclear because Vangl2 protein levels are significantly reduced or absent from mutant tissues. Here we introduce a vangl2 knockout mouse and directly compare the severity of the knockout and Looptail mutant phenotypes by intercrossing the two lines and assaying the planar polarity of inner ear hair cells. Overall the vangl2 knockout phenotype is milder than the phenotype of compound mutants carrying both the Looptail and vangl2 knockout alleles. In compound mutants a greater number of hair cells are affected and changes in the orientation of individual hair cells are greater when quantified. We further demonstrate in a heterologous cell system that the protein encoded by the Looptail mutation (Vangl2(S464N disrupts delivery of Vangl1 and Vangl2 proteins to the cell surface as a result of oligomer formation between Vangl1 and Vangl2(S464N, or Vangl2 and Vangl2(S464N, coupled to the intracellular retention of Vangl2(S464N. As a result, Vangl1 protein is missing from the apical cell surface of vestibular hair cells in Looptail mutants, but is retained at the apical cell surface of hair cells in vangl2 knockouts. Similarly the distribution of Prickle-like2, a putative Vangl2 interacting protein, is differentially affected in the two mutant lines. In summary, we provide evidence for a direct physical interaction between Vangl1 and Vangl2 through a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches and propose that this interaction underlies the dominant phenotypic traits associated with the Looptail mutation.

  7. Involvement of plant stem cells or stem cell-like cells in dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangwei eJiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is the transformation of cells from a given differentiated state to a less differentiated or stem cell-like state. Stem cell-related genes play important roles in dedifferentiation, which exhibits similar histone modification and DNA methylation features to stem cell maintenance. Hence, stem cell-related factors possibly synergistically function to provide a specific niche beneficial to dedifferentiation. During callus formation in Arabidopsis petioles, cells adjacent to procambium cells (stem cell-like cells are dedifferentiated and survive more easily than other cell types. This finding indicates that stem cells or stem cell-like cells may influence the dedifferentiating niche. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of stem cell maintenance and dedifferentiation regulation. We also summarize current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance between differentiation and dedifferentiation. Furthermore, we discuss the correlation of stem cells or stem cell-like cells with dedifferentiation.

  8. An improved grafting technique for mature Arabidopsis plants demonstrates long-distance shoot-to-root transport of phytochelatins in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alice; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2006-05-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are peptides that function in heavy-metal chelation and detoxification in plants and fungi. A recent study showed that PCs have the ability to undergo long-distance transport in a root-to-shoot direction in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To determine whether long-distance transport of PCs can occur in the opposite direction, from shoots to roots, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) PC synthase (TaPCS1) gene was expressed under the control of a shoot-specific promoter (CAB2) in an Arabidopsis PC-deficient mutant, cad1-3 (CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3). Analyses demonstrated that TaPCS1 is expressed only in shoots and that CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 lines complement the cadmium (Cd) and arsenic metal sensitivity of cad1-3 shoots. CAB2TaPCS1/cad1-3 plants exhibited higher Cd accumulation in roots and lower Cd accumulation in shoots compared to wild type. Fluorescence HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry analyses directly detected PC2 in the roots of CAB2:TaPCS1/cad1-3 but not in cad1-3 controls, suggesting that PC2 is transported over long distances in the shoot-to-root direction. In addition, wild-type shoot tissues were grafted onto PC synthase cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double loss-of-function mutant root tissues. An Arabidopsis grafting technique for mature plants was modified to obtain an 84% success rate, significantly greater than a previous rate of approximately 11%. Fluorescence HPLC-mass spectrometry showed the presence of PC2, PC3, and PC4 in the root tissue of grafts between wild-type shoots and cad1-3 atpcs2-1 double-mutant roots, demonstrating that PCs are transported over long distances from shoots to roots in Arabidopsis.

  9. Regulation of plant cells, cell walls and development by mechanical signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyerowitz, Elliot M. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The overall goal of the revised scope of work for the final year of funding was to characterize cell wall biosynthesis in developing cotyledons and in the shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana, as a way of learning about developmental control of cell wall biosynthesis in plants, and interactions between cell wall biosynthesis and the microtubule cytoskeleton. The proposed work had two parts – to look at the effect of mutation in the SPIRAL2 gene on microtubule organization and reorganization, and to thoroughly characterize the glycosyltransferase genes expressed in shoot apical meristems by RNA-seq experiments, by in situ hybridization of the RNAs expressed in the meristem, and by antibody staining of the products of the glycosyltransferases in meristems. Both parts were completed; the spiral2 mutant was found to speed microtubule reorientation after ablation of adjacent cells, supporting our hypothesis that reorganization correlates with microtubule severing, the rate of which is increased by the mutation. The glycosyltransferase characterization was completed and published as Yang et al. (2016). Among the new things learned was that primary cell wall biosynthesis is strongly controlled both by cell type, and by stage of cell cycle, implying not only that different, even adjacent, cells can have different sugar linkages in their (nonshared) walls, but also that a surprisingly large proportion of glycosyltransferases is regulated in the cell cycle, and therefore that the cell cycle regulates wall maturation to a degree previously unrecognized.

