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Sample records for cell cyclooxygenase-2 gene

  1. Posttranscriptional Regulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells

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    Zhonghua Zhang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 mRNA stability plays an important role in the regulation of its expression by oncogenic Ras. Here, we evaluate COX-2 mRNA stability in response to treatment with two known endogenous promoters of gastrointestinal cancer, the bile acid (chenodeoxycholate; CD and ceramide. Treatment with CD and ceramide resulted in a 10-fold increase in the level of COX-2 protein and a four-fold lengthening of the half-life of COX-2 mRNA. COX-2 mRNA stability was assessed by Northern blot analysis and by evaluating the AU-rich element located in the COX-2 3′-UTR. A known inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein (MAP/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK, PD98059, reversed the effects of CD or ceramide to stabilize COX-2 mRNA. Overexpression of a dominant-negative ERK-1 or ERK-2 protein also led to destabilization of COX-2 mRNA. Treatment with a p38 MAPK inhibitor, PD169316, or transfection with a dominant-negative p38 MAPK construct reversed the effect of CD or ceramide to stabilize COX-2 mRNA. Expression of a dominant-negative c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK had no effect on COX-2 mRNA stability in cells treated with CD or ceramide. We conclude that posttranscriptional mechanisms play an important role in the regulation of COX-2 expression during carcinogenesis.

  2. The enhancement of radiosensitivity by celecoxib, selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on human cancer cells expressing differential levels of cyclooxygenase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Hong Ryull; Shin, You Keun; Kim, Hyun Seok; Seong, Jin Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the modulation of radiosensitivity by celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on cancer cells over- and under-expressing COX-2. A clonogenic radiation survival analysis was performed on A549 human lung and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines incubated in both 1 and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing media. The apoptosis in both cell lines was measured after treatment with radiation and/or celecoxib. Celecoxib enhanced the radiation sensitivity of the A549 cells in the medium containing the 10% FBS, with radiation enhancement ratios of 1.58 and 1.81 respectively, at surviving fractions of 0.1, with 30 μ M and 50 μ M celecoxib. This enhanced radiosensitivity disappeared in the medium containing the 1% FBS. Celecoxib did not change the radiation sensitivity of the MCF-7 cells in either media. The induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and radiation was not synergistic in either cell line. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, preferentially enhanced the effect of radiation on COX-2 over-expressing cancer cells compared to the cells with a low expression, and this effect disappeared on incubation of the cells during drug treatment in the medium with suboptimal serum concentration. Apoptosis did not appear to be the underlying mechanism of this radiation enhancement effect due to celecoxib on the A549 cells. These findings suggest radiosensitization by a selective COX-2 inhibitor is COX-2 dependent

  3. Inhibitory effects of tocopherols on expression of the cyclooxygenase-2 gene in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-α or Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae.

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    Murakami, Yukio; Kawata, Akifumi; Koh, Teho; Seki, Yuya; Tamura, Seiko; Katayama, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Seiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols, which include α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, protect cells against harmful free radicals and play an important role in preventing many human diseases such as cancer, inflammatory disorders, and ageing itself. However, the causal relationships between periodontal or oral chronic diseases and tocopherols have not been sufficiently studied. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of these compounds on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or fimbriae of Poryphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), an oral anaerobe. The cytotoxicity (EC₅₀) of tocopherols toward RAW cells was determined using a cell counting kit (CCK-8). The regulatory effect of these compounds on the expression of COX2 mRNA stimulated with LPS, TNFα or Pg fimbriae was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Each tocopherol had similarly low cytotoxicity. COX2 gene expression in RAW cells after exposure to the three different macrophage activators was inhibited by the tocopherols (ptocopherol, β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol exhibited greater inhibitory effects (pTocopherols exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, and β-, γ- and δ-tocopherol have particularly more potent anti-inflammatory activity than α-tocopherol. Tocopherols may have potential utility for prevention of periodontal and chronic oral diseases.

  4. A mechanistic study of cigarette smoke and cyclooxygenase-2 on proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Vivian Y.; Liu, Edgar S.L.; Ye, Yi-Ne; Koo, Marcel W.L.; Chu, K.-M.; Cho, C.-H.

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been shown to cause gastric cancer. Overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a common characteristic in gastric malignancy. The present study aimed to explore the correlation between cigarette smoke and COX-2 in the promotion of tumorigenesis in human gastric cancer cells (AGS). We further studied the action of COX-2 on other proto-oncogenes on gastric tumor growth. Results showed that chloroform extract (CE) and ethanol extract (EE) from cigarette smoke dose-dependently stimulated gastric cancer cell proliferation, which was accompanied with an activation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, COX-2, and c-myc expressions. Both antisense of c-myc and α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO, specific ODC inhibitor) inhibited cell proliferation without affecting COX-2 expression in response to cigarette smoke extracts (CSE). However, selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) not only blocked the proliferative activity but also the ODC activity and c-myc protein expression by CSE in gastric cancer cells. Further, supplementation of exogenous prostaglandin (PG) E 2 reversed all the inhibitory actions of SC-236. Our results underline the importance of COX-2 in the cancer-promoting effect of CSE and its modulation on its downstream growth-related genes, such as c-myc and ODC in cancer cell proliferation. These results reveal that CSE-induced gastric carcinogenesis is via the COX-2/c-myc/ODC and PGE 2 -dependent pathway. Hence, selective COX-2 inhibitor could be an effective therapeutic agent for gastric cancer in smokers

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2: A Role in Cancer Stem Cell Survival and Repopulation of Cancer Cells during Therapy

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    Lisa Y. Pang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 is an inducible form of the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of prostanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a major mediator of inflammation and angiogenesis. COX-2 is overexpressed in cancer cells and is associated with progressive tumour growth, as well as resistance of cancer cells to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These therapies are often delivered in multiple doses, which are spaced out to allow the recovery of normal tissues between treatments. However, surviving cancer cells also proliferate during treatment intervals, leading to repopulation of the tumour and limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. Tumour cell repopulation is a major cause of treatment failure. The central dogma is that conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy selects resistant cancer cells that are able to reinitiate tumour growth. However, there is compelling evidence of an active proliferative response, driven by increased COX-2 expression and downstream PGE2 release, which contribute to the repopulation of tumours and poor patient outcome. In this review, we will examine the evidence for a role of COX-2 in cancer stem cell biology and as a mediator of tumour repopulation that can be molecularly targeted to overcome resistance to therapy.

  6. Mercury induces proliferation and reduces cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells through MAPK, oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2 pathways

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    Aguado, Andrea; Galán, María; Zhenyukh, Olha; Wiggers, Giulia A.; Roque, Fernanda R. [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Redondo, Santiago [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Peçanha, Franck [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); Martín, Angela [Departamento de Bioquímica, Fisiología y Genética Molecular, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922, Alcorcón (Spain); Fortuño, Ana [Área de Ciencias Cardiovasculares, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada, Universidad de Navarra, 31008, Pamplona (Spain); Cachofeiro, Victoria [Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Tejerina, Teresa [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), 28029, Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-04-15

    Mercury exposure is known to increase cardiovascular risk but the underlying cellular mechanisms remain undetermined. We analyzed whether chronic exposure to HgCl{sub 2} affects vascular structure and the functional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2 dependent pathways. Mesenteric resistance arteries and aortas from Wistar rats treated with HgCl{sub 2} (first dose 4.6 mg kg{sup −1}, subsequent doses 0.07 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 30 days) and cultured aortic VSMC stimulated with HgCl{sub 2} (0.05–5 μg/ml) were used. Treatment of rats with HgCl{sub 2} decreased wall thickness of the resistance and conductance vasculature, increased the number of SMC within the media and decreased SMC nucleus size. In VSMCs, exposure to HgCl{sub 2}: 1) induced a proliferative response and a reduction in cell size; 2) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity, gene and/or protein levels of the NADPH oxidase subunit NOX-1, the EC- and Mn-superoxide dismutases and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 3) induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized the proliferative response and the altered cell size induced by HgCl{sub 2}. Blockade of ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished the HgCl{sub 2}-induced Nox1 and COX-2 expression and normalized the alterations induced by mercury in cell proliferation and size. In conclusion, long exposure of VSMC to low doses of mercury activates MAPK signaling pathways that result in activation of inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2 that in turn induce proliferation of VSMC and changes in cell size. These findings offer further evidence that mercury might be considered an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: ► Chronic HgCl{sub 2} exposure induces vascular remodeling. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces proliferation and decreased cell size in vascular smooth muscle cells. ► HgCl{sub 2} induces

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Enhances Proliferation of NKT Cells Derived from Patients with Laryngeal Cancer.

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    Klatka, Janusz; Grywalska, Ewelina; Hymos, Anna; Guz, Małgorzata; Polberg, Krzysztof; Roliński, Jacek; Stepulak, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by celecoxib and the subsequent enhancement in the proliferation of natural killer T (NKT) cells could play a role in dendritic cell (DC)-based laryngeal cancer (LC) immunotherapy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from 48 male patients diagnosed with LC and 30 control patients without cancer disease. Neoplastic cell lysate preparations were made from cancer tissues obtained after surgery and used for in vitro DCs generation. NKT cells proliferation assay was performed based on 3 H-thymidine incorporation assay. An increased proliferation of NKT cells was obtained from control patients compared to NKT cells obtained from LC patients regardless of the type of stimulation or treatment. In the patient group diagnosed with LC, COX-2 inhibition resulted in a significantly enhanced proliferation of NKT cells when stimulated with autologous DCs than NKT cells stimulated with DCs without COX-2 inhibition. These correlations were not present in the control group. Higher proliferation rate of NKT cells was also observed in non-metastatic and highly differentiated LC, which was independent of the type of stimulation or treatment. COX-2 inhibition could be regarded as immunotherapy-enhancing tool in patients with LC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin-1beta induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 secretion by human neuroblastoma cells: implications for Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, J. J.; Veerhuis, R.; Janssen, I.; Rozemuller, A. J.; Eikelenboom, P.

    2001-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may decrease the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), one of the targets of NSAIDs, is increasingly expressed in neuronal cells in AD brain. In this study, of the cytokines that are found at increased levels in AD brain

  9. Atorvastatin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells

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    Chen Ping

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the effects of atorvastatin on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549. Methods A549 cells were incubated in DMEM medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the presence or absence of atorvastatin. After incubation, the medium was collected and the amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The cells were harvested, and COX-2 mRNA and protein were analyzed by RT-PCR and western-blot respectively. Results LPS increased the expression of COX-2 mRNA and production of PGE2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in A549. Induction of COX-2 mRNA and protein by LPS were inhibited by atorvastatin in a dose-dependent manner. Atorvastatin also significantly decreased LPS-induced production of PGE2. There was a positive correlation between reduced of COX-2 mRNA and decreased of PGE2 (r = 0.947, P Conclusion Atorvastatin down-regulates LPS-induced expression of the COX-2 and consequently inhibits production of PGE2 in cultured A549 cells.

  10. Suppression of IL-10 production by activated B cells via a cell contact-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 pathway upregulated in IFN-γ-treated mesenchymal stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heřmánková, Barbora; Zajícová, Alena; Javorková, Eliška; Chudíčková, Milada; Trošan, Peter; Hájková, Michaela; Krulová, Magdaléna; Holáň, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 221, č. 2 (2016), s. 129-136 ISSN 0171-2985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S; GA MZd NT14102; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : B cells * Cyclooxygenase-2 * IL-10 production * Mesenchymal stem cells * Cyclooxygenase-2 * Immunosuppression Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.720, year: 2016

  11. Kupffer cell ablation attenuates cyclooxygenase-2 expression after trauma and sepsis.

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    Keller, Steve A; Paxian, Marcus; Lee, Sun M; Clemens, Mark G; Huynh, Toan

    2005-03-01

    Prostaglandins, synthesized by cyclooxygenase (COX), play an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammation. Severe injuries result in immunosuppression, mediated, in part, by maladaptive changes in macrophages. Herein, we assessed Kupffer cell-mediated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on liver function and damage after trauma and sepsis. To ablate Kupffer cells, Sprague Dawley rats were treated with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) 48 and 24 h before experimentation. Animals then underwent femur fracture (FFx) followed 48 h later by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Controls received sham operations. After 24 h, liver samples were obtained, and mRNA and protein expression were determined by PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Indocyanine-Green (ICG) clearance and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were determined to assess liver function and damage, respectively. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to assess statistical significance. After CLP alone, FFx+CLP, and GdCl3+FFx+CLP, clearance of ICG decreased. Plasma ALT levels increased in parallel with severity of injury. Kupffer cell depletion attenuated the increased ALT levels after FFx+CLP. Femur fracture alone did not alter COX-2 protein compared with sham. By contrast, COX-2 protein increased after CLP and was potentiated by sequential stress. Again, Kupffer cell depletion abrogated the increase in COX-2 after sequential stress. Immunohistochemical data confirmed COX-2 positive cells to be Kupffer cells. In this study, sequential stress increased hepatic COX-2 protein. Depletion of Kupffer cells reduced COX-2 and attenuated hepatocellular injuries. Our data suggest that Kupffer cell-dependent pathways may contribute to the inflammatory response leading to increased mortality after sequential stress.

  12. Water avoidance stress induces frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 expression: a bladder rat model.

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    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takao, Tetsuya; Nakayama, Jiro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Yoshioka, Iwao; Matsuoka, Yasuhiro; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2012-02-01

    Water avoidance stress is a potent psychological stressor and it is associated with visceral hyperalgesia, which shows degeneration of the urothelial layer mimicking interstitial cystitis. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have been recognized to ameliorate frequency both in clinical and experimental settings. We investigated the voiding pattern and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a rat bladder model of water avoidance stress. After being subjected to water avoidance stress or a sham procedure, rats underwent metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography. Real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was carried out to examine cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid in bladders of rats. Protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 was analyzed with immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Furthermore, the effects of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, etodolac, were investigated by carrying out cystometrography, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Metabolic cage analysis and cystometrography showed significantly shorter intervals and less volume of voiding in water avoidance stress rats. Significantly higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed significantly higher cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels in water avoidance stress bladders. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry showed high cyclooxygenase-2 expression exclusively in smooth muscle cells. All water avoidance stress-induced changes were reduced by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor pretreatment. Chronic stress might cause frequency through cyclooxygenase-2 gene upregulation in bladder smooth muscle cells. Further study of cyclooxygenase-2 in the water avoidance stress bladder might provide novel therapeutic modalities for interstitial cystitis. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  13. Acrolein induces cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: roles of p38 MAP kinase.

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    Park, Yong Seek; Kim, Jayoung; Misonou, Yoshiko; Takamiya, Rina; Takahashi, Motoko; Freeman, Michael R; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2007-06-01

    Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke, might be involved in atherogenesis. This study examined the effect of acrolein on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin (PG) production in endothelial cells. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 induction by acrolein and signal pathways were measured using Western blots, Northern blots, immunofluorescence, ELISA, gene silencing, and promoter assay. Colocalization of COX2 and acrolein-adduct was determined by immunohistochemistry. Here we report that the levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein are increased in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after acrolein exposure. COX-2 was found to colocalize with acrolein-lysine adducts in human atherosclerotic lesions. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity abolished the induction of COX-2 protein and PGE2 accumulation by acrolein, while suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and JNK activity had no effect on the induction of COX-2 expression in experiments using inhibitors and siRNA. Furthermore, rottlerin, an inhibitor of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), abrogated the upregulation of COX-2 at both protein and mRNA levels. These results provide that acrolein may play a role in progression of atherosclerosis and new information on the signaling pathways involved in COX-2 upregulation in response to acrolein and provide evidence that PKCdelta and p38 MAPK are required for transcriptional activation of COX-2.

  14. Radiation Therapy Overcomes Adverse Prognostic Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Reed-Sternberg Cells in Early Hodgkin Lymphoma

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    Mestre, Francisco [Service of Radiation Therapy, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Gutiérrez, Antonio, E-mail: antoniom.gutierrez@ssib.es [Service of Hematology, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Rodriguez, Jose [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, Rafael [Service of Pathology, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Garcia, Juan Fernando [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Serra, Jordi [Service of Hematology, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casasus, Marta; Nicolau, Cristina [Service of Radiation Therapy, Policlinica Miramar, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bento, Leyre; Herraez, Ines [Service of Hematology, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Lopez-Perezagua, Paloma [Service of Radiology, IDISPA, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Daumal, Jaime [Service of Nuclear Medicine, IDISPA, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Besalduch, Joan [Service of Hematology, University Hospital Son Espases, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Palma, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of radiation therapy (RT) on the adverse prognostic influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, in the setting of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with ABVD (adriamycin, vinblastine, bleomycin, dacarbazine). Methods and Materials: In the present study we retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of COX-2 expression in a large (n=143), uniformly treated early HL population from the Spanish Network of HL using tissue microarrays. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done, including the most recognized clinical variables and the potential role of administration of adjuvant RT. Results: Median age was 31 years; the expression of COX-2 defined a subgroup with significantly worse prognosis. Considering COX-2{sup +} patients, those who received RT had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (80% vs 54% if no RT; P=.008). In contrast, COX-2{sup −} patients only had a modest, nonsignificant benefit from RT in terms of 5-year PFS (90% vs 79%; P=.13). When we compared the outcome of patients receiving RT considering the expression of COX-2 on RS cells, we found a nonsignificant 10% difference in terms of PFS between COX-2{sup +} and COX-2{sup −} patients (P=.09), whereas the difference between the 2 groups was important (25%) in patients not receiving RT (P=.04). Conclusions: Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression is an adverse independent prognostic factor in early HL. Radiation therapy overcomes the worse prognosis associated with COX-2 expression on RS cells, acting in a chemotherapy-independent way. Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression may be useful for determining patient candidates with early HL to receive consolidation with RT.

  15. Radiation Therapy Overcomes Adverse Prognostic Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Reed-Sternberg Cells in Early Hodgkin Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestre, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Rodriguez, Jose; Ramos, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Fernando; Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Casasus, Marta; Nicolau, Cristina; Bento, Leyre; Herraez, Ines; Lopez-Perezagua, Paloma; Daumal, Jaime; Besalduch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of radiation therapy (RT) on the adverse prognostic influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, in the setting of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with ABVD (adriamycin, vinblastine, bleomycin, dacarbazine). Methods and Materials: In the present study we retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of COX-2 expression in a large (n=143), uniformly treated early HL population from the Spanish Network of HL using tissue microarrays. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done, including the most recognized clinical variables and the potential role of administration of adjuvant RT. Results: Median age was 31 years; the expression of COX-2 defined a subgroup with significantly worse prognosis. Considering COX-2 + patients, those who received RT had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (80% vs 54% if no RT; P=.008). In contrast, COX-2 − patients only had a modest, nonsignificant benefit from RT in terms of 5-year PFS (90% vs 79%; P=.13). When we compared the outcome of patients receiving RT considering the expression of COX-2 on RS cells, we found a nonsignificant 10% difference in terms of PFS between COX-2 + and COX-2 − patients (P=.09), whereas the difference between the 2 groups was important (25%) in patients not receiving RT (P=.04). Conclusions: Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression is an adverse independent prognostic factor in early HL. Radiation therapy overcomes the worse prognosis associated with COX-2 expression on RS cells, acting in a chemotherapy-independent way. Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression may be useful for determining patient candidates with early HL to receive consolidation with RT

  16. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line, FPS-1, derived from human undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2.

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    Hakozaki, Michiyuki; Hojo, Hiroshi; Sato, Michiko; Tajino, Takahiro; Yamada, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Shinichi; Abe, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is among the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults. In order to improve its aggressive course or prognosis and establish new therapeutic methods, molecular genetic and biological characterizations of UPS are required. A new human UPS cell line (FPS-1) was established from UPS of the upper arm of a 79-year-old man. The cell line has been maintained for over 14 months with more than 60 passages. FPS-1 cells were characterized using molecular biological methods. FPS-1 cells showed the same morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics as the primary tumor. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses revealed a nonsense mutation in exon 6 of the p53 gene. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were expressed in FPS-1 cells. FPS-1 cells might be useful for investigating biological behavior and developing new molecular targeting antitumor drugs for UPS with EGFR or COX-2 expression.

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression and clinical parameters in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal atypical hyperplasia.

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    Sayar, Cağdaş; Sayar, Hamide; Özdemir, Süleyman; Selçuk, Tahsin; Görgülü, Orhan; Akbaş, Yücel; Kemal Olgun, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The diagnostic role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia, vocal fold nodule, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma was examined. Specimens obtained from patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodule (n = 35), atypical hyperplasia (n = 35), laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 35), and clinical parameters were evaluated retrospectively. Although no staining was observed in patients with vocal fold nodules, staining was noted in laryngeal atypical hyperplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The percentage of COX-2 staining was the highest in the carcinoma group. It was determined that COX-2 staining was significantly associated with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It should be noted that overexpression of COX-2, a potentially important factor in the evolution of carcinogenesis in precancerous lesions, might be an indicator of the development of carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Clinical significance of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Su Jung; Yang, Woo-Ick; Shin, Eunah; Koom, Woong Sub; Kim, Yong Bae; Cho, Jae Ho; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Joo Hang; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether there are any differences in therapeutic response, patterns of systemic recurrence, and prognosis of patients with extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, by the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Patients and Methods: Thirty-four patients with Ann Arbor Stage I and II extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma who underwent chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were divided into two groups according to their immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 expressions: a COX-2-negative group (n = 10 patients) and a COX-2-positive group (n = 24 patients). The treatment response, patterns of treatment failure, and survival data for the patients were compared between the COX-2-positive and negative groups. Results: There was no significant difference in the clinical profiles between the COX-2-negative and COX-2-positive groups. All patients (100%) in the COX-2-negative group achieved complete response after initial treatment, whereas only 14 patients (58%) in the COX-2-positive group achieved complete response (p = 0.03). Compared with the patients in the COX-2-negative group, those in the COX-2-positive group had a significantly lower 2-year systemic recurrence-free survival rate (100% for the COX-2-negative group vs. 54% for the COX-2-positive group) (p = 0.02) and a decreased 5-year overall survival rate (70% for the COX-2-negative group vs. 32% for the COX-2-positive group) (p = 0.06). Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression can serve as a predictive factor for poor treatment response, higher systemic recurrence, and unfavorable prognosis in patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type

  19. Anti-tumor effect and mechanism of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor through matrix metalloproteinase 14 pathway in PANC-1 cells.

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    Li, Siyuan; Gu, Zhuoyu; Xiao, Zhiwei; Zhou, Ting; Li, Jun; Sun, Kan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, can attenuate proliferation, migration, invasion and MMP-14 expression in pancreatic cancer cells PANC-1 and the possible anti-tumor mechanism of celecoxib. Human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 cells were treated with diverse concentrations of celecoxib (20, 60, 100 μmol/L). Cell proliferation, invasion and migration capabilities were measured by MTT colorimetry, transwell invasion assay, and scratch assay separately. At the same time, the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14 was assessed by ELISA. The capabilities of proliferation, invasion and migration in PANC-1 cells were attenuated in a concentration-dependent manner after treated with celecoxib, followed by the down-regulation of the protein expression of COX-2 and MMP-14. In addition, MMP-14 expression was significantly positively correlated with COX-2 expression. COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and migration of PANC-1 cells via down-regulating the expression of MMP-14 in a concentration-dependent manner, thus contributing to its anti-tumor effect in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Increased cyclooxygenase-2 and thromboxane synthase expression is implicated in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in human erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleteau, C; Liagre, B; Battu, S; Jayat-Vignoles, C; Beneytout, J L

    2008-09-01

    Differentiation induction as a therapeutic strategy has, so far, the greatest impact in hematopoietic malignancies, most notably leukemia. Diosgenin is a very interesting natural product because, depending on the specific dose used, its biological effect is very different in HEL (human erythroleukemia) cells. For example, at 10 microM, diosgenin induced megakaryocytic differentiation, in contrast to 40 microM diosgenin, which induced apoptosis in HEL cells previously demonstrated using sedimentation field-flow fractionation (SdFFF). The goal of this work focused on the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and thromboxane synthase (TxS) and megakaryocytic differentiation induced by diosgenin in HEL cells. Furthermore, the technique of SdFFF, having been validated in our models, was used in this new study as an analytical tool that provided us with more or less enriched differentiated cell fractions that could then be used for further analyses of enzyme protein expression and activity for the first time. In our study, we showed the implication of COX-2 and TxS in diosgenin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation in HEL cells. Furthermore, we showed that the analytical technique of SdFFF may be used as a tool to confirm our results as a function of the degree of cell differentiation.

  1. Cyclooxygenase-2 Regulates Th17 Cell Differentiation during Allergic Lung Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hong; Bradbury, J. Alyce; Dackor, Ryan T.; Edin, Matthew L.; Graves, Joan P.; DeGraff, Laura M.; Wang, Ping Ming; Bortner, Carl D.; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Lih, Fred B.; Cook, Donald N.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; Jetten, Anton M.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Th17 cells comprise a distinct lineage of proinflammatory T helper cells that are major contributors to allergic responses. It is unknown whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived eicosanoids regulate Th17 cells during allergic lung inflammation.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor regulates melanoma cell adhesion and growth in the bone marrow microenvironment via tumor cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crende Olatz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human melanoma frequently colonizes bone marrow (BM since its earliest stage of systemic dissemination, prior to clinical metastasis occurrence. However, how melanoma cell adhesion and proliferation mechanisms are regulated within bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC microenvironment remain unclear. Consistent with the prometastatic role of inflammatory and angiogenic factors, several studies have reported elevated levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in melanoma although its pathogenic role in bone marrow melanoma metastasis is unknown. Methods Herein we analyzed the effect of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in a model of generalized BM dissemination of left cardiac ventricle-injected B16 melanoma (B16M cells into healthy and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS-pretreated mice to induce inflammation. In addition, B16M and human A375 melanoma (A375M cells were exposed to conditioned media from basal and LPS-treated primary cultured murine and human BMSCs, and the contribution of COX-2 to the adhesion and proliferation of melanoma cells was also studied. Results Mice given one single intravenous injection of LPS 6 hour prior to cancer cells significantly increased B16M metastasis in BM compared to untreated mice; however, administration of oral celecoxib reduced BM metastasis incidence and volume in healthy mice, and almost completely abrogated LPS-dependent melanoma metastases. In vitro, untreated and LPS-treated murine and human BMSC-conditioned medium (CM increased VCAM-1-dependent BMSC adherence and proliferation of B16M and A375M cells, respectively, as compared to basal medium-treated melanoma cells. Addition of celecoxib to both B16M and A375M cells abolished adhesion and proliferation increments induced by BMSC-CM. TNFα and VEGF secretion increased in the supernatant of LPS-treated BMSCs; however, anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies added to B16M and A375M cells prior to LPS-treated BMSC-CM resulted in a

  3. Paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells: cyclooxygenase-2/prostacyclin pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Mei Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is the pathophysiological characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Some paracrine factors secreted by bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMEPCs have the potential to strengthen endothelial integrity and function. This study investigated whether BMEPCs have the therapeutic potential to improve monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH via producing vasoprotective substances in a paracrine fashion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells were cultured for 7 days to yield BMEPCs. 24 hours or 3 weeks after exposure to BMEPCs in vitro or in vivo, the vascular reactivity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, prostacyclin (PGI2 and cAMP release in isolated pulmonary arteries were examined respectively. Treatment with BMEPCs could improve the relaxation of pulmonary arteries in MCT-induced PAH and BMEPCs were grafted into the pulmonary bed. The COX-2/prostacyclin synthase (PGIS and its progenies PGI2/cAMP were found to be significantly increased in BMEPCs treated pulmonary arteries, and this action was reversed by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, NS398. Moreover, the same effect was also observed in conditioned medium obtained from BMEPCs culture. CONCLUSIONS: Implantation of BMEPCs effectively ameliorates MCT-induced PAH. Factors secreted in a paracrine fashion from BMEPCs promote vasoprotection by increasing the release of PGI2 and level of cAMP.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Lagioia, Michelle; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2004-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are rapidly emerging as a new generation of therapeutic drug in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The mechanisms underlying its antitumor effects are not fully understood and more thorough preclinical trials are needed to determine if COX-2 inhibition represents a useful approach for prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth inhibitory mechanism of a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, in an in vivo oncogenic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer that resembles human disease. The oncogenic mice carry the polyoma middle T antigen driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and develop primary adenocarcinomas of the breast. Results show that oral administration of celecoxib caused significant reduction in mammary tumor burden associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation in vivo. In vivo apoptosis correlated with significant decrease in activation of protein kinase B/Akt, a cell survival signaling kinase, with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, celecoxib treatment reduced levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggesting a role of celecoxib in suppression of angiogenesis in this model. Results from these preclinical studies will form the basis for assessing the feasibility of celecoxib therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapies for treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer.

  5. Date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Hajer; Morris, R Keith; Withycombe, Cathryn E; Maddocks, Sarah E; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-07-01

    Bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. Date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. It was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the prostaglandin enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endothelial cells. Date syrup polyphenols at 60 and 600μg/mL reduced inflammation and suppressed several stages of angiogenesis, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and tube formation, without evidence of cytotoxicity. VEGF and COX-2 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha at both gene expression and protein level was significantly reduced by date syrup polyphenols in comparison to untreated cells. In conclusion, polyphenols in date syrup attenuated angiogenic responses and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity mediated by VEGF and COX-2 expression in endothelial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast cancer cell cyclooxygenase-2 expression alters extracellular matrix structure and function and numbers of cancer associated fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamachary, Balaji; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Kakkad, Samata; Penet, Marie-France; Jacob, Desmond; Wildes, Flonne; Mironchik, Yelena; Pathak, Arvind P; Solaiyappan, Meiyappan; Bhujwalla, Zaver M

    2017-03-14

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a critically important mediator of inflammation that significantly influences tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. We investigated the role of COX-2 expressed by triple negative breast cancer cells in altering the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM). COX-2 downregulation effects on ECM structure and function were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy of tumors derived from triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, and a derived clone stably expressing a short hairpin (shRNA) molecule downregulating COX-2. MRI of albumin-GdDTPA was used to characterize macromolecular fluid transport in vivo and SHG microscopy was used to quantify collagen 1 (Col1) fiber morphology. COX-2 downregulation decreased Col1 fiber density and altered macromolecular fluid transport. Immunohistochemistry identified significantly fewer activated cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in low COX-2 expressing tumors. Metastatic lung nodules established by COX-2 downregulated cells were infrequent, smaller, and contained fewer Col1 fibers.COX-2 overexpression studies were performed with tumors derived from triple negative SUM-149 breast cancer cells lentivirally transduced to overexpress COX-2. SHG microscopy identified significantly higher Col1 fiber density in COX-2 overexpressing tumors with an increase of CAFs. These data expand upon the roles of COX-2 in shaping the structure and function of the ECM in primary and metastatic tumors, and identify the potential role of COX-2 in modifying the number of CAFs in tumors that may have contributed to the altered ECM.

  7. Vascular endothelial growth factor and not cyclooxygenase 2 promotes endothelial cell viability in the pancreatic tumor microenvironment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, Desmond P

    2010-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), often coexpressed in cancer, are associated with poor prognosis. However, results from pancreatic cancer trials of their inhibitors were disappointing. This study delineated the role of COX-2 and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in angiogenesis and VEGF regulation.

  8. Immune activation and HIV-specific T cell responses are modulated by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in untreated HIV-infected individuals: An exploratory clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Prebensen

    Full Text Available Pathologically elevated immune activation and inflammation contribute to HIV disease progression and immunodeficiency, potentially mediated by elevated levels of prostaglandin E2, which suppress HIV-specific T cell responses. We have previously shown that a high dose of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib can reduce HIV-associated immune activation and improve IgG responses to T cell-dependent vaccines. In this follow-up study, we included 56 HIV-infected adults, 28 antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve and 28 on ART with undetectable plasma viremia but CD4 counts below 500 cells/μL. Patients in each of the two study groups were randomized to receive 90 mg qd of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib for six months, two weeks or to a control arm, respectively. T cell activation status, HIV Gag-specific T cell responses and plasma inflammatory markers, tryptophan metabolism and thrombin generation were analyzed at baseline and after four months. In addition, patients received tetanus toxoid, conjugated pneumococcal and seasonal influenza vaccines, to which IgG responses were determined after four weeks. In ART-naïve patients, etoricoxib reduced the density of the activation marker CD38 in multiple CD8+ T cell subsets, improved Gag-specific T cell responses, and reduced in vitro plasma thrombin generation, while no effects were seen on plasma markers of inflammation or tryptophan metabolism. No significant immunological effects of etoricoxib were observed in ART-treated patients. Patients receiving long-term etoricoxib treatment had poorer tetanus toxoid and conjugated pneumococcal vaccine responses than those receiving short-course etoricoxib. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may attenuate harmful immune activation in HIV-infected patients without access to ART.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Wei; Pan, Mei-Ren; Hou, Ming-Feng; Hung, Wen-Chun

    2013-02-01

    Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is frequently found in human cancers and is significantly associated with tumor metastasis. Our previous results demonstrate that COX-2 and its metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate the expression of CCR7 chemokine receptor via EP2/EP4 receptors to promote lymphatic invasion in breast cancer cells. In this study, we address the underlying mechanism of COX-2/PGE2-induced CCR7 expression. We find that COX-2/PGE2 increase CCR7 expression via the AKT signaling pathway in breast cancer cells. Promoter deletion and mutation assays identify the Sp1 site located at the -60/-57 region of CCR7 gene promoter is critical for stimulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirms that in vivo binding of Sp1 to human CCR7 promoter is increased by COX-2 and PGE2. Knockdown of Sp1 by shRNA reduces the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. We demonstrate for the first time that AKT may directly phosphorylate Sp1 at S42, T679, and S698. Phosphorylation-mimic Sp1 protein harboring S42D, T679D, and S698D mutation strongly activates CCR7 expression. In contrast, change of these three residues to alanine completely blocks the induction of CCR7 by PGE2. Pathological investigation demonstrates that CCR7 expression is strongly associated with phospho-AKT and Sp1 in 120 breast cancer tissues. Collectively, our results demonstrate that COX-2 up-regulates CCR7 expression via AKT-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Sp1 and this pathway is highly activated in metastatic breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl upregulates cyclooxygenase-2 in HL-60 cells via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdecny, Steven A.; Karmaus, Peer; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that affect a number of cellular systems, including neutrophils. Among the effects caused by the noncoplanar PCB 2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2244-TCB) in granulocytic HL-60 cells are increases in superoxide anion production, activation of phospholipase A 2 with subsequent release of arachidonic acid (AA) and upregulation of the inflammatory gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The objective of this study was to determine the signal transduction pathways involved in the upregulation of COX-2 by 2244-TCB. Treatment of HL-60 cells with 2244-TCB led to increased expression of COX-2 mRNA. This increase was prevented by the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D in cells pretreated with 2244-TCB for 10 min. The increase in COX-2 mRNA was associated with release of 3 H-AA, phosphorylation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, increased levels of nuclear NF-κB and increased superoxide anion production. Bromoenol lactone, an inhibitor of the calcium-independent phospholipase A 2 , reduced 3 H-AA release but had no effect on COX-2 mRNA, protein or activity. Pretreatment with SB-202190 or SB-203580, inhibitors of the p38 MAP kinase pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated induction of COX-2 and phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAP kinases. These inhibitors did not alter 3 H-AA release. Treatment with PD 98059 or U 0126, inhibitors of the MAP/ERK (MEK) pathway, prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated activation of ERK but had no effect on COX-2 induction or p38 phosphorylation. 2244-TCB treatment did not affect c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. 2244-TCB exposure increased the amount of nuclear NF-κB. This increase was prevented by pretreatment with p38 MAP kinase inhibitors, but not by pretreatment with MEK inhibitors. Pretreatment with inhibitors of NF-κB prevented the 2244-TCB-mediated induction of COX-2 mRNA. 2244-TCB

  11. Piroxicam inhibits Masitinib-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kusum; Alexander, Mary; Cekanova, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Development and characterization of animal models for human cancers is important for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy. The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of domestic animals resembles human OSCC in many aspects; thus, cell lines derived from OSCC of cats and dogs are a valuable model for human OSCC. We characterized 1 feline OSCC (FeOSCC-Sidney) and 1 canine OSCC (K9OSCC-Abby) cell line and compared their characteristics with human OSCC cell line hSCC-25. We calculated the doubling time of the new OSCC cell lines and evaluated the expression profiles of cancer-related markers and cell-cycle proteins such as c-kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, and p27 by immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. We evaluated the effects of novel receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (Masitinib, AB1010) and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam on the previously mentioned OSCC cells. Interestingly, AB1010 increased expression levels of COX-2 in all tested OSCCs. Cotreatment of piroxicam with Masitinib significantly inhibited cell proliferation of OSCC as compared to either drug alone through the c-kit and AKT signaling pathways. Piroxicam inhibited Masitinib-induced COX-2 expression in all tested OSCCs. Therefore, targeting these two signaling pathways simultaneously was more efficient for inhibition of OSCCs across these species. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2, multidrug resistance 1, and breast cancer resistance protein gene polymorphisms and inflammatory bowel disease in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mette; Ernst, Anja; Labouriau, Rodrigo S.

    2009-01-01

    =0.006) and 1.39 ((0.99-1.92) p=0.054), respectively, and for UC of 2.63 ((1.33-5.26) p=0.005) and 1.28 ((0.96-1.51) p=0.093), respectively, assuming complete dominance. No association was found for BCRP or other MDR1 SNPs, or for selected MDR1 haplotypes. No effect-modification of smoking habit......OBJECTIVE: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are characterized by an impaired mucosal defence to normal constituents of the intestinal flora and a dysregulated inflammatory response. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes....../A, C3435T and G-rs3789243-A (intron 3) were assessed in a Danish case-control study comprising 373 CD and 541 UC patients and 796 healthy controls. RESULTS: Carriers of the homozygous COX-2 and MDR1 intron 3 variant had a relatively high risk of CD, odds ratio (95% CI) (OR (95% CI))=2.86 ((1.34-5.88) p...

  13. Characterization of the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in the regulation of apoptosis in human small and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Alam, Mahmood

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme (COX-2) is overexpressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but is not expressed in small cell lung cancer. Selective COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to induce apoptosis in NSCLC cells, an effect which is associated with the regulation of intracellular MAP kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Our aims were to characterize the effects of COX-2 inhibition by rofecoxib on apoptosis in human NSCLC and small cell lung cancer cell lines. METHODS: The human NSCLC cell line NCI-H2126 and small cell lung cancer cell line DMS-79 were used. Constitutive COX-2 protein levels were first determined by Western blot test. Levels of apoptosis were evaluated by using propidium iodide staining on FACScan analysis after incubation of NCI-H2126 and DMS-79 with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 (25 ?microM), NF-kappaB inhibitor SN50 (75 microg\\/mL), and rofecoxib at 100 and 250 microM. All statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance. RESULTS: Western blot test confirmed the presence of COX-2 enzyme in NCI-H2126 and absence in DMS-79. Interestingly, rofecoxib treatment demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in both cell lines. Given this finding, the effect of rofecoxib on NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK pathways was also examined. Apoptosis in both cell lines was unaltered by SN50, either alone or in combination with rofecoxib. A similar phenomenon was observed in NCI-H2126 cells treated with SB202190, either alone or in combination with rofecoxib. In contrast, p38 MAPK inhibition greatly upregulated DMS-79 apoptosis in a manner that was unaltered by the addition of rofecoxib. CONCLUSIONS: Rofecoxib led to a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis in both tumor cell lines. This effect occurred independently of COX-2, NF-kappaB, and p38 MAPK pathways in DMS-79 cells. As such, rofecoxib must act on alternative pathways to regulate apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells.

  14. The effects of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and inhibition on human uveal melanoma cell proliferation and macrophage nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression has previously been identified in uveal melanoma although the biological role of COX-2 in this intraocular malignancy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a COX-2 inhibitor on the proliferation rate of human uveal melanoma cells, as well as its effect on the cytotoxic response of macrophages. Methods Human uveal melanoma cell lines were transfected to constitutively express COX-2 and the proliferative rate of these cells using two different methods, with and without the addition of Amfenac, was measured. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was measured after exposure to melanoma-conditioned medium from both groups of cells as well as with and without Amfenac, the active metabolite of Nepafenac. Results Cells transfected to express COX-2 had a higher proliferation rate than those that did not. The addition of Amfenac significantly decreased the proliferation rate of all cell lines. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was inhibited by the addition of melanoma conditioned medium, the addition of Amfenac partially overcame this inhibition. Conclusion Amfenac affected both COX-2 transfected and non-transfected uveal melanoma cells in terms of their proliferation rates as well as their suppressive effects on macrophage cytotoxic activity.

  15. Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by cAMP response element and mRNA stability in a human airway epithelial cell line exposed to zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to zinc-laden particulate matter in ambient and occupational settings has been associated with proinflammatory responses in the lung. Cyclooxygenase 2-derived eicosanoids are important modulators of airway inflammation. In this study, we characterized the transcriptional...

