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Sample records for cell degranulation

  1. Mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate provoked mast cell degranulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sara Hougaard; Ramachandran, Roshni; Amrutkar, Dipak Vasantrao

    2015-01-01

    inflammation and dural mast cell degranulation is supported by the effectiveness of prednisolone on glyceryl trinitrate-induced delayed headache. METHODS: Using a newly developed rat model mimicking the human glyceryl trinitrate headache model, we have investigated the occurrence of dural mast cell...... glyceryl trinitrate-induced mast cell degranulation whereas the calcitonin gene-related peptide-receptor antagonist olcegepant and the substance P receptor antagonist L-733,060 did not affect mast cell degranulation. However, topical application of two different nitric oxide donors did not cause mast cell...... degranulation ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Direct application of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on dural mast cells does not cause mast cell degranulation ex vivo. In vivo application of the nitric oxide donor glyceryl trinitrate leads to a prominent level of degranulation via a yet unknown mechanism. This effect can...

  2. Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells.

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    Hochman, Daniel J; Collaco, Christopher R; Brooks, Edward G

    2014-08-01

    Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. Our results indicate that acrolein at 1 ppm initiated degranulation and promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. At higher levels of exposure (above 100 ppm), RBL-2H3 cells displayed signs of severe toxicity. This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  3. Purinergic Signaling in Mast Cell Degranulation and Asthma

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    Zhan-Guo Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are responsible for the majority of allergic conditions. It was originally thought that almost all allergic events were mediated directly only via the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptors. However, recent evidence showed that many other receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptors and ligand-gated ion channels, are also directly involved in mast cell degranulation, the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, serine proteases, leukotrienes, heparin, and serotonin. These mediators are responsible for the symptoms in allergic conditions such as allergic asthma. In recent years, it has been realized that purinergic signaling, induced via the activation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors and P2Y nucleotide receptors, as well as by ATP-gated P2X receptors, plays a significant role in mast cell degranulation. Both adenosine and ATP can induce degranulation and bronchoconstriction on their own and synergistically with allergens. All three classes of receptors, adenosine, P2X and P2Y are involved in tracheal mucus secretion. This review will summarize the currently available knowledge on the role of purinergic signaling in mast cell degranulation and its most relevant disease, asthma.

  4. Effect of methylmercury on the rat mast cell degranulation

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    Graevskaya, E. E.; Yasutake, A.; Aramai, R.; Rubin, A. B.

    2003-05-01

    Methylmercury is the well-known neurotoxicant as weil as a modulator of the immune system. We investigated the effects of MeHg on the rat mast cell degranulation induced by nonimmunological stimuli (the selective liberator of histamine, compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187) both in vivo and in vitro. In 8, 12 and 15 days afterthe final administration of MeHg we observed the suppression of calcium ionophore A23187-and 48/80-induced histamine release, which enhanced with time. In experiments in vitro incubation of peritoneal mast cells with MeHg alone in the dose range 10^{-8} to 10^{-6} did not induce mast cell degranulation, however modified the activation of mast cells by compound 48/80, and calcium ionophore A23187. We observed activation of stimulated secretion by preliminary incubation with low dose of MeHg 10^{-8} M and inhibition by dose of MeHg 10^{-6} M. These results show that MeHg treatment can modify mast cell function in vivo and in vitro and provide insight into the understanding what role this cell has in the pathogenesis of Minamata disease-comlected disorders.

  5. Degranulated mast cells and TNF-α in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reactions diseases

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    Parichehr Ghalayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to assess mast cells and TNF-α in oral lichen planus (OLP and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR patients as diagnostic marker to the differential diagnosis of OLP and OLR diseases. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, samples were obtained from 30 OLP and 30 OLR patients, between June 2010 and March 2011 in Dental clinic of the University of Isfahan, Iran. Mast cells in the reticular layer of the lamina propria for samples were evaluated using toluidine blue method and immunohistochemical technique. The clinical relevant data taken into account were: demographical data, total number and degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells. Results: In OLP and OLR, the total mast cells were 21.2 ± 7.9 and 20.3 ± 6.8, degranulated mast cells were 15.5 ± 6.9 and 19.2 ± 6.9, ratio of degranulated mast cells to total mast cells were 0.716 ± 0.067 and 0.946 ± 0.081, and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells were 13.6 ± 6.3 and 17.1 ± 6.04, respectively. There was no significant difference for the total mast cells. But degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α positive degranulated mast cells in OLR were significantly higher than OLP patients. Conclusions: Our results showed that the degranulated mast cells, ratio of degranulated mast cells and TNF-α in OLR was significantly more than OLP patients and these may be able to be used as diagnostic markers to the differential diagnosis of OLP and OLR.

  6. Niflumic Acid Inhibits Goblet Cell Degranulation in a Guinea Pig Asthma Model

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    Mitsuko Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: NFA inhibited the secretory response of mucus granules in an asthma model, suggesting that CLCA may be associated with goblet cell degranulation and that CLCA inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of hypersecretion in asthma.

  7. [Shikimic acid inhibits the degranulation and histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells].

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    Chen, Xianyong; Zheng, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jinling; Li, Shigang

    2017-05-01

    Objective To study the effects of shikimic acid on the proliferation of rat RBL-2H3 cells and the degranulation of the cells induced by C48/80 and its mechanism. Methods MTT assay was performed to measure the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells treated with 3, 10, 30 μg/mL shikimic acid. Toluidine blue staining was used to observe the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. The release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells treated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 80, 100 μg/mL C48/80 was determined by substrate assay. ELISA was used to detect the histamine content in the supernatant of each treated group. Results Shikimic acid at 3, 10, 300 μg/mL had no obvious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells. There was a dose-effect relationship between the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and C48/80 concentration. Shikimic acid inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells compared with the positive control group, the β-hexosaminidase release rate and histamine release were significantly reduced in RBL-2H3 cells treated with shikimic acid and C48/80. Conclusion Shikimic acid can inhibit the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and reduce histamine release.

  8. Gangliosides inhibit bee venom melittin cytotoxicity but not phospholipase A2-induced degranulation in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Kitani, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Sting accident by honeybee causes severe pain, inflammation and allergic reaction through IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. In addition to this hypersensitivity, an anaphylactoid reaction occurs by toxic effects even in a non-allergic person via cytolysis followed by similar clinical manifestations. Auto-injectable epinephrine might be effective for bee stings, but cannot inhibit mast cell lysis and degranulation by venom toxins. We used connective tissue type canine mast cell line (CM-MC) for finding an effective measure that might inhibit bee venom toxicity. We evaluated degranulation and cytotoxicity by measurement of β-hexosaminidase release and MTT assay. Melittin and crude bee venom induced the degranulation and cytotoxicity, which were strongly inhibited by mono-sialoganglioside (G M1 ), di-sialoganglioside (G D1a ) and tri-sialoganglioside (G T1b ). In contrast, honeybee venom-derived phospholipase A 2 induced the net degranulation directly without cytotoxicity, which was not inhibited by G M1 , G D1a and G T1b . For analysis of distribution of Gα q and Gα i protein by western blotting, lipid rafts were isolated by using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifuge. Melittin disrupted the localization of Gα q and Gα i at lipid raft, but gangliosides stabilized the rafts. As a result from this cell-based study, bee venom-induced anaphylactoid reaction can be explained with melittin cytotoxicity and phospholipase A 2 -induced degranulation. Taken together, gangliosides inhibit the effect of melittin such as degranulation, cytotoxicity and lipid raft disruption but not phospholipase A 2 -induced degranulation in mast cells. Our study shows a potential of gangliosides as a therapeutic tool for anaphylactoid reaction by honeybee sting.

  9. Gangliosides inhibit bee venom melittin cytotoxicity but not phospholipase A(2)-induced degranulation in mast cells.

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    Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Kitani, Seiichi

    2011-05-01

    Sting accident by honeybee causes severe pain, inflammation and allergic reaction through IgE-mediated anaphylaxis. In addition to this hypersensitivity, an anaphylactoid reaction occurs by toxic effects even in a non-allergic person via cytolysis followed by similar clinical manifestations. Auto-injectable epinephrine might be effective for bee stings, but cannot inhibit mast cell lysis and degranulation by venom toxins. We used connective tissue type canine mast cell line (CM-MC) for finding an effective measure that might inhibit bee venom toxicity. We evaluated degranulation and cytotoxicity by measurement of β-hexosaminidase release and MTT assay. Melittin and crude bee venom induced the degranulation and cytotoxicity, which were strongly inhibited by mono-sialoganglioside (G(M1)), di-sialoganglioside (G(D1a)) and tri-sialoganglioside (G(T1b)). In contrast, honeybee venom-derived phospholipase A(2) induced the net degranulation directly without cytotoxicity, which was not inhibited by G(M1), G(D1a) and G(T1b). For analysis of distribution of Gα(q) and Gα(i) protein by western blotting, lipid rafts were isolated by using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifuge. Melittin disrupted the localization of Gα(q) and Gα(i) at lipid raft, but gangliosides stabilized the rafts. As a result from this cell-based study, bee venom-induced anaphylactoid reaction can be explained with melittin cytotoxicity and phospholipase A(2)-induced degranulation. Taken together, gangliosides inhibit the effect of melittin such as degranulation, cytotoxicity and lipid raft disruption but not phospholipase A(2)-induced degranulation in mast cells. Our study shows a potential of gangliosides as a therapeutic tool for anaphylactoid reaction by honeybee sting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling Pharmacological Inhibition of Mast Cell Degranulation as a Therapy for Insulinoma

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    Laura Soucek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Myc, a pleiotropic transcription factor that is deregulated and/or overexpressed in most human cancers, instructs multiple extracellular programs that are required to sustain the complex microenvironment needed for tumor maintenance, including remodeling of tumor stroma, angiogenesis, and inflammation. We previously showed in a model of pancreatic β-cell tumorigenesis that acute Myc activation in vivo triggers rapid recruitment of mast cells to the tumor site and that this is absolutely required for angiogenesis and macroscopic tumor expansion. More-over, systemic inhibition of mast cell degranulation with sodium cromoglycate induced death of tumor and endothelial cells in established tumors. Hence, mast cells are required both to establish and to maintain the tumors. Whereas this intimates that selective inhibition of mast cell function could be therapeutically efficacious, cromoglycate is not a practical drug for systemic delivery in humans, and no other systemic inhibitor of mast cell degranulation has hitherto been available. PCI-32765 is a novel inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk that blocks mast cell degranulation and is currently in clinical trial as a therapy for B-cell non–Hodgkin lymphoma. Here, we show that systemic treatment of insulinoma-bearing mice with PCI-32765 efficiently inhibits Btk, blocks mast cell degranulation, and triggers collapse of tumor vasculature and tumor regression. These data reinforce the notion that mast cell function is required for maintenance of certain tumor types and indicate that the Btk inhibitor PCI-32765 may be useful in treating such diseases.

  11. Effect of fruits of Opuntia elatior Mill on mast cell degranulation

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    Chauhan, Sanjay P.; Sheth, N. R.; Suhagia, B. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of potentially active nutrients and their multifunctional properties make prickly pear a perfect candidate for the production of phytopharmaceutical products. Among the numerous Opuntia species, bioactive compounds have been isolated and characterized primarily from Opuntia ficus-indica, Opuntia polycantha, Opuntia stricta, Opuntia dilleni for various medicinal properties. Objective: Based on the traditional use of prickly pear for enhancement of immune function, the objective of the present study to evaluate the effect of prickly pear on mast cell degranulation function. Materials and Methods: The Opuntia fruit juice (OFJ) (10-200 μl/ml) were studied for the effect on sensitized rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation induced by immunological (egg albumin), and nonimmunological (compound 48/80) stimuli and compared with that of the reference standard, sodium cromoglycate and ketotifen (10 μg/ml). Results and Conclusion: The OFJ exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) concentration dependent inhibition of mast cell degranulation. The IC50 value of OFJ was found 12.24 and 18 μl/ml for immunological and nonimmunological induced mast cell degranulation, respectively. The betacyanin is an active principle compound in prickly pear that may responsible for mast cell stabilizing action. PMID:25883521

  12. A Modified NK Cell Degranulation Assay Applicable for Routine Evaluation of NK Cell Function

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    Snehal Shabrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play important role in innate immunity against tumors and viral infections. Studies show that lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1, CD107a is a marker for degranulation of NK and cytotoxic T cells and its expression is a sensitive marker for the cytotoxic activity determination. The conventional methods of determination of CD107a on NK cells involve use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC or pure NK cells and K562 cells as stimulants. Thus, it requires large volume of blood sample which is usually difficult to obtain in pediatric patients and patients with cytopenia and also requires specialized laboratory for maintaining cell line. We have designed a flow cytometric assay to determine CD107a on NK cells using whole blood, eliminating the need for isolation of PBMC or isolate NK cells. This assay uses phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA and calcium ionophore (Ca2+-ionophore instead of K562 cells for stimulation and thus does not require specialized cell culture laboratory. CD107a expression on NK cells using modified NK cell degranulation assay compared to the conventional assay was significantly elevated (p<0.0001. It was also validated by testing patients diagnosed with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL with defect in exocytosis. This assay is rapid, cost effective, and reproducible and requires significantly less volume of blood which is important for clinical evaluation of NK cells.

  13. Inhibition of NO-synthase and degranulation of rat omental mast cells in vitro

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    A. M. Northover

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell amines, platelet-activating factor (PAF, thromboxanes and leukotrienes have been shown to be released during nitric oxide-synthase inhibition in the rat intestine. Mast cells in rat isolated omentum (OMCs or isolated from the rat peritoneal cavity (PMCs have been used here to investigate the relationship(s between these agents. N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM caused some degranulation of OMCs, but no enhancement of histamine release from PMCs. PAF (5 μM and U46619 (1 μM degranulated OMCs and enhanced histamine release from PMCs. Pre-treatment of the omentum with BN52021 (10 μM inhibited degranulation of OMCs in response to L-NAME, PAF or U46619. Pretreatment with 1-benzylimidazole (5 or 50 μM inhibited the effect of L-NAME but not that of PAF. Indomethacin (1 μM or sodium nitroprusside (10 μM also inhibited the effects of L-NAME, but nordihydroguaiaretic acid (30 μM did not. In PMCs BN52021 inhibited PAF-induced, but not U46619-induced, release of histamine. These results suggest that inhibition of nitric oxidesynthase in the omentum by L-NAME allows thromboxanes to release PAF, which in turn degranulates and releases histamine from OMCs.

  14. A myristoylated pseudosubstrate peptide of PKC-zeta induces degranulation in HMC-1 cells independently of PKC-zeta activity.

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    Lim, Seyoung; Choi, Jung Woong; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Yun-Hee; Yea, Kyungmoo; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Song, Minseok; Kim, Jae Il; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2008-03-26

    Mast cells play a central role in allergic disease and host defense against several pathogens through the release of various bioactive compounds via degranulation. In this study, we found that a myristoylated pseudosubstrate of PKC-zeta (zeta-PS; myristoyl-SIYRRGARRWRKL, a PKC-zeta inhibitor) regulates mast cell degranulation. zeta-PS increased [Ca+2]i level at nanomolar concentrations in a PKC-zeta activity-independent manner in HMC-1 cells. Moreover, zeta-PS-induced [Ca+2]i generation was completely abrogated by phospholipase C (PLC), IP3 receptor or Galpha i/o inhibitor and zeta-PS potently induced degranulation in HMC-1 cells which was significantly inhibited by pretreating PLC inhibitors or a calcium chelator. Therefore, our results suggest that zeta-PS can induce degranulation in HMC-1 cells by triggering the calcium signal via a PKC-zeta-independent but Galpha i/o, PLC and IP3-dependent pathways.

  15. Trimellitic anhydride induces low-grade mast cell degranulation without specific IgE

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    Kazuhiro Ogi, M.D., Ph.D

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: TMA induced mild degranulation of mast cells without IgE, even though the phosphorylation of ERK was not detected. This reaction suggests that TMA affects humans even upon first exposure. Therefore, it is imperative to avoid human exposure to high concentrations of TMA. In order to stop the development of severe asthma in individuals with OR, we need to be able to identify cases of OR caused by TMA as soon as possible.

  16. Mast cell degranulation and de novo histamine formation contribute to sustained postexercise vasodilation in humans.

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    Romero, Steven A; McCord, Jennifer L; Ely, Matthew R; Sieck, Dylan C; Buck, Tahisha M; Luttrell, Meredith J; MacLean, David A; Halliwill, John R

    2017-03-01

    In humans, acute aerobic exercise elicits a sustained postexercise vasodilation within previously active skeletal muscle. This response is dependent on activation of histamine H 1 and H 2 receptors, but the source of intramuscular histamine remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that interstitial histamine in skeletal muscle would be increased with exercise and would be dependent on de novo formation via the inducible enzyme histidine decarboxylase and/or mast cell degranulation. Subjects performed 1 h of unilateral dynamic knee-extension exercise or sham (seated rest). We measured the interstitial histamine concentration and local blood flow (ethanol washout) via skeletal muscle microdialysis of the vastus lateralis. In some probes, we infused either α-fluoromethylhistidine hydrochloride (α-FMH), a potent inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, or histamine H 1 /H 2 -receptor blockers. We also measured interstitial tryptase concentrations, a biomarker of mast cell degranulation. Compared with preexercise, histamine was increased after exercise by a change (Δ) of 4.2 ± 1.8 ng/ml ( P histamine in skeletal muscle increases with exercise and results from both de novo formation and mast cell degranulation. This suggests that exercise produces an anaphylactoid signal, which affects recovery, and may influence skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Blood flow to previously active skeletal muscle remains elevated following an acute bout of aerobic exercise and is dependent on activation of histamine H 1 and H 2 receptors. The intramuscular source of histamine that drives this response to exercise has not been identified. Using intramuscular microdialysis in exercising humans, we show both mast cell degranulation and formation of histamine by histidine decarboxylase contributes to the histamine-mediated vasodilation that occurs following a bout of aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Induction of E-selectin-dependent leukocyte recruitment by mast cell degranulation in human skin grafts transplanted on SCID mice.

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    Christofidou-Solomidou, M.; Murphy, G. F.; Albelda, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Previous in vitro data indicate that degranulation of human mast cells triggers the induction of endothelial molecules important in leukocyte adhesion. In vivo experimental systems have not previously existed, however, to determine whether human mast cell degranulation is sufficient stimulus for leukocyte recruitment. To study this question, neonatal foreskins were transplanted onto immunodeficient mice. The grafts contained physiological numbers of human dermal mast cells that could be degranulated by a number of secretagogues that activate mast cells by different mechanisms. Degranulation was associated with an inflammatory response characterized by edema, up-regulation primarily of microvessel E-selectin, and influx of neutrophils. Leukocyte emigration associated with mast cell degranulation was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody against human E-selectin. These data indicate that degranulation of human mast cells in the human/SCID mouse model provokes cellular inflammation in skin. The ability to significantly inhibit early leukocyte infiltration with an antibody against E-selectin in this model supports the hypothesis that this molecule plays an important role in mast-cell-induced inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8546205

  18. Galectin-9 enhances cytokine secretion, but suppresses survival and degranulation, in human mast cell line.

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    Reiji Kojima

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 (Gal-9, a lectin having a β-galactoside-binding domain, can induce apoptosis of Th1 cells by binding to TIM-3. In addition, Gal-9 inhibits IgE/Ag-mediated degranulation of mast cell/basophilic cell lines by binding to IgE, thus blocking IgE/Ag complex formation. However, the role of Gal-9 in mast cell function in the absence of IgE is not fully understood. Here, we found that recombinant Gal-9 directly induced phosphorylation of Erk1/2 but not p38 MAPK in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, which does not express FcεRI. Gal-9 induced apoptosis and inhibited PMA/ionomycin-mediated degranulation of HMC-1 cells. On the other hand, Gal-9 induced cytokine and/or chemokine production by HMC-1 cells, dependent on activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK. In addition, the lectin activity of Gal-9 was required for Gal-9-mediated cytokine secretion by HMC-1 cells. These observations suggest that Gal-9 has dual properties as both a regulator and an activator of mast cells.

  19. Mast cell degranulation following adenosine A3 receptor activation in rats.

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    Fozard, J R; Pfannkuche, H J; Schuurman, H J

    1996-03-18

    The present studies were carried out to provide further evidence for the hypothesis that the hypotensive response to adenosine A3 receptor activation in the anaesthetized rat involves mediator release from mast cells. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and given just supramaximal hypotensive doses of either the non-selective A3 receptor agonist, N6(-2)-(4-aminophenyl)ethyladenosine (APNEA: 100 micrograms/kg, preceded by the A1/A2 receptor antagonist, 8-p-(sulphophenyl)theophylline, to "isolate' the A3 receptor-mediated component of the response), the mast cell degranulating agent, compound 48/80 (300 micrograms/kg) or the vehicle for APNEA, intravenously. Blood was withdrawn from a carotid artery between 2 and 10 min after the injection and plasma and serum histamine concentrations measured. Samples of connective tissue (surrounding the abdominal musculature), thymus, mesenteric lymph node, kidney, skin and diaphragm were removed for histological analysis. The plasma and serum histamine concentrations were markedly and significantly higher in the APNEA- or compound 48/80-treated animals compared to vehicle-treated controls. Consistent with this, a substantially greater proportion of mast cells was seen to be undergoing degranulation in all tissues removed from animals treated with APNEA or compound 48/80 compared to those from rats treated with vehicle. Thus, adenosine A3 receptor activation results in rapid mast cell degranulation in the anaesthetized rat. The data provide further evidence of a key role for the mast cell in adenosine A3 receptor-mediated hypotension in this species.

  20. Amitriptyline, clomipramine, and maprotiline attenuate the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration and mast cell degranulation

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    José Alves Gurgel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite the recognized anti-inflammatory potential of heterocyclic antidepressants, the mechanisms concerning their modulating effects are not completely known. Thus, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of amitriptyline, clomipramine, and maprotiline and the possible modulating properties of these drugs on neutrophil migration and mast cell degranulation. Methods: The hind paw edema and air-pouch models of inflammation were used. Male Wistar rats were treated with saline, amitriptyline, clomipramine or maprotiline (10, 30, or 90 mg/kg, per os [p.o.] 1 h before the injection of carrageenan (300 μg/0.1 mL/paw or dextran (500 μg/0.1 mL/paw. Then, edema formation was measured hourly. Neutrophil migration to carrageenan (500 μg/pouch and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP (10-6 M/mL/pouch was also investigated in 6-day-old air-pouch cavities. Compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation was assessed in the mesenteric tissues of antidepressant-treated rats. Results: All tested antidepressants prevented both carrageenan- and dextran-induced edema. The anti-inflammatory effect of these drugs partially depends on the modulation of neutrophil migration, since they significantly counteracted the chemotactic response of both carrageenan and fMLP (p < 0.01. Furthermore, amitriptyline, clomipramine and maprotiline inhibited compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results suggest an important anti-inflammatory role of heterocyclic antidepressants, which is dependent on the modulation of neutrophil migration and mast cell stabilization.

  1. Group A Streptococcus Prevents Mast Cell Degranulation to Promote Extracellular Trap Formation

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    Mary Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The resurgence of Group A Streptococcus (GAS infections in the past two decades has been a rising major public health concern. Due to a large number of GAS infections occurring in the skin, mast cells (MCs, innate immune cells known to localize to the dermis, could play an important role in controlling infection. MCs can exert their antimicrobial activities either early during infection, by degranulation and release of antimicrobial proteases and the cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptide LL-37, or by forming antibacterial MC extracellular traps (MCETs in later stages of infection. We demonstrate that MCs do not directly degranulate in response to GAS, reducing their ability to control bacterial growth in early stages of infection. However, MC granule components are highly cytotoxic to GAS due to the pore-forming activity of LL-37, while MC granule proteases do not significantly affect GAS viability. We therefore confirmed the importance of MCETs by demonstrating their capacity to reduce GAS survival. The data therefore suggests that LL-37 from MC granules become embedded in MCETs, and are the primary effector molecule by which MCs control GAS infection. Our work underscores the importance of a non-traditional immune effector cell, utilizing a non-conventional mechanism, in the defense against an important human pathogen.

  2. Effects of cigarette smoke on degranulation and NO production by mast cells and epithelial cells

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    Hunt John E

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO is decreased by cigarette smoking. The hypothesis that oxides of nitrogen (NOX in cigarette smoke solution (CSS may exert a negative feedback mechanism upon NO release from epithelial (AEC, A549, and NHTBE and basophilic cells (RBL-2H3 was tested in vitro. CSS inhibited both NO production and degranulation (measured as release of beta-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner from RBL-2H3 cells. Inhibition of NO production by CSS in AEC, A549, and NHTBE cells was also dose-dependent. In addition, CSS decreased expression of NOS mRNA and protein expression. The addition of NO inhibitors and scavengers did not, however, reverse the effects of CSS, nor did a NO donor (SNP or nicotine mimic CSS. N-acetyl-cysteine, partially reversed the inhibition of beta-hexosaminidase release suggesting CSS may act via oxidative free radicals. Thus, some of the inhibitory effects of CSS appear to be via oxidative free radicals rather than a NOX -related negative feedback.

  3. Resveratrol inhibits IgE-mediated basophilic mast cell degranulation and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

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    Han, Seon-Young; Bae, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Hye; Kim, Yun-Ho; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-05-01

    Resveratrol is a phytoalexin abundantly found in red grape skin and is effective in antitumor and antiinflammation associated with immune responses. This study investigated whether resveratrol suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergic responses and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rat RBL-2H3 mast cells and in BALB/c mice. The release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine was enhanced in mast cells sensitized with anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-IgE and subsequently stimulated by DNP-human serum albumin (HSA), indicative of mast cell degranulation. When mast cells were pretreated with nontoxic resveratrol at 1-25 μmol/L, such induction was dose dependently diminished. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) of sensitized mast cells were activated by stimulation with DNP-HSA antigen, which was dampened by ≥5 μmol/L resveratrol. The phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC)μ and PKCθ was attenuated by administering resveratrol to DNP-HSA-exposed mast cells, whereas quiescent PKCζ/λ in sensitized cells was dose-dependently activated by resveratrol. Male BALB/c mice were sensitized for 24 h with DNP-IgE and orally administered with resveratrol 1 h before the DNP-HSA challenge. The histamine concentration was enhanced in sensitized mice challenged to DNP-HSA, which was reversed by administration of 10 mg/kg resveratrol. Additionally, it encumbered the tissue activation of Syk, PLCγ, and PKCμ in antigen-exposed mice. Resveratrol decreased IgE-mediated PCA and alleviated allergic edema of mouse ear and dorsal skin. Mast cell degranulation and allergic inflammation, accompanying the induction of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, were inhibited by supplementing resveratrol to antigen-challenged mice. Resveratrol inhibited mast cell-derived, immediate-type allergic reactions, and these responses of resveratrol suggest possible therapeutic strategies in preventing allergic inflammatory diseases.

  4. Fyn kinase controls Fc{epsilon}RI receptor-operated calcium entry necessary for full degranulation in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Sede Sur, Calzada de los Tenorios 235, Col. Granjas Coapa, CP 14330 Mexico City (Mexico); Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Sede Sur, Calzada de los Tenorios 235, Col. Granjas Coapa, CP 14330 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-01-22

    IgE-antigen-dependent crosslinking of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) on mast cells leads to degranulation, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) mobilization is a sine qua non requisite for degranulation, allowing the rapid secretion of stored pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for allergy symptoms. Fyn is a Src-family kinase that positively controls Fc{epsilon}RI-induced mast cell degranulation. However, our understanding of the mechanism connecting Fyn activation to secretion of pre-synthesized mediators is very limited. We analyzed Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) differentiated from WT and Fyn -/- knock out mice. Fyn -/- BMMCs showed a marked defect in extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx after Fc{epsilon}RI crosslinking but not after thapsigargin addition. High concentrations of Gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) partially blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx in WT cells but, in contrast, completely inhibited Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in Fyn -/- cells. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca{sup 2+} channels (2-aminoethoxyphenyl-borane, 2-APB) blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced maximal Ca{sup 2+} rise in WT but not in Fyn -/- cells. Ca{sup 2+} entry through Fyn-controlled, 2-APB sensitive channels was found to be important for full degranulation and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in WT cells. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fyn kinase interacts with TRPC 3/6/7 channels after IgE-antigen stimulation, but its association is not related to protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Results indicate Fyn kinase mediates the receptor-dependent activation of TRPC channels that contribute to degranulation in Fc{epsilon}RI-stimulated mast cells.

  5. Several distinct properties of the IgE repertoire determine effector cell degranulation in response to allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Harder; Holm, Jens-Christian; Lund, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    for the manifestation and severity of allergic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate how individual properties of an IgE repertoire affect effector cell degranulation. METHODS: A panel of recombinant IgE (rIgE) antibodies specific for the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was developed and characterized...

  6. Ultraviolet B irradiation of skin induces mast cell degranulation and release of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, L.J. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Dentistry, Immunopathology Unit

    1995-06-01

    In the `sunburn` response in skin, dermal blood vessels are activated and traffic of dendritic Langerhans` cells altered. While these changes have been attributed to the cytokine TNF-{alpha}, the source of this acutely released TNF has not been identified. This report demonstrates that the `sunburn` response, both in vivo and in vitro, is accompanied by rapid degranulation of cutaneous mast cells, with consequential release of intracellular stores of TNF. Epidermal keratinocytes were only minor contributors to local TNF production. Expression of the TNF-inducible CD62E (E-selectin/ELAM-1) and CD54 adhesion molecules on cutaneous endothelium occurred 2 hours following mast cell degranulation, and this event was sensitive to blockade of mast cells with disodium cromoglycate. These results indicate that TNF release in skin in the acute sunburn response can largely be attributed to mast cells. 47 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. Ameliorative effects of type-A procyanidins polyphenols from cinnamon bark in compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandhare, Amit D.; Aswar, Urmila M.; Mohan, Vishwaraman

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases are a significant health concern in developing countries. Type-A procyanidin polyphenols from cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark (TAPP-CZ) possesses antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential. The present study was aimed at the possible anti-allergic mechanism of TAPP-CZ against the compound 48/80 (C48/80)–induced mast cell degranulation in isolated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). TAPP-CZ (1, 3, 10, and 30 µg/ml) was incubated for 3 hours with isolated, purified RPMCs. The C48/80 (1 µg/ml) was used to induce mast cell degranulation. The mast cell viability was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay whereas histamine, β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels were determined in RPMCs. TAPP-CZ (3, 10, and 30 µg/ml) showed significant and dose-dependent decrease in a number of degranulated cells and levels of markers (histamine, β-HEX, and IL-4) as compared with C48/80 control. In conclusion, TAPP-CZ stabilizes mast cell and cause inhibition of the allergic markers such as histamine, IL-4, and β-HEX in IgE-mediated manner. The present study supports mast cell stabilization as a possible mechanism of action of TAPP-CZ against immune respiratory disorders such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. PMID:29354299

  8. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) induces wheal and flare skin reactions independent of mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, K; Giménez-Arnau, A; Martinez-Escala, E; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Abajian, M; Church, M K; Maurer, M

    2013-02-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) causes wheal and flare responses which are abrogated by H1-antihistamines giving rise to the hypothesis that PAF-induced wheal development is secondary to histamine release from dermal mast cells. But is this hypothesis correct? Wheal and flare responses were induced by intradermal injection of PAF, codeine and histamine in 14 healthy volunteers. Dermal histamine and PGD2 contractions were measured using microdialysis. PAF, unlike histamine and codeine, did not cause a statistically significant rise in mean histamine levels with ten persons showing negligible histamine release. Codeine caused a significant but variable histamine release, ranging from 29 to 282 ng/ml. Codeine, but not PAF or histamine, caused a small but statistically significant release of PGD2. Wheal and flare reactions in human skin induced by PAF are not associated with histamine release and, therefore, appear to be independent of mast cell degranulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Inhibition of TRPM7 Channels Reduces Degranulation and Release of Cytokines in Rat Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: mast cells play an important role in airway inflammation in asthma. The transient receptor potential melastatin-like 7 (TRPM7 channel is expressed in primary human lung mast cells and plays a critical role for cell survival. This study aimed to investigate the role of TRPM7 on degranulation and release of cytokines in rat bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs. Methods: the expression levels of TRPM7 were observed by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR between normal and asthmatic rat BMMCs. TRPM7-specific shRNA and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB and specific shTRPM7 were used to inhibit the function of TRPM7. Degranulation levels were analyzed by beta-hexosaminidase assay. Histamine, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-13 levels were measured by ELISA. Results: the expression of TRPM7 was significantly higher in asthmatic rat BMMCs than in the normal control group. After application of 2-APB and down-regulation of TRPM7, the beta-hexosaminidase activity and secretion of histamine, IL-6, IL-13 and TNF-α were significantly decreased in the asthmatic group compared to the control group. Conclusion: this study indicates that TRPM7 channels may be involved in the process of degranulation and release of cytokines in rat bone marrow-derived mast cells.

  10. Amelioration of anaphylaxis, mast cell degranulation and bronchospasm by Euphorbia hirta L. extracts in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Parmar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was aimed to assess anti-anaphylactic, mast cell stabilizing and anti-asthmatic activity of methanol and aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae on experimental animals. Anaphylaxis was induced by administration of horse serum and triple antigen vaccine subcutaneously in albino Wistar rats. Extracts of E. hirta (EH were administered to the rats in dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. orally for 14 days. At the end of treatment, asthma score was measured and various blood parameters like differential count (DC, total WBC count and IgE were estimated. Interleukin (IL-4, IL-5 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured by ELISA commercial kit from Broncho alveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Histopathological changes of lungs were observed. Anti-asthmatic activity of extracts of EH was also studied on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. In vitro mast cell stabilizing activity of extracts was evaluated on compound 48/80 challenged rat intestinal mesenteric mast cells. The treatment with extracts of EH produced significant decrease in asthma score and they also brought to normalcy the increased total WBC, DC counts, serum IgE, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF. The histopathological study further supported the protective effect of EH extracts. The pre-treatment with extracts of EH displayed significant reduction in degranulation of mesenteric mast cell numbers. The treatment with extracts of EH significantly increased in time of pre-convulsive dyspnoea (PCD. Thus, these findings concluded that E. hirta could be effectively used in the treatment of anaphylaxis and asthma.

  11. Silver Nanoparticle-Directed Mast Cell Degranulation Is Mediated through Calcium and PI3K Signaling Independent of the High Affinity IgE Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser B Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Engineered nanomaterial (ENM-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1 in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, it is completely unknown how SR-B1 mediates mast cell degranulation and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. In the current study, we hypothesized that SR-B1 interaction with AgNPs directs mast cell degranulation through activation of signal transduction pathways that culminate in an increase in intracellular calcium signal leading to mast cell degranulation. For these studies, we utilized bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC isolated from C57Bl/6 mice and RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line. Our data support our hypothesis and show that AgNP-directed mast cell degranulation involves activation of PI3K, PLCγ and an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, we found that influx of extracellular calcium is required for the cells to degranulate in response to AgNP exposure and is mediated at least partially via the CRAC channels. Taken together, our results provide new insights into AgNP-induced mast cell activation that are key for designing novel ENMs that are devoid of immune system activation.

  12. Constituents from oak bark (Quercus robur L.) inhibit degranulation and allergic mediator release from basophils and mast cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Peter; Heinrich, Miriam; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Grunewald, Franziska; Messerschmidt, Silke; Herrick, Anja; Gruber, Kim; Beckmann, Christiane; Knoedler, Matthias; Huber, Roman; Steinborn, Carmen; Stintzing, Florian C; Gründemann, Carsten

    2016-12-24

    Oak bark has been used since ancient times in Europaen ethnomedicine because of its adstringent, antimicrobial and hemostatic features, e.g. as a remedy for the treatment of wounds and skin diseases. Oak bark tannins are considered as bioactive natural products, interacting with surface proteins of mucous membranes and might be beneficial for the treatment of allergic diseases. This study investigated the effect of an oak bark decoction (OBD) and isolated tannin fractions on the degranulation capacity and cytokine/chemokine release from rat basophilic cells and human mast cells in vitro, which are essential for the initiation of early- and late-phase allergic reactions. By chromatographic separation on Sephadex ® LH-20 high- and low-molecular weight tannins were separated from OBD and the tannin composition analyzed by HPLC(DAD)-MS n . Then, the OBD and its fractions were tested in degranulation (β-hexosaminidase activity) of allergen-specific-activated basophilic cells in a photometric assay. The OBD and the high-molecular tannin fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell degranulation. Furthermore, the OBD and particularly its high molecular weight tannin fraction exhibited an inhibitory activity on the IL-8-, IL-6- and TNF-α-secretion from stimulated human mast cells, detected and quantified by ELISA. The OBD and its high-molecular weight tannins revealed an impact on allergic mediator release of basophilic cells and human mast cells and thereby provide a rationale for the topical treatment with OBD preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of low-level laser therapy on mast cell number and degranulation in third-degree burns of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Vasheghani, Mohammad Mehdi; Razavie, Naser; Jalili, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    Mast cells have been shown to participate in the wound healing process. We investigated the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on mast cell number in the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process of experimental burns. Sixty rats subjected to third-degree burns were divided into four groups: two laser-treated, one control, and one nitrofurazone-treated group. In the two laser-treated groups, burned areas received LLLT with a helium-neon laser at energy densities of 38.2 J/cm(2) and 76.4 J/cm(2), respectively. The effects on mast cell number and degranulation were assessed 7, 16, and 30 days postburn (inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of wound healing, respectively). Intact and degranulated mast cells were counted. Five rats with no burns were used for baseline studies. On day 7 in the first laser group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the other groups. On day 16 in the nitrofurazone-treated group, the total number of mast cells was significantly higher than in the control, first laser, and normal groups. LLLT on the experimental third-degree burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the inflammation phase of wound healing; also, topical application of 0.2% nitrofurazone ointment on the same burns significantly increased the total number of mast cells during the proliferation phase of burn healing.

  14. Non-immunological activation of peritoneal mast cells of rats by means of mast cell degranulating peptide from bee toxic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation is the interaction of MCD-peptide with the mast cell with regard to binding properties and histamine-liberating activity. The peptide is labelled with Na 125 I, its binding characteristics on degranulating and deactivating mast cells recorded and compared to binding on periteneal macrophages and neutrophilic granulocytes. Further, the non-lytic mode of action of MCD-peptide is pointed out, whereby the surface-active toxic peptide of the bee, melittin, finds application in parallel studies. In order to establish to what extent the binding property of the peptide to the mast cell is inhibited by IgE-antibodies charged on the later, rats are immunized with dead Bordetella pertussis microorganisms as adjuvant and ovalbumin as antigen. The induced IgE specific immune response provides active sensitized mast cells and enriches reagin antibodies in the sera of immunized animals. The binding of peptides is studied on active and passive sensitized mast cells and compared to the situation found with normal mast cells. A further section of work deals with the question whether an altered binding pattern is caused by enzymatic treatment of the cell surface. A possible interference of the MCD-peptide with the IgE-receptor could thus be indicated or other types of binding position demonstrated. The influence of granular secretion on mast cell binding is illustrated by means of studies on isolated mast cell granula. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Degranulating mast cells in fibrotic regions of human tumors and evidence that mast cell heparin interferes with the growth of tumor cells through a mechanism involving fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakubo Emi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mast cells that are present in fibrotic regions of cancer can suppress the growth of tumor cells through an indirect mechanism involving peri-tumoral fibroblasts. Methods We first immunostained a wide variety of human cancers for the presence of degranulated mast cells. In a subsequent series of controlled in vitro experiments, we then co-cultured UACC-812 human breast cancer cells with normal fibroblasts in the presence or absence of different combinations and doses of mast cell tryptase, mast cell heparin, a lysate of the human mast cell line HMC-1, and fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7, a powerful, heparin-binding growth factor for breast epithelial cells. Results Degranulating mast cells were localized predominantly in the fibrous tissue of every case of breast cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's disease that we examined. Mast cell tryptase and HMC-1 lysate had no significant effect on the clonogenic growth of cancer cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. By contrast, mast cell heparin at multiple doses significantly reduced the size and number of colonies of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts, especially in the presence of FGF-7. Neither heparin nor FGF-7, individually or in combination, produced any significant effect on the clonogenic growth of breast cancer cells cultured without fibroblasts. Conclusion Degranulating mast cells are restricted to peri-tumoral fibrous tissue, and mast cell heparin is a powerful inhibitor of clonogenic growth of tumor cells co-cultured with fibroblasts. These results may help to explain the well-known ability of heparin to inhibit the growth of primary and metastatic tumors.

  16. The Suppressive Activity of Fucofuroeckol-A Derived from Brown Algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura on UVB-Induced Mast Cell Degranulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Sang Vo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UV light, especially UVB, is known as a trigger of allergic reaction, leading to mast cell degranulation and histamine release. In this study, phlorotannin Fucofuroeckol-A (F-A derived from brown algal Ecklonia stolonifera Okamura was evaluated for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction in RBL-2H3 mast cells. It was revealed that F-A significantly suppress mast cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release as well as intracellular Ca2+ elevation at the concentration of 50 μM. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of F-A on IL-1β and TNF-α productions was also evidenced. Notably, the protective activity of F-A against mast cell degranulation was found due to scavenging ROS production. Accordingly, F-A from brown algal E. stolonifera was suggested to be promising candidate for its protective capability against UVB-induced allergic reaction.

  17. Human Lactobacillus Strains from the Intestine can Suppress IgE-Mediated Degranulation of Rat Basophilic Leukaemia (RBL-2H3 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaku Harata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play a critical role in immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated allergic diseases, and the degranulation of mast cells is important in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A disturbance of the intestinal microflora, especially of endogenous lactic acid bacteria, might be a contributing factor for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Additional knowledge regarding the interaction of human intestinal Lactobacilli with mast cells is still necessary. Twenty-three strains of Lactobacilli, including commercial and reference strains and strains from the human intestine, were tested for their ability to regulate degranulation of cells from rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells (RBL-2H3 in vitro based on a β-hexosaminidase release assay. Each of the tested Lactobacilli characteristically suppressed IgE-mediated degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, and Lactobacillus GG showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the cells. Furthermore, the bacteria isolated from the human intestine significantly suppressed degranulation of RBL-2H3 cellsin comparison with the reference strains. These results suggest that Lactobacilli, particularly those from the human intestine, can affect the activation of mast cells in a strain-dependent manner. Further study should be conducted to analyse the understanding mechanism.

  18. Sulfur mustard induced mast cell degranulation in mouse skin is inhibited by a novel anti-inflammatory and anticholinergic bifunctional prodrug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Laurie B; Composto, Gabriella M; Perez, Roberto M; Kim, Hong-Duck; Casillas, Robert P; Heindel, Ned D; Young, Sherri C; Lacey, Carl J; Saxena, Jaya; Guillon, Christophe D; Croutch, Claire R; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Heck, Diane E

    2017-11-07

    Sulfur mustard (SM, bis(2-chloroethyl sulfide) is a potent vesicating agent known to cause skin inflammation, necrosis and blistering. Evidence suggests that inflammatory cells and mediators that they generate are important in the pathogenic responses to SM. In the present studies we investigated the role of mast cells in SM-induced skin injury using a murine vapor cup exposure model. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were localized in the dermis, adjacent to dermal appendages and at the dermal/epidermal junction. In control mice, 48-61% of mast cells were degranulated. SM exposure (1.4g/m 3 in air for 6min) resulted in increased numbers of degranulated mast cells 1-14days post-exposure. Treatment of mice topically with an indomethacin choline bioisostere containing prodrug linked by an aromatic ester-carbonate that targets cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes and acetylcholinesterase (1% in an ointment) 1-14days after SM reduced skin inflammation and injury and enhanced tissue repair. This was associated with a decrease in mast cell degranulation from 90% to 49% 1-3days post SM, and from 84% to 44% 7-14days post SM. These data suggest that reduced inflammation and injury in response to the bifunctional indomethacin prodrug may be due, at least in part, to abrogating mast cell degranulation. The use of inhibitors of mast cell degranulation may be an effective strategy for mitigating skin injury induced by SM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ju-Hye; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) is well known as herbal medicine named "Zi-Yu" in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease). We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD) of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR) using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker). ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  20. Ethanol Extract of Sanguisorbae Radix Inhibits Mast Cell Degranulation and Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hye Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanguisorbae Radix (SR is well known as herbal medicine named “Zi-Yu” in Korea, which is the dried roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (Rosacease. We investigated the underlying mechanism on the inhibition of atopic dermatitis (AD of an ethanol extract of SR (ESR using 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB- induced AD mice model. Oral administration of ESR significantly suppressed DNCB-induced AD-like symptoms such as scratching behavior, ear thickness, epidermal thickness, and IgE levels. To investigate the effects of ESR treatment on degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, we measured the release of β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX, degranulation marker. ESR decreased the infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells into the AD skin lesions. Furthermore, ESR significantly inhibited degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated BMMCs. We have demonstrated that ESR decreased AD symptoms in mice and inhibits degranulation of IgE/Ag-activated mast cells. Our study suggests that ESR may serve as a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of AD symptoms.

  1. Natural killer cells from psoriasis vulgaris patients have reduced levels of cytotoxicity associated degranulation and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, S E; Sweeney, C M; Kelly, G; Tobin, A M; Kirby, B; Gardiner, C M

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with a strong genetic component and immune system involvement. Although some evidence suggests that Natural Killer (NK) cells may play a part in psoriasis, their role is relatively unstudied and results are controversial. In this current study, NK cells from psoriasis patients exhibited reduced degranulation and produced lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. Further investigation found that NK cells from psoriasis patients and healthy controls expressed similar levels of activation markers, NK cell receptors and apoptosis-inducing molecules. In addition, comparable levels of several cytokines important in NK cell biology were found in the serum of psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Genotyping analysis revealed that HLA-C2, which provides a ligand for killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) expressed by NK cells, was strongly associated with psoriasis susceptibility. However, no link between the KIR genes themselves and disease was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Regulation of Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor X2-Mediated Mast Cell Degranulation by Antimicrobial Host Defense Peptides and Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Idahosa, Chizobam; Roy, Saptarshi; Lee, Donguk; Subramanian, Hariharan; Dhingra, Anuradha; Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen; Korostoff, Jonathan; Ali, Hydar

    2017-10-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen that contributes to periodontal pathogenesis by disrupting host-microbe homeostasis and promoting dysbiosis. The virulence of P. gingivalis likely reflects an alteration in the lipid A composition of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the penta-acylated ( Pg LPS 1690 ) to the tetra-acylated ( Pg LPS 1435/1449 ) form. Mast cells play an important role in periodontitis, but the mechanisms of their activation and regulation remain unknown. The expression of epithelium- and neutrophil-derived host defense peptides (HDPs) (LL-37 and human β-defensin-3), which activate mast cells via Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor X2 (MRGPRX2), is increased in periodontitis. We found that MRGPRX2-expressing mast cells are present in normal gingiva and that their numbers are elevated in patients with chronic periodontitis. Furthermore, HDPs stimulated degranulation in a human mast cell line (LAD2) and in RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing MRGPRX2 (RBL-MRGPRX2). Pg LPS 1690 caused substantial inhibition of HDP-induced mast cell degranulation, but Pg LPS 1435/1449 had no effect. A fluorescently labeled HDP (FAM-LL-37) bound to RBL-MRGPRX2 cells, and Pg LPS 1690 inhibited this binding, but Pg LPS 1435/1449 had no effect. These findings suggest that low-level inflammation induced by HDP/MRGPRX2-mediated mast cell degranulation contributes to gingival homeostasis but that sustained inflammation due to elevated levels of both HDPs and MRGPRX2-expressing mast cells promotes periodontal disease. Furthermore, differential regulation of HDP-induced mast cell degranulation by Pg LPS 1690 and Pg LPS 1435/1449 may contribute to the modulation of disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Novel anti-ulcer alpha,beta-unsaturated lactones inhibit compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penissi, Alicia B; Vera, Mariano E; Mariani, María L; Rudolph, María I; Ceñal, Juan P; de Rosas, Juan C; Fogal, Teresa H; Tonn, Carlos E; Favier, Laura S; Giordano, Oscar S; Piezzi, Ramón S

    2009-06-10

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser (dehydroleucodine), a xanthanolide sesquiterpene isolated from Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw (xanthatin) and a semisynthetic butenolide (3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) on mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80. Peritoneal mast cells from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were purified in Percoll, preincubated in the presence of test lactones (dehydroleucodine, xanthatin or 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one) and then challenged with the mast cell activator compound 48/80 (10 microg/ml). Concentration-response and kinetic studies of mast cell serotonin release evoked by compound 48/80, evaluation of mast cell viability and morphology by light and electron microscopy, and comparative studies using ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate were carried out. Serotonin release studies, carried out together with morphological studies, showed the effectiveness of the above lactones to stabilize mast cells. The comparative study with ketotifen and sodium chromoglycate, well known mast cell stabilizers, showed the following order of potency dehydroleucodine=xanthatin>3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one> or =ketotifen/sodium chromoglycate to inhibit mast cell serotonin release induced by compound 48/80. The present study provides the first strong evidence in favour of the hypothesis that dehydroleucodine, xanthatin and 3-benzyloxymethyl-5H-furan-2-one inhibit compound 48/80-induced serotonin release from peritoneal mast cells, acting thus as mast cell stabilizers. Our findings may provide an insight into the design of novel pharmacological agents which may be used to regulate the mast cell response.

  4. Adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is a central hub for phosphotyrosine-mediated interactions in T cells.

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    Marc Sylvester

    Full Text Available TCR stimulation leads to an increase in cellular adhesion among other outcomes. The adhesion and degranulation promoting adapter protein (ADAP is known to be rapidly phosphorylated after T cell stimulation and relays the TCR signal to adhesion molecules of the integrin family. While three tyrosine phosphorylation sites have been characterized biochemically, the binding capabilities and associated functions of several other potential phosphotyrosine motifs remain unclear. Here, we utilize in vitro phosphorylation and mass spectrometry to map novel phosphotyrosine sites in the C-terminal part of human ADAP (486-783. Individual tyrosines were then mutated to phenylalanine and their relevance for cellular adhesion and migration was tested experimentally. Functionally important tyrosine residues include two sites within the folded hSH3 domains of ADAP and two at the C-terminus. Furthermore, using a peptide pulldown approach in combination with stable isotope labeling in cell culture (SILAC we identified SLP-76, PLCgamma, PIK3R1, Nck, CRK, Gads, and RasGAP as phospho-dependent binding partners of a central YDDV motif of ADAP. The phosphorylation-dependent interaction between ADAP and Nck was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis, immunoprecipitation and binary pulldown experiments, indicating that ADAP directly links integrins to modulators of the cytoskeleton independent of SLP-76.

  5. Gamma-irradiated black ginseng extract inhibits mast cell degranulation and suppresses atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung Ae; Song, Ha-Yeon; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ahn, Nam-Geun; Kim, Hye-Min; Nam, You Ree; Lee, Gyeong Hee; Jang, Beom-Su; Choi, Dae Seong; Lee, Dong-Eun; Byun, Eui-Baek

    2018-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is able to affect various structural modification and an increase of the biological properties of biomaterials. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-allergenic effect of γ-irradiated black ginseng extract (BGE) using in vitro and in vivo experiments. IgEantigen complex-induced degranulation was measured in RBL-2H3 mast cells. In addition, an anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) test was carried out by spreading γ-irradiated BGE on the dorsal skin of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced BALB/c mice. The content of arginylfructose (AF) of gamma-irradiated BGE was higher than that of BGE. In RBL-2H3 mast cells, γ-irradiated BGE treatments significantly reduced the IgE-antigen complex-induced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, intracellular ROS, and Ca2+ influx. A western blot analysis showed that γ-irradiated BGE had an inhibitory activity on the FcεRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. In the DNCB-induced AD model, γ-irradiated BGE significantly alleviated the ADlike skin symptoms and clinical signs. The suppression of AD by γ-irradiated BGE was accompanied by a decrease in the serum level of IgE and IL-4, as well as the number of leukocyte. Gamma-irradiated BGE also suppressed IL-4 and increased IFN-γ in splenocytes. Our data suggests that γ-irradiated BGE may be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune response to snake envenoming and treatment with antivenom; complement activation, cytokine production and mast cell degranulation.

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    Shelley F Stone

    levels of mast cell degranulation but not further complement activation. Anaphylaxis is probably triggered by non allergen-specific activation of mast cells and may be related to the quality of available antivenom preparations, as well as a priming effect from the immune response to the venom itself.

  7. IκB Kinase 2 Is Essential for IgE-Induced Mast Cell De Novo Cytokine Production but Not for Degranulation

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    Katrin Peschke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated mast cell (MC response is central to the pathogenesis of type I allergy and asthma. IκB kinase 2 (IKK2 was reported to couple IgE-induced signals to MC degranulation by phosphorylating the SNARE protein SNAP23. We investigated MC responses in mice with MC-specific inactivation of IKK2 or NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO, or animals with MC-specific expression of a mutant, constitutively active IKK2. We show that the IgE-induced late-phase cytokine response is reduced in mice lacking IKK2 or NEMO in MCs. However, anaphylactic in vivo responses of these animals are not different from those of control mice, and in vitro IKK2-deficient MCs readily phosphorylate SNAP23 and degranulate similarly to control cells in response to allergen or calcium ionophore. Constitutive overactivation of the NF-κB pathway has only slight effects on allergen-triggered MC responses. Thus, IKK2 is dispensable for MC degranulation, and the important question how IgE-induced signals trigger MC vesicle fusion remains open.

  8. Physiological and pharmacological properties of Purkinje cells in rat cerebellum degranulated by postnatal x irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, D.J.; Hoffer, B.J.; Altman, J.

    1974-01-01

    Elimination of most granule, basket, and stellate interneurons in the rat cerebellum was achieved by repeated doses of low level x irradiation applied during the first two weeks of postnatal life. Purkinje neurons in these rats, studied when adults, exhibited sustained spiking activity in Halothane anesthetized preparations. Mean firing rates were 35 to 40/sec, no different from normal. Spontaneous bursts presumed to be generated by climbing fiber synaptic activity differed from normal by often consisting of full sized spikes rather than characteristic inactivation responses. Intracellularly observed correlates of bursts consisted of epsp's of several discretely different amplitudes appearing independently in time. Stimulation of white matter revealed evidence for, a) graded synaptic excitation of Purkinje cells indicating more than one converging excitatory synapse, and b) inhibitory actions on Purkinje cells either through a few remaining inhibitory interneurons or through Purkinje cell recurrent collaterals. Iontophoretic drug application studies showed normal chemosensitivity of the Purkinje cell membrane, i.e., excitation by flutamate and inhibition by gamma-amino butyric acid, serotonin, norepinephrine, and 3'5' cyclic AMP. These studies indicate considerable autonomy of Purkinje cell ontogenesis in the absence of normal interneuronal input. A unique synaptic relation only rarely found in normal cerebellum is the innervation of single Purkinje cells by more than one climbing fiber. (U.S.)

  9. The mast cell degranulator compound 48/80 directly activates neurons.

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    Michael Schemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compound 48/80 is widely used in animal and tissue models as a "selective" mast cell activator. With this study we demonstrate that compound 48/80 also directly activates enteric neurons and visceral afferents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vivo recordings from extrinsic intestinal afferents together with Ca(++ imaging from primary cultures of DRG and nodose neurons. Enteric neuronal activation was examined by Ca(++ and voltage sensitive dye imaging in isolated gut preparations and primary cultures of enteric neurons. Intraluminal application of compound 48/80 evoked marked afferent firing which desensitized on subsequent administration. In egg albumen-sensitized animals, intraluminal antigen evoked a similar pattern of afferent activation which also desensitized on subsequent exposure to antigen. In cross-desensitization experiments prior administration of compound 48/80 failed to influence the mast cell mediated response. Application of 1 and 10 µg/ml compound 48/80 evoked spike discharge and Ca(++ transients in enteric neurons. The same nerve activating effect was observed in primary cultures of DRG and nodose ganglion cells. Enteric neuron cultures were devoid of mast cells confirmed by negative staining for c-kit or toluidine blue. In addition, in cultured enteric neurons the excitatory action of compound 48/80 was preserved in the presence of histamine H(1 and H(2 antagonists. The mast cell stabilizer cromolyn attenuated compound 48/80 and nicotine evoked Ca(++ transients in mast cell-free enteric neuron cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed direct excitatory action of compound 48/80 on enteric neurons and visceral afferents. Therefore, functional changes measured in tissue or animal models may involve a mast cell independent effect of compound 48/80 and cromolyn.

  10. Immunoglobulin E is associated with markers of mast cell degranulation and microalbuminuria in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes

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    Olayiwola Popoola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irrespective of the cause of kidney injury, development of renal fibrosis may likely result after prolong insult by the etiologic agent. Inflammatory process associated with an increase in number and activity of mast cell (MC has been implicated in the development of renal fibrosis. Renal fibrosis occurs through the activation of MC by immunoglobulin E (IgE binding to high-affinity receptor on its surface. After IgE binding, MC release inflammatory mediators such as histamine, MC protease, cytokines, and chemokines. Aim: This study was designed to investigate the possible role of IgE in the development of renal complication in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A total number of 165 subjects comprising ninety obese diabetic cases (test group and 75 nondiabetic controls were recruited in this study. The test group was further divided into those with poor glycemic control (n = 45 and those with good glycemic control (n = 45 using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Urine microalbumin was determine using turbidimetry immunoassay, C-reactive protein (CRP using latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetry assay, IgE, insulin, chymase, and tryptase were estimated using ELISA and HbA1c were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: There was statistically significant difference in the mean values of microalbumin, IgE, CRP and HbA1c, chymase, and tryptase in the test group compared with controls (P < 0.01. We found a positive correlation between microalbumin excretion rate and IgE, HbA1c, tryptase, and chymase (P < 0.01. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that glycemic control associated inflammatory process involving MC degranulation may contribute to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Fyn kinase iniates complementary signals required for IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parravicini, V.; Massimo, G.; Kovářová, Martina; Odom, S.; Gonzales-Espinosa, C.; Furumoto, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Samelson, L.; Oshea, J.; Rivera, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 8 (2002), s. 741-748 ISSN 1529-2908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mast cell * IGE receptor Fyn kinase * Lyn kinase Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 27.868, year: 2002

  12. Mast cell degranulation during abdominal surgery initiates postoperative ileus in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Wouter J.; The, Frans O.; van der Coelen, Dennis; Bennink, Roelof J.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; van Deventer, Sander J.; van den Wijngaard, René M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2004-01-01

    Background & Aims: Inflammation of the intestinal muscularis following manipulation during surgery plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of postoperative ileus. Here, we evaluate the role of mast cell activation in the recruitment of infiltrates in a murine model. Methods: Twenty-four hours after

  13. Spirodela polyrhiza extract modulates the activation of atopic dermatitis-related ion channels, Orai1 and TRPV3, and inhibits mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Joo Hyun; Jung, Hyo Won; Chin, Young-Won; Yang, Won-Mo; Bae, Hyo Sang; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2017-12-01

    Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. (Lemnaceae), Spirodelae Herba (SH), has been known to relieve inflammation, urticaria and skin symptoms including pruritus, eczema and rash. The effects of SH extract on two calcium ion channels, Orai1 and TRPV3, and their potential as novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis (AD) were investigated. The regulatory role of Orai1 on mast cell degranulation was evaluated. The dried leaves of SH were extracted by 70% methanol. Effects of SH extract (100 μg/mL) in an HEK293T cell line overexpressing human Orai1 or TRPV3 were assessed. Ion channel modulation in transfected HEK293T cells was measured using a conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. IgE-antigen complex-stimulated mast cell degranulation was measured by β-hexosaminidase assay with morphological observation after treatment with 20, 50 and 100 μg/mL SH extract. SH extract (100 μg/mL) significantly inhibited Orai1 activity (63.8 ± 0.97%) in Orai1-STIM1 co-overexpressed HEK293T cells. SH extract significantly increased TRPV3 activity (81.29 ± 0.05% at -100 mV) compared with the positive control 2-APB (100 μM), which induced full activation. SH extract inhibited degranulation in IgE-antigen complex-stimulated RBL-2H3 mast cells by decreasing β-hexosaminidase activity (3.14 ± 0.03, 2.56 ± 0.12 and 2.29 ± 0.08 mU/mg, respectively). Our results suggested that SH extract could treat abnormal skin barrier pathologies in AD through modulation of the activities of the calcium ion channels Orai1 and TRPV3 and inhibition of mast cell degranulation. This is the first report of an herbal effect on the modulation of ion channels associated with skin barrier disruption in AD pathogenesis.