  10. Multiple host-cell recombination pathways act in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestiri, Imen; Norre, Frédéric; Gallego, Maria E; White, Charles I

    2014-02-01

    Using floral-dip, tumorigenesis and root callus transformation assays of both germline and somatic cells, we present here results implicating the four major non-homologous and homologous recombination pathways in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana. All four single mutant lines showed similar mild reductions in transformability, but knocking out three of four pathways severely compromised Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Although integration of T-DNA into the plant genome is severely compromised in the absence of known DNA double-strand break repair pathways, it does still occur, suggesting the existence of other pathways involved in T-DNA integration. Our results highlight the functional redundancy of the four major plant recombination pathways in transformation, and provide an explanation for the lack of strong effects observed in previous studies on the roles of plant recombination functions in transformation.

  11. Water and Plant Cells: Notes on a Teaching Scheme for O-Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenville, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    Offers suggestions for teaching some aspects of water economy in plants. These include diffusion/osmosis, water transport, the part played by turgor in structural support, and its implications for plant organs or whole plants. Several practical demonstrations/experiments are also described. (JN)

  12. The hypersensitive induced reaction and leucine-rich repeat proteins regulate plant cell death associated with disease and plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2011-01-01

    Pathogen-induced programmed cell death (PCD) is intimately linked with disease resistance and susceptibility. However, the molecular components regulating PCD, including hypersensitive and susceptible cell death, are largely unknown in plants. In this study, we show that pathogen-induced Capsicum annuum hypersensitive induced reaction 1 (CaHIR1) and leucine-rich repeat 1 (CaLRR1) function as distinct plant PCD regulators in pepper plants during Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria infection. Confocal microscopy and protein gel blot analyses revealed that CaLRR1 and CaHIR1 localize to the extracellular matrix and plasma membrane (PM), respectively. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that the extracellular CaLRR1 specifically binds to the PM-located CaHIR1 in pepper leaves. Overexpression of CaHIR1 triggered pathogen-independent cell death in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana plants but not in yeast cells. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaLRR1 and CaHIR1 distinctly strengthened and compromised hypersensitive and susceptible cell death in pepper plants, respectively. Endogenous salicylic acid levels and pathogenesis-related gene transcripts were elevated in CaHIR1-silenced plants. VIGS of NbLRR1 and NbHIR1, the N. benthamiana orthologs of CaLRR1 and CaHIR1, regulated Bax- and avrPto-/Pto-induced PCD. Taken together, these results suggest that leucine-rich repeat and hypersensitive induced reaction proteins may act as cell-death regulators associated with plant immunity and disease.

  13. Chemical Profiling of the Plant Cell Wall through Raman Microspectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Singh, Seema; Sun, Lan; Simmons, Blake; Auer, Manfred; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-03-02

    This paper presents a computational framework for chemical pro.ling of the plant cell wall through the Raman spectroscopy. The system enables query of known spectral signatures and clustering of spectral data based on intrinsic properties. As a result, presence and relative concentration of speci.c chemical bonds can be quanti.ed. The primary contribution of this paper is in representation of raman pro.le in terms of .uorescence background and multiscale peak detection at each grid point (voxel). Such a representation allows ef.cient spatial segmentation based on the coupling between high-level salient properties and low-level symbolic representation at each voxel. The high-level salient properties refer to preferred peaks and their attributes for the entire image. The low-level symbolic representations are based on .uorescence background, spectral peak locations, and their attributes. We present results on a corn stover tissue section that is imaged through Raman microscopy, and the results are consistent with the literature. In addition, automatic clustering indicates several distinct layers of the cell walls with different spectral signatures.

  14. Ubiquitin chain topology and its impact on plant cell signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Kirsten Walsh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is a peptide modifier able to form polymers of varying length and linkage as part of a powerful signalling system. Perhaps the best-known aspect of this protein’s function is as the driver of targeted protein degradation through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS. Through the formation of lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains, it is able to direct the degradation of tagged proteins by the 26S proteasome, indirectly controlling many processes within the cell. However, recent research has indicated that ubiquitin performs a multitude of other roles within the cell beyond protein degradation. It is able to form 6 other ‘atypical’ linkages though lysine residues at positions 6, 11, 27, 29, 33 and 63. These atypical chains perform a range of diverse functions, including the regulation of iron uptake in response to perceived deficiency, repair of double stranded breaks in the DNA, and regulation of the auxin response through the non-proteasomal degradation of auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1. This review explores the role ubiquitin chain topology plays in plant cellular function. We aim to highlight the importance of these varying functions and the future challenges to be encountered within this field.

  15. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  16. A Gravity-Responsive Time-Keeping Protein of the Plant and Animal Cell Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis under investigation was that a ubiquinol (NADH) oxidase protein of the cell surface with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity (= NOX protein) is a plant and animal time-keeping ultradian (period of less than 24 h) driver of both cell enlargement and the biological clock that responds to gravity. Despite considerable work in a large number of laboratories spanning several decades, this is, to my knowledge, our work is the first demonstration of a time-keeping biochemical reaction that is both gravity-responsive and growth-related and that has been shown to determine circadian periodicity. As such, the NOX protein may represent both the long-sought biological gravity receptor and the core oscillator of the cellular biological clock. Completed studies have resulted in 12 publications and two issued NASA-owned patents of the clock activity. The gravity response and autoentrainment were characterized in cultured mammalian cells and in two plant systems together with entrainment by light and small molecules (melatonin). The molecular basis of the oscillatory behavior was investigated using spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism) and high resolution electron microscopy. We have also applied these findings to an understanding of the response to hypergravity. Statistical methods for analysis of time series phenomena were developed (Foster et al., 2003).