  16. Mechanisms underlying the growth inhibitory effects of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2005-01-01

    Inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 are being extensively studied as anticancer agents. In the present study we evaluated the mechanisms by which a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, affects tumor growth of two differentially invasive human breast cancer cell lines. MDA-MB-231 (highly invasive) and MDA-MB-468 (moderately invasive) cell lines were treated with varying concentrations of celecoxib in vitro, and the effects of this agent on cell growth and angiogenesis were monitored by evaluating cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and vasculogenic mimicry. The in vitro results of MDA-MB-231 cell line were further confirmed in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. The highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells express higher levels of COX-2 than do the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells. Celecoxib treatment inhibited COX-2 activity, indicated by prostaglandin E 2 secretion, and caused significant growth arrest in both breast cancer cell lines. In the highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells, the mechanism of celecoxib-induced growth arrest was by induction of apoptosis, associated with reduced activation of protein kinase B/Akt, and subsequent activation of caspases 3 and 7. In the less invasive MDA-MB-468 cells, growth arrest was a consequence of cell cycle arrest at the G 0 /G 1 checkpoint. Celecoxib-induced growth inhibition was reversed by addition of exogenous prostaglandin E 2 in MDA-MB-468 cells but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, MDA-MB-468 cells formed significantly fewer extracellular matrix associated microvascular channels in vitro than did the high COX-2 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells. Celecoxib treatment not only inhibited cell growth and vascular channel formation but also reduced vascular endothelial growth factor levels. The in vitro findings corroborated in vivo data from a mouse xenograft model in which daily administration of celecoxib significantly reduced tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with reduced vascularization and

  17. USP22 acts as an oncogene by regulating the stability of cyclooxygenase-2 in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Haibo [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tian, Yue [Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Yang, Yang; Hu, Fengqing; Xie, Xiao; Mei, Ju [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: drnail@sina.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-05-08

    The histone ubiquitin hydrolase ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is an epigenetic modifier and an oncogene that is upregulated in many types of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aberrant expression of USP22 is a predictor of poor survival, as is high expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Despite its oncogenic role, few substrates of USP22 have been identified and its mechanism of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we identified COX-2 as a direct substrate of USP22 and showed that its levels are modulated by USP22 mediated deubiquitination. Silencing of USP22 downregulated COX-2, decreased its half-life, and inhibited lung carcinoma cell proliferation by directly interacting with and modulating the stability and activity of COX-2 through the regulation of its ubiquitination status. The findings of the present study suggest a potential mechanism underlying the oncogenic role of USP22 mediated by the modulation of the stability and activity of COX-2. - Highlights: • USP22 interacts with COX-2. • USP22 deubiquitinates and stabilizes COX-2. • USP22 is required for COX-2-mediated upregulation of prostaglandin E2.

  18. Synergistic Induction of Cyclooxygenase-2 by Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Epidermal Growth Factor Inhibits Apoptosis in Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debabrata Saha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression has been observed in several human tumor types and in selected animal and cell culture models of carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. Increased expression of COX-2 and production of prostaglandins appear to provide a survival advantage to transformed cells through the inhibition of apoptosis, increased attachment to extracellular matrix, increased invasiveness, the stimulation of angiogenesis. In the present studies, we found that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF synergistically induced the expression of COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in mink lung epithelial (Mvi Lu cells. EGF, but not PDGF or IGF-1, was able to inhibit TGF-β1-induced apoptosis in Mvi Lu cells and this effect was blocked by NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2 activity, suggesting a possible role for COX-2 in the anti-apoptosic effect of EGF receptor ligands. The combination of TGF-β1 and EGF also significantly induced COX-2 expression in rat intestinal epithelial (RIE-1 cells and completely prevented sodium butyrate (NaBu-induced apoptosis. The synergistic induction of COX-2 by TGF-β1 and EGF was not observed in R1B-L17 cells, a line derived from Mvi Lu cells that lacks the TGF-β type-I receptor. AG1478, a selective inhibitor of EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity, completely suppressed the induction of COX-2 expression by either EGF or TGF-β1+EGF. Also, PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK/ERK pathway, SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK activity, significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2 in response to combined EGF and TGF-β1. These results suggest an important collaborative interaction of TGF-β1 and EGF signaling in the induction of COX-2 and prostaglandin production in Mv1Lu cells.

  19. Mast cell tryptase stimulates myoblast proliferation; a mechanism relying on protease-activated receptor-2 and cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Côté Claude H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells contribute to tissue repair in fibrous tissues by stimulating proliferation of fibroblasts through the release of tryptase which activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2. The possibility that a tryptase/PAR-2 signaling pathway exists in skeletal muscle cell has never been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and determine the downstream cascade. Methods Proliferation of L6 rat skeletal myoblasts stimulated with PAR-2 agonists (tryptase, trypsin and SLIGKV was assessed. The specificity of the tryptase effect was evaluated with a specific inhibitor, APC-366. Western blot analyses were used to evaluate the expression and functionality of PAR-2 receptor and to assess the expression of COX-2. COX-2 activity was evaluated with a commercial activity assay kit and by measurement of PGF2α production. Proliferation assays were also performed in presence of different prostaglandins (PGs. Results Tryptase increased L6 myoblast proliferation by 35% above control group and this effect was completely inhibited by APC-366. We confirmed the expression of PAR-2 receptor in vivo in skeletal muscle cells and in satellite cells and in vitro in L6 cells, where PAR-2 was found to be functional. Trypsin and SLIGKV increased L6 cells proliferation by 76% and 26% above control, respectively. COX-2 activity was increased following stimulation with PAR-2 agonist but its expression remained unchanged. Inhibition of COX-2 activity by NS-398 abolished the stimulation of cell proliferation induced by tryptase and trypsin. Finally, 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15Δ-PGJ2, a product of COX-2-derived prostaglandin D2, stimulated myoblast proliferation, but not PGE2 and PGF2α. Conclusions Taken together, our data show that tryptase can stimulate myoblast proliferation and this effect is part of a signaling cascade dependent on PAR-2 activation and on the downstream

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 mediated regulation of E-cadherin occurs in conventional but not early-onset gastric cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, R.; Leguit, R. J.; de Leng, W. W. J.; Morsink, F. H. M.; Polkowski, W. P.; Maciejewski, R.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Milne, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    COX-2 and E-cadherin, involved in invasion and metastasis, are molecules critical for gastric carcinogenesis. A relationship between them is documented in non-small cell lung and prostate cancer. We present novel evidence of a relationship between COX-2 and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer.

  1. Advanced glycation end products impair function of late endothelial progenitor cells through effects on protein kinase Akt and cyclooxygenase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qin; Dong Li; Wang Lian; Kang Lina; Xu Biao

    2009-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) exhibit impaired function in the context of diabetes, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which accumulate in diabetes, may contribute to this. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which AGEs impair late EPC function. EPCs from human umbilical cord blood were isolated, and incubated with AGE-modified albumin (AGE-albumin) at different concentrations found physiologically in plasma. Apoptosis, migration, and tube formation assays were used to evaluate EPC function including capacity for vasculogenesis, and expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined. Anti-RAGE antibody was used to block RAGE function. AGE-albumin concentration-dependently enhanced apoptosis and depressed migration and tube formation, but did not affect proliferation, of late EPCs. High AGE-albumin increased RAGE mRNA and protein expression, and decreased Akt and COX-2 protein expression, whilst having no effect on eNOS mRNA or protein in these cells. These effects were inhibited by co-incubation with anti-RAGE antibody. These results suggest that RAGE mediates the AGE-induced impairment of late EPC function, through down-regulation of Akt and COX-2 in these cells.

  2. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity exacerbates ultraviolet B radiation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cell survival signals in ultraviolet B-irradiated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Som D.; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases and in different types of cancer. Chronic inflammation induced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has been implicated in various skin diseases, including melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers. As the relationship between obesity and susceptibility to UV radiation-caused inflammation is not clearly understood, we assessed the role of obesity on UVB-induced inflammation, and mediators of this inflammatory response, using the genetically obese (leptin-deficient) mouse model. Leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice and wild-type counterparts (C57/BL6 mice) were exposed to UVB radiation (120 mJ/cm 2 ) on alternate days for 1 month. The mice were then euthanized and skin samples collected for analysis of biomarkers of inflammatory responses using immunohistochemistry, western blotting, ELISA and real-time PCR. Here, we report that the levels of inflammatory responses were higher in the UVB-exposed skin of the ob/ob obese mice than those in the UVB-exposed skin of the wild-type non-obese mice. The levels of UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression, prostaglandin-E 2 production, proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cell survival signals (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and p-Akt-Ser 473 ) were higher in the skin of the ob/ob obese mice than the those in skin of their wild-type non-obese counterparts. Compared with the wild-type non-obese mice, the leptin-deficient obese mice also exhibited greater activation of NF-κB/p65 and fewer apoptotic cells in the UVB-irradiated skin. Our study suggests for the first time that obesity in mice is associated with greater susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammatory responses and, therefore, obesity may increase susceptibility to UVB-induced inflammation-associated skin diseases, including the risk of skin cancer.

  3. Expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Nelson Aruldoss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme in the tissue samples of patients with various clinicopathological stages of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and Methods: The samples for the study were divided into 4 groups. Group A comprised 20 healthy individuals with no habits. Twenty healthy individuals with habitual tobacco usage and no oral lesions were included in Group B. Twenty cases of leukoplakia diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group C. Staging was done using the modified classification and staging system of oral leukoplakia. Twenty cases of OSCC diagnosed clinically and histopathologically were included in Group D. Immunohistochemical staining was done on these 80 samples (paraffin blocks for COX-2 expression by indirect method using polymer based Horseradish peroxidase system. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman′s rank correlation test. Results: Significant and proportional increase of COX-2 staining was noted with the increase in the severity of dysplasia. Eighty percent of OSCC expressed COX-2, increasing in its intensity of staining with the decrease in differentiation. Seventy five percent of leukoplakia showed positive COX-2 expression. Only 15% of positive controls were COX-2 positive. No normal mucosa showed positive expression of COX-2. Conclusion: High expression of COX-2 is seen in advanced stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. Hence, COX-2 enzyme increases cell proliferation, promotes angiogenesis and inhibits immune surveillance in carcinogenesis; it can be an early detection marker in oral leukoplakia and a prognostic marker of OSCC.

  4. Taheebo Polyphenols Attenuate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Inflammation in Murine and Human Macrophage Cell Lines As Inhibitor of Cyclooxygenase-2

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    Sihui Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of studyTaheebo polyphenols (TP are water extracts of Tabebuia spp. (Bignoniaceae, taken from the inner bark of the Tabebuia avellanedae tree, used extensively as folk medicine in Central and South America. Some anti-inflammatory drugs act by inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and COX-1 enzymes. COX-2 syntheses prostaglandin (PG E2, which is a species of endogenous pain-producing substance, whereas COX-1 acts as a house-keeping enzyme. Inhibiting both COX-1 and -2 simultaneously can have side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal dysfunction. Some polyphenols have been reported for its selective inhibiting activity toward COX-2 expression. Our study aimed to demonstrate the potential and mechanisms of TP as an anti-inflammation action without the side effects of COX-1 inhibition.Materials and methodsFree fatty acid-stimulated macrophage cell lines were employed to mimic macrophage behaviors during lifestyle-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect expression of inflammatory cytokine mRNA. Griess assay was used to measure the production of nitric oxide (NO. ELISA was used to measure PG E2 production. Molecular docking was adopted to analyze the interactions between compounds from T. avellanedae and COX-2.ResultsTP significantly suppressed the production of NO production, blocked the mRNA expression of iNOS, and COX-2 in both cell lines, blocked the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in the murine cell line. However, there was no inhibitory effect on COX-1. Molecular docking result indicated that the inhibitory effects of TP on COX-2 and PGE2 could be attributed to acteoside, which is the main compound of TP that could bind to the catalytic zone of COX-2. After the interaction, catalytic ability of COX-2 is possibly inhibited, followed by which PGE2 production is attenuated. COX inhibitor screening assay showed TP as a

  5. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-2 Prevents Chronic and Recurrent Cystitis

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    Thomas J. Hannan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The spread of multidrug-resistant microorganisms globally has created an urgent need for novel therapeutic strategies to combat urinary tract infections (UTIs. Immunomodulatory therapy may provide benefit, as treatment of mice with dexamethasone during acute UTI improved outcome by reducing the development of chronic cystitis, which predisposes to recurrent infection. Here we discovered soluble biomarkers engaged in myeloid cell development and chemotaxis that were predictive of future UTI recurrence when elevated in the sera of young women with UTI. Translation of these findings revealed that temperance of the neutrophil response early during UTI, and specifically disruption of bladder epithelial transmigration of neutrophils by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, protected mice against chronic and recurrent cystitis. Further, proteomics identified bladder epithelial remodeling consequent to chronic infection that enhances sensitivity to neutrophil damage. Thus, cyclooxygenase-2 expression during acute UTI is a critical molecular trigger determining disease outcome and drugs targeting cyclooxygenase-2 could prevent recurrent UTI.

  6. Cyclooxygenase 2 Promotes Parathyroid Hyperplasia in ESRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qiu, Junsi; Li, Haiming; Lu, Yanwen; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Zhang, Liyin; Gu, Yong; Hao, Chuan-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the PTG underlies the secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) observed in CKD, but the mechanism underlying this hyperplasia is incompletely understood. Because aberrant cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression promotes epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the effects of COX2 on the parathyroid gland in uremia. In patients with ESRD who underwent parathyroidectomy, clusters of cells within the parathyroid glands had increased COX2 expression. Some COX2-positive cells exhibited two nuclei, consistent with proliferation. Furthermore, nearly 78% of COX2-positive cells expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the 5/6-nephrectomy rat model, rats fed a high-phosphate diet had significantly higher serum PTH levels and larger parathyroid glands than sham-operated rats. Compared with controls, the parathyroid glands of uremic rats exhibited more PCNA-positive cells and greater COX2 expression in the chief cells. Treatment with COX2 inhibitor celecoxib significantly reduced PCNA expression, attenuated serum PTH levels, and reduced the size of the glands. In conclusion, COX2 promotes the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism in ESRD, suggesting that inhibiting the COX2 pathway could be a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21335517

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 polymorphisms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Anna; Bergman, Olle; Chrapkowska, Cecilia; Westberg, Lars; Belin, Andrea Carmine; Sydow, Olof; Johnels, Bo; Olson, Lars; Holmberg, Björn; Nissbrandt, Hans

    2007-04-05

    Accumulating evidence indicate that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is of pathophysiological importance for the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). For example, in a large epidemiological study, use of NSAIDs was associated with a lower risk of PD. Genetic variants of the COX-2 gene might therefore influence the risk of developing the disease. The genotype distribution of four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the COX-2 gene (rs689466:A496G, rs20417:G926C, rs5277:G3050C, rs5275:C8473T) was analyzed in PD patients and control subjects in a Swedish population. No differences could be seen between the PD-patient and controls regarding the A496G, G926C, and G3050C SNPs, but the allele frequency of the C8473T SNP was found to differ when male patients were compared to controls (P = 0.007). In females no difference could be seen between PD-patients and controls. In conclusion, the results suggest a possible influence of the COX-2 C8473T SNP in PD, although it only seems to be of importance in men. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A Soft Coral Natural Product, 11-Episinulariolide Acetate, Inhibits Gene Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Interleukin-8 through Attenuation of Calcium Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chiao Chang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. EGFR-mediated signaling involves inflammatory gene expression including cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and interleukin (IL-8, and is associated with cancer pathogenesis. In a search of phytochemicals with anti-inflammatory activity, the COX-2 and IL-8 inhibitory activities of some marine compounds were examined. After screening these compounds 11-episinulariolide acetate (1 from soft coral exhibited the most potent activity. Reverse-transcription PCR; western blotting; ELISA and luciferase assays were used to test the effect of compound 1 on EGF-stimulated expressions of COX-2 and IL-8 in A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. After exposure to 10 μM of compound 1, expression levels of COX-2 and IL-8 were reduced. In addition; intracellular Ca2+ increase and Ca2+-dependent transcription factor activation were blocked by compound 1. Thus, compound 1 can potentially serve as a lead compound for targeting Ca2+ signaling-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  9. Downregulation of survivin expression and concomitant induction of apoptosis by celecoxib and its non-cyclooxygenase-2-inhibitory analog, dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC, in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Florence M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC is a close structural analog of the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex® that lacks COX-2-inhibitory function. However, despite its inability to block COX-2 activity, DMC is able to potently mimic the anti-tumor effects of celecoxib in vitro and in vivo, indicating that both of these drugs are able to involve targets other than COX-2 to exert their recognized cytotoxic effects. However, the molecular components that are involved in mediating these drugs' apoptosis-stimulatory consequences are incompletely understood. Results We present evidence that celecoxib and DMC are able to down-regulate the expression of survivin, an anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in tumor cells and known to confer resistance of such cells to anti-cancer treatments. Suppression of survivin is specific to these two drugs, as other coxibs (valdecoxib, rofecoxib or traditional NSAIDs (flurbiprofen, indomethacin, sulindac do not affect survivin expression at similar concentrations. The extent of survivin down-regulation by celecoxib and DMC in different tumor cell lines is somewhat variable, but closely correlates with the degree of drug-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. When combined with irinotecan, a widely used anticancer drug, celecoxib and DMC greatly enhance the cytotoxic effects of this drug, in keeping with a model that suppression of survivin may be beneficial to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects are not restricted to in vitro conditions, but also take place in tumors from drug-treated animals, where both drugs similarly repress survivin, induce apoptosis, and inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion In consideration of survivin's recognized role as a custodian of tumor cell survival, our results suggest that celecoxib and DMC might exert their cytotoxic anti-tumor effects at least in part via the down-regulation of survivin – in a

  10. Changes in the Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclooxygenase 2 is a key enzyme which converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase 2 is triggered by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines. Its expression increases in tumors and Alzheimer's disease and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a heterogeneous disease characterized by pathological angiogenesis and chronic anovulation. In the present study, the probable role of cyclooxygenase 2 in Wistar rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome was investigated.Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats (170-200 gr were equally divided into three groups: 2 mg estradiol valerate was intramuscularly administered to each rat in the experiment group or group 1; the rats in group 2 were regarded as the sham group and received sesame oil injections and group 3 or the control group received no injections. After 60 days of treatment, animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and killed by decapitation. Ovaries were collected for histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. All the experiments were repeated three times.Results: Morphologically, ovaries from the control group exhibited follicles in various stages of development and many fresh corpus luteum. In estradiol valerate group small follicles in early development were observed in addition to follicles showing evidence of atresia and many large cysts with thickened theca cell layer. Corpus luteum was rare or absent in group 2. The immunohistochemical analysis for cyclooxygenase 2 expression showed an increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme in group 1.Conclusion: The results suggested the involvement of cyclooxygenase 2 in the progression to polycystic ovarian syndrome in a rat model.

  11. Nicotine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induce cyclooxygenase-2 activity in human gastric cancer cells: Involvement of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Vivian Yvonne; Jin, H.C.; Ng, Enders K.O.; Yu Jun; Leung, W.K.; Cho, C.H.; Sung, J.J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) associates with cigarette smoke exposure in many malignancies. Nicotine and its derivative, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are the two important components in cigarette smoke that contributes to cancer development. However, the molecular mechanism(s) by which nicotine or NNK promotes gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We found that nicotine and NNK significantly enhanced cell proliferation in AGS cells that expressed both alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) and β-adrenergic receptors. Treatment of cells with α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX, α7nAChR antagonist) or propranolol (β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) blocked NNK-induced COX-2/PGE 2 and cell proliferation, while nicotine-mediated cell growth and COX-2/PGE 2 induction can only be suppressed by propranolol, but not α-BTX. Moreover, in contrast to the dependence of growth promoting effect of nicotine on Erk activation, inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) repressed NNK-induced COX-2 upregulation and resulted in suppression of cell growth. In addition, nicotine and NNK mediated COX-2 induction via different receptors to modulate several G1/S transition regulatory proteins and promote gastric cancer cell growth. Selective COX-2 inhibitor (SC-236) caused G1 arrest and abrogated nicotine/NNK-induced cell proliferation. Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 and other G1 regulatory proteins are reversed by blockade of COX-2. These results pointed to the importance of adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in gastric tumor growth through MAPK/COX-2 activation, which may perhaps provide a chemoprevention strategy for cigarette smoke-related gastric carcinogenesis

  12. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced periodontal inflammation is associated with the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase 1 in human gingival epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Yu; Obama, Takashi; Usui, Michihiko; Kanazawa, Yukari; Iwamoto, Sanju; Suzuki, Kazushige; Miyazaki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Itabe, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → OxLDL-induced responses in human gingival epithelial cells were studied. → OxLDL enhanced the production of IL-8, IL-1β and PGE 2 in Ca9-22 cells. → An NF-κB inhibitor suppressed the expression of COX-2 and mPGES1 induced by oxLDL. → Unlike the case in macrophages, oxLDL did not increase the CD36 level. -- Abstract: Periodontitis is characterized by chronic gingival tissue inflammation, and inflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) are associated with disease progression. Previously we showed that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was present in gingival crevicular fluid. In this study, the role of oxLDL in the gingival epithelial cell inflammatory response was further investigated using Ca9-22 cells and primary human oral keratinocytes (HOK). Treatment of Ca9-22 cells and HOK with oxLDL induced an up-regulation of IL-8 and the PGE 2 -producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE 2 synthase-1. These responses induced by oxLDL were significantly suppressed by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitor. However, unlike the result in macrophages, oxLDL did not lead to an increase in CD36 expression in these two cells. These results suggest that oxLDL elicits gingival epithelial cell inflammatory responses through an activation of the NF-κB pathway. These data suggest a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and lipid metabolism-related disorders, including atherosclerosis.

  13. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced periodontal inflammation is associated with the up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin synthase 1 in human gingival epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahama, Yu [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Obama, Takashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Usui, Michihiko [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, Yukari [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Iwamoto, Sanju [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, Kazushige [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Akira [Department of Biochemistry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomohiro [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Matsuo [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Showa University Dental Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itabe, Hiroyuki [Department of Biological Chemistry, Showa University School of Pharmacy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} OxLDL-induced responses in human gingival epithelial cells were studied. {yields} OxLDL enhanced the production of IL-8, IL-1{beta} and PGE{sub 2} in Ca9-22 cells. {yields} An NF-{kappa}B inhibitor suppressed the expression of COX-2 and mPGES1 induced by oxLDL. {yields} Unlike the case in macrophages, oxLDL did not increase the CD36 level. -- Abstract: Periodontitis is characterized by chronic gingival tissue inflammation, and inflammatory mediators such as IL-8 and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) are associated with disease progression. Previously we showed that oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was present in gingival crevicular fluid. In this study, the role of oxLDL in the gingival epithelial cell inflammatory response was further investigated using Ca9-22 cells and primary human oral keratinocytes (HOK). Treatment of Ca9-22 cells and HOK with oxLDL induced an up-regulation of IL-8 and the PGE{sub 2}-producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthase-1. These responses induced by oxLDL were significantly suppressed by a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) inhibitor. However, unlike the result in macrophages, oxLDL did not lead to an increase in CD36 expression in these two cells. These results suggest that oxLDL elicits gingival epithelial cell inflammatory responses through an activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway. These data suggest a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and lipid metabolism-related disorders, including atherosclerosis.

  14. Bcr-Abl-independent mechanism of resistance to imatinib in K562 cells: Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by histone deacetylases (HDACs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Sachchidanand, Sachchidanand; Pallu, Reddanna

    2010-09-01

    Our previous studies have shown that overexpression of MDR1 and cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2) resulted in resistance development to imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 (IR-K562) cells. In the present study, the regulatory mechanism of MDR1 induction by COX-2 was investigated. A gradual overexpression of MDR1 and COX-2 during the process of development was observed. Furthermore, down regulation of MDR1 upon COX-2 knockdown by siRNA showed a decrease in the PKC levels and activation of PKC by addition of PGE(2) to K562 cells, suggesting a role for PKC in the COX-2 mediated induction of MDR1. The present study demonstrates COX-2 induction by HDACs and MDR1 induction by COX-2 via PGE(2)-cAMP-PKC-mediated pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacology of a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, HN-56249: a novel compound exhibiting a marked preference for the human enzyme in intact cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Fellier, H; Christoph, T; Kremminger, P; Hartmann, M; Blaschke, H; Rovensky, F; Towart, R; Stimmeder, D

    2000-04-01

    HN-56249 (3-(2,4-dichlorothiophenoxy)-4-methylsulfonylamino-benzenesu lfonamide), a highly selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, is the prototype of a novel series of COX inhibitors comprising bicyclic arylethersulfonamides; of this series HN-56249 is the most potent and selective human COX-2 inhibitor. HN-56249 inhibited platelet aggregation as a measure of COX-1 activity only moderately (IC50 26.5+/-1.7 microM). In LPS-stimulated monocytic cells the release of prostaglandin (PG) F1alpha as a measure of COX-2 was markedly inhibited (IC50 0.027+/-0.001 microM). Thus, HN-56249 showed an approximately 1000-fold selectivity for COX-2 in intact cells. In whole blood assays HN-56249 showed a potent inhibitory activity for COX-2 (IC50 0.78+/-0.37 microM) only. COX-1 was only weakly inhibited (IC50 867+/-181 microM). Hence, HN-56249 exhibited a greater than 1000-fold selectivity for whole blood COX-2. HN-56249 surpassed the COX-2 selectivities of the COX-2 selective inhibitors 3-cyclohexyloxy-4-methylsulfonylamino-nitrobenzene (NS-398) and 6-(2,4-difluorophenoxy)-5-methyl-sulfonylamino-1-indanone (flosulide) in the intact cell assays by eight- and threefold, respectively, and in the whole blood assays by approximately 40-fold. Following i.v. administration HN-56249 inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema only moderately (ID50 26.2+/-5.7 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM), approximately tenfold less potent than indomethacin (ID50 2.1+/-0.2 mg/kg, mean +/- SEM). After oral administration HN-56249 reversed thermal hyperalgesia in the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test, however, some 30-fold less potently than diclofenac. Comparing the inhibitory potency of HN-56249 against human COX-2 with that against murine COX-2 in intact cells revealed a 300-fold selectivity for the human enzyme. Similar effects were observed with other COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides. In contrast, non-COX-2-selective arylethersulfonamides, including a highly selective COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited

  16. Ethanol enhances arsenic-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via both NFAT and NF-κB signalings in colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wise, James T.F. [Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin [Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Pratheeshkumar, Poyil [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo [Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia [Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shi, Xianglin, E-mail: xshi5@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Toxicology and Cancer Biology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen to humans, and chronic exposure to environmental arsenic is a worldwide health concern. As a dietary factor, ethanol carries a well-established risk for malignancies, but the effects of co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol on tumor development are not well understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that ethanol would enhance the function of an environmental carcinogen such as arsenic through increase in COX-2 expression. Our in vitro results show that ethanol enhanced arsenic-induced COX-2 expression. We also show that the increased COX-2 expression associates with intracellular ROS generation, up-regulated AKT signaling, with activation of both NFAT and NF-κB pathways. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes have an inhibitory effect on arsenic/ethanol-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the responsive signaling pathways from co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol relate to ROS generation. In vivo results also show that co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol increased COX-2 expression in mice. We conclude that ethanol enhances arsenic-induced COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells via both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways. These results imply that, as a common dietary factor, ethanol ingestion may be a compounding risk factor for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis/cancer development. - Highlights: • Arsenic is able to induce Cox-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells. • Ethanol, a diet nutritional factor, could enhance arsenic-induced Cox-2. • The up-regulation of Cox-2 via both NFAT and NF-κB activities.

  17. Ethanol enhances arsenic-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression via both NFAT and NF-κB signalings in colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Hitron, John Andrew; Wise, James T.F.; Son, Young-Ok; Roy, Ram Vinod; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Zhang, Zhuo; Xu, Mei; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a known carcinogen to humans, and chronic exposure to environmental arsenic is a worldwide health concern. As a dietary factor, ethanol carries a well-established risk for malignancies, but the effects of co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol on tumor development are not well understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that ethanol would enhance the function of an environmental carcinogen such as arsenic through increase in COX-2 expression. Our in vitro results show that ethanol enhanced arsenic-induced COX-2 expression. We also show that the increased COX-2 expression associates with intracellular ROS generation, up-regulated AKT signaling, with activation of both NFAT and NF-κB pathways. We demonstrate that antioxidant enzymes have an inhibitory effect on arsenic/ethanol-induced COX-2 expression, indicating that the responsive signaling pathways from co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol relate to ROS generation. In vivo results also show that co-exposure to arsenic and ethanol increased COX-2 expression in mice. We conclude that ethanol enhances arsenic-induced COX-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells via both the NFAT and NF-κB pathways. These results imply that, as a common dietary factor, ethanol ingestion may be a compounding risk factor for arsenic-induced carcinogenesis/cancer development. - Highlights: • Arsenic is able to induce Cox-2 expression in colorectal cancer cells. • Ethanol, a diet nutritional factor, could enhance arsenic-induced Cox-2. • The up-regulation of Cox-2 via both NFAT and NF-κB activities.

  18. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in the normal human eye and its expression pattern in selected eye tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jinmei; Wu, Yazhen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme involved in neoplastic processes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate COX-2 expression in the normal human eye and the expression pattern in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining...... using antibodies against COX-2 was performed on paraffin sections of normal human eyes and selected eye tumours arising from cells expressing COX-2. Results: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression was found in various structures of the normal eye. Abundant expression was seen in the cornea, iris, ciliary body...... and retina. The COX-2 expression was less in tumours deriving from the ciliary epithelium and also in retinoblastoma. Conclusion: Cyclooxygenase-2 is constitutively expressed in normal human eyes. The expression of COX-2 is much lower in selected eye tumours involving COX-2 expressing cells....

  20. ETORICOXIB IS A NEW SELECTIVE CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Karateev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the clinical characteristics of etoricoxib (Arcoxia, a new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor having unique properties, which permits it to be distinguished among other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

  1. ETORICOXIB IS A NEW SELECTIVE CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 INHIBITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A E Karateev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the clinical characteristics of etoricoxib (Arcoxia, a new selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor having unique properties, which permits it to be distinguished among other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rang Na

    Full Text Available Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition is known to prevent breast cancer metastasis. This study hypothesized that COX-2 inhibition affects TAM characteristics potentially relevant to tumor cell metastasis. We found that the specific COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, inhibited human M2 macrophage differentiation, as determined by decreased CD14 and CD163 expressions and increased TNFα production. Several key metastasis-related mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were inhibited in the presence of etodolac as compared to untreated M2 macrophages. Murine bone marrow derived M2 macrophages also showed enhanced surface MHCII IA/IE and CD80, CD86 expressions together with enhanced TNFα expressions with etodolac treatment during differentiation. Using a BALB/c breast cancer model, we found that etodolac significantly reduced lung metastasis, possibly due to macrophages expressing increased IA/IE and TNFα, but decreased M2 macrophage-related genes expressions (Ym1, TGFβ. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition caused loss of the M2 macrophage characteristics of TAMs and may assist prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

  3. Inhibition of bacterial multidrug resistance by celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalle, Arunasree M; Rizvi, Arshad

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence suggests that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-specific inhibitor celecoxib would not only inhibit COX-2 but also help in the reversal of drug resistance in cancers by inhibiting the MDR1 efflux pump. Here, we demonstrate that celecoxib increases the sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotics ampicillin, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin by accumulating the drugs inside the cell, thus reversing MDR in bacteria.

  4. Quercetin suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression and angiogenesis through inactivation of P300 signaling.

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    Xiangsheng Xiao

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic bioflavonoid, possesses multiple pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory and antitumor properties. However, the precise action mechanisms of quercetin remain unclear. Here, we reported the regulatory actions of quercetin on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, an important mediator in inflammation and tumor promotion, and revealed the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin significantly suppressed COX-2 mRNA and protein expression and prostaglandin (PG E(2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter activation in breast cancer cells. Quercetin also significantly inhibited COX-2-mediated angiogenesis in human endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. The in vitro streptavidin-agarose pulldown assay and in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that quercetin considerably inhibited the binding of the transactivators CREB2, C-Jun, C/EBPβ and NF-κB and blocked the recruitment of the coactivator p300 to COX-2 promoter. Moreover, quercetin effectively inhibited p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT activity, thereby attenuating the p300-mediated acetylation of NF-κB. Treatment of cells with p300 HAT inhibitor roscovitine was as effective as quercetin at inhibiting p300 HAT activity. Addition of quercetin to roscovitine-treated cells did not change the roscovitine-induced inhibition of p300 HAT activity. Conversely, gene delivery of constitutively active p300 significantly reversed the quercetin-mediated inhibition of endogenous HAT activity. These results indicate that quercetin suppresses COX-2 expression by inhibiting the p300 signaling and blocking the binding of multiple transactivators to COX-2 promoter. Our findings therefore reveal a novel mechanism of action of quercetin and suggest a potential use for quercetin in the treatment of COX-2-mediated diseases such as breast cancers.

  5. Lithium induces microcysts and polyuria in adolescent rat kidney independent of cyclooxygenase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In patients, chronic treatment with lithium leads to renal microcysts and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). It was hypothesized that renal cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity promotes microcyst formation and NDI. Kidney microcysts were induced in male adolescent rats by feeding dams with lithium......, and inactive pGSK-3β in collecting duct; a blocker of COX-2 does not prevent cell proliferation, cyst formation, or GSK-3β inactivation. It is concluded that COX-2 activity is not the primary cause for microcysts and polyuria in a NaCl-substituted rat model of lithium nephropathy. COX-1 is a relevant candidate...

  6. CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: THE PROTEOMICS OF ASSOCIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Gandhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma represents one of the most common malignancies worldwide with a rising incidence in western countries. Chronic inflammation is recognised as a threat factor for cancer progression. Cyclooxygenase-2 is the major mediator of inflammation. Various studies on Cox-2 suggest its possible association with HCC differentiation. Sufficient genetic and pharmacologic evidences implicate its crucial role in neoplasia and it is also now clear that Cox-2 plays a crucial role in tumor progression. Cox-2 overexpression is associated with maintaining tumor microenvironment and has crucial implication for angiogenesis. Cox-2 operates in multifactorial fashion. Cox-2 selective inhibition has been reported as a successful tool in suppressing angiogenesis and metastasis. The pharmacological suppression of Cox-2 represents a bright future as a therapeutic tool for treatment of various malignancies. This review is an attempt to discuss the critical issue of overexpression of Cox-2 and its role in the development of HCC in particular and cancer in general.

  7. Helicobacter pylori VacA enhances prostaglandin E2 production through induction of cyclooxygenase 2 expression via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/activating transcription factor 2 cascade in AZ-521 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Yamasaki, Eiki; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2007-01-01

    of a COX-2 promoter reporter gene and activated a COX-2 promoter containing mutated NF-kappaB or NF-interleukin-6 sites but not a mutated cis-acting replication element (CRE) site, suggesting direct involvement of the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2)/CREB-binding region in VacA-induced COX-2...... to activation of the CRE site in the COX-2 promoter....

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor enhances the efficacy of a breast cancer vaccine: role of IDO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Bradley, Judy M; Tu, Tony; Hattrup, Christine L; Pockaj, Barbara A; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2006-08-15

    We report that administration of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, in combination with a dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine significantly augments vaccine efficacy in reducing primary tumor burden, preventing metastasis, and increasing survival. This combination treatment was tested in MMTV-PyV MT mice that develop spontaneous mammary gland tumors with metastasis to the lungs and bone marrow. Improved vaccine potency was associated with an increase in tumor-specific CTLs. Enhanced CTL activity was attributed to a significant decrease in levels of tumor-associated IDO, a negative regulator of T cell activity. We present data suggesting that inhibiting COX-2 activity in vivo regulates IDO expression within the tumor microenvironment; this is further corroborated in the MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line. Thus, a novel mechanism of COX-2-induced immunosuppression via regulation of IDO has emerged that may have implications in designing future cancer vaccines.

  9. Alterations in Lipoxygenase and Cyclooxygenase-2 Catalytic Activity and mRNA Expression in Prostate Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Shappell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in prostate tissues and especially cell lines have suggested roles for arachidonic acid (AA metabolizing enzymes in prostate adenocarcinoma (Pca development or progression. The goal of this study was to more fully characterize lipoxygenase (LOX and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 gene expression and AA metabolism in benign and malignant prostate using snap-frozen tissues obtained intraoperatively and mRNA analyses and enzyme assays. Formation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE was detected in 23/29 benign samples and 15-LOX-2 mRNA was detected in 21/25 benign samples. In pairs of pure benign and Pca from the same patients, 15-HETE production and 15-LOX-2 mRNA were reduced in Pca versus benign in 9/14 (P=.04 and 14/17 (P=.002, respectively. Under the same conditions, neither 5HETE nor 12-HETE formation was detectable in 29 benign and 24 tumor samples; with a more sensitive assay, traces were detected in some samples, but there was no clear association with tumor tissue. COX-2 mRNA was detected by nuclease protection assay in 7/16 benign samples and 5/16 tumors. In benign and tumor pairs from 10 patients, COX-2 was higher in tumor versus benign in only 2, with similar results by in situ hybridization. Paraffin immunoperoxidase for COX2 was performed in whole mount sections from 87 additional radical prostatectomy specimens, with strong expression in ejaculatory duct as a positive control and corroboration with in situ hybridization. No immunostaining was detected in benign prostate or tumor in 45% of cases. Greater immunostaining in tumor versus benign was present in only 17% of cases, and correlated with high tumor grade (Gleason score 8 and 9 vs. 5 to 7. In conclusion, reduced 15-LOX-2 expression and 15-HETE formation is the most characteristic alteration of AA metabolism in Pca. Increased 12-HETE and 5-HETE formation in Pca were not discernible. Increased COX-2 expression is not a typical abnormality in Pca in general, but

  10. The role of cyclooxygenase-2 in the malignant tissue and possible applicability of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible prostaglandin (PG) synthase, is elevated in many types of malignant and pre-malignant tissues. This enzyme is localized in neoplastic (epithelial) cells, microvascular endothelial cells, and stromal fibroblasts. Through the released PG it enhances carcinogenesis with increasing angiogenesis, inhibiting apoptosis, activating matrix metalloproteinases, suppressing of cell mediated antitumor immune response and protection against damage by cytotoxic agents. Evidences from in vitro studies, studies on animal models as well as first clinical outcomes suggest that the inhibition of COX-2 may suppress carcinogenesis by affecting a number of pathways: inhibiting angiogenesis, invasiveness of tumors and promoting apoptosis. References forecast that COX-2 inhibitors, mostly COX-2 selective inhibitors, may get a role in the therapy of cancer as an adjuvant therapy or as an co-chemotherapeutic agent. The purpose of the present article is to summarize the most important facts about the role of COX-2 in the malignant tissue and discuss possible ways for potential therapeutic place of COX-2 inhibitors in clinical practice. (author)

  11. Desferrioxamine, an iron chelator, enhances HIF-1α accumulation via cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Kyung Jin; Lee, Tae-Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important inducible enzyme in inflammation and is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Evidence is rapidly accumulating that chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis through increase of cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in a number of neoplasms, including colorectal carcinoma. In the present study, we investigated some mechanistic aspects of DFX-induced hypoxia-driven COX-2 expression. Desferrioxamine (DFX), an iron chelator, is known to upregulate inflammatory mediators. DFX induced the expression of COX-2 and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in dose-dependent manners, but hypoxia mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ) induced accumulation of HIF-1α protein but not increase of COX-2 expression. DFX-induced increase of COX-2 expression and HIF-1α protein level was attenuated by addition of ferric citrate. This result suggested that the iron chelating function of DFX was important to induce the increase of COX-2 and HIF-1α protein. PD98059 significantly inhibited the induction of COX-2 protein and accumulation of HIF-1α, suggesting that DFX-induced increase of HIF-1α and COX-2 protein was mediated, at least in part, through the ERK signaling pathway. In addition, pretreatment with NS-398 to inhibit COX-2 activity also effectively suppressed DFX-induced HIF-1α accumulation in human colon cancer cells, providing the evidence that COX-2 plays as a regulator of HIF-1α accumulation in DFX-treated colon cancer cells. Together, our findings suggest that iron metabolism may regulate stabilization of HIF-1α protein by modulating cyclooxygenase-2 signaling pathway

  12. Low endogenous glucocorticoid allows induction of kidney cortical cyclooxygenase-2 during postnatal rat development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Stubbe, Jane; Skøtt, Ole

    2004-01-01

    COX-2 in these cells. Thus low plasma concentrations of corticosterone allowed for cortical and medullary COX-2 induction during postnatal kidney development. Increased circulating glucocorticoid in the postnatal period may damage late renal development through inhibition of COX-2.......In postnatal weeks 2-4, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in the rat kidney cortex where it is critically involved in final stages of kidney development. We examined whether changes in circulating gluco- or mineralocorticosteroids or in their renal receptors regulate postnatal COX-2 induction....... Plasma corticosterone concentration peaked at birth, decreased to low levels at days 3-13, and increased to adult levels from day 22. Aldosterone peaked at birth and then stabilized at adult levels. Gluco- and mineralocorticoid receptor (GR and MR) mRNAs were expressed stably in kidney before, during...