  14. The effect of ulinastatin on the small intestine injury and mast cell degranulation in a rat model of sepsis induced by CLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Jing; Li, Ming; Meng, Mei; Feng, Mei; Qin, Cheng-Yong

    2009-09-01

    Sepsis could be initiated by the gastrointestinal tract injury and subsequent bacterial translocation. In the present experiment, we aimed to investigate effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on the small intestinal injury and bacterial translocation in septic rats and role of mast cells degranulation in its action. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham laparatomy, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), and CLP plus UTI. CLP was used to develop septic rat model and UTI was administered to rats intraperitoneally (50,000 U/kg) 30 min prior to CLP operation. After CLP or sham operation, variable parameters were investigated in three subsets of animals. One subset was used for measurements of nitrite and nitrate (NO(x)) concentration in plasma at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24h and levels of NO(x) and iNOS mRNA in the small intestine, RMCP-II released into the small intestinal lumen, bacterial translocation and morphologic changes at 24h. The other subsets were used for the small intestinal motility and microvascular in vivo at 24h. Bacterial translocation, barrier injury, impaired motility and blood flow, mast cells degranulation of the small intestine in the CLP group were found more severe than that in the sham group. Elevated RMCP-II, NO(x), and iNOS mRNA levels were also detected in the CLP group. Application of UTI not only protected the small intestine from sepsis but also diminished changes of intestinal mast cells. UTI can significantly ameliorate the small intestinal injury and subsequent bacterial translocation by inhibiting mast cells degranulation in septic rats.

  15. Polyphenols differentially inhibit degranulation of distinct subsets of vesicles in mast cells by specific interaction with granule-type-dependent SNARE complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yoosoo; Oh, Jung-Mi; Heo, Paul; Shin, Jae Yoon; Kong, Byoungjae; Shin, Jonghyeok; Lee, Ji-Chun; Oh, Jeong Su; Park, Kye Won; Lee, Choong Hwan; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Anti-allergic effects of dietary polyphenols were extensively studied in numerous allergic disease models, but the molecular mechanisms of anti-allergic effects by polyphenols remain poorly understood. In the present study, we show that the release of granular cargo molecules, contained in distinct subsets of granules of mast cells, is specifically mediated by two sets of SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins, and that various polyphenols differentially inhibit the formation of those SNARE complexes. Expression analysis of RBL-2H3 cells for 11 SNARE genes and a lipid mixing assay of 24 possible combinations of reconstituted SNAREs indicated that the only two active SNARE complexes involved in mast cell degranulation are Syn (syntaxin) 4/SNAP (23 kDa synaptosome-associated protein)-23/VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) 2 and Syn4/SNAP-23/VAMP8. Various polyphenols selectively or commonly interfered with ternary complex formation of these two SNARE complexes, thereby stopping membrane fusion between granules and plasma membrane. This led to the differential effect of polyphenols on degranulation of three distinct subsets of granules. These results suggest the possibility that formation of a variety of SNARE complexes in numerous cell types is controlled by polyphenols which, in turn, might regulate corresponding membrane trafficking. PMID:23252429

  16. The Anti-Allergic Rhinitis Effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Shenqi by Regulating Mast Cell Degranulation and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang-Yang; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Hu, Min; Li, Jin-Ze; Chen, Cheng-Juan; Wang, Yong-Jiang; Shi, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Tai

    2017-03-22

    Shenqi is a traditional Chinese polyherbal medicine has been widely used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis (AR). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic rhinitis activity of Shenqi and explore its underlying molecular mechanism. Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis rat model was used to evaluate the anti-allergic rhinitis effect of Shenqi. The effect of Shenqi on IgE-mediated degranulation was measured using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Primary spleen lymphocytes were isolated to investigate the anti-allergic mechanism of Shenqi by detecting the expression of transcription factors via Western blot and the level of cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) via ELISA. In OVA-induced AR rat models, Shenqi relieved the allergic rhinitis symptoms, inhibited the histopathological changes of nasal mucosa, and reduced the levels of IL-4 and IgE. The results from the in vitro study certified that Shenqi inhibited mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, the results of GATA3, T-bet, p-STAT6, and SOCS1 expression and production of IFN-γ and IL-4 demonstrated that Shenqi balanced the ratio of Th1/Th2 (IFN-γ/IL-4) in OVA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes. In conclusion, these results suggest that Shenqi exhibits an obvious anti-allergic effect by suppressing the mast cell-mediated allergic response and by improving the imbalance of Th1/Th2 ratio in allergic rhinitis.

  17. Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation

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    Fung Peter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. Acupuncture acting on meridian channel causes cytoskeletal remodeling through mechanotransduction, leading to regulation of gene expression and the subsequent production of related proteins. Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading to the release of many specific biomolecules needed for homeostasis, immune surveillance, wound healing and tissue repair. Acupoint along a meridian channel is a functional site to trigger the above functions with specificity and high efficiency.

  18. Pathogenic role of cardiac mast cell activation/degranulation, TNF-α, and cell death in acute drug-related fatalities

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    Nasrin Perskvist

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasrin Perskvist1, Carl Söderberg1, Marianne van Hage2, Erik Edston11National Board of Forensic Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden; 2Clinical Immunology and Allergy Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Intravenous injection of narcotic stimulants affects many cellular functions relevant for the pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure. There is considerable evidence that mast cells (MCs, TNF-α, and cell death play crucial roles in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiac arrest. In this study, we examined and compared the participation of MCs, TNF-α, apoptosis and necrosis in the heart of drug-related fatalities and the victims of sudden death due to the cardiac failure or aortic dissection.Methods and results: Serum level of postmortem tryptase was determined in all study subjects that consisted of 50 autopsy cases: 30 drug overdose fatalities which were further divided into two groups with high and low level of tryptase, and 20 cases of sudden natural death (SND. The distribution profile of cardiac infiltrated-MCs and production patterns of TNF and C9 (necrotic marker were investigated immunohistochemically. In situ-detection of apoptosis with TUNEL was applied to the heart sections. The level of tryptase was elevated (>45 μg/L in the drug fatalities but remained below the cut-off value in SND. In the myocardium of overdose victims, MC-infiltration and degranulation were significantly increased as well as production of myocytic TNF-α compared with the SND cases. The expressions profile of myocytic TNF varied between the groups. Apoptotic myocytes were seen more frequently in the SND group while necrosis was more evident in the heart of drug-related fatalities.Conclusion: Mast cells are recruited and activated in the heart of drug-associated deaths and the myocytes are the main source of TNF-α with the ability of different production patterns. The high degree

  19. In-cell intrabody selection from a diverse human library identifies C12orf4 protein as a new player in rodent mast cell degranulation.

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    Elsa Mazuc

    Full Text Available The high specificity of antibodies for their antigen allows a fine discrimination of target conformations and post-translational modifications, making antibodies the first choice tool to interrogate the proteome. We describe here an approach based on a large-scale intracellular expression and selection of antibody fragments in eukaryotic cells, so-called intrabodies, and the subsequent identification of their natural target within living cell. Starting from a phenotypic trait, this integrated system allows the identification of new therapeutic targets together with their companion inhibitory intrabody. We applied this system in a model of allergy and inflammation. We first cloned a large and highly diverse intrabody library both in a plasmid and a retroviral eukaryotic expression vector. After transfection in the RBL-2H3 rat basophilic leukemia cell line, we performed seven rounds of selection to isolate cells displaying a defect in FcεRI-induced degranulation. We used high throughput sequencing to identify intrabody sequences enriched during the course of selection. Only one intrabody was common to both plasmid and retroviral selections, and was used to capture and identify its target from cell extracts. Mass spectrometry analysis identified protein RGD1311164 (C12orf4, with no previously described function. Our data demonstrate that RGD1311164 is a cytoplasmic protein implicated in the early signaling events following FcεRI-induced cell activation. This work illustrates the strength of the intrabody-based in-cell selection, which allowed the identification of a new player in mast cell activation together with its specific inhibitor intrabody.

  20. Chronic Insulin Exposure Induces ER Stress and Lipid Body Accumulation in Mast Cells at the Expense of Their Secretory Degranulation Response.

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    William E Greineisen

    Full Text Available Lipid bodies (LB are reservoirs of precursors to inflammatory lipid mediators in immunocytes, including mast cells. LB numbers are dynamic, increasing dramatically under conditions of immunological challenge. We have previously shown in vitro that insulin-influenced lipogenic pathways induce LB biogenesis in mast cells, with their numbers attaining steatosis-like levels. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo hyperinsulinemia resulting from high fat diet is associated with LB accumulation in murine mast cells and basophils. We characterize the lipidome of purified insulin-induced LB, and the shifts in the whole cell lipid landscape in LB that are associated with their accumulation, in both model (RBL2H3 and primary mast cells. Lipidomic analysis suggests a gain of function associated with LB accumulation, in terms of elevated levels of eicosanoid precursors that translate to enhanced antigen-induced LTC4 release. Loss-of-function in terms of a suppressed degranulation response was also associated with LB accumulation, as were ER reprogramming and ER stress, analogous to observations in the obese hepatocyte and adipocyte. Taken together, these data suggest that chronic insulin elevation drives mast cell LB enrichment in vitro and in vivo, with associated effects on the cellular lipidome, ER status and pro-inflammatory responses.

  1. Hepatitis C virus core protein reduces CD8+T-cell proliferation, perforin production and degranulation but increases STAT5 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarwat Tahsin; Karges, Winston; Cooper, Curtis L; Crawley, Angela M

    2017-12-20

    Clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on an effective virus-specific CD8 + T-cell response, which is dysfunctional in chronic HCV infection. Dysfunction in bulk or non-HCV-specific CD8 + T-cells in HCV infection has also been observed. This may contribute to observed reductions in immunity to other diseases (e.g. cancer, viral co-infections) in HCV-infected individuals. Evidence suggests that the HCV core protein (found in blood as free protein) may contribute to this impairment. To determine if HCV core contributes to the impairment of effector functions and survival potential of CD8 + T-cells, isolated human CD8 + T-cells from healthy donors were pre-incubated with recombinant HCV core protein for 72 hr and then stimulated in vitro to evaluate proliferation, survival potential and effector functions. Pre-incubation of stimulated CD8 + T-cells with HCV core significantly reduced their proliferation. Perforin production and degranulation were also decreased, but interferon-γ production was unchanged. Additionally, when CD8 + T-cells were treated with serum from HCV + individuals, they produced less perforin than cells treated with healthy serum. Up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was slightly lower in cells treated with HCV core, but signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) activation was increased, suggesting dysregulation downstream of STAT activation. Our study reveals that HCV core reduces the activity and target lysis-associated functions of CD8 + T-cells. This may contribute to the generalized impairment of CD8 + T-cells observed in HCV infection. These findings provide insight for the design of novel counteractive immune-mediated strategies including the design of effective therapeutic vaccines for use in HCV + individuals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sialogogue-related radioprotection of salivary gland function : The degranulation concept revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, RP; Zeilstra, LJW; Vissink, A; Konings, AWT

    To investigate whether secretory granules play a role in the radiosensitivity of the salivary glands of rats, parotid acinar cells, submandibular acinar cells and/or submandibular granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells were degranulated prior to irradiation. Degranulation of GCT cells was obtained

  3. Protein-bound Vaccinium fruit polyphenols decrease IgE binding to peanut allergens and RBL-2H3 mast cell degranulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plundrich, Nathalie J; Bansode, Rishipal R; Foegeding, E Allen; Williams, Leonard L; Lila, Mary Ann

    2017-04-19

    Peanut allergy is a worldwide health concern. In this study, the natural binding properties of plant-derived polyphenols to proteins was leveraged to produce stable protein-polyphenol complexes comprised of peanut proteins and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) or lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) pomace polyphenols. Protein-bound and free polyphenols were characterized and quantified by multistep extraction of polyphenols from protein-polyphenol complexes. Immunoblotting was performed with peanut-allergic plasma to determine peanut protein-specific IgE binding to unmodified peanut protein, or to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes. In an allergen model system, RBL-2H3 mast cells were exposed to peanut protein-polyphenol complexes and evaluated for their inhibitory activity on ionomycin-induced degranulation (β-hexosaminidase and histamine). Among the evaluated polyphenolic compounds from protein-polyphenol complex eluates, quercetin, - in aglycone or glycosidic form - was the main phytochemical identified to be covalently bound to peanut proteins. Peanut protein-bound cranberry and blueberry polyphenols significantly decreased IgE binding to peanut proteins at p polyphenol complexes showed a significant (p polyphenols led to the formation of peanut protein-polyphenol complexes with significantly reduced allergenic potential. Future trials are warranted to investigate the immunomodulatory mechanisms of these protein-polyphenol complexes and the role of quercetin in their hypoallergenic potential.

  4. Exogenous administration of gangliosides inhibits FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell degranulation by decreasing the activity of phospholipase Cgamma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráberová, Lubica; Dudková, L.; Boubelík, Michael; Tolarová, Helena; Šmíd, F.; Dráber, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 171, č. 7 (2003), s. 3585-3593 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026; GA ČR GA204/00/0204; GA ČR GA204/03/0594; GA ČR GA310/00/0205; GA ČR GA301/03/0596; GA AV ČR IAA5052005; GA AV ČR IAA7052006; GA AV ČR IAA5052310; GA MZd NB6758 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mast cell * plasma membrane * IgE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.702, year: 2003

  5. TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody blocks thermal sensitivity induced by compound 48/80-provoked mast cell degranulation [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1w5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devavani Chatterjea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuro-inflammatory circuits in the tissue regulate the complex pathophysiology of pain. Protective nociceptive pain serves as an early warning system against noxious environmental stimuli. Tissue-resident mast cells orchestrate the increased thermal sensitivity following injection of basic secretagogue compound 48/80 in the hind paw tissues of ND4 mice. Here we investigated the effects of pre-treatment with TNF-α neutralizing antibody on compound 48/80-provoked thermal hyperalgesia. Methods: We treated ND4 Swiss male mice with intravenous anti-TNF-α antibody or vehicle 30 minutes prior to bilateral, intra-plantar compound 48/80 administration and measured changes in the timing of hind paw withdrawal observed subsequent to mice being placed on a 51oC hotplate. We also assessed changes in tissue swelling, TNF-α gene expression and protein abundance, mast cell degranulation, and neutrophil influx in the hind paw tissue. Findings: We found that TNF-α neutralization significantly blocked thermal hyperalgesia, and reduced early tissue swelling. TNF-α neutralization had no significant effect on mast cell degranulation or neutrophil influx into the tissue, however. Moreover, no changes in TNF-α protein or mRNA levels were detected within 3 hours of administration of compound 48/80. Interpretation:  The neutralizing antibodies likely target pre-formed TNF-α including that stored in the granules of tissue-resident mast cells. Pre-formed TNF-α, released upon degranulation, has immediate effects on nociceptive signaling prior to the induction of neutrophil influx. These early effects on nociceptors are abrogated by TNF-α blockade, resulting in compromised nociceptive withdrawal responses to acute, harmful environmental stimuli.

  6. TNF-alpha neutralizing antibody blocks thermal sensitivity induced by compound 48/80-provoked mast cell degranulation [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1mq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devavani Chatterjea

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Neuro-inflammatory circuits in the tissue regulate the complex pathophysiology of pain.  Protective nociceptive pain serves as an early warning system against noxious environmental stimuli.  Tissue-resident mast cells orchestrate the increased thermal sensitivity following injection of basic secretagogue compound 48/80 in the hind paw tissues of ND4 mice.  Here we investigated the effects of pre-treatment with TNF-α neutralizing antibody on compound 48/80-provoked thermal hyperalgesia.  Methods:  We treated ND4 Swiss male mice with intravenous anti-TNF-α antibody or vehicle 30 minutes prior to bilateral, intra-plantar compound 48/80 administration and measured changes in the timing of hind paw withdrawal observed subsequent to mice being placed on a 51oC hotplate.  We also assessed changes in tissue swelling, TNF-α gene expression and protein abundance, mast cell degranulation, and neutrophil influx in the hind paw tissue.  Findings:  We found that TNF-α neutralization significantly blocked thermal hyperalgesia, and reduced early tissue swelling. TNF-α neutralization had no significant effect on mast cell degranulation or neutrophil influx into the tissue, however.  Moreover, no changes in TNF-α protein or mRNA levels were detected within 3 hours of administration of compound 48/80.  Interpretation:  The neutralizing antibodies likely target pre-formed TNF-α including that stored in the granules of tissue-resident mast cells. Pre-formed TNF-α, released upon degranulation, has immediate effects on nociceptive signaling prior to the induction of neutrophil influx.  These direct effects on nociceptors are abrogated by TNF-α blockade resulting in compromised nociceptive withdrawal responses to acute, harmful environmental stimuli.

  7. Monomeric IgE stimulates NFAT translocation into the nucleus, a rise in cytosol Ca2+, degranulation, and membrane ruffling in the cultured rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Vinita; Mihara, Shoji; Fensome-Green, Amanda; Bolsover, Stephen; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2004-04-01

    Mast cells are key regulators in allergy and inflammation, and release histamine, cytokines, and other proinflammatory mediators. In the classical view, IgE acts merely to prime mast cells, attaching to FcepsilonRs but not evoking any cell signaling response until cross-linked by the presence of a multivalent allergen. However, several recent studies have reported that IgE alone can promote cell survival and cytokine production in the absence of cross-linking by allergen. In this study we demonstrate that acute addition of monomeric IgE elicits a wide spectrum of responses in the rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast cell line, including activation of phospholipases Cgamma and D, a rise in cytosol Ca(2+), NFAT translocation, degranulation, and membrane ruffling within minutes. Calcium transients persist for hours as long as IgE is present resulting in the maintained translocation of the transcription factor NFAT to the nucleus. Removal of IgE reverses the signaling processes. Our results indicate that, far from simply preparing the cells for a response to allergen, monomeric IgE can stimulate signaling pathways that lead to degranulation, membrane ruffling, and NFAT translocation. The mechanism of activation is likely to be via aggregation of the FcepsilonR1 because activation by IgE can be inhibited with monovalent hapten.

  8. Silver nanoparticle-induced degranulation observed with quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenzhong; Lee, Seungrag; Lee, Jiyong; Bae, Yoonsung; Kim, Dugyoung

    2010-02-01

    The use of AgNP is becoming more and more widespread in biomedical field. But compared with the promising bactericidal function, other physiological effects of AgNP on cells are relatively scant. In this research, we propose quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) as a new method to study the degranulation, and AgNP-induced RBL-2H3 cell degranulation is studied as well. Firstly, HeLa cells as the cell control and PBS as the solvent control, we measured the cell volume and cross section profile (x-z plane) with QPM. The results showed that the volume and cross section profile changed only the RBL-2H3 cells exposed to calcium ionophore A23187, which demonstrates the validity of QPM in degranulation research. Secondly, 50μg/mL of AgNP was used instead of A23187, and the measurement of cell volume and cross section profile was carried out again. RBL-2H3 cell volume increased immediately after AgNP was added, and cross section profile showed that the cell surface became granulated, but HeLa cell was lack of that effect. Phase images obviously indicated the RBL-2H3 cell deformation. Thirdly, stained with Fluo-3/AM, intracellular calcium Ca2+]i of single RBL-2H3 cell treated with AgNP was observed with fluorescent microscopy; incubated with AgNP for 20min, the supernatant of RBL-2H3 cells was collected and reacted with o-phthalaldehyde (OPA), then the fluorescent intensity of histamine-OPA complex was assayed with spectrofluorometer. The results of Ca2+]i and histamine increase showed that degranulation of AgNP-induced RBL-2H3 cell occurred. So, the cell volume was used as a parameter of degranulation in our study and AgNP-induced RBL-2H3 cells degranulation was confirmed by the cell volume increment, cross section profile change, and [Ca2+]i and histamine in supernatant increase.

  9. Natural Killer Cells from Patients with Recombinase-Activating Gene and Non-Homologous End Joining Gene Defects Comprise a Higher Frequency of CD56bright NKG2A+++ Cells, and Yet Display Increased Degranulation and Higher Perforin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Dobbs

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the recombinase-activating genes 1 and 2 (RAG1 and RAG2 in humans are associated with a broad range of phenotypes. For patients with severe clinical presentation, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT represents the only curative treatment; however, high rates of graft failure and incomplete immune reconstitution have been observed, especially after unconditioned haploidentical transplantation. Studies in mice have shown that Rag−/− natural killer (NK cells have a mature phenotype, reduced fitness, and increased cytotoxicity. We aimed to analyze NK cell phenotype and function in patients with mutations in RAG and in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ genes. Here, we provide evidence that NK cells from these patients have an immature phenotype, with significant expansion of CD56bright CD16−/int CD57− cells, yet increased degranulation and high perforin content. Correlation was observed between in vitro recombinase activity of the mutant proteins, NK cell abnormalities, and in vivo clinical phenotype. Addition of serotherapy in the conditioning regimen, with the aim of depleting the autologous NK cell compartment, may be important to facilitate engraftment and immune reconstitution in patients with RAG and NHEJ defects treated by HSCT.

  10. Xestospongin C, a novel blocker of IP3 receptor, attenuates the increase in cytosolic calcium level and degranulation that is induced by antigen in RBL-2H3 mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tatsuya; Sato, Koichi; Hori, Masatoshi; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Karaki, Hideaki

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the role of the cross-linking of FcεRI-mediated inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) in the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) using xestospongin C, a selective membrane permeable blocker of IP3 receptor, in RBL-2H3 mast cells. In the cells sensitized with anti-dinitrophenol (DNP) IgE, DNP-human serum albumin (DNP-HSA) and thapsigargin induced degranulation of β-hexosaminidase and a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. Xestospongin C (3 – 10 μM) inhibited both of these changes that were induced by DNP-HSA without changing those induced by thapsigargin. In the absence of external Ca2+, DNP-HSA induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Xestospongin C (3 – 10 μM) inhibited this increase in [Ca2+]i. In the cells permeabilized with β-escin, the application of IP3 decreased Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as evaluated by mag-fura-2. Xestospongin C (3 – 10 μM) inhibited the effect of IP3. After the depletion of Ca2+ stores due to stimulation with DNP-HSA or thapsigargin, the addition of Ca2+ induced capacitative calcium entry (CCE). Xestospongin C (3 – 10 μM) inhibited the DNP-HSA-induced CCE, whereas it did not affect the thapsigargin-induced CCE. These results suggest that FcεRI-mediated generation of IP3 contributes to Ca2+ release not only in the initial phase but also in the sustained phase of the increase in [Ca2+]i, resulting in prolonged Ca2+ depletion in the ER. The ER Ca2+ depletion may subsequently activate CCE to achieve a continuous [Ca2+]i increase, which is necessary for degranulation in the RBL-2H3 mast cells. Xestospongin C may inhibit Ca2+ release and consequently may attenuate degranulation. PMID:11959799

  11. Inhibition of β-bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by mast cell degranulating peptide, toxin I, and ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Betz, H.; Rehm, H.

    1988-01-01

    The presynaptically active snake venom neurotoxin β-bungarotoxin (β-Butx) is known to affect neurotransmitter release by binding to a subtype of voltage-activated K + channels. Here the authors show that mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide from bee venom inhibits the binding of 125 I-labeled β-Butx to chick and rat brain membranes with apparent K/sub i/ values of 180 nM and 1100 nM, respectively. The mechanisms of inhibition of MCD peptide is noncompetitive, as is inhibition of 125 I-β-Butx binding by the protease inhibitor homologue from mamba venom, toxin I. β-Butx and its binding antagonists thus bind to different sites of the same membrane protein. Removal of Ca 2+ by ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid inhibits the binding of 125 I-β-Butx by lowering its affinity to brain membranes

  12. Hypoxia upregulates neutrophil degranulation and potential for tissue injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderdos, Kim; Lodge, Katharine M; Hirst, Robert A; Chen, Cheng; Palazzo, Stefano G C; Emerenciana, Annette; Summers, Charlotte; Angyal, Adri; Porter, Linsey; Juss, Jatinder K; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2016-01-01

    Background The inflamed bronchial mucosal surface is a profoundly hypoxic environment. Neutrophilic airway inflammation and neutrophil-derived proteases have been linked to disease progression in conditions such as COPD and cystic fibrosis, but the effects of hypoxia on potentially harmful neutrophil functional responses such as degranulation are unknown. Methods and results Following exposure to hypoxia (0.8% oxygen, 3 kPa for 4 h), neutrophils stimulated with inflammatory agonists (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor or platelet-activating factor and formylated peptide) displayed a markedly augmented (twofold to sixfold) release of azurophilic (neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase), specific (lactoferrin) and gelatinase (matrix metalloproteinase-9) granule contents. Neutrophil supernatants derived under hypoxic but not normoxic conditions induced extensive airway epithelial cell detachment and death, which was prevented by coincubation with the antiprotease α-1 antitrypsin; both normoxic and hypoxic supernatants impaired ciliary function. Surprisingly, the hypoxic upregulation of neutrophil degranulation was not dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), nor was it fully reversed by inhibition of phospholipase C signalling. Hypoxia augmented the resting and cytokine-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT, and inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)γ (but not other PI3K isoforms) prevented the hypoxic upregulation of neutrophil elastase release. Conclusion Hypoxia augments neutrophil degranulation and confers enhanced potential for damage to respiratory airway epithelial cells in a HIF-independent but PI3Kγ-dependent fashion. PMID:27581620

  13. Microparticles from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus induce production of reactive oxygen species and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winberg, Line Kjær; Jacobsen, Søren; Nielsen, Claus H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The interaction of circulating microparticles (MPs) with immune cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is sparsely investigated. We examined the ability of MPs from SLE patients to induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes...

  14. Inhibition of. beta. -bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by mast cell degranulating peptide, toxin I, and ethylene glycol bis(. beta. -aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.R.; Betz, H.; Rehm, H.

    1988-02-09

    The presynaptically active snake venom neurotoxin ..beta..-bungarotoxin (..beta..-Butx) is known to affect neurotransmitter release by binding to a subtype of voltage-activated K/sup +/ channels. Here the authors show that mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide from bee venom inhibits the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled ..beta..-Butx to chick and rat brain membranes with apparent K/sub i/ values of 180 nM and 1100 nM, respectively. The mechanisms of inhibition of MCD peptide is noncompetitive, as is inhibition of /sup 125/I-..beta..-Butx binding by the protease inhibitor homologue from mamba venom, toxin I. ..beta..-Butx and its binding antagonists thus bind to different sites of the same membrane protein. Removal of Ca/sup 2 +/ by ethylene glycol bis(..beta..-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid inhibits the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-Butx by lowering its affinity to brain membranes.

  15. Sporothrix schenckii yeasts induce ERK pathway activation and secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in rat mast cells, but no degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Lozano, Yolanda; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Salinas, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is a dimorphic fungus that causes sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis found throughout the world in humans and other mammals. After contact with conidia, transition to the yeast stage is required for establishment of infection. Mast cells are one of the first components of the immune system to make contact with invading pathogens. They release potent mediators that are decisive in initiating and directing the course of immune and inflammatory responses in the host. It remains unknown whether or not yeast cells of S. schenckii activate mast cells. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the in vitro response of mast cells to S. schenckii yeasts cells. Mast cells became activated after interaction with the yeasts, although exocytosis of preformed mediators was not stimulated. Sporothrix schenckii yeasts induced the release of early response cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in mast cells. As TNF-α and IL-6 are considered crucial mediators in the defense of the host against fungal disease, the release of both mediators from mast cells may contribute to the overall response of the host immune system during S. schenckii infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Evidence for eosinophil degranulation in acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding of increased numbers of eosinophils in the muscle in cases of acute appendicitis has led to the hypothesis that it may have an allergic origin. This study aimed to measure the eosinophil degranulation resulting in a rise in the serum of eosinophil granule proteins that would be expected in such cases. The levels of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP measured by chemiluminescence assay in acute appendicitis were compared, with those of appropriate controls. Mean (95% CI serum ECP (µg/L levels were: acute appendicitis 45.3 (27.7-63.0; normal appendix 22.7 (16.0-29.3; asthma 24.2 (4.6-43.8; and healthy volunteers 13.2 (8.3-18.1. In cases of acute appendicitis, there is an inverse relationship between duration of symptoms and serum ECP. However, this was not statistically significant. Significant local eosinophil activation and degranulation occurs in acute appendicitis, enough to cause a rise in serum levels of eosinophil chemotactic protein

  17. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch on IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Yasuda, Masaharu; Koshikawa, Kaneyuki; Deyashiki, Yoshihiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Akao, Yukihiro; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2009-08-01

    We isolated the 4 kinds of flavonoids from strawberry 'Nohime' and examined the effect of these flavonoids on the degranulation in RBL-2H3 cells. The flavonoids were found to suppress the degranulation from Ag-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells to different extents. To disclose the inhibitory mechanism of degranulation by flavonoids, we examined their effects on the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) and the intracellular signaling pathway such as Lyn, Syk, and PLCgammas. The intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) was elevated by Fc epsilonRI activation, but these flavonoid treatments reduced the elevation of [Ca(2+)]i by suppressing Ca(2+) influx. Kaempferol strongly suppressed the activation of Syk and PLCgammas. It was thus suggested that suppression of Ag-stimulated degranulation by the flavonoids is mainly due to suppression of [Ca(2+)]i elevation and Syk activation. These results suggested that strawberry would be of some ameliorative benefit for the allergic symptoms.

  18. Assessment of three human FcεRI-transfected RBL cell-lines for identifying IgE induced degranulation utilizing peanut-allergic patient sera and peanut protein extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Brouwer, H.M.H.; Vogel, L.; Vieths, S.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgE sera screening studies are employed to investigate protein cross-reactivity. Such nonfunctional immunochemical methods cannot measure the biological activity of proteins. Therefore, an assay using RBL cells transfected with human FcεRI was developed. Our objective was to evaluate the

  19. Phenolic constituents isolated from Fragaria ananassa Duch. inhibit antigen-stimulated degranulation through direct inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Masayuki; Itoh, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Suguru; Saiki, Miho; Narumiya, Kenji; Yasuda, Masaharu; Koshikawa, Kaneyuki; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2010-08-15

    We isolated eight phenolic constituents from Fragaria ananassa Duch. (strawberry) and determined their structures using 1D, 2D-NMR. Among the isolated compounds, linocinnamarin (LN), 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-beta-d-glucopyranose (CG), and cinnamic acid (CA) exhibited antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. In order to reveal the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of LN and CA on cellular responses induced by antigen stimulation. Treatment with both LN and CA markedly inhibited antigen-stimulated elevation of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both LN and CA suppressed Ag-stimulated spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) activation. These results indicate that inhibition of antigen-stimulated degranulation by LN and CA is mainly due to inactivation of Syk/phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma) pathways. Our findings suggest that LN and CA isolated from F. ananassa Duch. (strawberry) could be beneficial agents for alleviating symptoms of type I allergy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mouse and human eosinophils degranulate in response to platelet-activating factor (PAF) and lysoPAF via a PAF-receptor-independent mechanism: evidence for a novel receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Kimberly D; Percopo, Caroline M; Xie, Zhihui; Yang, Zhao; Kim, John Dongil; Davoine, Francis; Lacy, Paige; Druey, Kirk M; Moqbel, Redwan; Rosenberg, Helene F

    2010-06-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF [1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine]) is a phospholipid mediator released from activated macrophages, mast cells, and basophils that promotes pathophysiologic inflammation. Eosinophil responses to PAF are complex and incompletely elucidated. We show in this article that PAF and its 2-deacetylated metabolite (lysoPAF) promote degranulation (release of eosinophil peroxidase) via a mechanism that is independent of the characterized PAFR. Specifically, we demonstrate that receptor antagonists CV-3988 and WEB-2086 and pertussis toxin have no impact on PAF- or lysoPAF-mediated degranulation. Furthermore, cultured mouse eosinophils from PAFR(-/-) bone marrow progenitors degranulate in response to PAF and lysoPAF in a manner indistinguishable from their wild-type counterparts. In addition to PAF and lysoPAF, human eosinophils degranulate in response to lysophosphatidylcholine, but not phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylethanolamine, demonstrating selective responses to phospholipids with a choline head-group and minimal substitution at the sn-2 hydroxyl. Human eosinophils release preformed cytokines in response to PAF, but not lysoPAF, also via a PAFR-independent mechanism. Mouse eosinophils do not release cytokines in response to PAF or lysoPAF, but they are capable of doing so in response to IL-6. Overall, our work provides the first direct evidence for a role for PAF in activating and inducing degranulation of mouse eosinophils, a crucial feature for the interpretation of mouse models of PAF-mediated asthma and anaphylaxis. Likewise, we document and define PAF and lysoPAF-mediated activities that are not dependent on signaling via PAFR, suggesting the existence of other unexplored molecular signaling pathways mediating responses from PAF, lysoPAF, and closely related phospholipid mediators.

  1. Intravenous infusion of erythromycin inhibits CXC chemokine production, but augments neutrophil degranulation in whole blood stimulated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M. J.; Speelman, P.; Hack, C. E.; Buurman, W. A.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Macrolides may influence the inflammatory response to an infection by mechanisms that are unrelated to their antimicrobial effect. Indeed, erythromycin and other macrolides inhibit cytokine production and induce degranulation of neutrophils in vitro. CXC chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines

  2. Amburanins A and B from Amburana cearensis: daphnodorin-type biflavonoids that modulate human neutrophil degranulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, Kirley M.; Silveira, Edilberto R.

    2014-01-01

    Two new biflavonoids 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-(2→O→4':3→3')-2',4',6',4- tetrahydroxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-(2→O→7:3→8)-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (2), named as amburanin A and amburanin B, respectively, were isolated from the trunk bark of Amburana cearensis, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. The effects of 1 and 2 on the pro-inflammatory response of human neutrophils were investigated (0.1; 1; 25; 50 e 100 μg mL -1 ). At concentration higher than 25 μg mL -1 , both compounds suppressed nearly 92% of the neutrophil degranulation and 53% of myeloperoxidase activity, thus indicating that they are potential anti-inflammatory lead compounds. (author)

  3. Amburanins A and B from Amburana cearensis: daphnodorin-type biflavonoids that modulate human neutrophil degranulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canuto, Kirley M.; Silveira, Edilberto R., E-mail: edil@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Leal, Luzia K.A.M.; Lopes, Amanda A. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (CEFAC/UFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Farmaceuticos e Cosmeticos. Departamento de Farmacia; Coleman, Christina M.; Ferreira, Daneel [Department of Pharmacognosy and the Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Two new biflavonoids 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-(2→O→4':3→3')-2',4',6',4- tetrahydroxydihydrochalcone (1) and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-(2→O→7:3→8)-3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone (2), named as amburanin A and amburanin B, respectively, were isolated from the trunk bark of Amburana cearensis, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with literature data. The effects of 1 and 2 on the pro-inflammatory response of human neutrophils were investigated (0.1; 1; 25; 50 e 100 μg mL{sup -1}). At concentration higher than 25 μg mL{sup -1}, both compounds suppressed nearly 92% of the neutrophil degranulation and 53% of myeloperoxidase activity, thus indicating that they are potential anti-inflammatory lead compounds. (author)

  4. Kit- and Fc epsilonRI-induced differential phosphorylation of the transmembrane adaptor molecule NTAL/LAB/LAT2 allows flexibility in its scaffolding function in mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaki, Shoko; Spicka, Jiri; Tkaczyk, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The transmembrane adaptor protein (TRAP), NTAL, is phosphorylated in mast cells following FcvarepsilonRI aggregation whereby it cooperates with LAT to induce degranulation. The Kit ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), enhances antigen-induced degranulation and this also appears to be NTAL-dependent. H...

  5. Enhanced innate immune responses in a brood parasitic cowbird species: degranulation and oxidative burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, D. Caldwell; Summers, Scott G.; Genovese, Kenneth J.; He, Haiqi; Kogut, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the relative effectiveness of two innate immune responses in two species of New World blackbirds (Passeriformes, Icteridae) that differ in resistance to West Nile virus (WNV). We measured degranulation and oxidative burst, two fundamental components of phagocytosis, and we predicted that the functional effectiveness of these innate immune responses would correspond to the species' relative resistance to WNV. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), an obligate brood parasite, had previously shown greater resistance to infection with WNV, lower viremia and faster recovery when infected, and lower subsequent antibody titers than the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), a close relative that is not a brood parasite. We found that cowbird leukocytes were significantly more functionally efficient than those of the blackbird leukocytes and 50% more effective at killing the challenge bacteria. These results suggest that further examination of innate immunity in the cowbird may provide insight into adaptations that underlie its greater resistance to WNV. These results support an eco-immunological interpretation that species like the cowbird, which inhabit ecological niches with heightened exposure to parasites, experience evolutionary selection for more effective immune responses.

  6. Mast cell degranulation by a hemolytic lipid toxin decreases GBS colonization and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, Claire; Vornhagen, Jay; Ngo, Lisa; Whidbey, Christopher; Boldenow, Erica; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Clauson, Morgan; Burnside, Kellie; Galloway, Dionne P.; Waldorf, Kristina Adams; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Ascending infection of microbes from the lower genital tract into the amniotic cavity increases the risk of preterm birth, stillbirth, and newborn infections. Host defenses that are critical for preventing ascending microbial infection are not completely understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are Gram-positive bacteria that frequently colonize the lower genital tract of healthy women but cause severe infections during pregnancy, leading to preterm birth, stillbirth, or early-onset newborn in...

  7. Live-cell imaging of platelet degranulation and secretion under flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Arjan D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818437; Verhoef, Johan J F; Pignatelli, Silvia; Pasterkamp, Gerard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138488304; Heijnen, Harry F.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/127731075; Maas, Coen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821241

    2017-01-01

    Blood platelets are essential players in hemostasis, the formation of thrombi to seal vascular breaches. They are also involved in thrombosis, the formation of thrombi that occlude the vasculature and injure organs, with life-threatening consequences. This motivates scientific research on platelet

  8. CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka Lun; Chen, Huanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Wang, Jianfang; Ho, Ho Pui; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kong, Siu Kai

    2012-07-01

    The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs.The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. We found that the CTAB-Au-NRs released more allergic mediators such as histamine and β-hexosaminidase from human basophil KU812, a common model for studying allergy, after 20 min incubation. Also, the CTAB-Au-NRs induced more apoptosis than the PEG-Au-NRs in KU812 24 h after treatment. These short- and long-term effects were not solely due to the CTAB residues in the supernatant desorbed from the Au-NRs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30435j

  9. Nasal allergen deposition leads to conjunctival mast cell degranulation in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callebaut, Ina; de Vries, Annick; Steelant, Brecht; Hox, Valérie; Bobic, Sonja; van Gerven, Laura; Ceuppens, Jan L.; Hellings, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The naso-ocular interaction in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is well recognized from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental observations. The precise mechanisms remain incompletely understood. A new mouse model of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis was used to investigate the contribution

  10. Live-cell Imaging of Platelet Degranulation and Secretion Under Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Arjan D; Verhoef, Johan J F; Pignatelli, Silvia; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Heijnen, Harry F G; Maas, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Blood platelets are essential players in hemostasis, the formation of thrombi to seal vascular breaches. They are also involved in thrombosis, the formation of thrombi that occlude the vasculature and injure organs, with life-threatening consequences. This motivates scientific research on platelet

  11. Application of cultured human mast cells (CHMC) for the design and structure-activity relationship of IgE-mediated mast cell activation inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argade, Ankush; Bhamidipati, Somasekhar; Li, Hui; Carroll, David; Clough, Jeffrey; Keim, Holger; Sylvain, Catherine; Rossi, Alexander B; Coquilla, Christina; Issakani, Sarkiz D; Masuda, Esteban S; Payan, Donald G; Singh, Rajinder

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the optimization of small molecule inhibitors of human mast cell degranulation via anti-IgE-mediated tryptase release following cross-linking and activation of IgE-loaded FcεR1 receptors. The compounds are selective upstream inhibitors of FcεR1-dependent human mast cell degranulation and proved to be devoid of activity in downstream ionomycin mediated degranulation. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) leading to compound 26 is outlined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in mast cells and in permeability of mesenteric microvessels under the effect of immobilization and electrostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorizontova, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    It was shown that a reduction in the amount of mast cells in the mesentery and an increase in their degranulation was accompanied by an increase in vascular permeability of rat mesentery. It is supposed that immobilization and electrostimulation causing degranulation of mast cells prompted histamine and serotonin release from them, thus increasing the permeability of the venular portion of the microvascular bed. Prophylactic use of esculamin preparation with P-vitaminic activity decreased mast cell degranulation, which apparently prolonged the release of histamine and serotonin from them and normalized vascular permeability.

  13. Mucosal Immune Cell Numbers and Visceral Sensitivity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Is There Any Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K.; Wouters, Mira M.; Welting, Olaf; van der Loos, Chris M.; Stanisor, Oana I.; van Diest, Sophie; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Repeated exposure to stress leads to mast cell degranulation, microscopic inflammation, and subsequent visceral hypersensitivity in animal models. To what extent this pathophysiological pathway has a role in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been properly

  14. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on number and activation of dural mast cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, E; Dagistan, Y; Kotan, B; Cetinkaya, A

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on the number and degranulation states of dural mast cells in rats. Rats were fed ad libitum with normal tap water or tap water with extract of N. sativa seed, Ramaria condensata, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius piperatus, and Tricholoma terreum for 3 days. Mast cells in dura mater were counted and evaluated in terms of granulation and degranulation states. Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, and T. terreum significantly increased the percent of degranulated mast cells in dura mater, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Moreover, T. terreum causes a significant increase in the total number of mast cells (p < 0.05). N. sativa significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation induced by both the compound 48/80 and T. terreum (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the mast cell numbers increased by T. terreum (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that T. terreum following ingestion can contribute to headaches like migraine via dural mast cell degranulation and N. sativa may be able to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by stabilizing dural mast cells. However, investigation is needed to determine the ingredients of N. sativa that may be responsible for these beneficial effects.

  15. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong; Hong, Chang-Won; Lee, Si-Nae; Kwon, Min-Soo; Kim, Yeon-Ja; Song, Dong-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca 2+ ] i in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca 2+ ] i in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  16. Sulfur mustard primes human neutrophils for increased degranulation and stimulates cytokine release via TRPM2/p38 MAPK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Hwa-Yong [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Chang-Won, E-mail: chyj7983@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Warfare Research, The Armed Forces Medical Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Si-Nae [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Min-Soo [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon-Ja [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong-Keun, E-mail: dksong@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases Medical Research Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (2,2′-bis-chloroethyl-sulfide; SM) has been a military threat since the World War I. The emerging threat of bioterrorism makes SM a major threat not only to military but also to civilian world. SM injury elicits an inflammatory response characterized by infiltration of neutrophils. Although SM was reported to prime neutrophils, the mechanism has not been identified yet. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of SM-induced priming in human neutrophils. SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion. Transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM) 2 inhibitors (clotrimazole, econazole and flufenamic acid) and silencing of TRPM2 by shRNA attenuated SM-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules in response to activation by fMLP as previously reported. SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, inhibited SM-induced priming. Neither PD98057, an ERK inhibitor, nor SP600215, a JNK inhibitor, inhibited SM-induced priming. In addition, SM enhanced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. SB203580 inhibited SM-induced NF-kB phosphorylation and cytokine release. These results suggest the involvement of TRPM2/p38 MAPK pathway in SM-induced priming and cytokines release in neutrophils. -- Highlights: ► SM increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in human neutrophils through TPRM2-mediated calcium influx. ► SM primed degranulation of azurophil and specific granules. ► SM enhanced p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 phosphorylation in human neutrophils. ► SM enhanced release of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 from human neutrophils. ► SB203580 inhibited SM-induced priming, NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and cytokine release.

  17. Mast Cell Quantification in Orofacial Granulomatosis | Nwizu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study points to a possible association between mast cells and orofacial granulomatosis, as oedematous area usually associated with OFG showed less numbers of mast cells. This is probably due to degranulation, releasing mediators of inflammation, which is responsible for oedema formation. Further light needs to be ...

  18. Effects of Echium plantagineum L. Bee Pollen on Basophil Degranulation: Relationship with Metabolic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Moita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the anti-allergic potential of Echium plantagineum L. bee pollen and to characterize its primary metabolites. The activity of E. plantagineum hydromethanolic extract, devoid of alkaloids, was tested against β-hexosaminidase release in rat basophilic leukemic cells (RBL-2H3. Two different stimuli were used: calcium ionophore A23187 and IgE/antigen. Lipoxygenase inhibitory activity was evaluated in a cell-free system using soybean lipoxygenase. Additionally, the extract was analysed by HPLC-UV for organic acids and by GC-IT/MS for fatty acids. In RBL-2H3 cells stimulated either with calcium ionophore or IgE/antigen, the hydromethanolic extract significantly decreased β-hexosaminidase release until the concentration of 2.08 mg/mL, without compromising cellular viability. No effect was found on lipoxygenase. Concerning extract composition, eight organic acids and five fatty acids were determined for the first time. Malonic acid (80% and α-linolenic acid (27% were the main compounds in each class. Overall, this study shows promising results, substantiating for the first time the utility of intake of E. plantagineum bee pollen to prevent allergy and ameliorate allergy symptoms, although a potentiation of an allergic response can occur, depending on the dose used.

  19. Anti-allergic activity of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA) via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell activation and inhibition of passive systemic anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji Wei; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Harith, Hanis Hazeera; Md Hashim, Nur Fariesha; Ng, Chean Hui; Shaari, Khozirah; Tham, Chau Ling

    2017-03-15

    tHGA, a geranyl acetophenone compound originally isolated from a local shrub called Melicope ptelefolia, has been previously reported to prevent ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma by targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis. Mast cells are immune effector cells involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases including asthma by releasing cysteinyl leukotrienes. The anti-asthmatic properties of tHGA could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on mast cell degranulation. As mast cell degranulation is an important event in allergic responses, this study aimed to investigate the anti-allergic effects of tHGA in cellular and animal models of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. For in vitro model of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, DNP-IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells were pre-treated with tHGA before challenged with DNP-BSA to induce degranulation. For IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, Sprague Dawley rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of DNP-IgE before challenged with DNP-BSA. Both in vitro and in vivo models showed that tHGA significantly inhibited the release of preformed mediators (β-hexosaminidase and histamine) as well as de novo mediators (interleukin-4, tumour necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 ). Pre-treatment of tHGA also prevented IgE-challenged RBL-2H3 cells and peritoneal mast cells from undergoing morphological changes associated with mast cell degranulation. These findings indicate that tHGA possesses potent anti-allergic activity via attenuation of IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation and inhibition of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis. Thus, tHGA may have the potential to be developed as a mast cell stabilizer for the treatment of allergic diseases in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mast cell mediator tryptase levels after inhalation or intravenous administration of high doses pharmaceutically prepared heroin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, E. J.; van Zanten, A. P.; van den Brink, W.; van Ree, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids like morphine and heroin induce mast cell degranulation in vitro. The release of mast cell mediators like histamine and tryptase may lead to allergic symptoms. In this study it was investigated whether mast cell mediator release also occurs in vivo in addicted patients who

  1. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  2. Effect of roasting on the allergenicity of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2/6: the necessity of degranulation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissers, Y. M.; Iwan, M.; Adel-Patient, K.

    2011-01-01

    process on the allergenicity of Ara h 1 and a mix of 2S albumins from peanut (Ara h 2/6). Methods Ara h 1 and Ara h 2/6 were purified from raw peanuts and heated in a dry form for 20 min at 145 degrees C in the presence (R + g) or absence (R - g) of glucose, and soluble proteins were then extracted. Sera...... obtained from 12 well-characterized peanut-allergic patients were used to assess the IgE binding and degranulation capacities of the allergens. Results Extensive heating at low moisture resulted in the hydrolysis of both Ara h 1 and Ara h 2/6. However, in contrast to Ara h 2/6, soluble R + g Ara h 1 formed...... large aggregates. Although the IgE-binding capacity of R + g and R - g Ara h 1 was decreased 9000- and 3.6-fold, respectively, compared with native Ara h 1, their capacity to elicit mediator release was increased. Conversely, both the IgE-binding capacity and the degranulation capacity of R - g Ara h 2...

  3. Mast cells: a possible link between psychological stress, enteric infection, food allergy and gut hypersensitivity in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, X Y

    1998-10-01

    Intestinal mast cell activation (degranulation), which results from previous enteric infection and/or intestinal allergy, may play a central role in the gut hypersensitivity in both motor response and visceral perception in the Irritable Bowel syndrome. This occurs through various mediators acting on enteric neurons and smooth muscle cells. Psychological stress may trigger this sensitive alarm system via the brain-gut axis.

  4. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  5. Involvement of mast cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Dahal (Bhola); D. Kosanovic (Djuro); C. Kaulen (Christina); T. Cornitescu (Teodora); R. Savai (Rajkumar); J. Hoffmann (Julia); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); H.A. Ghofrani; N. Weissmann; W.M. Kuebler (Wolfgang); W. Seeger (Werner); F. Grimminger (Friedrich); R.T. Schermuly (Ralph Theo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Mast cells (MCs) are implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Accumulation of lung MCs is described in pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, whether MC degranulation and c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor critically involved in MC biology, contribute to the

  6. Assay of mast cell mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rådinger, Madeleine; Jensen, Bettina M; Swindle, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Mediator release from activated mast cells is a major initiator of the symptomology associated with allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Thus, methods to monitor the generation and release of such mediators have widespread applicability in studies designed to understand the processes...... regulating mast cell activation and for the identification of therapeutic approaches to block mast cell-driven disease. In this chapter, we discuss approaches used for the determination of mast cell degranulation, lipid-derived inflammatory mediator production, and cytokine/chemokine gene expression as well...

  7. Protective Role of Mast Cells in Primary Systemic Vasculitis: A Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M. Springer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are important cells of the immune system. Although traditionally considered as key players in allergic and hypersensitivity reactions, emerging evidence suggests that mast cells have many complex roles in vascular disease. These include regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, activation of matrix metalloproteinases, apoptosis of smooth muscle cells, and activation of the renin angiotensin system. Mast cells are also known to play an immunomodulatory role via modulation of regulatory T-cell (Treg, macrophage and endothelial cell functions. This dual role of the mast cells is evident in myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-mouse model of glomerulonephritis in which mast cell deficiency worsens glomerulonephritis, whereas inhibition of mast cell degranulation is effective in abrogating the development of glomerulonephritis. Our previous work demonstrated that mast cell degranulation inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 (IL-6 production in mice. This effect was not seen in histamine-1-receptor knockout (H1R−/− mice suggesting a role for histamine in IL-6 homeostasis. In addition, mast cell degranulation-mediated decrease in IL-6 production was associated with an upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 protein in the aorta. We propose that mast cells regulate large artery inflammation through T-cells, shifting a primarily Th1 and Th17 toward a Th2 response and leading to enhanced IL-10 production, activation Treg cells, and the inhibition of macrophage functions.

  8. Studies on the mechanisms of activation of potassium efflux and receptor-cytoskeleton association by aggregated immunoglobulin E-receptor complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrecque, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for the activation of an outwardly-directed K + permeability pathway was obtained by studying changes in plasma membrane potential that result from the aggregation of immunoglobulin E-complexes on rat basophilic leukemia cells. With the potential-sensitive dye, bisoxonol, we observe that activation by multivalent antigen causes membrane depolarization that is followed by a return towards the resting potential that we term repolarization. The depolarization response may reflect a Ca 2+ influx pathway, and it exhibits the same antigen-dose dependence and temperature dependence as the degranulation response. The polarization phase of the membrane potential response is selectively inhibited by the K + channel blockers quinidine and Ba 2+ in parallel with their inhibition of the degranulation response, suggesting an important role for a K + efflux pathway in antigen-stimulated degranulation. 86 Rb + efflux measurements were used to characterize the K + permeability pathways responsible for the repolarization response

  9. Essential role for TRPV1 in stress-induced (mast cell-dependent) colonic hypersensitivity in maternally separated rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Klooker, T. K.; Welting, O.; Stanisor, O. I.; Wouters, M. M.; van der Coelen, D.; Bulmer, D. C.; Peeters, P. J.; Aerssens, J.; de Hoogt, R.; Lee, K.; de Jonge, W. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is in part characterized by an increased sensitivity to colonic distension. Stress is an important trigger factor for symptom generation. We hypothesized that stress induces visceral hypersensitivity via mast cell degranulation and transient receptor ion channel 1 (TRPV1)

  10. Polydatin (PD) inhibits IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice by stabilizing mast cells through modulating Ca{sup 2+} mobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Meichun [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Department of Physiology, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan (China); Li, Jianjie [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lv, Jingzhang [Shenzhen Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Shenzhen 518045 (China); Mo, Xucheng; Yang, Chengbin [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Chen, Xiangdong [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease for Allergy at Shengzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Jie, E-mail: ljljz@yahoo.com [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2012-11-01

    Mast cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma and are a promising target for therapeutic intervention in asthma. This study investigated the effects of polydatin (PD), a resveratrol glucoside, on mast cell degranulation upon cross-linking of the high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRI), as well as the anti-allergic activity of PD in vivo. Herein, we demonstrated that PD treatment for 30 min suppressed FcεRI-mediated mast cell degranulation in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, PD significantly decreased FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase in mast cells. The suppressive effects of PD on FcεRI-mediated Ca{sup 2+} increase were largely inhibited by using LaCl{sub 3} to block the Ca{sup 2+} release-activated Ca{sup 2+} channels (CRACs). Furthermore, PD significantly inhibited Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRACs evoked by thapsigargin (TG). Knocking down protein expression of Orai1, the pore-forming subunit of CRACs, significantly decreased PD suppression of FcεRI-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and mast cell degranulation. In a mouse model of mast cell-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), in vivo PD administration suppressed mast cell degranulation and inhibited anaphylaxis. Taken together, our data indicate that PD stabilizes mast cells by suppressing FcεRI-induced Ca{sup 2+} mobilization mainly through inhibiting Ca{sup 2+} entry via CRACs, thus exerting a protective effect against PCA. -- Highlights: ► Polydatin can prevent the pathogenesis of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. ► Polydatin stabilizes mast cells by decreasing FcεRI-mediated degranulation. ► Polydatin suppresses Ca{sup 2+} entry through CRAC channels in mast cells.

  11. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  12. Mast Cells Are Abundant in Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas: Results from a Computer-Aided Quantitative Immunohistological Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Eder

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MC are bone marrow derived haematopoetic cells playing a crucial role not only in immune response but also in the tumor microenvironment with protumorigenic and antitumorigenic functions. The role of MC in primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL, a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas with initial presentation in the skin, is largely unknown.To gain more accurate information about presence, number, distribution and state of activation (degranulated vs. non-degranulated of MC in CTCL variants and clinical stages.We established a novel computer-aided tissue analysis method on digitized skin sections. Immunohistochemistry with an anti-MC tryptase antibody was performed on 34 biopsies of different CTCL subtypes and on control skin samples. An algorithm for the automatic detection of the epidermis and of cell density based CTCL areas was developed. Cells were stratified as being within the CTCL infiltrate, in P1 (a surrounding area 0-30 μm away from CTCL, or in P2 (30-60 μm away from CTCL area.We found high MC counts within CTCL infiltrates and P1 and a decreased MC number in the surrounding dermis P2. Higher MC numbers were found in MF compared to all other CTCL subgroups. Regarding different stages of MF, we found significantly higher mast cell counts in stages IA and IB than in stages IIA and IIB. Regarding MC densities, we found a higher density of MC in MF compared to all other CTCL subgroups. More MC were non-degranulated than degranulated.Here for the first time an automated method for MC analysis on tissue sections and its use in CTCL is described. Eliminating error from investigator bias, the method allows for precise cell identification and counting. Our results provide new insights on MC distribution in CTCL reappraising their role in the pathophysiology of CTCL.

  13. Acupuncture causes serotonin release by mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay; Atanasova, Dimitrinka; Tomov, Nikola; Sivrev, Dimitar; Lazarov, Nikolai

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are important object in experimental acupuncture due to their putative involvement in local reactions to needling. In the rat, they are shown to contain in their granules, among other tissue mediators, serotonin, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). The aim of this study is to examine the normal distribution of 5-HT-containing MCs in soft tissues of Zusanli (ST36) acupuncture point (acupoint) and their morphological changes caused by experimental acupuncture. We observed 5-HT-immunopositive MCs in the tissues and in the vicinity of the needle tract formed after acupuncture. As a result of acupuncture needling, the tissue integrity is disrupted and certain folds are formed in the direction of the needle tract. Connective tissue in the vicinity of the needle tract gets compressed and displaced, together with the 5-HT-immunoreactive MCs seen there. Some of those 5-HT-immunopositive MCs showed signs of degranulation with numerous discharged granules, some of them found at a considerable distance form the cell. Furthermore, 5-HT-immunopositive MCs are unevenly distributed in soft tissues of ST36 acupoint. Larger numbers of 5-HT-containing MCs were visualized in subcutis and dermis, compared to the observed in striated muscles. Placing the acupuncture needle into the rat skin caused a formation of an apparent needle tract, tissue displacement and degranulation of 5-HT-immunopositive MCs. The demonstrated serotonin release by means of MC degranulation might be involved in the local tissue response to acupuncture.

  14. Changing the threshold-Signals and mechanisms of mast cell priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halova, Ivana; Rönnberg, Elin; Draberova, Lubica; Vliagoftis, Harissios; Nilsson, Gunnar P; Draber, Petr

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells play a key role in allergy and other inflammatory diseases involving engagement of multivalent antigen with IgE bound to high-affinity IgE receptors (FcεRIs). Aggregation of FcεRIs on mast cells initiates a cascade of signaling events that eventually lead to degranulation, secretion of leukotrienes and prostaglandins, and cytokine and chemokine production contributing to the inflammatory response. Exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, bacterial and viral products, as well as some other biological products and drugs, induces mast cell transition from the basal state into a primed one, which leads to enhanced response to IgE-antigen complexes. Mast cell priming changes the threshold for antigen-mediated activation by various mechanisms, depending on the priming agent used, which alone usually do not induce mast cell degranulation. In this review, we describe the priming processes induced in mast cells by various cytokines (stem cell factor, interleukins-4, -6 and -33), chemokines, other agents acting through G protein-coupled receptors (adenosine, prostaglandin E 2 , sphingosine-1-phosphate, and β-2-adrenergic receptor agonists), toll-like receptors, and various drugs affecting the cytoskeleton. We will review the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms behind priming of mast cells leading to degranulation and cytokine production and discuss the biological effects of mast cell priming induced by several cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  16. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Rachel K.; Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro; Gosse, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  17. Antibacterial agent triclosan suppresses RBL-2H3 mast cell function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Rachel K., E-mail: rachel.palmer@maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Hutchinson, Lee M.; Burpee, Benjamin T.; Tupper, Emily J.; Pelletier, Jonathan H.; Kormendy, Zsolt; Hopke, Alex R.; Malay, Ethan T.; Evans, Brieana L.; Velez, Alejandro [Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Gosse, Julie A., E-mail: julie.gosse@umit.maine.edu [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, which has been shown previously to alleviate human allergic skin disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the mechanism of this action of triclosan is, in part, due to effects on mast cell function. Mast cells play important roles in allergy, asthma, parasite defense, and carcinogenesis. In response to various stimuli, mast cells degranulate, releasing allergic mediators such as histamine. In order to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of triclosan on mast cells, we monitored the level of degranulation in a mast cell model, rat basophilic leukemia cells, clone 2H3. Having functional homology to human mast cells, as well as a very well defined signaling pathway leading to degranulation, this cell line has been widely used to gain insight into mast-cell driven allergic disorders in humans. Using a fluorescent microplate assay, we determined that triclosan strongly dampened the release of granules from activated rat mast cells starting at 2 μM treatment, with dose-responsive suppression through 30 μM. These concentrations were found to be non-cytotoxic. The inhibition was found to persist when early signaling events (such as IgE receptor aggregation and tyrosine phosphorylation) were bypassed by using calcium ionophore stimulation, indicating that the target for triclosan in this pathway is likely downstream of the calcium signaling event. Triclosan also strongly suppressed F-actin remodeling and cell membrane ruffling, a physiological process that accompanies degranulation. Our finding that triclosan inhibits mast cell function may explain the clinical data mentioned above and supports the use of triclosan or a mechanistically similar compound as a topical treatment for allergic skin disease, such as eczema. -- Highlights: ►The effects of triclosan on mast cell function using a murine mast cell model. ►Triclosan strongly inhibits degranulation of mast cells.