  17. Size, Shape, and Arrangement of Cellulose Microfibril in Higher Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, S. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell walls from maize (Zea mays L.) are imaged using atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the sub-nanometer resolution. We found that the size and shape of fundamental cellulose elementary fibril (CEF) is essentially identical in different cell wall types, i.e., primary wall (PW), parenchyma secondary wall (pSW), and sclerenchyma secondary wall (sSW), which is consistent with previously proposed 36-chain model (Ding et al., 2006, J. Agric. Food Chem.). The arrangement of individual CEFs in these wall types exhibits two orientations. In PW, CEFs are horizontally associated through their hydrophilic faces, and the planar faces are exposed, forming ribbon-like macrofibrils. In pSW and sSW, CEFs are vertically oriented, forming layers, in which hemicelluloses are interacted with the hydrophobic faces of the CEF and serve as spacers between CEFs. Lignification occurs between CEF-hemicelluloses layers in secondary walls. Furthermore, we demonstrated quantitative analysis of plant cell wall accessibility to and digestibility by different cellulase systems at real-time using chemical imaging (e.g., stimulated Raman scattering) and fluorescence microscopy of labeled cellulases (Ding et al., 2012, Science, in press).

  18. Development of a low capital investment reactor system: application for plant cell suspension culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao; Bacani; Carvalho; Curtis

    1999-01-01

    Growth of plant cell cultures is demonstrated in an uncontrolled, simple, and inexpensive plastic-lined vessel. Sustained specific growth rates of 0.22 day-1 for Hyoscyamus muticus cell suspension cultures are achieved in a low-cost gas-sparged bioreactor configuration (6.5 L working volume, wv) which is comparable to an "optimized" 5 L wv mechanically agitated fermentor. In an effort to reduce bioreactor costs, the need for an autoclavable vessel was eliminated. Sterilization is achieved by separate autoclaving of the plastic liner and by gas-phase sterilization using ethylene oxide. The initial run sterilized with ethylene oxide displayed a long lag, apparently due to residual sterilant gas. Because ethylene oxide could eliminate costs associated with autoclave rated vessels, a quantitative basis for aeration time was developed by experimental measurements and modeling of diffusion in the polymer liner. Operational techniques to eliminate toxicity are implemented to grow 0.2 kg dry weight of plant cells in 13 days in a 40 L (28.5 L wv) air-lift bioreactor without autoclave sterilization. The biomass yields for all reactors were statistically indistinguishable from shake flask culture.

  19. Over-expression of Arabidopsis CAP causes decreased cell expansion leading to organ size reduction in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Roberto A; Umeda, Masaaki; Yamamura, Saburo; Uchimiya, Hirofumi

    2003-04-01

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAP) are multifunctional proteins involved in Ras-cAMP signalling and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. It has recently been demonstrated that over-expression of AtCAP1 in transgenic arabidopsis plants causes severe morphological defects owing to loss of actin filaments. To test the generality of the function of AtCAP1 in plants, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing an arabidopsis CAP (AtCAP1) under the regulation of a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter were produced. Over-expression of AtCAP1 in transgenic tobacco plants led to growth abnormalities, in particular a reduction in the size of leaves. Morphological alterations in leaves were the result of reduced elongation of epidermal and mesophyll cells.

  20. Im"plant"ing of Mammalian Glycosyltransferase Gene into Plant Suspension-Cultured Cells Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Enzymatic activity assay of exogenous glycosyltransferase (GT) and glycosylhydrolase (GH) expressed in plants is an important analysis for determination of the expression of the gene of interest. However, generations and establishment of in planta transgenic lines are time-consuming. Furthermore, the expression levels and the activities of the exogenous GTs and GHs are quite low and weak, the radiolabeled donor substrate had to be used to analyze the enzymatic activity. Here, we describe a protocol for the generation of transgenic plants using suspension-cultured cells and a high sensitive assay for GT, especially β1,4-galactosyltransferase, using microsomal fraction from plant cells and fluorescent-labeled sugar chains as an acceptor substrate. This method enables less-time-consuming preparation of stable transgenic plants, non-radiolabeled, high-throughput detail analysis which includes mass spectrometric analysis and exo-glycosidase digestions.

  1. The pathology of lithium induced nephropathy: a case report and review, with emphasis on the demonstration of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B N, Kumarguru; M, Natarajan; Nagarajappa, A H

    2013-02-01

    Lithium is a psychotropic agent which is widely employed in the psychiatric practice throughout the world. The therapeutic index of lithium is low and an acute intoxication may appear, which may lead to death or a permanent disability. A frequent side effect of lithium is renal toxicity. The collecting tubules have been identified as the site of action of lithium, due to the down regulation of Acquaporin-2. The mast cells have been associated with a wide range of human renal diseases. They have been documented to be associated with interstitial fibrosis and an impaired renal function. We are reporting a case of a 42 year old male who was admitted with a history of an altered sensorium of short duration. He had bipolar disorder and was on lithium. Investigations revealed a severely compromised renal function. The patient's condition worsened and he expired. A necropsy was performed. The kidneys and the lungs were subjected to a histopathological examination. The kidneys showed a significant Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephropathy [CTIN] and a considerable glomerular pathology. Toludine blue [1%] staining demonstrated mast cells in the interstitium and the connective tissue of the renal pelvis. This appears to be the first time that mast cells were demonstrated in a case of lithium induced nephropathy in humans. It may be hypothesized that mast cells may possibly play a role in lithium induced nephropathy as a concurrent mechanism.