  13. Inflammatory mammary carcinoma in 12 dogs: Clinical features, cyclooxygenase-2 expression, and response to piroxicam treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de M. Souza, Carlos H.; Toledo-Piza, Evandro; Amorin, Renee; Barboza, Andrigo; Tobias, Karen M.

    2009-01-01

    Canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is a rare, locally aggressive, highly metastatic tumor that is poorly responsive to treatment. The purposes of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the history, signalment, and clinical signs of dogs with IMC; compare the outcome of affected dogs treated with traditional chemotherapy with those treated with piroxicam; evaluate Cox-2 expression of IMC cells; and correlate Cox-2 expression with outcome based on treatment. Strong cyclooxygenase-2 expression was present in all tumors. Improvement in clinical condition and disease stability was achieved in all dogs treated with piroxicam, with mean and median progression-free survival of 171 and 183 days, respectively. Median survival time of 3 dogs treated with doxorubicin-based protocols was 7 days, which was significantly less than that of dogs treated with piroxicam (median, 185 days). In conclusion, piroxicam should be considered as a single agent for the treatment of dogs with inflammatory mammary carcinoma. PMID:19436636

  14. Pulmonary oxidative stress is increased in cyclooxygenase-2 knockdown mice with mild pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Seta

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and downstream signaling of prostanoids in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH using mice with genetically manipulated COX-2 expression. COX-2 knockdown (KD mice, characterized by 80-90% suppression of COX-2, and wild-type (WT control mice were treated weekly with monocrotaline (MCT over 10 weeks. Mice were examined for cardiac hypertrophy/function and right ventricular pressure. Lung histopathological analysis was performed and various assays were carried out to examine oxidative stress, as well as gene, protein, cytokine and prostanoid expression. We found that MCT increased right ventricular systolic and pulmonary arterial pressures in comparison to saline-treated mice, with no evidence of cardiac remodeling. Gene expression of endothelin receptor A and thromboxane synthesis, regulators of vasoconstriction, were increased in MCT-treated lungs. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung sections demonstrated mild inflammation and perivascular edema but activation of inflammatory cells was not predominant under the experimental conditions. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression and indicators of oxidative stress in lungs were significantly increased, especially in COX-2 KD MCT-treated mice. Gene expression of NOX-4, but not NOX-2, two NADPH oxidase subunits crucial for superoxide generation, was induced by ∼4-fold in both groups of mice by MCT. Vasodilatory and anti-aggregatory prostacyclin was reduced by ∼85% only in MCT-treated COX-2 KD mice. This study suggests that increased oxidative stress-derived endothelial dysfunction, vasoconstriction and mild inflammation, exacerbated by the lack of COX-2, contribute to the pathogenesis of early stages of PH when mild hemodynamic changes are evident and not yet accompanied by vascular and cardiac remodeling.

  15. Cyclooxygenase 2 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the renal cortex are not interdependent in states of salt deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castrop, H; Kammerl, M; Mann, Birgitte

    2000-01-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the kidney are localized to the cortical thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle (cTALH), including the macula region, and increase after salt restriction. Because of the similar localization and regulation of n...... excretion. These findings suggest that under these conditions the control of nNOS and COX-2 gene expression in the macula densa regions of the kidney cortex are not dependent on each other....

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression in oligodendrocytes increases sensitivity to excitotoxic death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Monica A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously found that cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes at the onset of demyelination in the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD model of multiple sclerosis (MS (Carlson et al. J.Neuroimmunology 2006, 149:40. This suggests that COX-2 may contribute to death of oligodendrocytes. Objective The goal of this study was to examine whether COX-2 contributes to excitotoxic death of oligodendrocytes and potentially contributes to demyelination. Methods The potential link between COX-2 and oligodendrocyte death was approached using histopathology of MS lesions to examine whether COX-2 was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes. COX-2 inhibitors were examined for their ability to limit demyelination in the TMEV-IDD model of MS and to limit excitotoxic death of oligodendrocytes in vitro. Genetic manipulation of COX-2 expression was used to determine whether COX-2 contributes to excitotoxic death of oligodendrocytes. A transgenic mouse line was generated that overexpressed COX-2 in oligodendrocytes. Oligodendrocyte cultures derived from these transgenic mice were used to examine whether increased expression of COX-2 enhanced the vulnerability of oligodendrocytes to excitotoxic death. Oligodendrocytes derived from COX-2 knockout mice were evaluated to determine if decreased COX-2 expression promotes a greater resistance to excitotoxic death. Results COX-2 was expressed in dying oligodendrocytes in MS lesions. COX-2 inhibitors limited demyelination in the TMEV-IDD model of MS and protected oligodendrocytes against excitotoxic death in vitro. COX-2 expression was increased in wild-type oligodendrocytes following treatment with Kainic acid (KA. Overexpression of COX-2 in oligodendrocytes increased the sensitivity of oligodendrocytes to KA-induced excitotoxic death eight-fold compared to wild-type. Conversely, oligodendrocytes prepared from COX-2 knockout mice showed a

  17. The AP-1 Transcription Factor c-Jun Promotes Arthritis by Regulating Cyclooxygenase-2 and Arginase-1 Expression in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Nicole; Jordan, Jutta; Paul, Sushmita; Reid, Stephen; Baenkler, Hanns-Wolf; Sonnewald, Sophia; Bäuerle, Tobias; Vera, Julio; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2017-05-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages is associated with the inflammatory state of rheumatoid arthritis. Their polarization and activation are controlled by transcription factors such as NF-κB and the AP-1 transcription factor member c-Fos. Surprisingly, little is known about the role of the AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun in macrophage activation. In this study, we show that mRNA and protein levels of c-Jun are increased in macrophages following pro- or anti-inflammatory stimulations. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment cluster analyses of microarray data using wild-type and c-Jun-deleted macrophages highlight the central function of c-Jun in macrophages, in particular for immune responses, IL production, and hypoxia pathways. Mice deficient for c-Jun in macrophages show an amelioration of inflammation and bone destruction in the serum-induced arthritis model. In vivo and in vitro gene profiling, together with chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of macrophages, revealed direct activation of the proinflammatory factor cyclooxygenase-2 and indirect inhibition of the anti-inflammatory factor arginase-1 by c-Jun. Thus, c-Jun regulates the activation state of macrophages and promotes arthritis via differentially regulating cyclooxygenase-2 and arginase-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Study of Osteoarthritis Treatment with Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor and Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsik Cho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with osteoarthritis (OA, a condition characterized by cartilage degradation, are often treated with steroids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Due to their inhibition of the inflammatory cascade, the drugs affect the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and inflammatory cytokines, resulting in preservation of extracellular matrix (ECM. To compare the effects of these treatments on chondrocyte metabolism, TNF-α was incubated with cultured chondrocytes to mimic a proinflammatory environment with increasing production of MMP-1 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. The chondrocytes were then treated with either a steroid (prednisone, a nonspecific COX inhibitor NSAID (piroxicam, or a COX-2 selective NSAID (celecoxib. Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased MMP-1 and PGE-2 production while the nonspecific piroxicam decreased only the latter. Both prednisone and celecoxib decreased gene expression of MMP-1 and increased expression of aggrecan. Increased gene expression of type II collagen was also noted with celecoxib. The nonspecific piroxicam did not show these effects. The efficacy of celecoxib in vivo was investigated using a posttraumatic OA (PTOA mouse model. In vivo, celecoxib increases aggrecan synthesis and suppresses MMP-1. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that celecoxib and steroids exert similar effects on MMP-1 and PGE2 production in vitro and that celecoxib may demonstrate beneficial effects on anabolic metabolism in vivo.

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 induction in macrophages is modulated by docosahexaenoic acid via interactions with free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinzhi; Yu, Ying; Funk, Colin D

    2013-12-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandins are implicated in numerous inflammatory disorders. The purpose of these studies was to examine previously unexplored interactions between COX-2 induction and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) via the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4) signaling pathway in murine RAW 264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DHA dose (IC50=18 μM)- and time-dependently reduced COX-2 expression, without affecting COX-1. DHA (25 μM for 24 h) decreased LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis by 81%, primarily through reducing COX-2 (60%), as well as down-regulating microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (46%), but independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. FFA4 knockdown abrogated DHA effects on COX-2 induction, PGE2 production, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene expression. In the presence of inhibitors of eicosanoid metabolism via COX-2, 12/15-lipoxygenase and CYP450s (rofecoxib (1 μM), PD146176 (2 μM), or MS-PPOH (20 μM)), DHA was still effective in attenuating COX-2 induction. Moreover, Toll-like receptor 4 signaling via Akt/JNK phosphorylation and p65 nuclear translocation was repressed by DHA-activated FFA4 coupling with β-arrestin 2, which was reversed by FFA4 knockdown. These data support DHA modulation of COX-2 expression and activity, in part, via FFA4, which provides a new mechanistic explanation for some of the anti-inflammatory effects of DHA.

  20. Expression of p63 and Cyclooxygenase-2 and Their Correlation in Skin Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan; LIU Houjun; LI Jiawen

    2007-01-01

    To study the expression of p63 and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) in skin tumors and evaluate the correlation between p63 and cox-2, the expressions of cox-2 and p63 were measured by streptavidin-peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique in 17 cases of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 19 cases of Bowen's disease(Bowen), 11 cases of actinic keratosis(AK), 12 cases of seborreic keratosis(SK) and 13 specimens of normal skin. Our results showed that the expression of p63 in skin squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while the expression of p63 in seborreic keratosis was significantly higher than that in normal skin. The expression of cox-2 in skin squamous cell carcinoma,Bowen's disease and actinic keratosis were significantly higher than that in seborreic keratosis, while no statistical difference was noted in the expression of cox-2 between seborreic keratosis and normal skin. Cox-2 expression was positively correlated with the high p63 expression in malignant skin tumors. The increased expression of cox-2 and p63 may play an important role in the development of skin tumors and work synergetically in malignant skin tumors.

  1. Impairment of the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification in vivo by inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MPF Janssen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported on the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition on osteogenesis. However, far less is known about the effects of COX-2 inhibition on chondrogenic differentiation. Previous studies conducted by our group show that COX-2 inhibition influences in vitro chondrogenic differentiation. Importantly, this might have consequences on endochondral ossification processes occurring in vivo, such as bone fracture healing, growth plate development and ectopic generation of cartilage. The goal of our study was to investigate, in vivo, the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on the cartilaginous phase of three different endochondral ossification scenarios. 10 mg/kg/day celecoxib or placebo were orally administered for 25 d to skeletally-immature New Zealand White rabbits (n = 6 per group. Endochondral ossification during fracture healing of a non-critical size defect in the ulna, femoral growth plate and ectopically-induced cartilaginous tissue were examined by radiography, micro-computed tomography (µ-CT, histology and gene expression analysis. Celecoxib treatment resulted in delayed bone fracture healing, alterations in growth plate development and progression of mineralisation. In addition, chondrogenic differentiation of ectopically-induced cartilaginous tissue was severely impaired by celecoxib. In conclusion, we found that celecoxib impaired the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification.

  2. Interferon-α and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor cooperatively mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chaohui, E-mail: zuochaohui@vip.sina.com [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Qiu, Xiaoxin [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Nianli; Yang, Darong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Xia, Man [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liu, Jingshi [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Xiaohong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); and others

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has recently been recognized to harbor therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of HCC, but it remains controversial as to whether IFN-α exerts direct cytotoxicity against HCC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in HCC and is considered to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the combined effect of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and IFN-α on in vitro growth suppression of HCC using the hepatoma cell line HLCZ01 and the in vivo nude mouse xenotransplantation model using HLCZ01 cells. Treatment with celecoxib and IFN-α synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was identified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride and fluorescent staining. IFN-α upregulated the expression of TRAIL, while celecoxib increased the expression of TRAIL receptors. The combined regimen with celecoxib and IFN-α reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice. The regulation of IFN-α- and COX-2 inhibitor-induced cell death is impaired in a subset of TRAIL-resistant cells. The molecular mechanisms of HCC cells resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were explored using molecular biological and immunological methods. Interferon-α and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib synergistically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. These data suggest that IFN-α and celecoxib may offer a novel role with important implications in designing new therapeutics for TRAIL-resistant tumors. - Highlights: ●The cytotoxic effect of TRAIL on a developed HCC HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●IFN-α and celecoxib induced apoptosis in HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●The combined regime reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice model.

  3. Detection of Cyclooxygenase-2-Derived Oxygenation Products of the Endogenous Cannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Amanda J; Kingsley, Philip J; Mitchener, Michelle M; Altemus, Megan; Patrick, Toni A; Gaulden, Andrew D; Marnett, Lawrence J; Patel, Sachin

    2018-05-09

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins, which are involved in immune regulation, vascular function, and synaptic signaling. COX-2 also inactivates the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via oxygenation of its arachidonic acid backbone to form a variety of prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs). Although this oxygenation reaction is readily observed in vitro and in intact cells, detection of COX-2-derived 2-AG oxygenation products has not been previously reported in neuronal tissue. Here we show that 2-AG is metabolized in the brain of transgenic COX-2-overexpressing mice and mice treated with lipopolysaccharide to form multiple species of PG-Gs that are detectable only when monoacylglycerol lipase is concomitantly blocked. Formation of these PG-Gs is prevented by acute pharmacological inhibition of COX-2. These data provide evidence that neuronal COX-2 is capable of oxygenating 2-AG to form a variety PG-Gs in vivo and support further investigation of the physiological functions of PG-Gs.

  4. Meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, supports hematopoietic recovery in gamma-irradiated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Znojil, V.; Holá, Jiřina; Vacek, Antonín; Weiterová, Lenka; Štreitová, Denisa; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 3 (2006), s. 556-560 ISSN 0033-7587 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : acute radiation disease * cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition * hematopoiesis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  5. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the truffle Elaphomyces granulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita Stanikunaite; Shabana I. Khan; James M. Trappe; Samir A. Ross

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of fruiting bodies of Elaphomyces granulatus, a truffle-like fungus, was evaluated for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Inhibition of COX-2 activity was evaluated in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7). The extract of E. granulatus caused a 68% inhibition of COX-2 activity at...

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in colorectal cancer prevention: point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, Nadir

    2008-08-01

    The limited success of current treatments for most advanced common malignancies highlights the importance of cancer prevention. Clinical trials on cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor drugs showed the potential of chemoprevention as a strategy for reducing cancer incidence, although not without associated side effects. The attractiveness of these drugs partly stems from an ability to engage multiple mechanisms of action by their potential to influence multiple components of the carcinogenesis pathway, from initiation to progression. There are two isoforms of the COX enzymes. COX-1 is constitutively expressed in normal tissues and serves as a "housekeeper" of mucosal integrity, whereas COX-2 is an immediate early response gene that is highly inducible by neoplastic and inflammatory stimuli. COX-2 is significantly overexpressed in colorectal neoplasms, making it an attractive therapeutic target. The drug market has been revolutionized by the development of preparations targeted selectively against COX-2, and a proof of concept has been achieved. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer is already possible with celecoxib, but it is still not the ultimate drug of choice especially because of the cardiovascular risk associated with COX-2 inhibitors. Better patient selection and more effective and safer drugs are needed. Celecoxib is probably best used in a subset of individuals at moderate to high colorectal cancer risk and low risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  8. Expression of integrin α3β1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) are positively correlated in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Anshu; Al-Rohil, Rami N; Batra, Anupam; Feustel, Paul J; Jones, David M; DiPersio, C Michael

    2014-01-01

    Expression of integrin α3β1 is associated with tumor progression, metastasis, and poor prognosis in several cancers, including breast cancer. Moreover, preclinical studies have revealed important pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic functions for this integrin, including tumor growth, survival, invasion, and paracrine induction of angiogenesis. Our previously published work in a preclinical breast cancer model showed that integrin α3β1 promotes expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2/PTGS2), a known driver of breast cancer progression. However, the clinical significance of this regulation was unknown. The objective of the current study was to assess the clinical relevance of the relationship between integrin α3β1 and COX2 by testing for their correlated expression among various forms of human breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess co-expression of α3 and COX2 in specimens of human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), either on a commercial tissue microarray (n = 59 samples) or obtained from Albany Medical Center archives (n = 68 samples). Immunostaining intensity for the integrin α3 subunit or COX2 was scored, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis was performed to assess their co-expression across and within different tumor subtypes or clinicopathologic criteria. Although expression of integrin α3 or COX2 varied among clinical IDC samples, a statistically significant, positive correlation was detected between α3 and COX2 in both tissue microarrays (r s = 0.49, p < 0.001, n = 59) and archived samples (r s = 0.59, p < 0.0001, n = 68). In both sample sets, this correlation was independent of hormone receptor status, histological grade, or disease stage. COX2 and α3 are correlated in IDC independently of hormone receptor status or other clinicopathologic features, supporting the hypothesis that integrin α3β1 is a determinant of COX2 expression in human breast cancer. These results support the clinical relevance of α3β1

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor is a robust enhancer of anticancer agents against hepatocellular carcinoma multicellular spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui J

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jie Cui,1,2 Ya-Huan Guo,3 Hong-Yi Zhang,4 Li-Li Jiang,1 Jie-Qun Ma,1 Wen-Juan Wang,1 Min-Cong Wang,1 Cheng-Cheng Yang,1 Ke-Jun Nan,1 Li-Ping Song5 1Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 2Department of Oncology, Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan'an, 3Department of Oncology, Shaanxi Province Cancer Hospital, Xi'an, 4Department of Urology, Yan'an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan'an, 5Department of Radiotherapy, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China Purpose: Celecoxib, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2, was investigated for enhancement of chemotherapeutic efficacy in cancer clinical trials. This study aimed to determine whether celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib is beneficial in HepG2 multicellular spheroids (MCSs, as well as elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods: The human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 MCSs were used as in vitro models to investigate the effects of celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib treatment on cell growth, apoptosis, and signaling pathway. Results: MCSs showed resistance to drugs compared with monolayer cells. Celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib exhibited a synergistic action. Exposure to celecoxib (21.8 µmol/L plus 5-fluorouracil (8.1 × 10-3 g/L or sorafenib (4.4 µmol/L increased apoptosis but exerted no effect on COX2, phosphorylated epidermal growth-factor receptor (p-EGFR and phosphorylated (p-AKT expression. Gefitinib (5 µmol/L, which exhibits no growth-inhibition activity as a single agent, increased the inhibitory effect of celecoxib. Gefitinib (5 µmol/L plus celecoxib (21.8 µmol/L increased apoptosis. COX2, p-EGFR, and p-AKT were inhibited. Conclusion: Celecoxib combined with 5-fluorouracil or sorafenib or gefitinib may be superior to single-agent therapy in HepG2

  10. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 in mice increases production of G-CSF and induces radioprotection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Holá, Jiřina; Vacek, Antonín; Štreitová, Denisa; Znojil, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 170, č. 5 (2008), s. 566-571 ISSN 0033-7587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cyclooxygenase 2 * G- CSF * meloxicam Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.043, year: 2008

  11. Role of the cyclooxygenase 2-thromboxane pathway in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced decrease in mesencephalic vein blood flow in the zebrafish embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Hiroki; Kubota, Akira; Dong, Wu; Kawai, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Koji; Mori, Chisato; Harada, Yoshiteru; Peterson, Richard E.; Hiraga, Takeo

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we reported that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) evoked developmental toxicity required activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor type 2 (AHR2), using zebrafish embryos. However, the downstream molecular targets of AHR2 activation are largely unknown and are the focus of the present investigation. TCDD induces cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), a rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis in certain cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of the COX2-thromboxane pathway in causing a specific endpoint of TCDD developmental toxicity in the zebrafish embryo, namely, a decrease in regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain. It was found that the TCDD-induced reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow was markedly inhibited by selective COX2 inhibitors, NS-398 and SC-236, and by a general COX inhibitor, indomethacin, but not by a selective COX1 inhibitor, SC-560. Gene knock-down of COX2 by two different types of morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, but not by their negative homologs, also protected the zebrafish embryos from mesencephalic vein circulation failure caused by TCDD. This inhibitory effect of TCDD on regional blood flow in the dorsal midbrain was also blocked by selective antagonists of the thromboxane receptor (TP). Treatment of control zebrafish embryos with a TP agonist also caused a reduction in mesencephalic vein blood flow and it too was blocked by a TP antagonist, without any effect on trunk circulation. Finally, gene knock-down of thromboxane A synthase 1 (TBXS) with morpholinos but not by the morpholinos' negative homologs provided significant protection against TCDD-induced mesencephalic circulation failure. Taken together, these results point to a role of the prostanoid synthesis pathway via COX2-TBXS-TP in the local circulation failure induced by TCDD in the dorsal midbrain of the zebrafish embryo

  12. Analysis of angiogenic factors and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors: clinical and histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fontes Cintra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To study the role of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in cartilaginous tumors and correlate these factors with prognosis. INTRODUCTION: For chondrosarcoma, the histological grade is the current standard for predicting tumor outcome. However, a low-grade chondrosarcoma can follow an aggressive course-as monitored by sequential imaging techniques-even when it is histologically indistinguishable from an enchondroma. Therefore, additional tools are needed to help identify the biological potential of these tumors. The degree of angiogenesis that is induced by the tumor could assist in this task. Angiogenesis can be quantified by measuring the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and CD34, and cyclooxygenase-2 can induce angiogenesis by stimulating the production of proangiogenic factors. METHODS: In total, 21 enchondromas and 58 conventional chondrosarcomas were studied by examining the clinical and histopathological findings in conjunction with the immunostaining markers of angiogenesis and cyclooxygenase- 2 expression. RESULTS: The significant variables that were associated with poor outcome were 1 higher-grade chondrosarcomas, 2 tumors that developed in flat bones, and 3 over-expression of CD34 (with a median count that was higher than 5.9 vessels in 5 high power fields. Moreover, CD34 expression (measured using the Chalkley method revealed significantly higher microvessel density in flat bone chondrosarcomas. DISCUSSION: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between Chalkley microvessel density and histological grade; however, in our sample, we found that the former is predictive of the outcome. Chondrosarcomas in flat bones have been shown to correlate with a poor prognosis. We also found that CD34 microvessel density values were significantly higher in flat-bone chondrosarcomas. This could explain-at least in part-the more aggressive biological course that is taken by these tumors. CONCLUSIONS

  13. The potential role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in the treatment of experimentally-induced mammary tumour: does celecoxib enhance the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Wageh M; El-Sisi, Alaa E; El-Sayad, Magda E; Goda, Ahmed E

    2004-11-01

    The potential anti-tumour activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) has been previously discussed. This study was undertaken to assess the possible anti-tumour activity of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor; celecoxib in an animal model of mammary carcinoma; the solid Ehrlich carcinoma (SEC). The possibility that celecoxib may modulate the anti-tumour activity of doxorubicin on the SEC was also studied. Some of the possible mechanisms underlying such modulation were investigated. The anti-tumour activity of celecoxib (25 mg kg(-1)), diclofenac (12.5 mg kg(-1)) and doxorubicin (2 mg kg(-1)) either alone or in combination were investigated on SEC in vivo through the assessment of tumour growth delay (TGD) and tumour volume (TV), changes in tumour DNA content and nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical staining of the tumour suppressor gene product; p53 histopathological examination and determination of apoptotic index of SEC. In addition, the influence of these drugs on the DNA fragmentation pattern of Ehrlich carcinoma cells (ECC) was studied. It was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac lack the anti-tumour activity on SEC. In addition there was a significant increase in doxorubicin anti-tumour activity when administered in combination with celecoxib. Moreover, it was found that both celecoxib and diclofenac have the potential to inhibit the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in ECC using rhodamine uptake and efflux assays. Therefore, the current study suggested the chemosensitizing potential of celecoxib in the SEC animal model of mammary tumour, which could be explained in part on the basis of inhibition of P-gp function, with possible enhancement of doxorubicin anti-tumour activity.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and free flap complications after autologous breast reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Christian; Khorasani, Hoda; Hoejvig, Jens

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key component of modern analgesics is the use of multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia (MOSA). In the past, our analgesic regime after autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) included either NSAID or a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors are superior to NSAID...... or gastrointestinal bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: Multimodal analgesia using a COX-2 inhibitor is safe in ABR with free flaps and does not increase flap failure. COX-2 inhibitors seem superior to NSAID with reduced risk of post-operative haematomas.......BACKGROUND: A key component of modern analgesics is the use of multimodal opioid-sparing analgesia (MOSA). In the past, our analgesic regime after autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) included either NSAID or a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. COX-2 inhibitors are superior to NSAIDs...... because of the well-known side effects of NSAID treatment (bleeding/gastrointestinal ulcers). However, COX-2 inhibitors have been suggested to increase flap failure rates. We report our experience in using COX-2 inhibitors as part of our post-operative MOSA after ABR using free flaps. MATERIALS...

  15. IgD, cyclooxygenase-2 and ribosomal protein S6-PS240 immune response in a case of early psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disease. Five classic types of psoriasis have been defined: plaque, inverse, pustular, guttate, and erythrodermic. The early psoriasis immunologic skin immune response is not well understood. Here we aim to show an immune and cell signaling response in a case of early psoriasis. A 56 year old female presented with a desquamative lesion on her right leg. A skin biopsy for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was taken. The diagnosis indicated early psoriasis, and IHC showed positive IgD staining in the epidermal corneal layer, as well as positive staining with ribosomal protein S6-pS240 (RIBO in the hyperproliferative epidermis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 was also very positive in the granular layer in spots, at the basement membrane zone of the skin and in the inflammatory infiltrate in the dermis subjacent to hyperproliferative psoriatic areas. In an early case of psoriasis, we confirmed the presence of IgD, RIBO and COX-2. Each molecule seems to be playing a role in inflammation and intracellular signaling pathways in early psoriasis. The role of IgD is unknown, and this case brings to light the complexity of the pathologic changes occurring in early psoriatic lesions.

  16. [Specific inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): current knowledge and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioda, W T; Nervetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The Authors summarize the current knowledge on a new class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the coxib (celecoxib and rofecoxib), in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. Celecoxib and rofecoxib are selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors which possess the same anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, but a better gastric tolerability compared to the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. The Authors also report other possible therapeutic effects of these NSADIs as evidenced by the more recent data of the literature. Celecoxib seems to reduce the incidence of new polyps in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. It has been suggested the use of celecoxib as a protective drug against the development of colorectal cancer. Other (neoplastic) or pre-neoplastic conditions, such as bladder dysplasia, Barret esophagus, attinic keratosis and Alzheimer's disease seem to have benefit from this class of drugs.

  17. Binding of indomethacin methyl ester to cyclooxygenase-2. A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárosi, Menyhárt-Botond

    2018-06-05

    Inhibitors selective towards the second isoform of prostaglandin synthase (cyclooxygenase, COX-2) are promising nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antitumor medications. Methylation of the carboxylate group in the relatively nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin confers significant COX-2 selectivity. Several other modifications converting indomethacin into a COX-2 selective inhibitor have been reported. Earlier experimental and computational studies on neutral indomethacin derivatives suggest that the methyl ester derivative likely binds to COX-2 with a similar binding mode as that observed for the parent indomethacin. However, docking studies followed by molecular dynamics simulations revealed two possible binding modes in COX-2 for indomethacin methyl ester, which differs from the experimental binding mode found for indomethacin. Both alternative binding modes might explain the observed COX-2 selectivity of indomethacin methyl ester. Graphical abstract Binding of indomethacin methyl ester to cyclooxygenase-2.

  18. Areca nut extract up-regulates prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA and protein expression of human oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, J H; Ho, Y S; Chan, C P; Wang, Y J; Hahn, L J; Lei, D; Hsu, C C; Chang, M C

    2000-07-01

    There are about 600 million betel quid (BQ) chewers in the world. BQ chewing is associated with increased incidence of oral cancer and submucous fibrosis. In this study, areca nut (AN) extract (200-800 microg/ml) induced the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production by 1. 4-3.4-fold and 6-keto-PGF(1 alpha) production by 1.1-1.7-fold of gingival keratinocytes (GK), respectively, following 24 h of exposure. Exposure of GK to AN extract (>400 microg/ml) led to cell retraction and intracellular vacuoles formation. At concentrations of 800 and 1200 microg/ml, AN extract induced cell death at 21-24 and 32-52% as detected by MTT assay and cellular lactate dehydrogenase release, respectively. Interestingly, AN-induced morphological changes of GK are reversible. GK can still proliferate following exposure to AN extract. Cytotoxicity of AN extract cannot be inhibited by indomethacin (1 microM) and aspirin (50 microM), indicating that prostaglandin (PG) production is not the major factor responsible for AN cytotoxicity. PGE(2) exhibited little effect on the growth of GK at concentrations ranging from 100-1000 pg/ml. Stimulating GK production of PGs by AN extract could be due to induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression and protein production. These results suggest that AN ingredients are critical in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis and oral cancer via their stimulatory effects on the PGs, COX-2 production and associated tissue inflammatory responses. AN cytotoxicity to GK is not directly mediated by COX-2 stimulation and PG production.

  19. Chemosensitization of Breast Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents by 3,3’diindolylmethane (DIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    therapies. However, further in-depth investigations are needed to establish the cause and effect relationship of survivin gene regulation and 3,3V...Basu GD, Pathangey LB, Tinder TL, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous

  20. Chemosensitization of Breast Cancer Cells to Chemotherapeutic Agents by 3,3’-Diindolylmethane (DIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    therapies. However, further in-depth investigations are needed to establish the cause and effect relationship of survivin gene regulation and 3,3V...GD, Pathangey LB, Tinder TL, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic

  1. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or nonselective NSAIDs plus gastroprotective agents: What to prescribe in daily clinical practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M.C. Masclee (Gwen); V.E. Valkhoff (Vera); E.M. van Soest; R. Schade (René); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); M. Molokhia (Mariam); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); J.L. Goldstein; S. Hernández-Díaz (Sonia); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Two strategies for prevention of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) events for nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (nsNSAID) users are replacement of the nsNSAID by a cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective inhibitor (coxib) or co-prescription of a gastroprotective agent (GPA). Aim

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) Polymorphisms and Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Scottish and Danish Case–Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Nimmo, Elaine; Krarup, Henrik B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a result of interactions between luminal pathogens and the intestinal immune response. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response upon stimulation by luminal pathogens via Toll-like receptors. Methods...

  3. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 impacts chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation during endochondral ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJM Welting

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletogenesis and bone fracture healing involve endochondral ossification, a process during which cartilaginous primordia are gradually replaced by bone tissue. In line with a role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the endochondral ossification process, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs were reported to negatively affect bone fracture healing due to impaired osteogenesis. However, a role for COX-2 activity in the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification has not been addressed before. We show that COX-2 activity fulfils an important regulatory function in chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. Our data reveal essential cross-talk between COX-2 and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2 during chondrocyte hypertrophic differentiation. BMP-2 mediated chondrocyte hypertrophy is associated with increased COX-2 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-2 activity by NSAIDs (e.g., Celecoxib decreases hypertrophic differentiation in various chondrogenic models in vitro and in vivo, while leaving early chondrogenic development unaltered. Our findings demonstrate that COX-2 activity is a novel factor partaking in chondrocyte hypertrophy in the context of endochondral ossification and these observations provide a novel etiological perspective on the adverse effects of NSAIDs on bone fracture healing and have important implications for the use of NSAIDs during endochondral skeletal development.

  4. Impact of Wines and Wine Constituents on Cyclooxygenase-1, Cyclooxygenase-2, and 5-Lipoxygenase Catalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsofia Kutil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases are proinflammatory enzymes; the former affects platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation and later the development of atherosclerosis. Red wines from Georgia and central and western Europe inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 activity in the range of 63–94%, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 activity in the range of 20–44% (tested at a concentration of 5 mL/L, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX activity in the range of 72–84% (at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L. White wines inhibited 5-LOX in the range of 41–68% at a concentration of 18.87 mL/L and did not inhibit COX-1 and COX-2. Piceatannol (IC50 = 0.76 μM was identified as a strong inhibitor of 5-LOX followed by luteolin (IC50 = 2.25 μM, quercetin (IC50 = 3.29 μM, and myricetin (IC50 = 4.02 μM. trans-Resveratrol was identified as an inhibitor of COX-1 (IC50 = 2.27 μM and COX-2 (IC50 = 3.40 μM. Red wine as a complex mixture is a powerful inhibitor of COX-1, COX-2, and 5-LOX, the enzymes involved in eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway.

  5. Predictive utility of cyclo-oxygenase-2 expression by colon and rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Prabhu, Kristel C; Vu, Lan; Chan, Simon K; Phang, Terry; Gown, Allen; Jones, Steven J; Wiseman, Sam M

    2014-05-01

    Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible enzyme expressed in areas of inflammation, is a target of interest for colorectal cancer therapy. Currently, the predictive significance of COX-2 in colorectal cancer remains unclear. Tissue microarrays were constructed using 118 colon cancer and 85 rectal cancer specimens; 44 synchronous metastatic colon cancer and 22 rectal cancer lymph nodes were also evaluated. COX-2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis was used to determine the predictive significance of clinicopathologic variables. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival were the main outcomes examined. COX-2 was found to be expressed in 93% of colon cancers and 87% of rectal cancers. Decreased COX-2 expression was related to decreased disease-specific survival (P = .016) and decreased disease-free survival (P = .019) in the rectal cancer cohort but not in the colon cancer cohort. COX-2 expression has predictive utility for management of rectal but not colon cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Chronic Gastritis and Gastric Carcinoma, Correlation with Prognostic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaka, R.M.; Abdou, A.G.; Abd El-Wahed, M.M.; Kandil, M.A.; El-Kady, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is the inducible form of cyclooxygenase enzyme. Cox-2 is induced in numerous processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Purpose: Assessment of Cox-2 expression in chronic gastritis s and gastric carcinoma. Material and Methods: Sixteen chronic gastritis (CG) and 43 gastric carcinoma cases were subjected to an immunohistochemical approach using anti Cox-2 antibody. Results: All CG cases displayed positive epithelial Cox-2 expression with only 25% positivity for stromal expression. Eighty six percent of gastric carcinoma showed epithelial Cox-2 expression that was significantly correlated with lymph node involvement (p=0.01), advanced stage (p=0.01), high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0001), vascular invasion (p=0.002), peri neural invasion (p=0.0 I) and low apoptotic count (p<0.0001). Stromal Cox-2 expression was seen in 79% of gastric carcinoma cases and was significantly associated with low apoptotic count (p=0.0007), vascular invasion (p=0.001) and high micro vessel density (MVD) (p=0.0003). Only stromal Cox2 expression was significantly higher in gastric carcinoma than chronic gastritis (p=0.0001). Conclusions: Cox-2 appears to be involved in gastric carcinoma progression as it promotes angio genesis, suppresses apoptosis and facilitates invasion and metastasis Double expression of Cox-2 in gastric carcinoma epithelium and stroma and significant association between them demonstrate a paracrine cross effect between stromal and malignant epithelium

  7. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors. Synthesis and pharmacological activities of 5-methanesulfonamido-1-indanone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C S; Black, W C; Chan, C C; Ford-Hutchinson, A W; Gauthier, J Y; Gordon, R; Guay, D; Kargman, S; Lau, C K; Mancini, J

    1995-12-08

    The recent discovery of an alternative form cyclooxygenase (cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2), which has been proposed to play a significant role in inflammatory conditions, may provide an opportunity to develop anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects than existing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We have now identified 6-[(2,4-difluorophenyl)-thio]-5-methanesulfonamido-1-indanone++ + (20) (L-745,337) as a potent, selective, and orally active COX-2 inhibitor. The structure-activity relationships in this series have been extensively studied. Ortho- and para-substituted 6-phenyl substitutents are optimal for in vitro potency. Replacement of this phenyl ring by a variety of heterocycles gave compounds that were less active. The methanesulfonamido group seems to be the optimal group at the 5-position of the indanone system. Compound 20 has an efficacy profile that is superior or comparable to that of the nonselective COX inhibitor indomethacin in animal models of inflammation, pain, and fever and appears to be nonulcerogenic within the dosage ranges required for functional efficacy. Although 20 and its oxygen linkage analog 2 (flosulide) are equipotent in the in vitro assays, compound 20 is more potent in the rat paw edema assay, has a longer t1/2 in squirrel monkeys, and seems less ulcergenic than 2 in rats.

  8. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in porcine macula densa with chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommareddy, M; McAllister, R M; Ganjam, V K; Turk, J R; Laughlin, M Harold

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the macula densa (MD) of swine, as well as the effects on expression of related proteins. Adult female Yucatan swine were given either tap water (control, n = 6) or water with N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/liter, n = 5) for a minimum of 30 days. Duplicate samples of kidney were fixed or snap frozen. There was a significant (P = .0082) upregulation of COX-2 mRNA expression in the MD of L-NAME, as well as an apparent increase in COX-2 protein. Plasma renin activity also increased with L-NAME treatment (control, 0.34 ± 0.08 ng/ml; L-NAME, 1.26 ± 0.03 ng/ml; P = .00000003). There were no differences between groups in expression of either inducible NOS or renin protein or in serum electrolyte concentrations. In conclusion, with chronic inhibition of NOS, COX-2 in MD is upregulated, perhaps to compensate for loss of nitric oxide. Increases in COX-2 products may counteract renal arteriolar constriction and sustain renin release.

  9. Preferential Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors as a Nonhormonal Method of Emergency Contraception: A Look at the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Erich A; Gandhi, Mona

    2016-04-01

    To review the literature surrounding the use of preferential cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors as an alternative form of emergency contraception. MEDLINE (1950 to February 2014) was searched using the key words cyclooxygenase or COX-2 combined with contraception, emergency contraception, or ovulation. Results were limited to randomized control trials, controlled clinical trials, and clinical trials. Human trials that measured the effects of COX inhibition on female reproductive potential were included for review. The effects of the COX-2 inhibitors rofecoxib, celecoxib, and meloxicam were evaluated in 6 trials. Each of which was small in scope, enrolled women of variable fertility status, used different dosing regimens, included multiple end points, and had variable results. Insufficient evidence exists to fully support the use of preferential COX-2 inhibitors as a form of emergency contraception. Although all trials resulted in a decrease in ovulatory cycles, outcomes varied between dosing strategies and agents used. A lack of homogeneity in these studies makes comparisons difficult. However, success of meloxicam in multiple trials warrants further study. Larger human trials are necessary before the clinical utility of this method of emergency contraception can be fully appreciated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Cyclooxygenase-2 Selectively Controls Renal Blood Flow Through a Novel PPARβ/δ-Dependent Vasodilator Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Sampaio, Walkyria; Etelvino, Gisele; Alves, Daniele T; Anders, Katie L; Temponi, Rafael; Shala, Fisnik; Nair, Anitha S; Ahmetaj-Shala, Blerina; Jiao, Jing; Herschman, Harvey R; Xiaomeng, Wang; Wahli, Walter; Santos, Robson A; Mitchell, Jane A

    2018-02-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme expressed in inflammation and cancer targeted by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. COX-2 is also expressed constitutively in discreet locations where its inhibition drives gastrointestinal and cardiovascular/renal side effects. Constitutive COX-2 expression in the kidney regulates renal function and blood flow; however, the global relevance of the kidney versus other tissues to COX-2-dependent blood flow regulation is not known. Here, we used a microsphere deposition technique and pharmacological COX-2 inhibition to map the contribution of COX-2 to regional blood flow in mice and compared this to COX-2 expression patterns using luciferase reporter mice. Across all tissues studied, COX-2 inhibition altered blood flow predominantly in the kidney, with some effects also seen in the spleen, adipose, and testes. Of these sites, only the kidney displayed appreciable local COX-2 expression. As the main site where COX-2 regulates blood flow, we next analyzed the pathways involved in kidney vascular responses using a novel technique of video imaging small arteries in living tissue slices. We found that the protective effect of COX-2 on renal vascular function was associated with prostacyclin signaling through PPARβ/δ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ). These data demonstrate the kidney as the principle site in the body where local COX-2 controls blood flow and identifies a previously unreported PPARβ/δ-mediated renal vasodilator pathway as the mechanism. These findings have direct relevance to the renal and cardiovascular side effects of drugs that inhibit COX-2, as well as the potential of the COX-2/prostacyclin/PPARβ/δ axis as a therapeutic target in renal disease. © 2018 The Authors.