  18. NTAL phosphorylation is a pivotal link between the signaling cascades leading to human mast cell degranulation following Kit activation and Fc epsilon RI aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkaczyk, C.; Hořejší, Václav; Iwaki, S.; Dráber, Petr; Samelson, L. E.; Satterthwaite, A. B.; Nahm, D. H.; Metcalfe, D. D.; Gilfillan, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2004), s. 207-214 ISSN 0006-4971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : immunoreceptor * signalling Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 9.782, year: 2004

  19. Charybdotoxin is a new member of the K sup + channel toxin family that includes dendrotoxin I and mast cell degranulating peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitz, H.; Bidard, J.N.; Lazdunski, M. (Universite de Nice (France)); Maes, P. (Institut Pasteur de Lille (France))

    1989-12-12

    A polypeptide was identified in the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus by its potency to inhibit the high affinity binding of the radiolabeled snake venom toxin dendrotoxin I ({sup 125}I-DTX{sub I}) to its receptor site. It has been purified, and its properties investigated by different techniques were found to be similar to those of MCD and DTX{sub I}, two polypeptide toxins active on a voltage-dependent K{sup +} channel. However, its amino acid sequence was determined, and it was shown that this toxin is in fact charybdotoxin (ChTX), a toxin classically used as a specific tool to block one class of Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels. ChTX, DTX{sub I}, and MCD are potent convulsants and are highly toxic when injected intracerebroventricularly in mice. Their toxicities correlate well with their affinities for their receptors in rat brain. These three structurally different toxins release ({sup 3}H)GABA from preloaded synaptosomes, the efficiency order being DTX{sub I} > ChTX > MCD. Both binding and cross-linking experiments of ChTX to rat brain membranes and to the purified MCD/DTX{sub I} binding protein have shown that the {alpha}-subunit of the MCD/DTX{sub I}-sensitive K{sup +} channel protein also contains the ChTX binding sites. Binding sites for DTX{sub I}, MCD, and ChTX are in negative allosteric interaction. The results show that charybdotoxin belongs to the family of toxins which already includes the dendrotoxins and MCD, which are blockers of voltage-sensitive K{sup +} channels. ChTX is clearly not selective for Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channel.

  20. Nonclinical evaluation of the potential for mast cell activation by an erythropoietin analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, James L., E-mail: James.Weaver@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Boyne, Michael, E-mail: mboyne@biotechlogic.com [Division of Pharmaceutical Analysis, OTR/OPQ/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Pang, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Pang@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Chimalakonda, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Chimalakonda@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Howard, Kristina E., E-mail: Kristina.Howard@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Applied Regulatory Science, OCP/OTS/CDER/FDA, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The erythropoietin analog peginesatide was withdrawn from marketing due to unexpected severe anaphylactic reactions associated with administration of the multi-use formulation. The adverse events occurred rapidly following the first ever administration of the drug with most affected patients becoming symptomatic in less than 30 min. This is most consistent with an anaphylactoid reaction due to direct activation of mast cells. Laboratory evaluation was undertaken using rat peritoneal mast cells as the model system. Initial studies showed that high concentrations of the formulated drug as well as formulated vehicle alone could cause mast cell degranulation as measured by histamine release. The purified active drug was not able to cause histamine release whereas the vehicle filtrate and lab created drug vehicle were equally potent at causing histamine release. Individual formulations of vehicle leaving one component out showed that histamine release was due to phenol. Dose response studies with phenol showed a very sharp dose response curve that was similar in three buffer systems. Cellular analysis by flow cytometry showed that the histamine release was not due to cell death, and that changes in light scatter parameters consistent with degranulation were rapidly observed. Limited testing with primary human mast cells showed a similar dose response of histamine release with exposure to phenol. To provide in vivo confirmation, rats were injected with vehicle formulated with various concentrations of phenol via a jugular vein cannula. Significant release of histamine was detected in blood samples taken 2 min after dosing at the highest concentrations tested. - Highlights: • Peginesatide caused severe anaphylactoid reactions in 0.2% of patients. • Both formulated drug and vehicle cause degranulation of rat mast cells. • Phenol was identified as the vehicle component causing degranulation. • Human mast cells show similar dose response to phenol as rat mast cells

  1. Activation of human mast cells by retrocyclin and protegrin highlight their immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kshitij; Kotian, Akhil; Subramanian, Hariharan; Daniell, Henry; Ali, Hydar

    2015-10-06

    Preclinical evaluation of Retrocyclins (RC-100, RC-101) and Protegrin-1 (PG-1) antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is important because of their therapeutic potential against bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Human mast cells (HMCs) play important roles in host defense and wound healing but the abilities of retrocyclins and protegrin-1 to harness these functions have not been investigated. Here, we report that chemically synthesized RC-100 and PG-1 caused calcium mobilization and degranulation in HMCs but these responses were not blocked by an inhibitor of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1), a known receptor for AMPs. However, RC-100 and PG-1 induced degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stably expressing Mas related G protein coupled receptor X2 (MrgX2). Chemical synthesis of these AMPs is prohibitively expensive and post-synthesis modifications (cyclization, disulfide bonds, folding) are inadequate for optimal antimicrobial activity. Indeed, we found that synthetic RC-100, which caused mast cell degranulation via MrgX2, did not display any antimicrobial activity. Green-fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged RC-101 (analog of RC-100) and GFP-tagged PG-1 purified from transgenic plant chloroplasts killed bacteria and induced mast cell degranulation. Furthermore, GFP-PG1 bound specifically to RBL-2H3 cells expressing MrgX2. These findings suggest that retrocyclins and protegrins activate HMCs independently of FPRL1 but via MrgX2. Harnessing this novel feature of AMPs to activate mast cell's host defense/wound healing properties in addition to their antimicrobial activities expands their clinical potential. Low cost production of AMPs in plants should facilitate their advancement to the clinic overcoming major hurdles in current production systems.

  2. Human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells exhibit a membrane capacitance increase when dialysed with high free-Ca(2+) and GTPγS containing intracellular solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletta, Andrea; Lorenz, Dorothea; Rummel, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf; Bigalke, Hans; Wegner, Florian

    2013-11-15

    An increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i initiates the exocytotic activity in various types of secretory cells. The guanosine 5'-O-[3-thio]triphosphate (GTPγS), a non-hydrolysable analogue of GTP (guanosine 5'-triphosphate), is an effective secretagogue for different cell types of different species, like mast cells, neutrophils or eosinophils. Consequently, the internal administration of GTPγS causes degranulation of mouse and rat mast cells. Regarding rat mast cells, it is proved that Ca(2+) can cooperate with GTP or GTPγS in accelerating and increasing amplitude of the secretory response. All the previous studies with respect to capacitance recordings and mast cells were performed using mouse or rat mast cells, usually derived from peritoneum or the rat basophilic leukaemia cell line RBL. In this study, we applied the capacitance measurement technique to the human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells, an immature cell line established from a patient with mast cell leukaemia. Patch-clamp dialysis experiments revealed that high intracellular free Ca(2+) and GTPγS concentrations are both required for considerable capacitance increases in HMC-1 cells. During degranulation of HMC-1 cells, the total membrane capacitance (Cm) increase appeared continuously and, in some cases, as a discrete capacitance change, developing in a stepwise manner. Then, we tested the effect of latrunculin B upon HMC-1 cell capacitance increase as well as of some classic mast cell stimulators like PMA, A23187 and IL-1β in hexosaminidase release. Finally, we could conclude that the HMC-1 cell line represents a suitable model for the study of human mast cell degranulation. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Vesicular trafficking and signaling for cytokine and chemokine secretion in mast cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich eBlank

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Upon activation mast cells (MC secrete numerous inflammatory compounds stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules (SG by a process called anaphylactic degranulation, which is responsible for type I hypersensitivity responses. Prestored mediators include histamine and mast cell proteases but also some cytokines and growth factors making them available within minutes for a maximal biological effect. Degranulation is followed by the de novo synthesis of lipid mediators such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes as well as a vast array of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which are responsible for late phase inflammatory responses. While lipid mediators diffuse freely out of the cell through lipid bilayers, both anaphylactic degranulation and secretion of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors depends on highly regulated vesicular trafficking steps that occur along the secretory pathway starting with the translocation of proteins to the ER. Vesicular trafficking in mast cells also intersects with endocytic routes, notably to form specialized cytoplasmic granules called secretory lysosomes. Some of the mediators like histamine reach granules via specific vesicular monoamine transporters directly from the cytoplasm. In this review, we try to summarize the available data on granule biogenesis and signaling events that coordinate the complex steps that lead to the release of the inflammatory mediators from the various vesicular carriers in mast cells.

  4. Tyrosol Suppresses Allergic Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase in Mast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Gyu Je

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, rhinitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis are attractive research areas. Tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenylethanol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse biological activities. In this study, we investigated whether tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects. Ovalbumin-induced active systemic anaphylaxis and immunoglobulin E-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis models were used for the immediate-type allergic responses. Oral administration of tyrosol reduced the allergic symptoms of hypothermia and pigmentation in both animal models. Mast cells that secrete allergic mediators are key regulators on allergic inflammation. Tyrosol dose-dependently decreased mast cell degranulation and expression of inflammatory cytokines. Intracellular calcium levels and activation of inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK regulate cytokine expression and degranulation. Tyrosol blocked calcium influx and phosphorylation of the IKK complex. To define the molecular target for tyrosol, various signaling proteins involved in mast cell activation such as Lyn, Syk, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, and Akt were examined. Our results showed that PI3K could be a molecular target for tyrosol in mast cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that tyrosol has anti-allergic inflammatory effects by inhibiting the degranulation of mast cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines; these effects are mediated via PI3K. Therefore, we expect tyrosol become a potential therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory disorders.

  5. Mast cell chymase potentiates histamine-induced wheal formation in the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, I; Nadel, J A; Graf, P D; Caughey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Skin mast cells release the neutral protease chymase along with histamine during degranulation. To test the hypothesis that chymase modulates histamine-induced plasma extravasation, we measured wheal formation following intradermal injection of purified mast cell chymase and histamine into the skin of ragweed-allergic dogs. We found that chymase greatly augments histamine-induced wheal formation. The magnitude of the potentiating effect increases with increasing doses of chymase and becomes m...

  6. Identification of Anti-tumor Cells Carrying Natural Killer (NK Cell Antigens in Patients With Hematological Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Krzywinska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells, a cytotoxic lymphocyte lineage, are able to kill tumor cells in vitro and in mouse models. However, whether these cells display an anti-tumor activity in cancer patients has not been demonstrated. Here we have addressed this issue in patients with several hematological cancers. We found a population of highly activated CD56dimCD16+ NK cells that have recently degranulated, evidence of killing activity, and it is absent in healthy donors. A high percentage of these cells expressed natural killer cell p46-related protein (NKp46, natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D and killer inhibitory receptors (KIRs and a low percentage expressed NKG2A and CD94. They are also characterized by a high metabolic activity and active proliferation. Notably, we found that activated NK cells from hematological cancer patients have non-NK tumor cell antigens on their surface, evidence of trogocytosis during tumor cell killing. Finally, we found that these activated NK cells are distinguished by their CD45RA+RO+ phenotype, as opposed to non-activated cells in patients or in healthy donors displaying a CD45RA+RO− phenotype similar to naïve T cells. In summary, we show that CD45RA+RO+ cells, which resemble a unique NK population, have recognized tumor cells and degranulate in patients with hematological neoplasias.

  7. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  8. Influence of laser and LED irradiation on mast cells of cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher Rosa, Cristiane; Oliveira Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Ferreira, Maria F. L.; Zanini, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Jean N.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to study histologically the effect of Laser or LED phototherapy on mast cells on cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency. 18 rats were used and fed with special peleted iron-free diet. An excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal which were divided into: Group I - Control with anemia + no treatment; Group II - Anemia + Laser; Group III - Anemia + LED; Group IV - Healthy + no treatment; Group V - Healthy + Laser; Group VI - Healthy + LED. Irradiation was performed using a diode Laser (λ660nm, 40mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2, 4X2.5J/cm2) or a RED-LED ( λ700nm, 15mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2). Histological specimens were routinely processed, cut and stained with toluidine blue and mast cell counts performed. No significant statistic difference was found between groups as to the number of degranulated, non-degradulated or total mast cells. Greater mean values were found for degranulated mast cells in the Anemia + LED. LED irradiation on healthy specimens resulted in a smaller number of degranulated mast cells. Our results leads to conclude that there are no significant differences in the number of mast cells seven days after irradiation following Laser or LED phototherapy.

  9. Nerve growth factor interactions with mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Saggini, A; Pantalone, A; Rosati, M; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Pandolfi, F; Cerulli, G; Conti, P

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are involved in neurogenic inflammation where there is vasodilation and plasma protein extravasion in response to this stimulus. Nerve growth factor (NGF), identified by Rita Levi Montalcini, is a neurotrophin family compound which is important for survival of nociceptive neurons during their development. Therefore, NGF is an important neuropeptide which mediates the development and functions of the central and peripheral nervous system. It also exerts its proinflammatory action, not only on mast cells but also in B and T cells, neutrophils and eosinophils. Human mast cells can be activated by neuropeptides to release potent mediators of inflammation, and they are found throughout the body, especially near blood vessels, epithelial tissue and nerves. Mast cells generate and release NGF after degranulation and they are involved in iperalgesia, neuroimmune interactions and tissue inflammation. NGF is also a potent degranulation factor for mast cells in vitro and in vivo, promoting differentiation and maturation of these cells and their precursor, acting as a co-factor with interleukin-3. In conclusion, these studies are focused on cross-talk between neuropeptide NGF and inflammatory mast cells.

  10. Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narantsogt, Giimaa; Min, Arim; Nam, Young Hee; Lee, Young Ah; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Agvaandaram, Gurbadam; Dorjsuren, Temuulen; El-Benna, Jamel; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that causes vaginitis and cervicitis in women and asymptomatic urethritis and prostatitis in men. Mast cells have been reported to be predominant in vaginal smears and vaginal walls of patients infected with T. vaginalis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activated by various stimuli, have been shown to regulate the transcriptional activity of various cytokine genes in mast cells. In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47(phox) in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling.

  11. CD16xCD33 bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) activates NK cells against primary MDS and MDSC CD33+ targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Michelle K; Ross, Julie A; Warlick, Erica D; Lund, Troy C; Verneris, Michael R; Wiernik, Andres; Spellman, Stephen; Haagenson, Michael D; Lenvik, Alexander J; Litzow, Mark R; Epling-Burnette, Pearlie K; Blazar, Bruce R; Weiner, Louis M; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Vallera, Daniel A; Miller, Jeffrey S

    2014-05-08

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are stem cell disorders that can progress to acute myeloid leukemia. Although hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative, additional therapies are needed for a disease that disproportionally afflicts the elderly. We tested the ability of a CD16xCD33 BiKE to induce natural killer (NK) cell function in 67 MDS patients. Compared with age-matched normal controls, CD7(+) lymphocytes, NK cells, and CD16 expression were markedly decreased in MDS patients. Despite this, reverse antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays showed potent degranulation and cytokine production when resting MDS-NK cells were triggered with an agonistic CD16 monoclonal antibody. Blood and marrow MDS-NK cells treated with bispecific killer cell engager (BiKE) significantly enhanced degranulation and tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production against HL-60 and endogenous CD33(+) MDS targets. MDS patients had a significantly increased proportion of immunosuppressive CD33(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that negatively correlated with MDS lymphocyte populations and CD16 loss on NK cells. Treatment with the CD16xCD33 BiKE successfully reversed MDSC immunosuppression of NK cells and induced MDSC target cell lysis. Lastly, the BiKE induced optimal MDS-NK cell function irrespective of disease stage. Our data suggest that the CD16xCD33 BiKE functions against both CD33(+) MDS and MDSC targets and may be therapeutically beneficial for MDS patients.

  12. Retinoic acid induction of CD1d expression primes chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells for killing by CD8+ invariant natural killer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnewa, Yasmeen G; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Browne, Paul V; McElligott, Anthony M; Doherty, Derek G

    2017-10-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are cytotoxic T cells that respond to glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. Therapeutic activation of iNKT cells with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) can prevent and reverse tumor growth in mice and clinical trials involving α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells are ongoing in humans. B cells express CD1d, however, we show that CD1d expression is reduced on B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). B cells from CLL patients pulsed with α-GalCer failed to stimulate cytolytic degranulation by iNKT cell lines, but could present the more potent glycolipid analogue, 7DW8-5. Retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) agonists induced CD1d expression by CLL B cells, restoring their ability to present α-GalCer to CD8α + iNKT cells, resulting in cytolytic degranulation. Thus, RAR-α agonists can augment the anti-tumor activities of iNKT cells against CLL cells in vitro. Their inclusion in iNKT cell-based therapies may benefit patients with CLL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. T lymphocyte recruitment by interleukin-8 (IL-8). IL-8-induced degranulation of neutrophils releases potent chemoattractants for human T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, D D; Anver, M; Oppenheim, J J; Longo, D L; Murphy, W J

    1996-01-01

    IL-8 has been shown to be a human neutrophil and T cell chemoattractant in vitro. In an effort to assess the in vivo effects of IL-8 on human leukocyte migration, we examined the ability of rhIL-8 to induce human T cell infiltration using a human/mouse model in which SCID mice were administered human peripheral blood lymphocytes intraperitoneally, followed by subcutaneous injections of rhIL-8. rhIL-8 induced predominantly murine neutrophil accumulation by 4 h after administration while recombinant human macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (rhMIP-1beta) induced both murine monocytes and human T cell infiltration during the same time period as determined by immunohistology. Interestingly, 72 h after chemokine administration, a marked human T cell infiltrate was observed in the IL-8 injection site suggesting that rhIL-8 may be acting indirectly possibly through a murine neutrophil-derived T cell chemoattractant. This hypothesis was confirmed using granulocyte-depleted SCID mice. Moreover, human neutrophils stimulated in vitro with IL-8 were found to release granule-derived factor(s) that induce in vitro T cell and monocyte chemotaxis and chemokinesis. This T cell and monocyte chemotactic activity was detected in extracts of both azurophilic and specific granules. Together, these results demonstrate that neutrophils store and release, upon stimulation with IL-8 or other neutrophil activators, chemoattractants that mediate T cell and monocyte accumulation at sites of inflammation. PMID:8621778

  14. Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells delay expulsion of intestinal nematodes by suppression of IL-9-driven mast cell activation in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Blankenhaus

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-9-mediated immunity plays a fundamental role in control of intestinal nematode infection. Here we report a different impact of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells (Treg in nematode-induced evasion of IL-9-mediated immunity in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Infection with Strongyloides ratti induced Treg expansion with similar kinetics and phenotype in both strains. Strikingly, Treg depletion reduced parasite burden selectively in BALB/c but not in C57BL/6 mice. Treg function was apparent in both strains as Treg depletion increased nematode-specific humoral and cellular Th2 response in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice to the same extent. Improved resistance in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice was accompanied by increased production of IL-9 and accelerated degranulation of mast cells. In contrast, IL-9 production was not significantly elevated and kinetics of mast cell degranulation were unaffected by Treg depletion in C57BL/6 mice. By in vivo neutralization, we demonstrate that increased IL-9 production during the first days of infection caused accelerated mast cell degranulation and rapid expulsion of S. ratti adults from the small intestine of Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. In genetically mast cell-deficient (Cpa3-Cre BALB/c mice, Treg depletion still resulted in increased IL-9 production but resistance to S. ratti infection was lost, suggesting that IL-9-driven mast cell activation mediated accelerated expulsion of S. ratti in Treg-depleted BALB/c mice. This IL-9-driven mast cell degranulation is a central mechanism of S. ratti expulsion in both, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, because IL-9 injection reduced and IL-9 neutralization increased parasite burden in the presence of Treg in both strains. Therefore our results suggest that Foxp3⁺ Treg suppress sufficient IL-9 production for subsequent mast cell degranulation during S. ratti infection in a non-redundant manner in BALB/c mice, whereas additional regulatory pathways are functional in

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand effects in RBL2H3 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Shimoda, Lori M. N.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    responses and release a spectrum of pro-inflammatory mediators including histamine, mast cell proteases, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 upon stimulation. The aim was to investigate the AHR in model mast cells and examine how both putative and known AHR ligands, e.g., kynurenine, kynurenic acid...... (KA), Resveratrol, indolmycin, and violacein, affect mast cell activation and signaling. These ligands were tested on calcium signaling, degranulation, and gene expression. The data show that AHR is present in three model mast cell lines, and that various known and putative AHR ligands regulate gene...

  16. Allergy-related cytokines (IL-4 and TNF-α) are induced by Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and attenuated by plant-originated glycoprotein (75 kDa) in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin; Oh, Phil-Sun; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2011-08-01

    Phthalate esters as plasticizers have been widespread in the environment and may be associated with development of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. In this study, we demonstrated that the CTB glycoprotein attenuates allergic reactions caused by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in human mast cells (HMC-1). This experiment evaluated degranulation of histamine and β-hexosaminidase as well as activities of protein kinase C (PKC), stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), activator protein (AP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α using immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our results revealed that the CTB glycoprotein in the presence of DEHP inhibits degranulation of mast cell, translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane, and phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK in HMC -1 cells. We also found that the CTB glycoprotein (100 μg mL(-1) ) has suppressive effects on transcriptional activation of AP-1, and on the expression of IL-4 and TNF-α in DEHP-treated HMC-1 cells. We suggest that the CTB glycoprotein inhibits degranulation of mast cells and expressions of cytokines in HMC-1 cells. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Monitoring of local CD8 β-expressing cell populations during Eimeria tenella infection of naïve and immune chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattrang, Eva; Thebo, Per; Lunden, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor abundance and activation of local CD8β-expressing T-cell populations during Eimeria tenella infections of naïve chickens and chickens immune by previous infections. Chickens were infected with E. tenella up to three times. Caecal T-cell receptor (TCR) γ/δ-CD......8β+ cells (cytotoxic T lymphocytes; CTL) and TCRγ/δ+CD8β+ cells were characterized with respect to activation markers (blast transformation, CD25 and cell surface CD107a). Cells were also induced to degranulate in vitro as a measure of activation potential. Major findings included a prominent long...

  18. Negative regulatory roles of ORMDL3 in the Fc epsilon RI-triggered expression of proinflammatory mediators and chemotactic response in murine mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bugajev, Viktor; Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Bambousková, Monika; Potůčková, Lucie; Dráberová, Helena; Paulenda, Tomáš; Junyent, Sergi; Dráber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2016), s. 1265-1285 ISSN 1420-682X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mast cell interference * ORMDL3 knockdown * Prostalglandin D2 * Degranulation * Chemotaxis * Proinflammatory cytokines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.788, year: 2016

  19. A comparative study of the effect of low laser radiation on mast cells in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia colored and not colored by the toluidine blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawazaki, Iris

    2001-01-01

    THIS STUDY SHOWS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LASER RADIATION IN LOW INTENSITY ON THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION IN INFLAMMATORY FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA WHEN THEY ARE COLORED OR NOT BY THE TOLUIDINE BLUE. THE DYE WAS USED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ABSORPTION OF THE LASER LIGHT BY THE TISSUE. THE INJURE WAS DIVIDED IN THREE EQUAL PARTS, AND EACH PART RECEIVED A DIFFERENT KIND OF TREATMENT. ONE OF THEM WAS REMOVED TO BE THE CONTROL, THE SECOND PART WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED AND THE LAST ONE, AFTER BEING SUPERFICIALLY COLORED, WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED . THE ORDER OF THE STAGES WAS RANDOMLY CHANGED , THEN THE TIME BETWEEN THE STAGES WOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES WERE 49% FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, 87% FOR THE LASER GROUP AND 88% FOR THE COLORED/LASER GROUP. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT STATISTICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP LASER TREATED AND THE ONE COLORED/LASER TREATED. HOWEVER, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE TREATED GROUP (PS ≤ 0,01). (AUTHOR)

  20. Regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells by G protein coupled receptor kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    Full Text Available The complement component C3a activates human mast cells via its cell surface G protein coupled receptor (GPCR C3aR. For most GPCRs, agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation leads to receptor desensitization, internalization as well as activation of downstream signaling pathways such as ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Previous studies in transfected COS cells overexpressing G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs demonstrated that GRK2, GRK3, GRK5 and GRK6 participate in agonist-induced C3aR phosphorylation. However, the roles of these GRKs on the regulation of C3aR signaling and mediator release in human mast cells remain unknown.We utilized lentivirus short hairpin (shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of GRK2, GRK3, GRK5 and GRK6 in human mast cell lines, HMC-1 and LAD2, that endogenously express C3aR. Silencing GRK2 or GRK3 expression caused a more sustained Ca(2+ mobilization, attenuated C3aR desensitization, and enhanced degranulation as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation when compared to shRNA control cells. By contrast, GRK5 or GRK6 knockdown had no effect on C3aR desensitization, but caused a significant decrease in C3a-induced mast cell degranulation. Interestingly, GRK5 or GRK6 knockdown rendered mast cells more responsive to C3a for ERK1/2 phosphorylation.This study demonstrates that GRK2 and GRK3 are involved in C3aR desensitization. Furthermore, it reveals the novel finding that GRK5 and GRK6 promote C3a-induced mast cell degranulation but inhibit ERK1/2 phosphorylation via C3aR desensitization-independent mechanisms. These findings thus reveal a new level of complexity for C3aR regulation by GRKs in human mast cells.

  1. ACTIVITY OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS FROM PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL AND OVARIAN CANCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Yunusova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the functional activity of natural killer cells in peripheral blood and ascites from patients with different stages of colorectal and ovarian cancers and benign ovarian tumors. Material and methods. The study included 10 patients with stage IIIC ovarian cancer (FIGO, 2009, 5 patients with benign ovarian tumors (BOTs, and 15 patients with colorectal cancer (T2–4N0–2M0 . The control group consisted of 5 healthy donors. To evaluate the number and functional activity of NK-cells in peripheral blood and ascites, the FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer was used. Results. In peripheral blood of patients with ovarian and colorectal cancers, the relative number of activated NK-cells capable of secreting granzyme B (GB (CD56 + CD107a + GB + PF- was significantly lower and the proportion of degranulated NK-cells (CD56 + CD107a + GB- PF- was higher than those of healthy donors. Low total NK-cell counts in peripheral blood were a distinctive feature of ovarian cancer patients (p<0.05. The proportion of activated peripheral blood NK-cells, containing granules of cytolytic enzymes GB and perforin (PF increased with tumor growth. However, lymph node metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer did not affect the level and activation of NK-cells. The comparative analysis of NK-populations in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors revealed that the level of CD56 + cells was significantly higher in tumor ascites compared to peripheral blood. In patients with BTs, the levels of CD56 + CD107a + and activated CD56 + CD107a + GB-PF-degranulated cells was higher in ascites than in blood. In patients with ovarian cancer, the level of degranulated cells was higher in peripheral blood than in malignant ascites. Conclusion. The tumor cells and tumor microenvironment were found to affect the number and the functional activity of NK-cells. The accumulation of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity in patients with both benign and malignant

  2. Platelet degranulation and monocyte-platelet complex formation are increased in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, Dominick J H

    2004-06-01

    Flow cytometric studies suggest that platelets are activated in ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). However, few studies have measured circulating leucocyte-platelet complexes in this patient population. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify the expression of CD62P-, CD63-, and PAC1-binding, and the percentages of leucocyte-platelet complexes in acute (1-27 d, n = 79) and convalescent (79-725 d, n = 70) ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients compared with controls without CVD (n = 27). We performed a full blood count, and measured plasma levels of soluble P-selectin, soluble E-selectin, and von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) as additional markers of platelet and\\/or endothelial cell activation. The median percentage CD62P expression and the median percentage monocyte-platelet complexes were higher in both acute and convalescent CVD patients than controls (P <\\/= 0.02). The mean white cell count and mean VWF:Ag levels were significantly elevated in the acute and convalescent phases after ischaemic stroke or TIA (P <\\/= 0.02). Otherwise, there was no significant increase in any other marker of platelet or endothelial activation in CVD patients. There was a positive correlation between the percentage expression of CD62P and the percentages of both neutrophil-platelet and monocyte-platelet complexes in the acute phase, and the percentages of all leucocyte-platelet complexes in the convalescent phase after ischaemic CVD. This study provides evidence for ongoing excessive platelet and\\/or endothelial activation in ischaemic CVD patients despite treatment with antithrombotic therapy.

  3. Possible links between glucose-induced changes in the energy state of pancreatic B cells and insulin release. Unmasking by decreasing a stable pool of adenine nucleotides in mouse islets.

    OpenAIRE

    Detimary, P; Jonas, J C; Henquin, J C

    1995-01-01

    Whether adenine nucleotides in pancreatic B cells serve as second messengers during glucose stimulation of insulin secretion remains disputed. Our hypothesis was that the actual changes in ATP and ADP are obscured by the large pool of adenine nucleotides (ATP/ADP ratio close to 1) in insulin granules. Therefore, mouse islets were degranulated acutely with a cocktail of glucose, KCl, forskolin, and phorbol ester or during overnight culture in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10 mM glucose. When the...

  4. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, Takeshi, E-mail: tkawafb@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Integrated Department of Sciences of Functional Foods, Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan)

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D{sub 2} and leukotriene C{sub 4} in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-{alpha} expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on Fc{epsilon}RI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  5. Establishment and characterization of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell hybridomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) are an important model for studying the function of mucosal-type mast cells. In the present study, BMMCs were successfully immortalized by cell fusion using a hypoxanthine–aminopterin–thymidine medium-sensitive variant of P815 mouse mastocytoma (P815-6TgR) as a partner cell line. The established mouse mast cell hybridomas (MMCHs) expressed α, β, and γ subunits of high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor (FcεRI) and possessed cytoplasmic granules devoid of or partially filled with electron-dense material. Four independent MMCH clones continuously proliferated without supplemental exogenous IL-3 and showed a degranulation response on stimulation with IgE+antigen. Furthermore, histamine synthesis and release by degranulation were confirmed in MMCH-D5, a MMCH clone that showed the strongest degranulation response. MMCH-D5 exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and cyclooxygenase 2, and production of prostaglandin D 2 and leukotriene C 4 in response to IgE-induced stimulation. MMCH clones also expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 1, 2, 4, and 6 and showed elevated levels of TNF-α expression in response to stimulation with TLR2 and TLR4 ligands. The MMCHs established using this method should be suitable for studies on FcεRI- and TLR-mediated effector functions of mast cells.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sho; Yoshino, Hironori; Ishikawa, Junya; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Tsujiguchi, Takakiyo; Nishiyama, Ayaka; Yokoyama, Kouki; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  7. Mast Cell Subsets and Their Functional Modulation by the Acanthocheilonema viteae Product ES-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimity H. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by filarial nematodes, exhibits therapeutic potential in mouse models of allergic inflammation, at least in part by inducing the desensitisation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses. However, in addition to their pathogenic roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases, mast cells are important in fighting infection, wound healing, and resolving inflammation, reflecting that mast cells exhibit a phenotypic and functional plasticity. We have therefore characterised the differential functional responses to antigen (via FcεRI and LPS and their modulation by ES-62 of the mature peritoneal-derived mast cells (PDMC; serosal and those of the connective tissue-like mast cells (CTMC and the mucosal-like mast cells derived from bone marrow progenitors (BMMC as a first step to produce disease tissue-targeted therapeutics based on ES-62 action. All three mast cell populations were rendered hyporesponsive by ES-62 and whilst the mechanisms underlying such desensitisation have not been fully delineated, they reflect a downregulation of calcium and PKCα signalling. ES-62 also downregulated MyD88 and PKCδ in mucosal-type BMMC but not PDMC, the additional signals targeted in mucosal-type BMMC likely reflecting that these cells respond to antigen and LPS by degranulation and cytokine secretion whereas PDMC predominantly respond in a degranulation-based manner.

  8. Roles for NHERF1 and NHERF2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan Subramanian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anaphylatoxin C3a binds to the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR, C3aR and activates divergent signaling pathways to induce degranulation and cytokine production in human mast cells. Adapter proteins such as the Na(+/H(+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF1 and NHERF2 have been implicated in regulating functions of certain GPCRs by binding to the class I PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/Zo1 motifs present on their cytoplasmic tails. Although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, the possibility that it interacts with NHERF proteins to modulate signaling in human mast cells has not been determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, we found that NHERF1 and NHERF2 are expressed in human mast cell lines (HMC-1, LAD2 and CD34(+-derived primary human mast cells. Surprisingly, however, C3aR did not associate with these adapter proteins. To assess the roles of NHERFs on signaling downstream of C3aR, we used lentiviral shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of these proteins in human mast cells. Silencing the expression of NHERF1 and NHERF2 had no effect on C3aR desensitization, agonist-induced receptor internalization, ERK/Akt phosphorylation or chemotaxis. However, loss of NHERF1 and NHERF2 resulted in significant inhibition of C3a-induced mast cell degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine production. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that although C3aR possesses a class I PDZ motif, it does not associate with NHERF1 and NHERF2. Surprisingly, these proteins provide stimulatory signals for C3a-induced degranulation, NF-κB activation and chemokine generation in human mast cells. These findings reveal a new level of complexity for the functional regulation of C3aR by NHERFs in human mast cells.

  9. Lesion of leukocytes, erythrocytes, and mesothelial cells by the coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, P; Bilej, M; Tucková, L; Starý, V; Kofronová, O

    1997-01-01

    Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms is known to exert strong proteolytic, hemolytic, bacteriostatic, and cytolytic properties. Ultrastructural observations revealed that coelomic fluid causes multiple ruptures and defects in the erythrocyte membrane as well as in the membrane of murine peritoneal leukocytes. Incubation of peritoneal cells in coelomic fluid resulted in a disorganization of the macrophage surface microvilli, changes in the organization of cytoplasmic organelles and disruption and degranulation of mast cells. Severe mesothelial damage was observed after intraperitoneal administration of the coelomic fluid.

  10. Hypoxia induced impairment of NK cell cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma can be overcome by IL-2 activation of the NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashis Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM is an incurable plasma cell malignancy residing within the bone marrow (BM. We aim to develop allogeneic Natural Killer (NK cell immunotherapy for MM. As the BM contains hypoxic regions and the tumor environment can be immunosuppressive, we hypothesized that hypoxia inhibits NK cell anti-MM responses. METHODS: NK cells were isolated from healthy donors by negative selection and NK cell function and phenotype were examined at oxygen levels representative of hypoxic BM using flowcytometry. Additionally, NK cells were activated with IL-2 to enhance NK cell cytotoxicity under hypoxia. RESULTS: Hypoxia reduced NK cell killing of MM cell lines in an oxygen dependent manner. Under hypoxia, NK cells maintained their ability to degranulate in response to target cells, though, the percentage of degranulating NK cells was slightly reduced. Adaptation of NK- or MM cells to hypoxia was not required, hence, the oxygen level during the killing process was critical. Hypoxia did not alter surface expression of NK cell ligands (HLA-ABC, -E, MICA/B and ULBP1-2 and receptors (KIR, NKG2A/C, DNAM-1, NCRs and 2B4. It did, however, decrease expression of the activating NKG2D receptor and of intracellular perforin and granzyme B. Pre-activation of NK cells by IL-2 abrogated the detrimental effects of hypoxia and increased NKG2D expression. This emphasized that activated NK cells can mediate anti-MM effects, even under hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia abolishes the killing potential of NK cells against multiple myeloma, which can be restored by IL-2 activation. Our study shows that for the design of NK cell-based immunotherapy it is necessary to study biological interactions between NK- and tumor cells also under hypoxic conditions.

  11. Protein Kinase C-theta (PKC-theta in Natural Killer (NK cell function and anti-tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eAnel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase C-theta (PKCtheta, which is essential for T cell function and survival, is also required for efficient anti-tumor immune surveillance. Natural killer (NK cells, which express PKCtheta, play a prominent role in this process, mainly by elimination of tumor cells with reduced or absent major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I expression. This justifies the increased interest of the use of activated NK cells in anti-tumor immunotherapy in the clinic. The in vivo development of MHC-I-deficient tumors is much favored in PKCtheta-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Recent data offer some clues on the mechanism that could explain the important role of PKCtheta in NK cell-mediated anti-tumor immune surveillance: some studies show that PKCtheta is implicated in signal transduction and anti-tumoral activity of NK cells elicited by interleukin (IL-12 or IL-15, while others show that it is implicated in NK cell functional activation mediated by certain killer activating receptors (KAR. Alternatively, the possibility that PKCtheta is involved in NK cell degranulation is discussed, since recent data indicate that it is implicated in microtubule-organizing center (MTOC polarization to the immune synapse in CD4+ T cells. The implication of PKC isoforms in degranulation has been more extensively studied in CTL, and these studies will be also summarized.

  12. Trypanosoma brucei Co-opts NK Cells to Kill Splenic B2 B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Frenkel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After infection with T. brucei AnTat 1.1, C57BL/6 mice lost splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed poor parasite-specific antibody responses, lost weight, became anemic and died with fulminating parasitemia within 35 days. In contrast, infected C57BL/6 mice lacking the cytotoxic granule pore-forming protein perforin (Prf1-/- retained splenic B2 B cells and lymphoid follicles, developed high-titer antibody responses against many trypanosome polypeptides, rapidly suppressed parasitemia and did not develop anemia or lose weight for at least 60 days. Several lines of evidence show that T. brucei infection-induced splenic B cell depletion results from natural killer (NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity: i B2 B cells were depleted from the spleens of infected intact, T cell deficient (TCR-/- and FcγRIIIa deficient (CD16-/- C57BL/6 mice excluding a requirement for T cells, NKT cell, or antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; ii administration of NK1.1 specific IgG2a (mAb PK136 but not irrelevant IgG2a (myeloma M9144 prevented infection-induced B cell depletion consistent with a requirement for NK cells; iii splenic NK cells but not T cells or NKT cells degranulated in infected C57BL/6 mice co-incident with B cell depletion evidenced by increased surface expression of CD107a; iv purified NK cells from naïve C57BL/6 mice killed purified splenic B cells from T. brucei infected but not uninfected mice in vitro indicating acquisition of an NK cell activating phenotype by the post-infection B cells; v adoptively transferred C57BL/6 NK cells prevented infection-induced B cell population growth in infected Prf1-/- mice consistent with in vivo B cell killing; vi degranulated NK cells in infected mice had altered gene and differentiation antigen expression and lost cytotoxic activity consistent with functional exhaustion, but increased in number as infection progressed indicating continued generation. We conclude that NK cells in T. brucei

  13. 2S protein Ara h 7.0201 has unique epitopes compared to other Ara h 7 isoforms and is comparable to 2S proteins Ara h 2 and 6 in basophil degranulation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayen, S M; Ehlers, A M; den Hartog Jager, C F; Garssen, J; Knol, E F; Knulst, A C; Suer, W; Willemsen, L E M; Otten, H G

    2018-03-14

    Screening for specific IgE against 2S albumin proteins Ara h 2 and 6 has good positive predictive value in diagnosing peanut allergy. From the third 2S member Ara h 7, three isoforms have been identified. Their allergenicity has not been elucidated. This study investigated the allergenicity of Ara h 7 isoforms compared to Ara h 2 and 6. Sensitization of 15 DBPCFC confirmed peanut allergic patients to recombinant Ara h 2.0201, 6.01 and isoforms of recombinant Ara h 7 was determined by IgE immunoblotting strips. A basophil activation test (BAT) was performed in nine patients to determine IgE-crosslinking capacities of the allergens. Sensitivity to the allergens was tested in five patients that were sensitized to at least one Ara h 7 isoform, by a concentration range in the BAT. 3D-prediction models and sequence alignments were used to visualize differences between isoforms and to predict allergenic epitope regions. Sensitization to Ara h 7.0201 was most frequent (80%) and showed to be equally potent as Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01 in inducing basophil degranulation. Sensitization to Ara h 7.0201 together with Ara h 2.0201 and/or 6.01 was observed, indicating the presence of unique epitopes compared to the other two isoforms. Differences between the three Ara h 7 isoforms were observed in C-terminal cysteine residues, pepsin and trypsin cleavage sites and three single amino acid substitutions. The majority of peanut-allergic patients are sensitized to isoform Ara h 7.0201, which is functionally as active as Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01. Unique epitopes are most likely located in the C-terminus or an allergenic loop region which is a known allergenic epitope region for Ara h 2.0201 and 6.01. Due to its unique epitopes and allergenicity, it is an interesting candidate to improve the diagnostic accuracy for peanut allergy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparative study of the effect of low laser radiation on mast cells in inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia colored and not colored by the toluidine blue; Estudo comparativo do efeito da radiacao laser em baixa intensidade sobre mastocitos de hiperplasias fibrosas inflamatorias coradas e nao coradas por azul de toluidina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawazaki, Iris

    2001-07-01

    THIS STUDY SHOWS A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF THE LASER RADIATION IN LOW INTENSITY ON THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION IN INFLAMMATORY FIBROUS HYPERPLASIA WHEN THEY ARE COLORED OR NOT BY THE TOLUIDINE BLUE. THE DYE WAS USED IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE ABSORPTION OF THE LASER LIGHT BY THE TISSUE. THE INJURE WAS DIVIDED IN THREE EQUAL PARTS, AND EACH PART RECEIVED A DIFFERENT KIND OF TREATMENT. ONE OF THEM WAS REMOVED TO BE THE CONTROL, THE SECOND PART WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED AND THE LAST ONE, AFTER BEING SUPERFICIALLY COLORED, WAS LASER TREATED AND THEN IMMEDIATELY REMOVED . THE ORDER OF THE STAGES WAS RANDOMLY CHANGED , THEN THE TIME BETWEEN THE STAGES WOULD NOT INTERFERE IN THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE MAST CELL DEGRANULATION RATES WERE 49% FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, 87% FOR THE LASER GROUP AND 88% FOR THE COLORED/LASER GROUP. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT STATISTICAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE GROUP LASER TREATED AND THE ONE COLORED/LASER TREATED. HOWEVER, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE CONTROL AND THE TREATED GROUP (PS {<=} 0,01). (AUTHOR)

  15. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Luchini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses.

  16. CXCR5+CD8+T cells could induce the death of tumor cells in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yun; Lang, Cuicui; Tang, Jianzhong; Geng, Jiawei; Song, Haihan K; Sun, Zhiwei; Wang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    The follicular CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells have recently emerged as a critical cell type in mediating peripheral tolerance as well as antiviral immune responses during chronic infections. In this study, we investigated the function of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Compared to CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells presented elevated PD-1 expression but reduced Tim-3 and CTLA-4 expression. Upon anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells demonstrated higher proliferation potency than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, especially after PD-1 blockade. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells also demonstrated significantly higher granzyme B synthesis and release, as well as higher level of degranulation. Tumor cells were more readily eliminated by CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells than by CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. Interestingly, we found that B cells were more resistant to CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell-mediated killing than tumor cells, possibly through IL-10-mediated protection. In addition, the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell-mediated cytotoxic effects on tumor cells could be significantly enhanced by PD-L1 blockade. Together, we presented that in patients with in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells could mediate tumor cell death more potently than the CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells in vitro while the autologous B cells were protected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Tissue-dependent alteration of protease expression phenotype in murine peritoneal mast cells that were genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jippo, T; Lee, Y M; Ge, Y; Kim, D K; Okabe, M; Kitamura, Y

    2001-05-01

    The changing process of protease expression phenotype was studied after transplantation of peritoneal mast cells (PMCs). To pursue the fate of the transplanted PMCs, we obtained PMCs from WBB6F(1)-c-kit(+)/c-kit(+) mice with a transgene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP). A large (n = 10(4)) or small (n = 500) number of PMCs was injected into the stomach wall of genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F(1)-c-kit(W)/c-kit(Wv) mice without the GFP transgene. The original PMCs expressed messenger (m) RNAs of both mast cell carboxypeptidase A (MC-CPA) and mouse mast cell protease (mMCP)-2. The MC-CPA(+)/mMCP-2(+) phenotype did not change in both the muscularis propria and mucosa when 10(4) PMCs were injected. In contrast, when 500 PMCs were injected, the mast cells that developed in the muscularis propria showed MC-CPA(+)/mMCP-2(-) phenotype and those that appeared in the mucosa showed MC-CPA(-)/mMCP-2(+) phenotype. On day 1 after the injection of 500 PMCs, only approximately 20 GFP(+) cells were detected in the muscularis propria and no GFP(+) cells in the mucosa. The proportion of Alcian blue(+) cells decreased until day 7 and increased thereafter. The GFP(+) but Alcian blue(-) cells were considered as degranulated PMCS: The remarkable decrease or degranulation seemed to be necessary for the alteration of protease expression phenotype.

  18. Single-channel properties of a stretch-sensitive chloride channel in the human mast cell line HMC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lina; Ding, Guanghong; Gu, Quanbao; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2010-04-01

    A stretch-activated (SA) Cl(-) channel in the plasma membrane of the human mast cell line HMC-1 was identified in outside-out patch-clamp experiments. SA currents, induced by pressure applied to the pipette, exhibited voltage dependence with strong outward rectification (55.1 pS at +100 mV and an about tenfold lower conductance at -100 mV). The probability of the SA channel being open (P (o)) also showed steep outward rectification and pressure dependence. The open-time distribution was fitted with three components with time constants of tau(1o) = 755.1 ms, tau(2o) = 166.4 ms, and tau(3o) = 16.5 ms at +60 mV. The closed-time distribution also required three components with time constants of tau(1c) = 661.6 ms, tau(2c) = 253.2 ms, and tau(3c) = 5.6 ms at +60 mV. Lowering extracellular Cl(-) concentration reduced the conductance, shifted the reversal potential toward chloride reversal potential, and decreased the P (o) at positive potentials. The SA Cl(-) currents were reversibly blocked by the chloride channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) but not by (Z)-1-(p-dimethylaminoethoxyphenyl)-1,2-diphenyl-1-butene (tamoxifen). Furthermore, in HMC-1 cells swelling due to osmotic stress, DIDS could inhibit the increase in intracellular [Ca(2+)] and degranulation. We conclude that in the HMC-1 cell line, the SA outward currents are mediated by Cl(-) influx. The SA Cl(-) channel might contribute to mast cell degranulation caused by mechanical stimuli or accelerate membrane fusion during the degranulation process.

  19. Quantification of cell death in developing cerebellum by a 14C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, W.S.; Woodward, D.J.; Chanda, R.

    1978-01-01

    To study the question of whether or not cell death contributes significantly to normal or stressed postnatal brain development in a way which is biochemically quantifiable, we carried out an experiment to assess the amount of cell death in developing cerebellum. By measuring the loss of DNA content and the loss of 14 C from labelled thymidine previously incorporated into the DNA fraction (DNAF) in X-irradiated neonatal animals, shown by histological methods to have cell death to the degree of degranulating the external granular layer (EGL), we showed that when cells die both label and DNA content are greatly decreased in the cerebellum. Experiments on both normal and malnourished animals showed that cell death does not contribute significantly to cerebellar development in either malnutrition-stressed or normal animals. Here, we present a biochemical tool for assessing cell death and evidence that cell death does not contribute significantly to cerebellar development

  20. Bee Venom Protects against Rotenone-Induced Cell Death in NSC34 Motor Neuron Cells

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    So Young Jung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is known to elevate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and induce apoptosis via activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Bee venom (BV extracted from honey bees has been widely used in oriental medicine and contains melittin, apamin, adolapin, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and phospholipase A2. In this study, we tested the effects of BV on neuronal cell death by examining rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. NSC34 motor neuron cells were pretreated with 2.5 μg/mL BV and stimulated with 10 μM rotenone to induce cell toxicity. We assessed cell death by Western blotting using specific antibodies, such as phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-JNK, and cleaved capase-3 and performed an MTT assay for evaluation of cell death and mitochondria staining. Pretreatment with 2.5 μg/mL BV had a neuroprotective effect against 10 μM rotenone-induced cell death in NSC34 motor neuron cells. Pre-treatment with BV significantly enhanced cell viability and ameliorated mitochondrial impairment in rotenone-treated cellular model. Moreover, BV treatment inhibited the activation of JNK signaling and cleaved caspase-3 related to cell death and increased ERK phosphorylation involved in cell survival in rotenone-treated NSC34 motor neuron cells. Taken together, we suggest that BV treatment can be useful for protection of neurons against oxidative stress or neurotoxin-induced cell death.

  1. Different NK cell-activating receptors preferentially recruit Rab27a or Munc13-4 to perforin-containing granules for cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Stephanie M; Meeths, Marie; Chiang, Samuel C C

    2009-01-01

    of perforin-containing lytic granules induced by signals for natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrate here that these signals fail to induce degranulation in resting NK cells from Rab27a-deficient patients. In resting NK cells from healthy subjects, endogenous Rab27a and Munc13...... functional antigen-1, NKG2D, or 2B4 induced colocalization of Rab27a, but not Munc13-4, with perforin. Conversely, engagement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity receptor CD16 induced colocalization of Munc13-4, but not Rab27a, with perforin. Furthermore, colocalization of Munc13-4 with perforin...

  2. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Livio de Barros

    2001-01-01

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser (λ = 785 nm) or to red laser (λ = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm 2 . A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths λ=785 nm and λ=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm 2 -, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  3. The Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR56/ADGRG1 Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Wen Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells possess potent cytotoxic mechanisms that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we explored the regulation and function of GPR56/ADGRG1, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor implicated in developmental processes and expressed distinctively in mature NK cells. Expression of GPR56 was triggered by Hobit (a homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells and declined upon cell activation. Through studying NK cells from polymicrogyria patients with disease-causing mutations in ADGRG1, encoding GPR56, and NK-92 cells ectopically expressing the receptor, we found that GPR56 negatively regulates immediate effector functions, including production of inflammatory cytokines and cytolytic proteins, degranulation, and target cell killing. GPR56 pursues this activity by associating with the tetraspanin CD81. We conclude that GPR56 inhibits natural cytotoxicity of human NK cells.

  4. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Yeon-Jae [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hafis Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Bum-Chan [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su-Hyung [Laboratory of Translational Immunology and Vaccinology, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Woo [Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Eui-Cheol, E-mail: ecshin@kaist.ac.kr [Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    Cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP{sup C} in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C} protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} protein was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with the Fc portion of human IgG{sub 1} (PrP{sup C}-Fc). PrP{sup C}-Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56{sup dim} NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP{sup C}-Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP{sup C}-Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP{sup C}-Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP{sup C} (PrP{sup C}-Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP{sup C} with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP{sup C}-Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways.

  5. Activation of human natural killer cells by the soluble form of cellular prion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Yeon-Jae; Sung, Pil Soo; Jang, Young-Soon; Choi, Young Joon; Park, Bum-Chan; Park, Su-Hyung; Park, Young Woo; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is widely expressed in various cell types, including cells of the immune system. However, the specific roles of PrP C in the immune system have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a soluble form of recombinant PrP C protein on human natural killer (NK) cells. Recombinant soluble PrP C protein was generated by fusion of human PrP C with the Fc portion of human IgG 1 (PrP C -Fc). PrP C -Fc binds to the surface of human NK cells, particularly to CD56 dim NK cells. PrP C -Fc induced the production of cytokines and chemokines and the degranulation of granzyme B from NK cells. In addition, PrP C -Fc facilitated the IL-15-induced proliferation of NK cells. PrP C -Fc induced phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 and JNK in NK cells, and inhibitors of the ERK or the JNK pathways abrogated PrP C -Fc-induced cytokine production in NK cells. In conclusion, the soluble form of recombinant PrP C -Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. - Highlights: • Recombinant soluble PrP C (PrP C -Fc) was generated by fusion of human PrP C with IgG1 Fc portion. • PrP C -Fc protein induces the production of cytokines and degranulation from human NK cells. • PrP C -Fc protein enhances the IL-15-induced proliferation of human NK cells. • PrP C -Fc protein activates human NK cells via the ERK and JNK signaling pathways

  6. Cigarette Smoke Suppresses the Surface Expression of c-kit and FcεRI on Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Givi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a multicomponent disease characterized by emphysema and/or chronic bronchitis. COPD is mostly associated with cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoke contains over 4,700 chemical compounds, including free radicals and LPS (a Toll-Like Receptor 4 agonist at concentrations which may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases like COPD. We have previously shown that short-term exposure to cigarette smoke medium (CSM can stimulate several inflammatory cells via TLR4 and that CSM reduces the degranulation of bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs. In the current study, the effect of CSM on mast cells maturation and function was investigated. Coculturing of BMMC with CSM during the development of bone marrow progenitor cells suppressed the granularity and the surface expression of c-kit and FcεRI receptors. Stimulation with IgE/antigen resulted in decreased degranulation and release of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The effects of CSM exposure could not be mimicked by the addition of LPS to the culture medium. In conclusion, this study shows that CSM may affect mast cell development and subsequent response to allergic activation in a TLR4-independent manner.

  7. Activated NKT cells imprint NK-cell differentiation, functionality and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Trittel, Stephanie; May, Tobias; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Chambers, Benedict J; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    NK cells represent a vital component of the innate immune system. The recent discoveries demonstrating that the functionality of NK cells depends on their differentiation and education status underscore their potential as targets for immune intervention. However, to exploit their full potential, a detailed understanding of the cellular interactions involved in these processes is required. In this regard, the cross-talk between NKT cells and NK cells needs to be better understood. Our results provide strong evidence for NKT cell-induced effects on key biological features of NK cells. NKT-cell activation results in the generation of highly active CD27(high) NK cells with improved functionality. In this context, degranulation activity and IFNγ production were mainly detected in the educated subset. In a mCMV infection model, we also demonstrated that NKT-cell stimulation induced the generation of highly functional educated and uneducated NK cells, crucial players in viral control. Thus, our findings reveal new fundamental aspects of the NKT-NK cell axis that provide important hints for the manipulation of NK cells in clinical settings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Activation of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Bone and Joint Infection due to Staphylococci Expressing or Not the Small Colony Variant Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Viel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bone and joint infections (BJI are devastating diseases. Relapses are frequently observed, as some pathogens, especially staphylococci, can persist intracellularly by expressing a particular phenotype called small colony variant (SCV. As natural killer (NK cells are lymphocytes specialized in the killing of host cells infected by intracellular pathogens, we studied NK cells of patients with chronic BJI due to staphylococci expressing or not SCVs (10 patients in both groups. Controls were patients infected with other bacteria without detectable expression of SCVs, and healthy volunteers. NK cell phenotype was evaluated from PBMCs by flow cytometry. Degranulation capacity was evaluated after stimulation with K562 cells in vitro. We found that NK cells were activated in terms of CD69 expression, loss of CD16 and perforin, in all infected patients in comparison with healthy volunteers, independently of the SCV phenotype. Peripheral NK cells in patients with chronic BJI display signs of recent activation and degranulation in vivo in response to CD16-mediated signals, regardless of the type of bacteria involved. This could involve a universal capacity of isolates responsible for chronic BJI to produce undetectable SCVs in vivo, which might be a target of future intervention.

  9. Stimulated human mast cells secrete mitochondrial components that have autocrine and paracrine inflammatory actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodi Zhang

    Full Text Available Mast cells are hematopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that participate in acquired and innate immunity, as well as in inflammation through release of many chemokines and cytokines, especially in response to the pro-inflammatory peptide substance P (SP. Inflammation is critical in the pathogenesis of many diseases, but the trigger(s is often unknown. We investigated if mast cell stimulation leads to secretion of mitochondrial components and whether these could elicit autocrine and/or paracrine inflammatory effects. Here we show that human LAD2 mast cells stimulated by IgE/anti-IgE or by the SP led to secretion of mitochondrial particles, mitochondrial (mt mtDNA and ATP without cell death. Mitochondria purified from LAD2 cells and, when mitochondria added to mast cells trigger degranulation and release of histamine, PGD(2, IL-8, TNF, and IL-1β. This stimulatory effect is partially inhibited by an ATP receptor antagonist and by DNAse. These results suggest that the mitochondrial protein fraction may also contribute. Purified mitochondria also stimulate IL-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF release from cultured human keratinocytes, and VEGF release from primary human microvascular endothelial cells. In order to investigate if mitochondrial components could be secreted in vivo, we injected rats intraperiotoneally (ip with compound 48/80, which mimicks the action of SP. Peritoneal mast cells degranulated and mitochondrial particles were documented by transimission electron microscopy outside the cells. We also wished to investigate if mitochondrial components secreted locally could reach the systemic circulation. Administration ip of mtDNA isolated from LAD2 cells in rats was detected in their serum within 4 hr, indicating that extravascular mtDNA could enter the systemic circulation. Secretion of mitochondrial components from stimulated live mast cells may act as "autopathogens" contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammatory

  10. Multi-cellular natural killer (NK) cell clusters enhance NK cell activation through localizing IL-2 within the cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Miju; Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Hye Mi; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Kyung-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Multi-cellular cluster formation of natural killer (NK) cells occurs during in vivo priming and potentiates their activation to IL-2. However, the precise mechanism underlying this synergy within NK cell clusters remains unclear. We employed lymphocyte-laden microwell technologies to modulate contact-mediated multi-cellular interactions among activating NK cells and to quantitatively assess the molecular events occurring in multi-cellular clusters of NK cells. NK cells in social microwells, which allow cell-to-cell contact, exhibited significantly higher levels of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling compared with those in lonesome microwells, which prevent intercellular contact. Further, CD25, an IL-2R α chain, and lytic granules of NK cells in social microwells were polarized toward MTOC. Live cell imaging of lytic granules revealed their dynamic and prolonged polarization toward neighboring NK cells without degranulation. These results suggest that IL-2 bound on CD25 of one NK cells triggered IL-2 signaling of neighboring NK cells. These results were further corroborated by findings that CD25-KO NK cells exhibited lower proliferation than WT NK cells, and when mixed with WT NK cells, underwent significantly higher level of proliferation. These data highlights the existence of IL-2 trans-presentation between NK cells in the local microenvironment where the availability of IL-2 is limited.