  2. [Spin-lattice relaxation of water protons in plant and animal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, F D; Nikiforov, E A; Nikiforova, V I

    2012-01-01

    NMR-spin echo method has been used to study spin-lattice relaxation time of protons T1 in plant and animal cells - muscle tissue of fish, the cells of which unlike plant cells have no developed system of vacuoles, plastids and a solid cell wall. According to the values of T1 time a new NMR parameter K, a coefficient of relaxation effectiveness of a cell structure, has been calculated. This parameter can be used for quantitative characterization of the influence of different cell structures, the tissue water interact with, for a time of spin-lattice relaxation of water protons. It has been ascertained that the values of K coefficient in animal tissue and in storing tissues of some plants differ little; it may be stipulated by permanent transmembrane water exchange which occurs at high rate in the living cell. It has been concluded that there exists a certain similarity between water state in protoplast of plant and animal cells.

  3. Navigating the plant cell: intracellular transport logistics in the green kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geitmann, Anja; Nebenführ, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Intracellular transport in plant cells occurs on microtubular and actin arrays. Cytoplasmic streaming, the rapid motion of plant cell organelles, is mostly driven by an actin-myosin mechanism, whereas specialized functions, such as the transport of large cargo or the assembly of a new cell wall during cell division, are performed by the microtubules. Different modes of transport are used, fast and slow, to either haul cargo over long distances or ascertain high-precision targeting, respectively. Various forms of the actin-specific motor protein myosin XI exist in plant cells and might be involved in different cellular functions.

  4. Rapid optimization of electroporation conditions for plant cells, protoplasts, and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J A; Lin, C H; Hou, B H; Cheng, J; Tsengwa, N; Lin, J J; Smith, C R; McIntosh, M S; Van Wert, S

    1995-06-01

    The optimization of electroporation conditions for maximal uptake of DNA during direct gene transfer experiments is critical to achieve high levels of gene expression in transformed plant cells. Two stains, trypan blue and fluorescein diacetate, have been applied to optimize electroporation conditions for three plant cell types, using different square wave and exponential wave electroporation devices. The different cell types included protoplasts from tobacco, a stable mixotrophic suspension cell culture from soybean with intact cell walls, and germinating pollen from alfalfa and tobacco. Successful electroporation of each of these cell types was obtained, even in the presence of an intact cell wall when conditions were optimized for the electroporation pulse. The optimal field strength for each of these cells differs, protoplasts having the lowest optimal pulse field strength, followed by suspension cells and finally germinating pollen requiring the strongest electroporation pulse. A rapid procedure is described for optimizing electroporation parameters using different types of cells from different plant sources.

  5. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Yap, Edgar G; Das, Jyotirmoy; Tsai, Wen-Ting; Cabal, Angelo; Neuhaus, Erica; Maji, Dolonchampa; Kumar, Shailabh; Joo, Michael; Yakovlev, Sergey; Csencsits, Roseann; Yu, Zeyun; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Downing, Kenneth H; Auer, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D) organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT) electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm), and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF), cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin) samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we characterized the

  6. Electron tomography of cryo-immobilized plant tissue: a novel approach to studying 3D macromolecular architecture of mature plant cell walls in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purbasha Sarkar

    Full Text Available Cost-effective production of lignocellulosic biofuel requires efficient breakdown of cell walls present in plant biomass to retrieve the wall polysaccharides for fermentation. In-depth knowledge of plant cell wall composition is therefore essential for improving the fuel production process. The precise spatial three-dimensional (3D organization of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin within plant cell walls remains unclear to date since the microscopy techniques used so far have been limited to two-dimensional, topographic or low-resolution imaging, or required isolation or chemical extraction of the cell walls. In this paper we demonstrate that by cryo-immobilizing fresh tissue, then either cryo-sectioning or freeze-substituting and resin embedding, followed by cryo- or room temperature (RT electron tomography, respectively, we can visualize previously unseen details of plant cell wall architecture in 3D, at macromolecular resolution (∼ 2 nm, and in near-native state. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed that wall organization of cryo-immobilized samples were preserved remarkably better than conventionally prepared samples that suffer substantial extraction. Lignin-less primary cell walls were well preserved in both self-pressurized rapidly frozen (SPRF, cryo-sectioned samples as well as high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted and resin embedded (HPF-FS-resin samples. Lignin-rich secondary cell walls appeared featureless in HPF-FS-resin sections presumably due to poor stain penetration, but their macromolecular features could be visualized in unprecedented details in our cryo-sections. While cryo-tomography of vitreous tissue sections is currently proving to be instrumental in developing 3D models of lignin-rich secondary cell walls, here we confirm that the technically easier method of RT-tomography of HPF-FS-resin sections could be used immediately for routine study of low-lignin cell walls. As a proof of principle, we

  7. Hypericum perforatum plant cells reduce Agrobacterium viability during co-cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, G; Conceição, L F R; Kombrink, E; Dias, A C P

    2008-05-01

    Plant recalcitrance is the major barrier in developing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for several important plant species. Despite the substantial knowledge of T-DNA transfer process, very little is known about the factors leading to the plant recalcitrance. Here, we analyzed the basis of Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) recalcitrance to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using cell suspension culture. When challenged with Agrobacterium, HP cells swiftly produced an intense oxidative burst, a typical reaction of plant defense. Agrobacterium viability started to decline and reached 99% mortality within 12 h, while the plant cells did not suffer apoptotic process. This is the first evidence showing that the reduction of Agrobacterium viability during co-cultivation with recalcitrant plant cells can affect transformation.