  11. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

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    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  12. Bioassay-guided supercritical fluid extraction of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting substances in Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenholm, A; Göransson, U; Bohlin, L

    2013-02-01

    Selective extraction of plant materials is advantageous for obtaining extracts enriched with desired constituents, thereby reducing the need for subsequent chromatography purification. Such compounds include three cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitory substances in Plantago major L. targeted in this investigation: α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) (18:3 ω-3) and the triterpenic acids ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. To investigate the scope for tuning the selectivity of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using bioassay guidance, and Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane as solvent as a reference technique, to optimise yields of these substances. Extraction parameters were varied to optimise extracts' COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratios. The crude extracts were purified initially using a solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up procedure and the target compounds were identified with GC-MS, LC-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS² using GC-FID for quantification. α-LNA was preferentially extracted in dynamic mode using unmodified carbon dioxide at 40°C and 172 bar, at a 0.04% (w/w) yield with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.5. Ursolic and oleanolic acids were dynamically extracted at 0.25% and 0.06% yields, respectively, with no traces of (α-LNA) and a COX-2/COX-1-inhibitory effect ratio of 1.1 using 10% (v/v) ethanol as polar modifier at 75°C and 483 bar. The Soxhlet extracts had ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and αLNA yields up to 1.36%, 0.34% and 0.15%, respectively, with a COX-2/COX-1 inhibitory effect ratio of 1.2. The target substances can be extracted selectively by bioassay guided optimisation of SFE conditions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Suppression of follicular rupture with meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor: potential for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesam, Cristián; Salvatierra, Ana María; Schwartz, Jill L; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2010-02-01

    There is evidence that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors can prevent or delay follicular rupture. COX-2 inhibitors, such as meloxicam, may offer advantages over emergency contraception with levonorgestrel, such as extending the therapeutic window for up to 24 h. We assessed the effect of meloxicam administered in the late follicular phase upon ovulation in women. This was a single center, double blind, crossover study designed to assess the effects in 27 eligible women (18-40 years old, surgically sterilized with regular menstrual cycles) of meloxicam, 15 or 30 mg/day, administered orally for five consecutive days during the late follicular phase, starting when the leading follicle reached 18 mm diameter. Volunteers underwent two treatment cycles separated by one resting cycle, with randomization to dose sequence. Main outcomes were follicular rupture; serum LH, progesterone and estradiol (E2) levels; and incidence of adverse events. Twenty-two volunteers completed the study. There were no differences between meloxicam doses in menstrual cycle length. Dysfunctional ovulation was observed in 11/22 (50%) cycles treated with 15 mg/day and 20/22 (90.9%) cycles with 30 mg/day (P = 0.0068). All women had normal luteal phase progesterone levels; mean maximal values +/- SEM were 42 +/- 4.1 and 46.8 +/- 2.6 nmol/l for 15 and 30 mg/day groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events, and no changes in LH and E2 levels or in cycle length. Meloxicam 30 mg given for five consecutive days in the late follicular phase is safe, effective and may be an alternative form of emergency contraception.

  14. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib attenuates joint contracture following immobilization in rat knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Junya; Kaneguchi, Akinori; Tanaka, Ryo; Kito, Nobuhiro; Moriyama, Hideki

    2016-10-24

    The aim of this study is to clarify the following two points: First, whether a cyclooxygenase-2 mediated pathway is involved in the formation of immobilization-induced joint contracture and, second, the effectiveness of oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib (CBX) for the prevention of myogenic and arthrogenic contracture following immobilization in a rat model. Thirty male rats were randomly divided into three groups: immobilization (Im), Im + CBX, and control (n = 10 each). External fixation immobilized the right knee joint of Im and Im + CBX groups in flexion for 3 weeks. 50 mg/kg of CBX was administrated daily to the Im + CBX group during this period. The passive range of motion (ROM) of knee joints was measured before and after transection of knee flexor muscles and myogenic and arthrogenic ROM restrictions were calculated. The semitendinosus muscles and knee joints were investigated histologically to elucidate factors responsible for contracture. Myogenic ROM restrictions were exhibited both in Im and Im + CBX groups (44 ± 5 and 36 ± 8 °, respectively), but restrictions significantly decreased in the Im + CBX group compared to the Im group. Significant reductions of the muscle length ratios (Rt/Lt) and sarcomere number ratios (Rt/Lt) in knee flexor semitendinosus muscle, which are responsible for myogenic contracture, were also seen both in Im group (92 ± 5 and 92 ± 4 %, respectively) and Im + CBX group (97 ± 3 and 97 ± 3 %, respectively), but were inhibited by CBX administration (P muscle shortening following immobilization. These results imply that inflammation and nociception are involved in myogenic contracture formation independently of joint immobilization, and that CBX is effective in preventing joint contracture following immobilization in rats.

  15. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 reduces hypothalamic excitation in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure.

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    Min Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The paraventricular nucleus (PVN of the hypothalamus plays an important role in the progression of heart failure (HF. We investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition in the PVN attenuates the activities of sympathetic nervous system (SNS and renin-angiotensin system (RAS in rats with adriamycin-induced heart failure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Heart failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of adriamycin over a period of 2 weeks (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg. On day 19, rats received intragastric administration daily with either COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (CLB or normal saline. Treatment with CLB reduced mortality and attenuated both myocardial atrophy and pulmonary congestion in HF rats. Compared with the HF rats, ventricle to body weight (VW/BW and lung to body weight (LW/BW ratios, heart rate (HR, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (LV±dp/dtmax were improved in HF+CLB rats. Angiotensin II (ANG II, norepinephrine (NE, COX-2 and glutamate (Glu in the PVN were increased in HF rats. HF rats had higher levels of ANG II and NE in plasma, higher level of ANG II in myocardium, and lower levels of ANP in plasma and myocardium. Treatment with CLB attenuated these HF-induced changes. HF rats had more COX-2-positive neurons and more corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH positive neurons in the PVN than did control rats. Treatment with CLB decreased COX-2-positive neurons and CRH positive neurons in the PVN of HF rats. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PVN COX-2 may be an intermediary step for PVN neuronal activation and excitatory neurotransmitter release, which further contributes to sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure. Treatment with COX-2 inhibitor attenuates sympathoexcitation and RAS activation in adriamycin-induced heart failure.

  16. A single dose of an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2, meloxicam, administered shortly after irradiation increases survival of lethally irradiated mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Weiterová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, č. 2 (2011), s. 269-272 ISSN 0033-7587 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0128 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition * lethal irradiation * survival Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.684, year: 2011

  17. cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway in hippocampus mediates cyclooxygenase 2-induced learning/memory deficits of rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Kuang, Shengnan; Li, Huan; Ran, Dongzhi; Yang, Junqing

    2017-05-30

    To investigate the mechanism of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in learning and memory impairments in rats subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), meloxicam was used intragastrically to inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase 2. Moreover, cyclooxygenase 2 over-expressing or RNA interfere lentivirus was injected intraventricularly to increase or decrease the enzyme's expression, respectively. The body weights and sucrose consumption were used to analyze depressive behaviors, while the Morris water maze and step-down-type passive avoidance tests were carried out to evaluate the learning-memory functions. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured to estimate inflammation and the contents of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were used to measure the levels of the second messenger. Changes in cyclooxygenase 2 mRNA levels were analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, the expression of cyclooxygenase 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), prostaglandins receptor 3 (EP3), protein kinase A (PKA), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and phosphorylated CREB were estimated using immunohistochemical staining or western blotting. The results showed that CUMS led to significant depressive-like behaviors and learning and memory dysfunctions. Also, the cAMP levels decreased significantly, while levels of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins E2 increased significantly. The expressions of PKA, BDNF, phosphorylated CREB/CREB declined and cyclooxygenase 2 was increased. Meloxicam and cyclooxygenase 2 RNA interfere lentivirus reversed the changes caused by CUMS while cyclooxygenase 2-overexpressing lentivirus worsened these abnormalities. The findings also showed that CUMS increased cyclooxygenase 2 expression, which can cause learning and memory impairments, mainly through activating the hippocampal neuronal cAMP/PKA-CREB-BDNF signaling pathways.

  18. VEGF selectively induces Down syndrome critical region 1 gene expression in endothelial cells: a mechanism for feedback regulation of angiogenesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.-G; Duh, Elia J.

    2004-01-01

    The Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) gene (also known as MCIP1, Adapt78) encodes a regulatory protein that binds to calcineurin catalytic A subunit and acts as a regulator of the calcineurin-mediated signaling pathway. We show in this study that DSCR1 is greatly induced in endothelial cells in response to VEGF, TNF-α, and A23187 treatment, and that this up-regulation is inhibited by inhibitors of the calcineurin-NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) signaling pathway as well as by PKC inhibition and a Ca 2+ chelator. We hypothesized that the up-regulation of DSCR1 gene expression in endothelial cells could act as an endogenous feedback inhibitor for angiogenesis by regulating the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway. Our transient transfection analyses confirm that the overexpression of DSCR1 abrogates the up-regulation of reporter gene expression driven by both the cyclooxygenase 2 and DSCR1 promoters in response to stimulators. Our results indicate that DSCR1 up-regulation may represent a potential molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of angiogenic genes activated by the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway in endothelial cells

  19. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene & Cell Therapy Defined Gene therapy and cell therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research that aim to repair the direct cause of genetic diseases. Read More Gene & Cell Therapy FAQ's Read the most common questions raised by ...

  20. Prostate Tumor Growth Can Be Modulated by Dietarily Targeting the 15-Lipoxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase-2 Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddhav P. Kelavkar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of our study were to determine the bioavailability of omega-3 (ω-3 to the tumor, to understand its mechanisms, and to determine the feasibility of targeting the ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs metabolizing 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 pathways. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with LAPC-4 prostate cancer cells were randomly divided into three different isocaloric (and same percent [%] of total fat diet groups: high ω-6 linoleic acid (LA, high ω-3 stearidonic acid (SDA PUFAs, and normal (control diets. Tumor growth and apoptosis were examined as end points after administration of short-term (5 weeks ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acid diets. Tumor tissue membranes were examined for growth, lipids, enzyme activities, apoptosis, and proliferation. Tumors from the LA diet-fed mice exhibited the most rapid growth compared with tumors from the control and SDA diet-fed mice. Moreover, a diet switch from LA to SDA caused a dramatic decrease in the growth of tumors in 5 weeks, whereas tumors grew more aggressively when mice were switched from an SDA to an LA diet. Evaluating tumor proliferation (Ki-67 and apoptosis (caspase-3 in mice fed the LA and SDA diets suggested increased percentage proliferation index from the ω-6 diet-fed mice compared with the tumors from the ω-3 SDA-fed mice. Further, increased apoptosis was observed in tumors from ω-3 SDA diet-fed mice versus tumors from ω-6 diet-fed mice. Levels of membrane phospholipids of red blood cells reflected dietary changes and correlated with the levels observed in tumors. Linoleic or arachidonic acid and metabolites (eicosanoid/prostaglandins were analyzed for 15-LO-1 and COX-2 activities by high-performance liquid chromatography. We also examined the percent unsaturated or saturated fatty acids in the total phospholipids, PUFA ω-6/ω-3 ratios, and other major enzymes (elongase, Delta [Δ]-5-desaturase, and Δ-6-desaturase of ω-6 catabolic

  1. Effects of a cyclooxygenase-2 preferential inhibitor in young healthy dogs exposed to air pollution: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Carrasco-Portugal, Miriam Del C; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco J; Pérez-Guillé, Gabriela; Osnaya, Norma; Juárez-Olguín, Hugo; Monroy, Maria E; Monroy, Silvia; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Maronpot, Robert R

    2009-08-01

    Residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in healthy children, young adults, and dogs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may offer neuroprotection. The authors measured the plasma concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine and the cerebro-spinal-fluid concentrations of prostaglandin E2 metabolite and the oligomeric form of amyloid derived diffusible ligand; measured the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1beta, CD14, and Aquaporin-4 in target brain areas; and evaluated brain MRI, cognition, and neuropathology in 8 dogs treated with a preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (Nimesulide) versus 7 untreated litter-matched Mexico City dogs. Nimesulide significantly decreased nitrotyrosine in plasma (p < .0001), frontal gray IL1beta (p = .03), and heart IL1beta (p = .02). No effect was seen in mRNA COX2, amyloid, and PGE2 in CSF or the MRI white matter lesions. All exposed dogs exhibited olfactory bulb and frontal accumulation of Abeta(42) in neurons and blood vessels and frontal vascular subcortical pathology. White matter hyperintense MRI frontal lesions were seen in 4/6 non-treated and 6/8 treated dogs. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may offer limited neuroprotection in the setting of severe air pollution exposures. The search for potentially beneficial drugs useful to ameliorate the brain effects of pollution represents an enormous clinical challenge.

  2. Inhibition of rotavirus ECwt infection in ICR suckling mice by N-acetylcysteine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Guerrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Live attenuated vaccines have recently been introduced for preventing rotavirus disease in children. However, alternative strategies for prevention and treatment of rotavirus infection are needed mainly in developing countries where low vaccine coverage occurs. In the present work, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, ascorbic acid (AA, some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonists were tested for their ability to interfere with rotavirus ECwt infectivity as detected by the percentage of viral antigen-positive cells of small intestinal villi isolated from ECwt-infected ICR mice. Administration of 6 mg NAC/kg every 8 h for three days following the first diarrhoeal episode reduced viral infectivity by about 90%. Administration of AA, ibuprofen, diclofenac, pioglitazone or rosiglitazone decreased viral infectivity by about 55%, 90%, 35%, 32% and 25%, respectively. ECwt infection of mice increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ERp57, Hsc70, NF-κB, Hsp70, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI and PPARγ in intestinal villus cells. NAC treatment of ECwt-infected mice reduced Hsc70 and PDI expression to levels similar to those observed in villi from uninfected control mice. The present results suggest that the drugs tested in the present work could be assayed in preventing or treating rotaviral diarrhoea in children and young animals.

  3. Cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor mRNA expression in equine cumulus-oocyte complexes cultured in vitro in the presence of FSH and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiudi Giulio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and expression of connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 and FSH receptor transcripts in equine cumuli oophori during in vivo and in vitro maturation in the presence of equine FSH (eFSH and precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. Equine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC were cultured in a control defined medium supplemented with eFSH (0 to 5 micrograms/ml, Fetal Calf Serum (FCS, precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis or glutamine according to the experiments. After in vitro maturation, the cumulus expansion rate was increased with 1 microgram/ml eFSH, and was the highest with 20% FCS. It was not influenced by precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis or glutamine. The expression of transcripts related to cumulus expansion was analyzed in equine cumulus cells before maturation, and after in vivo and in vitro maturation, by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR with specific primers. Connexin 43, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and FSH receptor (FSHr mRNA were detected in equine cumulus cells before and after maturation. Their level did not vary during in vivo or in vitro maturation and was influenced neither by FSH nor by precursors for hyaluronic acid synthesis. Results indicate that previously reported regulation of connexin 43 and COX-2 proteins during equine COC maturation may involve post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  4. Preparation of procyanidin B2 from apple pomace and its inhibitory effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dimeric procyanidin B2 (PB2 is one of phenolic compounds in apple pomace, an agro-industrial byproduct in apple juice processing. This work focused on purification of PB2 from apple pomace using sephadex column chromatography and its potential effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation using RAW264.7 macrophages. PB2 with the purity of 72.28 ± 1.85% was successfully afforded using resin and gel column chromatographic technique. Anti-inflammatory tests suggested that the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in LPS-induced murine RAW264.7 macrophages was suppressed in a PB2 concentration-dependent manner. PB2 at no less than 50 μg·mL-1 could significantly suppress inflammation in the LPS-induced cells. Moreover, this suppressive effect was not correlated with PB2 pretreating. However, the COX-2 expression was not reduced in LPS pretreatment way followed by PB2 exposure, which suggested that PB2 has no repairing function. The results showed that high pure PB2 prepared from apple pomace has a remarkable anti-inflammatory property.

  5. Expression of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, syndecan-1 and connective tissue growth factor in benign and malignant breast tissue from premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, M; Zhang, H; Löfgren, L; Masironi, B; von Schoultz, E; von Schoultz, B; Sahlin, L

    2017-05-01

    Stromal factors have been identified as important for tumorigenesis and metastases of breast cancer. From 49 premenopausal women, samples were collected from benign or malignant tumors and the seemingly normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. The factors studied, with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, were cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2), syndecan-1 (S-1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). COX-1 and S-1 mRNA levels were higher in the malignant tumors than in normal and benign tissues. The COX-2 mRNA level was lower in the malignant tumor than in the normal tissue, while CTGF mRNA did not differ between the groups. COX-1 immunostaining was higher in stroma from malignant tumors than in benign tissues, whereas COX-2 immunostaining was higher in the malignant tissue. Glandular S-1 immunostaining was lower in malignant tumors compared to benign and normal tissues, and the opposite was found in stroma. Conclusively, mRNA levels of COX-1 and COX-2 were oppositely regulated, with COX-1 being increased in the malignant tumor while COX-2 was decreased. S-1 protein localization switched from glandular to stromal cells in malignant tissues. Thus, these markers are, in premenopausal women, localized and regulated differently in normal/benign breast tissue as compared to the malignant tumor.

  6. Cytotoxic of Ganoderma lucidum in Colon Cancer through Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 as Its Molecular Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Setiawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies were designed explore chemopreventive activity of natural products on colon cancer especially addressing COX-2 as molecular target. Another promising source of natural product that potentially exhibit anticancer activity on colon cancer is Ganoderma lucidum. This study assessed selectivity of cytotoxic effect of G. lucidum extract on WiDr to Vero cells and investigated molecular mechanism on COX-2. G. lucidum ex-tract was prepared by reflux extraction method; in vitro anticancer was assayed by MTT method on WiDr and Vero cell line. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to observe cell death mechanism using double staining method; further COX-2 expression was stained by immunocytochemistry method. G. lucidum extract has cytotoxic effect on WiDr cells with IC50 135 µg/mL. However, the cytotoxic effect had low selectivity to-wards Vero cells with Selectivity Index (SI 3.66. The extract induced apoptosis and suppressed COX-2 ex-pression in WiDr cells. G. lucidum extract was potential to be developed as anticancer agent towards colon cancer.

  7. A high-fat diet generates alterations in nuclear receptor expression: prevention by vitamin A and links with cyclooxygenase-2 and beta-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, Barbara; Bairras, Céline; Buaud, Benjamin; Pallet, Véronique; Cassand, Pierrette

    2005-10-10

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that intake of high energy from fat, inducing overweight, increases the risk of cancer development and promotes colon carcinogenesis. It is therefore important to understand which parameters are affected early on by a high-fat diet in order to devise and improve protective nutritional strategies. We investigated the effect of high energy/fat intake on colon mucosa of male Wistar rats induced by a single 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) injection. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were numbered and modifications in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and beta-catenin levels assessed. Peroxisome proliferator- and retinoic acid-activated receptors (PPAR and RAR, RXR) are key transcription factors regulating gene expression in response to nutrient-activated signals. A short-term study was designed to evaluate whether alterations in mRNA expression of nuclear receptors can be detected at the beginning of the weight gain phase induced by an appetizing hyperlipidic diet (HLD). HLD consumption induced early downregulation of PPARgamma (-33.1%) and RARbeta (-53.1%) mRNA expression concomitant with an increase in levels of COX-2 (+45.5%) and beta-catenin (+84.56%) and in the number of ACF (191.56 +/- 88.60 vs. 21.14 +/- 11.64, p nuclear receptors. Moreover, the use HLD rich in retinyl esters or supplemented with all-trans retinoic acid led to a reduction in the number of ACF. Vitamin A also prevented HLD-induced alterations and the increase in levels of COX-2 and beta-catenin. The present observations show a protective role for vitamin A against disturbances associated with HLD exposure in induced colon carcinogenesis.

  8. Hematological Profile of Untreated or Ionizing Radiation-Exposed Cyclooxygenase-2-Deficient Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Hoferová, Zuzana; Dušek, L.; Souček, Karel; Gruzdev, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2017), s. 673-676 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : irradiated mice * g-csf * increases * inhibitor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 1.461, year: 2016

  9. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostok, Sabreen F; Ezzeddine, Rima A; Homaidan, Fadia R; Al-Saghir, Jamal A; Salloum, Ralph G; Saliba, Najat A; Talhouk, Rabih S

    2009-11-16

    Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs) in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH) extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2) was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3) was identified using infrared (IR) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL)-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET)-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. The chloroform fraction (I.2) derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid (1:5:8:1 ratio), reduced ET-induced IL-6

  10. Interleukin-6 and Cyclooxygenase-2 downregulation by fatty-acid fractions of Ranunculus constantinopolitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Saghir Jamal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants represent alternative means for the treatment of several chronic diseases, including inflammation. The genus Ranunculus, a representative of the Ranunculaceae family, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and antifungal activities, possibly due to the presence of anemonin and other. Different studies have shown the occurrence of unusual fatty acids (FAs in Ranunculaceae; however, their therapeutic role has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to characterize potential anti-inflammatory bioactivities in Ranunculus constantinopolitanus D'Urv., traditionally used in Eastern Mediterranean folk medicine. Methods The aerial part of R. constantinopolitanus was subjected to methanol (MeOH extraction and solvent fractionation. The bioactive fraction (I.2 was further fractionated using column chromatography, and the biologically active subfraction (Y2+3 was identified using infrared (IR spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The effects of I.2 and Y2+3 on cell viability were studied in mouse mammary epithelial SCp2 cells using trypan blue exclusion method. To study the anti-inflammatory activities of I.2 and Y2+3, their ability to reduce interleukin (IL-6 levels was assessed in endotoxin (ET-stimulated SCp2 cells using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In addition, the ability of Y2+3 to reduce cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression was studied in IL-1-treated mouse intestinal epithelial Mode-K cells via western blotting. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK, Tukey HSD, two-sample t-test and Dunnett t-tests for multiple comparisons. Results The chloroform fraction (I.2 derived from crude MeOH extract of the plant, in addition to Y2+3, a FA mix isolated from this fraction and containing palmitic acid, C18:2 and C18:1 isomers and stearic acid

  11. Use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in high doses increases mortality and risk of reinfarction in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Torp-Pedersen, C.

    2008-01-01

    The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the risk of...

  12. Chronic intermittent hypoxia affects the cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha/cyclooxygenase 2 pathway via beta(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated ERK/p38 stimulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míčová, P.; Hahnová, K.; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Elsnicová, B.; Chytilová, Anna; Holzerová, Kristýna; Žurmanová, J.; Neckář, Jan; Kolář, František; Nováková, Olga; Novotný, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 423, 1-2 (2016), s. 151-163 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * hypoxia * ischemia/reperfusion * phospholipase A2 * cyclooxygenase 2 * beta-adrenoceptor * MAPK Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.669, year: 2016

  13. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostacyclin formation and blood pressure homeostasis: targeted exchange of cyclooxygenase isoforms in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Stubbe, Jane; Ibrahim, Salam

    2010-01-01

    pressure. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the role of COX-2 in blood pressure homeostasis using COX-1>COX-2 mice, in which the COX-1 expression is controlled by COX-2 regulatory elements. METHODS AND RESULTS: COX-1>COX-2 mice developed systolic hypertension relative to wild types (WTs) on a high-salt diet (HSD...... and again the increase in formation of PGI(2) observed in WTs was suppressed in cells derived from both mutants. Intramedullary infusion of the PGI(2) receptor agonist increased urine volume and sodium excretion in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These studies suggest that dysregulated expression of the COX-2 dependent...

  14. Hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats causes sex-related vascular dysfunction in adult offspring: role of cyclooxygenase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Francine Gomes; de Queiroz, Diego Barbosa; Ramos-Alves, Fernanda Elizabethe; Santos-Rocha, Juliana; da Silva, Odair Alves; Moreira, Hicla Stefany; Leal, Geórgia Andrade; da Rocha, Marcelo Aurélio; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Xavier, Fabiano Elias

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of this study? Hyperglycaemia during pregnancy induces vascular dysfunction and hypertension in male offspring. Given that female offspring from other fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, the present study investigated whether there are sex differences in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrated that hyperglycaemia in pregnant rats induced vascular dysfunction and hypertension only in male offspring. We found sex differences in oxidative stress and cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoid production that might underlie the vascular dysfunction. These differences, particularly in resistance arteries, may in part explain the absence of hypertension in female offspring born to hyperglycaemic dams. Exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia induces hypertension and vascular dysfunction in adult male offspring. Given that female offspring from several fetal programming models are protected from the effects of fetal insult, in this study we analysed possible differences relative to sex in blood pressure and vascular function in hyperglycaemia-programmed offspring. Hyperglycaemia was induced on day 7 of gestation (streptozotocin, 50 mg kg -1 ). Blood pressure, acetylcholine and phenylephrine or noradrenaline responses were analysed in the aorta and mesenteric resistance arteries of 3-, 6- and 12-month-old male and female offspring. Thromboxane A 2 release was analysed with commercial kits and superoxide anion (O 2 - ) production by dihydroethidium-emitted fluorescence. Male but not female offspring of hyperglycaemic dams (O-DR) had higher blood pressure than control animals (O-CR). Contraction in response to phenylephrine increased and relaxation in response to acetylcholine decreased only in the aorta from 12-month-old male O-DR and not in age-matched O-CR. Contractile and vasodilator responses were preserved in both the

  15. Identification and isolation of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory principle in Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, H; Stoyanova, S; Wippich, P; Brattström, A; Hamburger, M

    2001-07-01

    Various extracts prepared from the traditional dye and medicinal plant Isatis tinctoria L. were submitted to a broad in vitro screening against 16 anti-inflammatory targets. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from dried leaves showed a marked cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitory activity with a preferential effect on COX-2 catalysed prostaglandin synthesis. A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) procedure employing CO2-modifier mixtures was developed by which the bioactivity profile and chromatographic fingerprint of the DCM extract could be reproduced. High-resolution activity directed on-line identification of the COX-2 inhibitory principle, using a combination of LC-DAD-MS with a microtitre-based bioassay, led to the identification of tryptanthrin (1) as the constituent responsible for essentially all COX-2 inhibitory activity in the crude extract. Following on-line identification, 1 was isolated at preparative scale and its structure confirmed by comparison with synthetic tryptanthrin. In an assay with lipopolysaccharide stimulated Mono Mac 6 cells, tryptanthrin (1) was of comparable potency (IC50 = 64 nM) than the preferential COX-2 inhibitors nimesulide (IC50 = 39 nM) and NS 398 (IC50 = 2 nM). The SFE extract and 1 showed no cytotoxicity in Mono Mac 6 and RAW 264.7 cells when tested at 100 microg/ml and 10 microM, respectively.

  16. Gene Delivery for Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pang, Shen

    2001-01-01

    .... Enhanced by the bystander effect, the specific expression of the DTA gene causes significant cell death in prostate cancer cell cultures, with very low background cell eradication in control cell lines...

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 mediates the febrile response of mice to interleukin-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Ballou, L R; Morham, S G; Blatteis, C M

    2001-08-10

    Various lines of evidence have implicated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 as a modulator of the fever induced by the exogenous pyrogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Thus, treatment with specific inhibitors of COX-2 suppresses the febrile response without affecting basal body (core) temperature (T(c)). Furthermore, COX-2 gene-ablated mice are unable to develop a febrile response to intraperitoneal (i.p.) LPS, whereas their COX-1-deficient counterparts produce fevers not different from their wild-type (WT) controls. To extend the apparently critical role of COX-2 for LPS-induced fevers to fevers produced by endogenous pyrogens, we studied the thermal responses of COX-1- and COX-2 congenitally deficient mice to i.p. and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of recombinant murine (rm) interleukin (IL)-1beta. We also assessed the effects of one selective COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560, and two selective COX-2 inhibitors, nimesulide (NIM) and dimethylfuranone (DFU), on the febrile responses of WT and COX-1(-/-) mice to LPS and rmIL-1beta, i.p. Finally, we verified the integrity of the animals' responses to PGE2, i.c.v. I.p. and i.c.v. rmIL-1beta induced similar fevers in WT and COX-1 knockout mice, but provoked no rise in the T(c)s of COX-2 null mutants. The fever produced in WT mice by i.p. LPS was not affected by SC-560, but it was attenuated and abolished by NIM and DFU, respectively, while that caused by i.p. rmIL-1beta was converted into a T(c) fall by DFU. There were no differences in the responses to i.c.v. PGE2 among the WT and COX knockout mice. These results, therefore, further support the notion that the production of PGE2 in response to pyrogens is critically dependent on COX-2 expression.

  18. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in intestine of pigs of different ages and hygiene status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Whiting, C; Lewis, M

    2010-01-01

    treatments: One group of piglets suckled the sow, a second group was put into an isolator and fed a milk formula, and a third group was put into the isolator fed milk formula and injected with broad spectrum antibiotics. Samples were collected from the 75% level of the small intestine at day 5, 28 and 56...... of age. Tissue section from four piglets from each of these six treatment groups was analysed by immunofluorescence for COX-2 and type-IV collagen (basement membrane, defining lamina propria (LP)). Image analysis was used to determine the number of positive pixels expressing LP and epithelial COX-2. COX......-2 expressing cells were observed in LP and epithelium in all porcine intestinal samples. When analysing images obtained on day 28, injection of antibiotics seemed to reduce the COX-2 expression in intestinal samples of piglets when compared to other treatments (P = 0.053). No significant effect...

  19. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the endometrium of gilts with different stages of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Koonjaenak, Seri; Tummaruk, Padet

    2011-11-01

    The present study determined the association among the expression of COX-2, stages of endometritis, and types and number of local immune cells infiltrating into the gilts' endometrium. The uterine tissues from 24 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts identified as acute endometritis (n = 7), chronic endometritis (n = 7), and normal endometrium (n = 10) were included. The tissues were prepared for both histological and immunohistochemical investigations. The immunoexpression of COX-2 in every layer of the gilts' endometria was appraised by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method via image analysis; and was reported as percentage of positive area and staining index. The results revealed that the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found only in the surface epithelial layer. The gilts with acute endometritis possessed higher both percentage of positive area (68.99% versus 4.50% and 3.43%, P < 0.001) and staining index (1.13 versus 0.05 and 0.04, P < 0.001) than those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium, respectively. Positive correlations between the number of surface epithelial neutrophils and percentage of COX-2 positive area (r = 0.47, P = 0.022), as well as mean staining index (r = 0.44, P = 0.032) were observed. In conclusion, the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found strongest in the gilts with acute endometritis, meanwhile it was not different between those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium. This suggested that the expression of COX-2 might be dependent not only on the infiltration of local immune cells in the endometrium, but also on the duration of exposure with inflammatory agents.

  20. Regulation of p53, nuclear factor κB and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by bromelain through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, Neetu; Bhui, Kulpreet; Roy, Preeti; Srivastava, Smita; George, Jasmine; Prasad, Sahdeo; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2008-01-01

    Bromelain is a pharmacologically active compound, present in stems and immature fruits of pineapples (Ananas cosmosus), which has been shown to have anti-edematous, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-metastatic properties. In the present study, antitumorigenic activity of bromelain was recorded in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted 2-stage mouse skin model. Results showed that bromelain application delayed the onset of tumorigenesis and reduced the cumulative number of tumors, tumor volume and the average number of tumors/mouse. To establish a cause and effect relationship, we targeted the proteins involved in the cell death pathway. Bromelain treatment resulted in upregulation of p53 and Bax and subsequent activation of caspase 3 and caspase 9 with concomitant decrease in antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in mouse skin. Since persistent induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is frequently implicated in tumorigenesis and is regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), we also investigated the effect of bromelain on Cox-2 and NF-κB expression. Results showed that bromelain application significantly inhibited Cox-2 and inactivated NF-κB by blocking phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of IκBα. In addition, bromelain treatment attenuated DMBA-TPA-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt. Taken together, we conclude that bromelain induces apoptosis-related proteins along with inhibition of NF-κB-driven Cox-2 expression by blocking the MAPK and Akt/protein kinase B signaling in DMBA-TPA-induced mouse skin tumors, which may account for its anti-tumorigenic effects

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent retention of nuclear HuR suppresses cigarette smoke-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression independent of DNA-binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Michela; Sheridan, Jared A; Nair, Parameswaran; Rico de Souza, Angela; Gallouzi, Imed-Eddine; Rousseau, Simon; Di Marco, Sergio; Hamid, Qutayba; Eidelman, David H; Baglole, Carolyn J

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to man-made environmental toxicants, has emerged as an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by a mechanism that is poorly understood. In this study, we first used AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-) ) primary pulmonary cells, together with pharmacological tools to inhibit new RNA synthesis, to show that the AhR is a prominent factor in the destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA. The destabilization of Cox-2 mRNA and subsequent suppression of cigarette smoke-induced COX-2 protein expression by the AhR was independent of its ability to bind the dioxin response element (DRE), thereby differentiating the DRE-driven toxicological AhR pathway from its anti-inflammatory abilities. We further describe that the AhR destabilizes Cox-2 mRNA by sequestering HuR within the nucleus. The role of HuR in AhR stabilization of Cox-2 mRNA was confirmed by knockdown of HuR, which resulted in rapid Cox-2 mRNA degradation. Finally, in the lungs of AhR(-/-) mice exposed to cigarette smoke, there was little Cox-2 mRNA despite robust COX-2 protein expression, a finding that correlates with almost exclusive cytoplasmic HuR within the lungs of AhR(-/-) mice. Therefore, we propose that the AhR plays an important role in suppressing the expression of inflammatory proteins, a function that extends beyond the ability of the AhR to respond to man-made toxicants. These findings open the possibility that a DRE-independent AhR pathway may be exploited therapeutically as an anti-inflammatory target.

  2. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooladi A

    2011-01-01

    polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells appeared in the antrum, with an increase in epithelial cell proliferation, and the infiltration of focal oesophageal. Control animals showed no abnormal findings throughout the entire observation period. COX-2 protein was expressed in experimental groups but there were no evidence of cox-2 protein expression in control group.Conclusion: Data showed that the H. pylori caused significant decrease of body weight in experimental group. In addition, histological studies showed evidence of metaplasia in rat stomach. Immunohistochemichas studies showed cox-2 protein expression occurred during early stage of metaplasia induction.

  3. Study of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Sprague Dawley Rat Gastric Cancer Induced by H. Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Aeini

    2012-05-01

    . Histopathological studies showed severe infiltration of the lamina propria and submucusaal layer by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells appeared in the antrum, with an increase in epithelial cell proliferation, and the infiltration of focal oesophageal. Control animals showed no abnormal findings throughout the entire observation period. COX-2 protein was expressed in experimental groups but there were no evidence of cox-2 protein expression in control group. Conclusion: Data showed that the H. pylori caused significant decrease of body weight in experimental group. In addition, histological studies showed evidence of metaplasia in rat stomach. Immunohistochemichas studies showed cox-2 protein expression occurred during early stage of metaplasia induction.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent bronchoconstriction in perfused rat lungs exposed to endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, S; Nüsing, R; von Bethmann, A; Featherstone, R L; Klein, T; Brasch, F; Müller, K M; Ullrich, V; Wendel, A

    1996-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), widely used to study the mechanisms of gram-negative sepsis, increase airway resistance by constriction of terminal bronchioles. The role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and their prostanoid metabolites in this process was studied. Pulmonary resistance, the release of thromboxane (TX) and the expression of COX-2 mRNA were measured in isolated blood-free perfused rat lungs exposed to LPS. LPS induced the release of TX and caused increased airway resistance after about 30 min. Both TX formation and LPS-induced bronchoconstriction were prevented by treatment with the unspecific COX inhibitor acetyl salicylic acid, the specific COX-2 inhibitor CGP-28238, dexamethasone, actinomycin D, or cycloheximide. LPS-induced bronchoconstriction was also inhibited by the TX receptor antagonist BM-13177. The TX-mimetic compound, U-46619, increased airway resistance predominantly by constricting terminal bronchioles. COX-2-specific mRNA in lung tissue was elevated after LPS exposure, and this increase was attenuated by addition of dexamethasone or of actinomycin D. In contrast to LPS, platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced immediate TX release and bronchoconstriction that was prevented by acetyl salicylic acid, but not by CGP-28238. LPS elicits the following biochemical and functional changes in rat lungs: (i) induction of COX-2; (ii) formation of prostaglandins and TX; (iii) activation of the TX receptor on airway smooth muscle cells; (iv) constriction of terminal bronchioles; and (v) increased airway resistance. In contrast to LPS, the PAF-induced TX release is likely to depend on COX-1.

  5. Anti-nociceptive effect of patchouli alcohol: Involving attenuation of cyclooxygenase 2 and modulation of mu-opioid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuan; Wang, Xin-Pei; Yan, Xiao-Jin; Jiang, Jing-Fei; Lei, Fan; Xing, Dong-Ming; Guo, Yue-Ying; Du, Li-Jun

    2017-08-09

    To explore the anti-nociceptive effect of patchouli alcohol (PA), the essential oil isolated from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Bent, and determine the mechanism in molecular levels. The acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced plantar injection test in mice were employed to confifirm the effect in vivo. Intracellular calcium ion was imaged to verify PA on mu-opioid receptor (MOR). Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and MOR of mouse brain were expressed for determination of PA's target. Cellular experiments were carried out to find out COX2 and MOR expression induced by PA. PA significantly reduced latency period of visceral pain and writhing induced by acetic acid saline solution (Peffect of PA. A decrease in the intracellular calcium level (Peffect. PA showed the characters of enhancing the MOR expression and reducing the intracellular calcium ion similar to opioid effect. Both COX2 and MOR are involved in the mechanism of PA's anti-nociceptive effect, and the up-regulation of the receptor expression and the inhibition of intracellular calcium are a new perspective to PA's effect on MOR.

  6. Effect of diclofenac on cyclooxygenase-2 levels and early breaking strength of experimental colonic anastomoses and skin incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, M; Krarup, P-M; Burcharth, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    of diclofenac 4 mg/kg/day on the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme in the anastomotic tissue and on the breaking strength of anastomotic and incisional wounds. The operation was performed with colonic resection and hand-sewn anastomosis. After 3 days, the rats were sacrificed and the breaking strength and the COX......-2 content of the anastomosis were measured. Results: There was a significantly reduced level of COX-2 in the rats treated with diclofenac (p = 0.001); no significant differences in any of the breaking strength measurements and no significant correlation between COX-2 levels and breaking strength...... of the anastomotic or incisional wounds could be found (p = 0.073 and p = 0.727). Conclusion: This study for the first time showed that a diclofenac dose of 4 mg/kg/24 h was sufficient to reduce the level of COX-2 enzymes in the anastomotic tissue in rats. This inhibition of the inflammatory response did not lead...

  7. CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 IS PRESENT IN THE MAJORITY OF LESIONAL SKIN FROM PATIENTS WITH AUTOINMUNE BLISTERING DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The in situ immune response within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs is not well characterized. Aim: Based on the fact that the ABD immune response is considered an adaptive immune response, both an innate immune response and inflammation would be expected in these diseases. Our investigation investigates the presence of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, since this enzyme is commonly involved in innate immune responses. Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC to evaluate the presence of COX-2 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by ABDs. We tested 30 patients with endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF, 15 controls from the endemic area, and 15 biopsies from healthy controls from the USA. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with selected ABDs, including 20 patients with bullous pemphigoid, 20 with pemphigus vulgaris, 8 with pemphigus foliaceus and 12 with dermatitis herpetiformis. Results: Most ABD biopsies stained positive for COX-2 in the lesional blister and/or the dermal inflammatory infiltrate, accentuated in the upper neurovascular plexus. In BP and EPF, the COX-2 staining was also seen in the sweat glands. All controls were negative. Conclusions: We document that COX-2 is expressed in lesional skin of patients with ABDs.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated lumiracoxib derivative for the imaging of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, Yuji; Obokata, Naoyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Katada, Yumiko; Temma, Takashi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Aita, Kazuki; Seki, Koh-ichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Saji, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Despite extensive attempts to develop cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 imaging radiotracers, no suitable positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers are currently available for in vivo imaging of COX-2 expression. The aims of this study were to synthesize and evaluate a radioiodinated derivative of lumiracoxib, 2-[(2-fluoro-6-iodophenyl)-amino]-5-methylphenylacetic acid (FIMA), which is structurally distinct from other drugs in the class and has weakly acidic properties, as a SPECT tracer for imaging COX-2 expression. Methods: The COX inhibitory potency was assessed by measuring COX-catalyzed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Cell uptake characteristics of 125 I-FIMA were assessed in control and linterfero/interferon-γ-stimulated macrophages. The biodistribution of 125 I-FIMA was determined by the ex vivo tissue counting method in rats. Results: The COX-2 inhibitory potency of FIMA (IC 50 =2.46 μM) was higher than that of indomethacin (IC 50 =20.9 μM) and was comparable to lumiracoxib (IC 50 =0.77 μM) and diclofenac (IC 50 =0.98 μM). The IC 50 ratio (COX-1/COX-2=182) indicated FIMA has a high isoform selectivity for COX-2. 125 I-FIMA showed a significantly higher accumulation in COX-2 induced macrophages than in control macrophages, which decreased with nonradioactive FIMA in a concentration dependent manner. The biodistribution study showed rapid clearance of 125 I-FIMA from the blood and most organs including the liver and kidneys. No significant in vivo deiodination was observed with radioiodinated FIMA. Conclusions: FIMA showed high inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2. Radioiodinated FIMA showed specific accumulation into COX-2 induced macrophages, no significant in vivo deiodination and rapid blood clearance. Radioiodinated FIMA deserves further investigation as a SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging COX-2 expression.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of a radioiodinated lumiracoxib derivative for the imaging of cyclooxygenase-2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuge, Yuji [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Department of Tracer Kinetics and Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)], E-mail: kuge@med.hokudai.ac.jp; Obokata, Naoyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Katada, Yumiko; Temma, Takashi [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sugimoto, Yukihiko [Department of Physiological Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Aita, Kazuki [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Seki, Koh-ichi [Central Institute of Isotope Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Saji, Hideo [Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: Despite extensive attempts to develop cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 imaging radiotracers, no suitable positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracers are currently available for in vivo imaging of COX-2 expression. The aims of this study were to synthesize and evaluate a radioiodinated derivative of lumiracoxib, 2-[(2-fluoro-6-iodophenyl)-amino]-5-methylphenylacetic acid (FIMA), which is structurally distinct from other drugs in the class and has weakly acidic properties, as a SPECT tracer for imaging COX-2 expression. Methods: The COX inhibitory potency was assessed by measuring COX-catalyzed oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Cell uptake characteristics of {sup 125}I-FIMA were assessed in control and linterfero/interferon-{gamma}-stimulated macrophages. The biodistribution of {sup 125}I-FIMA was determined by the ex vivo tissue counting method in rats. Results: The COX-2 inhibitory potency of FIMA (IC{sub 50}=2.46 {mu}M) was higher than that of indomethacin (IC{sub 50}=20.9 {mu}M) and was comparable to lumiracoxib (IC{sub 50}=0.77 {mu}M) and diclofenac (IC{sub 50}=0.98 {mu}M). The IC{sub 50} ratio (COX-1/COX-2=182) indicated FIMA has a high isoform selectivity for COX-2. {sup 125}I-FIMA showed a significantly higher accumulation in COX-2 induced macrophages than in control macrophages, which decreased with nonradioactive FIMA in a concentration dependent manner. The biodistribution study showed rapid clearance of {sup 125}I-FIMA from the blood and most organs including the liver and kidneys. No significant in vivo deiodination was observed with radioiodinated FIMA. Conclusions: FIMA showed high inhibitory potency and selectivity for COX-2. Radioiodinated FIMA showed specific accumulation into COX-2 induced macrophages, no significant in vivo deiodination and rapid blood clearance. Radioiodinated FIMA deserves further investigation as a SPECT radiopharmaceutical for imaging COX-2 expression.