  11. Involvement of mast cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Bhola K; Kosanovic, Djuro; Kaulen, Christina; Cornitescu, Teodora; Savai, Rajkumar; Hoffmann, Julia; Reiss, Irwin; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Weissmann, Norbert; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Schermuly, Ralph T

    2011-05-02

    Mast cells (MCs) are implicated in inflammation and tissue remodeling. Accumulation of lung MCs is described in pulmonary hypertension (PH); however, whether MC degranulation and c-kit, a tyrosine kinase receptor critically involved in MC biology, contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of PH has not been fully explored. Pulmonary MCs of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) patients and monocrotaline-injected rats (MCT-rats) were examined by histochemistry and morphometry. Effects of the specific c-kit inhibitor PLX and MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium salt (CSS) were investigated in MCT-rats both by the preventive and therapeutic approaches. Hemodynamic and right ventricular hypertrophy measurements, pulmonary vascular morphometry and analysis of pulmonary MC localization/counts/activation were performed in animal model studies. There was a prevalence of pulmonary MCs in IPAH patients and MCT-rats as compared to the donors and healthy rats, respectively. Notably, the perivascular MCs were increased and a majority of them were degranulated in lungs of IPAH patients and MCT-rats (p rats, the pharmacological inhibitions of MC degranulation and c-kit with CSS and PLX, respectively by a preventive approach (treatment from day 1 to 21 of MCT-injection) significantly attenuated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). Moreover, vascular remodeling, as evident from the significantly decreased muscularization and medial wall thickness of distal pulmonary vessels, was improved. However, treatments with CSS and PLX by a therapeutic approach (from day 21 to 35 of MCT-injection) neither improved hemodynamics and RVH nor vascular remodeling. The accumulation and activation of perivascular MCs in the lungs are the histopathological features present in clinical (IPAH patients) and experimental (MCT-rats) PH. Moreover, the accumulation and activation of MCs in the lungs contribute to the development of PH in MCT-rats. Our

  12. Inhibitory effect of 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammation through suppression of IκB kinase complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Je, In-Gyu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Gyu [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hui-Hun; Lee, Soyoung; Choi, Jin Kyeong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Duk-Sil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Gumi Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi 730-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon [College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Khang, Dongwoo, E-mail: dkhang@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    As the importance of allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma, research on potential drug candidates becomes more necessary. Mast cells play an important role as initiators of allergic responses through the release of histamine; therefore, they should be the target of pharmaceutical development for the management of allergic inflammation. In our previous study, anti-allergic effect of extracts of Amomum xanthioides was demonstrated. To further investigate improved candidates, 1,2,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene (TMB) was isolated from methanol extracts of A. xanthioides. TMB dose-dependently attenuated the degranulation of mast cells without cytotoxicity by inhibiting calcium influx. TMB decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-4 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Increased expression of these cytokines was caused by translocation of nuclear factor-κB into the nucleus, and it was hindered by suppressing activation of IκB kinase complex. To confirm the effect of TMB in vivo, the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced active systemic anaphylaxis (ASA) and IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) models were used. In the ASA model, hypothermia was decreased by oral administration of TMB, which attenuated serum histamine, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 levels. Increased pigmentation of Evans blue was reduced by TMB in a dose-dependent manner in the PCA model. Our results suggest that TMB is a possible therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammatory diseases that acts through the inhibition of mast cell degranulation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. - Highlights: • TMB reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • TMB inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • TMB suppressed both active and passive anaphylaxis. • Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of TMB might be due to the blocking IKK complex. • TMB might be a candidate for the treatment of

  13. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  14. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica; Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. → CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca 2+ -insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. → Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits FcεRI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. → Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl 2 promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl 2 -induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl 2 in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals-dependent Fyn kinase activation.

  15. VEGF secretion during hypoxia depends on free radicals-induced Fyn kinase activity in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Roman, Jonathan; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Lamas, Monica [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico); Gonzalez Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (Cinvestav, IPN) (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) secrete functional VEGF but do not degranulate after Cobalt chloride-induced hypoxia. {yields} CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells occurs by a Ca{sup 2+}-insensitive but brefeldin A and Tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism. {yields} Trolox and N-acetylcysteine inhibit hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion but only Trolox inhibits Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent anaphylactic degranulation in mast cells. {yields} Src family kinase Fyn activation after free radical production is necessary for hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in mast cells. -- Abstract: Mast cells (MC) have an important role in pathologic conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where hypoxia conduce to deleterious inflammatory response. MC contribute to hypoxia-induced angiogenesis producing factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but the mechanisms behind the control of hypoxia-induced VEGF secretion in this cell type is poorly understood. We used the hypoxia-mimicking agent cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) to analyze VEGF secretion in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). We found that CoCl{sub 2} promotes a sustained production of functional VEGF, able to induce proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was independent of calcium rise but dependent on tetanus toxin-sensitive vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs). VEGF exocytosis required free radicals formation and the activation of Src family kinases. Interestingly, an important deficiency on CoCl{sub 2}-induced VEGF secretion was observed in Fyn kinase-deficient BMMCs. Moreover, Fyn kinase was activated by CoCl{sub 2} in WT cells and this activation was prevented by treatment with antioxidants such as Trolox and N-acetylcysteine. Our results show that BMMCs are able to release VEGF under hypoxic conditions through a tetanus toxin-sensitive mechanism, promoted by free radicals

  16. CXCR5+CD8+T cells infiltrate the colorectal tumors and nearby lymph nodes, and are associated with enhanced IgG response in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Junjie; Zhang, Chenxin; Yang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shaoxuan; Wang, Zhongchuan; Li, Xu; Yu, Enda

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer type worldwide and contributes to a significant percentage of cancer-related mortality. Recent studies have shown that the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells present more potent proinflammatory function than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells in chronic virus infections and in follicular lymphoma, but the role of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in colorectal cancer is yet unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were very rare in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy and colorectal cancer individuals, but were significantly enriched in resected tumors and tumor-associated lymph nodes. Compared to CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells demonstrated significantly higher Bcl-6 expression and lower Blimp1 expression, suggesting that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells might represent a memory CD8 + T cell subset. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells also enhanced the IgG expression by autologous B cells. Under ex vivo condition, the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells demonstrated lower degranulation, TNFα expression and IFNγ expression than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. However, after PMA + ionomycin stimulation, the degranulation and TNFα expression by CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were significantly elevated to a level comparable with CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, whereas the IFNγ expression by PMA + ionomycin-stimulated CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were significantly higher than that by CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. Following long-term TCR-stimulation, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells demonstrated significantly more potent proliferation capacity and higher IFNγ expression than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. TCR-stimulated CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells also showed a gradual downregulation in CXCR5 expression. We further found that TCR-stimulated CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells demonstrated higher granzyme B production and induced more specific lysis of autologous tumor cells than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. Together, these data demonstrate that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells represent a significant CD8 + T cell subset in

  17. Histamine Release from Mast Cells and Basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils represent the most relevant source of histamine in the immune system. Histamine is stored in cytoplasmic granules along with other amines (e.g., serotonin), proteases, proteoglycans, cytokines/chemokines, and angiogenic factors and rapidly released upon triggering with a variety of stimuli. Moreover, mast cell and basophil histamine release is regulated by several activating and inhibitory receptors. The engagement of different receptors can trigger different modalities of histamine release and degranulation. Histamine released from mast cells and basophils exerts its biological activities by activating four G protein-coupled receptors, namely H1R, H2R, H3R (expressed mainly in the brain), and the recently identified H4R. While H1R and H2R activation accounts mainly for some mast cell- and basophil-mediated allergic disorders, the selective expression of H4R on immune cells is uncovering new roles for histamine (possibly derived from mast cells and basophils) in allergic, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. Thus, the in-depth knowledge of mast cell and basophil histamine release and its biologic effects is poised to uncover new therapeutic avenues for a wide spectrum of disorders.

  18. Modulation of the mitotic activity and population of the mast cells in the oral mucosa by substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Godlewski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    To assess the effect of substances inducing mast cell degranulation (substance P and granuliberin R) on the mitotic indices of the gingiva stratified epithelium, basal cells from rats were studied in vivo. Seventy Lewis male rats were used in the study. The rats received injections of either 0.1 ml 0.9% NaCl (l0 rats), or substance P (10(-4), l0(-6), 10(-8) g/ml) (30 rats), or granuliberin R (10(-4), l0(-6), 10(-8) g/ml) (30 rats) into their mandibular gingiva in the vicinity of the right mental foramen. The mitotic index of keratinocytes was established after the kolchicine arrest (2 hours prior to material collection i.p. injection). The number of cells in metaphase was counted on 1000 consecutive basal layer cells after hematoxilin and eosin section staining. Mast cells were revealed using pinocyanol erythrosinate according to Bensley. Numerical density and morphometric features were analyzed. Substance P and granuliberin R injected into the gingiva affect the mast cells and the basal cell proliferation of the gingival epithelium. The diminished mitotic activity of basal layer cells was accompanied by degranulation and/or migration of mast cells under the basal membrane of the epithelium. After administration of high doses of granuloliberin R, mast cells were found in the deep connective tissue alligned towards the epithelium. A neuromediator from the trigeminal nerve (substance P) and substances from mast cells actively interfere in the proliferation of oral keratinocytes and the activity of connective tissue cells.

  19. CXCR5+CD8+T cells present elevated capacity in mediating cytotoxicity toward autologous tumor cells through interleukin 10 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiahong; Zha, Jie; Guo, Xutao; Shi, Pengcheng; Xu, Bing

    2017-09-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, with limited treatment options in refractory and relapsed patients. Growing evidence supports the notion that CD8 + T cell immunity could be utilized to eliminate B cell lymphomas. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell is a novel cell subtype and share CXCR5 expression with CD19 + tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the frequency and function of existing CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in DLBCL patients. We found that DLBCL patients as a group demonstrated significantly higher level of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells than healthy individuals, with huge variability in each patient. Using anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated CD8 + T cells as effector (E) cells and autologous CD19 + tumor cells as target (T) cells, at high E:T ratio, no difference between the intensities of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell- and CXCR5 - CD8 + T cell-mediated cytotoxicity were observed. However, at intermediate and low E:T ratios, the CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells presented stronger cytotoxicity than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. The expressions of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin were significantly higher in CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells than in CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells, with no significant difference in the level of degranulation. Tumor cells in DLBCL were known to secrete high level of interleukin 10 (IL-10). We therefore blocked the IL-10/IL-10R pathway, and found that the expressions of granzyme A, granzyme B, and perforin by CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were significantly elevated. Together, these results suggest that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells are potential candidates of CD8 + T cell-based immunotherapies, could mediate elimination of autologous tumor cells in DLBCL patients, but are also susceptible to IL-10-mediated suppression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mast cells and histamine play an important role in edema and leukocyte recruitment induced by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Louise F; Prezotto-Neto, José Pedro; Távora, Bianca C L F; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L; Pereira, Nicole A; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Simone G S; Teixeira, Catarina F P; Santoro, Marcelo L; Barbaro, Katia C

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the inflammatory response caused by Potamotrygon motoro stingray venom (PmV) in mouse paws. Pre-treatment of animals with a mast cell degranulation inhibitor (cromolyn) diminished edema (62% of inhibition) and leukocyte influx into the site of PmV injection. Promethazine (histamine type 1 receptor antagonist) or thioperamide (histamine type 3 and 4 receptor antagonist) also decreased edema (up to 30%) and leukocyte numbers, mainly neutrophils (40-50 %). Cimetidine (histamine type 2 receptor antagonist) had no effect on PmV-induced inflammation. In the RBL-2H3 lineage of mast cells, PmV caused proper cell activation, in a dose-dependent manner, with release of PGD2 and PGE2. In addition, the role of COXs products on PmV inflammatory response was evaluated. Indomethacin (COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor) or etoricoxib (COX-2 inhibitor) partially diminished edema (around 20%) in PmV-injected mice. Indomethacin, but not etoricoxib, modulated neutrophil influx into the site of venom injection. In conclusion, mast cell degranulation and histamine, besides COXs products, play an important role in PmV-induced reaction. Since PmV mechanism of action remains unknown, hindering accurate treatment, clinical studies can be performed to validate the prescription of antihistaminic drugs, besides NSAIDs, to patients injured by freshwater stingrays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structure-activity relationship of a series of 17 parabens and related compounds for histamine release in rat peritoneal mast cells and skin allergic reaction in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uramaru, Naoto; Inoue, Toshio; Watanabe, Yoko; Shigematsu, Hidenari; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Parabens, which are a homologous series of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines and foods because of their antimicrobial activity. However, parabens in cosmetics have been suspected to cause allergic contact dermatitis. In this study, we examined paraben-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells and skin reaction in guinea pigs using a series of 17 parabens with different alcohol side chains, ranging from methylparaben to dodecylparaben. Octylparaben showed the greatest histamine release-inducing activity from mast cells, and the activity was decreased in shorter- and longer-side-chain parabens. Octyl benzoate, octyl o-hydroxybenzoate and phenyloctane caused no significant degranulation of mast cells, whereas octyl m-hydroxybenzoate, octyl p-hydroxybenzoate and octyl phenol induced concentration-related degranulation. Metabolites of these parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) did not show histamine release-inducing activity. In the guinea pig skin reaction test, heptylparaben induced a typical strong skin reaction, while butylparaben induced a typical weak skin reaction, and methylparaben and dodecylparaben were inactive. Metabolites of parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols) were also inactive. These results indicate that interaction of parabens with rat mast cells requires a minimum length and adequate lipophilicity of the alkyl side chain. Since metabolites of parabens were inactive, parabens appear to be direct-acting allergens.

  2. Cytomegalovirus-Infected Cells Resist T Cell Mediated Killing in an HLA-Recognition Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proff, Julia; Walterskirchen, Christian; Brey, Charlotte; Geyeregger, Rene; Full, Florian; Ensser, Armin; Lehner, Manfred; Holter, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the potential of HLA-independent T cell therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, we developed a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) directed against the HCMV encoded glycoprotein B (gB), which is expressed at high levels on the surface of infected cells. T cells engineered with this anti-gB CAR recognized HCMV-infected cells and released cytokines and cytotoxic granules. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to analogous approaches for HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C virus, we found that HCMV-infected cells were resistant to killing by the CAR-modified T cells. In order to elucidate whether this phenomenon was restricted to the use of CARs, we extended our experiments to T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated recognition of infected cells. To this end we infected fibroblasts with HCMV-strains deficient in viral inhibitors of antigenic peptide presentation and targeted these HLA-class I expressing peptide-loaded infected cells with peptide-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). Despite strong degranulation and cytokine production by the T cells, we again found significant inhibition of lysis of HCMV-infected cells. Impairment of cell lysis became detectable 1 day after HCMV infection and gradually increased during the following 3 days. We thus postulate that viral anti-apoptotic factors, known to inhibit suicide of infected host cells, have evolved additional functions to directly abrogate T cell cytotoxicity. In line with this hypothesis, CAR-T cell cytotoxicity was strongly inhibited in non-infected fibroblasts by expression of the HCMV-protein UL37x1, and even more so by additional expression of UL36. Our data extend the current knowledge on Betaherpesviral evasion from T cell immunity and show for the first time that, beyond impaired antigen presentation, infected cells are efficiently protected by direct blockade of cytotoxic effector functions through viral proteins.

  3. Mast cells behavior analysis: non mineralized wall of suprabony periodontal pockets submitted to low intensity laser radiation. (An in anima nobile study); Verificacao do comportamento de mastocitos na parede nao mineralizada da bolsa periodontal supra-ossea submetida a radiacao laser de baixa intensidade. (Estudo in anima nobile)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Livio de Barros

    2001-07-01

    For this study 20 patients with periodontal disease were selected. The treatment required for all of then was the gingivectomy, a ressective periodontal surgery. This technique consists of removing the whole excess of gingival tissue with the intent of reestablishing the anatomy and the correct function. The gingival area was submitted to 2 different wavelengths and then histologically analysed to search for alterations, mainly concerning mast cells behavior, a blood cell responsible, among other things, for blood vases enlargement. During the surgical procedure each gingival area was submitted to infrared low intensity laser ({lambda} = 785 nm) or to red laser ({lambda} = 688 nm), both with 50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm{sup 2}. A third area was analysed, the control area, in which no laser treatment was employed. The samples were fixated in formol, cut and stained by hematoxyline eosine and toluidine blue. Based on the result we can conclude: the 2 wavelengths used in this study led to the reduction in the number of mast cells present in the tissue as well as to the increase on the degranulation of the remaining mast cells, considered statistically significant taken the degranulation index and; there was no significant difference caused by the action of the two laser wavelengths {lambda}=785 nm and {lambda}=688 nm -50 mW of power and fluence of 8 J/cm{sup 2}-, over the degranulation of the mast cells; the length and width of the randomly chosen blood vases were not statistically different among the analysed groups. (author)

  4. Kalanchoe pinnata inhibits mast cell activation and prevents allergic airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, E A; Reuter, S; Martin, H; Dehzad, N; Muzitano, M F; Costa, S S; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Buhl, R; Stassen, M; Taube, C

    2012-01-15

    Aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) have been found effective in models to reduce acute anaphylactic reactions. In the present study, we investigate the effect of Kp and the flavonoid quercetin (QE) and quercitrin (QI) on mast cell activation in vitro and in a model of allergic airway disease in vivo. Treatment with Kp and QE in vitro inhibited degranulation and cytokine production of bone marrow-derived mast cells following IgE/FcɛRI crosslinking, whereas treatment with QI had no effect. Similarly, in vivo treatment with Kp and QE decreased development of airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia and production of IL-5, IL-13 and TNF. In contrast, treatment with QI had no effect on these parameters. These findings demonstrate that treatment with Kp or QE is effective in treatment of allergic airway disease, providing new insights to the immunomodulatory functions of this plant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Cytotoxic T cells mediate pathology and metastasis in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O Novais

    Full Text Available Disease progression in response to infection can be strongly influenced by both pathogen burden and infection-induced immunopathology. While current therapeutics focus on augmenting protective immune responses, identifying therapeutics that reduce infection-induced immunopathology are clearly warranted. Despite the apparent protective role for murine CD8⁺ T cells following infection with the intracellular parasite Leishmania, CD8⁺ T cells have been paradoxically linked to immunopathological responses in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Transcriptome analysis of lesions from Leishmania braziliensis patients revealed that genes associated with the cytolytic pathway are highly expressed and CD8⁺ T cells from lesions exhibited a cytolytic phenotype. To determine if CD8⁺ T cells play a causal role in disease, we turned to a murine model. These studies revealed that disease progression and metastasis in L. braziliensis infected mice was independent of parasite burden and was instead directly associated with the presence of CD8⁺ T cells. In mice with severe pathology, we visualized CD8⁺ T cell degranulation and lysis of L. braziliensis infected cells. Finally, in contrast to wild-type CD8⁺ T cells, perforin-deficient cells failed to induce disease. Thus, we show for the first time that cytolytic CD8⁺ T cells mediate immunopathology and drive the development of metastatic lesions in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  6. The Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxic Function Is Modulated by HIV-1 Accessory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Barker

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells’ major role in the control of viruses is to eliminate established infected cells. The capacity of NK cells to kill virus-infected cells is dependent on the interactions between ligands on the infected cell and receptors on the NK cell surface. Because of the importance of ligand-receptor interactions in modulating the NK cell cytotoxic response, HIV has developed strategies to regulate various NK cell ligands making the infected cell surprisingly refractory to NK cell lysis. This is perplexing because the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces expression of ligands for the NK cell activating receptor, NKG2D. In addition, the accessory protein Nef removes the inhibitory ligands HLA-A and -B. The reason for the ineffective killing by NK cells despite the strong potential to eliminate infected cells is due to HIV-1 Vpu’s ability to down modulate the co-activation ligand, NTB-A, from the cell surface. Down modulation of NTB-A prevents efficient NK cell degranulation. This review will focus on the mechanisms through which the HIV-1 accessory proteins modulate their respective ligands, and its implication for NK cell killing of HIV-infected cells.

  7. Interactions of opsonized immune complexes with whole blood cells: binding to erythrocytes restricts complex uptake by leucocyte populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Svehag, S E; Marquart, H V

    1994-01-01

    The binding of opsonized, fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA)/rabbit anti-BSA complexes (IC) to washed human whole blood cells and isolated leucocytes in the presence of autologous serum was investigated by flow cytometry. In the presence of erythrocytes (E), the IC-binding to granulo......The binding of opsonized, fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin (BSA)/rabbit anti-BSA complexes (IC) to washed human whole blood cells and isolated leucocytes in the presence of autologous serum was investigated by flow cytometry. In the presence of erythrocytes (E), the IC...... binding, the main contributors being B cells. E initially inhibited and then later enhanced the IC binding to lymphocytes, suggesting that E promote B cell uptake of C3d,g-covered IC via CR2. Our findings, that E can restrict the IC uptake by circulating leucocytes, and that an IC-induced degranulation...

  8. Susceptibility of human melanoma cells to autologous natural killer (NK cell killing: HLA-related effector mechanisms and role of unlicensed NK cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carrega

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite Natural Killer (NK cells were originally defined as effectors of spontaneous cytotoxicity against tumors, extremely limited information is so far available in humans on their capability of killing cancer cells in an autologous setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have established a series of primary melanoma cell lines from surgically resected specimens and here showed that human melanoma cells were highly susceptible to lysis by activated autologous NK cells. A variety of NK cell activating receptors were involved in killing: particularly, DNAM-1 and NKp46 were the most frequently involved. Since self HLA class I molecules normally play a protective role from NK cell-mediated attack, we analyzed HLA class I expression on melanomas in comparison to autologous lymphocytes. We found that melanoma cells presented specific allelic losses in 50% of the patients analyzed. In addition, CD107a degranulation assays applied to NK cells expressing a single inhibitory receptor, revealed that, even when expressed, specific HLA class I molecules are present on melanoma cell surface in amount often insufficient to inhibit NK cell cytotoxicity. Remarkably, upon activation, also the so called "unlicensed" NK cells, i.e. NK cells not expressing inhibitory receptor specific for self HLA class I molecules, acquired the capability of efficiently killing autologous melanoma cells, thus additionally contributing to the lysis by a mechanism independent of HLA class I expression on melanoma cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have investigated in details the mechanisms controlling the recognition and lysis of melanoma cells by autologous NK cells. In these autologous settings, we demonstrated an efficient in vitro killing upon NK cell activation by mechanisms that may be related or not to abnormalities of HLA class I expression on melanoma cells. These findings should be taken into account in the design of novel immunotherapy approaches

  9. Prostaglandin E2 Prevents Hyperosmolar-Induced Human Mast Cell Activation through Prostanoid Receptors EP2 and EP4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Atencio, Ivonne; Ainsua-Enrich, Erola; de Mora, Fernando; Picado, César; Martín, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Background Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Methods We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP) antagonists for EP1–4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed. Results Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP2 and EP4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone. Conclusions Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP2 and EP4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition. PMID:25329458

  10. Prostaglandin E2 prevents hyperosmolar-induced human mast cell activation through prostanoid receptors EP2 and EP4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Torres-Atencio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mast cells play a critical role in allergic and inflammatory diseases, including exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB in asthma. The mechanism underlying EIB is probably related to increased airway fluid osmolarity that activates mast cells to the release inflammatory mediators. These mediators then act on bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchoconstriction. In parallel, protective substances such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 are probably also released and could explain the refractory period observed in patients with EIB. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of PGE2 on osmotically activated mast cells, as a model of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. METHODS: We used LAD2, HMC-1, CD34-positive, and human lung mast cell lines. Cells underwent a mannitol challenge, and the effects of PGE2 and prostanoid receptor (EP antagonists for EP(1-4 were assayed on the activated mast cells. Beta-hexosaminidase release, protein phosphorylation, and calcium mobilization were assessed. RESULTS: Mannitol both induced mast cell degranulation and activated phosphatidyl inositide 3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, thereby causing de novo eicosanoid and cytokine synthesis. The addition of PGE2 significantly reduced mannitol-induced degranulation through EP(2 and EP(4 receptors, as measured by beta-hexosaminidase release, and consequently calcium influx. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 phosphorylation were diminished when compared with mannitol activation alone. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show a protective role for the PGE2 receptors EP(2 and EP(4 following osmotic changes, through the reduction of human mast cell activity caused by calcium influx impairment and MAP kinase inhibition.

  11. Intratumoral interleukin-21 increases antitumor immunity, tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T-cell density and activity, and enlarges draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Henrik; Galsgaard, Elisabeth D; Bartholomaeussen, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a novel cytokine in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of subcutaneous and intratumoral (IT) administration of IL-21 protein in two syngeneic mouse tumor models, RenCa renal cell carcinoma and B16 melanoma......, and investigated the mechanisms by which IL-21 enhances CD8 T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We found that in comparison to subcutaneous administration, IT administration of IL-21 more potently inhibited tumor growth and increased survival. This correlated with increased densities of tumor-infiltrating CD8...... and CD4CD25 T cells, but not CD4CD25FoxP3 T cells. Furthermore, IT administration of IL-21 increased degranulation, and expression of interferon-gamma and granzyme B in tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. Tumors injected with IL-21 grew slower than contralateral tumors, suggesting that the increased efficacy...

  12. Intratumoral Interleukin-21 Increases Antitumor Immunity, Tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T-cell Density and Activity, and Enlarges Draining Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sondergaard, H.; Galsgaard, E.D.; Bartholomaeussen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is a novel cytokine in clinical development for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have compared the efficacy of subcutaneous and intratumoral (IT) administration of IL-21 protein in two syngeneic mouse tumor models, RenCa renal cell carcinoma and B16 melanoma......, and investigated the mechanisms by which IL-21 enhances CD8(+) T-cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We found that in comparison to subcutaneous administration, IT administration of IL-21 more potently inhibited tumor growth and increased survival. This correlated with increased densities of tumor-infiltrating CD8......(+) and CD4(+) CD25(-) T cells, but not CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, IT administration of IL-21 increased degranulation, and expression of interferon-gamma and granzyme B in tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells. Tumors injected with IL-21 grew slower than contralateral tumors, suggesting...

  13. Regulatory CD4+Foxp3+ T cells control the severity of anaphylaxis.

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    Reem Kanjarawi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening outcome of immediate-type hypersensitivity to allergen, consecutive to mast cell degranulation by allergen-specific IgE. Regulatory T cells (Treg can control allergic sensitization and mast cell degranulation, yet their clinical benefit on anaphylactic symptoms is poorly documented. Here we investigated whether Treg action during the effector arm of the allergic response alleviates anaphylaxis. METHODS: We used a validated model of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis, induced by intravenous challenge with DNP-HSA in mice passively sensitized with DNP-specific IgE. Anaphylaxis was monitored by the drop in body temperature as well as plasma histamine and serum mMCP1 levels. The role of Treg was analyzed using MHC class II-deficient (Aβ(°/° mice, treatment with anti-CD25 or anti-CD4 mAbs and conditional ablation of Foxp3(+ Treg in DEREG mice. Therapeutic efficacy of Treg was also evaluated by transfer experiments using FoxP3-eGFP knock-in mice. RESULTS: Anaphylaxis did not occur in mast cell-deficient W/W(v mutant mice and was only moderate and transient in mice deficient for histamine receptor-1. Defects in constitutive Treg, either genetic or induced by antibody or toxin treatment resulted in a more severe and/or sustained hypothermia, associated with a rise in serum mMCP1, but not histamine. Adoptive transfer of Foxp3(+ Treg from either naïve or DNP-sensitized donors similarly alleviated body temperature loss in Treg-deficient DEREG mice. CONCLUSION: Constitutive Foxp3(+ Treg can control the symptomatic phase of mast cell and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis in mice. This might open up new therapeutic avenues using constitutive rather than Ag-specific Treg for inducing tolerance in allergic patients.

  14. Mast Cells: A Pivotal Role in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerappan, Arul; O'Connor, Nathan J.; Brazin, Jacqueline; Reid, Alicia C.; Jung, Albert; McGee, David; Summers, Barbara; Branch-Elliman, Dascher; Stiles, Brendon; Worgall, Stefan; Kaner, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by an inflammatory response that includes macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and mast cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether mast cells play a role in initiating pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced with bleomycin in mast-cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv (MCD) mice and their congenic controls (WBB6F1-+/+). Mast cell deficiency protected against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, but protection was reversed with the re-introduction of mast cells to the lungs of MCD mice. Two mast cell mediators were identified as fibrogenic: histamine and renin, via angiotensin (ANG II). Both human and rat lung fibroblasts express the histamine H1 and ANG II AT1 receptor subtypes and when activated, they promote proliferation, transforming growth factor β1 secretion, and collagen synthesis. Mast cells appear to be critical to pulmonary fibrosis. Therapeutic blockade of mast cell degranulation and/or histamine and ANG II receptors should attenuate pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:23570576

  15. The Mechanism of Sevoflurane Preconditioning-Induced Protections against Small Intestinal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury Is Independent of Mast Cell in Rats

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    Xiaoliang Gan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate whether sevoflurane preconditioning can protect against small intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IIR injury and to explore whether mast cell (MC is involved in the protections provided by sevoflurane preconditioning. Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to sevoflurane or treated with MC stabilizer cromolyn sodium (CS were subjected to 75-minute superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 2-hour reperfusion in the presence or absence of MC degranulator compound 48/80 (CP. Small intestinal ischemia reperfusion resulted in severe intestinal injury as demonstrated by significant elevations in intestinal injury scores and p47phox and gp91phox, ICAM-1 protein expressions and malondialdehyde and IL-6 contents, and MPO activities as well as significant reductions in SOD activities, accompanied with concomitant increases in mast cell degranulation evidenced by significant increases in MC counts, tryptase expression, and β-hexosaminidase concentrations, and those alterations were further upregulated in the presence of CP. Sevoflurane preconditioning dramatically attenuated the previous IIR-induced alterations except MC counts, tryptase, and β-hexosaminidase which were significantly reduced by CS treatment. Furthermore, CP exacerbated IIR injury was abrogated by CS but not by sevoflurane preconditioning. The data collectively indicate that sevoflurane preconditioning confers protections against IIR injury, and MC is not involved in the protective process.

  16. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

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    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown.In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α. Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue.As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation

  17. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Twait, Erik C; Williard, Deborah E; Yuan, Zuobiao; Meyerholz, David K; Samuel, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown. In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a) IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b) mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c) plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d) pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK) and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α). Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue. As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation. IL-33 is

  18. Interactions between human NK cells and macrophages in response to Salmonella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapaque, Nicolas; Walzer, Thierry; Méresse, Stéphane; Vivier, Eric; Trowsdale, John

    2009-04-01

    NK cells play a key role in host resistance to a range of pathogenic microorganisms, particularly during the initial stages of infection. NK cell interactions with cells infected with viruses and parasites have been studied extensively, but human bacterial infections have not been given the same attention. We studied crosstalk between human NK cells and macrophages infected with intracellular Salmonella. These macrophages activated NK cells, resulting in secretion of IFN-gamma and degranulation. Reciprocally, NK cell activation led to a dramatic reduction in numbers of intramacrophagic live bacteria. We identified three elements in the interaction of NK cells with infected macrophages. First, communication between NK cells and infected macrophages was contact-dependent. The second requirement was IL-2- and/or IL-15-dependent priming of NK cells to produce IFN-gamma. The third was activation of NK cells by IL-12 and IL-18, which were secreted by the Salmonella-infected macrophages. Adhesion molecules and IL-12Rbeta2 were enriched in the contact zone between NK cells and macrophages, consistent with contact- and IL-12/IL-18-dependent NK activation. Our results suggest that, in humans, bacterial clearance is consistent with a model invoking a "ménage à trois" involving NK cells, IL-2/IL-15-secreting cells, and infected macrophages.

  19. CD56bright NK cells exhibit potent antitumor responses following IL-15 priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julia A; Rosario, Maximillian; Romee, Rizwan; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Schneider, Stephanie E; Leong, Jeffrey W; Sullivan, Ryan P; Jewell, Brea A; Becker-Hapak, Michelle; Schappe, Timothy; Abdel-Latif, Sara; Ireland, Aaron R; Jaishankar, Devika; King, Justin A; Vij, Ravi; Clement, Dennis; Goodridge, Jodie; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Wong, Hing C; Fehniger, Todd A

    2017-11-01

    NK cells, lymphocytes of the innate immune system, are important for defense against infectious pathogens and cancer. Classically, the CD56dim NK cell subset is thought to mediate antitumor responses, whereas the CD56bright subset is involved in immunomodulation. Here, we challenge this paradigm by demonstrating that brief priming with IL-15 markedly enhanced the antitumor response of CD56bright NK cells. Priming improved multiple CD56bright cell functions: degranulation, cytotoxicity, and cytokine production. Primed CD56bright cells from leukemia patients demonstrated enhanced responses to autologous blasts in vitro, and primed CD56bright cells controlled leukemia cells in vivo in a murine xenograft model. Primed CD56bright cells from multiple myeloma (MM) patients displayed superior responses to autologous myeloma targets, and furthermore, CD56bright NK cells from MM patients primed with the IL-15 receptor agonist ALT-803 in vivo displayed enhanced ex vivo functional responses to MM targets. Effector mechanisms contributing to IL-15-based priming included improved cytotoxic protein expression, target cell conjugation, and LFA-1-, CD2-, and NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells. Finally, IL-15 robustly stimulated the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways in CD56bright compared with CD56dim NK cells, and blockade of these pathways attenuated antitumor responses. These findings identify CD56bright NK cells as potent antitumor effectors that warrant further investigation as a cancer immunotherapy.

  20. The Mast Cell, Contact, and Coagulation System Connection in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Guilarte

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of allergic reaction, resulting from the effect of mediators and chemotactic substances released by activated cells. Mast cells and basophils are considered key players in IgE-mediated human anaphylaxis. Beyond IgE-mediated activation of mast cells/basophils, further mechanisms are involved in the occurrence of anaphylaxis. New insights into the potential relevance of pathways other than mast cell and basophil degranulation have been unraveled, such as the activation of the contact and the coagulation systems. Mast cell heparin released upon activation provides negatively charged surfaces for factor XII (FXII binding and auto-activation. Activated FXII, the initiating serine protease in both the contact and the intrinsic coagulation system, activates factor XI and prekallikrein, respectively. FXII-mediated bradykinin (BK formation has been proven in the human plasma of anaphylactic patients as well as in experimental models of anaphylaxis. Moreover, the severity of anaphylaxis is correlated with the increase in plasma heparin, BK formation and the intensity of contact system activation. FXII also activates plasminogen in the fibrinolysis system. Mast cell tryptase has been shown to participate in fibrinolysis through plasmin activation and by facilitating the degradation of fibrinogen. Some usual clinical manifestations in anaphylaxis, such as angioedema or hypotension, or other less common, such as metrorrhagia, may be explained by the direct effect of the activation of the coagulation and contact system driven by mast cell mediators.

  1. Inhibitory effect of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract on IgE/Ag-induced mast cell and atopic dermatitis-like mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hae-Sim; Kim, Wan-Joong; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-05-01

    Pterocarpus indicus Willd has been widely used as a traditional medicine to treat edema, cancer, and hyperlipidemia, but its antiallergic properties and underlying mechanisms have not yet been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic activity of Pterocarpus indicus Willd water extract (PIW) using activated mast cells and an atopic dermatitis (AD)-like mouse model. PIW decreased IgE/Ag-induced mast cell degranulation and the phosphorylation of Syk and downstream signaling molecules such as PLC-γ, Akt, Erk 1/2, JNK compared to stimulated mast cells. In DNCB-induced AD-like mice, PIW reduced IgE level in serum, as well as AD-associated scratching behavior and skin severity score. These results indicate that PIW inhibits the allergic response by reducing mast cell activation and may have clinical potential as an antiallergic agent for disorders such as AD.

  2. IFN-α augments natural killer-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity of HIV-1-infected autologous CD4+ T cells regardless of major histocompatibility complex class 1 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu, Costin; Tebas, Pablo; Montaner, Luis J

    2017-03-13

    We have previously shown that IFN-α stimulation augments direct natural killer (NK) cell lysis of autologous CD4 primary T cells infected with certain HIV-1 isolates based upon major histocompatibility complex class 1 (MHC-1) downregulation capacity. Here, we investigated if antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) could trigger lysis of HIV-1 isolates that were resistant to direct NK lysis and if IFN-α prestimulation of NK cells could further enhance ADCC. Using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against gp120 (VRC01 or PGV04) or plasma from HIV-1-infected patients (ART-suppressed or elite controller) to trigger ADCC, we measured NK cell chromium release cytotoxicity against HIV-1-infected autologous CD4 primary T cells and NK cell CD107a degranulation against gp120-coated CD4 T cells. Total or NK-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used as effectors in the presence or absence of IFN-α prestimulation. Plasma from HIV-1-infected patients and monoclonal antibodies against gp120 could trigger NK-dependent ADCC lysis of viral isolates that were resistant to direct NK cell lysis following IFN-α stimulation. In contrast, viral isolates that exhibited potent MHC-I downregulation capacity could be lysed by NK cells through either IFN-α stimulated direct cytotoxicity or through ADCC. When utilized in combination, IFN-α prestimulation significantly augmented ADCC lysis of HIV-1-infected target cells and increased NK cell CD107a degranulation against gp120-coated ADCC targets (P cytotoxicity depending on MHC downregulation status.

  3. Cigarette smoke extract-treated mast cells promote alveolar macrophage infiltration and polarization in experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Yang, Tian; Ning, Qian; Li, Feiyan; Chen, Tianjun; Yao, Yan; Sun, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and may modulate the immune response of exposed individuals. Mast cell function can be altered by cigarette smoking, but the role of smoking in COPD remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to explore the role of cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-treated mast cells in COPD pathogenesis. Cytokine and chemokine expression as well as degranulation of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) were detected in cells exposed to immunoglobulin E (IgE) and various doses of CSE. Adoptive transfer of CSE-treated BMMCs into C57BL/6J mice was performed, and macrophage infiltration and polarization were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Furthermore, a coculture system of BMMCs and macrophages was established to examine macrophage phenotype transition. The role of protease serine member S31 (Prss31) was also investigated in the co-culture system and in COPD mice. CSE exposure suppressed cytokine expression and degranulation in BMMCs, but promoted the expressions of chemokines and Prss31. Adoptive transfer of CSE-treated BMMCs induced macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization in the mouse lung. Moreover, CSE-treated BMMCs triggered macrophage M2 polarization via Prss31 secretion. Recombinant Prss31 was shown to activate interleukin (IL)-13/IL-13Rα/Signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 6 signaling in macrophages. Additionally, a positive correlation was found between Prss31 expression and the number of M2 macrophages in COPD mice. In conclusion, CSE-treated mast cells may induce macrophage infiltration and M2 polarization via Prss31 expression, and potentially contribute to COPD progression.

  4. Pancreatic Nonhormone Expressing Endocrine Cells in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Abu Saleh Md; Cory, Megan; Ong, Allison; Choi, Jennifer; Dhawan, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that the deficit in β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be due, in part, to β-cell degranulation to chromogranin-positive hormone-negative (CPHN) cells. The frequency and distribution of pancreatic CPHN cells were investigated in 19 children with T1D compared with 14 nondiabetic (ND) children. We further evaluated these cells for replication and expression of endocrine lineage markers Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2, and compared these frequencies with those previously reported in CPHN cells in adults with T1D. In contrast to adults’ cells, pancreatic CPHN cells were comparably abundant (percentage of endocrine cells ± standard error of the mean, 1.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2 in patients with T1D vs ND subjects, respectively; P = not significant) and comparably distributed in children with T1D vs ND donors. Replication of CPHN cells was detected but unchanged in children with T1D vs ND children, as was the percentage of CPHN cells expressing Nkx6.1 or NKx2.2. In children with T1D, the frequency of pancreatic CPHN cells was not increased, and this differed from adults with T1D. PMID:28782056

  5. Polyclonal Expansion of NKG2C+ NK Cells in TAP-Deficient Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béziat, Vivien; Sleiman, Marwan; Goodridge, Jodie P.; Kaarbø, Mari; Liu, Lisa L.; Rollag, Halvor; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Zimmer, Jacques; Malmberg, Karl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive natural killer (NK) cell responses to human cytomegalovirus infection are characterized by the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells expressing self-specific inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). Here, we set out to study the HLA class I dependency of such NKG2C+ NK cell expansions. We demonstrate the expansion of NKG2C+ NK cells in patients with transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) deficiency, who express less than 10% of normal HLA class I levels. In contrast to normal individuals, expanded NKG2C+ NK cell populations in TAP-deficient patients display a polyclonal KIR profile and remain hyporesponsive to HLA class I-negative target cells. Nonetheless, agonistic stimulation of NKG2C on NK cells from TAP-deficient patients yielded significant responses in terms of degranulation and cytokine production. Thus, while interactions with self-HLA class I molecules likely shape the KIR repertoire of expanding NKG2C+ NK cells during adaptive NK cell responses in normal individuals, they are not a prerequisite for NKG2C+ NK cell expansions to occur. The emergence of NKG2C-responsive adaptive NK cells in TAP-deficient patients may contribute to antiviral immunity and potentially explain these patients’ low incidence of severe viral infections. PMID:26500647

  6. Cell proliferation along vascular islands during microvascular network growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly-Goss Molly R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observations in our laboratory provide evidence of vascular islands, defined as disconnected endothelial cell segments, in the adult microcirculation. The objective of this study was to determine if vascular islands are involved in angiogenesis during microvascular network growth. Results Mesenteric tissues, which allow visualization of entire microvascular networks at a single cell level, were harvested from unstimulated adult male Wistar rats and Wistar rats 3 and 10 days post angiogenesis stimulation by mast cell degranulation with compound 48/80. Tissues were immunolabeled for PECAM and BRDU. Identification of vessel lumens via injection of FITC-dextran confirmed that endothelial cell segments were disconnected from nearby patent networks. Stimulated networks displayed increases in vascular area, length density, and capillary sprouting. On day 3, the percentage of islands with at least one BRDU-positive cell increased compared to the unstimulated level and was equal to the percentage of capillary sprouts with at least one BRDU-positive cell. At day 10, the number of vascular islands per vascular area dramatically decreased compared to unstimulated and day 3 levels. Conclusions These results show that vascular islands have the ability to proliferate and suggest that they are able to incorporate into the microcirculation during the initial stages of microvascular network growth.

  7. Activated brain mast cells contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction by evoking microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Dong, Hongquan; Li, Nana; Zhang, Susu; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shu; Qian, Yanning

    2016-05-31

    Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the occurrence and development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, has been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuroinflammation. Although brain mast cells (MCs) are the "first responder" in the brain injury rather than microglia, little is known about the functional aspects of MCs-microglia interactions. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected intracerebroventricular with MC stabilizer Cromolyn (100 μg/μl), MC stimulator C48/80 (1 μg/μl), or sterile saline 30 min before open tibial fracture surgery, and the levels of neuroinflammation and memory dysfunction were tested 1 and 3 days after surgery. In addition, the effect of activated MCs on microglia and neurons was determined in vitro. Tibial fracture surgery induced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, and inflammatory factors production, which initiated the acute brain inflammatory response and neuronal death and exhibited cognitive deficit. Site-directed preinjection of the "MCs stabilizer" disodium cromoglycate (Cromolyn) inhibited this effect, including decrease of inflammatory cytokines, reduced MCs degranulation, microglia activation, neuronal death, and improved cognitive function 24 h after the surgery. In vitro study, we found that the conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mast cells line (P815) could induce primary microglia activation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling and subsequent production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In addition, the activated P815 could directly induce neuronal apoptosis and synapse injury with microglia independently. Cromolyn could inhibit P815 activation following improved microglia activation and neuronal loss. These results implicate that activated MCs could trigger microglia activation and neuronal damage, resulting in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, and

  8. The role of intestinal dendritic cells subsets in the establishment of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, J J; Bol-Schoenmakers, M; Hassing, I; Fiechter, D; Boon, L; Bleumink, R; Pieters, R H H

    2011-06-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 6% of children and is the leading cause of hospitalization for anaphylactic reactions in westernized countries. Crucial in the establishment of allergy is the activation of dendritic cells (DC) leading to T helper 2-mediated responses. We, therefore, investigated whether changes in DC subsets precede the establishment of food allergy, and which DC subsets have functional relevance during allergic sensitization in a mouse model. Changes in DC populations in the intestine were analysed after exposure to cholera toxin alone and in combination with peanut extract (PE) as an allergen. To study the functional role of DC subsets in relation to food allergy, we used expansion of DC in vivo by treatment with Flt3L. Sensitization to PE in this mouse model was accompanied by a shift in DC subsets in intestinal tissues towards more CD11b(+) DC and less CD103(+) DC. No significant changes in the plasmacytoid DC (pDC) numbers were observed. Flt3L treatment, resulting in the expansion of all DC subtypes, inhibited allergic manifestations in our model, including Th2 cytokine production, PE-specific IgE and PE-induced mast cell degranulation. pDC depletion reversed Flt3L-induced inhibition of IgE responses and mast cell degranulation. conclusions and clinical relevance: The establishment of food allergy is accompanied by profound changes in DC subsets in the intestine towards more inflammatory CD11b(+) DC. In addition, expansion of DC numbers by Flt3L, in particular pDC, inhibits the establishment of allergic manifestations in the intestine. These findings are of relevance for understanding the role of DC subsets early during the process of allergic sensitization, and may lead to new therapeutic or prophylactic opportunities to prevent food allergy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Through gap junction communications, co-cultured mast cells and fibroblasts generate fibroblast activities allied with hypertrophic scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theodore T; Ehrlich, H Paul

    2013-05-01

    The prominent inflammatory cell identified in excessive scarring is the mast cell. Hypertrophic scar exhibits myofibroblasts derived from the transformation of fibroblasts, increased collagen synthesis, and stationary nonmigratory resident cells. The co-culture of fibroblasts with an established rat mast cell line (RMC-1) was used to explore the hypothesis of whether mast cells through gap junctional intercellular communications guide fibroblasts in promoting excessive scarring. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultured alone or co-cultured with RMC-1 cells as is or with either blocked gap junctional intercellular communications or devoid of cytoplasmic granules. Collagen synthesis was analyzed by dot blot analysis; immunohistology identified myofibroblasts, and a cell migration assay measured fibroblast locomotion. Fibroblasts co-cultured with RMC-1 cells transformed into myofibroblasts, had increased collagen synthesis, and showed retarded cell migration. In contrast, RMC-1 cells unable to form gap junctional intercellular communications were similar to fibroblasts alone, failing to promote these activities. Degranulated RMC-1 cells were as effective as intact RMC-1 cells. Mast cells induce fibroblast activities associated with hypertrophic scarring through gap junctional intercellular communications. Eliminating the mast cell or its gap junctional intercellular communications with fibroblasts may be a possible approach in preventing hypertrophic scarring or reducing fibrotic conditions.

  10. A novel SIV gag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clone suppresses SIVmac239 replication in CD4(+)T cells revealing the interplay between antiviral effector cells and their infected targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Victor I; Trivett, Matthew T; Coren, Lori V; Jain, Sumiti; Bohn, Patrick S; Wiseman, Roger W; O'Connor, David H; Ohlen, Claes; Ott, David E

    2016-06-01

    To study CD4(+)T-cell suppression of AIDS virus replication, we isolated nine rhesus macaque SIVGag-specific CD4(+)T-cell clones. One responding clone, Gag68, produced a typical cytotoxic CD8(+)T-cell response: induction of intracellular IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and CD107a degranulation. Gag68 effectively suppressed the spread of SIVmac239 in CD4(+)T cells with a corresponding reduction of infected Gag68 effector cells, suggesting that CD4(+)effectors need to suppress their own infection in addition to their targets to be effective. Gag68 TCR cloning and gene transfer into CD4(+)T cells enabled additional experiments with this unique specificity after the original clone senesced. Our data supports the idea that CD4(+)T cells can directly limit AIDS virus spread in T cells. Furthermore, Gag68 TCR transfer into CD4(+)T-cell clones with differing properties holds promise to better understand the suppressive effector mechanisms used by this important component of the antiviral response using the rhesus macaque model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ZnT2-Mediated Zinc Import Into Paneth Cell Granules Is Necessary for Coordinated Secretion and Paneth Cell Function in MiceSummary

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    Abigail B. Podany

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Defects in Paneth cell (PC function are associated with microbial dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation. PC granules contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and substantial stores of zinc (Zn. We hypothesized that Zn, transported into the granule through the Zn transporter (ZnT2, is critical for signature PC functions. Methods: ZnT2 was localized to PC granules using immunofluorescence and sucrose gradient fractionation in wild-type (wt mice, and consequences of ZnT2 loss were characterized in ZnT2 knockout (ZnT2ko mice. Terminal ilea were harvested for immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and fluorescent imaging with the Zn reporter Zinpyr-1. Alterations in fecal microbiota were characterized using 16s ribosomal RNA sequencing. PC degranulation, bacterial translocation, cytokine response to Escherichia coli endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, crypt viability after exposure to the oxidant monochloramine (NH2Cl, and bactericidal activity of luminal contents of terminal ilea against enteropathogenic E coli were assessed. Results: ZnT2 was localized to the membrane of PC granules. In ZnT2ko mice, spontaneous degranulation was observed more frequently than among wt mice. Secretory granules were hypodense with less active lysozyme, and there was evidence of autophagosome accumulation and granule degradation in PCs from ZnT2ko mice. Gut microbiota of ZnT2ko mice were enriched in Bacteroidales S24-7 and relatively depleted of species commonly found in wt mice. Evidence of PC dysfunction in ZnT2ko mice included impaired granule secretion and increased inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide, less bactericidal activity, and greater susceptibility to cell death from NH2Cl. Conclusions: ZnT2 is critical for Zn import into PC granules, and the inability to import Zn leads to profound defects in PC function and uncoordinated granule secretion. Keywords: Small Intestine, Zinc Transporter, Microbiota

  12. Effect of oestradiol on mast cell number and histamine level in the mammary glands of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, H; Wang, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-06-01

    Variations of mast cell number, histamine concentration and oestrogen receptor (ER) expression in mammary glands with the fluctuation of plasma oestradiol level were identified either in the intact rats at different oestrous stages or in the ovary-ectomized rats administrated with different doses of oestradiol benzoate. The results showed that the number of mast cells and histamine concentration fluctuated concomitantly with plasma oestradiol level during the oestrous cycle. More mast cell number and higher histamine concentrations were observed in the oestrous stage than that in the prooestrous and dioestrous stages. Ovariectomy decreased the mast cell number and histamine concentration, which were reconstituted by exogenous oestradiol. ER was mainly found in the nuclear of epithelial cells and interstitial cells of mammary glands. In addition, ER was also expressed in the cytoplasm of some stromal cells. These stromal cells were verified to be mast cells. In conclusion, our results suggested that oestradiol modulated mast cell number and its degranulation in the mammary gland through the ERs pathway. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Amarogentin Displays Immunomodulatory Effects in Human Mast Cells and Keratinocytes

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    Ute Wölfle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes express the bitter taste receptors TAS2R1 and TAS2R38. Amarogentin as an agonist for TAS2R1 and other TAS2Rs promotes keratinocyte differentiation. Similarly, mast cells are known to express bitter taste receptors. The aim of this study was to assess whether bitter compounds display immunomodulatory effects on these immunocompetent cells in the skin, so that they might be a target in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Here, we investigated the impact of amarogentin on substance P-induced release of histamine and TNF-α from the human mast cell line LAD-2. Furthermore, the effect of amarogentin on HaCaT keratinocytes costimulated with TNF-α and histamine was investigated. Amarogentin inhibited in LAD-2 cells substance P-induced production of newly synthesized TNF-α, but the degranulation and release of stored histamine were not affected. In HaCaT keratinocytes histamine and TNF-α induced IL-8 and MMP-1 expression was reduced by amarogentin to a similar extent as with azelastine. In conclusion amarogentin displays immunomodulatory effects in the skin by interacting with mast cells and keratinocytes.

  14. Olopatadine Inhibits Exocytosis in Rat Peritoneal Mast Cells by Counteracting Membrane Surface Deformation

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    Asuka Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Besides its anti-allergic properties as a histamine receptor antagonist, olopatadine stabilizes mast cells by inhibiting the release of chemokines. Since olopatadine bears amphiphilic features and is preferentially partitioned into the lipid bilayers of the plasma membrane, it would induce some morphological changes in mast cells and thus affect the process of exocytosis. Methods: Employing the standard patch-clamp whole-cell recording technique, we examined the effects of olopatadine and other anti-allergic drugs on the membrane capacitance (Cm in rat peritoneal mast cells during exocytosis. Using confocal imaging of a water-soluble fluorescent dye, lucifer yellow, we also examined their effects on the deformation of the plasma membrane. Results: Low concentrations of olopatadine (1 or 10 µM did not significantly affect the GTP-γ-S-induced increase in the Cm. However, 100 µM and 1 mM olopatadine almost totally suppressed the increase in the Cm. Additionally, these doses completely washed out the trapping of the dye on the cell surface, indicating that olopatadine counteracted the membrane surface deformation induced by exocytosis. As shown by electron microscopy, olopatadine generated inward membrane bending in mast cells. Conclusion: This study provides electrophysiological evidence for the first time that olopatadine dose-dependently inhibits the process of exocytosis in rat peritoneal mast cells. Such mast cell stabilizing properties of olopatadine may be attributed to its counteracting effects on the plasma membrane deformation in degranulating mast cells.

  15. The IL-15-Based ALT-803 Complex Enhances FcγRIIIa-Triggered NK Cell Responses and In Vivo Clearance of B Cell Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Maximillian; Liu, Bai; Kong, Lin; Collins, Lynne I; Schneider, Stephanie E; Chen, Xiaoyue; Han, Kaiping; Jeng, Emily K; Rhode, Peter R; Leong, Jeffrey W; Schappe, Timothy; Jewell, Brea A; Keppel, Catherine R; Shah, Keval; Hess, Brian; Romee, Rizwan; Piwnica-Worms, David R; Cashen, Amanda F; Bartlett, Nancy L; Wong, Hing C; Fehniger, Todd A

    2016-02-01

    Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are an important immunotherapy for B-cell lymphoma, and provide evidence that the immune system may be harnessed as an effective lymphoma treatment approach. ALT-803 is a superagonist IL-15 mutant and IL-15Rα-Fc fusion complex that activates the IL-15 receptor constitutively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that ALT-803 would enhance anti-CD20 mAb-directed NK-cell responses and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We tested this hypothesis by adding ALT-803 immunostimulation to anti-CD20 mAb triggering of NK cells in vitro and in vivo. Cell lines and primary human lymphoma cells were utilized as targets for primary human NK cells. Two complementary in vivo mouse models were used, which included human NK-cell xenografts in NOD/SCID-γc (-/-) mice. We demonstrate that short-term ALT-803 stimulation significantly increased degranulation, IFNγ production, and ADCC by human NK cells against B-cell lymphoma cell lines or primary follicular lymphoma cells. ALT-803 augmented cytotoxicity and the expression of granzyme B and perforin, providing one potential mechanism for this enhanced functionality. Moreover, in two distinct in vivo B-cell lymphoma models, the addition of ALT-803 to anti-CD20 mAb therapy resulted in significantly reduced tumor cell burden and increased survival. Long-term ALT-803 stimulation of human NK cells induced proliferation and NK-cell subset changes with preserved ADCC. ALT-803 represents a novel immunostimulatory drug that enhances NK-cell antilymphoma responses in vitro and in vivo, thereby supporting the clinical investigation of ALT-803 plus anti-CD20 mAbs in patients with indolent B-cell lymphoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Loss of CCR7 expression on CD56(bright) NK cells is associated with a CD56(dim)CD16⁺ NK cell-like phenotype and correlates with HIV viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Henoch S; Ahmad, Fareed; Eberhard, Johanna M; Bhatnagar, Nupur; Bollmann, Benjamin A; Keudel, Phillip; Ballmaier, Matthias; Zielinska-Skowronek, Margot; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    NK cells are pivotal sentinels of the innate immune system and distinct subpopulations in peripheral blood have been described. A number of studies addressed HIV-induced alterations of NK cell phenotype and functionality mainly focusing on CD56(dim)CD16⁺ and CD56⁻CD16⁺ NK cells. However, the impact of HIV-infection on CD56(bright) NK cells is less well understood. Here we report a rise of CD56(bright) NK cells in HIV-infected individuals, which lack CCR7-expression and strongly correlate with HIV viral load. CCR7⁻CD56(bright) NK cells were characterized by increased cytolytic potential, higher activation states and a more differentiated phenotype. These cells thus acquired a number of features of CD56(dim)CD16⁺ NK cells. Furthermore, CD56(bright) NK cells from HIV patients exhibited higher degranulation levels compared to uninfected individuals. Thus, chronic HIV-infection is associated with a phenotypic and functional shift of CD56(bright) NK cells, which provides a novel aspect of HIV-associated pathogenesis within the NK cell compartment.

  17. Fluorogenic Cell-Based Biosensors for Monitoring Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Theresa; Salazar, Noe; Tabb, Joel; Chase, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Fluorogenic cell-based sensor systems for detecting microbes (especially pathogenic ones) and some toxins and allergens are undergoing development. These systems harness the natural signaltransduction and amplification cascades that occur in mast cells upon activation with antigens. These systems include (1) fluidic biochips for automated containment of samples, reagents, and wastes and (2) sensitive, compact fluorometers for monitoring the fluorescent responses of mast cells engineered to contain fluorescent dyes. It should be possible to observe responses within minutes of adding immune complexes. The systems have been shown to work when utilizing either immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies or traditionally generated rat antibodies - a promising result in that it indicates that the systems could be developed to detect many target microbes. Chimeric IgE antibodies and rat immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies could be genetically engineered for recognizing biological and chemical warfare agents and airborne and food-borne allergens. Genetic engineering efforts thus far have yielded (1) CD14 chimeric antibodies that recognize both Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and bind to the surfaces of mast cells, eliciting a degranulation response and (2) rat IgG2a antibodies that act similarly in response to low levels of canine parvovirus.

  18. Retinoic Acid Negatively Impacts Proliferation and MCTC Specific Attributes of Human Skin Derived Mast Cells, but Reinforces Allergic Stimulability

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    Magda Babina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Vitamin-A-metabolite retinoic acid (RA acts as a master regulator of cellular programs. Mast cells (MCs are primary effector cells of type-I-allergic reactions. We recently uncovered that human cutaneous MCs are enriched with RA network components over other skin cells. Yet, direct experimental evidence on the significance of the RA-MC axis is limited. Here, skin-derived cultured MCs were exposed to RA for seven days and investigated by flow-cytometry (BrdU incorporation, Annexin/PI, FcεRI, microscopy, RT-qPCR, histamine quantitation, protease activity, and degranulation assays. We found that while MC size and granularity remained unchanged, RA potently interfered with MC proliferation. Conversely, a modest survival-promoting effect from RA was noted. The granule constituents, histamine and tryptase, remained unaffected, while RA had a striking impact on MC chymase, whose expression dropped by gene and by peptidase activity. The newly uncovered MRGPRX2 performed similarly to chymase. Intriguingly, RA fostered allergic MC degranulation, in a way completely uncoupled from FcεRI expression, but it simultaneously restricted MRGPRX2-triggered histamine release in agreement with the reduced receptor expression. Vitamin-A-derived hormones thus re-shape skin-derived MCs numerically, phenotypically, and functionally. A general theme emerges, implying RA to skew MCs towards processes associated with (allergic inflammation, while driving them away from the skin-imprinted MCTC (“MCs containing tryptase and chymase” signature (chymase, MRGPRX2. Collectively, MCs are substantial targets of the skin retinoid network.