  8. An in vivo root hair assay for determining rates of apoptotic-like programmed cell death in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogg Bridget V

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis thaliana we demonstrate that dying root hairs provide an easy and rapid in vivo model for the morphological identification of apoptotic-like programmed cell death (AL-PCD in plants. The model described here is transferable between species, can be used to investigate rates of AL-PCD in response to various treatments and to identify modulation of AL-PCD rates in mutant/transgenic plant lines facilitating rapid screening of mutant populations in order to identify genes involved in AL-PCD regulation.

  9. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Booth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  10. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  11. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  12. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into th

  13. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  14. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on dyes extracted from dried plant leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Sofyan A. Taya; Taher M. El-Agez; ELREFI, Kamal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, natural dyes were extracted from dried plant leaves of plant cream, apricot, figs, apples, sage, thyme, mint, Ziziphus jujuba, orange, shade tree, basil, berry, Mirabelle plum, Victoria plum, peach, mango, pomegranate, banana, guava, and fluoridation-treated plant. The extracts were used as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The cells were assembled using nanostructured TiO2 films. The best performance was observed for the DSSC sensitized with Ziziphus juju...

  15. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis) for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anthe...

  16. Hypericum perforatum plant cells reduce Agrobacterium viability during co-cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Plant recalcitrance is the major barrier in developing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for several important plant species. Despite the substantial knowledge of T-DNA transfer process, very little is known about the factors leading to the plant recalcitrance. Here, we analyzed the basis of Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) recalcitrance to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using cell suspension culture. When challenged with Agrobacterium, HP cells swiftl...

  17. Planting Patterns and Demonstration of IndoorLeaf Vegetables Plant Factories inCold Areas%寒地居室型植物工厂叶菜种植模式与示范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立宾; 冯玉胜

    2015-01-01

    It'simpossible for the extreme cold area to program agriculture production under the natural situation in winter. With YichunTangwanghe District for example, put forward build mini-plant factiories or indoor small gardens in order to carry out planting patterns and demonstration ofleaf vegetables by taking the family as a unit.%严寒地区冬季低温寡照,自然条件下不能进行农业生产,因此要进行居室型植物种植研究。本文以伊春市汤旺河区为例,提出以家庭为单位,建立微型植物工厂或者居室小菜园,进行寒地冬季叶菜生产模式示范。

  18. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  19. Construction and operation of a demonstration plant of Beehive ovens for producing coke with the utilization of the energy of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, A.D. [Pedagogic and Tecnologic Univ. of Colombia, Tunja (Colombia); White, A. [Colombian Company of Coal Limited, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    1995-12-31

    In Colombia, except the company Acerias Paz de Rio, the production of coke is done using Beehive furnaces and the gases that are produced in the process are expelled to the atmosphere producing a lot of contamination and deterioration of the environment. The Colombia Company of Coal Ltd, Ecocarbon and the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia, state entities, have canalized financial and technical efforts to develop a Demonstrative Plant with 6 Beehive ovens with a duct for collecting the gases and using the energy from de gases in Samaca`s factories of bricks. Samaca is a town with approximately 15.000 habitants, situated in the department of Boyaca at 140 kilometers from Santafe de Bogota, and 25 kilometers from Tunja (where the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia is situated). It`s main activities are coal mining and agriculture.

  20. Function of root border cells in plant health: pioneers in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Brigham, L A; Wen, F; Woo, H H; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Plants dedicate a large amount of energy to the regulated production of living cells programmed to separate from roots into the external environment. This unusual process may be worth the cost because it enables the plant to dictate which species will share its ecological niche. For example, border cells can rapidly attract and stimulate growth in some microorganisms and repel and inhibit the growth of others. Such specificity may provide a way to control the dynamics of adjacent microbial populations in the soil to foster beneficial associations and inhibit pathogenic invasion. Plant genes controlling the delivery of border cells and the expression of their unique properties provide tools to genetically engineer plants with altered border cell quality and quantity. Such variants are being used to test the hypothesis that the function of border cells is to protect plant health by controlling the ecology of the root system.

  1. Cell-phone based assistance for waterworks/sewage plant maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T; Nakamichi, K; Hisano, N; Kitamura, M; Miyahara, K

    2006-01-01

    Cell-phones are now incorporating the functions necessary for them to be used as mobile IT devices. In this paper, we present our results of the evaluation of cell-phones as the mobile IT device to assist workers in industrial plants. We use waterworks and sewage plants as examples. By employing techniques to squeeze the SCADA screen on CRT into a small cell-phone LCD, we have made it easier for a plant's field workers to access the information needed for effective maintenance, regardless of location. An idea to link SCADA information and the plant facility information on the cell-phone is also presented. Should an accident or emergency situation arise, these cell-phone-based IT systems can efficiently deliver the latest plant information, thus the worker out in the field can respond to and resolve the emergency.