  10. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likui Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE, which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair.

  11. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Contributes to the Early Phase of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever via Stimulation of Peripheral Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein Expression in Mice

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    Eszter Pakai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurokinin (NK signaling is involved in various inflammatory processes. A common manifestation of systemic inflammation is fever, which is usually induced in animal models with the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. A role for the NK1 receptor was shown in LPS-induced fever, but the underlying mechanisms of how the NK1 receptor contributes to febrile response, especially in the early phase, have remained unknown. We administered LPS (120 µg/kg, intraperitoneally to mice with the Tacr1 gene, i.e., the gene encoding the NK1 receptor, either present (Tacr1+/+ or absent (Tacr1−/− and measured their thermoregulatory responses, serum cytokine levels, tissue cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin (PG E2 concentration. We found that the LPS-induced febrile response was attenuated in Tacr1−/− compared to their Tacr1+/+ littermates starting from 40 min postinfusion. The febrigenic effect of intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 was not suppressed in the Tacr1−/− mice. Serum concentration of pyrogenic cytokines did not differ between Tacr1−/− and Tacr1+/+ at 40 min post-LPS infusion. Administration of LPS resulted in amplification of COX-2 mRNA expression in the lungs, liver, and brain of the mice, which was statistically indistinguishable between the genotypes. In contrast, the LPS-induced augmentation of COX-2 protein expression was attenuated in the lungs and tended to be suppressed in the liver of Tacr1−/− mice compared with Tacr1+/+ mice. The Tacr1+/+ mice responded to LPS with a significant surge of PGE2 production in the lungs, whereas Tacr1−/− mice did not. In conclusion, the NK1 receptor is necessary for normal fever genesis. Our results suggest that the NK1 receptor contributes to the early phase of LPS-induced fever by enhancing COX-2 protein expression in the periphery. These findings advance the understanding of the crosstalk between NK signaling and the “cytokine-COX-2

  12. Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Ana I.; Vicente-Sanchez, Cesar; Jerkic, Mirjana; Santiago, Jose M.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope D.; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation can play a key role in Cd-induced dysfunctions. Quercetin is a potent oxygen free radical scavenger and a metal chelator. Our aim was to study the effect of quercetin on Cd-induced kidney damage and metallothionein expression. The study was performed in Wistar rats that were administered during 9 weeks with either cadmium (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or cadmium + quercetin. Renal toxicity was evaluated by measuring blood urea nitrogen concentration and urinary excretion of enzymes marker of tubular damage. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) renal expression were assessed by Western blot. Renal expression of metallothionein 1 and 2 (MT-1, MT-2) and eNOS mRNA was assessed by Northern blot. Our data demonstrated that Cd-induced renal toxicity was markedly reduced in rats that also received quercetin. MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA levels in kidney were substantially increased during treatment with Cd, being even higher when the animals received Cd and quercetin. Renal eNOS expression was significantly higher in rats receiving Cd and quercetin than in animals receiving Cd alone or in control rats. In the group that received Cd, COX-2 and iNOS expression was markedly higher than in control rats. In the group Cd + quercetin, no changes in COX-2 and iNOS expression were observed compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that quercetin treatment prevents Cd-induced overexpression of iNOS and COX-2, and increases MT expression. These effects can explain the protection by quercetin of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity

  13. The effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and evaluation of angiogenesis in the model of experimental colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Hilal; Ilhan, Nevin; Eroksuz, Hatice

    2018-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early diagnosis and treatment of CRCs are of importance for improving the survival. In the present study, we studied the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-induced chemopreventive effects on tumor development incidence and angiogenesis in experimental CRC rats. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) was used as cancer-inducing agent and two NSAIDs (celecoxib and diclofenac) were given orally as chemopreventive agents. Histopathological and immuno histochemical evaluations were performed in colorectal tissue samples, whereas angiogenesis parameters were studied in blood samples. Histopathological examination showed that adenocarcinoma (62.5%), dysplastic changes (31.25%) and inflammattory changes (6.25%) were detected in DMH group, whereas no pathological change was observed in control rats. In treatment groups, there was marked decrease in adenocarcinoma rate (30% and 10%, respectively). A significant increase was detected in MMP-2, MMP-9 levels and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio in DMH group as compared with controls and treatment groups. In immunohistochemical evaluations, there was an increase in intensity and extent of staining of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in DMH group as compared to controls and treatment groups. The decrease in celecoxib group was more prominent. Overall, it was concluded that NSAIDs, particularly cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, might have a protective effect on CRC development and slow down progression of tumor in a DMH-induced experimental cancer model. One of the possible mechanisms in the chemoprevention of colon cancer seems to be inhibition of angiogenesis by diclofenac and celecoxib. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Meloxicam, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, increases the level of serum G-CSF and might be usable as an auxiliary means in G-CSF therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Znojil, V.; Holá, Jiřina; Vacek, Antonín; Štreitová, Denisa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2008), s. 307-310 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500040507 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0158 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : hematopoiesis * cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition * treatment of myelosuppression Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  15. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: balancing gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuay Henry J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences between gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of traditional NSAID or cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor (coxib are affected by drug, dose, duration, outcome definition, and patient gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risk factors. We calculated the absolute risk for each effect. Methods We sought studies with large amounts of information to calculate annualised rates for clearly defined gastrointestinal (complicated upper gastrointestinal perforations, ulcers, or bleeds, but not symptomatic or endoscopic ulcers and serious cardiovascular outcomes (antiplatelet trial collaborators – APTC – outcome of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, or vascular death. Results Meta-analyses and large randomised trials specifically analysing serious gastrointestinal bleeding or cardiovascular events occurring with five different coxibs had appropriate data. In total there were 439 complicated upper gastrointestinal events in 49,006 patient years of exposure and 948 serious cardiovascular events in 99,400 patient years of exposure. Complicated gastrointestinal events occurred less frequently with coxibs than NSAIDs; serious cardiovascular events occurred at approximately equal rates. For each coxib, the reduction in complicated upper gastrointestinal events was numerically greater than any increase in APTC events. In the overall comparison, for every 1000 patients treated for a year with coxib rather than NSAID, there would be eight fewer complicated upper gastrointestinal events, but one more fatal or nonfatal heart attack or stroke. Three coxib-NSAID comparisons had sufficient numbers of events for individual comparisons. For every 1000 patients treated for a year with celecoxib rather than an NSAID there would be 12 fewer upper gastrointestinal complications, and two fewer fatal or nonfatal heart attacks or strokes. For rofecoxib there would be six fewer upper gastrointestinal complications, but three

  16. COMPARISON OF SELECTIVE AND NON SELECTIVE CYCLO-OXYGENASE 2 INHIBITORS IN EXPERIMENTAL COLITIS EXACERBATION: role of leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wander BREGANÓ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered one of the most important causes of reactivation of inflammatory bowel disease. With regard to selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the results are controversial in experimental colitis as well as in human studies. Objectives The aim this study is to compare nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effects, selective and non selective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, in experimental colitis and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms which nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs provoke colitis exacerbation. Methods Six groups of rats: without colitis, with colitis, and colitis treated with celecoxib, ketoprofen, indometacin or diclofenac. Survival rates, hemoglobin, plasmatic albumin, colonic tissue of interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prostaglandin E2, catalase, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, chemiluminescence induced by tert-butil hydroperoxides, and tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 were determined. Results The groups treated with diclofenac or indometacin presented lower survival rates, hemoglobin and albumin, higher tissue and plasmatic leukotriene B4 and tissue superoxide dismutase than the group treated with celecoxib. Ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib, concerning to survival rate and albumin. The groups without colitis, with colitis and with colitis treated with celecoxib showed leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase lower levels than the groups treated with nonselective cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors. Conclusions Diclofenac and indometacin presented the highest degree of induced colitis exacerbation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib did not show colitis exacerbation, and ketoprofen presented an intermediary behavior between diclofenac/indometacin and celecoxib. These results suggest that leukotriene B4 and superoxide dismutase can be involved in the exacerbation of experimental colitis by nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  17. Identification of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidinyl] amines and ethers as potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarbrick, Martin E; Beswick, Paul J; Gleave, Robert J; Green, Richard H; Bingham, Sharon; Bountra, Chas; Carter, Malcolm C; Chambers, Laura J; Chessell, Iain P; Clayton, Nick M; Collins, Sue D; Corfield, John A; Hartley, C David; Kleanthous, Savvas; Lambeth, Paul F; Lucas, Fiona S; Mathews, Neil; Naylor, Alan; Page, Lee W; Payne, Jeremy J; Pegg, Neil A; Price, Helen S; Skidmore, John; Stevens, Alexander J; Stocker, Richard; Stratton, Sharon C; Stuart, Alastair J; Wiseman, Joanne O

    2009-08-01

    A novel series of [4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyrimidine-based cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which have a different arrangement of substituents compared to the more common 1,2-diarylheterocycle based molecules, have been discovered. For example, 2-(butyloxy)-4-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)pyrimidine (47), a member of the 2-pyrimidinyl ether series, has been shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, high brain penetration and good efficacy in rat models of hypersensitivity.

  18. Involvement of hypothalamic cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β and melanocortin in the development of docetaxel-induced anorexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kouichi; Asano, Keiko; Ito, Yui; Matsukawa, Naoki; Kim, Seikou; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2012-12-16

    Docetaxel, a taxane derivative, is frequently used for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and metastatic prostate cancer. Clinical reports demonstrated that docetaxel-based chemotherapy often induces anorexia, but the etiology is not completely understood. To elucidate possible mechanisms, we investigated the involvement of central interleukin (IL)-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the development of docetaxel-induced anorexia in rats. Rats received docetaxel (10mg/kg, i.p.) with or without pretreatment with selective COX-2 inhibitors, NS-398 (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.g.) or celecoxib (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.g.), and a non-selective COX inhibitor, indomethacin (10mg/kg, i.g.), then food intake was monitored for 24h after administration. We also examined expression of IL-1β, COX-2, and POMC mRNA in hypothalamus of docetaxel-treated rats and the effect of a COX-2 inhibitor on docetaxel-induced POMC mRNA expression. Food consumption in rats was significantly decreased 24h after administration of docetaxel and anorexia was partially reversed by all COX inhibitors. Administration of docetaxel increased IL-1β, COX-2, and POMC mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of rats. The time required to increase these gene expressions was comparable to the latency period of docetaxel-induced anorexia in rats. In addition, pretreatment with COX-2 inhibitors suppressed docetaxel-induced expression of POMC mRNA. These results suggest that IL-1β and COX-2 mRNA expression and subsequent activation of POMC in the hypothalamus may contribute to the development of docetaxel-induced anorexia in rats. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Enhancement of Bleomycin Sensitivity in Human Lung Cancer Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The inhibitory effect of bleomycin on A549 cells was determined by incubating the cells for 24 h in different .... also include advantageous psychological effects such as .... cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitors: A rational advance?

  20. In vitro and In Silico Studies on Curcumin and Its Analogues as Dual Inhibitors for cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Yuniarti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin has been widely reported as an anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the plant Curcuma longa L. (turmeric. This anti-inflammatory activity was associated with the ability of this compound to inhibit the activity of both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in arachidonic acid metabolism. Dual COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors are preferred to be employed in the therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases compared to selective inhibitors, since it was reported that the use of selective inhibitors led to severe adverse side effect. In the present study, in vitro and in silico assays on curcumin and its analogues as dual inhibitors for both COX-1 and COX-2 were performed. The results provide theoretical contribution in understanding the ligand-protein interactions at the molecular level to develop new curcumin analogues which possess better anti-inflammatory activity as well as to avoid unsolicited side effects.

  1. Determining Physical Mechanisms of Gene Expression Regulation from Single Cell Gene Expression Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ezer, Daphne; Moignard, Victoria; G?ttgens, Berthold; Adryan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Many genes are expressed in bursts, which can contribute to cell-to-cell heterogeneity. It is now possible to measure this heterogeneity with high throughput single cell gene expression assays (single cell qPCR and RNA-seq). These experimental approaches generate gene expression distributions which can be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of gene expression bursting, namely the rate that genes turn on, the rate that genes turn off, and the rate of transcription. We construct a complete ...

  2. Differential expression of cell adhesion genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2005-01-01

    that compare cells grown in suspension to similar cells grown attached to one another as aggregates have suggested that it is adhesion to the extracellular matrix of the basal membrane that confers resistance to apoptosis and, hence, resistance to cytotoxins. The genes whose expression correlates with poor...... in cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. If the proteins involved in tethering cells to the extracellular matrix are important in conferring drug resistance, it may be possible to improve chemotherapy by designing drugs that target these proteins....

  3. Elucidating the role of Cyclooxygenase-2 in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus - an immunohistochemical study with supportive histochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratyush; Grover, Jasleen; Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Radhakrishnan, Raghu; Solomon, Monica Charlotte

    2017-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that affects the oral mucous membrane. During an inflammatory response, several chemokines and cytokines are released by the cells of the immune system. Activation of MMPs, along with mast cell-derived chymase and tryptase, degrades the basement membrane structural proteins, resulting in basement membrane breaks. To investigate the association between the COX-2 expressions, presence of intact or degranulating mast cells within the connective tissue and the extent of basement membrane discontinuity in OLP cases. This study included a total of 50 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens (FFPE) of histologically confirmed cases of idiopathic oral lichen planus. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was carried out by immunohistochemistry to study the epithelial expression of COX-2 and by the use of special stains such as toluidine blue and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) to study the mast cell count and basement membrane changes in the oral mucosal tissue, respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.03) association between the COX-2 expressions and mast cell count. As the intensity of COX-2 expression increased from mild to moderate or severe, the number of mast cell count almost doubled. Interaction between upregulation of COX-2, mast cell and basement membrane sets a vicious cycle which relates to the chronic nature of the disease. Inhibitors of COX-2 may reduce the inflammatory process preceding the immune dysregulation in OLP. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cell cycle and apoptosis genes in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, Lianne Simone Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was aimed at identifying the role of cell cycle and apoptosis genes in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease, a disorder occurring in the large and medium-sized arteries of the body. Although in the beginning 90s promising

  5. The Target of 5-Lipoxygenase is a Novel Strategy over Human Urological Tumors than the Target of Cyclooxygenase-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahide Matsuyama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of arachidonic acid by either the cyclooxygenase (COX or lipoxygenase (LOX pathway generates eicosanoids, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases, including cancer. It is now considered that they play important roles in tumor promotion, progression, and metastasis, also, the involvement of COX and LOX expression and function in tumor growth and metastasis has been reported in human tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the expression of COX and LOX in human urological tumors (renal cell carcinoma, bladder tumor, prostate cancer, testicular cancer by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR, and we also examined the effects of COX and LOX (5- and 12-LOX inhibitors in those cells by MTT assay, hoechest staining, and flow cytometry. COX-2, 5-LOX and 12-LOX expressions were significantly more extensive and intense in malignant tissues than in normal tissues. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor induced the reduction of malignant cell viability through early apoptosis. These results demonstrated COX-2 and LOX were induced in urological tumors, and 5-LOX inhibitor may mediate potent antiproliferative effects against urological tumors cells. Thus, 5-LOX may become a new target in the treatment of urological tumors.

  6. Genes involved in cell division in mycoplasmas

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    Frank Alarcón

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell division has been studied mainly in model systems such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, where it is described as a complex process with the participation of a group of proteins which assemble into a multiprotein complex called the septal ring. Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria presenting a reduced genome. Thus, it was important to compare their genomes to analyze putative genes involved in cell division processes. The division and cell wall (dcw cluster, which in E. coli and B. subtilis is composed of 16 and 17 genes, respectively, is represented by only three to four genes in mycoplasmas. Even the most conserved protein, FtsZ, is not present in all mycoplasma genomes analyzed so far. A model for the FtsZ protein from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma synoviae has been constructed. The conserved residues, essential for GTP/GDP binding, are present in FtsZ from both species. A strong conservation of hydrophobic amino acid patterns is observed, and is probably necessary for the structural stability of the protein when active. M. synoviae FtsZ presents an extended amino acid sequence at the C-terminal portion of the protein, which may participate in interactions with other still unknown proteins crucial for the cell division process.

  7. Critical role of cyclooxygenase-2 activation in pathogenesis of hydronephrosis caused by lactational exposure of mice to dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Noriko; Matsumura, Fumio; Vogel, Christopher F.A.; Nishimura, Hisao; Yonemoto, Junzo; Yoshioka, Wataru; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2008-01-01

    Congenital hydronephrosis is a serious disease occurring among infants and children. Besides the intrinsic genetic factors, in utero exposure to a xenobiotic, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), has been suggested to induce hydronephrosis in rodents owing to anatomical obstruction in the ureter. Here, we report that hydronephrosis induced in mouse pups exposed lactationally to TCDD is not associated with anatomical obstruction, but with abnormal alterations in the subepithelial mesenchyma of the ureter. In the kidneys of these pups, the expressions of a battery of inflammatory cytokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin (IL) -1β were up-regulated as early as postnatal day (PND) 7. The amounts of cyclooxygenase (COX) -2 mRNA and protein as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) were conspicuously up-regulated in an arylhydrocarbon-receptor-dependent manner in the TCDD-induced hydronephrotic kidney, with a subsequent down-regulation of the gene expressions of Na + and K + transporters, NKCC2 and ROMK. Daily administration of a COX-2 selective inhibitor to newborns until PND 7 completely abrogated the TCDD-induced PGE 2 synthesis and gene expressions of inflammatory cytokines and electrolyte transporters, and eventually prevented the onset of hydronephrosis. These findings suggest an essential role of COX-2 in mediating the TCDD action of inducing hydronephrosis through the functional impairment rather than the anatomical blockade of the ureter

  8. Direct lentiviral-cyclooxygenase 2 application to the tendon-bone interface promotes osteointegration and enhances return of the pull-out tensile strength of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H Rundle

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine if direct application of the lentiviral (LV-cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2 vector to the tendon-bone interface would promote osteointegration of the tendon graft in a rat model of biceps tenodesis. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy was chosen for investigation because a similar COX2 gene transfer strategy promoted bony bridging of the fracture gap during bone repair, which involves similar histologic transitions that occur in osteointegration. Briefly, a 1.14-mm diameter tunnel was drilled in the mid-groove of the humerus of adult Fischer 344 rats. The LV-COX2 or βgal control vector was applied directly into the bone tunnel and onto the end of the tendon graft, which was then pulled into the bone tunnel. A poly-L-lactide pin was press-fitted into the tunnel as interference fixation. Animals were sacrificed at 3, 5, or 8 weeks for histology analysis of osteointegration. The LV-COX2 gene transfer strategy enhanced neo-chondrogenesis at the tendon-bone interface but with only marginal effect on de novo bone formation. The tendon-bone interface of the LV-COX2-treated tenodesis showed the well-defined tendon-to-fibrocartilage-to-bone histologic transitions that are indicative of osteointegration of the tendon graft. The LV-COX2 in vivo gene transfer strategy also significantly enhanced angiogenesis at the tendon-bone interface. To determine if the increased osteointegration was translated into an improved pull-out mechanical strength property, the pull-out tensile strength of the LV-COX2-treated tendon grafts was determined with a pull-out mechanical testing assay. The LV-COX2 strategy yielded a significant improvement in the return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft after 8 weeks. In conclusion, the COX2-based in vivo gene transfer strategy enhanced angiogenesis, osteointegration and improved return of the pull-out strength of the tendon graft. Thus, this strategy has great potential to be developed into an

  9. Cell cycle gene expression under clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) are main regulators of the cell cycle of eukaryotes. It's assumes a significant change of their level in cells under microgravity conditions and by other physical factors actions. The clinorotation use enables to determine the influence of gravity on simulated events in the cell during the cell cycle - exit from the state of quiet stage and promotion presynthetic phase (G1) and DNA synthesis phase (S) of the cell cycle. For the clinorotation effect study on cell proliferation activity is the necessary studies of molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation and development of plants under altered gravity condition. The activity of cyclin D, which is responsible for the events of the cell cycle in presynthetic phase can be controlled by the action of endogenous as well as exogenous factors, but clinorotation is one of the factors that influence on genes expression that regulate the cell cycle.These data can be used as a model for further research of cyclin - CDK complex for study of molecular mechanisms regulation of growth and proliferation. In this investigation we tried to summarize and analyze known literature and own data we obtained relatively the main regulators of the cell cycle in altered gravity condition.

  10. Induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in macrophages by catalase: role of NF-kappaB and PI3K signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Byeong-Churl; Kim, Do-Hyun; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Song, Dae-Kyu; Park, Jong-Gu; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Mun, Kyo-Chul; Baek, Won-Ki; Suh, Min-Ho; Hla, Timothy; Suh, Seong-Il

    2004-04-02

    Induction of COX-2 by catalase in smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells has been previously reported. However, the mechanism by which catalase up-regulates COX-2 remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of catalase on induction of COX-2 in macrophages. The addition of catalase into Raw 264.7 macrophages induced COX-2 expression that was correlated with increased COX-2 transcription and mRNA stability. Catalase also induced activation of NF-kappaB, PI3K, ERKs, p38s, or JNKs. Catalase-induced COX-2 expression was abrogated by treatment of MG-132 (a NF-kappaB inhibitor) or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor), but not by treatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor), SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor). Moreover, inhibition of PI3K by LY294002 caused partial decrease of catalase-induced COX-2 transcription and steady-state COX-2 transcript levels, but not COX-2 mRNA stability. Together, these results suggest that catalase induces the expression of COX-2 in Raw 264.7 macrophages, and the induction is related with activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor and PI3K signaling pathway.

  11. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha amplifies early cyclooxygenase-2 expression, oxidative stress and MAP kinase phosphorylation after cerebral ischemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koehler Raymond C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α has been implicated in the progression of cerebral injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Previous studies in rodents suggest that cPLA2α enhances delayed injury extension and disruption of the blood brain barrier many hours after reperfusion. In this study we investigated the role of cPLA2α in early ischemic cerebral injury. Methods Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was performed on cPLA2α+/+ and cPLA2α-/- mice for 2 hours followed by 0, 2, or 6 hours of reperfusion. The levels of cPLA2α, cyclooxygenase-2, neuronal morphology and reactive oxygen species in the ischemic and contralateral hemispheres were evaluated by light and fluorescent microscopy. PGE2 content was compared between genotypes and hemispheres after MCAO and MCAO and 6 hours reperfusion. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured during MCAO and phosphorylation of relevant MAPKs in brain protein homogenates was measured by Western analysis after 6 hours of reperfusion. Results Neuronal cPLA2α protein increased by 2-fold immediately after MCAO and returned to pre-MCAO levels after 2 hours reperfusion. Neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 induction and PGE2 concentration were greater in cPLA2α+/+ compared to cPLA2α-/- ischemic cortex. Neuronal swelling in ischemic regions was significantly greater in the cPLA2α+/+ than in cPLA2α-/- brains (+/+: 2.2 ± 0.3 fold vs. -/-: 1.7 ± 0.4 fold increase; P 2α+/+ ischemic core than in cPLA2α-/- (+/+: 7.12 ± 1.2 fold vs. -/-: 3.1 ± 1.4 fold; P 2α+/+, but not cPLA2α-/-, had disruption of neuron morphology and decreased PGE2 content. Phosphorylation of the MAPKs-p38, ERK 1/2, and MEK 1/2-was significantly greater in cPLA2a+/+ than in cPLA2α-/- ischemic cortex 6 hours after reperfusion. Conclusions These results indicate that cPLA2α modulates the earliest molecular and injury responses after cerebral ischemia and have implications for the potential clinical

  12. Inhibitory effect of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magari, Hirohito; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Inada, Ken-ichi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Tomeki, Tatsuji; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Arii, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroya; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tatematsu, Masae; Ichinose, Masao

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, on Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated stomach carcinogenesis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils (MGs). Hp-infected MGs were fed for 23 weeks with drinking water containing 10 ppm N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. They were then switched to distilled water and placed on a diet containing 5-30 mg/kg/day etodolac for 30 weeks. We found that etodolac dose-dependently inhibited the development of gastric cancer, and no cancer was detected at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Etodolac did not affect the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration or oxidative DNA damage, but it significantly inhibited mucosal cell proliferation and dose-dependently repressed the development of intestinal metaplasia in the stomachs of Hp-infected MGs. These results suggest that COX-2 is a key molecule in inflammation-mediated stomach carcinogenesis and that chemoprevention of stomach cancer should be possible by controlling COX-2 expression or activity

  13. Chemopreventive effects of NSAIDs as inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducers of apoptosis in experimental lung carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shruti; Vaish, Vivek; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-07-01

    Roles of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis have been explored for the chemopreventive effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on 9,10-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung cancer in rat model. 16 weeks after the administration of DMBA, morphological analysis revealed the occurrences of tumours and lesions, which were regressed considerably with the co-administration of indomethacin and etoricoxib, the two NSAIDs under investigation. DMBA group was marked by hyperplasia and dysplasia as observed by histological examination, and these features were corrected to a large extent by the two NSAIDs. Elevated levels of COX-2 were seen in the DMBA group, the enzyme responsible for prostaglandin synthesis during inflammation and cancer, whilst the expression of the constitutive isoform, COX-1, was equally expressed in all the groups. Apoptosis was quantified by studying the activities of apaf-1, caspase-9, and 3 by immunofluorescence and western blots. Their activities were found to diminish in the DMBA-treated animals as compared to the other groups. Fluorescent co-staining of the isolated broncho-alveolar lavage cells showed reduced number of apoptotic cells in the DMBA group, indicating decrease in apoptosis after carcinogen administration. The present results thus suggest that the mechanism of cancer chemoprevention of NSAIDs may include the suppression of COX-2 and the induction of apoptosis.

  14. Lung Myofibroblasts Are Characterized by Down-Regulated Cyclooxygenase-2 and Its Main Metabolite, Prostaglandin E2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasa, Marta; Royo, Dolores; Molina-Molina, Maria; Roca-Ferrer, Jordi; Pujols, Laura; Picado, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the main metabolite of cyclooxygenase (COX), is a well-known anti-fibrotic agent. Moreover, myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibroblast expansion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are critical to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our aim was to investigate the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 in human lung myofibroblasts and establish whether fibroblast-myofibroblast transition (FMT) and EMT are associated with COX-2 and PGE2 down-regulation. Methods Fibroblasts obtained from IPF patients (n = 6) and patients undergoing spontaneous pneumothorax (control, n = 6) and alveolar epithelial cell line A549 were incubated with TGF-β1 and FMT and EMT markers were evaluated. COX-2 and α-SMA expression, PGE2 secretion and cell proliferation were measured after IL-1β and PGE2 incubation. Results Myofibroblasts from both control and IPF fibroblast cultures stimulated with IL-1β showed no COX-2 expression. IPF fibroblasts showed increased myofibroblast population and reduced COX-2 expression in response to IL-1β. TGF-β1 increased the number of myofibroblasts in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, TGF-β1 induced slight COX-2 expression at 4 h (without increase in myofibroblasts) and 24 h, but not at 72 h. Both IPF and control cultures incubated with TGF-β1 for 72 h showed diminished COX-2 induction, PGE2 secretion and α-SMA expression after IL-1β addition. The latter decreased proliferation in fibroblasts but not in myofibroblasts. A549 cells incubated with TGF-β1 for 72 h showed down-regulated COX-2 expression and low basal PGE2 secretion in response to IL-1β. Immuno-histochemical analysis of IPF lung tissue showed no COX-2 immuno-reactivity in myofibroblast foci. Conclusions Myofibroblasts are associated with COX-2 down-regulation and reduced PGE2 production, which could be crucial in IPF development and progression. PMID:23755232

  15. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  16. Optimizing autologous cell grafts to improve stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psatha, Nikoletta; Karponi, Garyfalia; Yannaki, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, stem cell gene therapy has achieved unprecedented curative outcomes for several genetic disorders. Despite the unequivocal success, clinical gene therapy still faces challenges. Genetically engineered hematopoietic stem cells are particularly vulnerable to attenuation of their repopulating capacity once exposed to culture conditions, ultimately leading to low engraftment levels posttransplant. This becomes of particular importance when transduction rates are low or/and competitive transplant conditions are generated by reduced-intensity conditioning in the absence of a selective advantage of the transduced over the unmodified cells. These limitations could partially be overcome by introducing megadoses of genetically modified CD34(+) cells into conditioned patients or by transplanting hematopoietic stem cells hematopoietic stem cells with high engrafting and repopulating potential. On the basis of the lessons gained from cord blood transplantation, we summarize the most promising approaches to date of increasing either the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation or/and their engraftability, as a platform toward the optimization of engineered stem cell grafts. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cyclooxygenase-2 Pathway Correlates with VEGF Expression in Head and Neck Cancer. Implications for Tumor Angiogenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Gallo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the role of COX-2 pathway in 35 head and neck cancers (HNCs by analyzing COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in relation to tumor angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. COX-2 activity was also correlated to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA and protein expression. COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was higher in tumor samples than in normal mucosa. PGE2 levels were higher in the tumor front zone in comparison with tumor core and normal mucosa (P<0001. Specimens from patients with lymph node metastasis exhibited higher COX-2 protein expression (P=.0074, PGEZ levels (P=.0011 and microvessel density (P<.0001 than specimens from patients without metastasis. A significant correlation between COX-2 and tumor vascularization (rs=0.450, P=.007 as well as between COX-2 and microvessel density with VEGF expression in tumor tissues was found (rs=0.450, P=.007; rs=0.620, P=.0001, respectively. The induction of COX-2 mRNA and PGE2 synthesis by EGF and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS in A-431 and SCC-9 cell lines, resulted in an increase in VEGF mRNA and protein production. Indomethacin and celecoxib reversed the EGF- and LPS-dependent COX-2, VEGF, and PGE2 increases. This study suggests a central role of COX-2 pathway in HNC angiogenesis by modulating VEGF production and indicates that COX-2 inhibitors may be useful in HNC treatment.

  18. Rare pneumoconiosis induced by long-term amorphous silica exposure: the histological characteristics and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 as an antifibrogenic mediator in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumasaka, Toshio; Akaike, Yasushi; Nakamura, Osamu; Yamazaki, Kazuma; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Takemura, Tamiko

    2011-11-01

    Pneumoconiosis induced by non-crystalline silica is considered rare, although silicosis resulting from contact with crystalline silica is a well-known hazard associated with progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Here we describe a patient with pneumoconiosis induced by diatomaceous earth composed of amorphous silica detected by two-dimensional imaging of chemical elements. The histology revealed that the disease was characterized by a granulomatous reaction in the lung. A large number of macrophages laden with yellow and black pigments accumulated in alveolar spaces and were incorporated into the interstitial sites. Bronchiolar walls were destroyed by palisade macrophages, suggesting airflow obstruction. Packed macrophages adhering to and covering the denuded interstitium indicated that macrophages might be incorporated into pulmonary interstitium in this fashion. Immunohistochemistry showed that cyclooxygenase-2, an antifibrogenic mediator, was intensely expressed in the macrophages compared with macrophages in control lungs. No birefringent material was found in the tissues. When two-dimensional analysis of chemical elements was performed using an electron probe microanalyzer with a wavelength-dispersive spectrometer, the resultant fine mapping of silicon and oxygen on the tissue indicated that the pigments phagocytosed by macrophages corresponded to amorphous silica. In conclusion, two-dimensional analysis of elements is very useful for pathologists in correlating the presence of chemical elements with histological changes. © 2011 The Authors. Pathology International © 2011 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. The peripheral and central mechanisms of transition of acute to chronic pain and the possible role of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in the prevention of pain syndrome chronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Davydov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain syndromes as a cause of suffering, short-term or persistent disability, and social losses greatly worsen quality of life. The mechanisms leading to the occurrence and maintenance of chronic pain are traditionally of interest for in-depth study since each of them is potentially a target for pharmacotherapy. Peripheral and central sensitizations, as well as disinhibition make different contributions to the development of chronic pain. The fact that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors may affect at both the peripheral and central, spinal levels, by modulating such a phenomenon as central sensitization, has been recently discussed. There are theoretical prerequisites for a discussion of this action of COX-2 inhibitors; however, clinical findings supporting this hypothesis have been scarce so far. In this connection, of interest is the clinical trial published in 2016, which may suggest to a high degree of accuracy that some analgesic effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor etoricoxib is realized through the central mechanisms of pain modulation. 

  20. Vitual screening and binding mode elucidation of curcumin analogues on Cyclooxygenase-2 using AYO_COX2_V1.1 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatsari, E.; Mumpuni, E.; Herfian, A.

    2017-05-01

    Curcumin is yellow colored phenolic compounds contained in Curcuma longa. Curcumin is known to have biological activities as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-infective agent [1]. Synthesis of curcumin analogue compounds has been done and some of them had biological activity like curcumin. In this research, the virtual screening of curcumin analogue compounds has been conducted. The purpose of this research was to determine the activity of these compounds as selective Cyclooxygenase-2inhibitors in in-silico. Binding mode elucidation was made by active and inactive representative compounds to see the interaction of the amino acids in the binding site of the compounds. This research used AYO_COX2_V.1.1, a structure-based virtual screening protocol (SBVS) that has been validated by Mumpuni E et al, 2014 [2]. AYO_COX2_V.1.1 protocol using a variety of integrated applications such as SPORES, PLANTS, BKchem, OpenBabel and PyMOL. The results of virtual screening conducted on 49 curcumin analogue compounds obtained 8 compounds with 4 active amino acid residues (GLY340, ILE503, PHE343, and PHE367) that were considered active as COX-2 inhibitor.

  1. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression in the irradiated colorectum is associated with subsequent histopathological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, Ann S.J.; Bowen, Joanne M.; Gibson, Rachel J.; Keefe, Dorothy M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have proposed that mucositis development is the same throughout the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), as it is formed from one structure embryologically. Radiation-induced oral mucositis studies have outlined the key involvement of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) in its pathobiology. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of NFκB and Cox-2 in the irradiated colorectum and to correlate these with the associated histopathologic changes. Methods and Materials: Colorectal tissues from 28 colorectal cancer patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy were analyzed for histopathologic changes using a variety of tissue staining methods. The expression of NFκB and Cox-2 in these tissues was investigated using immunohistochemistry. Changes in expression of these proteins were then correlated with the histopathologic changes. Results: Radiation therapy caused injury to the normal colorectal tissue surrounding tumor site, particularly around the blood vessels. These changes were reflected in changes in NFκB and Cox-2 expression. Conclusions: We conclude that different regions of the GIT, the colorectum, and oral cavity have similar underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced mucositis. Understanding these mechanisms will allow new approaches to be developed to specifically target steps in the evolution of alimentary mucositis

  2. Single-dose safety and pharmacokinetic evaluation of fluorocoxib A: pilot study of novel cyclooxygenase-2-targeted optical imaging agent in a canine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekanova, Maria; Uddin, Md. Jashim; Legendre, Alfred M.; Galyon, Gina; Bartges, Joseph W.; Callens, Amanda; Martin-Jimenez, Tomas; Marnett, Lawrence J.

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1 mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs over that time period. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed in additional research dogs from plasma collected at several time points after i.v. administration of fluorocoxib A using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The pharmacokinetic studies using 1 mg/kg showed a peak of fluorocoxib A (92±28 ng/ml) in plasma collected at 0.5 h. Tumor specific uptake of fluorocoxib A was demonstrated using a dog diagnosed with colorectal cancer expressing COX-2. Our data support the safe single-dose administration and in vivo efficacy of fluorocoxib A, suggesting a high potential for successful translation to clinical use as an imaging agent for improved tumor detection in humans.

  3. NO2 inhalation promotes Alzheimer’s disease-like progression: cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 modulation and monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition-targeted medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Yun, Yang; Ku, Tingting; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution has been reported to be associated with increased risks of cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases. Because NO2 is a typical primary air pollutant and an important contributor to secondary aerosols, NO2-induced neuronal functional abnormalities have attracted greater attention, but the available experimental evidence, modulating mechanisms, and targeting medications remain ambiguous. In this study, we exposed C57BL/6J and APP/PS1 mice to dynamic NO2 inhalation and found for the first time that NO2 inhalation caused deterioration of spatial learning and memory, aggravated amyloid β42 (Aβ42) accumulation, and promoted pathological abnormalities and cognitive defects related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The microarray and bioinformation data showed that the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) played a key role in modulating this aggravation. Furthermore, increasing endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) by inhibiting monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) prevented PGE2 production, neuroinflammation-associated Aβ42 accumulation, and neurodegeneration, indicating a therapeutic target for relieving cognitive impairment caused by NO2 exposure.

  4. Oleuropein Decreases Cyclooxygenase-2 and Interleukin-17 Expression and Attenuates Inflammatory Damage in Colonic Samples from Ulcerative Colitis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larussa, Tiziana; Oliverio, Manuela; Suraci, Evelina; Greco, Marta; Placida, Roberta; Gervasi, Serena; Marasco, Raffaella; Imeneo, Maria; Paolino, Donatella; Tucci, Luigi; Gulletta, Elio; Fresta, Massimo; Procopio, Antonio; Luzza, Francesco

    2017-04-15

    Oleuropein (OLE) is the major phenolic secoiridoid of olive tree leaves, and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of OLE in the colonic mucosa from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Biopsies obtained during colonoscopy from 14 patients with active UC were immediately placed in an organ culture chamber and challenged with lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli (EC-LPS) at 1 μg/mL in the presence or absence of 3 mM OLE. The expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin (IL)-17 was assessed in total protein extracts from treated colonic biopsies by Western blotting. Levels of IL-17 were also measured in culture supernatant by ELISA. A microscopic evaluation of the cultured biopsies was performed by conventional histology and immunohistochemistry. The expression of COX-2 and IL-17 were significantly lower in samples treated with OLE + EC-LPS compared with those treated with EC-LPS alone (0.80 ± 0.15 arbitrary units (a.u.) vs. 1.06 ± 0.19 a.u., p = 0.003, and 0.71 ± 0.08 a.u. vs. 1.26 ± 0.42 a.u., p = 0.03, respectively) as were the levels of IL-17 in culture supernatants of OLE + EC-LPS treated colonic samples (21.16 ± 8.64 pg/mL vs. 40.67 ± 9.24 pg/mL, p = 0.01). Histologically, OLE-treated colonic samples showed an amelioration of inflammatory damage with reduced infiltration of CD3, CD4, and CD20 cells, while CD68 numbers increased. The anti-inflammatory activity of OLE was demonstrated in colonic biopsies from UC patients. These new data support a potential role of OLE in the treatment of UC.