  19. Fine-tuning of mast cell activation by FceRIbeta chain

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    Chisei eRa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells play the key role in allergic reaction and disorders, being activated by the high affinity receptor for IgE, FceRI. There are two types of FceRI expressed on the cell surface of human mast cells, abg2 type and ag2 type (without b chain, while in mouse mast cells only the tetrameric abg2 type is expressed. In the lesion of allergic inflammation such as atopic conjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis, mast cells increase in number and exclusively express the abg2 type FceRI, in contrast in healthy conjunctiva and skin most mast cells express the ag2 type. The human and mouse FceRI genes contain seven exons and in the human gene we found a repressor element locates in the forth intron. Through the repressor element HDACs are recruited to the FceRIb gene by MZF-1/FHL3/NFY complex and repress b transcription by deacetylation of histones in the presence of GM-CSF. It has been long recognized that the function of the b chain ITAM is a signal amplifier, but we have recently revealed bidirectional (positive and negative functions of the b chain ITAM in the regulation of the mast cell activation and effector functions. Namely, the b chain enhances the mast cell activation signal triggered with low intensity stimulation such as lower dose antigen than threshold while it suppresses the signal of high intensity stimulation. Employing mouse model of CHS induced by oxazolone, we have revealed that IgE-mediated mast cell activation is required for CHS and that the b chain is crucially involved in this model. On the other hand diverse immune receptors including TLRs, SCF receptor and GPCRs are known to mediate signals which modulate FceRI・adenosine receptors, one of GPCRs, trigger synergistic degranulation response in mast cells even when the FceRI stimulation is of ‘lower intensity’ than the threshold. We have recently elucidated, in this synergistic degranulation response, b chain ITAM plays positive role, possibly reflecting in vivo allergic

  20. Association of mast cells with helicobacter pylori infection in the antral mucosa

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    SR KC

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Helicobacter pylori lead to mast cell degranulation and release of active chemical compounds in in-vitro conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association of mast cell density and Helicobacter pylori in the antral mucosa of the stomach. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 endoscopic biopsies were included in the study. In addition to routine Hematoxylin and Eosin stained slides, Giemsa stain was done in each case for the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori and mast cell density in the gastric mucosa. Results: Out of 150 gastric biopsies with histopathological diagnosis of chronic gastritis, 36 cases (24% were positive for Helicobacter pylori. In the antral mucosa, mast cell density was significantly higher in the Helicobacter pylori-positive group than in the Helicobacter pylori-negative group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Mast cells may play a role in the development of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Keywords: Gastritis; Mast Cell; Helicobacter pylori DOI: 10.3126/jpn.v1i1.4448 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2011 Vol.1, 34-36

  1. Role of Mast Cells in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Lichenoid Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Suganya; Malathi, Narasimhan; Thamizhchelvan, Harikrishnan; Sangeetha, Narasimhan; Rajan, Sharada T

    2018-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic T cell mediated disease of oral mucosa, skin, and its appendages with a prevalence of 0.5 to 2.6% worldwide. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) are a group of lesions with diverse aetiologies but have clinical and histological features similar to OLP, thereby posing a great challenge in differentiating both lesions. Mast cells are multifunctional immune cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus by release of certain chemical mediators. Increased mast cell densities with significant percentage of degranulation have been observed as a consistent finding in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The current study was aimed at quantifying the mast cells in histopathological sections of OLP and OLR thereby aiding a means of distinguishing these lesions. The study group involved 21 cases of oral lichen planus, 21 cases of oral lichenoid reactions, and 10 control specimens of normal buccal mucosa. All the cases were stained with Toluidine Blue and routine haematoxylin and eosin and the mast cells were quantified. The results were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and an intergroup analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test. The number of mast cells showed an increased value in oral lichen planus when compared to oral lichenoid reaction and thus an estimation of mast cells count could aid in distinguishing OLP from OLR histopathologically.

  2. Inhibitory effect of glycoprotein isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata bureau on expression of inflammation-related cytokine in bisphenol A-treated HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Uoong; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2009-08-01

    Cudrania tricuspidata is one of the most omnipresent traditional herbal drugs for anti-inflammation and anti-tumor. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the CTB glycoprotein regulates the inflammatory reaction stimulated by bisphenol A (BPA) in human mast cells (HMC-1). Thus, we investigated that CTB glycoprotein inhibits the degranulation of histamine, expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as a mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase, nuclear transcription factors involving nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and Activator protein (AP)-1, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. The results indicated that CTB glycoprotein decreased gene expression of cytokines of IL-4, IFN-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in BPA-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Hence, we speculate that CTB glycoprotein can use as a potent anti-inflammatory agent for inflammatory allergic diseases.

  3. A case of EDTA-related in vitro platelet degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, Jérôme; Lemaire, Pierre; Cussac, Vincent; Sisiroi, Marinela; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne

    2017-08-01

    A 71 year-old woman is admitted to Le Mans hospital center for management of a chronic skin lesion. She has no personal nor familial bleeding history and does not take any medication. In peripheral blood collected with EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra-acetate), the platelet count is elevated and the blood film shows uniformly grey platelets. In sodium citrate-collected blood, platelets show no abnormality. We describe an EDTA-related artifact that is not to be mistaken for grey platelet syndrome.

  4. Human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells transfected with FcεRIα are sensitive to IgE/antigen-mediated stimulation demonstrating selectivity towards cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, YuXiu C; Sun, ShanShan; Kuek, Li Eon; Lopata, Andreas L; Hulett, Mark D; Mackay, Graham A

    2011-08-01

    Mast cells play important roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. Efforts to better understand human mast cell activation and develop novel inhibitory agents have been hampered by the lack of suitable human mast cell lines. The HMC-1 mast cell line has been extensively used, but lacks native expression of the human high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI limiting its applications. We have stably transfected HMC-1 cells with the IgE-binding α-subunit of FcεRI to generate HMCα cells that are antigen-responsive. We have used flow cytometry, cell signaling assays, pharmacological pathway inhibitors and cell functional assays to characterize the properties of HMCα cells. IgE/antigen responses were compared with those of the adenosine receptor agonist NECA. Surface expression of FcεRI in HMCα cells was demonstrated and was enhanced by prior sensitization with IgE. Activation of HMCα cells with IgE/antigen did not produce degranulation, but did lead to release of numerous cytokines. Whilst there was no measurable increase of intracellular Ca(2+) or marked general changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, IgE/antigen stimulation of HMCα cells enhanced phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and Erk. Inhibitors of these pathways, as well as the src kinase inhibitor PP2, attenuated IgE/antigen-induced cytokine release. In summary, we have generated and characterized HMCα cells and show that they are a useful and relevant human mast cell model to examine FcεRI stabilization, signaling and mediator release. We envisage that HMCα cells will have utility in understanding the importance of mast cells in human allergic disease and in assessing the activity of novel anti-allergic compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Label-free imaging immune cells and collagen in atherosclerosis with two-photon and second harmonic generation microscopy

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    Chunqiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis has been recognized as a chronic inflammation disease, in which many types of cells participate in this process, including lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs, mast cells, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs. Developments in imaging technology provide the capability to observe cellular and tissue components and their interactions. The knowledge of the functions of immune cells and their interactions with other cell and tissue components will facilitate our discovery of biomarkers in atherosclerosis and prediction of the risk factor of rupture-prone plaques. Nonlinear optical microscopy based on two-photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG were developed to image mast cells, SMCs and collagen in plaque ex vivo using endogenous optical signals. Mast cells were imaged with two-photon tryptophan autofluorescence, SMCs were imaged with two-photon NADH autofluorescence, and collagen were imaged with SHG. This development paves the way for further study of mast cell degranulation, and the effects of mast cell derived mediators such as induced synthesis and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs which participate in the degradation of collagen.

  6. Latent cytomegalovirus infection enhances anti‐tumour cytotoxicity through accumulation of NKG2C+ NK cells in healthy humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigley, A. B.; Rezvani, K.; Shah, N.; Sekine, T.; Balneger, N.; Pistillo, M.; Agha, N.; Kunz, H.; O'Connor, D. P.; Bollard, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection markedly expands NKG2C+/NKG2A− NK cells, which are potent killers of infected cells expressing human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐E. As HLA‐E is also over‐expressed in several haematological malignancies and CMV has been linked to a reduced risk of leukaemic relapse, we determined the impact of latent CMV infection on NK cell cytotoxicity against four tumour target cell lines with varying levels of HLA‐E expression. NK cell cytotoxicity against K562 (leukaemia origin) and U266 (multiple myeloma origin) target cells was strikingly greater in healthy CMV‐seropositive donors than seronegative donors and was associated strongly with target cell HLA‐E and NK cell NKG2C expression. NK cell cytotoxicity against HLA‐E transfected lymphoma target cells (221.AEH) was ∼threefold higher with CMV, while NK cell cytotoxicity against non‐transfected 721.221 cells was identical between the CMV groups. NK cell degranulation (CD107a+) and interferon (IFN)‐γ production to 221.AEH cells was localized almost exclusively to the NKG2C subset, and antibody blocking of NKG2C completely eliminated the effect of CMV on NK cell cytotoxicity against 221.AEH cells. Moreover, 221.AEH feeder cells and interleukin (IL)−15 were found to expand NKG2C+/NKG2A– NK cells preferentially from CMV‐seronegative donors and increase NK cell cytotoxicity against HLA‐E+ tumour cell lines. We conclude that latent CMV infection enhances NK cell cytotoxicity through accumulation of NKG2C+ NK cells, which may be beneficial in preventing the initiation and progression of haematological malignancies characterized by high HLA‐E expression. PMID:26940026

  7. Stimulation of mast cells leads to cholesterol accumulation in macrophages in vitro by a mast cell granule-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokkonen, J.O.; Kovanen, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by cultured mouse macrophages was markedly promoted by isolated rat mast cell granules present in the culture medium. The granule-mediated uptake of 125 I-LDL enhanced the rate of cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages, the result being accumulation of cholesteryl esters in these cells. Binding of LDL to the granules was essential for the granule-mediated uptake of LDL by macrophages, for the uptake process was prevented by treating the granules with avidin or protamine chloride or by treating LDL with 1,2-cyclohexanedione, all of which inhibit the binding of LDL to the granules. Inhibition of granule phagocytosis by the macrophages with cytochalasin B also abolished the granule-mediated uptake of LDL. Finally, mouse macrophage monolayers and LDL were incubated in the presence of isolated rat serosal mast cells. Stimulation of the mast cells with compound 48/80, a degranulating agent, resulted in dose-dependent release of secretory granules from the mast cells and a parallel increase in 14 C cholesteryl ester synthesis in the macrophages. The results show that, in this in vitro model, the sequence of events leading to accumulation of cholesteryl esters in macrophages involves initial stimulation of mast cells, subsequent release of their secretory granules, binding of LDL to the exocytosed granules, and, finally, phagocytosis of the LDL-containing granules by macrophages

  8. The Human Antibody Fragment DIATHIS1 Specific for CEACAM1 Enhances Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Melanoma Cell Lines In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Maria L.; Soriani, Alessandra; Ricci, Biancamaria; Dominici, Sabrina; Moricoli, Diego; Ascione, Alessandro; Santoni, Angela; Magnani, Mauro; Cianfriglia, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence show that de novo expression of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is strongly associated with reduced disease-free survival of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. Previously published investigations report that homophilic interactions between CEACAM1 expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and tumors inhibit the NK cell-mediated killing independently of major histocompatibility complex class I recognition. This biological property can be physiologically relevant in metastatic melanoma because of the increased CEACAM1 expression observed on NK cells from some patients. Moreover, this inhibitory mechanism in many cases might hinder the efficacy of immunotherapeutic treatments of CEACAM1+ malignancies because of tumor evasion by activated effector cells. In the present study, we designed an in vitro experimental model showing that the human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) DIATHIS1 specific for CEACAM1 is able to enhance the lytic machinery of NK cells against CEACAM1+ melanoma cells. The coincubation of the scFv DIATHIS1 with CEACAM1+ melanoma cells and NK-92 cell line significantly increases the cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, pretreatment of melanoma cells with scFv DIATHIS1 promotes the activation and the degranulation capacity of in vitro–expanded NK cells from healthy donors. It is interesting to note that the melanoma cell line MelC and the primary melanoma cells STA that respond better to DIATHIS1 treatment, express higher relative levels of CEACAM1-3L and CEACAM1-3S splice variants isoforms compared with Mel501 cells that are less responsive to DIATHIS1-induced NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity. Taken together, our results suggest that the fully human antibody fragment DIATHIS1 originated by biopanning approach from a phage antibody library may represent a relevant biotechnological platform to design and develop completely human antimelanoma therapeutics of biological origin. PMID

  9. EFFECT OF PANTOPRAZOL A PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR ON SMALL INTESTINAL PANETH CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan ÖZATİK

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies of proton pump inhibitors may have effects on systems other than the stomach has not been investigated sufficiently. Especially in patients treated in intensive care conditions and the resulting use of the mucosal immune system may be very important complication of a defect or failure might be the result does not have any work was done. Therefore, in our study, the mucosal immune system, which is one of the components of the cells on primarily paneth, proton pump inhibitors was to investigate the possible effects. For this purpose, 42 Wistar Albino rats, separatedinto six different groups. In addition, each H2 receptor blocker and proton pump inhibitor groups, with antibiotics given; the existence of bacteria in the environment and between paneth cells releaseantimicrobial agent relationship has been planned to be exposed. As a result of the histological examination with light microscope, pantoprazol to be effective on the small bowel paneth cells andthus a component of the mucosal immune system, antibiotic peptides that block degranulation was found. This effect, the close enteroendocrine cells, mast cells and leukocytes of lamina propria ofileum also directly or indirectly affect.Our findings generally common knowledge, pantoprazol outside gastric parietal cell proton pump containing cells was also thought to influence. In conclusion our study results show that paneth cellsecretion activities in both groups were not needed are corroborative with the fact that mucosal immunity potential can only be induced by microbial environment.

  10. Impact of blood processing variations on Natural Killer cell frequency, activation, chemokine receptor expression and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Bartman, Pat; Ndlovu, Dudu; Ramkalawon, Pamela; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Wilson, Douglas; Altfeld, Marcus; Carr, William H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of natural killer (NK) cells in human disease pathogenesis is crucial and necessitates study of patient samples directly ex vivo. Manipulation of whole blood by density gradient centrifugation or delays in sample processing due to shipping, however, may lead to artifactual changes in immune response measures. Here, we assessed the impact of density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at multiple timepoints (2–24 hrs) on flow cytometric measures of NK cell frequency, activation status, chemokine receptor expression, and effector functions. We found that density gradient centrifugation activated NK cells and modified chemokine receptor expression. Delays in processing beyond 8 hours activated NK cells in PBMC but not in whole blood. Likewise, processing delays decreased chemokine receptor (CCR4 and CCR7) expression in both PBMC and whole blood. Finally, delays in processing PBMC were associated with a decreased ability of NK cells to degranulate (as measured by CD107a expression) or secrete cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α). In summary, our findings suggest that density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of PBMC can alter measures of clinically relevant NK cell characteristics including effector functions; and therefore should be taken into account in designing clinical research studies. PMID:21255578

  11. Hydrogen inhalation ameliorated mast cell mediated brain injury after ICH in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrogen inhalation was neuroprotective in several brain injury models. Its mechanisms are believed to be related to anti-oxidative stress. We investigated the potential neurovascular protective effect of hydrogen inhalation especially effect on mast cell activation in a mouse model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). DESIGN Controlled in vivo laboratory study. SETTING Animal research laboratory SUBJECTS 171, 8 weeks old male CD-1 mice were used. INTERVENTIONS Collagenase-induced ICH model in 8 weeks old, male, CD-1 mice was used. Hydrogen was administrated via spontaneous inhalation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neurological deficits were investigated at 24 and 72 hours after ICH. Mast cell activation was evaluated by Western blot and immuno-staining. The effects of hydrogen inhalation on mast cell activation were confirmed in an autologous blood injection model ICH. MEASURMENT AND MAIN RESULTS At 24 and 72 hours post-ICH, animals showed BBB disruption, brain edema, neurological deficits, accompanied with phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, indicating mast cell activation. Hydrogen treatment diminished phosphorylation of Lyn kinase and release of tryptase, decreased accumulation and degranulation of mast cells, attenuated BBB disruption and improved neurobehavioral function. CONCLUSION Activation of mast cells following ICH contributed to increase of BBB permeability and brain edema. Hydrogen inhalation preserved BBB disruption by prevention of mast cell activation after ICH. PMID:23388512

  12. Neuronal death and synapse elimination in the olivocerebellar system. II. Cell counts in the inferior olive of adult x-irradiated rats and weaver and reeler mutant mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeian, H.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Mariani, J.

    1985-01-01

    Cell death in the developing rat inferior olive precedes the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons (i.e., climbing fibers), suggesting that the involution of the redundant olivocerebellar contacts is caused by a withdrawal of supernumerary axonal collaterals rather than by degeneration of the parent cell. However, a subsequent apparent increase of the olivary population occurs, which could eventually mask a residual presynaptic cell death taking place at the same time. Therefore, cell counts were performed in the inferior olive of adult rodents in which the multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by olivary axons is maintained, with the idea that if cell death plays a role in the regression of supernumerary climbing fibers, the number of olivary cells should be higher in these animals than in their controls. The results show that the size of the cell population in the inferior olive of weaver and reeler mutant mice and rats degranulated by early postnatal x-irradiation does not differ significantly from that of their controls. Similarly, the distribution of the cells in the four main olivary subnuclei is not modified in weaver mice and x-irradiated rats. The present data further support the assumption that the regression of the polyneuronal innervation of Purkinje cells occurs independently of cell death in the presynaptic population

  13. Lipopolysaccharide induces IFN-γ production in human NK cells

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    Leonid M Kanevskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells have been shown to play a regulatory role in sepsis. According to the current view, NK cells become activated via macrophages or dendritic cells primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Recently TLR4 gene expression was detected in human NK cells suggesting the possibility of a direct action of LPS on NK cells. In this study, effects of LPS on NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity were studied using highly purified human NK cells. LPS induced IFN-γ production in the presence of IL-2 in cell populations containing >98% CD56+ cells. Surprisingly, in the same experiments LPS decreased NK cell degranulation. No significant expression of markers related to blood dendritic cells, monocytes or T or B lymphocytes in the NK cell preparations was observed; the portions of HLA-DRbright, CD14+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells amounted to less than 0.1% within the cell populations. No more than 0.2% of NK cells were shown to be slightly positive for surface TLR4 in our experimental system, although intracellular staining revealed moderate amounts of TLR4 inside the NK cell population. These cells were negative for surface CD14, the receptor participating in LPS recognition by TLR4. Incubation of NK cells with IL-2 or/and LPS did not lead to an increase in TLR4 surface expression. TLR4–CD56+ NK cells isolated by cell sorting secreted IFN-γ in response to LPS. Antibody to TLR4 did not block the LPS-induced increase in IFN-γ production. We have also shown that Re-form of LPS lacking outer core oligosaccharide and O-antigen induces less cytokine production in NK cells than full length LPS. We speculate that the polysaccharide fragments of LPS molecule may take part in LPS-induced IFN-γ production by NK cells. Collectively our data suggest the existence of a mechanism of LPS direct action on NK cells distinct from established TLR4-mediated signaling.

  14. Respiratory Influenza A Virus Infection Triggers Local and Systemic Natural Killer Cell Activation via Toll-Like Receptor 7

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    Stegemann-Koniszewski, Sabine; Behrens, Sarah; Boehme, Julia D.; Hochnadel, Inga; Riese, Peggy; Guzmán, Carlos A.; Kröger, Andrea; Schreiber, Jens; Gunzer, Matthias; Bruder, Dunja

    2018-01-01

    The innate immune system senses influenza A virus (IAV) through different pathogen-recognition receptors including Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Downstream of viral recognition natural killer (NK) cells are activated as part of the anti-IAV immune response. Despite the known decisive role of TLR7 for NK cell activation by therapeutic immunostimulatory RNAs, the contribution of TLR7 to the NK cell response following IAV infection has not been addressed. We have analyzed lung cytokine responses as well as the activation, interferon (IFN)-γ production, and cytotoxicity of lung and splenic NK cells following sublethal respiratory IAV infection in wild-type and TLR7ko mice. Early airway IFN-γ levels as well as the induction of lung NK cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production in response to IAV infection were significantly attenuated in TLR7-deficient hosts. Strikingly, respiratory IAV infection also primed splenic NK cells for IFN-γ production, degranulation, and target cell lysis, all of which were fully dependent on TLR7. At the same time, lung type I IFN levels were significantly reduced in TLR7ko mice early following IAV infection, displaying a potential upstream mechanism of the attenuated NK cell activation observed. Taken together, our data clearly demonstrate a specific role for TLR7 signaling in local and systemic NK cell activation following respiratory IAV infection despite the presence of redundant innate IAV-recognition pathways. PMID:29497422

  15. Blocking of PDL-1 interaction enhances primary and secondary CD8 T cell response to herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

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    Rudragouda Channappanavar

    Full Text Available The blocking of programmed death ligand-1 (PDL-1 has been shown to enhance virus-specific CD8 T cell function during chronic viral infections. Though, how PDL-1 blocking at the time of priming affects the quality of CD8 T cell response to acute infections is not well understood and remains controversial. This report demonstrates that the magnitude of the primary and secondary CD8 T cell responses to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection is subject to control by PDL-1. Our results showed that after footpad HSV-1 infection, PD-1 expression increases on immunodominant SSIEFARL peptide specific CD8 T cells. Additionally, post-infection, the level of PDL-1 expression also increases on CD11c+ dendritic cells. Intraperitoneal administration of anti-PDL-1 monoclonal antibody given one day prior to and three days after cutaneous HSV-1 infection, resulted in a marked increase in effector and memory CD8 T cell response to SSIEFARL peptide. This was shown by measuring the quantity and quality of SSIEFARL-specific CD8 T cells by making use of ex-vivo assays that determine antigen specific CD8 T cell function, such as intracellular cytokine assay, degranulation assay to measure cytotoxicity and viral clearance. Our results are discussed in terms of the beneficial effects of blocking PDL-1 interactions, while giving prophylactic vaccines, to generate a more effective CD8 T cell response to viral infection.

  16. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Rodríguez, Carlos E; Urdiales, José L; Pérez-Pomares, José M; Dávila, José C; Pejler, Gunnar; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2010-11-30

    Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG) present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules. Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system. Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  17. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

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    Gianni García-Faroldi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules.Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system.Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  18. Mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

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    Kissová Viktória

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the distribution and number of mast cells and eosinophils in rat mammary gland tumours induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea. The highest density of mast cells was found in cystic papillary adenocarcinomas of grade II. Eosinophils were detected only in the cystic papillary adenocarcinoma of grades I and II, in non-invasive cribriform adenocarcinoma and comedo-type carcinoma. Mast cell populations were observed perivascularly in the tumour stroma, in the host tumour interface, as well as in necrotic areas of neoplasms. Mast cells were observed to be intact according to their morphological changes, collectively referred to as degranulation. The obtained results indicate that mast cells and eosinophils play an important role in tumour micro-environment formation. The increased density of these cells in experimentally-induced rat mammary gland tumours suggests a poor prognosis in these cancers. Our results also confirmed that rat mammary gland tumours are good models for the study of breast cancers.

  19. Comparing the Effect of Pentoxifylline Administration on Mast Cells Maturing Process in a Diabetic and Normoglycemic Rat Wound Healing

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    Saeid Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wound healing is a complicated process that is influenced by many factors. Studies at molecular level on human and animal models have revealed several molecular changes related to the effect of diabetes on wound healing process. Increasing number of researches implicates the influence of mast cells on skin wounds healing. The present experimental study was conducted to compare systemic pentoxifylline administration on maturing process of mast cells during skin wound healing in diabetic and normoglycemic rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 48 wistar rats were divided into 2 groups of normoglycemic and diabetic and each group was divided into experimental and control. Experimental group received intraperitoneal (25 mg/kg twice a day and control group received distilled water. The number of mast cells and their maturing process was evaluated by microscopically counting of the types of mast cells (types 1, 2, 3 by stereological methods on day 3 and 7 after surgery. Results: In all experimental groups receiving pentoxifylline there were significant difference in the number of total mast cells, comparing normoglycemic groups (p<0.05 and also we found that in wound healing process pentoxifylline caused increasing the number of type 2 mast cells in all experimental groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In all pentoxifylline treated groups delay in converting type 2 into type 3 mast cell was seen. Pentoxifylline causes decreasing mast cell degranulation during wound healing process.

  20. Identification of GAD65 AA 114-122 reactive 'memory-like' NK cells in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients by HLA-class I pentamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Valentina; Gianchecchi, Elena; Cifaldi, Loredana; Pellegrino, Marsha; Giorda, Ezio; Andreani, Marco; Cappa, Marco; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which pancreatic β cells are destroyed by autoreactive T cells in genetically predisposed individuals. Serum beta cell autoantibody specificities have represented the mainstay for classifying diabetes as autoimmune-mediated and for stratifying risk in first-degree relatives. In recent years, approaches were attempted to solve the difficult issue of detecting rare antigen-specific autoreactive T cells and their significance to etiopathogenesis such as the use of the MHC multimer technology. This tool allowed the specific detection of increased percentages of GAD65 autoreactive T cells by means of HLA A*02:01 GAD65 AA 114-122 pentamers in newly diagnosed diabetics. Here we provide evidence that GAD65 AA 114-122 pentamers can depict a GAD65 AA114-122 peptide expandable population of functionally and phenotypically skewed, preliminary characterized CD3-CD8dullCD56+ 'memory-like' NK cells in PBMC of newly diagnosed diabetics. Our data suggest that the NK cell subset could bind the HLA class I GAD65 AA 114-122 pentamer through ILT2 inhibitory receptor. CD107a expression revealed increased degranulation of CD3-CD8dullCD56+ NK cells in GAD65 AA 114-122 and FLU peptide expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells of diabetics following GAD65 AA 114-122 peptide HLA A*02:01 presentation in respect to the unpulsed condition. CD107a expression was enriched in ILT2 positive NK cells. As opposite to basal conditions where similar percentages of CD3-CD56+ILT2+ cells were detected in diabetics and controls, CD3-CD56+CD107a+ and CD3-CD56+ILT2+CD107a+ cells were significantly increased in T1D PBMC either GAD65 AA 114-122 or FLU peptides stimulated after co-culture with GAD65 AA 114-122 pulsed APCs. As control, healthy donor NK cells showed similar degranulation against both GAD65 AA 114-122 pulsed and unpulsed APCs. The pathogenetic significance of the CD3-CD8dullCD56+ 'memory-like NK cell subset' with increased response upon secondary

  1. Platelets impair natural killer cell reactivity and function in endometriosis through multiple mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yanbo; Liu, Xishi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Do platelets have any role in the reduced cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells in endometriosis? Platelets impair NK cell reactivity and function in endometriosis through multiple mechanisms. Platelets play an important role in the development of endometriosis, and platelet-derived transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) suppresses the expression of NK Group 2, Member D (NKG2D) on NK cells, resulting in reduced cytotoxicity in women with endometriosis. Experiments on mice with induced endometriosis in which either platelets, NK cells or both were depleted and controls (none depleted). In vitro experiments with NK cells, platelets and, as target cells, endometriotic epithelial cell and endometrial stromal cell lines. Immunohistochemistry analysis of ectopic endometrial tissues from mice with induced endometriosis receiving either platelet depletion (PD), NK cell depletion, or both or none. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and gene expression analysis for major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) expression in target cells. Cytotoxicity and degranulation assays and the measurement of interferon (IFN)-γ secretion for the evaluation of NK cytotoxicity. Flow cytometry and gene expression for the expression of NK cell receptors. PD resulted in significantly reduced lesion weight in mice with induced endometriosis, but NK cell depletion as well as concomitant platelet and NK cell depletion increased the weight, suggesting that the anti-endometriosis effect of PD is mediated, at least in part, by increased NK cell cytotoxicity against endometriotic cells. Co-incubation of target cells with platelets resulted in rapid platelet coating as well as increased MHC-I expression in these cells, effectively providing a cloak of 'pseudo-self' to these cells to shield against NK cell lysis. It also reduced the expression of NKG2D ligands MICA and MICB and reduced the NK cell cytotoxicity. In addition, co-incubation of NK cells with platelets impaired the NK cell

  2. Isolation of Mature (Peritoneum-Derived Mast Cells and Immature (Bone Marrow-Derived Mast Cell Precursors from Mice.

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    Steffen K Meurer

    Full Text Available Mast cells (MCs are a versatile cell type playing key roles in tissue morphogenesis and host defence against bacteria and parasites. Furthermore, they can enhance immunological danger signals and are implicated in inflammatory disorders like fibrosis. This granulated cell type originates from the myeloid lineage and has similarities to basophilic granulocytes, both containing large quantities of histamine and heparin. Immature murine mast cells mature in their destination tissue and adopt either the connective tissue (CTMC or mucosal (MMC type. Some effector functions are executed by activation/degranulation of MCs which lead to secretion of a typical set of MC proteases (MCPT and of the preformed or newly synthesized mediators from its granules into the local microenvironment. Due to the potential accumulation of mutations in key signalling pathway components of corresponding MC cell-lines, primary cultured MCs are an attractive mean to study general features of MC biology and aspects of MC functions relevant to human disease. Here, we describe a simple protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mature CTMC-like murine MCs from the peritoneum (PMCs and immature MC precursors from the bone marrow (BM. The latter are differentiated in vitro to yield BM-derived MCs (BMMC. These cells display the typical morphological and phenotypic features of MCs, express the typical MC surface markers, and can be propagated and kept in culture for several weeks. The provided protocol allows simple amplification of large quantities of homogenous, non-transformed MCs from the peritoneum and bone marrow-derived mast cells for cell- and tissue-based biomedical research.

  3. Ex-vivo α-galactosylceramide activation of NKT cells in humans and macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Caroline S; Cameron, Garth; Godfrey, Dale I; Kent, Stephen J

    2012-08-31

    NKT cells are key mediators of antiviral and anticancer immunity. Experiments in mice have demonstrated that activation of NKT cells in vivo induces the expression of multiple effector molecules critical to successful immunity. Human clinical trials have shown similar responses, although in vivo activation of NKT cells in humans or primate models are far more limited in number and scope. Measuring ex vivo activation of NKT cells by the CD1d-restricted glycolipid ligand α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) through cytokine expression profiles is a useful marker of NKT cell function, but for reasons that are unclear, this approach does not appear to work as well in humans and non-human primate macaque models in comparison to mice. We performed a series of experiments on human and macaque (Macaca nemestrina) fresh whole blood samples to define optimal conditions to detect NKT cell cytokine (TNF, IFNγ, IL-2) and degranulation marker (CD107a) expression by flow cytometry. We found that conditions previously described for mouse splenocyte NKT cell activation were suboptimal on human or macaque blood NKT cells. In contrast, a 6h incubation with brefeldin A added for the last 4h, in a 96-well plate based assay, and using an α-GalCer concentration of 1 μg/ml were optimal methods to stimulate NKT cells in fresh blood from both humans and macaques. Unexpectedly, we noted that blood NKT cells from macaques infected with SIV were more readily activated by α-GalCer than NKT cells from uninfected macaques, suggesting that SIV infection may have primed the NKT cells. In conclusion, we describe optimized methods for the ex vivo antigen-specific activation of human and macaque blood NKT cells. These assays should be useful in monitoring NKT cells in disease and in immunotherapy studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimization of Human NK Cell Manufacturing: Fully Automated Separation, Improved Ex Vivo Expansion Using IL-21 with Autologous Feeder Cells, and Generation of Anti-CD123-CAR-Expressing Effector Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöß, Stephan; Oberschmidt, Olaf; Morgan, Michael; Dahlke, Julia; Arseniev, Lubomir; Huppert, Volker; Granzin, Markus; Gardlowski, Tanja; Matthies, Nadine; Soltenborn, Stephanie; Schambach, Axel; Koehl, Ulrike

    2017-10-01

    The administration of ex vivo expanded natural killer (NK) cells as potential antitumor effector cells appears to be suitable for effector cell-based immunotherapies in high-risk cancer patients. However, good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compliant manufacturing of clinical-grade NK cells at sufficiently high numbers represents a great challenge. Therefore, previous expansion protocols for those effector cells were improved and optimized by using newly developed culture medium, interleukin (IL)-21, and autologous feeder cells (FCs). Separation of primary human NK cells (CD56 + CD3 - ) was carried out with the CliniMACS Prodigy ® in a single process, starting with approximately 1.2 × 10 9 leukocytes collected by small-scale lymphapheresis or from buffy coats. Enriched NK cells were adjusted to starting cell concentrations within approximately 1 × 10 6 effector cells/mL and cultured in comparative expansion experiments for 14 days with IL-2 (1,000 IU/mL) in different GMP-compliant media (X-VIVO ™ 10, CellGro ® , TexMACS ™ , and NK MACS ® ). After medium optimization, beneficial effects for functionality and phenotype were investigated at the beginning of cell expansion with irradiated (25 Gy) autologous FCs at a ratio of 20:1 (feeder: NK) in the presence or absence of IL-21 (100 ng/mL). Additionally, expanded NK cells were gene modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against CD123, a common marker for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Cytotoxicity, degranulation, and cytokine release of transduced NK cells were determined against KG1a cells in flow cytometric analysis and fluorescent imaging. The Prodigy manufacturing process revealed high target cell viabilities (median 95.4%), adequate NK cell recovery (median 60.4%), and purity of 95.4% in regard to CD56 + CD3 - target cells. The process in its early phase of development led to a median T-cell depletion of log 3.5 after CD3 depletion and log 3.6 after the whole process, including CD3

  5. Neutrophil granulocytes uniquely express, among human blood cells, high levels of Methionine-sulfoxide-reductase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Rossi, Antonio; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2008-01-01

    L-Methionine (Met), in its free form or when inserted in proteins, is sensitive to oxidation of its thioether group by reactive oxygen species from exogenous or endogenous sources. Two stable diastereomers of Met sulfoxide [Met-(O)] may be formed [Met-S-(O) and Met-R-(O)], but these can be reduced by two classes of Methionine-sulfoxide-reductase (Msr) enzymes: MsrA, which reduces the S, and MsrB, which reduces the R sulfoxide. In this study, we have examined the levels of expression of Msr in human blood cells by enzymatic activity assay, Western blotting, and RT-PCR of purified populations of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and eosinophils, mononuclear cells, platelets, and erythrocytes. Our data indicate that of the blood cells analyzed, neutrophils expressed the highest activity, which was mainly of MsrB type. During degranulation of activated neutrophils, Msr activity was not released but remained confined within the cell, indicating a non-granular localization. Immunoprecipitation and RT-PCR studies indicated the almost complete lack of mitochondrial forms of Msrs in granulocytes. It is thus likely that Msrs are important as antioxidant/repair systems for neutrophils, cells with enormous capacity for the generation of reactive oxidants and hence, susceptible to oxidative damage.

  6. ATP Release from Mast Cells by Physical Stimulation: A Putative Early Step in Activation of Acupuncture Points

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    Lina Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Chinese medicine acupuncture points are treated by physical stimuli to counteract various diseases. These stimuli include mechanical stress as applied during the needle manipulation or tuina, high temperatures as applied during moxibustion, and red laser light applied during laser acupuncture. This study aimed to investigate cellular responses to stimuli that might occur in the tissue of acupuncture points. Since they have a characteristically high density of mast cells that degranulate in response to acupuncture, we asked whether these processes lead to ATP release. We tested in in vitro experiments on mast cells of the human mast-cell line HMC-1 the effects of the physical stimuli; mechanical stress was applied by superfusion of the cells with hypotonic solution, heat was applied by incubation of the cells at 52°C, and red laser light of 657 nm was used for irradiation. We demonstrate that all the stimuli induce ATP release from model human mast HMC-1 cells, and this release is associated with an intracellular free Ca2+ rise. We hypothesize that ATP released from mast cells supplements the already known release of ATP from keratinocytes and, by acting on P2X receptors, it may serve as initial mediator of acupuncture-induced analgesia.

  7. OP9 Feeder Cells Are Superior to M2-10B4 Cells for the Generation of Mature and Functional Natural Killer Cells from Umbilical Cord Hematopoietic Progenitors

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    Lara Herrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive natural killer (NK cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of mature and functional NK cells. An option for future immunotherapy treatments is to use large amounts of NK cells derived and differentiated from umbilical cord blood (UCB CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, mainly because UCB is one of the most accessible HSC sources. In our study, we compared the potential of two stromal cell lines, OP9 and M2-10B4, for in vitro generation of mature and functional CD56+ NK cells from UCB CD34+ HSC. We generated higher number of CD56+ NK cells in the presence of the OP9 cell line than when they were generated in the presence of M2-10B4 cells. Furthermore, higher frequency of CD56+ NK cells was achieved earlier when cultures were performed with the OP9 cells than with the M2-10B4 cells. Additionally, we studied in detail the maturation stages of CD56+ NK cells during the in vitro differentiation process. Our data show that by using both stromal cell lines, CD34+ HSC in vitro differentiated into the terminal stages 4–5 of maturation resembled the in vivo differentiation pattern of human NK cells. Higher frequencies of more mature NK cells were reached earlier by using OP9 cell line than M2-10B4 cells. Alternatively, we observed that our in vitro NK cells expressed similar levels of granzyme B and perforin, and there were no significant differences between cultures performed in the presence of OP9 cell line or M2-10B4 cell line. Likewise, degranulation and cytotoxic activity against K562 target cells were very similar in both culture conditions. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate high numbers of mature and functional NK cells in vitro, and point toward the use of the OP9 stromal cell line to accelerate the culture procedure to obtain them. Furthermore, this method could establish the basis for the generation of mature NK cells ready for cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Mast cell activation is enhanced by Tim1:Tim4 interaction but not by Tim-1 antibodies [version 2; referees: 2 approved

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    Binh Phong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the T cell (or transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 gene, particularly in the mucin domain, have been associated with atopy and allergic diseases in mice and human. Genetic- and antibody-mediated studies revealed that Tim-1 functions as a positive regulator of Th2 responses, while certain antibodies to Tim-1 can exacerbate or reduce allergic lung inflammation. Tim-1 can also positively regulate the function of B cells, NKT cells, dendritic cells and mast cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Tim-1 modulates immune cell function are currently unknown. In this study, we have focused on defining Tim-1-mediated signaling pathways that enhance mast cell activation through the high affinity IgE receptor (FceRI. Using a Tim-1 mouse model lacking the mucin domain (Tim-1Dmucin, we show for the first time that the polymorphic Tim-1 mucin region is dispensable for normal mast cell activation. We further show that Tim-4 cross-linking of Tim-1 enhances select signaling pathways downstream of FceRI in mast cells, including mTOR-dependent signaling, leading to increased cytokine production but without affecting degranulation.

  9. One-Year Follow-Up of Natural Killer Cell Activity in Multiple Myeloma Patients Treated With Adjuvant Lenalidomide Therapy

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    Laurie Besson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a proliferation of tumoral plasma B cells that is still incurable. Natural killer (NK cells can recognize and kill MM cells in vitro and can limit MM growth in vivo. Previous reports have shown that NK cell function is impaired during MM progression and suggested that treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (IMIDs such as lenalidomide (LEN could enhance it. However, the effects of IMIDs on NK cells have been tested mostly in vitro or in preclinical models and supporting evidence of their effect in vivo in patients is lacking. Here, we monitored NK cell activity in blood samples from 10 MM patients starting after frontline induction chemotherapy (CTX consisting either of association of bortezomib–lenalidomide–dexamethasone (Velcade Revlimid Dexamethasone or autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT. We also monitored NK cell activity longitudinally each month during 1 year, after maintenance therapy with LEN. Following frontline chemotherapy, peripheral NK cells displayed a very immature phenotype and retained poor reactivity toward target cells ex vivo. Upon maintenance treatment with LEN, we observed a progressive normalization of NK cell maturation, likely caused by discontinuation of chemotherapy. However, LEN treatment neither activated NK cells nor improved their capacity to degranulate or to secrete IFN-γ or MIP1-β following stimulation with MHC-I-deficient or antibody-coated target cells. Upon LEN discontinuation, there was no reduction of NK cell effector function either. These results caution against the use of LEN as single therapy to improve NK cell activity in patients with cancer and call for more preclinical assessments of the potential of IMIDs in NK cell activation.

  10. The peripheral NK cell repertoire after kidney transplantation is modulated by different immunosuppressive drugs

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    Christine eNeudoerfl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the context of kidney transplantation, little is known about the involvement of NK cells in the immune reaction leading to either rejection or immunological tolerance under immunosuppression. Therefore, the peripheral NK cell repertoire of patients after kidney transplantation was investigated in order to identify NK cell subsets that may be associated with the individual immune status at the time of their protocol biopsies for histopathological evaluation of the graft. Alterations in the peripheral NK cell repertoire could be correlated to the type of immunosuppression, i.e. calcineurin-inhibitors like CyclosporinA vs. Tacrolimus with or without addition of mTOR inhibitors. Here, we could demonstrate that the NK cell repertoire in peripheral blood of kidney transplant patients differs significantly from healthy individuals. The presence of donor-specific antibodies was associated with reduced numbers of CD56dim NK cells. Moreover, in patients, down-modulation of CD16 and CD6 on CD56dim NK cells was observed with significant differences between CyclosporinA- and Tac-treated patients. Tac-treatment was associated with decreased CD69, HLA-DR and increased CD94/NKG2A expression in CD56dim NK cells indicating that the quality of the immunosuppressive treatment impinges on the peripheral NK cell repertoire. In vitro studies with PBMC of healthy donors showed that this modulation of CD16, CD6, CD69, and HLA-DR could also be induced experimentally. The presence of calcineurin or mTOR inhibitors had also functional consequences regarding degranulation and IFN--production against K562 target cells, respectively. In summary, we postulate that the NK cell composition in peripheral blood of kidney transplanted patients represents an important hallmark of the efficacy of immunosuppression and may be even informative for the immune status after transplantation in terms of rejection vs. drug-induced allograft tolerance. Thus,NK cells can serve as sensors

  11. Cell death and impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the β-cell line INS-1E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piaggi, Simona; Novelli, Michela; Martino, Luisa; Masini, Matilde; Raggi, Chiara; Orciuolo, Enrico; Masiello, Pellegrino; Casini, Alessandro; De Tata, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to characterize 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity on the insulin-secreting β-cell line INS-1E. A sharp decline of cell survival (below 20%) was observed after 1 h exposure to TCDD concentrations between 12.5 and 25 nM. Ultrastructurally, β-cell death was characterized by extensive degranulation, appearance of autophagic vacuoles, and peripheral nuclear condensation. Cytotoxic concentrations of TCDD rapidly induced a dose-dependent increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Blocking calcium entry by EGTA significantly decreased TCDD cytotoxicity. TCDD was also able to rapidly induce mitochondrial depolarization. Interestingly, 1 h exposition of INS-1E cells to very low TCDD concentrations (0.05-1 nM) dramatically impaired glucose-stimulated but not KCl-stimulated insulin secretion. In conclusion, our results clearly show that TCDD exerts a direct β-cell cytotoxic effect at concentrations of 15-25 nM, but also markedly impairs glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at concentrations 20 times lower than these. On the basis of this latter observation we suggest that pancreatic β-cells could be considered a specific and sensitive target for dioxin toxicity

  12. Impact of anti-TNF therapy on NK cells function and on immunosurveillance against B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Pascaud, Juliette; Paoletti, Audrey; Mariette, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with an increased risk of lymphoma linked to activity of the disease. Immunosuppressive drugs have been suspected to induce an additional risk. Since, NK cells have been recently shown to participate to anti-lymphoma immunosurveillance, we aimed to assess if anti-TNF might impact their anti-lymphoma activity. NK cells have been assessed ex vivo in patients with RA treated with methotrexate (MTX) with or without anti-TNF. Phenotype has been studied by flow cytometry and function has been assessed after NKp30-cross linking. NK have been cultured 6 days in presence of anti-TNF, TNF-R inhibitors or controls and phenotype has been studied. Then cytotoxicity against 2 B non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines [Farage (EBV+) and SU-DHL4 (EBV-)] was assessed. Exposure to anti-TNF was associated with a decreased activation of NK cells. NK cells exhibited an impaired function in patients treated with anti-TNF compared to patients treated with MTX alone as assessed by the percentage of degranulation (20.9% [18.5-32.9] vs 31.3% [21.5-49.1], p = 0.04) and a decreased IFN-γ secretion ((17.4% [8.9-25.9] vs to 29.7% [22.5-43.1], p = 0.007). In vitro, exposure to anti-TNF impaired NK cells function and impacted negatively anti-lymphoma activity. These effects may be the consequence of inhibition of TNFR1 signaling. Thus, even if meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and of registries have not demonstrated to date an increased risk of lymphoma with anti-TNF, cautious must be pursued concerning this possible side effect in patients with long-term anti-TNF exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  14. Human Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Form Dysfunctional Immune Synapses with B Cells Characterized by Non-Polarized Lytic Granule Release

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    Anna Kabanova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppression of the cytotoxic T cell (CTL immune response has been proposed as one mechanism for immune evasion in cancer. In this study, we have explored the underlying basis for CTL suppression in the context of B cell malignancies. We document that human B cells have an intrinsic ability to resist killing by freshly isolated cytotoxic T cells (CTLs, but are susceptible to lysis by IL-2 activated CTL blasts and CTLs isolated from immunotherapy-treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. Impaired killing was associated with the formation of dysfunctional non-lytic immune synapses characterized by the presence of defective linker for activation of T cells (LAT signaling and non-polarized release of the lytic granules transported by ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 8 (Arl8. We propose that non-lytic degranulation of CTLs are a key regulatory mechanism of evasion through which B cells may interfere with the formation of functional immune synapses by CTLs.

  15. Transcription Factor Bcl11b Controls Effector and Memory CD8 T cell Fate Decision and Function During Poxvirus Infection

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    Georges Abboud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that sustains the clonal expansion of virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells, while simultaneously suppressing the expression of surface markers associated with short-lived effector cell (SLEC differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that Bcl11b supports the acquisition of memory precursor effector cell (MPEC phenotype, and thus its absence causes near complete loss of lymphoid and lung-resident memory cells. Interestingly, despite having normal levels of T-bet and Eomesodermin, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to execute effector differentiation needed for anti-viral cytokine production and degranulation, suggesting a non-redundant role of Bcl11b in regulation of this program. Thus, Bcl11b is a critical player in fate decision of SLECs and MPECs, as well as effector function and memory formation.

  16. Mast Cell Density in Oral Lesions using Metachromatic Stains: A Comparative Study

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    Shilpa Chirappurath Natesan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mast Cells (MCs are bone marrow derived granular cells, distributed throughout the body near blood vessels, nerves and subepithelial areas. MC granules stain by basic dyes but are most readily demonstrated by metachromatic dyes such as toluidine blue and azure A. Aim: This study focuses on evaluating and comparing the count of MCs by identification and staining of these cells by azure A with toluidine blue as a control, in normal oral mucosa and in various other oral pathologies. Materials and Methods: Five cases each of Normal Oral Mucosa (NOM, Inflammatory Fibrous Hyperplasia (IFH, Oral Pyogenic Granuloma (OPG, Oral Lichen Planus (OLP and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC were stained with 1% toluidine blue and azure A. Results: Mean MC count was higher in all four lesions when compared to normal oral mucosa with both stains. OLP exhibited the maximum amount of mean MC count when compared to other pathologies under study. With all four lesions, toluidine blue exhibited higher number of MC density (count/high power field compared to azure A. Conclusion: Higher count of MCs was noticed in all four lesions indicating a possible role of MCs in their pathogenesis either directly or indirectly. Also, the number of degranulated MCs was more in OLP followed by OSCC, IFH and OPG.

  17. Linear fidelity in quantification of anti-viral CD8+ T cells.

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    Inge E A Flesch

    Full Text Available Enumeration of anti-viral CD8(+ T cells to make comparisons between mice, viruses and vaccines is a frequently used approach, but controversy persists as to the most appropriate methods. Use of peptide-MHC tetramers (or variants and intracellular staining for cytokines, in particular IFNγ, after a short ex vivo stimulation are now common, as are a variety of cytotoxicity assays, but few direct comparisons have been made. It has been argued that use of tetramers leads to the counting of non-functional T cells and that measurement of single cytokines will fail to identify cells with alternative functions. Further, the linear range of these methods has not been tested and this is required to give confidence that relative quantifications can be compared across samples. Here we show for two acute virus infections and CD8(+ T cells activated in vitro that DimerX (a tetramer variant and intracellular staining for IFNγ, alone or in combination with CD107 to detect degranulation, gave comparable results at the peak of the response. Importantly, these methods were highly linear over nearly two orders of magnitude. In contrast, in vitro and in vivo assays for cytotoxicity were not linear, suffering from high background killing, plateaus in maximal killing and substantial underestimation of differences in magnitude of responses.

  18. An essential role of syntaxin 3 protein for granule exocytosis and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 from differentiated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegelen, Isabelle; Plançon, Sébastien; Nicot, Nathalie; Kaoma, Tony; Muller, Arnaud; Vallar, Laurent; Tschirhart, Eric J; Bréchard, Sabrina

    2015-03-01

    Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the rapid secretion of cytokines orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and thus, can contribute to the development and chronicity of inflammatory diseases, we aimed to determine the intracellular SNARE machinery responsible for the regulation of cytokine secretion and degranulation. From a constructed gene-expression network, we first selected relevant cytokines for functional validation by the CBA approach. We established a cytokine-secretion profile for human neutrophils and dHL-60 cells, underlining their similar ability to secrete a broad variety of cytokines within proinflammatory conditions mimicked by LPS stimulation. Secondly, after screening of SNARE genes by microarray experiments, we selected STX3 for further functional studies. With the use of a siRNA strategy, we show that STX3 is clearly required for the maximal release of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 without alteration of other cytokine secretion in dHL-60 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that STX3 is involved in MMP-9 exocytosis from gelatinase granules, where STX3 is partly localized. Our results suggest that the secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 occurs during gelatinase degranulation, a process controlled by STX3. In summary, these findings provide first evidence that STX3 has an essential role in trafficking pathways of cytokines in neutrophil granulocytes. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  19. Sorafenib paradoxically activates the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway in polyclonal human NK cells during expansion and thereby enhances effector functions in a dose and time-dependent manner.

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    Lohmeyer, Julian; Nerreter, Thomas; Dotterweich, Julia; Einsele, Hermann; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth

    2018-03-24

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in host immunity against leukemia and lymphoma. However, clinical trials applying NK cells have not been as efficient as hoped for. Patients treated with RAF inhibitors exhibit increased tumor infiltration by immune cells suggesting that a combination of RAF inhibitors with immunotherapy might be beneficial. As MAPKs such as CRAF regulate NK cell functions, we performed an in vitro investigation on the potential of clinically relevant short acting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as potential adjuvants for NK cell therapy: NK cells from healthy human blood donors were thus treated with sorafenib, sunitinib or the pan-RAF inhibitor ZM336372 during ex vivo expansion. Functional outcomes assessed after washout of the drugs included cytokine production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction and signal transduction with/without target cell contact. Paradoxically, sorafenib enhanced NK cell effector functions in a time- and dose- dependent manner by raising the steady-state-activation level. Of note, this did not lead to NK cell exhaustion, but enhanced activity against target cells such as K562 or Daudis mediated via the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway but not via AKT. Our data shall pave the path to develop a rationale for the considered use of RAF inhibitors such as sorafenib for pre-activation in NK cell-based adoptive immune therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Improved Efficacy of Oral Immunotherapy Using Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides in a Murine Cow’s Milk Allergy Model: A Potential Role for Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells

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    Marlotte M. Vonk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOral immunotherapy (OIT is a promising therapeutic approach to treat food allergic patients. However, there are some concerns regarding its safety and long-term efficacy. The use of non-digestible oligosaccharides might improve OIT efficacy since they are known to directly modulate intestinal epithelial and immune cells in addition to acting as prebiotics.AimTo investigate whether a diet supplemented with plant-derived fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS supports the efficacy of OIT in a murine cow’s milk allergy model and to elucidate the potential mechanisms involved.MethodsAfter oral sensitization to the cow’s milk protein whey, female C3H/HeOuJ mice were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with FOS (1% w/w and received OIT (10 mg whey 5 days a week for 3 weeks by gavage. Intradermal (i.d. and intragastric (i.g. challenges were performed to measure acute allergic symptoms and mast cell degranulation. Blood and organs were collected to measure antibody levels and T cell and dendritic cell populations. Spleen-derived T cell fractions (whole spleen- and CD25-depleted were transferred to naïve recipient mice to confirm the involvement of regulatory T cells (Tregs in allergy protection induced by OIT + FOS.ResultsOIT + FOS decreased acute allergic symptoms and mast cell degranulation upon challenge and prevented the challenge-induced increase in whey-specific IgE as observed in sensitized mice. Early induction of Tregs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of OIT + FOS mice coincided with reduced T cell responsiveness in splenocyte cultures. CD25 depletion in OIT + FOS-derived splenocyte suspensions prior to transfer abolished protection against signs of anaphylaxis in recipients. OIT + FOS increased serum galectin-9 levels. No differences in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA levels in the cecum were observed between the treatment groups. Concisely, FOS supplementation significantly improved OIT in the acute

  1. Induction of dexamethasone (DM) of histidine decarboxylase (HDC) in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, A.; Imanishi, N.; Nakayama, T.; Asano, M.; Tomita, K.

    1986-05-01

    Effects of glucocorticoids on HDC in cultured mouse mastocytoma P-815 cells and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were investigated to explore the role of steroids in inflammatory tissues. DM (1 nM to 10 ..mu..M) significantly elevated the histamine content and HDC activity of P-815 cells (37/sup 0/C, 24 hrs), accompanying with a growth retardation of the cells by about 40%. In contrast to histamine, serotonin levels of P-815 cells were decreased by treatment with DM. However, DM had no significant effects on the activities of various enzymes other than HDC present in granules or membrane of P-815 cells. DM-induced increases of histamine and HDC activity were completely suppressed by the addition of cycloheximide and actinomycin D. P-815 cells were found to have the binding sites for /sup 3/H-DM in the cytosol (Kd=2.2 nM, 450 sites/cell) and in the nuclei (Kd=0.1 nM, 39 sites/nucleus). Purified HDC from P-815 cells was identified to be an isozyme of mast cell type enzyme (MW=110K, pI=5.4). In contrast, the basal histamine level of cultured RPMC was not affected by treatment of DM, which suppressed histamine release activity induced by DNP-ascaris antiserum by 40%-50%. Histamine-depleted RPMC after degranulation partially recovered histamine level by 50%-60% in the presence of DM. These results showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulated histamine formation with the increased de novo synthesis of HDC in mast cells.

  2. Rosae Multiflorae Fructus Hot Water Extract Inhibits a Murine Allergic Asthma Via the Suppression of Th2 Cytokine Production and Histamine Release from Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chang Ho; Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Han, Eui-Hyeog; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chai, Ok Hee

    2016-09-01

    Mast cell-mediated anaphylactic reactions are involved in many allergic diseases, including asthma and allergic rhinitis. In Korea, where it has been used as a traditional medicine, Rosae Multiflorae fructus (RMF) is known to have potent antioxidative, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities and to have no obvious acute toxicity. However, its specific effect on asthma is still unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether or not RMF hot water extracts (RMFW) could inhibit ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and evaluated compound 48/80-induced mast cell activation to elucidate the mechanisms of asthma inhibition by RMFW. Oral administration of RMFW decreased the number of eosinophils and lymphocytes in the lungs of mice challenged by OVA and downregulated histological changes such as eosinophil infiltration, mucus accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and collagen fiber deposits. In addition, RMFW significantly reduced T helper 2 cytokines, TNF-α, IL-4, and IL-6 levels in the BAL fluid of mice challenged by OVA. Moreover, RMFW suppressed compound 48/80-induced rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and inhibited histamine release from mast cells induced by compound 48/80 in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that RMFW may act as an antiallergic agent by inhibitingTh2 cytokine production from Th2 cells and histamine release from mast cells, and could be used as a therapy for patients with Th2-mediated or mast cell-mediated allergic diseases.

  3. The assessment of cytotoxic T cell and natural killer cells activity in residents of high and ordinary background radiation areas of Ramsar-Iran

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    Sajad Borzoueisileh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective radiation dose of human from natural sources is about 2.4 mSv/y and the dose limit for radiation workers is 20 mSv/y. Ramsar, a city in Iran, has been the subject of concern in the last forty years for a high level of radiation measured in some spots as high as 260 mSv/y. Carcinogenesis is one of the most studied effects of radiation especially in high doses. Recent studies showed that the high level of natural radiation received by inhabitants of this area, paradoxically don′t have significant health effect. Natural killer (NK cells and cytotoxic T cells are the most important cells in tumor immune surveillance and CD107a is a widely expressed intracellular protein located in the lysosomal/endosomal membrane. CD107a transiently located on the cell membrane can be used as a marker of CD8 + T cell degranulation following stimulation. It is also expressed, to a lower extent, on activated NK cells. In this study, 60 healthy people were selected randomly and their consent obtained and confounding factors such as sex, age, life-styles was matched then the count of activated NK and CD8 + cells was compared in high and normal background radiation areas inhabitants of Ramsar. After filling the questionnaire and measurement of background radiation, blood samples of 30 healthy people from each region were analyzed immediately by means of flowcytometry. The leukocytes and their subsets were not significantly different between two groups and the count of active cells was higher in control group. The result shows that the changes in immune system occur due to radiation and maybe it is as a result of higher radiosensitivity of activated cells.

  4. Critical biological parameters modulate affinity as a determinant of function in T-cell receptor gene-modified T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Wang, Yuan; Foley, Kendra C; Murray, David C; Scurti, Gina M; Simms, Patricia E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Hellman, Lance M; Baker, Brian M; Nishimura, Michael I

    2017-11-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR)-pMHC affinity has been generally accepted to be the most important factor dictating antigen recognition in gene-modified T-cells. As such, there is great interest in optimizing TCR-based immunotherapies by enhancing TCR affinity to augment the therapeutic benefit of TCR gene-modified T-cells in cancer patients. However, recent clinical trials using affinity-enhanced TCRs in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) have observed unintended and serious adverse events, including death, attributed to unpredicted off-tumor or off-target cross-reactivity. It is critical to re-evaluate the importance of other biophysical, structural, or cellular factors that drive the reactivity of TCR gene-modified T-cells. Using a model for altered antigen recognition, we determined how TCR-pMHC affinity influenced the reactivity of hepatitis C virus (HCV) TCR gene-modified T-cells against a panel of naturally occurring HCV peptides and HCV-expressing tumor targets. The impact of other factors, such as TCR-pMHC stabilization and signaling contributions by the CD8 co-receptor, as well as antigen and TCR density were also evaluated. We found that changes in TCR-pMHC affinity did not always predict or dictate IFNγ release or degranulation by TCR gene-modified T-cells, suggesting that less emphasis might need to be placed on TCR-pMHC affinity as a means of predicting or augmenting the therapeutic potential of TCR gene-modified T-cells used in ACT. A more complete understanding of antigen recognition by gene-modified T-cells and a more rational approach to improve the design and implementation of novel TCR-based immunotherapies is necessary to enhance efficacy and maximize safety in patients.

  5. An actin cytoskeletal barrier inhibits lytic granule release from natural killer cells in patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Krzewska, Aleksandra; Saeed, Mezida B; Oszmiana, Anna; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Lagrue, Kathryn; Gahl, William A; Introne, Wendy J; Coligan, John E; Davis, Daniel M; Krzewski, Konrad

    2017-12-11

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the lysosomal trafficking regulator gene (LYST), resulting in formation of giant lysosomes or lysosome-related organelles in several cell types. The disease is characterized by immunodeficiency and a fatal hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by impaired function of cytotoxic lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells. We sought to determine the underlying biochemical cause of the impaired cytotoxicity of NK cells in patients with CHS. We generated a human cell model of CHS using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology. We used a combination of classical techniques to evaluate lysosomal function and cell activity in the model system and super-resolution microscopy to visualize F-actin and lytic granules in normal and LYST-deficient NK cells. Loss of LYST function in a human NK cell line, NK92mi, resulted in inhibition of NK cell cytotoxicity and reproduced other aspects of the CHS cellular phenotype, including the presence of significantly enlarged lytic granules with defective exocytosis and impaired integrity of endolysosomal compartments. The large granules had an acidic pH and normal activity of lysosomal enzymes and were positive for the proteins essential for lytic granule exocytosis. Visualization of the actin meshwork openings at the immunologic synapse revealed that the cortical actin acts as a barrier for secretion of such large granules at the cell-cell contact site. Decreasing the cortical actin density at the immunologic synapse or decreasing the lytic granule size restored the ability of LYST-deficient NK cells to degranulate and kill target cells. The cortical actin and granule size play significant roles in NK cell cytotoxic function. We present evidence that the periodicity of subsynaptic actin is an important factor limiting the release of large lytic granules from NK cells from patients with CHS and could be a novel

  6. Neutrophils with protumor potential could efficiently suppress tumor growth after cytokine priming and in presence of normal NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rui; Luo, Jing; Li, Dong; Shu, Yu; Luo, Chao; Wang, Shan-Shan; Qin, Jian; Zhang, Gui-Mei; Feng, Zuo-Hua

    2014-12-30

    In tumor-bearing state, the function of neutrophils is converted from tumor-suppressing to tumor-promoting. Here we report that priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α could convert the potential of neutrophils from tumor-promoting to tumor-suppressing. The neutrophils with protumor potential have not lost their responsiveness to IFN-γ and TNF-α. After priming with IFN-γ and TNF-α, the potential of the neutrophils to express Bv8 and Mmp9 genes was reduced. Conversely, the tumor-promotional neutrophils recovered the expression of Rab27a and Trail, resumed the activation levels of PI3K and p38 MAPK pathways in response to stimuli, and expressed higher levels of IL-18 and NK-activating ligands such as RAE-1, MULT-1, and H60. Therefore, the anti-tumor function of the neutrophils was augmented, including the cytotoxicity to tumor cells, the capability of degranulation, and the capacity to activate NK cells. Since the function of NK cells is impaired in tumor-bearing state, the administration of normal NK cells could significantly augment the efficiency of tumor therapy based on neutrophil priming. These findings highlight the reversibility of neutrophil function in tumor-bearing state, and suggest that neutrophil priming by IFN-γ/TNF-α might be a potential approach to eliminate residual tumor cells in comprehensive strategy for tumor therapy.