  2. Eduard Strasburger (1844-1912): founder of modern plant cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Dieter; Baluška, František; Menzel, Diedrik

    2012-10-01

    Eduard Strasburger, director of the Botany Institute and the Botanical Garden at the University of Bonn from 1881 to 1912, was one of the most admirable scientists in the field of plant biology, not just as the founder of modern plant cell biology but in addition as an excellent teacher who strongly believed in "education through science." He contributed to plant cell biology by discovering the discrete stages of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in algae and higher plants, describing cytoplasmic streaming in different systems, and reporting on the growth of the pollen tube into the embryo sac and guidance of the tube by synergides. Strasburger raised many problems which are hot spots in recent plant cell biology, e.g., structure and function of the plasmodesmata in relation to phloem loading (Strasburger cells) and signaling, mechanisms of cell plate formation, vesicle trafficking as a basis for most important developmental processes, and signaling related to fertilization.

  3. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  4. Fractionation of T cell subsets on Ig anti-Ig columns: isolation of helper T cells from nonresponder mice, demonstration of antigen-specific T suppressor cells, and selection of CD-3 negative variants of Jurkat T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, B; Geisler, C; Kuhlmann, J

    1989-01-01

    In the present experiments we have explored the possibilities of a modified immunoadsorbent technique to select for (1) mutagenized T cell receptor (Tcr) negative variants of Jurkat T lymphoma cells and (2) purified CD-4+ or CD-8+ T lymphocytes. The basic principle was to make large numbers...... of immunoglobulin (Ig) negative T cells Ig+ by T cell subset-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and to select such cells on Ig anti-Ig columns. Our results demonstrated that Thy-1+, Fc receptor positive, antigen-specific T cells regulate the immune response in mice nonresponders to pork insulin......." The most important finding is the demonstration of antigen-specific Thy-1+, CD-8+, and Fc receptor+ T suppressor cell that apparently react with antigen in a non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted manner....

  5. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling.

  6. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  7. Human induced pluripotent cells resemble embryonic stem cells demonstrating enhanced levels of DNA repair and efficacy of nonhomologous end-joining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Jinshui; Robert, Carine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Jang, Yoon-Young; Liu Hua; Sharkis, Saul; Baylin, Stephen Bruce [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Baltimore, MD 21231-1000 (United States); Rassool, Feyruz Virgilia, E-mail: frassool@som.umaryland.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 West Baltimore Street, BRB 7-023A, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate a similar cell cycle profile, with increased S phase cells and decreased G0/G1. {yields} iPSC and hESC increased ROS and decreased DSBs, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC and hESC demonstrate elevated DSB repair activity, including nonhomologous end-joining, compared with differentiated parental cells. {yields} iPSC however show a partial apoptotic response to DNA damage, compared to hESC. {yields} DNA damage responses may constitute important markers for the efficacy of iPSC reprogramming. - Abstract: To maintain the integrity of the organism, embryonic stem cells (ESC) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and can have disastrous consequences if not repaired correctly, leading to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESC (hESC) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. Adult somatic cells can be induced to 'dedifferentiate' into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and reprogram into cells of all three germ layers. Whether iPSC have reprogrammed the DNA damage response is a critical question in regenerative medicine. Here, we show that hESC demonstrate high levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can contribute to DNA damage and may arise from high levels of metabolic activity. To potentially counter genomic instability caused by DNA damage, we find that hESC employ two strategies: First, these cells have enhanced levels of DNA repair proteins, including those involved in repair of DSBs, and they demonstrate elevated nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activity and repair efficacy, one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Second, they are hypersensitive to DNA damaging agents, as evidenced by a high level of apoptosis upon irradiation. Importantly, iPSC, unlike the parent cells they are derived

  8. Foaming and cell flotation in suspended plant cell cultures and the effect of chemical antifoams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsamuth, R; Doran, P M

    1994-08-01

    Foam development and stability in Atropa belladonna suspensions were investigated as a function of culture conditions. Foaming was due mainly to properties of the cell-free broth and was correlated with protein content; effects due to presence of cells increased towards the end of batch culture. Highest foam levels were measured 11 days after inoculation. Air flow rate was of major importance in determining foam volume; foam volume and stability were also strongly dependent on pH. Foam flotation of plant cells was very effective. After 30 min foaming, ca. 55% of cells were found in the foam; this increased to ca. 75% after 90 min. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and 2025, Pluronic PE 6100, and Antifoam-C emulsion were tested as chemical antifoams. Polypropylene glycol 1025 and Antifoam C at concentrations up to 600 ppm had no adverse effect on growth in shake flasks; Pluronic PE 6100 has an inhibitory effect at all levels tested. Concentrations of polypropylene glycol 2025 and Pluronic PE 6100 as low as 20 ppm reduced foam volumes by a factor of ca. 10. Addition of antifoam reduced k(L)a values in bubble-column and stirred-tank bioreactors. After operation of a stirred reactor for 2 days using Antifoam C for foam control, cell production was limited by oxygen due to the effect of antifoam on mass transfer. Theoretical analysis showed that maximum cell concentrations and biomass levels decline with increasing reactors working volume due to greater consumption of antifoam to prevent foam overflow. The results indicate that when chemical foam control is used in plant cell cultures, head-space volume and tolerable foam levels must be considered to optimize biomass production. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Effect of Pakistani medicinal plants on IgE/antigen- and ionophore-induced mucosal mast cells degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Tomoe, Yashiro; Usmanghani, Khan; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Cumulative evidence has now demonstrated the stimulation of mucosal mast cells by both allergic and non-allergic triggers and their inhibition as a potential therapeutic target in many diseases like food allergy and ulcerative colitis. Hence, we screened medicinal plants from Pakistan against antigen- and ionophore-induced degranulation of mucosal mast cells. Aqueous ethanol extracts were screened. IgE/antigen- and A23187-induced degranulation of mucosal-type murine bone marrow derived mast cells (mBMMCs) were screening assays and β-hexosaminidase released from degranulated mBMMCs was measured. Real time-polymerase chain reaction was employed to examine the expression of TNF-α and IL-4 mRNA. Acetoxychavicol acetate, was examined by degranulation assays and real time-PCR. Among the ten plants screened against IgE/antigen stimulated degranulation, five plants; Alpinia galangal, Mentha arvensis, Myrtus communis, Polygonum bistorta and Syzygium aromaticum demonstrated significant (pgalangal showed significant (pgalangal exhibited significant (pgalangal revealed significant suppression at 10 μg/ml against A23187-stimulated degranulation. Acetoxychavicol acetate demonstrated significant (pgalangal and acetoxychavicol acetate suppressed the IgE/antigen- and A23187-enhanced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, TNF-a and IL-4, in mBMMCs. Our findings revealed the suppressive effect of Alpinia galangal and acetoxychavicol acetate on degranulation of mBMMCs by allergic and non-allergic stimuli, which can be utilized for future drug development against food allergy or ulcerative colitis.