  5. La ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2 y el factor de crecimiento epidérmico (EFG en lesiones epiteliales orales premalignas Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF in oral premalignant epithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Díaz Prado

    2009-06-01

    . Candidate SEBs for invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the upper aerodigestive tract are detectable molecular, cellular, and tissue changes that take place during tumorigenesis. Among the markers that have been proposed to date, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR seem to be the most promising. COX-2 is overexpressed during tumor transformation from early hyperplasia to metastasic disease. EGFR is also abnormally activated in epithelial tumors, since cells of almost all these kinds of neoplasm express high levels of this receptor, a characteristic associated with poor clinical outcome. The upper aerodigestive tract provides a unique model for studying the development of squamous cell carcinoma and for investigating candidate SEBs.

  6. Calpastatin is regulated by protein never in mitosis gene A interacting-1 (PIN1) in endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tongzheng; Schneider, Ryan A.; Hoyt, Dale G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Depletion of PIN1 increases inhibitory effect of calpastatin against calpain in endothelial cells. ► PIN1 associates with calpastatin. ► PIN1, but not mutants, reduces the inhibitory activity of calpastatin in vitro. ► Depletion of calpastatin shows that it is required for PIN1 depletion to reduce calpain activity. -- Abstract: The peptidyl-proline isomerase, protein never in mitosis gene A interacting-1 (PIN1) binds and isomerizes proteins phosphorylated on serine/threonine before a proline. It was previously found that depletion of PIN1 greatly increased induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by lowering calpain activity in murine aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). Here we investigated the effect of PIN1 on the endogenous inhibitor of heterodimeric μ- and m-calpains, calpastatin. MAEC were transduced with small hairpin (sh) RNA to knock down PIN1 (KD) or an inactive Control shRNA. Cells were also treated with non-targeted double stranded small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) or siRNA designed to deplete calpastatin. Despite reducing calpain activity, PIN1 KD did not significantly affect the expression of μ- and m-calpains, or calpastatin, compared to Control shRNA. Instead, depletion of PIN1 increased the inhibitory activity of calpastatin. Calpastatin co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous PIN1 and was pulled down with glutathione-S-transferase (GST)–PIN1 fusion protein. Adding GST–PIN1 to KD cell extracts lacking PIN1 reduced calpastatin inhibitory activity. Substrate binding and catalytic domain mutants of PIN1 failed to do so. These results suggest that protein interaction and the proline isomerase functions of PIN1 are required for it to inhibit calpastatin. Furthermore, depletion of calpastatin raised calpain activity and reduced calpain inhibitory activity to similar levels in KD and Control MAEC, indicating that calpastatin is required for PIN1 depletion to lower calpain activity. Thus, PIN1 apparently restrains

  7. Calpastatin is regulated by protein never in mitosis gene A interacting-1 (PIN1) in endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tongzheng, E-mail: liu.tongzheng@mayo.edu [Division of Oncology Research, Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Schneider, Ryan A., E-mail: schneiderr@findlay.edu [College of Pharmacy, The University of Findlay, Findlay, OH 45840 (United States); Hoyt, Dale G., E-mail: hoyt.27@osu.edu [The Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, and the Division of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 500 West Twelfth Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of PIN1 increases inhibitory effect of calpastatin against calpain in endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIN1 associates with calpastatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PIN1, but not mutants, reduces the inhibitory activity of calpastatin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Depletion of calpastatin shows that it is required for PIN1 depletion to reduce calpain activity. -- Abstract: The peptidyl-proline isomerase, protein never in mitosis gene A interacting-1 (PIN1) binds and isomerizes proteins phosphorylated on serine/threonine before a proline. It was previously found that depletion of PIN1 greatly increased induction of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by lowering calpain activity in murine aortic endothelial cells (MAEC). Here we investigated the effect of PIN1 on the endogenous inhibitor of heterodimeric {mu}- and m-calpains, calpastatin. MAEC were transduced with small hairpin (sh) RNA to knock down PIN1 (KD) or an inactive Control shRNA. Cells were also treated with non-targeted double stranded small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) or siRNA designed to deplete calpastatin. Despite reducing calpain activity, PIN1 KD did not significantly affect the expression of {mu}- and m-calpains, or calpastatin, compared to Control shRNA. Instead, depletion of PIN1 increased the inhibitory activity of calpastatin. Calpastatin co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous PIN1 and was pulled down with glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-PIN1 fusion protein. Adding GST-PIN1 to KD cell extracts lacking PIN1 reduced calpastatin inhibitory activity. Substrate binding and catalytic domain mutants of PIN1 failed to do so. These results suggest that protein interaction and the proline isomerase functions of PIN1 are required for it to inhibit calpastatin. Furthermore, depletion of calpastatin raised calpain activity and reduced calpain inhibitory activity to similar levels in KD and Control MAEC, indicating that

  8. Metallothionein gene expression in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metallothioneins (MTs are a group of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. In general, MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: (1 the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide, (2 apoptosis and (3 the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between the expression of MT with invasion, metastasis and poor prognosis in various cancers. Most of the previous studies primarily used immunohistochemistry to analyze localization of MT in renal cell carcinoma (RCC. No information is available on the gene expression of MT2A isoform in different types and grades of RCC. Materials and Methods: In the present study, total RNA was isolated from 38 histopathologically confirmed cases of RCC of different types and grades. Corresponding adjacent normal renal parenchyma was taken as control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR analysis was done for the MT2A gene expression using b-actin as an internal control. All statistical calculations were performed using SPSS software. Results: The MT2A gene expression was found to be significantly increased (P < 0.01 in clear cell RCC in comparison with the adjacent normal renal parenchyma. The expression of MT2A was two to three-fold higher in sarcomatoid RCC, whereas there was no change in papillary and collecting duct RCC. MT2A gene expression was significantly higher in lower grade (grades I and II, P < 0.05, while no change was observed in high-grade tumor (grade III and IV in comparison to adjacent normal renal tissue. Conclusion: The first report of the expression of MT2A in different types and grades of RCC and also these data further support the role of MT2A in tumorigenesis.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression is common in serrated and non-serrated colorectal adenoma, but uncommon in hyperplastic polyp and sessile serrated polyp/adenoma

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    Kirkner Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, PTGS2 plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. COX-2 overexpression in colorectal cancer is inversely associated with microsatellite instability (MSI and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP. Evidence suggests that MSI/CIMP+ colorectal cancer may arise through the serrated tumorigenic pathway through various forms of serrated neoplasias. Therefore, we hypothesized that COX-2 may play a less important role in the serrated pathway. Methods By immunohistochemistry, we assessed COX-2 expression in 24 hyperplastic polyps, 7 sessile serrated polyp/adenomas (SSA, 5 mixed polyps with SSA and adenoma, 27 traditional serrated adenomas, 515 non-serrated adenomas (tubular adenoma, tubulovillous adenoma and villous adenoma, 33 adenomas with intramucosal carcinomas, 96 adenocarcinomas with serration (corkscrew gland and 111 adenocarcinomas without serration. Results Strong (2+ COX-2 overexpression was more common in non-serrated adenomas (28% = 143/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (4.2% = 1/24, p = 0.008 and serrated polyps (7 SSAs and 5 mixed polyps (0% = 0/12, p = 0.04. Furthermore, any (1+/2+ COX-2 overexpression was more frequent in non-serrated adenomas (60% = 307/515 than in hyperplastic polyps (13% = 3/24, p Conclusion COX-2 overexpression is infrequent in hyperplastic polyp, SSA and mixed polyp with SSA and adenoma, compared to non-serrated and serrated adenoma. COX-2 overexpression becomes more frequent as tumors progress to higher grade neoplasias. Our observations suggest that COX-2 may play a less significant role in the serrated pathway of tumorigenesis; however, COX-2 may still play a role in later stage of the serrated pathway.

  10. Correlation of beta-catenin localization with cyclooxygenase-2 expression and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takako; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Suemoto, Yuko; Kirkner, Gregory J; Dehari, Reiko; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Fuchs, Charles S; Ogino, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    The WNT/beta-catenin (CTNNB1) pathway is commonly activated in the carcinogenic process. Cross-talks between the WNT and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 or PTGS2)/prostaglandin pathways have been suggested. The relationship between beta-catenin activation and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer has been controversial. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high) with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, which is associated with MSI-high. However, no study has examined the relationship between beta-catenin activation and CIMP status. Using 832 population-based colorectal cancer specimens, we assessed beta-catenin localization by immunohistochemistry. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A(p16), CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight). MSI-high, CIMP-high, and BRAF mutation were associated inversely with cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin expressions (i.e., beta-catenin activation) and associated positively with membrane expression. The inverse relation between beta-catenin activation and CIMP was independent of MSI. COX-2 overexpression correlated with cytoplasmic beta-catenin expression (even after tumors were stratified by CIMP status), but did not correlate significantly with nuclear or membrane expression. In conclusion, beta-catenin activation is inversely associated with CIMP-high independent of MSI status. Cytoplasmic beta-catenin is associated with COX-2 overexpression, supporting the role of cytoplasmic beta-catenin in stabilizing PTGS2 (COX-2) mRNA.

  11. Correlation of β-Catenin Localization with Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP in Colorectal Cancer

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    Takako Kawasaki

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The WNT/β-catenin (CTNNB1 pathway is commonly activated in the carcinogenic process. Cross-talks between the WNT and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 or PTGS2/prostaglandin pathways have been suggested. The relationship between (3-catenin activation and microsatellite instability (MSI in colorectal cancer has been controversial. The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP or CIMP-high with widespread promoter methylation is a distinct epigenetic phenotype in colorectal cancer, which is associated with MSI-high. However, no study has examined the relationship between (β-catenin activation and CIMP status. Using 832 population-based colorectal cancer specimens, we assessed (3-catenin localization by immunohistochemistry. We quantified DNA methylation in eight CIMP-specific promoters [CACNA1G, CDKN2A(p16, CRABP1, IGF2, MLH1, NEUROG1, RUNX3, and SOCS1] by real-time polymerase chain reaction (MethyLight. MSI-high, CIMP-high, and BRAF mutation were associated inversely with cytoplasmic and nuclear (β-catenin expressions (i.e., β-catenin activation and associated positively with membrane expression. The inverse relation between (β-catenin activation and CIMP was independent of MSI. COX-2 overexpression correlated with cytoplasmic (β-catenin expression (even after tumors were stratified by CIMP status, but did not correlate significantly with nuclear or membrane expression. In conclusion, β-catenin activation is inversely associated with CIMP-high independent of MSI status. Cytoplasmic β-catenin is associated with COX-2 overexpression, supporting the role of cytoplasmic β-catenin in stabilizing PTGS2(COX-2 mRNA.

  12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

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    Tett Susan E

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005. Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day. COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland.

  13. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, G P; Lutkenhaus, J F; Donachie, W D

    1980-01-01

    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This group is in a larger cluster of at least 10 genes, all of which are involved in some way with cell envelope growth. Images PMID:6998962

  14. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Lovrics, Anna; Byrne, Helen M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; King, John R.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Buttery, Lee D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2

  15. Differential inhibition of activity, activation and gene expression of MMP-9 in THP-1 cells by azithromycin and minocycline versus bortezomib: A comparative study.

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    Jennifer Vandooren

    Full Text Available Gelatinase B or matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 (EC 3.4.24.35 is increased in inflammatory processes and cancer, and is associated with disease progression. In part, this is due to MMP-9-mediated degradation of extracellular matrix, facilitating influx of leukocytes into inflamed tissues and invasion or metastasis of cancer cells. MMP-9 is produced as proMMP-9 and its propeptide is subsequently removed by other proteases to generate proteolytically active MMP-9. The significance of MMP-9 in pathologies triggered the development of specific inhibitors of this protease. However, clinical trials with synthetic inhibitors of MMPs in the fight against cancer were disappointing. Reports on active compounds which inhibit MMP-9 should be carefully examined in this regard. In a considerable set of recent publications, two antibiotics (minocycline and azythromycin and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, used in cancers, were reported to inhibit MMP-9 at different stages of its expression, activation or activity. The current study was undertaken to compare and to verify the impact of these compounds on MMP-9. With exception of minocycline at high concentrations (>100 μM, the compounds did not affect processing of proMMP-9 into MMP-9, nor did they affect direct MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity. In contrast, azithromycin specifically reduced MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels without affecting NF-κB in endotoxin-challenged monocytic THP-1 cells. Bortezomib, although being highly toxic, had no MMP-9-specific effects but significantly upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 activity and PGE2 levels. Overall, our study clarified that azithromycin decreased the levels of MMP-9 by reduction of gene and protein expression while minocycline inhibits proteolytic activity at high concentrations.

  16. Stem cell and gene therapies for diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calne, Roy Y; Gan, Shu Uin; Lee, Kok Onn

    2010-03-01

    In this Perspectives article, we comment on the progress in experimental stem cell and gene therapies that might one day become a clinical reality for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Finally, gene therapy shows some promise for the generation of insulin-producing cells. Here, we discuss two of the most frequently used approaches: in vitro gene delivery into cells which are then transplanted into the recipient and direct delivery of genes in vivo.

  17. Effects of Supervised Structured Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Interleukin-6, Nitric Oxide Synthase-1, and Cyclooxygenase-2 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Hossein; Rehman, Syed Shakil Ur; Gillani, Syed Amir

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) program on interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Randomized controlled trial. Riphah Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Railways General Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2015 to June 2016. Patients of either gender of minimum one year history of T2DM ranging from 40-70 years of age were included. Those with chronic systemic diseases, history of regular exercise, smoking, and those on dietary plan were excluded. Atotal of 195 patients were screened; 120 were selected and 102 agreed to participate in the study. They were randomly placed into experimental and control groups. SSAETprogram, routine medication, and dietary plan were applied in experimental group; whereas, control group was managed with routine medication and dietary plan for 25 weeks. IL-6, NOS-1, and COX-2 were assessed at baseline and 25 weeks. SSAET program, routine medication and dietary plan showed significantly improved IL-6 (pre-mean=0.25 ±0.11ng/ml, post-mean=0.19 ±0.04 ng/ml), NOS-1 (pre-median=4.65 ng/ml, IQ range=1.04 ng/ml), (post-median=2.72 ng/ml, IQ range=1.60 ng/ml), and COX-2 (pre-mean=18.72 ±4.42 ng/ml, post-mean=15.18 ±2.63 ng/ml) in experimental group, as compared with control group managed by routine medication and dietary plan, where deterioration was noted in IL-6 (pre-mean=0.23 ±0.08 ng/ml, post-mean=0.27 ±0.08 ng/ml) and COX-2 (pre-mean=18.49 ±4.56 ng/ml, postmean=19.10 ±4.76 ng/ml), while NOS-1 slight improvement (pre-mean=4.99 ng/ml, IQ range=2.67 ng/ml), (postmean=4.56 ng/ml, IQ range=3.85 ng/ml). Statistically at the baseline the p-values were not significant (p>0.05) in both experimental and control groups for IL-6, COX-2 and NOS-1; while after 25 weeks of intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvement (p<0.05) in comparison with the control group. SSAET program, routine

  18. Chronic voluntary oral methamphetamine induces deficits in spatial learning and hippocampal protein kinase Mzeta with enhanced astrogliosis and cyclooxygenase-2 levels

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    Jorge A. Avila

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (MA is an addictive drug with neurotoxic effects on the brain producing cognitive impairment and increasing the risk for neurodegenerative disease. Research has focused largely on examining the neurochemical and behavioral deficits induced by injecting relatively high doses of MA [30 mg/kg of body weight (bw] identifying the upper limits of MA-induced neurotoxicity. Accordingly, we have developed an appetitive mouse model of voluntary oral MA administration (VOMA based on the consumption of a palatable sweetened oatmeal mash containing a known amount of MA. This VOMA model is useful for determining the lower limits necessary to produce neurotoxicity in the short-term and long-term as it progresses over time. We show that mice consumed on average 1.743 mg/kg bw/hour during 3 hours, and an average of 5.23 mg/kg bw/day over 28 consecutive days on a VOMA schedule. Since this consumption rate is much lower than the neurotoxic doses typically injected, we assessed the effects of long-term chronic VOMA on both spatial memory performance and on the levels of neurotoxicity in the hippocampus. Following 28 days of VOMA, mice exhibited a significant deficit in short-term spatial working memory and spatial reference learning on the radial 8-arm maze (RAM compared to controls. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in memory markers protein kinase Mzeta (PKMζ, calcium impermeable AMPA receptor subunit GluA2, and the post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95 protein in the hippocampus. Compared to controls, the VOMA paradigm also induced decreases in hippocampal levels of dopamine transporter (DAT and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, as well as increases in dopamine 1 receptor (D1R, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, with a decrease in prostaglandins E2 (PGE2 and D2 (PGD2. These results demonstrate that chronic VOMA reaching 146 mg/kg bw/28d induces significant hippocampal neurotoxicity. Future studies will evaluate

  19. DNA-mediated gene transfer into ataxia-telangiectasia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crescenzi, M.; Pulciani, S.; Carbonari, M.; Tedesco, L.; Russo, G.; Gaetano, C.; Fiorilli, M.

    1986-01-01

    The complete description of the genetic lesion(s) underlying the AT mutation might, therefore, highlight not only a DNA-repair pathwa, but also an important aspect of the physiology of lymphocytes. DNA-mediated gene transfer into eukaryotic cells has proved a powerful tool for the molecular cloning of certain mammalian genes. The possibility to clone a given gene using this technology depends, basically, on the availability of a selectable marker associated with the expression of the transfected gene in the recipient cell. Recently, a human DNA repair gene has been cloned in CHO mutant cells by taking advantage of the increased resistance to ultraviolet radiation of the transformants. As a preliminary step toward the molecular cloning of the AT gene(s), the authors have attempted to confer radioresistance to AT cells by transfection with normal human DNA

  20. Advances of reporter gene imaging monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Zhijun; Zhang Yongxue

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation in the treatment of various tissue damage or degenerative diseases are research hotspots both at home and abroad. However, ignorance of the homing, differentiation and functional expression of the stem cell in vivo influence the further development of stem cell therapy. As an important component of molecular imaging technology, reporter gene imaging dynamically monitors the change of stem cell in vivo via monitoring the expression of transfected reporter gene. This paper briefly describes the latest research progress and the future development trend of the monitoring of reporter gene imaging in stem cell therapy in vivo. (authors)

  1. Microarray gene expression profiling and analysis in renal cell carcinoma

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    Sadhukhan Provash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common cancer in adult kidney. The accuracy of current diagnosis and prognosis of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment for the disease are limited by the poor understanding of the disease at the molecular level. To better understand the genetics and biology of RCC, we profiled the expression of 7,129 genes in both clear cell RCC tissue and cell lines using oligonucleotide arrays. Methods Total RNAs isolated from renal cell tumors, adjacent normal tissue and metastatic RCC cell lines were hybridized to affymatrix HuFL oligonucleotide arrays. Genes were categorized into different functional groups based on the description of the Gene Ontology Consortium and analyzed based on the gene expression levels. Gene expression profiles of the tissue and cell line samples were visualized and classified by singular value decomposition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm the expression alterations of selected genes in RCC. Results Selected genes were annotated based on biological processes and clustered into functional groups. The expression levels of genes in each group were also analyzed. Seventy-four commonly differentially expressed genes with more than five-fold changes in RCC tissues were identified. The expression alterations of selected genes from these seventy-four genes were further verified using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Detailed comparison of gene expression patterns in RCC tissue and RCC cell lines shows significant differences between the two types of samples, but many important expression patterns were preserved. Conclusions This is one of the initial studies that examine the functional ontology of a large number of genes in RCC. Extensive annotation, clustering and analysis of a large number of genes based on the gene functional ontology revealed many interesting gene expression patterns in RCC. Most

  2. Analysis of mammary specific gene locus regulation in differentiated cells derived by somatic cell fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Claire; Kolb, Andreas F.

    2009-01-01

    The transcriptional regulation of a gene is best analysed in the context of its normal chromatin surroundings. However, most somatic cells, in contrast to embryonic stem cells, are refractory to accurate modification by homologous recombination. We show here that it is possible to introduce precise genomic modifications in ES cells and to analyse the phenotypic consequences in differentiated cells by using a combination of gene targeting, site-specific recombination and somatic cell fusion. To provide a proof of principle, we have analysed the regulation of the casein gene locus in mammary gland cells derived from modified murine ES cells by somatic cell fusion. A β-galactosidase reporter gene was inserted in place of the β-casein gene and the modified ES cells, which do not express the reporter gene, were fused with the mouse mammary gland cell line HC11. The resulting cell clones expressed the β-galactosidase gene to a similar extent and with similar hormone responsiveness as the endogenous gene. However, a reporter gene under the control of a minimal β-casein promoter (encompassing the two consensus STAT5 binding sites which mediate the hormone response of the casein genes) was unable to replicate expression levels or hormone responsiveness of the endogenous gene when inserted into the same site of the casein locus. As expected, these results implicate sequences other than the STAT5 sites in the regulation of the β-casein gene

  3. Integrative characterization of germ cell-specific genes from mouse spermatocyte UniGene library

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    Eddy Edward M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary regulator of spermatogenesis, a highly ordered and tightly regulated developmental process, is an intrinsic genetic program involving male germ cell-specific genes. Results We analyzed the mouse spermatocyte UniGene library containing 2155 gene-oriented transcript clusters. We predict that 11% of these genes are testis-specific and systematically identified 24 authentic genes specifically and abundantly expressed in the testis via in silico and in vitro approaches. Northern blot analysis disclosed various transcript characteristics, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. Expression analysis revealed developmentally regulated and stage-specific expression patterns in all of the genes. We further analyzed the genes at the protein and cellular levels. Transfection assays performed using GC-2 cells provided information on the cellular characteristics of the gene products. In addition, antibodies were generated against proteins encoded by some of the genes to facilitate their identification and characterization in spermatogenic cells and sperm. Our data suggest that a number of the gene products are implicated in transcriptional regulation, nuclear integrity, sperm structure and motility, and fertilization. In particular, we found for the first time that Mm.333010, predicted to contain a trypsin-like serine protease domain, is a sperm acrosomal protein. Conclusion We identify 24 authentic genes with spermatogenic cell-specific expression, and provide comprehensive information about the genes. Our findings establish a new basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying male reproduction.

  4. Stem cell collection and gene transfer in Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick F; Radtke, Susan; von Kalle, Christof; Balcik, Brenden; Bohn, Kimberley; Mueller, Robin; Schuesler, Todd; Haren, Moira; Reeves, Lilith; Cancelas, Jose A; Leemhuis, Thomas; Harris, Richard; Auerbach, Arleen D; Smith, Franklin O; Davies, Stella M; Williams, David A

    2007-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic syndrome characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), congenital anomalies, and a predisposition to malignancy. Successful gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could reverse BMF in this disease. We developed clinical trials to determine whether a sufficient number of CD34(+) stem cells could be collected for gene modification and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HSC-corrective gene transfer in FA genotype A (FANCA) patients. Here, we report that FA patients have significant depletion of their BM CD34(+) cell compartment even before severe pancytopenia is present. However, oncoretroviral-mediated ex vivo gene transfer was efficient in clinical scale in FA-A cells, leading to reversal of the cellular phenotype in a significant percentage of CD34(+) cells. Re-infusion of gene-corrected products in two patients was safe and well tolerated and accompanied by transient improvements in hemoglobin and platelet counts. Gene correction was transient, likely owing to the low dose of gene-corrected cells infused. Our early experience shows that stem cell collection is well tolerated in FA patients and suggests that collection be considered as early as possible in patients who are potential candidates for future gene transfer trials.

  5. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 in experimental severe acute pancreatitis Inibição da Ciclo-Oxigenase-2 na pancreatite aguda grave experimental

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    José Luiz Jesus de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard treatment for acute pancreatitis (AP is still based on supportive care. The search for a new drug that could change the natural history of the disease is a continuing challenge for many researchers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor on experimental AP in rats. METHODS: The animals were divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 30-animals with taurocholate-induced AP treated with parecoxib (40 mg/kg. Group 2 (n = 30-animals with taurocholate-induced AP that received saline. The COX-2 inhibitor (parecoxib was injected immediately after AP induction, through the penis dorsal vein. The parameters evaluated were histology, serum levels of amylase, IL-6 and IL-10, and mortality rate. RESULTS: The serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in the parecoxib-treated group were lower than the control group. The amylase serum levels and the mortality rate remained unchanged in the treated animals. Histologic morphology also was unaltered, except for fat necrosis, which was higher in parecoxib-treated rats. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of Cox-2 decreases the systemic release of inflammatory cytokines, but has a poor effect on the direct pancreas injury caused by taurocholate.INTRODUÇÃO: O tratamento padrão para a pancreatite aguda permanece baseado em medidas de suporte. A busca por uma droga que altere a história natural da doença ainda é um desafio para muitos pesquisadores. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar o efeito de um inibidor da COX-2 na pancreatite aguda grave experimental (PA em ratos. MÉTODO: Os animais foram divididos em dois Grupos: Grupo 1 (n=30 - animais com PA induzida por taurocolato e tratados com parecoxib (40mg/Kg. Grupo 2 (n=30 - animais com PA induzida por taurocolato que receberam solução salina. O inibidor de COX-2 (parecoxib foi injetado imediatamente após a indução, através da veia dorsal do pênis. Os parâmetros avaliados foram histologia, níveis séricos de

  6. Effect of supervised structured aerobic exercise training program of interleukin-6, nitric oxide synthase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, H.; Gillani, S.A.; Rehman, S.S.U.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of supervised structured aerobic exercise training (SSAET) program on interleukin-6 (IL-6), nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Riphah Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Railways General Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2015 to June 2016. Methodology: Patients of either gender of minimum one year history of T2DM ranging from 40-70 years of age were included. Those with chronic systemic diseases, history of regular exercise, smoking, and those on dietary plan were excluded. A total of 195 patients were screened; 120 were selected and 102 agreed to participate in the study. They were randomly placed into experimental and control groups. SSAET program, routine medication, and dietary plan were applied in experimental group; whereas, control group was managed with routine medication and dietary plan for 25 weeks. IL-6, NOS-1, and COX-2 were assessed at baseline and 25 weeks. Results: SSAET program, routine medication and dietary plan showed significantly improved IL-6 (pre-mean=0.25 +-0.11ng/ml, post-mean=0.19 +-0.04 ng/ml), NOS-1 (pre-median=4.65 ng/ml, IQ range=1.04 ng/ml), (post-median=2.72 ng/ml, IQ range=1.60 ng/ml), and COX-2 (pre-mean=18.72 +-4.42 ng/ml, post-mean=15.18 +-2.63 ng/ml) in experimental group, as compared with control group managed by routine medication and dietary plan, where deterioration was noted in IL-6 (pre-mean=0.23 +-0.08 ng/ml, post-mean=0.27 +-0.08 ng/ml) and COX-2 (pre-mean=18.49 +-4.56 ng/ml, post-mean=19.10 +-4.76 ng/ml), while NOS-1 slight improvement (pre-mean=4.99 ng/ml, IQ range=2.67 ng/ml), (post-mean=4.56 ng/ml, IQ range=3.85 ng/ml). Statistically at the baseline the p-values were not significant (p>0.05) in both experimental and control groups for IL-6, COX-2 and NOS-1; while after 25 weeks of intervention, the experimental group showed significant improvement (p<0

  7. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor use and progression of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a single-center retrospective cohort study

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    Kaewput W

    2016-11-01

    short term and in the long term after sCOX-2 inhibitors were terminated in the setting of a community-based CKD population. For CKD patients, these results suggest that sCOX-2 inhibitors should be closely monitored and chronic exposure to any sCOX-2 inhibitors should be avoided. Keywords: selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, long-term renal progression, chronic kidney disease

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in colon experimental carcinogenesis Inhibición de la ciclooxigenasa-2 en la carcinogénesis cólica experimental

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    J. F. Noguera Aguilar

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: an overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been seen in colon tumors; therefore, COX-2 specific inhibitors may be used as preventive agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of both selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors on the incidence of colonic tumors in a model of chemical carcinogenesis in the rat. Design: experimental study with 65 male Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a control (n = 20, with chemical carcinogenesis using 1-2 dimethylhydrazine (1-2 DMH; (b acetylsalicylic acid (ASA (n = 15, with chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of ASA at 30 mg/kg; (c low-dose rofecoxib (n = 15, with chemical carcinogenesis and the addition of rofecoxib at a dose of 1.2 mg/kg; (d high-dose rofecoxib (n = 15, with carcinogenesis and the addition of rofecoxib at 3 mg/kg. Carcinogenic induction was performed with 1-2 DMH at a weekly dose of 25 mg/kg for 18 weeks. The main parameter evaluated was percentage of neoplastic colonic tissue, which relates tumor surface area to colon surface area. Results: rofecoxib at a dose of 3 mg/kg significantly reduced chemical colon carcinogenesis in rats (p Introducción: se ha comprobado a nivel clínico y experimental la existencia de sobreexpresión de la ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2 en los tumores de colon, por lo que los inhibidores de dicha enzima podrían tener un efecto preventivo. El objetivo del estudio es investigar el efecto de la inhibición de la ciclooxigenasa en un modelo de carcinogénesis cólica farmacológica en la rata. Material y métodos: estudio experimental en 65 ratas Sprague-Dawley macho, asignadas a uno de los grupos: control (n = 20, con carcinogénesis farmacológica con 1-2 dimetilhidrazina; grupo ácido acetilsalicílico (n = 15, con carcinogénesis y adición de AAS, grupo Inhibidores COX-2 a bajas dosis (n = 15, con carcinogénesis y adición de rofecoxib a dosis de 1,2 mg/kg, y grupo Inhibidores COX-2 a altas dosis

  9. Genes and Gene Networks Involved in Sodium Fluoride-Elicited Cell Death Accompanying Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Oral Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Tabuchi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cell death induced by sodium fluoride (NaF, we analyzed gene expression patterns in rat oral epithelial ROE2 cells exposed to NaF using global-scale microarrays and bioinformatics tools. A relatively high concentration of NaF (2 mM induced cell death concomitant with decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, chromatin condensation and caspase-3 activation. Using 980 probe sets, we identified 432 up-regulated and 548 down-regulated genes, that were differentially expressed by >2.5-fold in the cells treated with 2 mM of NaF and categorized them into 4 groups by K-means clustering. Ingenuity® pathway analysis revealed several gene networks from gene clusters. The gene networks Up-I and Up-II included many up-regulated genes that were mainly associated with the biological function of induction or prevention of cell death, respectively, such as Atf3, Ddit3 and Fos (for Up-I and Atf4 and Hspa5 (for Up-II. Interestingly, knockdown of Ddit3 and Hspa5 significantly increased and decreased the number of viable cells, respectively. Moreover, several endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related genes including, Ddit3, Atf4 and Hapa5, were observed in these gene networks. These findings will provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms of NaF-induced cell death accompanying ER stress in oral epithelial cells.

  10. Sexual selection, genetic conflict, selfish genes, and the atypical patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleene, Kenneth C

    2005-01-01

    This review proposes that the peculiar patterns of gene expression in spermatogenic cells are the consequence of powerful evolutionary forces known as sexual selection. Sexual selection is generally characterized by intense competition of males for females, an enormous variety of the strategies to maximize male reproductive success, exaggerated male traits at all levels of biological organization, co-evolution of sexual traits in males and females, and conflict between the sexual advantage of the male trait and the reproductive fitness of females and the individual fitness of both sexes. In addition, spermatogenesis is afflicted by selfish genes that promote their transmission to progeny while causing deleterious effects. Sexual selection, selfish genes, and genetic conflict provide compelling explanations for many atypical features of gene expression in spermatogenic cells including the gross overexpression of certain mRNAs, transcripts encoding truncated proteins that cannot carry out basic functions of the proteins encoded by the same genes in somatic cells, the large number of gene families containing paralogous genes encoding spermatogenic cell-specific isoforms, the large number of testis-cancer-associated genes that are expressed only in spermatogenic cells and malignant cells, and the overbearing role of Sertoli cells in regulating the number and quality of spermatozoa.

  11. Geometry of the Gene Expression Space of Individual Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Korem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a revolution in the ability to analyze gene expression of single cells in a tissue. To understand this data we must comprehend how cells are distributed in a high-dimensional gene expression space. One open question is whether cell types form discrete clusters or whether gene expression forms a continuum of states. If such a continuum exists, what is its geometry? Recent theory on evolutionary trade-offs suggests that cells that need to perform multiple tasks are arranged in a polygon or polyhedron (line, triangle, tetrahedron and so on, generally called polytopes in gene expression space, whose vertices are the expression profiles optimal for each task. Here, we analyze single-cell data from human and mouse tissues profiled using a variety of single-cell technologies. We fit the data to shapes with different numbers of vertices, compute their statistical significance, and infer their tasks. We find cases in which single cells fill out a continuum of expression states within a polyhedron. This occurs in intestinal progenitor cells, which fill out a tetrahedron in gene expression space. The four vertices of this tetrahedron are each enriched with genes for a specific task related to stemness and early differentiation. A polyhedral continuum of states is also found in spleen dendritic cells, known to perform multiple immune tasks: cells fill out a tetrahedron whose vertices correspond to key tasks related to maturation, pathogen sensing and communication with lymphocytes. A mixture of continuum-like distributions and discrete clusters is found in other cell types, including bone marrow and differentiated intestinal crypt cells. This approach can be used to understand the geometry and biological tasks of a wide range of single-cell datasets. The present results suggest that the concept of cell type may be expanded. In addition to discreet clusters in gene-expression space, we suggest a new possibility: a continuum of states within a

  12. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  13. Type 1 Diabetes Candidate Genes Linked to Pancreatic Islet Cell Inflammation and Beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    (GWAS) have identified more than 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D. Most of these susceptibility loci, however, harbor several genes, and the causal variant(s) and gene(s) for most of the loci remain to be established. A significant part of the genes located in the T1D...... susceptibility loci are expressed in human islets and β cells and mounting evidence suggests that some of these genes modulate the β-cell response to the immune system and viral infection and regulate apoptotic β-cell death. Here, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes...

  14. Identifying Candidate Reprogramming Genes in Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Li, Jingyu; Zhang, Heng; Yang, Xu; An, Tiezhu

    2017-08-01

    Factor-based induced reprogramming approaches have tremendous potential for human regenerative medicine, but the efficiencies of these approaches are still low. In this study, we analyzed the global transcriptional profiles of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) from seven different labs and present here the first successful clustering according to cell type, not by lab of origin. We identified 2131 different expression genes (DEs) as candidate pluripotency-associated genes by comparing mESCs/miPSCs with somatic cells and 720 DEs between miPSCs and mESCs. Interestingly, there was a significant overlap between the two DE sets. Therefore, we defined the overlap DEs as "consensus DEs" including 313 miPSC-specific genes expressed at a higher level in miPSCs versus mESCs and 184 mESC-specific genes in total and reasoned that these may contribute to the differences in pluripotency between mESCs and miPSCs. A classification of "consensus DEs" according to their different expression levels between somatic cells and mESCs/miPSCs shows that 86% of the miPSC-specific genes are more highly expressed in somatic cells, while 73% of mESC-specific genes are highly expressed in mESCs/miPSCs, indicating that the miPSCs have not efficiently silenced the expression pattern of the somatic cells from which they are derived and failed to completely induce the genes with high expression levels in mESCs. We further revealed a strong correlation between oocyte-enriched factors and insufficiently induced mESC-specific genes and identified 11 hub genes via network analysis. In light of these findings, we postulated that these key hub genes might not only drive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) reprogramming but also augment the efficiency and quality of miPSC reprogramming.

  15. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  16. The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Anna; Rosebrock, Adam; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Pyne, Saumyadipta; Chen, Haiying; Skiena, Steve; Futcher, Bruce; Leatherwood, Janet

    2005-07-01

    Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.

  17. The Cell Cycle–Regulated Genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Anna; Rosebrock, Adam; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Pyne, Saumyadipta; Chen, Haiying; Skiena, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know. PMID:15966770

  18. The cell cycle-regulated genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oliva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Many genes are regulated as an innate part of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and a complex transcriptional network helps enable the cyclic behavior of dividing cells. This transcriptional network has been studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast and elsewhere. To provide more perspective on these regulatory mechanisms, we have used microarrays to measure gene expression through the cell cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast. The 750 genes with the most significant oscillations were identified and analyzed. There were two broad waves of cell cycle transcription, one in early/mid G2 phase, and the other near the G2/M transition. The early/mid G2 wave included many genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, possibly explaining the cell cycle oscillation in protein synthesis in S. pombe. The G2/M wave included at least three distinctly regulated clusters of genes: one large cluster including mitosis, mitotic exit, and cell separation functions, one small cluster dedicated to DNA replication, and another small cluster dedicated to cytokinesis and division. S. pombe cell cycle genes have relatively long, complex promoters containing groups of multiple DNA sequence motifs, often of two, three, or more different kinds. Many of the genes, transcription factors, and regulatory mechanisms are conserved between S. pombe and S. cerevisiae. Finally, we found preliminary evidence for a nearly genome-wide oscillation in gene expression: 2,000 or more genes undergo slight oscillations in expression as a function of the cell cycle, although whether this is adaptive, or incidental to other events in the cell, such as chromatin condensation, we do not know.

  19. Rethinking cell-cycle-dependent gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    Three studies of gene expression during the division cycle of Schizosaccharomyces pombe led to the proposal that a large number of genes are expressed at particular times during the S. pombe cell cycle. Yet only a small fraction of genes proposed to be expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner are reproducible in all three published studies. In addition to reproducibility problems, questions about expression amplitudes, cell-cycle timing of expression, synchronization artifacts, and the problem with methods for synchronizing cells must be considered. These problems and complications prompt the idea that caution should be used before accepting the conclusion that there are a large number of genes expressed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner in S. pombe.

  20. Genome Binding and Gene Regulation by Stem Cell Transcription Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Brandsma (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractNearly all cells of an individual organism contain the same genome. However, each cell type transcribes a different set of genes due to the presence of different sets of cell type-specific transcription factors. Such transcription factors bind to regulatory regions such as promoters

  1. Bone marrow transplantations to study gene function in hematopoietic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, Menno P. J.; Heeringa, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Immune cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Experimental replacement of bone marrow offers the unique possibility to replace immune cells, to study gene function in mouse models of disease. Over the past decades, this technique has been used extensively to study, for

  2. Identification of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Engraftment Genes in Gene Therapy Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, John M; Trobridge, Grant D

    2013-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapy using replication-incompetent retroviral vectors is a promising approach to provide life-long correction for genetic defects. HSC gene therapy clinical studies have resulted in functional cures for several diseases, but in some studies clonal expansion or leukemia has occurred. This is due to the dyregulation of endogenous host gene expression from vector provirus insertional mutagenesis. Insertional mutagenesis screens using replicating retroviruses have been used extensively to identify genes that influence oncogenesis. However, retroviral mutagenesis screens can also be used to determine the role of genes in biological processes such as stem cell engraftment. The aim of this review is to describe the potential for vector insertion site data from gene therapy studies to provide novel insights into mechanisms of HSC engraftment. In HSC gene therapy studies dysregulation of host genes by replication-incompetent vector proviruses may lead to enrichment of repopulating clones with vector integrants near genes that influence engraftment. Thus, data from HSC gene therapy studies can be used to identify novel candidate engraftment genes. As HSC gene therapy use continues to expand, the vector insertion site data collected will be of great interest to help identify novel engraftment genes and may ultimately lead to new therapies to improve engraftment.

  3. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  4. Preventive effect of Dioscorea japonica on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin involving down-regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Izumi; Toda, Keisuke; Takeda, Yasunori; Mega, Takuto; Tanaka, Mitsuki; Kawakami, Yuki; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Kimoto, Masumi; Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Murakami, Makoto; Suzuki-Yamamoto, Toshiko

    2018-03-01

    Hyperproduced prostaglandin E 2 by cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 evokes several pathophysiological responses such as inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our recent study demonstrated that Dioscorea japonica extract suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 and induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma A549 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Dioscorea japonica on squamous cell carcinoma of mouse skin. Dioscorea japonica feeding and Dioscorea japonica extract topical application suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 and inhibited tumor formation, hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical analyses showed the immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in tumor keratinocytes and stronger immunoreactivities of cyclooxygenase-2 and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase in epidermal dendritic cells (Langerhans cells). Treatment with Dioscorea japonica decreased the immunoreactivity of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. These results indicate that Dioscorea japonica may have inhibitory effects on inflammation and carcinogenesis via suppression of the prostaglandin E 2 synthetic pathway.

  5. Characterization of transformation related genes in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D D; Park, N H; Denny, C T; Nelson, S F; Pe, M

    1998-04-16

    A cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA-RDA) and an arrayed filter technique were used to characterize transformation-related genes in oral cancer. From an initial comparison of normal oral epithelial cells and a human papilloma virus (HPV)-immortalized oral epithelial cell line, we obtained 384 differentially expressed gene fragments and arrayed them on a filter. Two hundred and twelve redundant clones were identified by three rounds of back hybridization. Sequence analysis of the remaining clones revealed 99 unique clones corresponding to 69 genes. The expression of these transformation related gene fragments in three nontumorigenic HPV-immortalized oral epithelial cell lines and three oral cancer cell lines were simultaneously monitored using a cDNA array hybridization. Although there was a considerable cell line-to-cell line variability in the expression of these clones, a reliable prediction of their expression could be made from the cDNA array hybridization. Our study demonstrates the utility of combining cDNA-RDA and arrayed filters in high-throughput gene expression difference analysis. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study should be informative in studying oral epithelial cell carcinogenesis.