  7. Conventional Dendritic Cells Confer Protection against Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection via TLR9 and MyD88 Signaling

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    Franz Puttur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is an opportunistic virus severely infecting immunocompromised individuals. In mice, endosomal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 and downstream myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 are central to activating innate immune responses against mouse CMV (MCMV. In this respect, the cell-specific contribution of these pathways in initiating anti-MCMV immunity remains unclear. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TLR9/MyD88 signaling selectively in CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs strongly enhances MCMV clearance by boosting natural killer (NK cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production. In addition, we show that in the absence of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs, conventional DCs (cDCs promote robust NK cell effector function and MCMV clearance in a TLR9/MyD88-dependent manner. Simultaneously, cDC-derived IL-15 regulates NK cell degranulation by TLR9/MyD88-independent mechanisms. Overall, we compartmentalize the cellular contribution of TLR9 and MyD88 signaling in individual DC subsets and evaluate the mechanism by which cDCs control MCMV immunity.

  8. Antiallergic effect of fisetin on IgE-mediated mast cell activation in vitro and on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Woo-Ri; Park, Hye-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally occurring bioactive flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of fisetin on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this study, the effect of fisetin on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell-mediated allergic reactions was investigated. Fisetin inhibited β-hexosaminidase release and decreased the level of interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in IgE/antigen (IgE/Ag)-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. To elucidate the antiallergic mechanism, we examined the levels of signaling molecules responsible for degranulation and release of inflammatory cytokines. Fisetin decreased the levels of activated spleen tyrosine kinase, Gab2 proteins, linker of activated T cells, extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 in the IgE/Ag-stimulated RBL2H3 cells, and NFκB and STAT3 proteins activated in the ear tissue of mice with passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). In addition, fisetin significantly lowered of FcɛRI α-subunit mRNA expression. Consistent with the cellular data, fisetin markedly suppressed RBL-2H3 cell-dependent PCA in IgE/Ag-sensitized mice. These results suggest that fisetin may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of allergic diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential effects of the Toll-like receptor 2 agonists, PGN and Pam3CSK4 on anti-IgE induced human mast cell activation.

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    Yangyang Yu

    Full Text Available Mast cells are pivotal in the pathogenesis of allergy and inflammation. In addition to the classical IgE-dependent mechanism involving crosslinking of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI, mast cells are also activated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs which are at the center of innate immunity. In this study, we demonstrated that the response of LAD2 cells (a human mast cell line to anti-IgE was altered in the presence of the TLR2 agonists peptidoglycan (PGN and tripalmitoyl-S-glycero-Cys-(Lys4 (Pam3CSK4. Pretreatment of PGN and Pam3CSK4 inhibited anti-IgE induced calcium mobilization and degranulation without down-regulation of FcεRI expression. Pam3CSK4 but not PGN acted in synergy with anti-IgE for IL-8 release when the TLR2 agonist was added simultaneously with anti-IgE. Studies with inhibitors of key enzymes implicated in mast cell signaling revealed that the synergistic release of IL-8 induced by Pam3CSK4 and anti-IgE involved ERK and calcineurin signaling cascades. The differential modulations of anti-IgE induced mast cell activation by PGN and Pam3CSK4 suggest that dimerization of TLR2 with TLR1 or TLR6 produced different modulating actions on FcεRI mediated human mast cell activation.

  10. Fc receptor-γ subunits with both polar or non-polar amino acids at position of T22 are capable of restoring surface expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor and degranulation in γ subunit-deficient rat basophilic leukemia cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J.E.; Helm, B.A.; Dráber, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2013), s. 270-273 ISSN 0161-5890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA MŠk 1M0506 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : allergy * high-affinity IgE receptor * plasma membrane * transmembrane signaling * 3-helix assembly model Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.003, year: 2013

  11. Characterization and function of histamine receptors in human bone marrow stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Wilson, Todd; Rada, Balazs; Parmelee, Alissa; Mayer, Balazs; Buzas, Edit; Falus, Andras; Key, Sharon; Masszi, Tamas; Karpati, Sarolta; Mezey, Eva

    2012-02-01

    There are several clinical trials worldwide using bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) as a cellular therapy to modulate immune responses in patients suffering from various inflammatory conditions. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this modulatory effect could help us design better, more effective protocols to treat immune mediated diseases. In this study, we demonstrated that human BMSCs express H1, H2, and H4 histamine receptors and they respond to histamine stimulation with an increased interleukin 6 (IL-6) production both in vitro and in vivo. Using different receptor antagonists, we pinpointed the importance of the H1 histamine receptor, while Western blot analysis and application of various mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors highlighted the role of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase kinases in the observed effect. When BMSCs were pretreated with either histamine or degranulated human mast cells, they exhibited an enhanced IL-6-dependent antiapoptotic effect on neutrophil granulocytes. Based on these observations, it is likely that introduction of BMSCs into a histamine-rich environment (such as any allergic setting) or pretreatment of these cells with synthetic histamine could have a significant modulatory effect on the therapeutic potential of BMSCs. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  12. Eosinophil peroxidase signals via epidermal growth factor-2 to induce cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Marie-Therese

    2011-11-01

    Eosinophils exert many of their inflammatory effects in allergic disorders through the degranulation and release of intracellular mediators, including a set of cationic granule proteins that include eosinophil peroxidase. Studies suggest that eosinophils are involved in remodeling. In previous studies, we showed that eosinophil granule proteins activate mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. In this study, we investigated the receptor mediating eosinophil peroxidase-induced signaling and downstream effects. Human cholinergic neuroblastoma IMR32 and murine melanoma B16.F10 cultures, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoprecipitations, and Western blotting were used in the study. We showed that eosinophil peroxidase caused a sustained increase in both the expression of epidermal growth factor-2 (HER2) and its phosphorylation at tyrosine 1248, with the consequent activation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1\\/2. This, in turn, promoted a focal adhesion kinase-dependent egress of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Eosinophil peroxidase induced a HER2-dependent up-regulation of cell proliferation, indicated by an up-regulation of the nuclear proliferation marker Ki67. This study identifies HER2 as a novel mediator of eosinophil peroxidase signaling. The results show that eosinophil peroxidase, at noncytotoxic levels, can drive cell-cycle progression and proliferation, and contribute to tissue remodeling and cell turnover in airway disease. Because eosinophils are a feature of many cancers, these findings also suggest a role for eosinophils in tumorigenesis.

  13. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Chikahisa

    Full Text Available Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS. Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v mice and their wild-type littermates (WT, although W/W(v mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v mice. W/W(v mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  14. Histamine from brain resident MAST cells promotes wakefulness and modulates behavioral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikahisa, Sachiko; Kodama, Tohru; Soya, Atsushi; Sagawa, Yohei; Ishimaru, Yuji; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Nishino, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of various chemical mediators, such as histamine and cytokines, which significantly affect sleep. Mast cells also exist in the central nervous system (CNS). Since up to 50% of histamine contents in the brain are from brain mast cells, mediators from brain mast cells may significantly influence sleep and other behaviors. In this study, we examined potential involvement of brain mast cells in sleep/wake regulations, focusing especially on the histaminergic system, using mast cell deficient (W/W(v)) mice. No significant difference was found in the basal amount of sleep/wake between W/W(v) mice and their wild-type littermates (WT), although W/W(v) mice showed increased EEG delta power and attenuated rebound response after sleep deprivation. Intracerebroventricular injection of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser from mast cells, significantly increased histamine levels in the ventricular region and enhanced wakefulness in WT mice, while it had no effect in W/W(v) mice. Injection of H1 antagonists (triprolidine and mepyramine) significantly increased the amounts of slow-wave sleep in WT mice, but not in W/W(v) mice. Most strikingly, the food-seeking behavior observed in WT mice during food deprivation was completely abolished in W/W(v) mice. W/W(v) mice also exhibited higher anxiety and depression levels compared to WT mice. Our findings suggest that histamine released from brain mast cells is wake-promoting, and emphasizes the physiological and pharmacological importance of brain mast cells in the regulation of sleep and fundamental neurobehavior.

  15. Acid Sphingomyelinase (ASM is a Negative Regulator of Regulatory T Cell (Treg Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuetao Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Regulatory T cell (Treg is required for the maintenance of tolerance to various tissue antigens and to protect the host from autoimmune disorders. However, Treg may, indirectly, support cancer progression and bacterial infections. Therefore, a balance of Treg function is pivotal for adequate immune responses. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM is a rate limiting enzyme involved in the production of ceramide by breaking down sphingomyelin. Previous studies in T-cells have suggested that ASM is involved in CD28 signalling, T lymphocyte granule secretion, degranulation, and vesicle shedding similar to the formation of phosphatidylserine-exposing microparticles from glial cells. However, whether ASM affects the development of Treg has not yet been described. Methods: Splenocytes, isolated Naive T lymphocytes and cultured T cells were characterized for various immune T cell markers by flow cytometery. Cell proliferation was measured by Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE dye, cell cycle analysis by Propidium Iodide (PI, mRNA transcripts by q-RT PCR and protein expression by Western Blotting respectively. Results: ASM deficient mice have higher number of Treg compared with littermate control mice. In vitro induction of ASM deficient T cells in the presence of TGF-β and IL-2 lead to a significantly higher number of Foxp3+ induced Treg (iTreg compared with control T-cells. Further, ASM deficient iTreg has less AKT (serine 473 phosphorylation and Rictor levels compared with control iTreg. Ceramide C6 led to significant reduction of iTreg in both ASM deficient and WT mice. The reduction in iTreg leads to induction of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 but not IFN-γ mRNA levels. Conclusion: ASM is a negative regulator of natural and iTreg.

  16. Acid Sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a Negative Regulator of Regulatory T Cell (Treg) Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuetao; Salker, Madhuri S; Walker, Britta; Münzer, Patrick; Borst, Oliver; Gawaz, Meinrad; Gulbins, Erich; Singh, Yogesh; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory T cell (Treg) is required for the maintenance of tolerance to various tissue antigens and to protect the host from autoimmune disorders. However, Treg may, indirectly, support cancer progression and bacterial infections. Therefore, a balance of Treg function is pivotal for adequate immune responses. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) is a rate limiting enzyme involved in the production of ceramide by breaking down sphingomyelin. Previous studies in T-cells have suggested that ASM is involved in CD28 signalling, T lymphocyte granule secretion, degranulation, and vesicle shedding similar to the formation of phosphatidylserine-exposing microparticles from glial cells. However, whether ASM affects the development of Treg has not yet been described. Splenocytes, isolated Naive T lymphocytes and cultured T cells were characterized for various immune T cell markers by flow cytometery. Cell proliferation was measured by Carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, cell cycle analysis by Propidium Iodide (PI), mRNA transcripts by q-RT PCR and protein expression by Western Blotting respectively. ASM deficient mice have higher number of Treg compared with littermate control mice. In vitro induction of ASM deficient T cells in the presence of TGF-β and IL-2 lead to a significantly higher number of Foxp3+ induced Treg (iTreg) compared with control T-cells. Further, ASM deficient iTreg has less AKT (serine 473) phosphorylation and Rictor levels compared with control iTreg. Ceramide C6 led to significant reduction of iTreg in both ASM deficient and WT mice. The reduction in iTreg leads to induction of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17 but not IFN-γ mRNA levels. ASM is a negative regulator of natural and iTreg. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Dendritic and axonic fields of Purkinje cells in developing and X-irradiated rat cerebellum. A comparative study using intracellular staining with horseradish peroxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepel, F.; Delhaye-Bouchaud, N.; Dupont, J.L.; Sotelo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Intracellular staining of cerebellar Purkinje cells with horseradish peroxidase was achieved in normal developing rats (8-13 days old), in normal adult rats and in adult rats in which the cerebellum had been degranulated by X-ray treatment. The mono- and multiple innervation of Purkinje cells by climbing fibres was electrophysiologically determined and correlated with their dendritic pattern and axonal field. In immature rats, considerable variations in dendritic arborization were observed between cells at the same age, according to their position in the vermis. In adult X-irradiated animals, a large variety of dendritic shapes was found, confirming previous anatomical data, but no obvious correlation was found between the morphology of the dendrites of Purkinje cells and their synaptic investment by climbing fibres. As regards the axonal field, the adult branching pattern of recurrent axon collaterals was almost established by postnatal day 8, except for some cells which exhibited richer recurrent collaterals. On the other hand, in X-irradiated animals, profuse plexuses were the rule and they originated either from one collateral stem, or from several collaterals, also independently of the number of afferent climbing fibres. The existence of these enlarged recurrent collateral plexuses can be explained by the persistence of an immature stage, and certainly also by the collateral sprouting following the largely impaired innervation of the terminal field during development. These results emphasize the role of the cellular interactions that occur during Purkinje cell growth in the formation of both its axonal and dendritic fields. (author)

  18. ADAM17-mediated shedding of FcγRIIIA on human NK cells: identification of the cleavage site and relationship with activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoie, Laurie; Congy-Jolivet, Nicolas; Bolzec, Armelle; Gouilleux-Gruart, Valérie; Sicard, Elodie; Sung, Hsueh Cheng; Peiretti, Frank; Moreau, Thierry; Vié, Henri; Clémenceau, Béatrice; Thibault, Gilles

    2014-01-15

    FcγRIIIA/CD16A, the low-affinity receptor for the IgG Fc portion expressed on human CD56(dim) NK cells and involved in Ab-dependent cell cytotoxicity, is shed upon NK cell activation. We found that recombinant a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) 17 cleaved the ectodomain of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and a peptide for which the sequence encompasses aa 191-201 of the FcγRIIIA/CD16A stalk region but not ADAM10. MALDI-TOF analysis revealed that the peptide was cleaved between Ala(195) and Val(196) (i.e., 1 aa upstream of the expected position). This location of the cleavage site was confirmed by the finding that ADAM17 failed to cleave a peptide in which Ala and Val were reversed. ADAM17 was found to be expressed on NK cells, and stimulation with PMA or N-ethyl-maleimide resulted in the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and CD62L, a specific substrate of ADAM17. Selective inhibition of ADAM17 prevented the shedding of both molecules. Moreover, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was strongly correlated with degranulation when a wide range of CD56(dim) NK cell activating receptors were stimulated, whereas both ADAM17-dependent shedding and internalization were involved in FcγRIIIA/CD16A downmodulation when the latter was engaged. Finally, the shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was restricted to activated cells, suggesting that ADAM17 acts mainly, if not exclusively, in cis. Taken together, our results demonstrated for the first time, to our knowledge, at the molecular level that ADAM17 cleaves the stalk region of FcγRIIIA/CD16A and identified its cleavage site. The shedding of FcγRIIIA/CD16A was at least partially ADAM17 dependent, and it may be considered as a marker of FcγRIIIA/CD16A-independent NK cell activation highly correlated with degranulation.

  19. Inhibitory effect of putranjivain A on allergic inflammation through suppression of mast cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hui-Hun; Park, Seung-Bin; Lee, Soyoung [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Taeg Kyu [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae-Yong [College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Jeonju 565-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Pil-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Ho [College of Pharmacy, Youngnam University, Kyungsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Hyun, E-mail: shkim72@knu.ac.kr [CMRI, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    A great number of people are suffering from allergic inflammatory disease such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and sinusitis. Therefore discovery of drugs for the treatment of these diseases is an important subject in human health. Putranjivain A (PJA), member of ellagitannin, is known to possess beneficial effects including anti-cancer and anti-viral activities. The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether PJA modulates the allergic inflammatory reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action using mast cell-based in vitro and in vivo models. The study was performed in anaphylaxis mouse model and cultured mast cells. PJA inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in immunoglobulin E-stimulated mast cells. PJA reduced this expression by inhibiting nuclear factor (NF)-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cell. The oral administration of PJA reduced systemic and cutaneous anaphylaxis, the release of serum histamine, and the expression of the histamine H{sub 1} receptor. In addition, PJA attenuated the activation of mast cells. PJA inhibited the release of histamine from various types of mast cells by the suppression of intracellular calcium. The inhibitory activity of PJA on the allergic reaction was similar to that of disodium cromoglycate, a known anti-allergic drug. These results suggest that PJA can facilitate the prevention or treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases mediated by mast cells. - Highlights: • PJA reduced the degranulation of mast cells. • PJA inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines. • The effect of PJA on allergic reaction was comparable to the DSCG. • PJA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

  20. Multiple regulatory roles of the mouse transmembrane adaptor protein NTAL in gene transcription and mast cell physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Polakovicova

    Full Text Available Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL; also called LAB or LAT2 is a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in a subset of hematopoietic cells, including mast cells. There are conflicting reports on the role of NTAL in the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI signaling. Studies carried out on mast cells derived from mice with NTAL knock out (KO and wild type mice suggested that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling, while experiments with RNAi-mediated NTAL knockdown (KD in human mast cells and rat basophilic leukemia cells suggested its positive regulatory role. To determine whether different methodologies of NTAL ablation (KO vs KD have different physiological consequences, we compared under well defined conditions FcεRI-mediated signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs with NTAL KO or KD. BMMCs with both NTAL KO and KD exhibited enhanced degranulation, calcium mobilization, chemotaxis, tyrosine phosphorylation of LAT and ERK, and depolymerization of filamentous actin. These data provide clear evidence that NTAL is a negative regulator of FcεRI activation events in murine BMMCs, independently of possible compensatory developmental alterations. To gain further insight into the role of NTAL in mast cells, we examined the transcriptome profiles of resting and antigen-activated NTAL KO, NTAL KD, and corresponding control BMMCs. Through this analysis we identified several genes that were differentially regulated in nonactivated and antigen-activated NTAL-deficient cells, when compared to the corresponding control cells. Some of the genes seem to be involved in regulation of cholesterol-dependent events in antigen-mediated chemotaxis. The combined data indicate multiple regulatory roles of NTAL in gene expression and mast cell physiology.

  1. Mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activity of aqueous extract of green tea (Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (Camellia sinensis is one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages in the world. In the current study, aqueous extract of green tea (C. sinensis was evaluated for mast cell stabilizing and anti-anaphylactic activities. Green tea extract (11, 13, 15 mg/ml significantly (P < 0.05 inhibited compound 48/80-induced rat mesentric mast cell degranulation in a dose dependent manner. Anti-anaphylactic activity of green tea extract was performed in female mice. At a dose of 400, 500, 600 mg/kg BW, green tea extract showed significant reduction in the mortality of mice subjected to anaphylactic shock by compound C48/80. Ketotifen was used for comparison. In addition, IR and UV–Visible spectroscopy analysis of green tea extract revealed the presence of functional groups of bioactive compounds. These results suggest that green tea could be useful in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis.

  2. Cathelicidin production and release by mammary epithelial cells during infectious mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Tiziana; Cacciotto, Carla; Pisanu, Salvatore; Tedde, Vittorio; Alberti, Alberto; Pittau, Marco; Dore, Simone; Cannas, Agnese; Uzzau, Sergio; Rocca, Stefano; Addis, Maria Filippa

    2017-07-01

    Cathelicidins are well-characterized antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are present in significant amounts in mastitic milk. Neutrophils are believed to be the main producers of these AMPs, while the role of mammary epithelial cells (MECs) in their production and release is still unclear. In this work, cathelicidin production patterns were investigated in mammary tissues of ewes infected by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, or Mycoplasma agalactiae, with a combined approach including immunohistochemistry, immune-colocalization, and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Our results confirm that MECs produce and release cathelicidins in response to different mastitis pathogens. As opposed to neutrophils, however, MECs do not seem to store the preformed protein precursor in their cytoplasm, but appear to synthesize and release it only upon exposure to the microorganisms. Cathelicidin production by MECs appears to occur before leukocyte influx in the milk, suggesting a role for these cells in the initial response of the mammary epithelium to microbial infection. Once in the milk, infiltrating neutrophils release massive amounts of cathelicidin by degranulation and production of neutrophil extracellular traps, acting as the main contributor for cathelicidin abundance in mastitic milk. Taken together, our results support the active contribution of MECs to cathelicidin production and release, and reinforce the value of cathelicidins as sensitive and pathogen-independent mastitis markers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kui Lea [Center for Drug Development Assistance, National Institute of Food Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), KFDA, Cheongwon-gun (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, College of Biological Science, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hang-Rae, E-mail: hangrae2@snu.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology and physiology, College of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-{alpha} and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early Fc{epsilon}RI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  4. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibits activation of Syk kinase to suppress mast cells in vitro and mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kui Lea; Ko, Na Young; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram; Her, Erk; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Hyung Sik; Moon, Eun-Yi; Kim, Young Mi; Kim, Hang-Rae; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2011-01-01

    4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. We aimed to study the effects of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on activation of mast cells in vitro and in mice. 4-Chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited degranulation of mast cells in a dose-dependent manner, and also suppressed the expression and secretion of TNF-α and IL-4 in mast cells. Mechanistically, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited activating phosphorylation of Syk and LAT, which are crucial for early FcεRI-mediated signaling events, as well as Akt and MAP kinases, which play essential roles in the production of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. Notably, although 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline inhibited the activation of Fyn and Syk, minimal inhibition was observed in mast cells in the case of Lyn. Furthermore, consistent with its in vitro activity, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline significantly suppressed mast cell-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. In summary, the results from this study demonstrate that 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline shows an inhibitory effect on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, and that this is mediated by inhibiting the activation of Syk in mast cells. Therefore, 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful in the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. -- Highlights: ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline is a quinoxaline derivative. ► The effect of 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline on mast cells was investigated. ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline reversibly inhibited Syk activation. ► 4-chlorotetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoxaline could be useful for IgE-mediated allergy.

  5. Modulation of Human Leukocyte Antigen-C by Human Cytomegalovirus Stimulates KIR2DS1 Recognition by Natural Killer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Kattria; Chang, Chiwen; Ivarsson, Martin A; Moffett, Ashley; Wills, Mark R; Trowsdale, John

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of inhibitory killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules has been characterized in detail. By contrast, activating members of the KIR family, although closely related to inhibitory KIRs, appear to interact weakly, if at all, with HLA class I. KIR2DS1 is the best studied activating KIR and it interacts with C2 group HLA-C (C2-HLA-C) in some assays, but not as strongly as KIR2DL1. We used a mouse 2B4 cell reporter system, which carries NFAT-green fluorescent protein with KIR2DS1 and a modified DAP12 adaptor protein. KIR2DS1 reporter cells were not activated upon coculture with 721.221 cells transfected with different HLA-C molecules, or with interferon-γ stimulated primary dermal fibroblasts. However, KIR2DS1 reporter cells and KIR2DS1 + primary natural killer (NK) cells were activated by C2-HLA-C homozygous human fetal foreskin fibroblasts (HFFFs) but only after infection with specific clones of a clinical strain of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). Active viral gene expression was required for activation of both cell types. Primary NKG2A - KIR2DS1 + NK cell subsets degranulated after coculture with HCMV-infected HFFFs. The W6/32 antibody to HLA class I blocked the KIR2DS1 reporter cell interaction with its ligand on HCMV-infected HFFFs but did not block interaction with KIR2DL1. This implies a differential recognition of HLA-C by KIR2DL1 and KIR2DS1. The data suggest that modulation of HLA-C by HCMV is required for a potent KIR2DS1-mediated NK cell activation.

  6. Increased mast cell tryptase in sudden infant death - anaphylaxis, hypoxia or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edston, E; Gidlund, E; Wickman, M; Ribbing, H; Van Hage-Hamsten, M

    1999-12-01

    Increased concentrations of mast cell tryptase in post mortem blood have frequently been observed in sudden infant deaths but the cause of this has not yet been clarified. The aim was to evaluate factors (immunological, morphological and anamnestic data) behind the observed increase in mast cell tryptase in sudden infant deaths with elevated tryptase. Mast cell tryptase and total immunoglobulin (Ig) E were measured in post mortem sera from 44 infants younger than 1.5 years. Radioallergosorbent tests were performed for possible allergens (mixture for relevant food allergens, Phadiatop and latex). IgG subclasses, IgM, and complement factors (C3, C4 and factor B) were measured with radial immunodiffusion. Mast cells, labelled with antibodies against mast cell tryptase, were counted in the lungs and heart. The circumstances of death and medical history of the deceased infant and family were obtained through police and hospital records. In 40% of the SIDS cases tryptase was elevated (>10 microg/L). Total IgE in serum was increased in 33% compared with clinical reference values but showed no association with mast cell tryptase. RAST tests were positive in three cases. In one of these cases both tryptase and total IgE were elevated. The only variable that was associated with high tryptase values was prone position at death (P Children with elevated total IgE also displayed high concentrations of IgG1 and IgG2. Infants who died in the spring had significantly higher IgE than the others (P < or = 0.05). The results do not support the hypothesis that the elevated tryptase concentrations in sudden infant death are caused by allergy. The association between prone position at death and elevated tryptase could hypothetically be explained by mast cell degranulation due to, for example, a hypoxic stimulus in these infants.

  7. Omalizumab may not inhibit mast cell and basophil activation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, J; Ohanyan, T; Church, M K; Maurer, M; Metz, M

    2015-09-01

    In March 2014, omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, was approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). The primary mode of action of omalizumab is considered to be the reduction in free IgE serum levels and the subsequent down-regulation of FcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE, on mast cells and basophils. Recently, it has been suggested that most CSU patients have an autoimmune aetiology which may lead to chronic activation of mast cells and basophils. To understand more of the mechanisms by which omalizumab may exert its effects in CSU, its efficacy was tested on human mast cells and basophils. Omalizumab, which was or was not preincubated with serum from healthy donors or CSU patients, was coincubated with isolated healthy donor skin mast cells or peripheral blood-derived monocytes containing 1-2% basophils. Degranulation was induced using anti-human IgE, C5a, or substance P and histamine release determined. Anti-human IgE-induced histamine release from mast cells or basophils was not altered in the presence or absence of omalizumab. In contrast, preincubation of mast cells with DARPin Fc fusion protein, a positive control for negative signalling via FcεRI-FcγRIIb cross activation, significantly diminished histamine release. Moreover, omalizumab, that was preincubated with healthy donor serum, CSU patient serum or auto-reactive CSU serum to allow for the formation of potential immune complexes, did not alter induced histamine release in a coincubation setup with mast cells or basophils as compared to the absence of omalizumab. In vivo, blood basophil numbers and basophil histamine content increase under omalizumab therapy. Our results suggest that the rapid response to omalizumab therapy is more likely to result from the elimination of an activating signal rather than the generation of a negative, inhibitory signal. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  8. Open conformers of HLA-F are high-affinity ligands of the activating NK-cell receptor KIR3DS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F; Hölzemer, Angelique; Martrus, Gloria; Chung, Amy W; Pacheco, Yovana; Simoneau, Camille R; Rucevic, Marijana; Lamothe-Molina, Pedro A; Pertel, Thomas; Kim, Tae-Eun; Dugan, Haley; Alter, Galit; Dechanet-Merville, Julie; Jost, Stephanie; Carrington, Mary; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    The activating natural killer (NK)-cell receptor KIR3DS1 has been linked to the outcome of various human diseases, including delayed progression of disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet a ligand that would account for its biological effects has remained unknown. We screened 100 HLA class I proteins and found that KIR3DS1 bound to HLA-F, a result we confirmed biochemically and functionally. Primary human KIR3DS1(+) NK cells degranulated and produced antiviral cytokines after encountering HLA-F and inhibited HIV-1 replication in vitro. Activation of CD4(+) T cells triggered the transcription and surface expression of HLA-F mRNA and HLA-F protein, respectively, and induced binding of KIR3DS1. HIV-1 infection further increased the transcription of HLA-F mRNA but decreased the binding of KIR3DS1, indicative of a mechanism for evading recognition by KIR3DS1(+) NK cells. Thus, we have established HLA-F as a ligand of KIR3DS1 and have demonstrated cell-context-dependent expression of HLA-F that might explain the widespread influence of KIR3DS1 in human disease.

  9. Endogenous protein and enzyme fragments induce immunoglobulin E-independent activation of mast cells via a G protein-coupled receptor, MRGPRX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatemoto, K; Nozaki, Y; Tsuda, R; Kaneko, S; Tomura, K; Furuno, M; Ogasawara, H; Edamura, K; Takagi, H; Iwamura, H; Noguchi, M; Naito, T

    2018-05-01

    Mast cells play a central role in inflammatory and allergic reactions by releasing inflammatory mediators through 2 main pathways, immunoglobulin E-dependent and E-independent activation. In the latter pathway, mast cells are activated by a diverse range of basic molecules (collectively known as basic secretagogues) through Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors (MRGPRs). In addition to the known basic secretagogues, here, we discovered several endogenous protein and enzyme fragments (such as chaperonin-10 fragment) that act as bioactive peptides and induce immunoglobulin E-independent mast cell activation via MRGPRX2 (previously known as MrgX2), leading to the degranulation of mast cells. We discuss the possibility that MRGPRX2 responds various as-yet-unidentified endogenous ligands that have specific characteristics, and propose that MRGPRX2 plays an important role in regulating inflammatory responses to endogenous harmful stimuli, such as protein breakdown products released from damaged or dying cells. © 2018 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  10. NKG2D performs two functions in invariant NKT cells: direct TCR-independent activation of NK-like cytolysis and co-stimulation of activation by CD1d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuylenstierna, Carlotta; Björkström, Niklas K; Andersson, Sofia K; Sahlström, Peter; Bosnjak, Lidija; Paquin-Proulx, Dominic; Malmberg, Karl-Johan; Ljunggren, Hans-Gustaf; Moll, Markus; Sandberg, Johan K

    2011-07-01

    Invariant NKT cells are important in the activation and regulation of immune responses. They can also function as CD1d-restricted killer cells. However, the role of activating innate NK-cell receptors expressed on NKT cells in triggering cytolytic function is poorly characterized. Here, we initially confirmed that the cellular stress-ligand receptor NKG2D is expressed on CD4- NKT cells, whereas most CD4+ NKT cells lack this receptor. Interestingly, NKG2D+ NKT cells frequently expressed perforin, and both NKG2D and perforin localized at the site of contact with NKG2D ligand-expressing target cells. CD4- NKT cells degranulated in response to NKG2D engagement in a redirected activation assay independent of stimulation via their invariant TCR. NKT cells killed P815 cells coated with anti-NKG2D mAb and CD1d-negative K562 tumor target cells in an NKG2D-dependent manner. Furthermore, NKG2D engagement co-stimulated TCR-mediated NKT-cell activation in response to endogenous CD1d-presented ligands or suboptimal levels of anti-CD3 triggering. These data indicate that the CD4- subset of human NKT cells can mediate direct lysis of target cells via NKG2D engagement independent of CD1d, and that NKG2D also functions as a co-stimulatory receptor in these cells. NKG2D thus plays both a direct and a co-stimulatory role in the activation of NKT cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein induces release of histamine and interleukin-6 through G protein-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways in HMC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Che; Kuo, Ting-Yu; Hong, Zhi-Wei; Yeh, Ying-Chieh; Shih, Kuo-Shun; Du, Shin-Yi; Fu, Hua-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) activates several innate leukocytes including neutrophils, monocytes, and mast cells. It has been reported that HP-NAP induces degranulation and interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion of rat peritoneal mast cells. However, the molecular mechanism is not very clear. Here, we show that HP-NAP activates human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells to secrete histamine and IL-6. The secretion depends on pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive heterotrimeric G proteins but not on Toll-like receptor 2. Moreover, HP-NAP induces PTX-sensitive G protein-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and Akt in HMC-1 cells. Inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) suppresses HP-NAP-induced release of histamine and IL-6 from HMC-1 cells. Thus, the activation of HMC-1 cells by HP-NAP is through Gi-linked G protein-coupled receptor-mediated MAPKs and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  12. Lack of galectin-3 up-regulates IgA expression by peritoneal B1 lymphocytes during B cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Felipe L; Bernardes, Emerson S; Brand, Camila; dos Santos, Sofia N; Cabanel, Mariana P; Arcanjo, Kátia D; Brito, José M; Borojevic, Radovan; Chammas, Roger; El-Cheikh, Márcia C

    2016-02-01

    Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding protein with an inhibitory role in B cell differentiation into plasma cells in distinct lymphoid tissues. We use a model of chronic schistosomiasis, a well-characterized experimental disease hallmarked by polyclonal B cell activation, in order to investigate the role of galectin-3 in controlling IgA production through peritoneal B1 cells. Chronically infected, galectin-3-deficient mice (Lgals3(-/-)) display peritoneal fluid hypercellularity, increased numbers of atypical peritoneal IgM(+)/IgA(+) B1a and B1b lymphocytes and histological disturbances in plasma cell niches when compared with Lgals3(+/+) mice. Similar to our infection model, peritoneal B1 cells from uninfected Lgals3(-/-) mice show enhanced switching to IgA after in vitro treatment with interleukin-5 plus transforming growth factor-β (IL-5 + TGF-β1). A higher number of IgA(+) B1a lymphocytes was found in the peritoneal cavity of Lgals3(-/-)-uninfected mice at 1 week after i.p. injection of IL-5 + TGF-β1; this correlates with the increased levels of secreted IgA detected in the peritoneal fluid of these mice after cytokine treatment. Interestingly, a higher number of degranulated mast cells is present in the peritoneal cavity of uninfected and Schistosoma mansoni-infected Lgals3(-/-) mice, indicating that, at least in part, mast cells account for the enhanced differentiation of B1 into IgA-producing B cells found in the absence of galectin-3. Thus, a novel role is revealed for galectin-3 in controlling the expression of surface IgA by peritoneal B1 lymphocytes; this might have important implications for manipulating the mucosal immune response.

  13. HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function augmented by blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction in HTLV-1 infection.

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    Chibueze Chioma Ezinne

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cell response is important in the response to viral infections; this response though is regulated by inhibitory receptors. Expression of inhibitory receptors has been positively correlated with CD8+ T cell exhaustion; the consequent effect of simultaneous blockade of these inhibitory receptors on CD8+ T cell response in viral infections have been studied, however, the role of individual blockade of receptor-ligand pair is unclear. 2B4/CD48 interaction is involved in CD8+T cell regulation, its signal transducer SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM-associated protein is required for stimulatory function of 2B4/CD244 on lymphocytes hence, we analyzed 2B4/CD244 (natural killer cell receptor and SAP (signaling lymphocyte activation molecule(SLAM-associated protein on total CD8+ and HTLV-1 specific CD8+T cells in HTLV-1 infection and the effect of blockade of interaction with ligand CD48 on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cell function. We observed a high expression of 2B4/CD244 on CD8+ T cells relative to uninfected and further upregulation on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. 2B4+ CD8+ T cells exhibited more of an effector and terminally differentiated memory phenotype. Blockade of 2B4/CD48 interaction resulted in improvement in function via perforin expression and degranulation as measured by CD107a surface mobilization on HTLV-1 specific CD8+ T cells. In the light of these findings, we thus propose an inhibitory role for 2B4/CD48 interaction on CD8+T cell function.

  14. Zoledronic acid renders human M1 and M2 macrophages susceptible to Vδ2+γδ T cell cytotoxicity in a perforin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Daniel W; Copier, John; Dalgleish, Angus G; Bodman-Smith, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    Vδ2 + T cells are a subpopulation of γδ T cells in humans that are cytotoxic towards cells which accumulate isopentenyl pyrophosphate. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA), can induce tumour cell lines to accumulate isopentenyl pyrophosphate, thus rendering them more susceptible to Vδ2 + T cell cytotoxicity. However, little is known about whether ZA renders other, non-malignant cell types susceptible. In this study we focussed on macrophages (Mϕs), as these cells have been shown to take up ZA. We differentiated peripheral blood monocytes from healthy donors into Mϕs and then treated them with IFN-γ or IL-4 to generate M1 and M2 Mϕs, respectively. We characterised these Mϕs based on their phenotype and cytokine production and then tested whether ZA rendered them susceptible to Vδ2 + T cell cytotoxicity. Consistent with the literature, IFN-γ-treated Mϕs expressed higher levels of the M1 markers CD64 and IL-12p70, whereas IL-4-treated Mϕs expressed higher levels of the M2 markers CD206 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 18. When treated with ZA, both M1 and M2 Mϕs became susceptible to Vδ2 + T cell cytotoxicity. Vδ2 + T cells expressed perforin and degranulated in response to ZA-treated Mϕs as shown by mobilisation of CD107a and CD107b to the cell surface. Furthermore, cytotoxicity towards ZA-treated Mϕs was sensitive-at least in part-to the perforin inhibitor concanamycin A. These findings suggest that ZA can render M1 and M2 Mϕs susceptible to Vδ2 + T cell cytotoxicity in a perforin-dependent manner, which has important implications regarding the use of ZA in cancer immunotherapy.

  15. Mast cell histamine-mediated transient inflammation following exposure to nickel promotes nickel allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinbara, Masayuki; Bando, Kanan; Shiraishi, Daisuke; Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Nagai, Yasuhiro; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Sugawara, Shunji; Endo, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that allergic responses to nickel (Ni) were minimal in mice deficient in the histamine-forming enzyme histidine decarboxylase (HDC-KO), suggesting an involvement of histamine in allergic responses to Ni. However, it remains unclear how histamine is involved in the process of Ni allergy. Here, we examined the role of histamine in Ni allergy using a murine model previously established by us. Mice were sensitized to Ni by intraperitoneal injection of a NiCl2 -lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mixture. Ten days later, allergic inflammation was elicited by challenging ear-pinnas intradermally with NiCl2 . Then, ear-swelling was measured. Pyrilamine (histamine H1-receptor antagonist) or cromoglicate (mast cell stabilizer) was intravenously injected 1 h before the sensitization or the challenge. In cell-transfer experiments, spleen cells from Ni-sensitized donor mice were intravenously transferred into non-sensitized recipient mice. In both sensitized and non-sensitized mice, 1 mm or more NiCl2 (injected into ear-pinnas) induced transient non-allergic inflammation (Ni-TI) with accompanying mast cell degranulation. LPS did not affect the magnitude of this Ni-TI. Pyrilamine and cromoglicate reduced either the Ni-TI or the ensuing allergic inflammation when administered before Ni-TI (at either the sensitization or elicitation step), but not if administered when the Ni-TI had subsided. Experiments on HDC-KO and H1-receptor-KO mice, and also cell-transfer experiments using these mice, demonstrated histamine's involvement in both the sensitization and elicitation steps. These results suggest that mast cell histamine-mediated Ni-TI promotes subsequent allergic inflammatory responses to Ni, raising the possibility that control of Ni-TI by drugs may be effective at preventing or reducing Ni allergy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Expression of DP2 (CRTh2, a prostaglandin D₂ receptor, in human mast cells.

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    Tae Chul Moon

    Full Text Available PGD₂ has long been implicated in allergic diseases. Recent cloning of a second PGD₂ receptor, DP2 (also known as CRTh2, led to a greater understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological implications of PGD₂. PGD₂ signaling through DP1 and DP2 mediates different and often opposite effects in many cell types of the immune system. Although mast cells (MC are the largest source of PGD₂ in the body, there is little information about their potential expression of DP2 and its functional significance. In this study, we show that tissue MC in human nasal polyps express DP2 protein, and that human MC lines and primary cultured human MC express mRNA as well as protein of DP2. By immunohistochemistry, we detected that 34% of MC in human nasal polyps expressed DP2. In addition, flow cytometry showed that 87% of the LAD2 human MC line and 98% of primary cultured human MC contained intracellular DP2. However, we could not detect surface expression of DP2 on human MC by single cell analysis using imaging flow cytometry. Blocking of endogenous PGD2 production with aspirin did not induce surface expression of DP2 in human MC. Two DP2 selective agonists, DK-PGD₂ and 15R-15-methyl PGD₂ induced dose-dependent intracellular calcium mobilization that was abrogated by pertussis toxin, but not by three DP2 selective antagonists. MC mediator release including degranulation was not affected by DP2 selective agonists. Thus, human MC express DP2 intracellularly rather than on their surface, and the function of DP2 in human MC is different than in other immune cells such as Th2 cells, eosinophils and basophils where it is expressed on the cell surface and induces Th2 cytokine and/or granule associated mediator release. Further studies to elucidate the role of intracellular DP2 in human MC may expand our understanding of this molecule and provide novel therapeutic opportunities.

  17. Programmed death 1 is highly expressed on CD8+CD57+T cells in patients with stable multiple sclerosis and inhibits their cytotoxic response to Epstein-Barr virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cencioni, Maria T; Magliozzi, Roberta; Nicholas, Richard; Ali, Rehiana; Malik, Omar; Reynolds, Richard; Borsellino, Giovanna; Battistini, Luca; Muraro, Paolo A

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence points to a deregulated response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as a possible cause of disease. We have investigated the response of a subpopulation of effector CD8 + T cells to EBV in 36 healthy donors and in 35 patients with MS in active and inactive disease. We have measured the expression of markers of degranulation, the release of cytokines, cytotoxicity and the regulation of effector functions by inhibitory receptors, such as programmed death 1 (PD-1) and human inhibitor receptor immunoglobulin-like transcript 2 (ILT2). We demonstrate that polyfunctional cytotoxic CD8 + CD57 + T cells are able to kill EBV-infected cells in healthy donors. In contrast, an anergic exhaustion-like phenotype of CD8 + CD57 + T cells with high expression of PD-1 was observed in inactive patients with MS compared with active patients with MS or healthy donors. Detection of CD8 + CD57 + T cells in meningeal inflammatory infiltrates from post-mortem MS tissue confirmed the association of this cell phenotype with the disease pathological process. The overall results suggest that ineffective immune control of EBV in patietns with MS during remission may be one factor preceding and enabling the reactivation of the virus in the central nervous system and may cause exacerbation of the disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of non-sperm cells removal with single-layer colloidal centrifugation on myeloperoxidase concentration in post-thaw equine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthier, Jérôme; Teague, Sheila R; Franck, Thierry Y; de la Rebière, Geoffroy; Serteyn, Didier D; Brinsko, Steven P; Love, Charles C; Blanchard, Terry L; Varner, Dickson D; Deleuze, Stéfan C

    2013-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a pro-oxidant enzyme contained in and released by neutrophils during degranulation or after lysis. Post-thaw semen contains MPO and its concentration is associated with decreased sperm motility. Recently, MPO concentration in post-thaw semen was shown to be associated with the presence of non-sperm cells (NSC). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single-layer colloidal centrifugation before cryopreservation on NSC and MPO concentrations in equine semen. The experimental design consisted of freezing semen with or without previous centrifugation through two concentrations of single-layer colloid media. Non-sperm cells and MPO concentrations were assessed in pellet and upper layer at each step of the procedure and MPO was detected in cells by immunocytochemistry. Single-layer colloid centrifugation decreased NSC and MPO concentrations in post-thaw semen. The MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of NSC in the upper layer of the supernatant. In post-thaw semen, with or without previous single-layer colloid centrifugation, MPO concentration was correlated with concentration of NSC. Overall, neutrophils were rarely observed and NSC were mainly epithelial cells or cellular debris, as demonstrated by MPO immunocytochemistry. At all steps of the semen processing and cryopreservation, MPO immunostaining was clearly identified only on NSC. In conclusion, our study shows that NSC present in fresh semen release MPO during freezing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Open conformers of HLA-F are high-affinity ligands of the activating NK-cell receptor KIR3DS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F.; Hölzemer, Angelique; Martrus, Gloria; Chung, Amy W.; Pacheco, Yovana; Simoneau, Camille R.; Rucevic, Marijana; Lamothe-Molina, Pedro A.; Pertel, Thomas; Kim, Tae-Eun; Dugan, Haley; Alter, Galit; Dechanet-Merville, Julie; Jost, Stephanie; Carrington, Mary; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    The activating NK-cell receptor KIR3DS1 has been implicated in the outcome of various human diseases, including delayed HIV-1 disease progression, yet a ligand that accounts for its biological effects remained unknown. We screened 100 HLA-I proteins and found that KIR3DS1 binds HLA-F, which was validated biochemically and functionally. Primary human KIR3DS1+ NK cells degranulated and produced antiviral cytokines upon encountering HLA-F, and inhibited HIV-1 replication in vitro. CD4+ T-cell activation triggered HLA-F transcription and expression and induced KIR3DS1 ligand expression. HIV-1 infection further increased HLA-F transcription, but decreased KIR3DS1 ligand expression, indicating an immune-evasion mechanism. Altogether, we established HLA-F as a ligand of KIR3DS1, and demonstrated cell-context-dependent expression of HLA-F that may explain the widespread influence of KIR3DS1 in human diseases. PMID:27455421

  20. The Clinical Features of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections Are Associated with Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genes and Their Expression on the Surface of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Podhorzer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR genes are known to play a role in the acute phase of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The present study investigated their roles in chronic HCV (CHCV infection by analyzing the phenotypes and function of natural killer (NK and T cells that express KIRs. T cells from CHCV patients showed a more differentiated phenotype, and NK cells exhibited an activated profile. These observations are consistent with the increased expression of the degranulation marker CD107a observed after PMA stimulation. We explored the correlations between the expression of KIR genes and lectin type-C receptors with clinical factors that predict progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis. The expression levels of KIR2DS3 and the functional alleles of KIR2DS4-FL were increased in patients with intermediate and high viral loads. Homozygous KIR2DS4 was also associated with the presence of cirrhosis. In the group of individuals with a shorter infection time who developed cirrhosis, we detected decreased expression of KIR3DL1 in CD56dim NK cells in the presence of its ligand. Similarly, in the group of patients with late CHCV infections complicated with cirrhosis, we detected lower expression of the strong inhibitory receptor NKG2A in CD56bright NK cells. We also detected an increase in NKG2C expression in CD56dim NK cells in CHCV patients who displayed high necroinflammatory activity. Decreased KIR3DL2 expression in CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells was associated with a high body mass index, and KIR3DL2 expression may be one factor associated with the more rapid progression of CHCV to fibrosis in patients.

  1. Role of female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone, in mast cell behaviour

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    Oliver eZierau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Female sex hormones have long been suspected to have an effect on mast cell (MC behaviour. This assumption is based on the expression of hormone receptors in MCs as well as on the fact that many MC-related pathophysiological alterations have a different prevalence in females than in males. Further, serum IgE levels are much higher in allergic female mice compared to male mice. Ovariectomized rats developed less airway inflammation compared to sham controls. Following estrogen replacement ovariectomized rats re-established airway inflammation levels’ found in intact females. In humans, a much higher asthma prevalence was found in women at reproductive age as compared to men. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone have been directly correlated with the clinical and functional features of asthma. Around 30 to 40% of women who have asthma experienced worsening of their symptoms during the perimenstrual phase, the so-called perimenstrual asthma. Postmenopausal women receiving hormone replacement therapy have an increased risk of new onset of asthma. Beside, estrus cycle dependent changes on female sex hormones are related to changes on MC number in mouse uterine tissue and estradiol and progesterone were shown to induce uterine MC maturation and degranulation. We will discuss here the currently available information concerning the role of these female sex hormones on MC behavior.

  2. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction.

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    Jennifer E Bruin

    Full Text Available Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT is currently recommended as a safe smoking cessation aid for pregnant women. However, fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in rats causes mitochondrial-mediated beta cell apoptosis at weaning, and adult-onset dysglycemia, which we hypothesize is related to progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in the pancreas. Therefore in this study we examined the effect of fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine on pancreatic mitochondrial structure and function during postnatal development. Female Wistar rats were given saline (vehicle control or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/d via subcutaneous injection for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. At 3-4, 15 and 26 weeks of age, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed, and pancreas tissue was collected for electron microscopy, enzyme activity assays and islet isolation. Following nicotine exposure mitochondrial structural abnormalities were observed beginning at 3 weeks and worsened with advancing age. Importantly the appearance of these structural defects in nicotine-exposed animals preceded the onset of glucose intolerance. Nicotine exposure also resulted in significantly reduced pancreatic respiratory chain enzyme activity, degranulation of beta cells, elevated islet oxidative stress and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion compared to saline controls at 26 weeks of age. Taken together, these data suggest that maternal nicotine use during pregnancy results in postnatal mitochondrial dysfunction that may explain, in part, the dysglycemia observed in the offspring from this animal model. These results clearly indicate that further investigation into the safety of NRT use during pregnancy is warranted.

  3. ADCC-Mediated CD56dim NK Cell Responses Are Associated with Early HBsAg Clearance in Acute HBV Infection

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    Wen-Han Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection. Because immunophenotypic and functional studies have implicated a role for Natural Killer (NK cells in HBV clearance during acute infection, we hypothesized that a distinct NK-cell profile exists in acute HBV infection that could provide information for the mechanism of HBV clearance. Using multivariate flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of key activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells, and their ability to respond to classic target cell lines. Multivariate analysis revealed selective perturbation of the CD56 dim NK-cell subset during acute infection, displaying low levels of NKp46+, NKp30+, CD160+ and CD161+ cells. Intriguingly, the CD56 dim NK-cell profile predicted time to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg clearance from the blood, and distinct NK-cell profiles predicted early (NKp30, CD94, CD161 and late clearance (KIR3DL1, CD158a, perforin, NKp46. Finally, functional analysis demonstrated that early and late clearance tracked with elevated degranulation (CD107a or IFNγ production, respectively, in response to ADCC-mediated activation. In conclusion, the cytolytic CD56dim NK-cell subset is selectively activated in acute HBV infection and displays distinct phenotypic and functional profiles associated with efficient and early control of HBV, implicating antibody-mediated cytolytic NK-cell responses in the early control and functional cure of HBV infection.

  4. ADCC-Mediated CD56DIM NK Cell Responses Are Associated with Early HBsAg Clearance in Acute HBV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Han; Cosgrove, Cormac; Berger, Christoph T; Cheney, Patrick C; Krykbaeva, Marina; Kim, Arthur Y; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia; Lauer, Georg M; Alter, Galit

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects up to 400 million people worldwide and accounts for approximately one million deaths per year from liver pathologies. Current treatment regimens are effective in suppressing viremia but usually have to be taken indefinitely, warranting research into new therapeutic approaches. Acute HBV infection in adults almost universally results in resolution of viremia, with the exception of immunocompromised persons, suggesting that the immune response can functionally cure or even eradicate HBV infection. Because immunophenotypic and functional studies have implicated a role for Natural Killer (NK) cells in HBV clearance during acute infection, we hypothesized that a distinct NK-cell profile exists in acute HBV infection that could provide information for the mechanism of HBV clearance. Using multivariate flow cytometry, we evaluated the expression of key activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells, and their ability to respond to classic target cell lines. Multivariate analysis revealed selective perturbation of the CD56 dim NK-cell subset during acute infection, displaying low levels of NKp46+, NKp30+, CD160+ and CD161+ cells. Intriguingly, the CD56 dim NK-cell profile predicted time to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance from the blood, and distinct NK-cell profiles predicted early (NKp30, CD94, CD161) and late clearance (KIR3DL1, CD158a, perforin, NKp46). Finally, functional analysis demonstrated that early and late clearance tracked with elevated degranulation (CD107a) or IFNγ production, respectively, in response to ADCC-mediated activation. The cytolytic CD56 dim NK-cell subset is selectively activated in acute HBV infection and displays distinct phenotypic and functional profiles associated with efficient and early control of HBV, implicating antibody-mediated cytolytic NK-cell responses in the early control and functional cure of HBV infection.

  5. Inhibition of the BET family of epigenetic reader proteins: A novel principle for modulating gene expression in IgE-activated mast cells.

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    Garcia-Faroldi, Gianni; Rönnberg, Elin; Grujic, Mirjana; Pejler, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    The BET family of bromodomain-containing proteins constitute epigenetic readers that bind to acetylated lysine residues of core histones, thereby translating epigenetic histone marks to effects on gene expression. BET inhibitors are currently emerging as promising therapeutic agents for treatment of various pathological conditions. Here, we explored the potential of using BET inhibition to modulate IgE-mediated responses in mast cells. We assessed the effects of BET inhibitors PFI-1, I-BET151, and I-BET762 on responses downstream of mast cell activation through IgE receptor cross-linking. BET inhibitors were neither toxic for mast cells (at doses up to 20 μM), nor did they prevent IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, we found that BET inhibition, in particular by I-BET151, suppressed IL-6 gene expression and IL-6 protein release in response to IgE-mediated mast cell activation. This was observed in both bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and in mature peritoneal-cell derived mast cells. Further analysis showed that BET inhibition also suppressed the expression of a number of additional genes of those that were upregulated by IgE receptor cross-linking, including IL-3, IL-7R, CCR1, and ADAMTS9. However, BET inhibition was selective, i.e., several genes that were upregulated by IgE receptor cross-linking were not affected by BET inhibitors. These findings suggest that BET inhibition can interfere with the upregulated expression of selected genes in mast cells activated by IgE receptor cross-linking. Further, our findings introduce the concept of utilizing epigenetic mechanisms for modulating mast cell function in the context of IgE-driven disease. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Na{sup +}/K{sup +} -pump in rat peritoneal mast cells: Some aspects of regulatio of activity and cellular fusion

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    Knudsen, T. [Odense Univ., Dept. of Pharmacology, Inst. of Medical Biology, The Faculty of Health Scineces (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    The mast cell contains potent mediators of inflammation which are released after IgE-directed and non-IgE-directed stimulation of the cell. This highly specialized cell is therefore ascribed a role in the pathogenesis of disease states in which the inflammatory response plays a role for the development of the clinical symptoms. Thus, besides being of interest in basic research, studies of the cellular processes leading to release of inflammatory mediators from the mast cell also also have important clinical implications. The aim of the present work has been to document the existence of the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-pump in rat peritoneal mast cells, to investigate the regulation of the pump activity and to explore whether modulation of the pump activity interferes with the cellular stimulus/secretion coupling mechanism. The Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-pump activity following stimulation of the mast cell was also investigated. The pump activity was assessed as the ouabain-sensitive cellular potassium uptake with {sup 86}Rb{sup +} as a tracer for potassium. The histamine release from the mast cell following IgE-directed and non-IgE-directed stimulation of the cell was used as a parameter of cellular degranulation. Histamine was measured by spectrofluorometry. Besides describing aspects of the function and regulation of the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-pump in the rat peritoneal mast cell, this thesis points to the potential role of sodium transport mechanisms in mast cell physiology. Pharmacological manipulations of such transport mechanisms might in the future add to the treatment of allergic diseases. (au) 253 refs.

  7. Innate defense regulator IDR-1018 activates human mast cells through G protein-, phospholipase C-, MAPK- and NF-ĸB-sensitive pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanashima, Kensuke; Chieosilapatham, Panjit; Yoshimoto, Eri; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Niyonsaba, François

    2017-08-01

    Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides not only display antimicrobial activities against numerous pathogens but also exert a broader spectrum of immune-modulating functions. Innate defense regulators (IDRs) are a class of host defense peptides synthetically developed from natural or endogenous cationic host defense peptides. Of the IDRs developed to date, IDR-1018 is more efficient not only in killing bacteria but also in regulating the various functions of macrophages and neutrophils and accelerating the wound healing process. Because mast cells intimately participate in wound healing and a number of host defense peptides involved in wound healing are also known to activate mast cells, this study aimed to investigate the effects of IDR-1018 on mast cell activation. Here, we showed that IDR-1018 induced the degranulation of LAD2 human mast cells and caused their production of leukotrienes, prostaglandins and various cytokines and chemokines, including granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and -3, macrophage-inflammatory protein-1α and -1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, IDR-1018 increased intracellular calcium mobilization and induced mast cell chemotaxis. The mast cell activation was markedly suppressed by pertussis toxin, U-73122, U0126, SB203580, JNK inhibitor II, and NF-κB activation inhibitor II, suggesting the involvement of G-protein, phospholipase C, ERK, p38, JNK and NF-κB pathways, respectively, in IDR-1018-induced mast cell activation. Notably, we confirmed that IDR-1018 caused the phosphorylation of MAPKs and IκB. Altogether, the current study suggests a novel immunomodulatory role of IDR-1018 through its ability to recruit and activate human mast cells at the sites of inflammation and wounds. We report that IDR-1018 stimulates various functions of human mast cells. IDR-1018-induced mast cell activation is mediated through G protein, PLC, MAPK and NF-κB pathways. IDR-1018

  8. Mesenchymal stem cell 1 (MSC1-based therapy attenuates tumor growth whereas MSC2-treatment promotes tumor growth and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth S Waterman

    Full Text Available Currently, there are many promising clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in cell-based therapies of numerous diseases. Increasingly, however, there is a concern over the use of MSCs because they home to tumors and can support tumor growth and metastasis. For instance, we established that MSCs in the ovarian tumor microenvironment promoted tumor growth and favored angiogenesis. In parallel studies, we also developed a new approach to induce the conventional mixed pool of MSCs into two uniform but distinct phenotypes we termed MSC1 and MSC2.Here we tested the in vitro and in vivo stability of MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes as well as their effects on tumor growth and spread. In vitro co-culture of MSC1 with various cancer cells diminished growth in colony forming units and tumor spheroid assays, while conventional MSCs or MSC2 co-culture had the opposite effect in these assays. Co-culture of MSC1 and cancer cells also distinctly affected their migration and invasion potential when compared to MSCs or MSC2 treated samples. The expression of bioactive molecules also differed dramatically among these samples. MSC1-based treatment of established tumors in an immune competent model attenuated tumor growth and metastasis in contrast to MSCs- and MSC2-treated animals in which tumor growth and spread was increased. Also, in contrast to these groups, MSC1-therapy led to less ascites accumulation, increased CD45+leukocytes, decreased collagen deposition, and mast cell degranulation.These observations indicate that the MSC1 and MSC2 phenotypes may be convenient tools for the discovery of critical components of the tumor stroma. The continued investigation of these cells may help ensure that cell based-therapy is used safely and effectively in human disease.