  10. Mechanics of Cellulose Synthase Complexes in Living Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehfroosh, Nina; Liu, Derui; Ramos, Kieran P.; Yang, Xiaoli; Goldner, Lori S.; Baskin, Tobias I.

    The polymer cellulose is one of the major components of the world's biomass with unique and fascinating characteristics such as its high tensile strength, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. Because of these distinctive aspects, cellulose has been the subject of enormous scientific and industrial interest, yet there are still fundamental open questions about cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose is synthesized by a complex of transmembrane proteins called ``Cellulose Synthase A'' (CESA) in the plasma membrane. Studying the dynamics and kinematics of the CESA complex will help reveal the mechanism of cellulose synthesis and permit the development and validation of models of CESA motility. To understand what drives these complexes through the cell membrane, we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) and variable angle epi-fluorescence microscopy to track individual, fluorescently-labeled CESA complexes as they move in the hypocotyl and root of living plants. A mean square displacement analysis will be applied to distinguish ballistic, diffusional, and other forms of motion. We report on the results of these tracking experiments. This work was funded by NSF/PHY-1205989.

  11. Evaluation of battery converters based on 4. 8-MW fuel cell demonstrator inverter. Final report. [Contains brief glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Electrical power conditioning is a critical element in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage systems. This program evaluates the use of existing self-commutated converter technology (as developed by the Power Systems Division of United Technologies for the 4.8-MW Fuel Cell Demonstrator) with modification for use in battery energy storage systems. The program consists of three parts: evaluation of the cost and performance of a self-commutated converter modified to maintain production commonality between battery and fuel cell power conditioners, demonstration of the principal characteristics required for the battery application in MW-scale hardware, and investigation of the technical requirements of operation isolated from the utility system. A power-conditioning system consisting of a self-commutated converter augmented with a phase-controlled rectifier was selected and a preliminary design, prepared. A principal factor in this selection was production commonality with the fuel cell inverter system. Additional types of augmentation, and the use of a self-commutated converter system without augmentation, were also considered. A survey of advanced battery manufacturers was used to establish the dc interface characteristics. The principal characteristics of self-commutated converter operation required for battery application were demonstrated with the aid of an available 0.5-MW development system. A survey of five REA and municipal utilities and three A and E firms was conducted to determine technical requirements for operation in a mode isolated from the utility. Definitive requirements for this application were not established because of the limited scope of this study. 63 figures, 37 tables.

  12. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  13. Sandwiched zinc-finger nucleases demonstrating higher homologous recombination rates than conventional zinc-finger nucleases in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomoaki; Mori, Koichi; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Sera, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    We previously reported that our sandwiched zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), in which a DNA cleavage domain is inserted between two artificial zinc-finger proteins, cleave their target DNA much more efficiently than conventional ZFNs in vitro. In the present study, we compared DNA cleaving efficiencies of a sandwiched ZFN with those of its corresponding conventional ZFN in mammalian cells. Using a plasmid-based single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK293 cells, we confirmed that the sandwiched ZFN induced homologous recombination more efficiently than the conventional ZFN; reporter activation by the sandwiched ZFN was more than eight times that of the conventional one. Western blot analysis showed that the sandwiched ZFN was expressed less frequently than the conventional ZFN, indicating that the greater DNA-cleaving activity of the sandwiched ZFN was not due to higher expression of the sandwiched ZFN. Furthermore, an MTT assay demonstrated that the sandwiched ZFN did not have any significant cytotoxicity under the DNA-cleavage conditions. Thus, because our sandwiched ZFN cleaved more efficiently than its corresponding conventional ZFN in HEK293 cells as well as in vitro, sandwiched ZFNs are expected to serve as an effective molecular tool for genome editing in living cells.