  6. Sex-Dependent Gene Expression in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ronen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Males and females have a variety of sexually dimorphic traits, most of which result from hormonal differences. However, differences between male and female embryos initiate very early in development, before hormonal influence begins, suggesting the presence of genetically driven sexual dimorphisms. By comparing the gene expression profiles of male and X-inactivated female human pluripotent stem cells, we detected Y-chromosome-driven effects. We discovered that the sex-determining gene SRY is expressed in human male pluripotent stem cells and is induced by reprogramming. In addition, we detected more than 200 differentially expressed autosomal genes in male and female embryonic stem cells. Some of these genes are involved in steroid metabolism pathways and lead to sex-dependent differentiation in response to the estrogen precursor estrone. Thus, we propose that the presence of the Y chromosome and specifically SRY may drive sex-specific differences in the growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells.

  7. Transcriptional changes of mitochondrial genes in irradiated cells ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the increased oxidative stress in the mitochondria, DNA ... Keywords. mitochondrial gene expression; TK6 cells; radiation-induced effects. ..... This work was supported by an endowment fund, College of Nursing and Health Sciences,.

  8. The mechanism of gene targeting in human somatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Kan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting in human somatic cells is of importance because it can be used to either delineate the loss-of-function phenotype of a gene or correct a mutated gene back to wild-type. Both of these outcomes require a form of DNA double-strand break (DSB repair known as homologous recombination (HR. The mechanism of HR leading to gene targeting, however, is not well understood in human cells. Here, we demonstrate that a two-end, ends-out HR intermediate is valid for human gene targeting. Furthermore, the resolution step of this intermediate occurs via the classic DSB repair model of HR while synthesis-dependent strand annealing and Holliday Junction dissolution are, at best, minor pathways. Moreover, and in contrast to other systems, the positions of Holliday Junction resolution are evenly distributed along the homology arms of the targeting vector. Most unexpectedly, we demonstrate that when a meganuclease is used to introduce a chromosomal DSB to augment gene targeting, the mechanism of gene targeting is inverted to an ends-in process. Finally, we demonstrate that the anti-recombination activity of mismatch repair is a significant impediment to gene targeting. These observations significantly advance our understanding of HR and gene targeting in human cells.

  9. Freedom of expression: cell-type-specific gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Leo; Cheetham, Seth W; Brand, Andrea H

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate and behavior are results of differential gene regulation, making techniques to profile gene expression in specific cell types highly desirable. Many methods now enable investigation at the DNA, RNA and protein level. This review introduces the most recent and popular techniques, and discusses key issues influencing the choice between these such as ease, cost and applicability of information gained. Interdisciplinary collaborations will no doubt contribute further advances, including not just in single cell type but single-cell expression profiling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Advances of reporter gene monitoring stem cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiang; Yin Hongyan; Zhang Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Stem cell therapy research has made great progress, demonstrating a broad application prospects. However, stem cell therapy as a new disease treatment, there are still many problems to be solved. Reporter gene imaging is a rapid development in recent years, a non-invasive, sensitive method of monitoring of stem cells, in particular radionuclide reporter gene imaging has high sensitivity and specificity of the advantages of strong and can carry out imaging of deep tissue and repeat imaging, is a tracer in vivo conditions, the most promising stem cell transplantation technique, showing good prospects for development. (authors)

  11. Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show that portable deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences incorporated into host cells make them produce hemoglobins - oxygen-binding proteins essential to function of red blood cells. Method useful in several biotechnological applications. One, enhancement of growth of cells at higher densities. Another, production of hemoglobin to enhance supplies of oxygen in cells, for use in chemical reactions requiring oxygen, as additive to serum to increase transport of oxygen, and for binding and separating oxygen from mixtures of gases.

  12. T-cell activation and early gene response in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally-Anne Mortlock

    Full Text Available T-cells play a crucial role in canine immunoregulation and defence against invading pathogens. Proliferation is fundamental to T-cell differentiation, homeostasis and immune response. Initiation of proliferation following receptor mediated stimuli requires a temporally programmed gene response that can be identified as immediate-early, mid- and late phases. The immediate-early response genes in T-cell activation engage the cell cycle machinery and promote subsequent gene activation events. Genes involved in this immediate-early response in dogs are yet to be identified. The present study was undertaken to characterise the early T-cell gene response in dogs to improve understanding of the genetic mechanisms regulating immune function. Gene expression profiles were characterised using canine gene expression microarrays and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR, and paired samples from eleven dogs. Significant functional annotation clusters were identified following stimulation with phytohemagluttinin (PHA (5μg/ml, including the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and phosphorylation pathways. Using strict statistical criteria, 13 individual genes were found to be differentially expressed, nine of which have ontologies that relate to proliferation and cell cycle control. These included, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2/COX2, early growth response 1 (EGR1, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene (GADD45B, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, V-FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS, early growth response 2 (EGR2, hemogen (HEMGN, polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2 and polo-like kinase 3 (PLK3. Differential gene expression was re-examined using qRT-PCR, which confirmed that EGR1, EGR2, PMAIP1, PTGS2, FOS and GADD45B were significantly upregulated in stimulated cells and ALAS2 downregulated. PTGS2 and EGR1 showed the highest levels of response in these dogs. Both of these genes are involved in

  13. Regulation of Cell and Gene Therapy Medicinal Products in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chu; Wang, Po-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chih; Lin, Chien-Liang; Tai, Hsuen-Yung; Lo, Chi-Fang; Wu, Shiow-Ing; Chiang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the rapid and mature development of emerging biotechnology in the fields of cell culture, cell preservation, and recombinant DNA technology, more and more cell or gene medicinal therapy products have been approved for marketing, to treat serious diseases which have been challenging to treat with current medical practice or medicine. This chapter will briefly introduce the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) and elaborate regulation of cell and gene therapy medicinal products in Taiwan, including regulatory history evolution, current regulatory framework, application and review procedures, and relevant jurisdictional issues. Under the promise of quality, safety, and efficacy of medicinal products, it is expected the regulation and environment will be more flexible, streamlining the process of the marketing approval of new emerging cell or gene therapy medicinal products and providing diverse treatment options for physicians and patients.

  14. Gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase in human glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novi S. Hardiany

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim This study analyze the MnSOD gene expression as endogenous antioxidant in human glioma cells compared with leucocyte cells as control.Methods MnSOD gene expression of 20 glioma patients was analyzed by measuring the relative expression of mRNA and enzyme activity of MnSOD in brain and leucocyte cells. The relative expression of mRNA MnSOD was determined by using quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and the enzyme activity of MnSOD using biochemical kit assay (xantine oxidase inhibition. Statistic analysis for mRNA and enzyme activity of MnSOD was performed using Kruskal Wallis test.Results mRNA of MnSOD in glioma cells of 70% sample was 0.015–0.627 lower, 10% was 1.002-1.059 and 20% was 1.409-6.915 higher than in leucocyte cells. Also the specific activity of MnSOD enzyme in glioma cells of 80% sample showed 0,064-0,506 lower and 20% sample was 1.249-2.718 higher than in leucocyte cells.Conclusion MnSOD gene expression in human glioma cells are significantly lower than its expression in leucocytes cells. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:21-5Keywords : MnSOD, glioma, gene expression

  15. Impact of methoxyacetic acid on mouse Leydig cell gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waxman David J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methoxyacetic acid (MAA is the active metabolite of the widely used industrial chemical ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is associated with various developmental and reproductive toxicities, including neural toxicity, blood and immune disorders, limb degeneration and testicular toxicity. Testicular toxicity is caused by degeneration of germ cells in association with changes in gene expression in both germ cells and Sertoli cells of the testis. This study investigates the impact of MAA on gene expression in testicular Leydig cells, which play a critical role in germ cell survival and male reproductive function. Methods Cultured mouse TM3 Leydig cells were treated with MAA for 3, 8, and 24 h and changes in gene expression were monitored by genome-wide transcriptional profiling. Results A total of 3,912 MAA-responsive genes were identified. Ingenuity Pathway analysis identified reproductive system disease, inflammatory disease and connective tissue disorder as the top biological functions affected by MAA. The MAA-responsive genes were classified into 1,366 early responders, 1,387 mid-responders, and 1,138 late responders, based on the time required for MAA to elicit a response. Analysis of enriched functional clusters for each subgroup identified 106 MAA early response genes involved in transcription regulation, including 32 genes associated with developmental processes. 60 DNA-binding proteins responded to MAA rapidly but transiently, and may contribute to the downstream effects of MAA seen for many mid and late response genes. Genes within the phosphatidylinositol/phospholipase C/calcium signaling pathway, whose activity is required for potentiation of nuclear receptor signaling by MAA, were also enriched in the set of early MAA response genes. In contrast, many of the genes responding to MAA at later time points encode membrane proteins that contribute to cell adhesion and membrane signaling. Conclusions These findings

  16. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells.

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    Jakub Cieslak

    Full Text Available Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse's milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8 is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment.

  17. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

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    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng, E-mail: oxyccc@163.com

    2015-12-04

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  18. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. - Highlights: • TLX overexpression in MIN6 cell causes significant expression changes of 225 genes. • TLX overexpression promotes MIN6 cell proliferation and decreases cell apoptosis. • TLX overexpression does not cause impairment of insulin secretion.

  19. Blood cell gene expression profiling in rheumatoid arthritis. Discriminative genes and effect of rheumatoid factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovin, Lone Frier; Rieneck, Klaus; Workman, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    To study the pathogenic importance of the rheumatoid factor (RF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to identify genes differentially expressed in patients and healthy individuals, total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from eight RF-positive and six RF-negative RA...... patients, and seven healthy controls. Gene expression of about 10,000 genes were examined using oligonucleotide-based DNA chip microarrays. The analyses showed no significant differences in PBMC expression patterns from RF-positive and RF-negative patients. However, comparisons of gene expression patterns...

  20. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  1. Interdependence of cell growth and gene expression: origins and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Gunderson, Carl W; Mateescu, Eduard M; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence

    2010-11-19

    In bacteria, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of gene expression are intimately intertwined. Elucidating these relations is important both for understanding the physiological functions of endogenous genetic circuits and for designing robust synthetic systems. We describe a phenomenological study that reveals intrinsic constraints governing the allocation of resources toward protein synthesis and other aspects of cell growth. A theory incorporating these constraints can accurately predict how cell proliferation and gene expression affect one another, quantitatively accounting for the effect of translation-inhibiting antibiotics on gene expression and the effect of gratuitous protein expression on cell growth. The use of such empirical relations, analogous to phenomenological laws, may facilitate our understanding and manipulation of complex biological systems before underlying regulatory circuits are elucidated.

  2. Targeted delivery of genes to endothelial cells and cell- and gene-based therapy in pulmonary vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Colin M; Mei, Shirley H J; Kugathasan, Lakshmi; Stewart, Duncan J

    2013-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease that, despite significant advances in medical therapies over the last several decades, continues to have an extremely poor prognosis. Gene therapy is a method to deliver therapeutic genes to replace defective or mutant genes or supplement existing cellular processes to modify disease. Over the last few decades, several viral and nonviral methods of gene therapy have been developed for preclinical PAH studies with varying degrees of efficacy. However, these gene delivery methods face challenges of immunogenicity, low transduction rates, and nonspecific targeting which have limited their translation to clinical studies. More recently, the emergence of regenerative approaches using stem and progenitor cells such as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have offered a new approach to gene therapy. Cell-based gene therapy is an approach that augments the therapeutic potential of EPCs and MSCs and may deliver on the promise of reversal of established PAH. These new regenerative approaches have shown tremendous potential in preclinical studies; however, large, rigorously designed clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate clinical efficacy and safety. © 2013 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 3:1749-1779, 2013.

  3. Gene function in early mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation

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    Campbell Pearl A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the genes that drive embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, such knowledge is necessary if we are to exploit the therapeutic potential of stem cells. To uncover the genetic determinants of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC differentiation, we have generated and analyzed 11-point time-series of DNA microarray data for three biologically equivalent but genetically distinct mESC lines (R1, J1, and V6.5 undergoing undirected differentiation into embryoid bodies (EBs over a period of two weeks. Results We identified the initial 12 hour period as reflecting the early stages of mESC differentiation and studied probe sets showing consistent changes of gene expression in that period. Gene function analysis indicated significant up-regulation of genes related to regulation of transcription and mRNA splicing, and down-regulation of genes related to intracellular signaling. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes showing the largest expression changes were more likely to have originated in metazoans. The probe sets with the most consistent gene changes in the three cell lines represented 24 down-regulated and 12 up-regulated genes, all with closely related human homologues. Whereas some of these genes are known to be involved in embryonic developmental processes (e.g. Klf4, Otx2, Smn1, Socs3, Tagln, Tdgf1, our analysis points to others (such as transcription factor Phf21a, extracellular matrix related Lama1 and Cyr61, or endoplasmic reticulum related Sc4mol and Scd2 that have not been previously related to mESC function. The majority of identified functions were related to transcriptional regulation, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeleton. Genes involved in other cellular functions important in ESC differentiation such as chromatin remodeling and transmembrane receptors were not observed in this set. Conclusion Our analysis profiles for the first time gene expression at a very early stage of m

  4. Distinctive transforming genes in x-ray-transformed mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Ong, A.; Mason, H.

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from hamster embryo cells and mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells transformed in vitro by x-irradiation into malignant cells transmit the radiation transformation phenotype by producing transformed colonies (transfectants) in two mouse recipient lines, the NIH 3T3 and C3H/101/2 cells, and in a rat cell line, the Rat-2 cells. DNAs from unirradiated cells or irradiated and visibly untransformed cells do not produce transformed colonies. The transfectant grow in agar and form tumors in nude mice. Treatment of the DNAs with restriction endonucleases prior to transfection indicates that the same transforming gene (oncogene) is present in each of the transformed mouse cells and is the same in each of the transformed hamster cells. Southern blot analysis of 3T3 or Rat-2 transfectants carrying oncogenes from radiation-transformed C3H/10T1/2 or hamster cells indicates that the oncogenes responsible for the transformation of 3T3 cells are not the Ki-ras, Ha-ras, N-ras genes, nor are they neu, trk, raf, abl, or fms. The work demonstrates that DNAs from mammalian cells transformed into malignancy by direct exposure in vitro to radiation contain genetic sequences with detectable transforming activity in three recipient cell lines. The results provide evidence that DNA is the target of radiation carcinogenesis induced at a cellular level in vitro. The experiments indicate that malignant radiogenic transformation in vitro of hamster embryo and mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells involves the activation of unique non-ras transforming genes, which heretofore have not been described

  5. Ebola virus infection induces irregular dendritic cell gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Vanessa R; Kalina, Warren V; Williams, Priscilla

    2015-02-01

    Filoviruses subvert the human immune system in part by infecting and replicating in dendritic cells (DCs). Using gene arrays, a phenotypic profile of filovirus infection in human monocyte-derived DCs was assessed. Monocytes from human donors were cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 and were infected with Ebola virus Kikwit variant for up to 48 h. Extracted DC RNA was analyzed on SuperArray's Dendritic and Antigen Presenting Cell Oligo GEArray and compared to uninfected controls. Infected DCs exhibited increased expression of cytokine, chemokine, antiviral, and anti-apoptotic genes not seen in uninfected controls. Significant increases of intracellular antiviral and MHC I and II genes were also noted in EBOV-infected DCs. However, infected DCs failed to show any significant difference in co-stimulatory T-cell gene expression from uninfected DCs. Moreover, several chemokine genes were activated, but there was sparse expression of chemokine receptors that enabled activated DCs to home to lymph nodes. Overall, statistically significant expression of several intracellular antiviral genes was noted, which may limit viral load but fails to stop replication. EBOV gene expression profiling is of vital importance in understanding pathogenesis and devising novel therapeutic treatments such as small-molecule inhibitors.

  6. Radiation Gene-expression Signatures in Primary Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minafra, Luigi; Bravatà, Valentina; Cammarata, Francesco P; Russo, Giorgio; Gilardi, Maria C; Forte, Giusi I

    2018-05-01

    In breast cancer (BC) care, radiation therapy (RT) is an efficient treatment to control localized tumor. Radiobiological research is needed to understand molecular differences that affect radiosensitivity of different tumor subtypes and the response variability. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression profiling (GEP) in primary BC cells following irradiation with doses of 9 Gy and 23 Gy delivered by intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) in order to define gene signatures of response to high doses of ionizing radiation. We performed GEP by cDNA microarrays and evaluated cell survival after IOERT treatment in primary BC cell cultures. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate candidate genes. We showed, for the first time, a 4-gene and a 6-gene signature, as new molecular biomarkers, in two primary BC cell cultures after exposure at 9 Gy and 23 Gy respectively, for which we observed a significantly high survival rate. Gene signatures activated by different doses of ionizing radiation may predict response to RT and contribute to defining a personalized biological-driven treatment plan. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. HIV Cell-to-Cell Spread Results in Earlier Onset of Viral Gene Expression by Multiple Infections per Cell.

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    Mikaël Boullé

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell spread of HIV, a directed mode of viral transmission, has been observed to be more rapid than cell-free infection. However, a mechanism for earlier onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was previously uncharacterized. Here we used time-lapse microscopy combined with automated image analysis to quantify the timing of the onset of HIV gene expression in a fluorescent reporter cell line, as well as single cell staining for infection over time in primary cells. We compared cell-to-cell spread of HIV to cell-free infection, and limited both types of transmission to a two-hour window to minimize differences due to virus transit time to the cell. The mean time to detectable onset of viral gene expression in cell-to-cell spread was accelerated by 19% in the reporter cell line and by 35% in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to cell-free HIV infection. Neither factors secreted by infected cells, nor contact with infected cells in the absence of transmission, detectably changed onset. We recapitulated the earlier onset by infecting with multiple cell-free viruses per cell. Surprisingly, the acceleration in onset of viral gene expression was not explained by cooperativity between infecting virions. Instead, more rapid onset was consistent with a model where the fastest expressing virus out of the infecting virus pool sets the time for infection independently of the other co-infecting viruses.

  8. Identification of astrocytoma associated genes including cell surface markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon, Kathy; Edwards, Jennifer B; Eberhart, Charles G; Riggins, Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Despite intense effort the treatment options for the invasive astrocytic tumors are still limited to surgery and radiation therapy, with chemotherapy showing little or no increase in survival. The generation of Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) profiles is expected to aid in the identification of astrocytoma-associated genes and highly expressed cell surface genes as molecular therapeutic targets. SAGE tag counts can be easily added to public expression databases and quickly disseminated to research efforts worldwide. We generated and analyzed the SAGE transcription profiles of 25 primary grade II, III and IV astrocytomas [1]. These profiles were produced as part of the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project's SAGE Genie [2], and were used in an in silico search for candidate therapeutic targets by comparing astrocytoma to normal brain transcription. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used for the validation of selected candidate target genes in 2 independent sets of primary tumors. A restricted set of tumor-associated genes was identified for each grade that included genes not previously associated with astrocytomas (e.g. VCAM1, SMOC1, and thymidylate synthetase), with a high percentage of cell surface genes. Two genes with available antibodies, Aquaporin 1 and Topoisomerase 2A, showed protein expression consistent with transcript level predictions. This survey of transcription in malignant and normal brain tissues reveals a small subset of human genes that are activated in malignant astrocytomas. In addition to providing insights into pathway biology, we have revealed and quantified expression for a significant portion of cell surface and extra-cellular astrocytoma genes

  9. In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

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    Kristiansen Glen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housekeeping genes are commonly used as endogenous reference genes for the relative quantification of target genes in gene expression studies. No conclusive systematic study comparing the suitability of different candidate reference genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been published to date. To remedy this situation, 10 housekeeping genes for normalizing purposes of RT-PCR measurements already recommended in various studies were examined with regard to their usefulness as reference genes. Results The expression of the potential reference genes was examined in matched malignant and non-malignant tissue specimens from 25 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Quality assessment of isolated RNA performed with a 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer showed a mean RNA integrity number of 8.7 for all samples. The between-run variations related to the crossing points of PCR reactions of a control material ranged from 0.17% to 0.38%. The expression of all genes did not depend on age, sex, and tumour stage. Except the genes TATA box binding protein (TBP and peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA, all genes showed significant differences in expression between malignant and non-malignant pairs. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was additionally controlled using the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. TBP and PPIA were validated as suitable reference genes by normalizing the target gene ADAM9 using these two most stably expressed genes in comparison with up- and down-regulated housekeeping genes of the panel. Conclusion Our study demonstrated the suitability of the two housekeeping genes PPIA and TBP as endogenous reference genes when comparing malignant tissue samples with adjacent normal tissue samples from clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Both genes are recommended as reference genes for relative gene quantification in gene profiling studies either as single gene or preferably in combination.

  10. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

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    Sidjanin, D. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Grdina, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Woloschak, G.E. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-11-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation induced by ultraviolet radiation. These experiments investigated the ability of 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression and gene expression in rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. No changes in expression of c-fos, c-jun, alpha- tubulin, or vimentin was observed following UV exposure. Using flow cytometry, an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 hr following exposure. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased histone transcripts reported here may play a role in UV induced inhibition of cell cycle progression.

  11. EXSPRESSION OF MDR-GENES AND MONORESISTANCE GENES IN NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CANCER

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    E. L. Yumov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the expression of multidrug resistance genes (MDR and monoresistance genes in normal bronchial tissue and tumor tissue of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT (vinorelbine-carboplatine. The study included 30 patients with NSCLC (Т2–4N0–3M0. Normal bronchial tissue, normal lung tissue and tumor tissue collected during surgery following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT served as a material of the study. The expression levels of MDR genes (ABCB1, ABCB2, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCС5, ABCG1, ABCG2, GSTP and MVP, and monoresistance genes (BRCA1, ERCC1, RRM1, TOP1, TOP2A, TUBB3 and TYMS were estimated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR. The expression levels of some MDR genes and monoresistance genes (АВСВ1, АВСВ2, ABCG1, ERCC1, GSTP1 and MVP were significantly higher in the bronchi than in tumor tissue. The expression of ABCG1, ABCG2 and ERCC1 genes was higher in patients with T1-2 cancer than in patients with T3-4 cancer. Patients with adenocarcinoma had higher expression of BRCA1, MVP and ABCB1 genes than patients with squamous cell lung cancer. A tendency towards reduction in the expression level of MDR-genes and monoresistance genes was observed in patients with partial tumor regression compared to that observed in patients with stable disease. These findings were consistent with the previous data on reduction in the MDR-gene expression after chemotherapy with a good response in breast cancer patients.

  12. The effect of the colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jiří; Novotná, Olga; Kocourková, Ingrid; Prokešová, Ludmila

    2017-11-01

    Beneficial effect of maternal milk is acknowledged, but there is still question whether maternal milk from allergic mother is as good as from healthy one. In our study, we have assayed the effect of cells from colostrum of healthy and allergic mothers on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers. Cytokines typical for Th1 (IL-2, IFN-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-13), Tregs (IL-10, TGF-beta), and IL-8 were followed. We were not able to detect significant influence of colostral cells on gene expression of cytokines in cord blood after 2-day coculture using Transwell system. There was no difference in gene expression of cytokines in nonstimulated cord blood cells of newborns of healthy and allergic mothers, but generally increased gene expression of cytokines except IL-10 and TGF-beta after polyclonal stimulation was detected in cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers. There was no difference in IL-10 expression in stimulated cord blood cells of children of healthy and allergic mothers. Gene expression of TGF-beta was even decreased in stimulated cord blood cells of children of allergic mothers in comparison to healthy ones. We have not observed difference in the capacity of colostral cells of healthy and allergic mothers to influence gene expression of cytokines in cord blood cells, but we have described difference in the reactivity of cord blood cells between children of allergic and healthy mothers.

  13. Mural granulosa cell gene expression associated with oocyte developmental competence

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    Jiang Jin-Yi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian follicle development is a complex process. Paracrine interactions between somatic and germ cells are critical for normal follicular development and oocyte maturation. Studies have suggested that the health and function of the granulosa and cumulus cells may be reflective of the health status of the enclosed oocyte. The objective of the present study is to assess, using an in vivo immature rat model, gene expression profile in granulosa cells, which may be linked to the developmental competence of the oocyte. We hypothesized that expression of specific genes in granulosa cells may be correlated with the developmental competence of the oocyte. Methods Immature rats were injected with eCG and 24 h thereafter with anti-eCG antibody to induce follicular atresia or with pre-immune serum to stimulate follicle development. A high percentage (30-50%, normal developmental competence, NDC of oocytes from eCG/pre-immune serum group developed to term after embryo transfer compared to those from eCG/anti-eCG (0%, poor developmental competence, PDC. Gene expression profiles of mural granulosa cells from the above oocyte-collected follicles were assessed by Affymetrix rat whole genome array. Results The result showed that twelve genes were up-regulated, while one gene was down-regulated more than 1.5 folds in the NDC group compared with those in the PDC group. Gene ontology classification showed that the up-regulated genes included lysyl oxidase (Lox and nerve growth factor receptor associated protein 1 (Ngfrap1, which are important in the regulation of protein-lysine 6-oxidase activity, and in apoptosis induction, respectively. The down-regulated genes included glycoprotein-4-beta galactosyltransferase 2 (Ggbt2, which is involved in the regulation of extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis. Conclusions The data in the present study demonstrate a close association between specific gene expression in mural granulosa cells and

  14. Gene expression patterns in pancreatic tumors, cells and tissues.

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    Anson W Lowe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the pancreas originate from both the endocrine and exocrine elements of the organ, and represent a major cause of cancer-related death. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of gene expression for pancreatic tumors, the normal pancreas, and nonneoplastic pancreatic disease.DNA microarrays were used to assess the gene expression for surgically derived pancreatic adenocarcinomas, islet cell tumors, and mesenchymal tumors. The addition of normal pancreata, isolated islets, isolated pancreatic ducts, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines enhanced subsequent analysis by increasing the diversity in gene expression profiles obtained. Exocrine, endocrine, and mesenchymal tumors displayed unique gene expression profiles. Similarities in gene expression support the pancreatic duct as the origin of adenocarcinomas. In addition, genes highly expressed in other cancers and associated with specific signal transduction pathways were also found in pancreatic tumors.The scope of the present work was enhanced by the inclusion of publicly available datasets that encompass a wide spectrum of human tissues and enabled the identification of candidate genes that may serve diagnostic and therapeutic goals.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Renal Cell Carcinoma Gene Markers

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    Louis S. Liou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Microarray gene expression profiling has been used to distinguish histological subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC, and consequently to identify specific tumor markers. The analytical procedures currently in use find sets of genes whose average differential expression across the two categories differ significantly. In general each of the markers thus identifi ed does not distinguish tumor from normal with 100% accuracy, although the group as a whole might be able to do so. For the purpose of developing a widely used economically viable diagnostic signature, however, large groups of genes are not likely to be useful. Here we use two different methods, one a support vector machine variant, and the other an exhaustive search, to reanalyze data previously generated in our Lab (Lenburg et al. 2003. We identify 158 genes, each having an expression level that is higher (lower in every tumor sample than in any normal sample, and each having a minimum differential expression across the two categorie at a signifi cance of 0.01. The set is highly enriched in cancer related genes (p = 1.6 × 10 – 12, containing 43 genes previously associated with either RCC or other types of cancer. Many of the biomarkers appear to be associated with the central alterations known to be required for cancer transformation. These include the oncogenes JAZF1, AXL, ABL2; tumor suppressors RASD1, PTPRO, TFAP2A, CDKN1C; and genes involved in proteolysis or cell-adhesion such as WASF2, and PAPPA.

  16. Epithelial Cell Gene Expression Induced by Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

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    Xianglu Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HEp-2 cell monolayers were cocultured with intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, and changes in gene expression were profiled using DNA microarrays. Intracellular S. aureus affected genes involved in cellular stress responses, signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Transcription of stress response and signal transduction-related genes including atf3, sgk, map2k1, map2k3, arhb, and arhe was increased. In addition, elevated transcription of proinflammatory genes was observed for tnfa, il1b, il6, il8, cxcl1, ccl20, cox2, and pai1. Genes involved in proapoptosis and fibrosis were also affected at transcriptional level by intracellular S. aureus. Notably, intracellular S. aureus induced strong transcriptional down-regulation of several cholesterol biosynthesis genes. These results suggest that epithelial cells respond to intracellular S. aureus by inducing genes affecting immunity and in repairing damage caused by the organism, and are consistent with the possibility that the organism exploits an intracellular environment to subvert host immunity and promote colonization.

  17. Estrogen-Responsive Genes Overlap with Triiodothyronine-Responsive Genes in a Breast Carcinoma Cell Line

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    Nancy Bueno Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that estrogen plays an important role in the progression and treatment of breast cancer. However, the role of triiodothyronine (T3 remains controversial. We have previously shown its capacity to stimulate the development of positive estrogen receptor breast carcinoma, induce the expression of genes (PR, TGF-alpha normally stimulated by estradiol (E2, and suppress genes (TGF-beta normally inhibited by E2. Since T3 regulates growth hormones, metabolism, and differentiation, it is important to verify its action on other genes normally induced by E2. Therefore, we used DNA microarrays to compare gene expression patterns in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells treated with E2 and T3. Several genes were modulated by both E2 and T3 in MCF-7 cells (Student’s t-test, P 2.0, pFDR < 0.05. We confirmed our microarray results by real-time PCR. Our findings reveal that certain genes in MCF-7 cells can be regulated by both E2 and T3.

  18. Intestinal PTGS2 mRNA Levels, PTGS2 Gene Polymorphisms, and Colorectal Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Lotte K.; Saebo, Mona; Hoyer, Helle

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims: Inflammation is a major risk factor for development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Prostaglandin synthase cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) encoded by the PTGS2 gene is the rate limiting enzyme in prostaglandin synthesis and therefore plays a distinct role as regulator of inflammation...

  19. Au nanoinjectors for electrotriggered gene delivery into the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mijeong; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of exogenous materials is an essential technique required for many fundamental biological researches and medical treatments. As our understanding of cell structure and function has been improved and diverse therapeutic agents with a subcellular site of action have been continuously developed, there is a demand to enhance the performance of delivering devices. Ideal intracellular delivery devices should convey various kinds of exogenous materials without deteriorating cell viability regardless of cell type and, furthermore, precisely control the location and the timing of delivery as well as the amount of delivered materials for advanced researches.In this chapter the development of a new intracellular delivery device, a nanoinjector made of a Au (gold) nanowire (a Au nanoinjector) is described in which delivery is triggered by external application of an electric pulse. As a model study, a gene was delivered directly into the nucleus of a neuroblastoma cell, and successful delivery without cell damage was confirmed by the expression of the delivered gene. The insertion of a Au nanoinjector directly into a cell can be generally applied to any kind of cell, and a high degree of surface modification of Au allows attachment of diverse materials such as proteins, small molecules, or nanoparticles as well as genes on Au nanoinjectors. This expands their applicability, and it is expected that they will provide important information on the effects of delivered exogenous materials and consequently contribute to the development of related therapeutic or clinical technologies.

  20. Gene Transfer in Eukaryotic Cells Using Activated Dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennig, Jörg

    Gene transfer into eukaryotic cells plays an important role in cell biology. Over the last 30 years a number of transfection methods have been developed to mediate gene transfer into eukaryotic cells. Classical methods include co-precipitation of DNA with calcium phosphate, charge-dependent precipitation of DNA with DEAE-dextran, electroporation of nucleic acids, and formation of transfection complexes between DNA and cationic liposomes. Gene transfer technologies based on activated PAMAM-dendrimers provide another class of transfection reagents. PAMAM-dendrimers are highly branched, spherical molecules. Activation of newly synthesized dendrimers involves hydrolytic removal of some of the branches, and results in a molecule with a higher degree of flexibility. Activated dendrimers assemble DNA into compact structures via charge interactions. Activated dendrimer - DNA complexes bind to the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells, and are transported into the cell by non-specific endocytosis. A structural model of the activated dendrimer - DNA complex and a potential mechanism for its uptake into cells will be discussed.

  1. Adenovirus gene transfer to amelogenesis imperfecta ameloblast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V Borovjagin

    Full Text Available To explore gene therapy strategies for amelogenesis imperfecta (AI, a human ameloblast-like cell population was established from third molars of an AI-affected patient. These cells were characterized by expression of cytokeratin 14, major enamel proteins and alkaline phosphatase staining. Suboptimal transduction of the ameloblast-like cells by an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 vector was consistent with lower levels of the coxsackie-and-adenovirus receptor (CAR on those cells relative to CAR-positive A549 cells. To overcome CAR -deficiency, we evaluated capsid-modified Ad5 vectors with various genetic capsid modifications including "pK7" and/or "RGD" motif-containing short peptides incorporated in the capsid protein fiber as well as fiber chimera with the Ad serotype 3 (Ad3 fiber "knob" domain. All fiber modifications provided an augmented transduction of AI-ameloblasts, revealed following vector dose normalization in A549 cells with a superior effect (up to 404-fold of pK7/RGD double modification. This robust infectivity enhancement occurred through vector binding to both α(vβ3/α(vβ5 integrins and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs highly expressed by AI-ameloblasts as revealed by gene transfer blocking experiments. This work thus not only pioneers establishment of human AI ameloblast-like cell population as a model for in vitro studies but also reveals an optimal infectivity-enhancement strategy for a potential Ad5 vector-mediated gene therapy for AI.

  2. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Santin Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P<0.0001; 2.39 times, P=0.01; 1.58 times, P=0.0003; and 1.87 times, P<0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P<0.0001; 1.75 times, P=0.037; and 1.95 times, P<0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P=0.069. These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth.

  3. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the

  4. Nuclear orphan receptor TLX affects gene expression, proliferation and cell apoptosis in beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoli; Xiong, Xiaokan; Dai, Zhe; Deng, Haohua; Sun, Li; Hu, Xuemei; Zhou, Feng; Xu, Yancheng

    Nuclear orphan receptor TLX is an essential regulator of the growth of neural stem cells. However, its exact function in pancreatic islet cells is still unknown. In the present study, gene expression profiling analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in beta cell line MIN6 causes suppression of 176 genes and upregulation of 49 genes, including a cadre of cell cycle, cell proliferation and cell death control genes, such as Btg2, Ddit3 and Gadd45a. We next examined the effects of TLX overexpression on proliferation, apoptosis and insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. Proliferation analysis using EdU assay showed that overexpression of TLX increased percentage of EdU-positive cells. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis revealed that overexpression of TLX in MIN6 cells resulted in higher percentage of cells exiting G1 into S-phase, and a 58.8% decrease of cell apoptosis induced by 0.5 mM palmitate. Moreover, TLX overexpression did not cause impairment of insulin secretion. Together, we conclude that TLX is among factors capable of controlling beta cell proliferation and survival, which may serve as a target for the development of novel therapies for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Ping; Zhang Zhiyuan; Zhou Xiaojian; Qiu Weiliu; Chen Fangan; Chen Wantao

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differe...

  6. Spatial reconstruction of single-cell gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Rahul; Farrell, Jeffrey A; Gennert, David; Schier, Alexander F; Regev, Aviv

    2015-05-01

    Spatial localization is a key determinant of cellular fate and behavior, but methods for spatially resolved, transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling across complex tissues are lacking. RNA staining methods assay only a small number of transcripts, whereas single-cell RNA-seq, which measures global gene expression, separates cells from their native spatial context. Here we present Seurat, a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns. We applied Seurat to spatially map 851 single cells from dissociated zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and generated a transcriptome-wide map of spatial patterning. We confirmed Seurat's accuracy using several experimental approaches, then used the strategy to identify a set of archetypal expression patterns and spatial markers. Seurat correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups. Seurat will be applicable to mapping cellular localization within complex patterned tissues in diverse systems.

  7. Local NSAID infusion does not affect protein synthesis and gene expression in human muscle after eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, U R; Schjerling, P; Helmark, Ida Carøe

    2010-01-01

    models, and inhibit the exercise-induced satellite cell proliferation and protein synthesis in humans. However, the cellular mechanisms eliciting these responses remain unknown. Eight healthy male volunteers performed 200 maximal eccentric contractions with each leg. To block prostaglandin synthesis...... locally in the skeletal muscle, indomethacin (NSAID) was infused for 7.5 h via microdialysis catheters into m. vastus lateralis of one leg. Protein synthesis was determined by the incorporation of 1,2-(13)C(2) leucine into muscle protein from 24 to 28 h post-exercise. Furthermore, mRNA expression...... of selected genes was measured in muscle biopsies (5 h and 8 days post-exercise) by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis were unaffected by the local NSAID infusion. Five hours post-exercise, the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) was sixfold higher...

  8. Gene expression analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromik, Ansgar M; Weyhe, Dirk; Mittelkötter, Ulrich; Uhl, Waldemar; Hahn, Stephan A; Daigeler, Adrien; Flier, Annegret; Bulut, Daniel; May, Christina; Harati, Kamran; Roschinsky, Jan; Sülberg, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    The anti-infective agent Taurolidine (TRD) has been shown to have cell death inducing properties, but the mechanism of its action is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential common target genes modulated at the transcriptional level following TRD treatment in tumour cell lines originating from different cancer types. Five different malignant cell lines (HT29, Chang Liver, HT1080, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) were incubated with TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM). Proliferation after 8 h and cell viability after 24 h were analyzed by BrdU assay and FACS analysis, respectively. Gene expression analyses were carried out using the Agilent -microarray platform to indentify genes which displayed conjoint regulation following the addition of TRD in all cell lines. Candidate genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. TRD 250 μM caused a significant inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptotic cell death in all cell lines. Among cell death associated genes with the strongest regulation in gene expression, we identified pro-apoptotic transcription factors (EGR1, ATF3) as well as genes involved in the ER stress response (PPP1R15A), in ubiquitination (TRAF6) and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways (PMAIP1). This is the first conjoint analysis of potential target genes of TRD which was performed simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. The results indicate that TRD might be involved in different signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis

  9. Exosomes from asbestos-exposed cells modulate gene expression in mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Phillip; Lam, Ying-Wai; Dragon, Julie; MacPherson, Maximilian; Shukla, Arti

    2018-03-19

    Asbestos exposure is a determinate cause of many diseases, such as mesothelioma, fibrosis, and lung cancer, and poses a major human health hazard. At this time, there are no identified biomarkers to demarcate asbestos exposure before the presentation of disease and symptoms, and there is only limited understanding of the underlying biology that governs asbestos-induced disease. In our study, we used exosomes, 30-140 nm extracellular vesicles, to gain insight into these knowledge gaps. As inhaled asbestos is first encountered by lung epithelial cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that asbestos-exposed cells secrete exosomes with signature proteomic cargo that can alter the gene expression of mesothelial cells, contributing to disease outcomes like mesothelioma. In the present study using lung epithelial cells (BEAS2B) and macrophages (THP-1), we first show that asbestos exposure causes changes in abundance of some proteins in the exosomes secreted from these cells. Furthermore, exposure of human mesothelial cells (HPM3) to these exosomes resulted in gene expression changes related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and other cancer-related genes. This is the first report to indicate that asbestos-exposed cells secrete exosomes with differentially abundant proteins and that those exosomes have a gene-altering effect on mesothelial cells.-Munson, P., Lam, Y.-W., Dragon, J. MacPherson, M., Shukla, A. Exosomes from asbestos-exposed cells modulate gene expression in mesothelial cells.

  10. Gene Therapy With Regulatory T Cells: A Beneficial Alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moanaro Biswas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy aims to replace a defective or a deficient protein at therapeutic or curative levels. Improved vector designs have enhanced safety, efficacy, and delivery, with potential for lasting treatment. However, innate and adaptive immune responses to the viral vector and transgene product remain obstacles to the establishment of therapeutic efficacy. It is widely accepted that endogenous regulatory T cells (Tregs are critical for tolerance induction to the transgene product and in some cases the viral vector. There are two basic strategies to harness the suppressive ability of Tregs: in vivo induction of adaptive Tregs specific to the introduced gene product and concurrent administration of autologous, ex vivo expanded Tregs. The latter may be polyclonal or engineered to direct specificity to the therapeutic antigen. Recent clinical trials have advanced adoptive immunotherapy with Tregs for the treatment of autoimmune disease and in patients receiving cell transplants. Here, we highlight the potential benefit of combining gene therapy with Treg adoptive transfer to achieve a sustained transgene expression. Furthermore, techniques to engineer antigen-specific Treg cell populations, either through reprogramming conventional CD4+ T cells or transferring T cell receptors with known specificity into polyclonal Tregs, are promising in preclinical studies. Thus, based upon these observations and the successful use of chimeric (IgG-based antigen receptors (CARs in antigen-specific effector T cells, different types of CAR-Tregs could be added to the repertoire of inhibitory modalities to suppress immune responses to therapeutic cargos of gene therapy vectors. The diverse approaches to harness the ability of Tregs to suppress unwanted immune responses to gene therapy and their perspectives are reviewed in this article.