  9. Piper nigrum extract ameliorated allergic inflammation through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thi Tho; Piao, Chun Hua; Song, Chang Ho; Shin, Hee Soon; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Chai, Ok Hee

    2017-12-01

    Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) is commonly used as a spice and traditional medicine in many countries. P. nigrum has been reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mutagenic, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of P. nigrum on allergic asthma has not been known. This study investigated the effect of P. nigrum ethanol extracts (PNE) on airway inflammation in asthmatic mice model. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma model, we analysed the number of inflammatory cells and cytokines production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue; histological structure; as well as the total immunoglobulin (Ig)E, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG 1 and histamine levels in serum. The oral administration (200 mg/kg) of PNE reduced the accumulation of inflammatory cells (eosinophils, neutrophils in BALF and mast cells in lung tissue); regulated the balance of the cytokines production of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells, specifically, inhibited the expressions of GATA3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, RORγt, IL-17A, TNF-α and increased the secretions of IL-10, INF-γ in BALF and lung homogenate. Moreover, PNE suppressed the levels of total IgE, anti-OVA IgE, anti-OVA IgG 1 and histamine release in serum. The histological analysis showed that the fibrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also ameliorated in PNE treated mice. On the other hand, PNE inhibited the allergic responses via inactivation of rat peritoneal mast cells degranulation. These results suggest that PNE has therapeutic potential for treating allergic asthma through inhibiting Th2/Th17 responses and mast cells activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cathelicidin rCRAMP stimulates rat mast cells to generate cysteinyl leukotrienes, synthesize TNF and migrate: involvement of PLC/A2, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąbolewska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Anna; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2014-11-01

    Cathelicidins represent a family of cationic peptides involved in host defense systems. Apart from exerting direct anti-microbial effects, cathelicidins can regulate immune responses by affecting the activity of cells playing a role in antibacterial defense. Taking into account that mast cells are critical components of host defense, the aim of this study was to determine whether rat cathelicidin-related anti-microbial peptide (rCRAMP) can influence mast cell activity. We have demonstrated that activation of fully mature rat mast cells with rCRAMP resulted in generation and release of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs). However, rCRAMP failed to induce mast cell degranulation and histamine release. We also found that rCRAMP stimulated rat mast cells to synthesize TNF, but not CXCL8. What is more, this peptide induced GM-CSF, IL-1β, CCL2 and CCL3 but not IL-33 mRNA expression in mast cells. Finally, we showed that this cathelicidin serves as potent chemoattractant for rat mast cells. rCRAMP-mediated cysLT synthesis and mast cell migration were strongly inhibited by IL-10 pre-treatment. With the use of specific inhibitors, we established that activation of PLC/A2 and ERK1/2, but not p38, was required for rCRAMP-induced mast cell stimulation, while PI3K-dependent pathway is involved in both TNF synthesis and mast cell migration. Our results suggest that cathelicidins can amplify inflammatory responses by causing mast cells accumulation and by stimulating these cells to release potent pro-inflammatory mediators. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Patterns of chemokine receptor expression on peripheral blood gamma delta T lymphocytes: strong expression of CCR5 is a selective feature of V delta 2/V gamma 9 gamma delta T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, Andrea; Wesch, Daniela; Schiemann, Florian; Brandt, Ernst; Janssen, Ottmar; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2002-05-15

    Gammadelta T lymphocytes play an important role in the immune defense against infection, based on the unique reactivity of human Vdelta2Vgamma9 gammadelta T cells toward bacterial phosphoantigens. Chemokines and their corresponding receptors orchestrate numerous cellular reactions, including leukocyte migration, activation, and degranulation. In this study we investigated the expression of various receptors for inflammatory and homeostatic chemokines on peripheral blood gammadelta T cells and compared their expression patterns with those on alphabeta T cells. Although several of the analyzed receptors (including CCR6, CCR7, CXCR4, and CXCR5) were not differentially expressed on gammadelta vs alphabeta T cells, gammadelta T cells expressed strongly increased levels of the RANTES/macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha/-1beta receptor CCR5 and also enhanced levels of CCR1-3 and CXCR1-3. CCR5 expression was restricted to Vdelta2 gammadelta T cells, while the minor subset of Vdelta1 gammadelta T cells preferentially expressed CXCR1. Stimulation with heat-killed extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis down-modulated cell surface expression of CCR5 on gammadelta T cells in a macrophage-dependent manner, while synthetic phosphoantigen isopentenyl pyrophosphate and CCR5 ligands directly triggered CCR5 down-modulation on gammadelta T cells. The functionality of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 on gammadelta T cells was demonstrated by Ca(2+) mobilization and chemotactic response to the respective chemokines. Our results identify high level expression of CCR5 as a characteristic and selective feature of circulating Vdelta2 gammadelta T cells, which is in line with their suspected function as Th1 effector T cells.

  12. An indoxyl compound 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, suppresses activation of Fyn kinase in mast cells and IgE-mediated allergic responses in mice

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    Lee, Jun Ho [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, A-Ram [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Kyun [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Her, Erk; Park, Yeong Min [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Sik [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Mi [College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women' s University, Seoul 132-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Wahn Soo, E-mail: wahnchoi@kku.ac.kr [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 380-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Mast cells, constituents of virtually all organs and tissues, are critical cells in IgE-mediated allergic responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of an indoxyl chromogenic compound, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, on IgE-mediated mast cell activation and allergic responses in mice. CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed antigen-stimulated degranulation in murine mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.8 μM) and human mast cells (IC{sub 50}, ~ 3.0 μM). CAC-0982 also inhibited the expression and secretion of IL-4 and TNF-α in mast cells. Furthermore, CAC-0982 suppressed the mast cell-mediated allergic responses in mice in a dose-dependent manner (ED{sub 50} 27.9 mg/kg). As for the mechanism, CAC-0982 largely suppressed the phosphorylation of Syk and its downstream signaling molecules, including LAT, Akt, Erk1/2, p38, and JNK. Notably, the tyrosine kinase assay of antigen-stimulated mast cells showed that CAC-0982 inhibited Fyn kinase, one of the upstream tyrosine kinases for Syk activation in mast cells. Taken together, these results suggest that CAC-0982 may be used as a new treatment for regulating IgE-mediated allergic diseases through the inhibition of the Fyn/Syk pathway in mast cells. - Highlights: • The anti-allergic effect of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl 1,3-diacetate, CAC-0982, was measured. • CAC-0982 reversibly suppressed the activation of mast cells by IgE and antigen. • CAC-0982 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice. • CAC-0982 suppresses mast cells through inhibition of Fyn activation in mast cells.

  13. Activation of human basophils by combined toll-like receptor- and FcεRI-triggering can promote Th2 skewing of naive T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suurmond, Jolien; Stoop, Jeroen N; Rivellese, Felice; Bakker, Aleida M; Huizinga, Tom W J; Toes, René E M

    2014-02-01

    Basophils are mostly known for their involvement in allergic reactions. Recent studies in mice indicate a role for basophils in the induction of adaptive immunity, especially T helper 2 (Th2) responses. Therefore, it would be highly important to understand how basophils respond to pathogen-associated molecules, such as ligands for toll-like receptors (TLRs), and if the basophils could promote Th2 responses via these stimuli. To this end, the activation of basophils via TLRs in combination with activation via IgE was studied, as well as its effect on T helper cell skewing. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated the presence of mRNA for TLRs 1-8 in human basophils. Basophils responded to TLR triggering with differential cytokine production, but not with degranulation. Simultaneous triggering of TLRs and IgE led to synergy in production of IL-4, IL-8, IL-13, and RANTES. Furthermore, the synergistic effects on basophils mediated by IgE and TLR-4 triggering allowed robust Th2 skewing upon activation of naïve human CD4⁺ T cells. Our data show that human basophils respond to TLR ligands in synergy with IgE-mediated activation and that the cytokines produced can promote Th2 differentiation. These results indicate a role for basophils in the regulation of T-cell responses in humans. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recombinant influenza virus expressing HIV-1 p24 capsid protein induces mucosal HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hyon-Xhi; Gilbertson, Brad P; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila; Stambas, John; McAuley, Julie L; Kent, Stephen J; De Rose, Robert

    2016-02-24

    Influenza viruses are promising mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV but their use has been limited by difficulties in engineering the expression of large amounts of foreign protein. We developed recombinant influenza viruses incorporating the HIV-1 p24 gag capsid into the NS-segment of PR8 (H1N1) and X31 (H3N2) influenza viruses with the use of multiple 2A ribosomal skip sequences. Despite the insertion of a sizable HIV-1 gene into the influenza genome, recombinant viruses were readily rescued to high titers. Intracellular expression of p24 capsid was confirmed by in vitro infection assays. The recombinant influenza viruses were subsequently tested as mucosal vaccines in BALB/c mice. Recombinant viruses were attenuated and safe in immunized mice. Systemic and mucosal HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in mice that were immunized via intranasal route with a prime-boost regimen. Isolated HIV-specific CD8 T-cells displayed polyfunctional cytokine and degranulation profiles. Mice boosted via intravaginal route induced recall responses from the distal lung mucosa and developed heightened HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in the vaginal mucosa. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of recombinant influenza viruses as vaccines for mucosal immunity against HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibition of the IgE-Mediated Activation of RBL-2H3 Cells by TIPP, a Novel Thymic Immunosuppressive Pentapeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qianqian; Cheng, Yanna; Zhong, Chuanqing; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-01-01

    TIPP is a novel thymic immunosuppressive pentapeptide originally obtained from calf thymic immunosuppressive extract. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory activity of TIPP on IgE-mediated activation of RBL-2H3 cells. Release of β-hexosaminidase and histamine, intracellular calcium, membrane ruffling, mRNA levels of cytokines, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) and NF-κB were determined by colorimetric assay, fluorescence spectrophotometer, confocal fluorescence microscope, quantification PCR, and Western blot, respectively. The results showed that TIPP significantly inhibited the degranulation in IgE-antigen complex-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells without cytotoxicity. TIPP significantly suppressed the increase of intracellular calcium and the rearrangement of F-actin, attenuated the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-3, -4, -6, -13, TNF-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), and decreased the expression of COX-2. Western blot analysis showed that TIPP had an inhibitory activity on the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), and inhibited the activation of NF-κB. The data suggested that TIPP effectively suppressed IgE-mediated activation of RBL-2H3 cells via blocking MEK/ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:25608657

  16. The effect of rottlerin in calcium regulation in HMC-1(560) cells is mediated by a PKC-delta independent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Eva; Alfonso, Amparo; Löber, Kristin; Botana, Luis M

    2008-09-01

    The human mast cell line (HMC-1(560)) is a good model for Ca(2+) signaling studies, because intracellular alkalinization is the mainly histamine release stimulus without changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This fact allows us to study Ca(2+) changes without degranulation, since this process can affected cellular viability. Ionomycin and thapsigargin have been fully used for induced Ca(2+) influx across SOC channels. When HMC-1(560) cells are incubated with rottlerin, 5 microM, for 5 min a strong inhibition of ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx is observed. However, when thapsigargin stimulates Ca(2+) influx, rottlerin did not show any effect on Ca(2+) levels. This fact point two possibilities, ionomycin and thapsigargin might activate different SOC channels or that these drugs might activate the same channel but in a different way in HMC-1(560) cells. The rottlerin inhibition of ionomycin-induced Ca(2+) influx is PKC-delta independent and this effect is not related with the store depletion, since rottlerin has the same effect when it is added before or after the stores are empty. FCCP, a know uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria, induces the same inhibition in ionomycin Ca(2+) influx than rottlerin which point to the mitochondria as a cellular target to rottlerin. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The influence of cholinergic agents on histamine release from HMC-1 human mast cell line stimulated with IgG, C-reactive protein and compound 48/80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Peter G; Pronina, Anastasia P

    2012-11-27

    The aim of this work is to study the role of acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (AChRs) in the regulation of FcγR activity in human mast cells (MC) activated by aggregated IgG (aIgG) and CRP. MC, the key regulators at the interface of innate and acquired immunity, have abundant Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRII) which indicate the role of their ligands, IgG and C-reactive protein (CRP), in regulating MC activity. Cholinergic control of FcγR-dependent MC functions is poorly defined. HMC-1 culture of human MC; cell incubations with cholinergic drugs and FcγR ligands such as heat aggregated human IgG or purified human CRP; compound 48/80, a known histamine liberator employing G protein-coupled receptors, was used as a positive control of MC degranulation; assessment of histamine release. Both nAChR and mAChR antagonists (hexamethonium and methacine, respectively), per se, elevated histamine-releasing activity of the HMC-1 and suppressed the MC responses to most of investigated activators (carbachol, compound 48/80, and to a lesser extent aIgG). Two blockers together should be applied to aIgG-stimulated cells in order to obtain appreciable suppression of histamine release. The FcγR-mediated HMC-1 cell response to CRP was the least sensitive to attenuation by ACh signaling. The data obtained suggest the involvement of ACh in the functioning of other receptor systems. Our results indicate that AChRs are closely associated with G protein-coupled receptor-induced reactions of MC and optionally with FcγR-dependent functions. The data presented demonstrate that AChRs and endogenous ACh are involved in regulating mast cell degranulation and histamine release by affecting the functions of receptors to compound 48/80 and, less, FcγRs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative exploration of multidimensional flow cytometry software: a model approach evaluating T cell polyfunctional behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Simms, Patricia E

    2017-08-01

    Advancement in flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation has allowed for simultaneous analysis of large numbers of lineage/functional immune cell markers. Highly complex datasets generated by polychromatic flow cytometry require proper analytical software to answer investigators' questions. A problem among many investigators and flow cytometry Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs), including our own, is a lack of access to a flow cytometry-knowledgeable bioinformatics team, making it difficult to learn and choose appropriate analysis tool(s). Here, we comparatively assess various multidimensional flow cytometry software packages for their ability to answer a specific biologic question and provide graphical representation output suitable for publication, as well as their ease of use and cost. We assessed polyfunctional potential of TCR-transduced T cells, serving as a model evaluation, using multidimensional flow cytometry to analyze 6 intracellular cytokines and degranulation on a per-cell basis. Analysis of 7 parameters resulted in 128 possible combinations of positivity/negativity, far too complex for basic flow cytometry software to analyze fully. Various software packages were used, analysis methods used in each described, and representative output displayed. Of the tools investigated, automated classification of cellular expression by nonlinear stochastic embedding (ACCENSE) and coupled analysis in Pestle/simplified presentation of incredibly complex evaluations (SPICE) provided the most user-friendly manipulations and readable output, evaluating effects of altered antigen-specific stimulation on T cell polyfunctionality. This detailed approach may serve as a model for other investigators/SRLs in selecting the most appropriate software to analyze complex flow cytometry datasets. Further development and awareness of available tools will help guide proper data analysis to answer difficult biologic questions arising from incredibly complex datasets. © Society

  19. Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. They serve as a repair ... body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  20. Gradual Increase of FcγRIIIa/CD16a Expression and Shift toward IFN-γ Secretion during Differentiation of CD56dim Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Lajoie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell effector functions include cytotoxicity and secretion of cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ. The immature CD56bright subset of human NK cells lacks expression of FcγRIIIa/CD16a, one of the low-affinity immunoglobulin G receptors, or exhibits low-density expression (CD56brightCD16−/dim and produces IFN-γ in response to cytokine stimulation, whereas the mature CD56dimCD16+ subset is the most cytotoxic one. A further differentiation/maturation of the latter subset according to the gradual loss of NKG2A and/or gain of KIR2DL (CD158a and CD158b has been demonstrated and the ability to produce IFN-γ in response to activating receptor (AR co-engagement is gradually acquired during terminal differentiation. In the course of flow cytometry analysis of CD56dim NK cells, we noted a substantial intraindividual heterogeneity of expression of FcγRIIIa. FcγRIIIa is unique among ARs: it does not require the co-engagement of other ARs to induce substantial cytotoxicity or cytokine synthesis in CD56dim cells. We, therefore, investigated whether individual differentiation/maturation of polyclonal CD56dim NK cells defined by expression of NKG2A/KIR2DL is related to FcγRIIIa expression and to the heterogeneity of NK cell responses upon FcγRIIIa engagement. When we analyzed unstimulated CD56dim cells by increasing level of FcγRIIIa expression, we found that the proportion of the more differentiated CD158a,h+ and/or CD158b,j+ cells and that of the less differentiated NKG2A+ cells gradually increased and decreased, respectively. FcγRIIIa engagement by using plate-bound murine anti-CD16 monoclonal antibody (mAb or rituximab or trastuzumab (two therapeutic mAbs, resulted in donor-dependent partial segregation of IFN-γ-producing and/or degranulating CD56dim cells. Importantly, the proportion of CD158a,h/b,j+ cells and that of NKG2A+ cells was increased and decreased, respectively, IFN-γ-producing cells, whereas these proportions

  1. Perforin expression directly ex vivo by HIV-specific CD8 T-cells is a correlate of HIV elite control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Hersperger

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many immune correlates of CD8(+ T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently discovered the ability of human CD8(+ T-cells to rapidly upregulate perforin--an essential molecule for cell-mediated cytotoxicity--following antigen-specific stimulation. Here, we examined perforin expression capability in a large cross-sectional cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals with varying levels of viral load: elite controllers (n = 35, viremic controllers (n = 29, chronic progressors (n = 27, and viremic nonprogressors (n = 6. Using polychromatic flow cytometry and standard intracellular cytokine staining assays, we measured perforin upregulation, cytokine production, and degranulation following stimulation with overlapping peptide pools encompassing all proteins of HIV. We observed that HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells from elite controllers consistently display an enhanced ability to express perforin directly ex vivo compared to all other groups. This ability is not restricted to protective HLA-B haplotypes, does not require proliferation or the addition of exogenous factors, is not restored by HAART, and primarily originates from effector CD8(+ T-cells with otherwise limited functional capability. Notably, we found an inverse relationship between HIV-specific perforin expression and viral load. Thus, the capability of HIV-specific CD8(+ T-cells to rapidly express perforin defines a novel correlate of control in HIV infection.

  2. The non-structural protein 5 and matrix protein are antigenic targets of T cell immunity to genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen eMokhtar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV is the cause of one of the most economically important diseases affecting swine worldwide. Efforts to develop a next-generation vaccine have largely focussed on envelope glycoproteins to target virus-neutralising antibody responses. However, these approaches have failed to demonstrate the necessary efficacy to progress towards market. T cells are crucial to the control of many viruses through cytolysis and cytokine secretion. Since control of PRRSV infection is not dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies, it has been proposed that T cell mediated immunity plays a key role. We therefore hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent prime candidates for the development a novel PRRS vaccine. Antigens were identified by screening a proteome-wide synthetic peptide library with T cells from cohorts of pigs rendered immune by experimental infections with a closely-related (subtype 1 or divergent (subtype 3 PRRSV-1 strain. Dominant T cell IFN-γ responses were directed against the non-structural protein 5 (NSP5, and to a lesser extent, the matrix (M protein. The majority of NSP5-specific CD8 T cells and M-specific CD4 T cells expressed a putative effector memory phenotype and were polyfunctional as assessed by co-expression of TNF-α and mobilisation of the cytotoxic degranulation marker CD107a. Both antigens were generally well conserved amongst strains of both PRRSV genotypes. Thus M and NSP5 represent attractive vaccine candidate T cell antigens which should be evaluated further in the context of PRRSV vaccine development.

  3. An antimicrobial peptide with angiogenic properties, AG-30/5C, activates human mast cells through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Kazo; Okumura, Ko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Niyonsaba, François

    2016-04-01

    Apart from their direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens, antimicrobial peptides exhibit additional protective functions that have led to their being named host defense peptides (HDPs). These functions include the stimulation of the production of cytokines/chemokines, the promotion of chemotaxis and cell proliferation and the induction of angiogenesis and wound healing. AG-30/5C is a novel angiogenic HDP that in addition to its antimicrobial activity also activates fibroblasts and endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis and wound healing. Given that mast cells are found primarily in the vicinity of vessels, where they are intimately involved in wound healing, we hypothesized that AG-30/5C may activate mast cells. We demonstrated that AG-30/5C activated LAD2 human mast cells to degranulate and produce lipid mediators including leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2 and E2. Moreover, AG-30/5C increased mast cell chemotaxis and induced the production of the cytokines GM-CSF and TNF-α and various chemokines, such as IL-8, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1α and MIP-1β. The chemotaxis and cytokine/chemokine production induced by AG-30/5C were suppressed by both pertussis toxin and U-73122, suggesting the involvement of the G protein and phospholipase C pathways in AG-30/5C-induced mast cell activation. Furthermore, these pathways were activated downstream of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling molecules, as demonstrated by the inhibitory effects of ERK-, JNK-, p38- and NF-κB-specific inhibitors on cytokine/chemokine production. Interestingly, AG-30/5C caused the phosphorylation of MAPKs and IκB. We suggest that the angiogenic and antimicrobial peptide AG-30/5C plays a key role in the recruitment and activation of human mast cells at inflammation and wound sites.

  4. Immunization with Recombinant Adenoviral Vectors Expressing HCV Core or F Proteins Leads to T Cells with Reduced Effector Molecules Granzyme B and IFN-γ: A Potential New Strategy for Immune Evasion in HCV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrat, Subodh Kumar; Vedi, Satish; Singh, Shakti; Li, Wen; Kumar, Rakesh; Agrawal, Babita

    2015-01-01

    Multispecific, broad, and potent T cell responses have been correlated with viral clearance in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the majority of infected patients develop chronic infection, suggesting that natural infection mostly leads to development of inefficient T cell immunity. Multiple mechanisms of immune modulation and evasion have been shown in HCV infection through various investigations. This study examined the generation and modulation of T cell responses against core and frameshift (F) proteins of HCV. A single immunization of mice with replication incompetent recombinant adenovirus vectors encoding for F or core antigens induces poor T cell responses and leads to generation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with low granzyme B (GrB) expression. These T cells have impaired GrB enzyme activity and are unable to kill peptide loaded target cells. The low intracellular expression of GrB is not due to degranulation of cytotoxic granules containing cytotoxic T cells. Addition of exogenous IL-2 in in vitro cultures leads to partial recovery of GrB production, whereas immunization with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist poly I:C leads to complete restoration of GrB expression in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, a possible new strategy of T cell modulation is recognized wherein effector T cells are caused to be dysfunctional by HCV-derived antigens F or core, and strategies are also delineated to overcome this dysfunction. These studies are important in the investigation of prophylactic vaccine and immunotherapy strategies for HCV infection.

  5. Phenotype and functions of natural killer cells in critically-ill septic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Forel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Natural killer cells, as a major source of interferon-γ, contribute to the amplification of the inflammatory response as well as to mortality during severe sepsis in animal models. OBJECTIVE: We studied the phenotype and functions of circulating NK cells in critically-ill septic patients. METHODS: Blood samples were taken <48 hours after admission from 42 ICU patients with severe sepsis (n = 15 or septic shock (n = 14 (Sepsis group, non-septic SIRS (n = 13 (SIRS group, as well as 21 healthy controls. The immuno-phenotype and functions of NK cells were studied by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The absolute number of peripheral blood CD3-CD56(+ NK cells was similarly reduced in all groups of ICU patients, but with a normal percentage of NK cells. When NK cell cytotoxicity was evaluated with degranulation assays (CD107 expression, no difference was observed between Sepsis patients and healthy controls. Under antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC conditions, SIRS patients exhibited increased CD107 surface expression on NK cells (62.9[61.3-70]% compared to healthy controls (43.5[32.1-53.1]% or Sepsis patients (49.2[37.3-62.9]% (p = 0.002. Compared to healthy (10.2[6.3-13.1]%, reduced interferon-γ production by NK cells (K562 stimulation was observed in Sepsis group (6.2[2.2-9.9]%, p<0.01, and especially in patients with septic shock. Conversely, SIRS patients exhibited increased interferon-γ production (42.9[30.1-54.7]% compared to Sepsis patients (18.4[11.7-35.7]%, p<0.01 or healthy controls (26.8[19.3-44.9]%, p = 0.09 in ADCC condition. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive monitoring of the NK-cell phenotype and function in critically-ill septic patients revealed early decreased NK-cell function with impaired interferon-γ production. These results may aid future NK-based immuno-interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NTC00699868.

  6. Atrial granular cells of the snail Achatina fulica release proteins into hemolymph after stimulation of the heart nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnikov, Sergej V; Bystrova, Olga A; Ivanov, Vadim A; Margulis, Boris A; Martynova, Marina

    2009-10-01

    The atrium of the gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica receives rich innervation and contains numerous granular cells (GCs). We studied the atrial innervation and discovered that axon profiles typical in appearance of peptidergic neurons form close unspecialized membrane contacts with GCs. Then, we investigated, at both morphological and biochemical levels, the effect of electrical stimulation of the heart nerve on GCs of Achatina heart perfused in situ. The ultrastructural study demonstrated changes in granule morphology consistent with secretion. These events included alteration of granule content, intracellular granule fusion and formation of complex degranulation channels, within which the granule matrix solubilized. It was shown that electrical stimulation resulted in a significant increase of the total protein concentration in the perfusate. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis of the perfusate revealed three new proteins with molecular masses of 16, 22, and 57 kDa. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the 16 kDa protein were obtained; the whole-mount immunofluorescence technique revealed the presence of this protein in the granules of atrial GCs. In GCs of the stimulated atrium, a progressive loss of their granular content was observed. The results suggest that the central nervous system can modulate the secretory activity of the atrial GCs through non-synaptic pathways.

  7. Cassia tora Seed Extract and Its Active Compound Aurantio-obtusin Inhibit Allergic Responses in IgE-Mediated Mast Cells and Anaphylactic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myungsuk; Lim, Sue Ji; Lee, Hee-Ju; Nho, Chu Won

    2015-10-21

    Cassia tora seed is widely used due to its various biological properties including anticancer, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there has been no report of the effects of C. tora seed extract (CTE) on immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses. In this research, we demonstrated the effects of CTE and its active compound aurantio-obtusin on IgE-sensitized allergic reactions in mast cells and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed degranulation, histamine production, and reactive oxygen species generation and inhibited the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-4. CTE and aurantio-obtusin also suppressed the prostaglandin E2 production and expression of cyclooxygenase 2. Furthermore, CTE and aurantio-obtusin suppressed IgE-mediated FcεRI signaling such as phosphorylation of Syk, protein kinase Cμ, phospholipase Cγ, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. CTE and aurantio-obtusin blocked mast cell-dependent PCA in IgE-mediated mice. These results suggest that CTE and aurantio-obtusin are a beneficial treatment for allergy-related diseases.

  8. Robust 8-color flow cytometry panel reveals enhanced effector function of NKG2C+ CD57+ FcεRγ- NK cells in CMV seropositive human blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerreter, Thomas; Zeiß, Stephan; Herrmann, Thomas; Einsele, Hermann; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, Ruth

    2017-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that human NK cells may develop memory-like features. Here, we report the establishment of a robust 8-color flow cytometry panel that allows quantification and functional analysis of different memory-like NK cell subsets (NKG2C + /CD57 + , FcεRγ - ) from relatively small blood samples. We could confirm previous publications reporting an enhanced prevalence of the mentioned memory-like NK cell subsets in CMV seropositive human donors and were able to show a clear congruence between enhanced expression of NKG2C and CD57, the absence of FcεRγ and CMV seropositivity supporting the hypothesis of memory-like NK cell development following viral infections. While we could not detect significant differences in effector functions (i.e. degranulation and production of IFNγ) in regard to age or CMV seropositivity when looking at the overall NK cell population, a significantly enhanced expression of CD107a and IFNγ could be observed in NKG2C + /CD57 + as well as FcεRγ - NK cell subpopulations in CMV + donors. This enhancement of effector functions was even more pronounced in NKG2C + /CD57 + NK cells that were also negative for FcεRγ; CMV seropositive donors showed a dramatically increased expression of CD107a as well as IFNγ. With only small-sized volumes of blood needed, our proposed 8-color panel and experimental protocol offers easy handling and a reliable and reproducible option for implementation in accompanying clinical research, e.g. for evaluation of immunosuppressed patients suffering from autoimmune diseases or in allograft recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical impact of NK-cell reconstitution after reduced intensity conditioned unrelated cord blood transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: analysis of a prospective phase II multicenter trial on behalf of the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle Osseuse et Thérapie Cellulaire and Eurocord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S; Achour, A; Souchet, L; Vigouroux, S; Chevallier, P; Furst, S; Sirvent, A; Bay, J-O; Socié, G; Ceballos, P; Huynh, A; Cornillon, J; Francois, S; Legrand, F; Yakoub-Agha, I; Michel, G; Maillard, N; Margueritte, G; Maury, S; Uzunov, M; Bulabois, C-E; Michallet, M; Clement, L; Dauriac, C; Bilger, K; Lejeune, J; Béziat, V; Rocha, V; Rio, B; Chevret, S; Vieillard, V

    2017-10-01

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) after a reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC) has extended the use of UCB in elderly patients and those with co-morbidities without an HLA-identical donor, although post-transplant relapse remains a concern in high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. HLA incompatibilities between donor and recipient might enhance the alloreactivity of natural killer (NK) cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We studied the reconstitution of NK cells and KIR-L mismatch in 54 patients who underwent a RIC-UCBT for AML in CR in a prospective phase II clinical trial. After RIC-UCBT, NK cells displayed phenotypic features of both activation and immaturity. Restoration of their polyfunctional capacities depended on the timing of their acquisition of phenotypic markers of maturity. The incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) was correlated with low CD16 expression (P=0.043) and high HLA-DR expression (P=0.0008), whereas overall survival was associated with increased frequency of NK-cell degranulation (P=0.001). These features reflect a general impairment of the NK licensing process in HLA-mismatched HSCT and may aid the development of future strategies for selecting optimal UCB units and enhancing immune recovery.

  10. Morpho-toxicology of chlorpyrifos to prolactin cells of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis =Morpho-toxicology of chlorpyrifos to prolactin cells of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwakar Mishra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an organophosphorus compound Coroban (active ingredient chlorpyrifos – E.C. 20% was used. In short-term exposure the fish were subjected to 0.8 of 96h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos (1.76 mg L-1 for 96h. In long-term exposure the experiment was performed for 28 days by using 0.2 of 96h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos (0.44 mg L-1. Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (chlorpyrifos groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were collected and sera were analyzed for calcium. Pituitary glands were fixed for histological studies and stained with Herlant tetrachrome and Heidenhain’s azan techniques. Short-term exposure of chlorpyrifos caused decrease in the serum calcium levels. No change was noticed in the prolactin cells of chlorpyrifos treated fish. Long-term treatment with chlorpyrifos provoked hypocalcemia. The prolactin cells of treated fish exhibited slight degranulation after 21 days whereas the nuclear volume remained unchanged. After 28 days, the prolactin cells exhibited further degranulation and the nuclear volume recorded an increase. Cytolysis and vacuolization were also visible. No estudo presente, o composto organofosforo Coroban (ingrediente ativo clorpirifo – E.C. 20% foi usado. Na exposição a curto prazo os peixes foram submetido a 0,8 de valor LC50 de 96h de clorpirifo (1,76 mg L-1 durante 96h. Na exposição a longo prazo o experimento foi executado durante 28 dias usando 0,2 de valor LC50 de 96h de clorpirifos (0,44 mg L-1. Os peixes foram mortos a cada intervalo dos grupos controle e experimental (clorpirifos após 24, 48, 72, e 96h em exposição a curto prazo e após 7, 14, 21, e 28 dias no experimento a longo prazo. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas e o soro foi analisado para cálcio. As glândulas pituitárias foram fixadas para estudos histológicos e colorido por tetracromo de

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccination Induced TNF-α- and IL-2-Producing T Cell Responses in HIV− Healthy Individuals Higher than in HIV+ Individuals Who Received the Same Vaccination Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriangkrai Chawansuntati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated cytokine production and expression of degranulation marker CD107a after different strategies of hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccination in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals, which were three doses of 20 μg (standard dose group, four doses of 20 μg (four doses group, or four doses of 40 μg (four double doses group, compared to standard dose vaccination in healthy controls. PBMCs collected at different time points were stimulated in vitro with recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen and analyzed by flow cytometry. There was an increase in TNF-α production of total and memory CD4+ T cells at 7 months after vaccination in healthy controls compared to the HIV+ group, which received the same standard vaccination regimen. An increase in the IL-2-producing memory CD4+ T cells in the healthy control group was also observed at 7 months after vaccination. No differences were observed between the healthy controls and both groups of four doses at any time point of study. These results suggest that the standard HBV vaccination schedule might induce better production of TNF-α and IL-2 from CD4+ T cells in healthy individuals. Modification of HBV vaccination schedule by increasing the frequency and/or dosage may improve the CMI response in HIV-infected individuals. This trial is registered with NCT1289106.

  12. A Two-Phase Expansion Protocol Combining Interleukin (IL-15 and IL-21 Improves Natural Killer Cell Proliferation and Cytotoxicity against Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Wagner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue malignancy in children. Despite intensive research in recent decades the prognosis for patients with metastatic or relapsed diseases has hardly improved. New therapeutic concepts in anti-tumor therapy aim to modulate the patient’s immune system to increase its aggressiveness or targeted effects toward tumor cells. Besides surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immune activation by direct application of cytokines, antibodies or adoptive cell therapy are promising approaches. In the last years, adoptive transfer of natural killer (NK cells came into the focus of translational medicine, because of their high cytotoxic potential against transformed malignant cells. A main challenge of NK cell therapy is that it requires a high amount of functional NK cells. Therefore, ex vivo NK cell expansion protocols are currently being developed. Many culturing strategies are based on the addition of feeder or accessory cells, which need to be removed prior to the clinical application of the final NK cell product. In this study, we addressed feeder cell-free expansion methods using common γ-chain cytokines, especially IL-15 and IL-21. Our results demonstrated high potential of IL-15 for NK cell expansion, while IL-21 triggered NK cell maturation and functionality. Hence, we established a two-phase expansion protocol with IL-15 to induce an early NK cell expansion, followed by short exposure to IL-21 that boosted the cytotoxic activity of NK cells against RMS cells. Further functional analyses revealed enhanced degranulation and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α. In a proof of concept in vivo study, we also observed a therapeutic effect of adoptively transferred IL-15 expanded and IL-21 boosted NK cells in combination with image guided high precision radiation therapy using a luciferase-transduced RMS xenograft model. In summary, this two

  13. Calcium Influx of Mast Cells Is Inhibited by Aptamers Targeting the First Extracellular Domain of Orai1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renshan Sun

    Full Text Available Using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX method, we identified oligonucleotides that bind to the first extracellular domain of the Orai1 protein with high affinities and high specificities. These ligands were isolated from a random single-strand DNA (ssDNA library with 40 randomized sequence positions, using synthesized peptides with amino acid sequences identical to the first extracellular domain of the Orai1 protein as the targets for SELEX selection. Seven aptamers were obtained after 12 rounds of SELEX. An enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA was performed to determine the affinities of the aptamers. Aptamer Y1 had the highest affinity (Kd = 1.72×10-8 mol/L and was selected for functional experiments in mast cells. Using LAD2 cells with the human high-affinity IgE receptor and Ca2+ release activation channel (CRAC, we demonstrated that Aptamer Y1 blocked IgE-mediated β-hexosaminidase release from cells triggered by biotin-IgE and streptavidin. A specific binding assay showed that Aptamer Y1 not only bound the Orai1 peptide specifically but also that the Orai1 peptide did not bind significantly to other random oligonucleotide molecules. Furthermore, Aptamer Y1 regulation of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization was investigated by probing intracellular Ca2+ with a Fluo-4-AM fluorescent probe. We found that Aptamer Y1 inhibits Ca2+ influx into antigen-activated mast cells. These results indicate that the target of Aptamer Y1 in the degranulation pathway is upstream of Ca2+ influx. Therefore, these oligonucleotide agents represent a novel class of CRAC inhibitors that may be useful in the fight against allergic diseases.

  14. ANTI-ALLERGIC EFFECTS OF 1,5-BIS(4’-HYDROXY-3’-METHOXYPHENYL-1,4-PENTADIENE-3-ONE ON MAST CELL-MEDIATED ALLERGY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUNG ENDRO NUGROHO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one is a 1,5-diphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one analogue of curcumin that is produced by modifying the middle site of curcumin leading to 1,4-pentadiene-3-ones to maintain the hydroxy moiety at the aromatic rings that are responsible for its biological activities. Curcumin has been reported to have anti-allergic effects and can inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one in a mast cell-mediated allergy mode in order to provide information about a newly synthesised-compound for an alternative allergy drug. The study was performed using (1 a rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3 cell line, which is a tumour analogue of mast cells, with DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin and ionomycin as inducers for secretory markers from mast cells, and (2 an active cutaneous anaphylaxis (ACA reaction, with ovalbumin as an inductor of mast cell degranulation. Treatment with 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one strongly inhibited the DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin and ionomycin-mediated release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase from the RBL-2H3 cell line. The results indicated that this compound influenced the activation processes of FcεRI by antigen and intracellular Ca2+ signalling events in mast cells. In type 1 allergy model, this compound also inhibited the active cutaneous anaphylactic reaction on rat dorsal skins generated by ovalbumin. We conclude that the compound 1,5-bis(4’-hydroxy-3’-methoxyphenyl-1,4-pentadiene-3-one showed anti-allergic activities mediated by mechanisms related to intracellular signalling events in mast cells.

  15. Ethanol Inhibits High-Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor (FcεRI) Signaling in Mast Cells by Suppressing the Function of FcεRI-Cholesterol Signalosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draberova, Lubica; Paulenda, Tomas; Halova, Ivana; Potuckova, Lucie; Bugajev, Viktor; Bambouskova, Monika; Tumova, Magda; Draber, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol has multiple effects on biochemical events in a variety of cell types, including the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI) signaling in antigen-activated mast cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. To get better understanding of the effect of ethanol on FcεRI-mediated signaling we examined the effect of short-term treatment with non-toxic concentrations of ethanol on FcεRI signaling events in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. We found that 15 min exposure to ethanol inhibited antigen-induced degranulation, calcium mobilization, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-13), and formation of reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner. Removal of cellular cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin had a similar effect and potentiated some of the inhibitory effects of ethanol. In contrast, exposure of the cells to cholesterol-saturated methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished in part the inhibitory effect of ethanol on calcium response and production of reactive oxygen species, supporting lipid-centric theories of ethanol action on the earliest stages of mast cell signaling. Further studies showed that exposure to ethanol and/or removal of cholesterol inhibited early FcεRI activation events, including tyrosine phosphorylation of the FcεRI β and γ subunits, SYK kinases, LAT adaptor protein, phospholipase Cγ, STAT5, and AKT and internalization of aggregated FcεRI. Interestingly, ethanol alone, and particularly in combination with methyl-β-cyclodextrin, enhanced phosphorylation of negative regulatory tyrosine 507 of LYN kinase. Finally, we found that ethanol reduced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice, suggesting that ethanol also inhibits FcεRI signaling under in vivo conditions. The combined data indicate that ethanol interferes with early antigen-induced signaling events in mast cells by suppressing the function of Fc

  16. Quantitative Proteomics of Gut-Derived Th1 and Th1/Th17 Clones Reveal the Presence of CD28+ NKG2D- Th1 Cytotoxic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Tahira; Sollid, Ludvig Magne; Olsen, Ingrid; de Souza, Gustavo Antonio

    2016-03-01

    T-helper cells are differentiated from CD4+ T cells and are traditionally characterized by inflammatory or immunosuppressive responses in contrast to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Mass-spectrometry studies on T-helper cells are rare. In this study, we aimed to identify the proteomes of human Th1 and Th1/Th17 clones derived from intestinal biopsies of Crohn's disease patients and to identify differentially expressed proteins between the two phenotypes. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease, with predominantly Th1- and Th17-mediated response where cells of the "mixed" phenotype Th1/Th17 have also been commonly found. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used for protein identification and quantitation. In total, we identified 7401 proteins from Th1 and Th1/Th17 clones, where 334 proteins were differentially expressed. Major differences were observed in cytotoxic proteins that were overrepresented in the Th1 clones. The findings were validated by flow cytometry analyses using staining with anti-granzyme B and anti-perforin and by a degranulation assay, confirming higher cytotoxic features of Th1 compared with Th1/Th17 clones. By testing a larger panel of T-helper cell clones from seven different Crohn's disease patients, we concluded that only a subgroup of the Th1 cell clones had cytotoxic features, and these expressed the surface markers T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28 and were negative for expression of natural killer group 2 member D. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Could the gene coding for human uteroglobin (clara cell 10 kDa protein) be a candidate gene for atopy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A.B.; Peri, A.; Miele, L. [SDG, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It has been proposed that human immune response to allergens is genetically determined. Most of these allergic responses are directed to environmental proteins and are mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE). These allergic disorders (eg. allergic asthma) are commonly known as atopy. IgE activates phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) which hydrolyzes cell membrane phospholipids generating free fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA). AA is utilized as the substrate for the generation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and platelet activating factor (PAF). These agents can cause inflammation as well as bronchoconstriction, hallmarks of asthma. IgE-induced mast cell degranulation and accumulation of basophils and eosinophils in the lung are also characteristic immunological processes commonly found in atopic asthma. Recent investigations suggest that a group I PLA{sub 2} may be associated with the secretory granules of these cells. An inverse relationship between the levels of eicosanoids and hUG has been found in the nasopharyngeal lavage fluid of children with viral infections of the upper respiratory tract, often a precipitating factor in asthma. Results of genetic linkage studies mapped a putative atopy gene in human chromosome 11q{sup 13}, the same region in which we localized the hUG gene. Moreover, a genetic linkage between atopic IgE responses and chromosome 11q{sup 13} has been reported. In addition, hUG is: (i) a potent inhibitor of PLA{sub 2} activity, (ii) a potent antiinflammatory/immunomodulatory and antichemotactic protein and has a hitherto undetermined receptor-mediated activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that a mutation either in the hUG or its receptor genes may manifest symptoms characteristic of atopy. Hence, we raise the question whether hUG is a candidate gene for this disease.

  18. The beta subunit of the type I Fcepsilon receptor is a target for peptides inhibiting IgE-mediated secretory response of mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrásfalvy, Márton; Péterfy, Hajna; Tóth, Gábor; Matkó, János; Abramson, Jakub; Kerekes, Krisztina; Vámosi, György; Pecht, Israel; Erdei, Anna

    2005-09-01

    Peptides originally derived from complement component C3a were earlier shown to inhibit the type I FcepsilonR (FcepsilonRI)-mediated degranulation of mucosal type mast cells. In the present study, we show that C3a7, a peptide with a natural sequence, and its modified derivative, C3a9, are powerful inhibitors of the above response of both serosal and mucosal type mastocytes. We demonstrate that these peptides inhibit FcepsilonRI-induced membrane proximal events, suppress phosphorylation of the FcepsilonRI beta subunit, the protein tyrosine kinase Lyn, as well as the transient rise in free cytosolic Ca2+ level. The late phase of cellular response was also inhibited, as demonstrated by the reduced TNF-alpha secretion. Experiments using two independent methods provided evidence that the interaction site of complement-derived peptides is the FcepsilonRI beta-chain. This was further supported by fluorescence confocal microscopic colocalization and resonance energy transfer measurements. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of distinct "activating" and "inhibitory" motifs in the C3a sequence. Response to both is in balance under physiologic conditions. Furthermore, present data predict that such inhibitory peptides may serve as potent agents for future therapeutic intervention.

  19. Porcine CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes have NK-cell characteristics and are present in increased frequencies in the lungs of influenza-infected animals

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    Kerstin H. Mair

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The CD3-NKp46+ phenotype is frequently used for the identification of NK cells in various mammalian species. Recently, NKp46 expression was analyzed in more detail in swine. It could be shown that besides CD3-NKp46+ lymphocytes, a small but distinct population of CD3+NKp46+ cells exists. In this study we report low frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood, lymph nodes and spleen but increased frequencies in non-lymphatic organs like liver and lung. Phenotypic analyses showed that the majority of CD3+NKp46+ cells co-expressed the CD8αβ heterodimer, while a minor subset expressed the TCR-γδ which was associated with a CD8αα+ phenotype. Despite these T-cell associated receptors, the majority of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes displayed a NK-related phenotype (CD2+CD5-CD6-CD16+perforin+ and expressed mRNA of NKp30, NKp44 and NKG2D at similar levels as NK cells. Functional tests showed that CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes produced IFN-γ and proliferated upon cytokine stimulation to a similar extent as NK cells but did not respond to the T-cell mitogen ConA. Likewise, CD3+NKp46+ cells killed K562 cells with an efficiency comparable to NK cells. Cross-linking of NKp46 and CD3 led to degranulation of CD3+NKp46+ cells, indicating functional signaling pathways for both receptors. Additionally, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 infected pigs had reduced frequencies of CD3+NKp46+ lymphocytes in blood but increased frequencies in the lung in the early phase of infection. Thus, CD3+NKp46+ cells appear to be involved in the early phase of influenza infections. In summary, we describe a lymphocyte population in swine with a mixed phenotype of NK and T cells, with results so far indicating that this cell population functionally resembles NK cells.

  20. Cell-cell channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baluška, F; Volkmann, Dieter; Barlow, P. W

    2006-01-01

    ...-Negative Bacteria Pheromone-Responsive Conjugative Plasmids in E. faecalis Nonpheromone-Responsive Plasmids in G+ Bacteria 21 22 27 28 Section II: Ciliate Cells 3. The Tetrahymena Conjugation Ju...

  1. Antiallergic Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Arctium lappa L. Undried Roots and Its Active Compound, Oleamide, in Regulating FcεRI-Mediated and MAPK Signaling in RBL-2H3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woong-Suk; Lee, Sung Ryul; Jeong, Yong Joon; Park, Dae Won; Cho, Young Mi; Joo, Hae Mi; Kim, Inhye; Seu, Young-Bae; Sohn, Eun-Hwa; Kang, Se Chan

    2016-05-11

    The antiallergic potential of Arctium lappa L. was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, ICR mice, and RBL-2H3 cells. Ethanol extract (90%) of A. lappa (ALE, 100 μg/mL) inhibited the degranulation rate by 52.9%, determined by the level of β-hexosaminidase. ALE suppressed passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats and attenuated anaphylaxis and histamine release in mice. To identify the active compound of ALE, we subsequently fractionated and determined the level of β-hexosaminidase in all subfractions. Oleamide was identified as an active compound of ALE, which attenuated the secretion of histamine and the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in cells treated with compound 48/80 or A23187/phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Oleamide suppressed FcεRI-tyrosine kinase Lyn-mediated pathway, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK/SAPK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38-MAPKs). These results showed that ALE and oleamide attenuated allergic reactions and should serve as a platform to search for compounds with antiallergic activity.

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of 6-hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-henanthraquinone from tuberous roots of yam (Dioscorea batatas) through inhibition of prostaglandin D₂ and leukotriene C₄ production in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Meihua; Lu, Yue; Yang, Ju Hye; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil; Park, Sang-Jo; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2011-09-01

    6-Hydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthraquinone (PAQ) isolated from the tuberous roots of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) dependent prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) generation in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 0.08 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively. In the Western blotting with specific anti-COX-2 antibodies, the decrease of the quantity of PGD(2) was accompanied by a decrease in the COX-2 protein level. But PAQ did not affect COX-1 protein level. In addition, this compound inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) dependent production of leukotriene C(4) in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) of 0.032 μM. These results demonstrate that PAQ has a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitory activity. This compound also inhibited the degranulation reaction in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.7 μM. Thus, these results suggest that PAQ may be useful in regulating mast cell-mediated inflammatory diseases.

  3. CMV latent infection improves CD8+ T response to SEB due to expansion of polyfunctional CD57+ cells in young individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Pera

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV latent infection has a deleterious effect on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in the elderly, suggesting that CMV restricts immunological diversity impairing the immune system functionality in old age. Polyfunctional T cells produce multiple cytokines and higher amounts than mono-functional T cells. High number of polyfunctional T cells correlates with better prognosis during infection. Thus, the efficiency of T cell response associates with quality (polyfunctionality rather than with quantity (percentage of T cells. We analyze the effect of CMV infection on CD8+ T cells polyfunctionality --degranulation (CD107a, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha production--, from young CMV-seropositive and CMV-seronegative individuals and in middle age CMV-seropositive donors, in response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B (SEB. Our results show a higher percentage of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young CMV-seropositive individuals compared to CMV-seronegative. Also, we find an expansion of CD8+CD57+ T cells in CMV-seropositive individuals, which are more polyfunctional than CD8+CD57- cells. In middle age individuals there is a higher frequency of SEB-responding CD8+ T cells, mainly TNF-alpha or TNF-alpha/IFN-gamma producers, whereas the percentage of polyfunctional cells (IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/CD107a is similar to the percentages found in young CMV-seropositive. Therefore, whereas it has been shown that CMV latent infection can be detrimental for immune response in old individuals, our results indicate that CMV-seropositivity is associated to higher levels of polyfunctional CD8+ T cells in young and middle age donors. This increase in polyfunctionality, which can provide an immunological advantage in the response to other pathogens, is due to a CD8+CD57+ T cell expansion in CMV-seropositive individuals and it is independent of age. Conversely, age could contribute to the inflammation found in old individuals by increasing the percentage of cells

  4. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist GS-9620 Induces HIV Expression and HIV-Specific Immunity in Cells from HIV-Infected Individuals on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Angela; Irrinki, Alivelu; Kaur, Jasmine; Cihlar, Tomas; Kukolj, George; Sloan, Derek D; Murry, Jeffrey P

    2017-04-15

    Antiretroviral therapy can suppress HIV replication to undetectable levels but does not eliminate latent HIV, thus necessitating lifelong therapy. Recent efforts to target this persistent reservoir have focused on inducing the expression of latent HIV so that infected cells may be recognized and eliminated by the immune system. Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation stimulates antiviral immunity and has been shown to induce HIV from latently infected cells. Activation of TLR7 leads to the production of several stimulatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFNs). In this study, we show that the selective TLR7 agonist GS-9620 induced HIV in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. GS-9620 increased extracellular HIV RNA 1.5- to 2-fold through a mechanism that required type I IFN signaling. GS-9620 also activated HIV-specific T cells and enhanced antibody-mediated clearance of HIV-infected cells. Activation by GS-9620 in combination with HIV peptide stimulation increased CD8 T cell degranulation, production of intracellular cytokines, and cytolytic activity. T cell activation was again dependent on type I IFNs produced by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. GS-9620 induced phagocytic cell maturation and improved effector-mediated killing of HIV-infected CD4 T cells by the HIV envelope-specific broadly neutralizing antibody PGT121. Collectively, these data show that GS-9620 can activate HIV production and improve the effector functions that target latently infected cells. GS-9620 may effectively complement orthogonal therapies designed to stimulate antiviral immunity, such as therapeutic vaccines or broadly neutralizing antibodies. Clinical studies are under way to determine if GS-9620 can target HIV reservoirs. IMPORTANCE Though antiretroviral therapies effectively suppress viral replication, they do not eliminate integrated proviral DNA. This stable intermediate of viral infection is persistently

  5. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko

    2008-01-01

    characterized Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). In contrast to imatinib, however, hypothemycin also effectively inhibited FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in addition to the potentiation of these responses via Kit. The effect of hypothemycin on Kit-mediated responses could...

  6. Functional characterization of histamine H4 receptor on human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemima, E Angel; Prema, A; Thangam, E Berla

    2014-11-01

    Among the four different types of histamine receptors (H1-H4), H4R is predominantly expressed in immune cells and involved in immunomodulatory response. Here, in this study we determined the expression of H4R in human mast cells (HMC-1, LAD-2 and primary cord blood derived CD34+ human mast cells) and characterized its functional properties. Interestingly, we found that human mast cells responded to both histamine (natural ligand) and 4-methylhistamine (selective H4R agonist) for sustained intracellular calcium mobilization, degranulation and cytokine production. However, only histamine induced the release of cAMP, but 4-methylhistamine down regulates cAMP indicating that H4R mediates its effect through Gαi/o protein and H1R via Gαq protein. Furthermore, both histamine and 4-methylhistamine induced the production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and LTB4. Using human inflammation antibody array membrane, we found that H4R induced the expression of various inflammatory proteins, involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and these are TGF-β1, TNF-α, TNF-β, PDGF-BB, TIMP-2, M-CSF, IP-10, IL-16, IL-6, IL-3, IL-10, MIP-1α, IL-1α, ICAM-1, Eotaxin-2, RANTES, IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6sR. We also quantified the level of various inflammatory cytokines produced by human mast cells through H4R. It was observed that, the production level of Th2 cytokines IL-4(401.34 pg/ml), IL-5 (64.21 pg/ml) and IL-13 (1044 pg/ml) and classical proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 (221.27 pg/ml) and IL-1β (34.24 pg/ml) and chemokines MCP-1(106 pg/ml) and IL-8 (818.32 pg/ml). Furthermore, activation of H4R caused the phosphorylation of ERK and PI3K in a time dependent manner. Taken together these data demonstrate that, the activation of H4R in human mast cells produced not only inflammatory mediators that are associated with allergic reactions but also other inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A multiepitope of XBP1, CD138 and CS1 peptides induces myeloma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in T cells of smoldering myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, J; Prabhala, R; Voskertchian, A; Brown, A; Maguire, C; Richardson, P; Dranoff, G; Anderson, K C; Munshi, N C

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a cocktail of HLA-A2-specific peptides including heteroclitic XBP1 US184-192 (YISPWILAV), heteroclitic XBP1 SP367-375 (YLFPQLISV), native CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) and native CS1239-247 (SLFVLGLFL), for their ability to elicit multipeptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (MP-CTLs) using T cells from smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) patients. Our results demonstrate that MP-CTLs generated from SMM patients' T cells show effective anti-MM responses including CD137 (4-1BB) upregulation, CTL proliferation, interferon-γ production and degranulation (CD107a) in an HLA-A2-restricted and peptide-specific manner. Phenotypically, we observed increased total CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells (>80%) and cellular activation (CD69(+)) within the memory SMM MP-CTL (CD45RO(+)/CD3(+)CD8(+)) subset after repeated multipeptide stimulation. Importantly, SMM patients could be categorized into distinct groups by their level of MP-CTL expansion and antitumor activity. In high responders, the effector memory (CCR7(-)CD45RO(+)/CD3(+)CD8(+)) T-cell subset was enriched, whereas the remaining responders' CTL contained a higher frequency of the terminal effector (CCR7(-)CD45RO(-)/CD3(+)CD8(+)) subset. These results suggest that this multipeptide cocktail has the potential to induce effective and durable memory MP-CTL in SMM patients. Therefore, our findings provide the rationale for clinical evaluation of a therapeutic vaccine to prevent or delay progression of SMM to active disease.

  8. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt Pathway Mediates Fip1-like1-platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor α-induced Cell Infiltration and Activation: Possible Molecular Mechanism for the Malignant Phenotype of Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fip1-like1/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α fusion gene (F/P is responsible for 14-60% cases of hypereosinophilia syndrome (HES, also known as F/P-positive chronic eosinophilic leukemia (F/P(+ CEL. The major pathogenesis of F/P(+ CEL is known to involve migration and activation of mast cells and eosinophils, leading to severe multi-organ dysfunction, but the mechanism was still unclear. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K and serine-threonine protein kinase Akt have been reported to be targets of F/P in the F/P-promoted cell proliferation. They are extensively involved in the migration and adhesion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and also control cell invasion in some leukemias. The PI3K/Akt pathway is involved in eosinophil/neutrophil activation and infiltration; its possible role in regulating F/P induced cytotoxicity and upregulation of A4-integrin in eosinophils, and inducing eosinophil activation through controlling F/P-induced Nuclear factor-kB activity. Akt was recently shown to be stimulated by F/P, synergistically with stem cell factor, resulting in the induction of MCs migration and excessive activation. PI3K/Akt pathway is also a principal mediator of interleukin-5 (IL-5-induced signal transduction promoting eosinophil trafficking and degranulation, whereas IL-5 is a necessary cytokine for F/P-mediated CEL development. We, therefore, propose the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt pathway might be vital downstream of F/P to induce target cell activation and tissue infiltration, resulting in the malignant phenotype seen in F/P(+ CEL.

  9. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection in High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts and Single Cells Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hui [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence detection is one of the most sensitive detection techniques and it has found enormous applications in various areas. The purpose of this research was to develop detection approaches based on laser-induced fluorescence detection in two different areas, heterogeneous catalysts screening and single cell study. First, the author introduced laser-induced imaging (LIFI) as a high-throughput screening technique for heterogeneous catalysts to explore the use of this high-throughput screening technique in discovery and study of various heterogeneous catalyst systems. This scheme is based on the fact that the creation or the destruction of chemical bonds alters the fluorescence properties of suitably designed molecules. By irradiating the region immediately above the catalytic surface with a laser, the fluorescence intensity of a selected product or reactant can be imaged by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera to follow the catalytic activity as a function of time and space. By screening the catalytic activity of vanadium pentoxide catalysts in oxidation of naphthalene, they demonstrated LIFI has good detection performance and the spatial and temporal resolution needed for high-throughput screening of heterogeneous catalysts. The sample packing density can reach up to 250 x 250 subunits/cm2 for 40-μm wells. This experimental set-up also can screen solid catalysts via near infrared thermography detection. In the second part of this dissertation, the author used laser-induced native fluorescence coupled with capillary electrophoresis (LINF-CE) and microscope imaging to study the single cell degranulation. On the basis of good temporal correlation with events observed through an optical microscope, they have identified individual peaks in the fluorescence electropherograms as serotonin released from the granular core on contact with the surrounding fluid.

  10. Early Expansion of Circulating Granulocytic Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells Predicts Development of Nosocomial Infections in Patients with Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhel, Fabrice; Azzaoui, Imane; Grégoire, Murielle; Pangault, Céline; Dulong, Joelle; Tadié, Jean-Marc; Gacouin, Arnaud; Camus, Christophe; Cynober, Luc; Fest, Thierry; Le Tulzo, Yves; Roussel, Mikael; Tarte, Karin

    2017-08-01

    Sepsis induces a sustained immune dysfunction responsible for poor outcome and nosocomial infections. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) described in cancer and inflammatory processes may be involved in sepsis-induced immune suppression, but their clinical impact remains poorly defined. To clarify phenotype, suppressive activity, origin, and clinical impact of MDSCs in patients with sepsis. Peripheral blood transcriptomic analysis was performed on 29 patients with sepsis and 15 healthy donors. A second cohort of 94 consecutive patients with sepsis, 11 severity-matched intensive care patients, and 67 healthy donors was prospectively enrolled for flow cytometry and functional experiments. Genes involved in MDSC suppressive functions, including S100A12, S100A9, MMP8, and ARG1, were up-regulated in the peripheral blood of patients with sepsis. CD14 pos HLA-DR low/neg monocytic (M)-MDSCs were expanded in intensive care unit patients with and without sepsis and CD14 neg CD15 pos low-density granulocytes/granulocytic (G)-MDSCs were more specifically expanded in patients with sepsis (P sepsis. G-MDSCs, made of immature and mature granulocytes expressing high levels of degranulation markers, were specifically responsible for arginase 1 activity. High initial levels of G-MDSCs, arginase 1, and S100A12 but not M-MDSCs were associated with subsequent occurrence of nosocomial infections. M-MDSCs and G-MDSCs strongly contribute to T-cell dysfunction in patients with sepsis. More specifically, G-MDSCs producing arginase 1 are associated with a higher incidence of nosocomial infections and seem to be major actors of sepsis-induced immune suppression.

  11. Fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooie, D. T.; Harrington, B. C., III; Mayfield, M. J.; Parsons, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The primary objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Fuel Cell program is to fund the development of key fuel cell technologies in a manner that maximizes private sector participation and in a way that will give contractors the opportunity for a competitive posture, early market entry, and long-term market growth. This summary includes an overview of the Fuel Cell program, an elementary explanation of how fuel cells operate, and a synopsis of the three major fuel cell technologies sponsored by the DOE/Fossil Energy Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell program, the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell program, and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell program.

  12. Novel Functional Aspect of Antihistamines: The Impact of Bepotastine Besilate on Substance P-Induced Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Kitaba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides histamine, substance P (SP has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in pruritic skin diseases. Although antihistamines are frequently used for pruritic skin diseases, little is known concerning the effect on an SP-induced event such as mast cell degranulation and the upregulation of adhesion molecules or the nitric oxide (NO synthesis in endothelial cells. Our aim was to study the effect of bepotastine besilate on SP-induced degranulation of rat basophillic leukemia (RBL-2H3 cells and expression of adhesion molecules and NO synthesis in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited SP-induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and NO synthesis in HMVECs. Bepotastine besilate significantly inhibited expression of adhesion molecules in HMVESs, while it failed to suppress SP-induced upregulation of the adhesion molecules in HMVECs. Therefore, bepotastine besilate is assumed to act favorably on SP-induced basophil degranulation and NO synthesis in HMVECs.