  14. T cell nature of exocytic and dermal lymphoid cells in atrophic parapsoriasis demonstrated by monoclonal Leu 1 and affinity isolated antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, E M; Wasik, R; Martin, D; Everett, M A

    1981-10-01

    Tissues from atrophic large plaque parapsoriasis were examined using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique with a monoclonal T cell antibody as primary antibody, and affinity isolated peroxidase conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG as second stage antibody. The "T" cell nature of the dermal infiltrate and of single exocytic epidermal lymphocytes was demonstrated. The results obtained suggest that the method utilized will be useful for the demonstration of lymphoid cell subpopulations in a variety of cutaneous disorders in which a lymphocytic infiltrate forms a significant component of the histopathology observed. This technique also has the potential of providing information on the topographic localization and differentiation of lymphocytes within the various levels of the skin. Certain technical manipulations which may result in an improvement in the quality of results obtained are also discussed.

  15. Application of the comet assay in studies of programmed cell death (PCD in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Charzyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD in plants is an intensively investigated process. One of the main characteristics of PCD in both animal and plant organisms is the non-random, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA, usually analysed using total DNA gel electrophoresis or TUNEL method. In this paper we present application of the "comet assay" (Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis for detection of nDNA degradation in studies of PCD during plant life cycle. We analyzed three types of tissue: anther tapetum, endosperm and mesophyll which were prepared in different ways to obtain a suspension of viable cells (without cell walls. The comet assay gives a possibility of examination of the nDNA degradation in individual cell. This method is significant for studies of the plant tissue differentiation and senescence especially in the cases when it is not possible to isolate large number of cells at the same developmental stage.

  16. A comparison between nuclear dismantling during plant and animal programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fernando; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2012-12-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process of organized destruction of cells, essential for the development and maintenance of cellular homeostasis of multicellular organisms. Cells undergoing PCD begin a degenerative process in response to internal or external signals, whereby the nucleus becomes one of the targets. The process of nuclear dismantling includes events affecting the nuclear envelope, such as formation of lobes at the nuclear surface, selective proteolysis of nucleoporins and nuclear pore complex clustering. In addition, chromatin condensation increases in coordination with DNA fragmentation. These processes have been largely studied in animals, but remain poorly understood in plants. The overall process of cell death has different morphological and biochemical features in plants and animals. However, recent advances suggest that nuclear dismantling in plant cells progresses with morphological and biochemical characteristics similar to those in apoptotic animal cells. In this review, we summarize nuclear dismantling in plant PCD, focusing on the similarities and differences with their animal counterparts.

  17. Programmed cell death in plants and caspase-like activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaussand, Gwénael Martial Daniel Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms involves an important balance between cell growth, cell division and cell death. In animals, programmed cell death (PCD) plays a key role by forming and deleting structures, controlling cell numbers and eliminating abnormal damaged cells. Caspases were foun

  18. Cell polarity in plants: when two do the same, it is not the same....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Friml, Jiří

    2011-12-01

    In unicellular and multicellular organisms, cell polarity is essential for a wide range of biological processes. An important feature of cell polarity is the asymmetric distribution of proteins in or at the plasma membrane. In plants such polar localized proteins play various specific roles ranging from organizing cell morphogenesis, asymmetric cell division, pathogen defense, nutrient transport and establishment of hormone gradients for developmental patterning. Moreover, flexible respecification of cell polarities enables plants to adjust their physiology and development to environmental changes. Having evolved multicellularity independently and lacking major cell polarity mechanisms of animal cells, plants came up with alternative solutions to generate and respecify cell polarity as well as to regulate polar domains at the plasma membrane.

  19. "Dedicated To The Continued Education, Training and Demonstration of PEM Fuel Cell Powered Lift Trucks In Real-World Applications."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dever, Thomas J.

    2011-11-29

    operating large fleets. As a long-standing lift truck dealership, LiftOne was able to introduce the fuel cells to such companies in the demanding applications. Accomplishments vs Objectives: We were successful in respect to the stated objectives. The Education Segment's H2 Education Sessions were able to introduce fuel cell technology to many companies and reached the intended broad audience. Also, demos of the lift truck at the sessions as well as the conferences; expos and area events provided great additional exposure. The Deployments were successful in allowing the 6 participating companies to test the 2 fuel cell powered lift trucks in their demanding applications. One of the 6 sites (BMW) eventually adopted over 80 fuel cells from Plug Power. LiftOne was one of the 3 fuel cell demonstrators at BMW for this trial and played a major role in helping to prove the viability and efficiency of this alternative form of energy for BMW. The other 5 companies that participated in the project's deployments were encouraged by the trials and while not converting over to fuel cell power at this time, expressed the desire to revisit acquisition scenarios in the near future as the cost of fuel cells and infrastructure continue to improve. The Education sessions began in March of 2009 at the 7 LiftOne Branches and continued throughout the duration of the project. Attendees came from a large base of lift truck users in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. The sessions were free and invitations were sent out to potential users and companies with intrigue. In addition to the Education content at the sessions (which was offered in a 'H2 101' format), LiftOne was able to demonstrate a working fuel cell powered lift truck, which proved to be a big draw with the 'hands on' experience. LiftOne also demo'd the fuel cell lift trucks at many conferences, expos, professional association meetings, trade shows and 'Green' events in major cities

  20. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid variation in Jacobaea plants : from plant organ to cell level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuringtyas, Tri Rini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in Jacobaea plants with respect to their spatial distribution and its consequences for generalist insects. Chapter 2 reports on the role of endophytes in the production of PAs in Jacobaea. Plants were treated with