  13. Low expression of activation marker CD69 and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 on memory T cells after 2009 H1N1 influenza A antigen stimulation in vitro following H1N1 vaccination of HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawansuntati, Kriangkrai; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Aurpibul, Linda; Thetket, Sunida; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Supindham, Taweewat; Kaewthip, Oranitcha; Sroysuwan, Piyathida; Sirisanthana, Thira; Suparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Wipasa, Jiraprapa

    2015-01-01

    Unlike well-studied antibody responses to pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus vaccines in human immunodeficiency virus-infected (HIV+) individuals, less well understood are cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to this antigen in this susceptible population. We investigated such influenza-specific CMI responses in 61 HIV+ individuals and in 20 HIV-negative (HIV-) healthy controls. Each was vaccinated with a single licensed dose of inactivated, split-virion vaccine comprised of the influenza A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) virus-like strain. Cells collected just prior to vaccination and at 1 and 3 months afterwards were stimulated in vitro with dialyzed vaccine antigen and assayed by flow cytometry for cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-10, for degranulation marker CD107a, as well as phenotypes of memory T-cell subpopulations. Comparable increases of cytokine-producing and CD107a-expressing T cells were observed in both HIV+ subjects and healthy HIV-controls. However, by 3 months post-vaccination, in vitro antigen stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced greater expansion in controls of both CD4 and CD8 central memory and effector memory T cells, as well as higher expression of the activation marker CD69 and chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR3 than in HIV+ subjects. We concluded CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells produce cytokines at comparable levels in both groups, whereas the expression after in vitro stimulation of molecules critical for cell migration to infection sites are lower in the HIV+ than in comparable controls. Further immunization strategies against influenza are needed to improve the CMI responses in people living with HIV.

  14. Inflammation and cancer: role of annexin A1 and FPR2/ALX in proliferation and metastasis in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santana Gastardelo

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory protein annexin A1 (ANXA1 has been associated with cancer progression and metastasis, suggesting its role in regulating tumor cell proliferation. We investigated the mechanism of ANXA1 interaction with formylated peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX in control, peritumoral and tumor larynx tissue samples from 20 patients, to quantitate the neutrophils and mast cells, and to evaluate the protein expression and co-localization of ANXA1/FPR2 in these inflammatory cells and laryngeal squamous cells by immunocytochemistry. In addition, we performed in vitro experiments to further investigate the functional role of ANXA1/FPR2 in the proliferation and metastasis of Hep-2 cells, a cell line from larynx epidermoid carcinoma, after treatment with ANXA1(2-26 (annexin A1 N-terminal-derived peptide, Boc2 (antagonist of FPR and/or dexamethasone. Under these treatments, the level of Hep-2 cell proliferation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, ANXA1/FPR2 co-localization, and the prostaglandin signalling were analyzed using ELISA, immunocytochemistry and real-time PCR. An influx of neutrophils and degranulated mast cells was detected in tumor samples. In these inflammatory cells of peritumoral and tumor samples, ANXA1/FPR2 expression was markedly exacerbated, however, in laryngeal carcinoma cells, this expression was down-regulated. ANXA1(2-26 treatment reduced the proliferation of the Hep-2 cells, an effect that was blocked by Boc2, and up-regulated ANXA1/FPR2 expression. ANXA1(2-26 treatment also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and affected the expression of metalloproteinases and EP receptors, which are involved in the prostaglandin signalling. Overall, this study identified potential roles for the molecular mechanism of the ANXA1/FPR2 interaction in laryngeal cancer, including its relationship with the prostaglandin pathway, providing promising starting points for future research. ANXA1 may contribute to the regulation of tumor growth

  15. Rapid decrease in hepatitis C viremia by direct acting antivirals improves the natural killer cell response to IFNα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serti, Elisavet; Park, Heiyoung; Keane, Meghan; O'Keefe, Ashley C; Rivera, Elenita; Liang, T Jake; Ghany, Marc; Rehermann, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Chronic HCV infection is characterised by innate immune activation with increased interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) expression and by an altered phenotype of interferon-responsive natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we asked whether a rapid reduction in viremia by daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) improves the response to pegylated interferon (PegIFN) in patients who had previously failed a standard course of PegIFN/ribavirin (RBV) therapy. Twenty-two HCV-infected non-responders to previous PegIFN/RBV therapy were studied for IFN-responsiveness of NK cells during quadruple (QUAD) therapy with DCV, ASV, PegIFN and RBV. A direct comparison of early NK cell responses in PegIFN/RBV therapy and QUAD therapy was performed for seven patients using paired cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both treatment courses. As a validation cohort, nine DCV/ASV-treated patients were studied for their NK cell response to in vitro stimulation with IFNα. The 24 h virological response to QUAD therapy correlated with an increase in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), phosphorylated STAT1 (pSTAT1) and tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression in NK cells, and the STAT1/pSTAT1/TRAIL induction was greater during QUAD therapy than during previous PegIFN/RBV therapy. Successful QUAD therapy as well as successful IFN-free DCV/ASV regimen resulted in an improved functional NK cell response (degranulation and TRAIL expression) to in vitro stimulation with IFNα. IFN-responsiveness can be improved by inhibiting HCV replication and reducing the HCV-induced activation of the innate immune response. This may provide a rationale for clinical trials of a brief period of direct acting antiviral therapy followed by PegIFN/RBV therapy to reduce the overall treatment costs in low-income and middle-income countries. NCT01888900 and NCT00718172. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  16. Immunophenotypic and Ultrastructural Analysis of Mast Cells in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type-1: A Possible Connection to Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold S Kirshenbaum

    Full Text Available Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome type-1 (HPS-1 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in HPS1 which result in reduced expression of the HPS-1 protein, defective lysosome-related organelle (LRO transport and absence of platelet delta granules. Patients with HPS-1 exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, colitis, bleeding and pulmonary fibrosis postulated to result from a dysregulated immune response. The effect of the HPS1 mutation on human mast cells (HuMCs is unknown. Since HuMC granules classify as LROs along with platelet granules and melanosomes, we set out to determine if HPS-1 cutaneous and CD34+ culture-derived HuMCs have distinct granular and cellular characteristics. Cutaneous and cultured CD34+-derived HuMCs from HPS-1 patients were compared with normal cutaneous and control HuMCs, respectively, for any morphological and functional differences. One cytokine-independent HPS-1 culture was expanded, cloned, designated the HP proMastocyte (HPM cell line and characterized. HPS-1 and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF alveolar interstitium showed numerous HuMCs; HPS-1 dermal mast cells exhibited abnormal granules when compared to healthy controls. HPS-1 HuMCs showed increased CD63, CD203c and reduced mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation when compared with normal HuMCs. HPM cells also had the duplication defect, expressed FcɛRI and intracytoplasmic proteases and exhibited less mediator release following FcɛRI aggregation. HPM cells constitutively released IL-6, which was elevated in patients' serum, in addition to IL-8, fibronectin-1 (FN-1 and galectin-3 (LGALS3. Transduction with HPS1 rescued the abnormal HPM morphology, cytokine and matrix secretion. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Cultured HPS-1 HuMCs appear activated as evidenced by surface activation marker expression, a decrease in mediator

  17. Cetirizine inhibits skin reactions but not mediator release in immediate and developing late-phase allergic cutaneous reactions. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P N; Skov, P S; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated cetirizine, a potent H(1)-receptor antagonist, to possess a number of anti-inflammatory effects, e.g. inhibition of mast cell degranulation and inhibition of leucocyte migration and activation....

  18. Investigation of carbachol and PACAP38 in a human model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2011-01-01

    and VIP in migraine and head pain. In study I-III we investigated acetylcholine, via the analogue carbachol, and PACAP38 in a human model of migraine. In study IV we studied if PACAP38 and VIP might induce central sensitization, neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation in a cutaneous model...... in migraine patients as well as sustained dilatation of cephalic vessels. In study IV VIP and PACAP38 evoked skin pain, central sensitization, neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation, but VIP showed to be more potent than PACAP38 in inducing neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation...... that neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation are unlikely to cause PACAP38 induced migraine. The present thesis contributes to our knowledge on migraine pathophysiology and suggests PAC1 receptor antagonism as a new target for migraine treatment....

  19. Cetirizine inhibits skin reactions but not mediator release in immediate and developing late-phase allergic cutaneous reactions. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P N; Skov, P S; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated cetirizine, a potent H(1)-receptor antagonist, to possess a number of anti-inflammatory effects, e.g. inhibition of mast cell degranulation and inhibition of leucocyte migration and activation.......Recent reports have indicated cetirizine, a potent H(1)-receptor antagonist, to possess a number of anti-inflammatory effects, e.g. inhibition of mast cell degranulation and inhibition of leucocyte migration and activation....

  20. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or ?Innate Hypersensitivity??

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerl, David; Nigolian, Haig; Czarnetzki, Christoph; Harr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions). In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related) may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash...

  1. Enhanced suppression of polyclonal CD8+25+regulatory T cells via exosomal arming of antigen-specific peptide/MHC complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chuanyong; Zhang, Xueshu; Wang, Lu; Xu, Aizhang; Ahmed, Khawaja Ashfaque; Pang, Xueqin; Chibbar, Rajni; Freywald, Andrew; Huang, Jianan; Zhu, Yehan; Xiang, Jim

    2017-05-01

    Compared with CD4 + 25 + regulatory T cells (T regs ), the mechanisms for natural, polyclonal CD8 + 25 + T reg immune suppression have been significantly less studied. We previously showed that polyclonal T cells can acquire antigen-specific targeting activity through arming with exosomal peptide-MHC (pMHC). In this study, we assessed the suppressive effect of CD8 + 25 + T regs or CD8 + 25 + T regs armed with ovalbumin (OVA)-specific exosomes on other immune cells and OVA-specific dendritic cell (DC OVA )-stimulated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that CD8 + 25 + T regs inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro in a cell contact-dependent fashion but independent of the expression of immunosuppressive IL-10, TGF-β, and CTLA-4. CD8 + 25 + T regs anergize naïve T cells upon stimulation by up-regulating T cell anergy-associated Egr2 and down-regulating IL-2 production. T regs also anergize DCs by preventing DC maturation through the down-regulation of Ia b , CD80, CD86, and inflammatory cytokines, leading to defects in T cell stimulation. Moreover, CD8 + 25 + T regs inhibit CTLs through inducing CTL death via perforin-mediated apoptosis and through reducing effector CTL cytotoxic activity via down-regulating CTL perforin-production and degranulation. In addition, we show that CD8 + 25 + T regs suppress DC OVA -stimulated CTL responses in priming and effector phases and inhibit immunity against OVA-expressing CCL OVA lung cancer. Remarkably, polyclonal CD8 + 25 + T regs armed with OVA-specific exosomal pMHC class-II (pMHC-II), or pMHC class-I (pMHC-I) complexes exert their enhanced inhibition of CTL responses in the priming and the effector phases, respectively. Taken together, our investigation reveals that assigning antigen specificity to nonspecific polyclonal CD8 + 25 + T regs for enhanced immune suppression can be achieved through exosomal pMHC arming. This principle may have a great effect on T reg -mediated immunotherapy of autoimmune diseases. © Society for

  2. Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell motility is a fascinating example of cell behavior which is fundamentally important to a number of biological and pathological processes. It is based on a complex self-organized mechano-chemical machine consisting of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. In general, the cytoskeleton is responsible for the movement of the entire cell and for movements within the cell. The main challenge in the field of cell motility is to develop a complete physical description on how and why cells move. For this purpose new ways of modeling the properties of biological cells have to be found. This long term goal can only be achieved if new experimental techniques are developed to extract physical information from these living systems and if theoretical models are found which bridge the gap between molecular and mesoscopic length scales. Cell Motility gives an authoritative overview of the fundamental biological facts, theoretical models, and current experimental developments in this fascinating area.

  3. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Electrochemical Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising a negative electrode, an electrolyte and a positive electrode in which the positive electrode structure comprises a lithium cobalt manganese oxide of the composition Li¿2?Co¿y?Mn¿2-y?O¿4? where 0 ... for capacity losses in lithium ion cells and lithium-alloy cells....

  5. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  6. Cell suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, E.; Coffigny, H.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight of the cell against the damages caused to its DNA by genotoxic agents and specially by ionizing radiations, the p53 protein plays a central part. It intervenes in the proliferation control and the differentiation but also in the keeping of genome integrity. It can direct the damages cells toward suicide, or apoptosis, to avoid the risk of tumor appearance that would be fatal to the whole organism. That is by the disordered state of cells suicide programs that the tumor cells are going to develop. The knowledge of apoptosis mechanisms, to eventually start them on demand, rises up broad hopes in the cancer therapy. (N.C.)

  7. Mast Cell Coupling to the Kallikrein–Kinin System Fuels Intracardiac Parasitism and Worsens Heart Pathology in Experimental Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa R. Nascimento

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of Chagas disease, infectious forms of Trypanosoma cruzi are occasionally liberated from parasitized heart cells. Studies performed with tissue culture trypomastigotes (TCTs, Dm28c strain demonstrated that these parasites evoke neutrophil/CXCR2-dependent microvascular leakage by activating innate sentinel cells via toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2. Upon plasma extravasation, proteolytically derived kinins and C5a stimulate immunoprotective Th1 responses via cross-talk between bradykinin B2 receptors (B2Rs and C5aR. Awareness that TCTs invade cardiovascular cells in vitro via interdependent activation of B2R and endothelin receptors [endothelin A receptor (ETAR/endothelin B receptor (ETBR] led us to hypothesize that T. cruzi might reciprocally benefit from the formation of infection-associated edema via activation of kallikrein–kinin system (KKS. Using intravital microscopy, here we first examined the functional interplay between mast cells (MCs and the KKS by topically exposing the hamster cheek pouch (HCP tissues to dextran sulfate (DXS, a potent “contact” activator of the KKS. Surprisingly, although DXS was inert for at least 30 min, a subtle MC-driven leakage resulted in factor XII (FXII-dependent activation of the KKS, which then amplified inflammation via generation of bradykinin (BK. Guided by this mechanistic insight, we next exposed TCTs to “leaky” HCP—forged by low dose histamine application—and found that the proinflammatory phenotype of TCTs was boosted by BK generated via the MC/KKS pathway. Measurements of footpad edema in MC-deficient mice linked TCT-evoked inflammation to MC degranulation (upstream and FXII-mediated generation of BK (downstream. We then inoculated TCTs intracardiacally in mice and found a striking decrease of parasite DNA (quantitative polymerase chain reaction; 3 d.p.i. in the heart of MC-deficient mutant mice. Moreover, the intracardiac parasite load was significantly reduced in WT

  8. Inhibitory effect of fermented Arctium lappa fruit extract on the IgE-mediated allergic response in RBL‑2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Yang, Ju Hye; Yang, Hye Jin; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-02-01

    Arctium lappa fruit has been used in traditional medicine, and it is known to exert beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. However, the effects of the Arctium lappa fruit on the allergic response remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic effects of Arctium lappa fruit extract (AFE) and its fermented form (F-AFE) using immunoglobulin E (IgE)-activated RBL‑2H3 cells. To investigate the anti-allergic effects of AFE or F-AFE, we examined the release of β-hexosaminidase, a key biomarker of degranulation during an allergic reaction, and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the cells treated with or without the above-mentioned extracts. AFE weakly inhibited the release of β-hexosaminidase, whereas F-AFE significantly suppressed the release of β-hexosaminidase in a dose-dependent manner. Consistently, F-AFE suppressed the production of TNF-α and PGE2 in a dose-dependent manner. F-AFE exerted an inhibitory effect on the production of β-hexosaminidase, TNF-α and PGE2 with an IC50 value of 30.73, 46.96 and 36.27 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, F-AFE inhibited the phosphorylation of Lyn, Fyn and Syk, which are involved in the FcεRI signaling pathway, that of phosphoinositide phospholipase C (PLC)γ1/2 and protein kinase C (PKC)δ, which are associated with the degranulation process, as well as that of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK), p38 and Akt, which are associated with cytokine expression. In the late phase, F-AFE partially suppressed the phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. To compare and identify the major components of the two extracts, we used high-performance liquid chromatography. The levels of arctigenin, one of the major compounds, were elevated 6-fold in F-AFE compared with AFE, whereas the

  9. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...

  10. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  11. Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2004-01-01

    '. This paper is about tech-noscience, and about the proliferation of connections and interdependencies created by it.More specifically, the paper is about stem cells. Biotechnology in general has the power to capture the imagination. Within the field of biotechnology nothing seems more provocative...... and tantalizing than stem cells, in research, in medicine, or as products....

  12. Solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Moriaki; Hayashibara, Mitsuo

    1988-08-18

    Concerning the exsisting solar cell utilizing wavelength transition, the area of the solar cell element necessary for unit electric power output can be made small, but transition efficiency of the solar cell as a whole including a plastic plate with phosphor is not high. This invention concerns a solar cell which is appropriate for transferring the light within a wide spectrum range of the sunlight to electricilty efficiently, utilizes wavelength transition and has high efficiency per unit area. In other words, the solar cell of this invention has the feature of providing in parallel with a photoelectric transfer layer a layer of wavelength transitioning material (phosphor) which absorbs the light within the range of wavelength of low photoelectric transfer efficiency at the photoelectric transfer layer and emits the light within the range of wavelength in which the photoelectric transfer rate is high on the light incident side of the photoelectric transfer layer. (5 figs)

  13. Oesophagostomum dentatum extract modulates T cell-dependent immune responses to bystander antigens and prevents the development of allergy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Schabussova

    Full Text Available One third of the human population is currently infected by one or more species of parasitic helminths. Certain helminths establish long-term chronic infections resulting in a modulation of the host's immune system with attenuated responsiveness to "bystander" antigens such as allergens or vaccines. In this study we investigated whether parasite-derived products suppress the development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model. We show that extract derived from adult male Oesophagostomum dentatum (eMOD induced Th2 and regulatory responses in BALB/c mice. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced production of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. In a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, co-administration of eMOD with sensitizing allergen Bet v 1 markedly reduced the production of allergen-specific antibodies in serum as well as IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. Furthermore, eMOD prevented the development of airway inflammation, as demonstrated by attenuation of bronchoalveolar lavages eosinophil influx, peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, and mucus secretion in lungs and IL-4 and IL-5 levels in lung cell cultures. Reduced secretion of Th2-related cytokines by birch pollen-re-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells was observed in eMOD-treated/sensitized and challenged mice in comparison to sensitized and challenged controls. The suppressive effects of eMOD were heat-stable. Immunization with model antigens in the presence of eMOD reduced production of antibodies to thymus-dependent but not to thymus-independent antigen, suggesting that suppression of the immune responses by eMOD was mediated by interference with antigen presenting cell or T helper cell function but did not directly suppress B cell function. In conclusion, we have shown that eMOD possesses immunomodulatory properties and that heat-stable factors in eMOD are responsible for the dramatic suppression of allergic responses in a mouse model

  14. Oesophagostomum dentatum extract modulates T cell-dependent immune responses to bystander antigens and prevents the development of allergy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabussova, Irma; Ul-Haq, Onisa; Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Akgün, Johnnie; Wagner, Angelika; Loupal, Gerhard; Joachim, Anja; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Maizels, Rick M; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    One third of the human population is currently infected by one or more species of parasitic helminths. Certain helminths establish long-term chronic infections resulting in a modulation of the host's immune system with attenuated responsiveness to "bystander" antigens such as allergens or vaccines. In this study we investigated whether parasite-derived products suppress the development of allergic inflammation in a mouse model. We show that extract derived from adult male Oesophagostomum dentatum (eMOD) induced Th2 and regulatory responses in BALB/c mice. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells induced production of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. In a mouse model of birch pollen allergy, co-administration of eMOD with sensitizing allergen Bet v 1 markedly reduced the production of allergen-specific antibodies in serum as well as IgE-dependent basophil degranulation. Furthermore, eMOD prevented the development of airway inflammation, as demonstrated by attenuation of bronchoalveolar lavages eosinophil influx, peribronchial inflammatory infiltrate, and mucus secretion in lungs and IL-4 and IL-5 levels in lung cell cultures. Reduced secretion of Th2-related cytokines by birch pollen-re-stimulated splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells was observed in eMOD-treated/sensitized and challenged mice in comparison to sensitized and challenged controls. The suppressive effects of eMOD were heat-stable. Immunization with model antigens in the presence of eMOD reduced production of antibodies to thymus-dependent but not to thymus-independent antigen, suggesting that suppression of the immune responses by eMOD was mediated by interference with antigen presenting cell or T helper cell function but did not directly suppress B cell function. In conclusion, we have shown that eMOD possesses immunomodulatory properties and that heat-stable factors in eMOD are responsible for the dramatic suppression of allergic responses in a mouse model of type I allergy

  15. Targeting of Immune Cells by Dual TLR2/7 Ligands Suppresses Features of Allergic Th2 Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Laiño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. TLR ligands can promote Th1-biased immune responses, mimicking potent stimuli of viruses and bacteria. Aim. To investigate the adjuvant properties of dual TLR2/7 ligands compared to those of the mixture of both single ligands. Methods. Dual TLR2/7 ligands: CL401, CL413, and CL531, including CL264 (TLR7-ligand and Pam2CysK4 (TLR2-ligand, were used. Immune-modulatory capacity of the dual ligands with the individual ligands alone or as a mixture in mouse BMmDCs, BMmDC:TC cocultures, or BMCMCs was compared and assessed in naïve mice and in a mouse model of OVA-induced intestinal allergy. Results. CL413 and CL531 induced BMmDC-derived IL-10 secretion, suppressed rOVA-induced IL-5 secretion from OVA-specific DO11.10 CD4+ TCs, and induced proinflammatory cytokine secretion in vivo. In contrast, CL401 induced considerably less IL-10 secretion and led to IL-17A production in BMmDC:TC cocultures, but not BMCMC IL-6 secretion, or IL-6 or TNF-α production in vivo. No immune-modulating effects were observed with single ligands. All dual TLR2/7 ligands suppressed DNP-induced IgE-and-Ag-specific mast cell degranulation. Compared to vaccination with OVA, vaccination with the mixture CL531 and OVA, significantly suppressed OVA-specific IgE production in the intestinal allergy model. Conclusions. Based on beneficial immune-modulating properties, CL413 and CL531 may have utility as potential adjuvants for allergy treatment.

  16. Importance of mast cell Prss31/transmembrane tryptase/tryptase-γ in lung function and experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansbro, Philip M; Hamilton, Matthew J; Fricker, Michael; Gellatly, Shaan L; Jarnicki, Andrew G; Zheng, Dominick; Frei, Sandra M; Wong, G William; Hamadi, Sahar; Zhou, Saijun; Foster, Paul S; Krilis, Steven A; Stevens, Richard L

    2014-06-27

    Protease serine member S31 (Prss31)/transmembrane tryptase/tryptase-γ is a mast cell (MC)-restricted protease of unknown function that is retained on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane when MCs are activated. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the Prss31 gene in different mouse strains and then used a Cre/loxP homologous recombination approach to create a novel Prss31(-/-) C57BL/6 mouse line. The resulting animals exhibited no obvious developmental abnormality, contained normal numbers of granulated MCs in their tissues, and did not compensate for their loss of the membrane tryptase by increasing their expression of other granule proteases. When Prss31-null MCs were activated with a calcium ionophore or by their high affinity IgE receptors, they degranulated in a pattern similar to that of WT MCs. Prss31-null mice had increased baseline airway reactivity to methacholine but markedly reduced experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and colitis, thereby indicating both beneficial and adverse functional roles for the tryptase. In a cigarette smoke-induced model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, WT mice had more pulmonary macrophages, higher histopathology scores, and more fibrosis in their small airways than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. In a dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis model, WT mice lost more weight, had higher histopathology scores, and contained more Cxcl-2 and IL-6 mRNA in their colons than similarly treated Prss31-null mice. The accumulated data raise the possibility that inhibitors of this membrane tryptase may provide additional therapeutic benefit in the treatment of humans with these MC-dependent inflammatory diseases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Bi-Cell Unit for Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The patent concerns a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell . The bi-cell unit is comprised of two electrode packs. Each of the electrode packs includes an...invention relates in general to a bi-cell unit for a fuel cell and in particular, to a bi-cell unit for a hydrazine-air fuel cell .

  18. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  19. In Vitro Pre-Clinical Validation of Suicide Gene Modified Anti-CD33 Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    Full Text Available Approximately fifty percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be cured with current therapeutic strategies which include, standard dose chemotherapy for patients at standard risk of relapse as assessed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis, or high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk patients. Despite allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant about 25% of patients still succumb to disease relapse, therefore, novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia.We developed an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting the CD33 myeloid antigen, expressed in ~ 85-90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, using chimeric antigen receptor redirected T-cells. Considering that administration of CAR T-cells has been associated with cytokine release syndrome and other potential off-tumor effects in patients, safety measures were here investigated and reported. We genetically modified human activated T-cells from healthy donors or patients with acute myeloid leukemia with retroviral supernatant encoding the inducible Caspase9 suicide gene, a ΔCD19 selectable marker, and a humanized third generation chimeric antigen receptor recognizing human CD33. ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells had a 75±3.8% (average ± standard error of the mean chimeric antigen receptor expression, were able to specifically lyse CD33+ targets in vitro, including freshly isolated leukemic blasts from patients, produce significant amount of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, express the CD107a degranulation marker, and proliferate upon antigen specific stimulation. Challenging ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells with programmed-death-ligand-1 enriched leukemia blasts resulted in significant killing like observed for the programmed-death-ligand-1 negative leukemic blasts fraction. Since the administration of 10 nanomolar of a non

  20. In Vitro Pre-Clinical Validation of Suicide Gene Modified Anti-CD33 Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kentaro; Jamil, Muhammad O; Al-Obaidi, Mustafa; Pereboeva, Larisa; Salzman, Donna; Erba, Harry P; Lamb, Lawrence S; Bhatia, Ravi; Mineishi, Shin; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Approximately fifty percent of patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be cured with current therapeutic strategies which include, standard dose chemotherapy for patients at standard risk of relapse as assessed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis, or high-dose chemotherapy with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for high-risk patients. Despite allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant about 25% of patients still succumb to disease relapse, therefore, novel strategies are needed to improve the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. We developed an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting the CD33 myeloid antigen, expressed in ~ 85-90% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, using chimeric antigen receptor redirected T-cells. Considering that administration of CAR T-cells has been associated with cytokine release syndrome and other potential off-tumor effects in patients, safety measures were here investigated and reported. We genetically modified human activated T-cells from healthy donors or patients with acute myeloid leukemia with retroviral supernatant encoding the inducible Caspase9 suicide gene, a ΔCD19 selectable marker, and a humanized third generation chimeric antigen receptor recognizing human CD33. ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells had a 75±3.8% (average ± standard error of the mean) chimeric antigen receptor expression, were able to specifically lyse CD33+ targets in vitro, including freshly isolated leukemic blasts from patients, produce significant amount of tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, express the CD107a degranulation marker, and proliferate upon antigen specific stimulation. Challenging ΔCD19 selected inducible Caspase9-CAR.CD33 T-cells with programmed-death-ligand-1 enriched leukemia blasts resulted in significant killing like observed for the programmed-death-ligand-1 negative leukemic blasts fraction. Since the administration of 10 nanomolar of a non-therapeutic dimerizer to

  1. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redey, L.I.; Myles, K.M.; Vissers, D.R.; Prakash, J.

    1996-07-02

    An electrochemical cell is described with a positive electrode having an electrochemically active layer of at least one transition metal chloride. A negative electrode of an alkali metal and a compatible electrolyte including an alkali metal salt molten at cell operating temperature is included in the cell. The electrolyte is present at least partially as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina tube surrounding the negative electrode interior to the positive electrode. The ratio of the volume of liquid electrolyte to the volume of the positive electrode is in the range of from about 0.1 to about 3. A plurality of stacked electrochemical cells is disclosed each having a positive electrode, a negative electrode of an alkali metal molten at cell operating temperature, and a compatible electrolyte. The electrolyte is at least partially present as a corrugated {beta}{double_prime} alumina sheet separating the negative electrode and interior to the positive electrodes. The alkali metal is retained in a porous electrically conductive ceramic, and seals for sealing the junctures of the electrolyte and the adjacent electrodes at the peripheries thereof. 8 figs.

  2. Electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.

    An improved secondary electrochemical cell is disclosed having a negative electrode of lithium aluminum, a positive electrode of iron sulfide, a molten electrolyte of lithium chloride and potassium chloride, and the combination that the fully charged theoretical capacity of the negative electrode is in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 that of the positive electrode. The cell thus is negative electrode limiting during discharge cycling. Preferably, the negative electrode contains therein, in the approximate range of 1 to 10 volume % of the electrode, an additive from the materials of graphitized carbon, aluminum-iron alloy, and/or magnesium oxide.

  3. Solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of producing solar cells is described which consists of producing a substantially monocrystalline tubular body of silicon or other suitable semiconductor material, treating this body to form an annular rectifying junction and then cutting it longitudinally to form a number of nearly flat ribbons from which the solar cells are fabricated. The P=N rectifying junction produced by the formation of silicon dioxide on the layers at the inner and outer surfaces of the body can be formed by ion-implantation or diffusion. (U.K.)

  4. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.; Mayor, R.

    2017-01-01

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph

  5. Energy storage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulia, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    The book deals with the characteristics and potentialities of energy storage cells of various types. Attention is given to electrical energy storage cells (electrochemical, electrostatic, and electrodynamic cells), mechanical energy storage cells (mechanical flywheel storage cells), and hybrid storage systems.

  6. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  7. Learn About Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... ISSCR Get Involved Media © 2015 International Society for Stem Cell Research Terms of Use Disclaimer Privacy Policy

  8. Electrochemical cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.H.; Kubala, D.M.; Bennett, R.J.

    1977-01-13

    The high energy densities of primary cells on the basis of lithium or sodium as anode material, liquid cathode materials and nonaqueous electrolytes could not previously be fully utilised, because volume changes appearing during the discharge process inside the cell lead to an increase of cell impedance. In order to overcome this disadvantage, according to the invention a tube consisting of carbon which is slotted in the longitudinal direction is used as the cathode current collector. It is elastic in the radial direction and exerts an even pressure in the beaker-shaped cell vessel on the separator and therefore on the anode material touching the inner wall of the vessel. In order to achieve the elastic deformability of the cathode current collector, acetylene soot is used, to which are added as described in the invention, elastomers and/or mixed polymers in quantities of 10 to 30% by weight. Further claims concern the use of at least one oxyhalide of an element of groups V or VI or a halide of an element of groups IV, V or VI of the periodic table in the cathode solution.

  9. Potent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    It seems hard to believe that Dolly the cloned sheep was born 10 years ago, kindling furious arguments over the prospects and ethics of cloning a human. Today, the controversy over cloning is entwined, often confused, with concerns over the use of human embryonic stem cells. Most people are unclear what cloning is, and they know even less when it…

  10. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  11. Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Stem Cells: A Dormant Volcano Within Our Body? Devaveena Dey Annapoorni Rangarajan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 27-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  13. The histamine H-4 receptor is a potent inhibitor of adhesion-dependent degranulation in human neutrophils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dib, K.; Perečko, Tomáš; Jenei, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2014), s. 411-418 ISSN 0741-5400 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : inflammation * signaling * innate immunity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.289, year: 2014

  14. HLA-A02:01-Restricted Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP11/12 Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells from Seropositive Asymptomatic Individuals and Protect “Humanized” HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice Against Ocular Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P.; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T.; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M.; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 virion tegument phosphoprotein 11/12 (HSV-1 VP11/12) is a major antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12-epitope-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the “natural” protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes from the 716 amino acids sequence of VP11/12. Three out of ten epitopes exhibited high to moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In ten sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01 positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust and polyfunctional effector CD8+ T-cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266–74, VP11/12220–228 and VP11/12702–710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had significantly higher proportion of CD45RAlowCCR7lowCD44highCD62LlowCD27lowCD28lowCD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM) specific to the three epitopes, compared to symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8+ TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8+ TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8+ T cells that should guide the development of an effective T-cell-based herpes vaccine. PMID:25617474

  15. HLA-A02:01-restricted epitopes identified from the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP11/12 preferentially recall polyfunctional effector memory CD8+ T cells from seropositive asymptomatic individuals and protect humanized HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice against ocular herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-03-01

    The HSV type 1 tegument virion phosphoprotein (VP) 11/12 (VP11/12) is a major Ag targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural" protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 718-aa sequence of VP11/12. Three of 10 epitopes exhibited high-to-moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In 10 sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01-positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust, and polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ, and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266-74, VP11/12220-228, and VP11/12702-710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had a significantly higher proportion of CD45RA(low)CCR7(low)CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD27(low)CD28(low)CD8(+) effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TEMs) specific to the three epitopes, compared with symptomatic individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8(+) TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that should guide the development of an effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  17. Tuning Collective Cell Migration by Cell-Cell Junction Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Peter; Mayor, Roberto

    2017-04-03

    Collective cell migration critically depends on cell-cell interactions coupled to a dynamic actin cytoskeleton. Important cell-cell adhesion receptor systems implicated in controlling collective movements include cadherins, immunoglobulin superfamily members (L1CAM, NCAM, ALCAM), Ephrin/Eph receptors, Slit/Robo, connexins and integrins, and an adaptive array of intracellular adapter and signaling proteins. Depending on molecular composition and signaling context, cell-cell junctions adapt their shape and stability, and this gradual junction plasticity enables different types of collective cell movements such as epithelial sheet and cluster migration, branching morphogenesis and sprouting, collective network migration, as well as coordinated individual-cell migration and streaming. Thereby, plasticity of cell-cell junction composition and turnover defines the type of collective movements in epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal, and immune cells, and defines migration coordination, anchorage, and cell dissociation. We here review cell-cell adhesion systems and their functions in different types of collective cell migration as key regulators of collective plasticity. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  18. Functional impairment of Tax-specific but not cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in a minor population of asymptomatic human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamori Ayako

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in a small percentage of infected individuals. ATL is often associated with general immune suppression and an impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, an important host defense system. We previously found that a small fraction of asymptomatic HTLV-1-carriers (AC already showed impaired T-cell responses against the major target antigen, Tax. However, it is unclear whether the impaired HTLV-1 Tax-specific T-cell response in these individuals is an HTLV-1-specific phenomenon, or merely reflects general immune suppression. In this study, in order to characterize the impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, we investigated the function of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in various clinical status of HTLV-1 infection. Results By using tetramers consisting of HLA-A*0201, -A*2402, or -A*1101, and corresponding Tax epitope peptides, we detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in the peripheral blood from 87.0% of ACs (n = 20/23 and 100% of HAM/TSP patients (n = 18/18 tested. We also detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in 38.1% of chronic type ATL (cATL patients (n = 8/21, although its frequencies in peripheral blood CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of ACs or HAM/TSP patients. Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in HAM/TSP patients proliferated well in culture and produced IFN-γ when stimulated with Tax peptides. However, such functions were severely impaired in the Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in cATL patients. In ACs, the responses of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells were retained in most cases. However, we found one AC sample whose Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells hardly produced IFN-γ, and failed to proliferate and express activation (CD69 and degranulation (CD107a markers in response to Tax peptide. Importantly, the same AC sample contained cytomegalovirus (CMV pp65-specific CD8+ T-cells

  19. Functional impairment of Tax-specific but not cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in a minor population of asymptomatic human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Ayako; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Utsunomiya, Atae; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Masuda, Masato; Shimizu, Yukiko; Tamai, Yotaro; Sasada, Amane; Zeng, Na; Choi, Ilseung; Uike, Naokuni; Okamura, Jun; Watanabe, Toshiki; Masuda, Takao; Kannagi, Mari

    2011-12-07

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in a small percentage of infected individuals. ATL is often associated with general immune suppression and an impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, an important host defense system. We previously found that a small fraction of asymptomatic HTLV-1-carriers (AC) already showed impaired T-cell responses against the major target antigen, Tax. However, it is unclear whether the impaired HTLV-1 Tax-specific T-cell response in these individuals is an HTLV-1-specific phenomenon, or merely reflects general immune suppression. In this study, in order to characterize the impaired HTLV-1-specific T-cell response, we investigated the function of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in various clinical status of HTLV-1 infection. By using tetramers consisting of HLA-A*0201, -A*2402, or -A*1101, and corresponding Tax epitope peptides, we detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in the peripheral blood from 87.0% of ACs (n = 20/23) and 100% of HAM/TSP patients (n = 18/18) tested. We also detected Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells in 38.1% of chronic type ATL (cATL) patients (n = 8/21), although its frequencies in peripheral blood CD8+ T cells were significantly lower than those of ACs or HAM/TSP patients. Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in HAM/TSP patients proliferated well in culture and produced IFN-γ when stimulated with Tax peptides. However, such functions were severely impaired in the Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells detected in cATL patients. In ACs, the responses of Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells were retained in most cases. However, we found one AC sample whose Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells hardly produced IFN-γ, and failed to proliferate and express activation (CD69) and degranulation (CD107a) markers in response to Tax peptide. Importantly, the same AC sample contained cytomegalovirus (CMV) pp65-specific CD8+ T-cells that possessed functions upon CMV pp

  20. Effect of Carica papaya (paw-paw) seeds ethanolic extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thyrotrophs (TSH cells) of anterior pituitary showed progressive hypertrophy and degranulation at high dose levels of 200 mg/kg for one and eight weeks respectively. Acidophils somatotrophs (STH cells) and Lactotrophs or prolactin cells (LTH/PRL cells) showed no significant changes in both the experimental groups ...

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in asthmatic children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    asthma by neurogenic inflammation. This pathway could be triggered by immune cells with the potential to release neurotrophins in allergic inflammation. Vice versa, immune cells are widely influenced by BDNF which is able to induce degranulation and differentiation of mast cells, the key cells of the early allergic ...

  2. Electrorefining cell evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronson, M.C.; Thomas, R.L. (ed.)

    1989-04-14

    Operational characteristics of the LANL electrorefining cell, a modified LANL electrorefining cell, and an advanced electrorefining cell (known as the CRAC cell) were determined. Average process yields achieved were: 75% for the LANL cell, 82% for the modified LANL cell, and 86% for the CRAC cell. All product metal from the LANL and modified LANL cells was within foundry specifications. Metal from one run in the CRAC cell exceeded foundry specifications for tantalum. The LANL and modified LANL cells were simple in design and operation, but product separation was more labor intensive than with the CRAC cell. The CRAC cell was more complicated in design but remained relatively simple in operation. A decision analysis concluded that the modified LANL cell was the preferred cell. It was recommended that the modified LANL cell be implemented by the Plutonium Recovery Project at Rocky Flats and that development of the CRAC cell continue. 8 refs., 22 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  4. Stem Cell Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy cells replace damaged cells in adult organisms. Stem cell research is one of the most fascinating areas of ... as with many expanding fields of scientific inquiry, research on stem cells raises scientific questions as rapidly as it generates ...

  5. Sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia - sickle cell; Hemoglobin SS disease (Hb SS); Sickle cell disease ... Sickle cell anemia is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells ...

  6. DNA-cell conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Chia; Francis, Matthew B.; Bertozzi, Carolyn; Mathies, Richard; Chandra, Ravi; Douglas, Erik; Twite, Amy; Toriello, Nicholas; Onoe, Hiroaki

    2016-05-03

    The present invention provides conjugates of DNA and cells by linking the DNA to a native functional group on the cell surface. The cells can be without cell walls or can have cell walls. The modified cells can be linked to a substrate surface and used in assay or bioreactors.

  7. Potency of Stem Cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Potency of Stem Cells. Totipotent Stem Cells (Zygote + first 2 divisions). -Can form placenta, embryo, and any cell of the body. Pluripotent (Embryonic Stem Cells). -Can form any cell of the body but can not form placenta, hence no embryo. Multipotent (Adult stem cells).

  8. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  9. NKT Cell Responses to B Cell Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxin; Sun, Wenji; Subrahmanyam, Priyanka B; Page, Carly; Younger, Kenisha M; Tiper, Irina V; Frieman, Matthew; Kimball, Amy S; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-06-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique subset of CD1d-restricted T lymphocytes that express characteristics of both T cells and natural killer cells. NKT cells mediate tumor immune-surveillance; however, NKT cells are numerically reduced and functionally impaired in lymphoma patients. Many hematologic malignancies express CD1d molecules and co-stimulatory proteins needed to induce anti-tumor immunity by NKT cells, yet most tumors are poorly immunogenic. In this study, we sought to investigate NKT cell responses to B cell lymphoma. In the presence of exogenous antigen, both mouse and human NKT cell lines produce cytokines following stimulation by B cell lymphoma lines. NKT cell populations were examined ex vivo in mouse models of spontaneous B cell lymphoma, and it was found that during early stages, NKT cell responses were enhanced in lymphoma-bearing animals compared to disease-free animals. In contrast, in lymphoma-bearing animals with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, NKT cells were functionally impaired. In a mouse model of blastoid variant mantle cell lymphoma, treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a potent NKT cell agonist, α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), resulted in a significant decrease in disease pathology. Ex vivo studies demonstrated that NKT cells from α-GalCer treated mice produced IFN-γ following α-GalCer restimulation, unlike NKT cells from vehicle-control treated mice. These data demonstrate an important role for NKT cells in the immune response to an aggressive hematologic malignancy like mantle cell lymphoma.

  10. Epithelial cell polarity, stem cells and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Belmonte, Fernando; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2011-01-01

    After years of extensive scientific discovery much has been learned about the networks that regulate epithelial homeostasis. Loss of expression or functional activity of cell adhesion and cell polarity proteins (including the PAR, crumbs (CRB) and scribble (SCRIB) complexes) is intricately related......, deregulation of adhesion and polarity proteins can cause misoriented cell divisions and increased self-renewal of adult epithelial stem cells. In this Review, we highlight some advances in the understanding of how loss of epithelial cell polarity contributes to tumorigenesis....

  11. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S; Wang, Y; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ?entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  12. Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is a disease in which your body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. The cells are shaped like a crescent or sickle. They ... last as long as normal, round red blood cells. This leads to anemia. The sickle cells also ...

  13. Host cell reactivation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Benane, S.G.; Stafford, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    The survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus was determined in cultured Potoroo (a marsupial) and human cells under lighting conditions which promoted photereactivation. Photoreactivation was readily demonstrated for herpes virus in two lines of Potoroo cells with dose reduction factors of 0.7 to 0.8 for ovary cells and 0.5 to 0.7 for kidney cells. Light from Blacklite (near UV) lamps was more effective than from Daylight (mostly visible) lamps, suggesting that near UV radiation was more effecient for photoreactivation in Potoroo cells. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of this photoreactivation were similar to those reported for a similar virus infecting chick embryo cells. UV-survival curves of herpes virus in Potoroo cells indicated a high level of 'dark' host cell reactivation. No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated vaccinia virus in Potoroo cells. A similar photoreactivation study was done using special control lighting (lambda>600 nm) and human cells with normal repair and with cells deficient in excision repair (XP). No photoreactivation was found for UV-irradiated herpes virus in either human cell with either Blacklite or Daylight lamps as the sources of photoreactivating light. This result contrasts with a report of photoreactivation for a herpes virus in the same XP cells using incandescent lamps. (author)

  14. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  15. Are mesenchymal stromal cells immune cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Hoogduijn (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are considered to be promising agents for the treatment of immunological disease. Although originally identified as precursor cells for mesenchymal lineages, in vitro studies have demonstrated that MSCs possess diverse immune regulatory capacities.

  16. Galvanic cells: setting up the Daniell cell.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    With the reagents (0.05M copper nitrate solution, 0.05M zinc nitrate solution) and material (glassware, potentiometer, electric wire) availabe in the laboratory, the user must set up the Daniell cell. Different configurations can be possible if the half cells are filled with either electrolyte solution. The cell connections to the measuring device can also be changed. In all instances, an explanation of the set up cell is obtained as well as of the measured potential difference.

  17. Inside the Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS Home > Science Education > Inside the Cell Inside the Cell Seeing Cells Classroom Poster Order a Free Copy Spotlight The Cell’s Mailroom The Proteasome: The Cell’s Trash Processor in ...

  18. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Long-term self-renewal Meiosis Mesenchymal stem cells Mesoderm Microenvironment Mitosis Multipotent Neural stem cell Neurons Oligodendrocyte ... layers. The three layers are the ectoderm , the mesoderm , and the endoderm . Hematopoietic stem cell - A stem ...

  19. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  20. [Natural killer cells complot with dendritic cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elżbieta; Duś, Danuta

    2013-03-18

    Dendritic cells (DC) were initially considered as antigen presenting cells participating in the polarization of the immune response. Further understanding of their biology allowed determining their additional functions such as immunoregulatory and cytotoxicity. Until recently natural killer (NK) cells were known as a homogeneous population of lymphocytes capable of non-specific recognizing and eliminating target cells. Now it is widely accepted that NK cells, as a heterogeneous population, may also possess immunomodulatory functions. Moreover, the most recent analysis of the interactions between DC and NK cells revealed the exceptional functions of these cells. As a result of these studies the existence of bitypic cell population was postulated. The distinguishing features of these hybrid cells are: the expression of surface receptors typical for NK cells and DC, the cytotoxic activity, the production of interferons as well as their ability to present antigen after prior stimulation. Despite the lack of strong direct evidence that the same cell can be both cytotoxic and effectively present the antigen at the same time, there are experimental findings suggesting that generated ex vivo bitypic cells may be used in antitumor therapy. 

  1. NK cells and T cells: mirror images?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of MHC class I molecules protects cells against lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. It is possible that NK cells are 'educated' to recognize self MHC class I molecules and that the combination of self peptide and MHC class I molecule blocks NK-mediated lysis. Here, Rogier Versteeg

  2. Snail modulates cell metabolism in MDCK cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Misako, E-mail: haraguci@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Indo, Hiroko P. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Iwasaki, Yasumasa [Health Care Center, Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Iwashita, Yoichiro [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Fukushige, Tomoko [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Majima, Hideyuki J. [Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Izumo, Kimiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa [Department of Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kanekura, Takuro [Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Furukawa, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Oncology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ozawa, Masayuki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► MDCK/snail cells were more sensitive to glucose deprivation than MDCK/neo cells. ► MDCK/snail cells had decreased oxidative phosphorylation, O{sub 2} consumption and ATP content. ► TCA cycle enzyme activity, but not expression, was lower in MDCK/snail cells. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced PDH activity and increased PDK1 expression. ► MDCK/snail cells showed reduced expression of GLS2 and ACLY. -- Abstract: Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin gene transcription, induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and is involved in tumor progression. Snail also mediates resistance to cell death induced by serum depletion. By contrast, we observed that snail-expressing MDCK (MDCK/snail) cells undergo cell death at a higher rate than control (MDCK/neo) cells in low-glucose medium. Therefore, we investigated whether snail expression influences cell metabolism in MDCK cells. Although gylcolysis was not affected in MDCK/snail cells, they did exhibit reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity, which controls pyruvate entry into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Indeed, the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the TCA cycle was decreased in MDCK/snail cells, including that of mitochondrial NADP{sup +}-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH2), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and electron transport Complex II and Complex IV. Consequently, lower ATP content, lower oxygen consumption and increased survival under hypoxic conditions was also observed in MDCK/snail cells compared to MDCK/neo cells. In addition, the expression and promoter activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which phosphorylates and inhibits the activity of PDH, was increased in MDCK/snail cells, while expression levels of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) and ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), which are involved in glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis, were decreased in MDCK/snail cells. These results suggest that snail modulates cell metabolism by altering the expression and activity of

  3. Cell control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This extensive report provides an essential overview of cells and their use as factory automation building blocks. The following issues are discussed in depth: Cell integration Cell software and standards Future technologies applied to cells Plus Cell control applications including: - rotary parts manufacturing - diesel engine component development - general cell control development at the General Electric Corporation - a vendor list.

  4. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  5. Squamous cell skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  6. The hallmarks of cell-cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Javier M; Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2017-12-15

    Cell-cell fusion is essential for fertilization and organ development. Dedicated proteins known as fusogens are responsible for mediating membrane fusion. However, until recently, these proteins either remained unidentified or were poorly understood at the mechanistic level. Here, we review how fusogens surmount multiple energy barriers to mediate cell-cell fusion. We describe how early preparatory steps bring membranes to a distance of ∼10 nm, while fusogens act in the final approach between membranes. The mechanical force exerted by cell fusogens and the accompanying lipidic rearrangements constitute the hallmarks of cell-cell fusion. Finally, we discuss the relationship between viral and eukaryotic fusogens, highlight a classification scheme regrouping a superfamily of fusogens called Fusexins, and propose new questions and avenues of enquiry. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers for treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Mayret; Scott, Neil W; Mustafa, Mohammad Z; Mustafa, Mohammed S; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    Seasonal/perennial allergic conjunctivitis is the most common allergic conjunctivitis, usually with acute manifestations when a person is exposed to allergens and with typical signs and symptoms including itching, redness, and tearing. The clinical signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis are mediated by the release of histamine by mast cells. Histamine antagonists (also called antihistamines) inhibit the action of histamine by blocking histamine H1 receptors, antagonising the vasoconstrictor, and to a lesser extent, the vasodilator effects of histamine. Mast cell stabilisers inhibit degranulation and consequently the release of histamine by interrupting the normal chain of intracellular signals. Topical treatments include eye drops with antihistamines, mast cell stabilisers, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, combinations of the previous treatments, and corticosteroids. Standard treatment is based on topical antihistamines alone or topical mast cell stabilisers alone or a combination of treatments. There is clinical uncertainty about the relative efficacy and safety of topical treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilisers, alone or in combination, for use in treating seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to July 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 17 July 2014. We also searched the

  8. Cell mechanics: a dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jiaxiang; Li, Yizeng; Vig, Dhruv K.; Sun, Sean X.

    2017-03-01

    Under the microscope, eukaryotic animal cells can adopt a variety of different shapes and sizes. These cells also move and deform, and the physical mechanisms driving these movements and shape changes are important in fundamental cell biology, tissue mechanics, as well as disease biology. This article reviews some of the basic mechanical concepts in cells, emphasizing continuum mechanics description of cytoskeletal networks and hydrodynamic flows across the cell membrane. We discuss how cells can generate movement and shape changes by controlling mass fluxes at the cell boundary. These mass fluxes can come from polymerization/depolymerization of actin cytoskeleton, as well as osmotic and hydraulic pressure-driven flow of water across the cell membrane. By combining hydraulic pressure control with force balance conditions at the cell surface, we discuss a quantitative mechanism of cell shape and volume control. The broad consequences of this model on cell mechanosensation and tissue mechanics are outlined.

  9. [Exosomes and Immune Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Naohiro

    2017-05-01

    In addition to the cytokines and cytotoxic granules, exosomes have been known as the intercellular communicator and cytotoxic missile of immune cells for the past decade. It has been well known that mature dendritic cell(DC)-derived exosomes participate in the T cell and natural killer(NK)cell activation, while immature DCs secrete tolerogenic exosomes for regulatory T(Treg)cell generation. Treg cell-derived EVs act as a suppressor against pathogenic type-1 T helper(Th1)cell responses. CD8+ T cells produce tumoricidal exosomes for preventing tumor invasion and metastasis transiently after T cell receptor(TCR)-mediated stimulation. Thus, immune cells produce functional exosomes in the activation state- and/or differentiation stage-dependent manner. In this review, the role of immune cell-derived exosomes will be introduced, focusing mainly on immune reaction against tumor.

  10. Tracking adult stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snippert, H.J.G.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context,

  11. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  12. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: the effects of N-ethyl-maleimide and hydroxyurea on hamster cells in culture; sensitization of synchronized human cells to x rays by N-ethylmaleimide; sensitization of hypoxic mammalian cells with a sulfhydryl inhibitor; damage interaction due to ionizing and nonionizing radiation in mammalian cells; DNA damage relative to radioinduced cell killing; spurious photolability of DNA labeled with methyl- 14 C-thymidine; radioinduced malignant transformation of cultured mouse cells; a comparison of properties of uv and near uv light relative to cell function and DNA damage; Monte Carlo simulation of DNA damage and repair mechanisms; and radiobiology of fast neutrons

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwood, Nicole J.; Dazzi, Francesco; Zaher, Walid

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are stem cell populations present among the bone marrow stroma and a number of other tissues that are capable of multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC provide supportive stroma for growth...... and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and hematopoiesis. These cells have been described as important immunoregulators due to their ability to suppress T cells proliferation. MSC can also directly contribute to tissue repair by migrating to sites of injury and providing a source of cells...

  15. Removable hot cell liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgibbon, F.J.; Shaffer, D.S.; Ledbetter, J.M.; Wood, W.T.

    1978-01-01

    In 1959 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposed design requirements for an alpha-gamma box system. Among the requirements was a provision for conveniently removing a contaminated cell liner (alpha-gamma box) from an operating cell. Various situations, such as a change in program direction, outmoded equipment, or an unexpected development, could result in a decision to replace a cell liner and reuse the cell for another purpose. The contaminated cell liners could either be stored temporarily for possible future use or disposed of at the LASL contaminated Waste Disposal Area. LASL's experience removing used hot cell liners from operating cells is described

  16. Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.

  17. NK Cell Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jiacheng; Tian, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer cells are important effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system, playing critical roles in antitumor and anti-infection host defense. Tumor progression or chronic infections, however, usually leads to exhaustion of NK cells, thus limiting the antitumor/infection potential of NK cells. In many tumors or chronic infections, multiple mechanisms might contribute to the exhaustion of NK cells, such as dysregulated NK cell receptors signaling, as well as suppressive effects by regulatory cells or soluble factors within the microenvironment. Better understanding of the characteristics, as well as the underlying mechanisms of NK cell exhaustion, not only should increase our understanding of the basic biology of NK cells but also could reveal novel NK cell-based antitumor/infection targets. Here, we provide an overview of our current knowledge on NK cell exhaustion in tumors, and in chronic infections. PMID:28702032

  18. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  19. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    superoxide generation, degranulation, and integrin expression by human neutrophils: novel antiinflammatory properties of nitric oxide-derived reactive species in vascular cells; Circ. Res. 91 375–381. Collins S 1987 The HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line: proliferation, differentiation, and cellular oncogene expression;.

  20. Histamine-dependent prolongation by aldosterone of vasoconstriction in isolated small mesenteric arteries of the mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Jeppe; Uhrenholt, Torben R; Svenningsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    vital stain. Confocal microscopy of live mast cells showed loss of quinacrine fluorescence and swelling after aldosterone treatment indicating degranulation. RT-PCR showed expression of mineralocorticoid receptors in mesenteric arteries and in isolated mast cells. These findings suggest that aldosterone...

  1. Galectin-9

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    homeostasis, autoimmunity, responses to infection, cancers and inflammation. 3) Degranulation of mast cells: Gal-9 binds to IgE, suppressing the IgE antigen complex formation, hence preventing proinflammatory mediator release from the mast cells. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci. SEBASTIAN JOHN and RASHMI MISHRA.

  2. Kounis syndrome: a narrative review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mast cell degranulation and aggravate allergic reactions. Fentanyl and its derivatives (with minimal mast cell activation) may be better-suited narcotic analgesics. ... be an important future therapeutic option for Kounis syndrome. Controversies regarding adrenaline. The use of adrenaline in anaphylaxis is based on a century ...

  3. Viral chemokine-modulatory proteins : tools and targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomker, JM; de Leij, LFMH; The, TH; Harmsen, MC

    The chemokine network is an extensive system that regulates many immune functions such as leukocyte locomotion, T cell differentiation, angiogenesis and mast cell degranulation. Tight control of chemokines is vital for proper immune function. Not surprisingly, viruses have found ways to subvert or

  4. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A; Furness, Julie N; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T; Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8 + T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8 + T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8 + T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8 + T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107 a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8 + T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14 286-294 ), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14 504-512 ), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14 544-552 ), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RA low CD44 high CCR7 low CD62L low CD8 + effector memory T cells (T EM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8 + T EM -cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8 + T EM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic

  5. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A.; Furness, Julie N.; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T.; Nesburn, Anthony B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8+ T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8+ T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8+ T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8+ T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14286–294), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14504–512), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14544–552), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RAlow CD44high CCR7low CD62Llow CD8+ effector memory T cells (TEM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8+ TEM-cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8+ TEM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic and

  6. Cell fusion of bone marrow cells and somatic cell reprogramming by embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Sabrina; Pedram, Mehrdad; Stultz, Ryan; Zavazava, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for many diseases, including leukemia, autoimmune diseases, and a number of immunodeficiencies. Recently, it was claimed that bone marrow cells transdifferentiate, a much desired property as bone marrow cells are abundant and therefore could be used in regenerative medicine to treat incurable chronic diseases. Using a Cre/loxP system, we studied cell fusion after bone marrow transplantation. Fused cells were chiefly Gr-1+, a myeloid cell mar...

  7. Quantitative characterization of cell behaviors through cell cycle progression via automated cell tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Wang

    Full Text Available Cell behaviors are reflections of intracellular tension dynamics and play important roles in many cellular processes. In this study, temporal variations in cell geometry and cell motion through cell cycle progression were quantitatively characterized via automated cell tracking for MCF-10A non-transformed breast cells, MCF-7 non-invasive breast cancer cells, and MDA-MB-231 highly metastatic breast cancer cells. A new cell segmentation method, which combines the threshold method and our modified edge based active contour method, was applied to optimize cell boundary detection for all cells in the field-of-view. An automated cell-tracking program was implemented to conduct live cell tracking over 40 hours for the three cell lines. The cell boundary and location information was measured and aligned with cell cycle progression with constructed cell lineage trees. Cell behaviors were studied in terms of cell geometry and cell motion. For cell geometry, cell area and cell axis ratio were investigated. For cell motion, instantaneous migration speed, cell motion type, as well as cell motion range were analyzed. We applied a cell-based approach that allows us to examine and compare temporal variations of cell behavior along with cell cycle progression at a single cell level. Cell body geometry along with distribution of peripheral protrusion structures appears to be associated with cell motion features. Migration speed together with motion type and motion ranges are required to distinguish the three cell-lines examined. We found that cells dividing or overlapping vertically are unique features of cell malignancy for both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas abrupt changes in cell body geometry and cell motion during mitosis are unique to highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, our live cell tracking system serves as an invaluable tool to identify cell behaviors that are unique to malignant and/or highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

  8. Chronic Inflammation: Synergistic Interactions of Recruiting Macrophages (TAMs) and Eosinophils (Eos) with Host Mast Cells (MCs) and Tumorigenesis in CALTs. M-CSF, Suitable Biomarker for Cancer Diagnosis!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Mahin [Inflammation and Cancer Biology, National Cancer Institute (Ret), the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20817 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    Ongoing debates, misunderstandings and controversies on the role of inflammation in cancer have been extremely costly for taxpayers and cancer patients for over four decades. A reason for repeated failed clinical trials (90% ± 5 failure rates) is heavy investment on numerous genetic mutations (molecular false-flags) in the chaotic molecular landscape of site-specific cancers which are used for “targeted” therapies or “personalized” medicine. Recently, unresolved/chronic inflammation was defined as loss of balance between two tightly regulated and biologically opposing arms of acute inflammation (“Yin”–“Yang” or immune surveillance). Chronic inflammation could differentially erode architectural integrities in host immune-privileged or immune-responsive tissues as a common denominator in initiation and progression of nearly all age-associated neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases and/or cancer. Analyses of data on our “accidental” discoveries in 1980s on models of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases in conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissues (CALTs) demonstrated at least three stages of interactions between resident (host) and recruited immune cells: (a), acute phase; activation of mast cells (MCs), IgE Abs, histamine and prostaglandin synthesis; (b), intermediate phase; down-regulation phenomenon, exhausted/degranulated MCs, heavy eosinophils (Eos) infiltrations into epithelia and goblet cells (GCs), tissue hypertrophy and neovascularization; and (c), chronic phase; induction of lymphoid hyperplasia, activated macrophages (Mϕs), increased (irregular size) B and plasma cells</