  11. A Review of Gene Delivery and Stem Cell Based Therapies for Regenerating Inner Ear Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Detamore

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.

  12. A review of gene delivery and stem cell based therapies for regenerating inner ear hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Keerthana; Staecker, Hinrich; Detamore, Michael S

    2011-09-13

    Sensory neural hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction have become the most common forms of sensory defects, affecting millions of people worldwide. Developing effective therapies to restore hearing loss is challenging, owing to the limited regenerative capacity of the inner ear hair cells. With recent advances in understanding the developmental biology of mammalian and non-mammalian hair cells a variety of strategies have emerged to restore lost hair cells are being developed. Two predominant strategies have developed to restore hair cells: transfer of genes responsible for hair cell genesis and replacement of missing cells via transfer of stem cells. In this review article, we evaluate the use of several genes involved in hair cell regeneration, the advantages and disadvantages of the different viral vectors employed in inner ear gene delivery and the insights gained from the use of embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells in generating inner ear hair cells. Understanding the role of genes, vectors and stem cells in therapeutic strategies led us to explore potential solutions to overcome the limitations associated with their use in hair cell regeneration.

  13. Susceptible genes and molecular pathways related to heavy ion irradiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Kazuaki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Ishigami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Kawata, Tetsuya; Shibahara, Takahiko; Ito, Hisao; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heavy ion beams are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by a higher relative biologic effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the difference of gene expression between heavy ion beams and X-rays in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived cells. Materials and methods: The OSCC cells were irradiated with accelerated carbon or neon ion irradiation or X-rays using three different doses. We sought to identify genes the expression of which is affected by carbon and neon ion irradiation using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The identified genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool to investigate the functional network and gene ontology. Changes in mRNA expression in the genes were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The microarray analysis identified 84 genes that were modulated by carbon and neon ion irradiation at all doses in OSCC cells. Among the genes, three genes (TGFBR2, SMURF2, and BMP7) and two genes (CCND1 and E2F3), respectively, were found to be involved in the transforming growth factor β-signaling pathway and cell cycle:G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway. The qRT-PCR data from the five genes after heavy ion irradiation were consistent with the microarray data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings should serve as a basis for global characterization of radiation-regulated genes and pathways in heavy ion-irradiated OSCC

  14. Promoter DNA hypermethylation and gene repression in undifferentiated Arabidopsis cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berdasco

    Full Text Available Maintaining and acquiring the pluripotent cell state in plants is critical to tissue regeneration and vegetative multiplication. Histone-based epigenetic mechanisms are important for regulating this undifferentiated state. Here we report the use of genetic and pharmacological experimental approaches to show that Arabidopsis cell suspensions and calluses specifically repress some genes as a result of promoter DNA hypermethylation. We found that promoters of the MAPK12, GSTU10 and BXL1 genes become hypermethylated in callus cells and that hypermethylation also affects the TTG1, GSTF5, SUVH8, fimbrin and CCD7 genes in cell suspensions. Promoter hypermethylation in undifferentiated cells was associated with histone hypoacetylation and primarily occurred at CpG sites. Accordingly, we found that the process specifically depends on MET1 and DRM2 methyltransferases, as demonstrated with DNA methyltransferase mutants. Our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation may be another important epigenetic mechanism for the establishment and/or maintenance of the undifferentiated state in plant cells.

  15. Regulation of gene expression in mammalian cells following ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothman, D.A.; Lee, S.W

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian cells use a variety of mechanisms to control the expression of new gene transcrips elicited in response to ionizing radiation. Damage-induced proteins have been found which contain DNA binding sites located within the promoter regions of SV40 and human thymidine kinase genes. DNA binding proteins as well as proteins which bind to specific DNA lesions (e.g., XIP bp 175 binds specifically to X-ray-damaged DNA) may play a role in the initial recognition of DNA damage and may initiate DNA repair processes, along with new transcription. Mammalian gene expression after DNA damage is also regulated via the stabilization of preexisting mRNA transcripts. Stabilized mRNA transcripts are translated into protein products not previously present in the cell due to undefined posttranscriptional modifications. Thus far, the only example of mRNA stabilization following X-irradiation is the immediate induction of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Mammalian cells synthesize new mRNA transcripts indirect response to DNA damage. Using cDNA cloning, Northern RNA blotting and nuclear run-on techniques, the levels of a variety of known and previously unknown genes dramatically increase following X-irradiation. These genes/proteins now include; a) DNA binding transcripts factors, such as the UV-responsive element binding factors, ionizing radiation-induced DNA-binding proteins, and XIP bP 175; b) proto-oncogenes, such as c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc; c) several growth-related genes, (e.g., the gadd genes, protein kinase C, IL-1, and thymidine kinase); and d) a variety of other genes, including proteases, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and DT diaphorase. Mammalian cells respond to X-irradiation by eliciting a very complex series of events resulting in the appearance of new genes and proteins. These gene products may affect DNA repair, adaptive responses, apoptosis, SOS-type mutagenic response, and/or carcinogenesis. (J.P.N.)

  16. Sustained Release of Prostaglandin E2 in Fibroblasts Expressing Ectopically Cyclooxygenase 2 Impairs P2Y-Dependent Ca2+-Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pimentel-Santillana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide uridine trisphosphate (UTP released to the extracellular milieu acts as a signaling molecule via activation of specific pyrimidine receptors (P2Y. P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed in many cell types. These receptors mediate several cell responses and they are involved in intracellular calcium mobilization. We investigated the role of the prostanoid PGE2 in P2Y signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, since these cells are involved in different ontogenic and physiopathological processes, among them is tissue repair following proinflammatory activation. Interestingly, Ca2+-mobilization induced by UTP-dependent P2Y activation was reduced by PGE2 when this prostanoid was produced by MEFs transfected with COX-2 or when PGE2 was added exogenously to the culture medium. This Ca2+-mobilization was important for the activation of different metabolic pathways in fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of COX-2 with selective coxibs prevented UTP-dependent P2Y activation in these cells. The inhibition of P2Y responses by PGE2 involves the activation of PKCs and PKD, a response that can be suppressed after pharmacological inhibition of these protein kinases. In addition to this, PGE2 reduces the fibroblast migration induced by P2Y-agonists such as UTP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PGE2 is involved in the regulation of P2Y signaling in these cells.

  17. Double suicide genes selectively kill human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lunxu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To construct a recombinant adenovirus containing CDglyTK double suicide genes and evaluate the killing effect of the double suicide genes driven by kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR promoter on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methods Human KDR promoter, Escherichia coli (E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD gene and the herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase (TK gene were cloned using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Plasmid pKDR-CDglyTK was constructed with the KDR promoter and CDglyTK genes. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid AdKDR-CDglyTK was then constructed and transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow and harvest adenoviruses. KDR-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECV304 and KDR-negative liver cancer cell line (HepG2 were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses at different multiplicity of infection (MOI. The infection rate was measured by green fluorescent protein (GFP expression. The infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV and/or 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC. The killing effects were measured using two different methods, i.e. annexin V-FITC staining and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Recombinant adenoviruses AdKDR-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and they infected ECV304 and HepG2 cells efficiently. The infection rate was dependent on MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. ECV304 cells infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were highly sensitive to GCV and 5-FC. The cell survival rate was dependent on both the concentration of the prodrugs and the MOI of recombinant adenoviruses. In contrast, there were no killing effects in the HepG2 cells. The combination of two prodrugs was much more effective in killing ECV304 cells than GCV or 5-FC alone. The growth of transgenic ECV304 cells was suppressed in the presence of prodrugs. Conclusion AdKDR-CDglyTK/double prodrog system may be a useful

  18. [Gene therapy and cell transplantation for Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Shin-ichi

    2005-11-01

    Increasing enthusiasm in the field of stem cell research is raising the hope of novel cell replacement therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD), but it also raises both scientific and ethical concerns. In most cases, dopaminergic cells are transplanted ectopically into the striatum instead of the substantia nigra. If the main mechanism underlying any observed functional recovery with these cell replacement therapies is restoration of dopaminergic neurotransmission, then viral vector-mediated gene delivery of dopamine-synthesizing enzymes is a more straight forward approach. The development of a recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector is making gene therapy for PD a feasible therapeutic option in the clinical arena. Efficient and long-term expression of genes for dopamine-synthesizing enzymes in the striatum restored local dopamine production and allowed behavioral recovery in animal models of PD. A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene transfer of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, an enzyme that converts L-dopa to dopamine, is underway. With this strategy patients would still need to take L-dopa to control their PD symptoms, however, dopamine production could be regulated by altering the dose of L-dopa. Another AAV vector-based clinical trial is also ongoing in which the subthalamic nucleus is transduced to produce inhibitory transmitters.

  19. Specifically targeted gene therapy for small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.L.; Zandi, R.; Gjetting, T.

    2009-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly malignant disease with poor prognosis. Hence, there is great demand for new therapies that can replace or supplement the current available treatment regimes. Gene therapy constitutes a promising strategy and relies on the principle of introducing exogenous...

  20. Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gene expression profiles in adenosine-treated human mast cells. ... SW Kang, JE Jeong, CH Kim, SH Choi, SH Chae, SA Jun, HJ Cha, JH Kim, YM Lee, YS ... beta 4, ring finger protein, high-mobility group, calmodulin 2, RAN binding protein, ...

  1. Cloning and expression of cell wall acid invertase gene fragment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... intron. It had a high homology to previously cloned cell wall acid invertase genes in other plants by sequence .... Japan) in a final volume of 50 µl. The programs for ... The first strand of cDNA was synthesized by using SYBR ...

  2. Analysis of the clonal repertoire of gene-corrected cells in gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruzynski, Anna; Glimm, Hanno; Schmidt, Manfred; Kalle, Christof von

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy-based clinical phase I/II studies using integrating retroviral vectors could successfully treat different monogenetic inherited diseases. However, with increased efficiency of this therapy, severe side effects occurred in various gene therapy trials. In all cases, integration of the vector close to or within a proto-oncogene contributed substantially to the development of the malignancies. Thus, the in-depth analysis of integration site patterns is of high importance to uncover potential clonal outgrowth and to assess the safety of gene transfer vectors and gene therapy protocols. The standard and nonrestrictive linear amplification-mediated PCR (nrLAM-PCR) in combination with high-throughput sequencing exhibits technologies that allow to comprehensively analyze the clonal repertoire of gene-corrected cells and to assess the safety of the used vector system at an early stage on the molecular level. It enables clarifying the biological consequences of the vector system on the fate of the transduced cell. Furthermore, the downstream performance of real-time PCR allows a quantitative estimation of the clonality of individual cells and their clonal progeny. Here, we present a guideline that should allow researchers to perform comprehensive integration site analysis in preclinical and clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines: Cell toxicity and gene modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram. PMID:28467792

  4. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines. Cell toxicity and gene modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-06-27

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram.

  5. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte

    2010-01-01

    -mature exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene...

  6. Mel-18, a mammalian Polycomb gene, regulates angiogenic gene expression of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Choi, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Minhyung; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong-Won; Kim, Young-Myeong; Hwang, Daehee; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2010-10-01

    Mel-18 is a mammalian homolog of Polycomb group (PcG) genes. Microarray analysis revealed that Mel-18 expression was induced during endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) differentiation and correlates with the expression of EC-specific protein markers. Overexpression of Mel-18 promoted EPC differentiation and angiogenic activity of ECs. Accordingly, silencing Mel-18 inhibited EC migration and tube formation in vitro. Gene expression profiling showed that Mel-18 regulates angiogenic genes including kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), claudin 5, and angiopoietin-like 2. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that Mel-18 plays a significant role in the angiogenic function of ECs by regulating endothelial gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelle Brian

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV, the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infection. Limitations of detailed analysis of deer mouse immune responses to SNV are the lack of reagents and methods for evaluating such responses. Results We developed real-time PCR-based detection assays for several immune-related transcription factor and cytokine genes from deer mice that permit the profiling of CD4+ helper T cells, including markers of Th1 cells (T-bet, STAT4, IFNγ, TNF, LT, Th2 cells (GATA-3, STAT6, IL-4, IL-5 and regulatory T cells (Fox-p3, IL-10, TGFβ1. These assays compare the expression of in vitro antigen-stimulated and unstimulated T cells from individual deer mice. Conclusion We developed molecular methods for profiling immune gene expression in deer mice, including a multiplexed real-time PCR assay for assessing expression of several cytokine and transcription factor genes. These assays should be useful for characterizing the immune responses of experimentally- and naturally-infected deer mice.

  8. Gene expression profiling of circulating tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hensler, M.; Vancurova, I.; Becht, E.; Palata, O.; Strnad, P.; Tesarova, P.; Cabinakova, M.; Švec, David; Kubista, Mikael; Bartunkova, J.; Spisek, R.; Sojka, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2016), e1102827 ISSN 2162-402X Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Breast cancer * gene expression profiling * circulating tumor cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  9. The effect of adenovirus-mediated gene expression of FHIT in small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandi, Roza; Xu, Kai; Poulsen, Hans S

    2011-01-01

    The candidate tumor suppressor fragile histidine traid (FHIT) is frequently inactivated in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Mutations in the p53 gene also occur in the majority of SCLC leading to the accumulation of the mutant protein. Here we evaluated the effect of FHIT gene therapy alone...

  10. Identifying genes that mediate anthracyline toxicity in immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber eFrick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of the immune system in response to chemotherapeutic agents remains elusive. The interpatient variability observed in immune and chemotherapeutic cytotoxic responses is likely, at least in part, due to complex genetic differences. Through the use of a panel of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, we developed a drug screening platform aimed at identifying genes underlying these chemotherapeutic cytotoxic effects on immune cells. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS, we identified four genome-wide significant quantitative trait loci (QTL that contributed to the sensitivity of doxorubicin and idarubicin in immune cells. Of particular interest, a locus on chromosome 16 was significantly associated with cell viability following idarubicin administration (p = 5.01x10-8. Within this QTL lies App, which encodes amyloid beta precursor protein. Comparison of dose-response curves verified that T-cells in App knockout mice were more sensitive to idarubicin than those of C57BL/6J control mice (p < 0.05.In conclusion, the cellular screening approach coupled with GWAS led to the identification and subsequent validation of a gene involved in T-cell viability after idarubicin treatment. Previous studies have suggested a role for App in in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity to anticancer agents; the overexpression of App enhances resistance, while the knockdown of this gene is deleterious to cell viability. Thus, further investigations should include performing mechanistic studies, validating additional genes from the GWAS, including Ppfia1 and Ppfibp1, and ultimately translating the findings to in vivo and human studies.

  11. Automatic Control of Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracassi, Chiara; Postiglione, Lorena; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Diego

    2016-04-15

    Automatic control of gene expression in living cells is paramount importance to characterize both endogenous gene regulatory networks and synthetic circuits. In addition, such a technology can be used to maintain the expression of synthetic circuit components in an optimal range in order to ensure reliable performance. Here we present a microfluidics-based method to automatically control gene expression from the tetracycline-inducible promoter in mammalian cells in real time. Our approach is based on the negative-feedback control engineering paradigm. We validated our method in a monoclonal population of cells constitutively expressing a fluorescent reporter protein (d2EYFP) downstream of a minimal CMV promoter with seven tet-responsive operator motifs (CMV-TET). These cells also constitutively express the tetracycline transactivator protein (tTA). In cells grown in standard growth medium, tTA is able to bind the CMV-TET promoter, causing d2EYFP to be maximally expressed. Upon addition of tetracycline to the culture medium, tTA detaches from the CMV-TET promoter, thus preventing d2EYFP expression. We tested two different model-independent control algorithms (relay and proportional-integral (PI)) to force a monoclonal population of cells to express an intermediate level of d2EYFP equal to 50% of its maximum expression level for up to 3500 min. The control input is either tetracycline-rich or standard growth medium. We demonstrated that both the relay and PI controllers can regulate gene expression at the desired level, despite oscillations (dampened in the case of the PI controller) around the chosen set point.

  12. Gene expression of circulating tumour cells in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölke E

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnostic tools to predict the prognosis in patients suffering from breast cancer (BC need further improvements. New technological achievements like the gene profiling of circulating tumour cells (CTC could help identify new prognostic markers in the clinical setting. Furthermore, gene expression patterns of CTC might provide important informations on the mechanisms of tumour cell metastasation. Materials and methods We performed realtime-PCR and multiplex-PCR analyses following immunomagnetic separation of CTC. Peripheral blood (PB samples of 63 patients with breast cancer of various stages were analyzed and compared to a control group of 14 healthy individuals. After reverse-transcription, we performed multiplex PCR using primers for the genes ga733.3, muc-1 and c-erbB2. Mammaglobin1, spdef and c-erbB2 were analyzed applying realtime-PCR. Results ga733.2 overexpression was found in 12.7% of breast cancer cases, muc-1 in 15.9%, mgb1 in 9.1% and spdef in 12.1%. In this study, c-erbB2 did not show any significant correlation to BC, possibly due to a highly ambient expression. Besides single gene analyses, gene profiles were additionally evaluated. Highly significant correlations to BC were found in single gene analyses of ga733.2 and muc-1 and in gene profile analyses of ga733.3*muc-1 and GA7 ga733.3*muc-1*mgb1*spdef. Conclusion Our study reveals that the single genes ga733.3, muc-1 and the gene profiles ga733.3*muc-1 and ga733.3*3muc-1*mgb1*spdef can serve as markers for the detection of CTC in BC. The multigene analyses found highly positive levels in BC patients. Our study indicates that not single gene analyses but subtle patterns of multiple genes lead to rising accuracy and low loss of specificity in detection of breast cancer cases.

  13. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2 in mouse embryonic stem cells were monitored over a 48 hour period after exposure to the growth factors BMP2 and TGFβ1. Candidate GRNs of early osteogenesis were constructed based on published experimental findings and simulation results of Boolean and ordinary differential equation models were compared with our experimental data in order to test the validity of these models. Three gene regulatory networks were found to be consistent with the data, one of these networks exhibited sustained oscillation, a behaviour which is consistent with the general view of embryonic stem cell plasticity. The work cycle presented in this paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can be used to elucidate from gene expression profiles GRNs that are consistent with experimental data. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Xiaojian; Qiu, Weiliu; Chen, Fangan; Chen, Wantao

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis and further intervention in cisplatin resistance

  15. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  16. Gene Editing and CRISPR Therapeutics: Strategies Taught by Cell and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    A few years ago, we assisted in the demonstration for the first time of the revolutionary idea of a type of adaptive-immune system in the bacteria kingdom. This system, named CRISPR, and variants engineered in the lab, have been demonstrated as functional with extremely high frequency and fidelity in almost all eukaryotic cells studied to date. The capabilities of this RNA-guided nuclease have added to the interest that was announced with the advent of previous technologies for genome editing tools, such as ZFN and TALEN. The capabilities exhibited by these gene editors, opens up a novel scenario that indicates the promise of a next-generation medicine based on precision and personalized objectives, mostly due to the change in the paradigm regarding gene-surgery. This has certainly attracted, like never before, the attention of the biotech business and investor community. This chapter offers a brief overview of some of the factors that have contributed to a rapid entry into the biotech and pharmaceutical company's pipeline, focusing on how cell and gene therapies (CGT), collectively known as advanced therapies, have become the driving forces toward the therapeutic uses of gene editing technology. The sum of all those efforts for more than 30years has contributed to the new paradigm of considering genes as medicines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Helicobacter pylori promotes angiogenesis depending on Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor via the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ningning; Zhou, Ning; Chai, Ni; Liu, Xuan; Jiang, Haili; Wu, Qiong; Li, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogenic factor in gastric carcinogenesis. Angiogenesis (i.e., the growth of new blood vessels) is closely associated with the incidence and development of gastric cancer. Our previous study found that COX-2 stimulates gastric cancer cells to induce expression of the angiogenic growth factor VEGF through an unknown mechanism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the role of angiogenesis in H. pylori-induced gastric cancer development. To clarify the relationship between H. pylori infection and angiogenesis, we first investigated H. pylori colonization, COX-2, VEGF, beta-catenin expression, and microvessel density (MVD) in gastric cancer tissues from 106 patients. In addition, COX-2, phospho-beta-catenin, and beta-catenin expression were measured by western blotting, and VEGF expression was measured by ELISA in H. pylori-infected SGC7901 and MKN45 human gastric cancer cells. H. pylori colonization occurred in 36.8 % of gastric carcinoma samples. Furthermore, COX-2, beta-catenin, and VEGF expression, and MVD were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive gastric cancer tissues than in H. pylori-negative gastric cancer tissues (P < 0.01). H. pylori infection was not related to sex or age in gastric cancer patients, but correlated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and tumor–node–metastasis stage (P < 0.05) and correlated with the COX-2 expression and beta-catenin expression(P < 0.01). Further cell experiments confirmed that H. pylori infection upregulated VEGF in vitro. Further analysis revealed that H. pylori-induced VEGF expression was mediated by COX-2 via activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin/VEGF pathway plays an important role in H. pylori-associated gastric cancer development. The COX-2/Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is therefore a novel therapeutic target for H. pylori-associated gastric cancers

  18. Targeted gene therapy and cell reprogramming in Fanconi anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Paula; Baños, Rocio; Lombardo, Angelo; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Alvarez, Lara; Garate, Zita; Genovese, Pietro; Almarza, Elena; Valeri, Antonio; Díez, Begoña; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Trujillo, Juan P; Murillas, Rodolfo; Segovia, Jose C; Samper, Enrique; Surralles, Jordi; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Naldini, Luigi; Bueren, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Gene targeting is progressively becoming a realistic therapeutic alternative in clinics. It is unknown, however, whether this technology will be suitable for the treatment of DNA repair deficiency syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA), with defects in homology-directed DNA repair. In this study, we used zinc finger nucleases and integrase-defective lentiviral vectors to demonstrate for the first time that FANCA can be efficiently and specifically targeted into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in fibroblasts from FA-A patients. Strikingly, up to 40% of FA fibroblasts showed gene targeting 42 days after gene editing. Given the low number of hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow of FA patients, gene-edited FA fibroblasts were then reprogrammed and re-differentiated toward the hematopoietic lineage. Analyses of gene-edited FA-iPSCs confirmed the specific integration of FANCA in the AAVS1 locus in all tested clones. Moreover, the hematopoietic differentiation of these iPSCs efficiently generated disease-free hematopoietic progenitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of correcting the phenotype of a DNA repair deficiency syndrome using gene-targeting and cell reprogramming strategies. PMID:24859981

  19. Targeted gene therapy and cell reprogramming in Fanconi anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Paula; Baños, Rocio; Lombardo, Angelo; Quintana-Bustamante, Oscar; Alvarez, Lara; Garate, Zita; Genovese, Pietro; Almarza, Elena; Valeri, Antonio; Díez, Begoña; Navarro, Susana; Torres, Yaima; Trujillo, Juan P; Murillas, Rodolfo; Segovia, Jose C; Samper, Enrique; Surralles, Jordi; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Naldini, Luigi; Bueren, Juan A

    2014-06-01

    Gene targeting is progressively becoming a realistic therapeutic alternative in clinics. It is unknown, however, whether this technology will be suitable for the treatment of DNA repair deficiency syndromes such as Fanconi anemia (FA), with defects in homology-directed DNA repair. In this study, we used zinc finger nucleases and integrase-defective lentiviral vectors to demonstrate for the first time that FANCA can be efficiently and specifically targeted into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in fibroblasts from FA-A patients. Strikingly, up to 40% of FA fibroblasts showed gene targeting 42 days after gene editing. Given the low number of hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow of FA patients, gene-edited FA fibroblasts were then reprogrammed and re-differentiated toward the hematopoietic lineage. Analyses of gene-edited FA-iPSCs confirmed the specific integration of FANCA in the AAVS1 locus in all tested clones. Moreover, the hematopoietic differentiation of these iPSCs efficiently generated disease-free hematopoietic progenitors. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of correcting the phenotype of a DNA repair deficiency syndrome using gene-targeting and cell reprogramming strategies. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  20. Gene-specific cell labeling using MiMIC transposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnerer, Joshua P; Venken, Koen J T; Dierick, Herman A

    2015-04-30

    Binary expression systems such as GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop and QF/QUAS have greatly enhanced the power of Drosophila as a model organism by allowing spatio-temporal manipulation of gene function as well as cell and neural circuit function. Tissue-specific expression of these heterologous transcription factors relies on random transposon integration near enhancers or promoters that drive the binary transcription factor embedded in the transposon. Alternatively, gene-specific promoter elements are directly fused to the binary factor within the transposon followed by random or site-specific integration. However, such insertions do not consistently recapitulate endogenous expression. We used Minos-Mediated Integration Cassette (MiMIC) transposons to convert host loci into reliable gene-specific binary effectors. MiMIC transposons allow recombinase-mediated cassette exchange to modify the transposon content. We developed novel exchange cassettes to convert coding intronic MiMIC insertions into gene-specific binary factor protein-traps. In addition, we expanded the set of binary factor exchange cassettes available for non-coding intronic MiMIC insertions. We show that binary factor conversions of different insertions in the same locus have indistinguishable expression patterns, suggesting that they reliably reflect endogenous gene expression. We show the efficacy and broad applicability of these new tools by dissecting the cellular expression patterns of the Drosophila serotonin receptor gene family. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Gene therapy: a lipofection approach for gene transfer into primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A T L; Lakey, J R T; Murray, A G; Moore, R B

    2002-01-01

    Despite the great potential of gene therapy to become a new treatment modality in future medicine, there are still many limitations to overcome before this gene approach can pass to the stage of human trial. The foremost obstacle is the development of a safe, efficient, and efficacious vector system for in vivo gene application. This study evaluated the efficacy of lipofection as a gene delivery vehicle into primary endothelial cells. Transfection efficiency of several lipid-based reagents (Effectene, Fugene 6, DOTAP) was examined at experimental temperatures of 37 degrees C, 24 degrees C, and 6 degrees C. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using precise amounts of DNA (Effectene, 0.2 microg; Fugene 6, 0.5 microg; DOTAP, 2.5 microg) and lipids (Effectene, 10 microl; Fugene 6, 6 microl; DOTAP, 15 microl) optimized in our laboratory. Duration of incubation in the DNA/lipid transfection mixture varied for each lipid transfectant as follows: 5 h for both Fugene 6 and DOTAP and 3 h for Effectene. Efficiency of transfection was quantified by microscopic evaluation of EFGP expression in a minimum of 100 cells per group. Transfection efficiencies achieved with these lipofection agents were 34 +/- 1.3% (mean +/- SEM), 33 +/- 1.4%, and 18 +/- 1.5% for Effectene, Fugene 6, and DOTAP, respectively, at 37 degrees C. Transfection results were lower at 24 degrees C with mean efficiencies of 26 +/- 2.4% for Effectene, 14 +/- 2.9% for Fugene 6, and 15 +/- 3.2% for DOTAP. Furthermore, mean efficiencies at 6 degrees C were 6 +/- 0.5%, 8 +/- 1.5%, and 6 +/- 0.0% for Effectene, Fugene 6, and DOTAP, respectively. Efficiency of transfection appeared to be temperature dependent (ANOVA; p lipofection a potential gene delivery strategy for in vivo gene therapy.

  2. Gene transfer into subcultured endometrial cells using lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascombe, I; Mougin, P; Vuillermoz, C; Adessi, G L; Jouvenot, M

    1996-01-01

    Lipofection using the Lipofectin reagent was optimized to transiently transfect subcultured guinea pig endometrial stromal cells with a beta-galactosidase gene driven by a simian virus 40 promoter. Efficient transfection was obtained in the following conditions: a value of six for the ratio of lipofectin to DNA, a low cellular density (10(5) cells per 35-mm well) at the time of subculture (48 h before lipofection) and a lipofection duration of 12 hours. Lipofection was compared to calcium phosphate precipitation previously optimized in the same culture model. At a low cellular density, the lipofection method was found to be more efficient than the calcium phosphate precipitation. This result gives a great relevance to lipofection since the cultured cells available in an experiment are often limited. Then, using cells at low density and a plasmid containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene linked to an estrogen response element, it was shown that the lipofection procedure is a suitable tool for the evaluation of gene regulation by estrogen.

  3. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-01-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin [/sup 32/P]cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements

  4. Global gene expression response to telomerase in bovine adrenocortical cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, Steven D.; Hornsby, Peter J.; Betts, Dean H.

    2005-01-01

    The infinite proliferative capability of most immortalized cells is dependent upon the presence of the enzyme telomerase and its ability to maintain telomere length and structure. However, telomerase may be involved in a greater system than telomere length regulation, as recent evidence has shown it capable of increasing wound healing in vivo, and improving cellular proliferation rate and survival from apoptosis in vitro. Here, we describe the global gene expression response to ectopic telomerase expression in an in vitro bovine adrenocortical cell model. Telomerase-immortalized cells showed an increased ability for proliferation and survival in minimal essential medium above cells transgenic for GFP. cDNA microarray analyses revealed an altered cell state indicative of increased adrenocortical cell proliferation regulated by the IGF2 pathway and alterations in members of the TGF-B family. As well, we identified alterations in genes associated with development and wound healing that support a model that high telomerase expression induces a highly adaptable, progenitor-like state

  5. Expression of caspase-3 gene in apoptotic HL-60 cell and different human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming; Song Tianbao

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To research the expression of caspase-3 gene in the apoptotic and the control HL-60 cells and in the different human tumor cell lines. Methods: Caspase-3 mRNA in the control and γ-radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 cells, and in the 6 types of human tumor cell lines, was analysed by Northern blot. Results: The caspase-3 gene transcript was more highly expressed in leukemia cells HL-60, CEM, K562 and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y than in cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa and breast carcinoma MCF7, and more highly in the radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 than in the control HL-60 cells. Conclusion: The high level of expression of caspase-3 may aid the efforts to understand the tumor cell sensitivity to radiation, apoptosis and its inherent ability to survive

  6. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...

  7. Embryo quality predictive models based on cumulus cells gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devjak R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of in vitro fertilization (IVF in clinical practice of infertility treatment, the indicators for high quality embryos were investigated. Cumulus cells (CC have a specific gene expression profile according to the developmental potential of the oocyte they are surrounding, and therefore, specific gene expression could be used as a biomarker. The aim of our study was to combine more than one biomarker to observe improvement in prediction value of embryo development. In this study, 58 CC samples from 17 IVF patients were analyzed. This study was approved by the Republic of Slovenia National Medical Ethics Committee. Gene expression analysis [quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR] for five genes, analyzed according to embryo quality level, was performed. Two prediction models were tested for embryo quality prediction: a binary logistic and a decision tree model. As the main outcome, gene expression levels for five genes were taken and the area under the curve (AUC for two prediction models were calculated. Among tested genes, AMHR2 and LIF showed significant expression difference between high quality and low quality embryos. These two genes were used for the construction of two prediction models: the binary logistic model yielded an AUC of 0.72 ± 0.08 and the decision tree model yielded an AUC of 0.73 ± 0.03. Two different prediction models yielded similar predictive power to differentiate high and low quality embryos. In terms of eventual clinical decision making, the decision tree model resulted in easy-to-interpret rules that are highly applicable in clinical practice.

  8. Discrimination of meniscal cell phenotypes using gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Son

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The lack of quantitative and objective metrics to assess cartilage and meniscus cell phenotypes contributes to the challenges in fibrocartilage tissue engineering. Although functional assessment of the final resulting tissue is essential, initial characterization of cell sources and quantitative description of their progression towards the natural, desired cell phenotype would provide an effective tool in optimizing cell-based tissue engineering strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify quantifiable characteristics of meniscal cells and thereby find phenotypical markers that could effectively categorize cells based on their tissue of origin (cartilage, inner, middle, and outer meniscus. The combination of gene expression ratios collagen VI/collagen II, ADAMTS-5/collagen II, and collagen I/collagen II was the most effective indicator of variation among different tissue regions. We additionally demonstrate a possible application of these quantifiable metrics in evaluating the use of serially passaged chondrocytes as a possible cell source in fibrocartilage engineering. Comparing the ratios of the passaged chondrocytes and the native meniscal cells may provide direction to optimize towards the desired cell phenotype. We have thus shown that measurable markers defining the characteristics of the native meniscus can establish a standard by which different tissue engineering strategies can be objectively assessed. Such metrics could additionally be useful in exploring the different stages of meniscal degradation in osteoarthritis and provide some insight in the disease progression.

  9. The FRIABLE1 gene product affects cell adhesion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Neumetzler

    Full Text Available Cell adhesion in plants is mediated predominantly by pectins, a group of complex cell wall associated polysaccharides. An Arabidopsis mutant, friable1 (frb1, was identified through a screen of T-DNA insertion lines that exhibited defective cell adhesion. Interestingly, the frb1 plants displayed both cell and organ dissociations and also ectopic defects in organ separation. The FRB1 gene encodes a Golgi-localized, plant specific protein with only weak sequence similarities to known proteins (DUF246. Unlike other cell adhesion deficient mutants, frb1 mutants do not have reduced levels of adhesion related cell wall polymers, such as pectins. Instead, FRB1 affects the abundance of galactose- and arabinose-containing oligosaccharides in the Golgi. Furthermore, frb1 mutants displayed alteration in pectin methylesterification, cell wall associated extensins and xyloglucan microstructure. We propose that abnormal FRB1 action has pleiotropic consequences on wall architecture, affecting both the extensin and pectin matrices, with consequent changes to the biomechanical properties of the wall and middle lamella, thereby influencing cell-cell adhesion.

  10. Hemin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-kappa B activation and ornithine decarboxylase expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hee; Lee, Chang Ki [Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oral Cancer Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Sun [Department of Applied Life Science and Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwang-Kyun [Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Applied Life Science and Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won-Yoon [Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Applied Life Science and Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, 134 Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemoon-Ku, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: wychung@yuhs.ac

    2008-07-03

    Inflammation induced by various stimuli has been found to be associated with increased risk for most types of human cancer. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells, as well as the growth of initiated cells and their progression to malignancy through production of proinflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. These also activate the signaling molecules that are involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hemin inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced bacterial mutagenesis and oxidative DNA damage, reduced the level of DNA-DMBA adduct and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor formation in DMBA-initiated ICR mouse skin, and inhibited myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation in TPA-treated mouse skin. In the present study, to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activity of hemin, its effect on the expression of ODC and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulating these proteins were explored in mouse skin with TPA-induced inflammation. Topically applied hemin inhibited ear edema and epidermal thickness in mice treated with TPA. Pretreatment with hemin reduced the expression of ODC and COX-2, and also reduced NF-{kappa}B activation in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. In addition, hemin suppressed the TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, hemin inhibited TPA-induced COX-2 expression by altering NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway via ERK and p38 MAPK, as well as TPA-induced ODC expression in mouse skin. Thereby, hemin may be an attractive candidate for a chemopreventive agent.

  11. Hemin inhibits cyclooxygenase-2 expression through nuclear factor-kappa B activation and ornithine decarboxylase expression in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-treated mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hee; Lee, Chang Ki; Hwang, Young Sun; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation induced by various stimuli has been found to be associated with increased risk for most types of human cancer. Inflammation facilitates the initiation of normal cells, as well as the growth of initiated cells and their progression to malignancy through production of proinflammatory cytokines and diverse reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. These also activate the signaling molecules that are involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that hemin inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced bacterial mutagenesis and oxidative DNA damage, reduced the level of DNA-DMBA adduct and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorobl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumor formation in DMBA-initiated ICR mouse skin, and inhibited myeloperoxidase and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and H 2 O 2 formation in TPA-treated mouse skin. In the present study, to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive activity of hemin, its effect on the expression of ODC and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulating these proteins were explored in mouse skin with TPA-induced inflammation. Topically applied hemin inhibited ear edema and epidermal thickness in mice treated with TPA. Pretreatment with hemin reduced the expression of ODC and COX-2, and also reduced NF-κB activation in TPA-stimulated mouse skin. In addition, hemin suppressed the TPA-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, hemin inhibited TPA-induced COX-2 expression by altering NF-κB signaling pathway via ERK and p38 MAPK, as well as TPA-induced ODC expression in mouse skin. Thereby, hemin may be an attractive candidate for a chemopreventive agent

  12. Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkiewicz, Katarzyna M.; Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, we performed deep sequencing (RNAseq) of non-tumorigenic human OKF6-TERT1R and tumorigenic SCC-9 cells. Numerous homeobox genes are differentially expressed between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells. Data from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database, also show that homeobox (HOX) genes are dysregulated in oral SCC patients. The activity of Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC), which causes epigenetic modifications, and retinoic acid (RA) signaling can control HOX gene transcription. HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcripts are higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells; using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) we detected PRC2 protein SUZ12 and the epigenetic H3K27me3 mark on histone H3 at these genes in OKF6-TERT1R, but not in SCC-9 cells. In contrast, IRX1, IRX4, SIX2 and TSHZ3 transcripts are lower in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells. We detected SUZ12 and the H3K27me3 mark at these genes in SCC-9, but not in OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 depletion increased HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcript levels and decreased the proliferation of OKF6-TERT1R cells. Transcriptional responses to RA are attenuated in SCC-9 versus OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 and H3K27me3 levels were not altered by RA at these HOX genes in SCC-9 and OKF6-TERT1R cells. We conclude that altered activity of PRC2 is associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human SCC cells, and that this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of oral keratinocytes. - Highlights: • RNAseq elucidates differences between non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic oral keratinocytes. • Changes in HOX mRNA in SCC-9 vs. OKF6-TERT1R cells are a result of altered epigenetic regulation. • RNAseq shows that retinoic acid (RA) influences gene expression in both OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells.

  13. Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkiewicz, Katarzyna M.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, we performed deep sequencing (RNAseq) of non-tumorigenic human OKF6-TERT1R and tumorigenic SCC-9 cells. Numerous homeobox genes are differentially expressed between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells. Data from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database, also show that homeobox (HOX) genes are dysregulated in oral SCC patients. The activity of Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC), which causes epigenetic modifications, and retinoic acid (RA) signaling can control HOX gene transcription. HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcripts are higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells; using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) we detected PRC2 protein SUZ12 and the epigenetic H3K27me3 mark on histone H3 at these genes in OKF6-TERT1R, but not in SCC-9 cells. In contrast, IRX1, IRX4, SIX2 and TSHZ3 transcripts are lower in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells. We detected SUZ12 and the H3K27me3 mark at these genes in SCC-9, but not in OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 depletion increased HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcript levels and decreased the proliferation of OKF6-TERT1R cells. Transcriptional responses to RA are attenuated in SCC-9 versus OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 and H3K27me3 levels were not altered by RA at these HOX genes in SCC-9 and OKF6-TERT1R cells. We conclude that altered activity of PRC2 is associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human SCC cells, and that this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of oral keratinocytes. - Highlights: • RNAseq elucidates differences between non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic oral keratinocytes. • Changes in HOX mRNA in SCC-9 vs. OKF6-TERT1R cells are a result of altered epigenetic regulation. • RNAseq shows that retinoic acid (RA) influences gene expression in both OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells

  14. Lentiviral hematopoietic cell gene therapy for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Nathalie; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Bougnères, Pierre; Schmidt, Manfred; Kalle, Christof Von; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Aubourg, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a severe genetic demyelinating disease caused by a deficiency in ALD protein, an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter encoded by the ABCD1 gene. When performed at an early stage of the disease, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can arrest the progression of cerebral demyelinating lesions. To overcome the limitations of allogeneic HCT, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy strategy aiming to perform autologous transplantation of lentivirally corrected cells was developed. We demonstrated the preclinical feasibility of HSC gene therapy for ALD based on the correction of CD34+ cells from X-ALD patients using an HIV1-derived lentiviral vector. These results prompted us to initiate an HSC gene therapy trial in two X-ALD patients who had developed progressive cerebral demyelination, were candidates for allogeneic HCT, but had no HLA-matched donors or cord blood. Autologous CD34+ cells were purified from the peripheral blood after G-CSF stimulation, genetically corrected ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding wild-type ABCD1 cDNA, and then reinfused into the patients after they had received full myeloablative conditioning. Over 3 years of follow-up, the hematopoiesis remained polyclonal in the two patients treated with 7-14% of granulocytes, monocytes, and T and B lymphocytes expressing the lentivirally encoded ALD protein. There was no evidence of clonal dominance or skewing based on the retrieval of lentiviral insertion repertoire in different hematopoietic lineages by deep sequencing. Cerebral demyelination was arrested 14 and 16months, respectively, in the two treated patients, without further progression up to the last follow-up, a clinical outcome that is comparable to that observed after allogeneic HCT. Longer follow-up of these two treated patients and HSC gene therapy performed in additional ALD patients are however needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of lentiviral HSC

  15. Deletion of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B Enhances Endothelial Cyclooxygenase 2 Expression and Protects Mice from Type 1 Diabetes-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Herren

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B dephosphorylates receptors tyrosine kinase and acts as a molecular brake on insulin signaling pathway. Conditions of metabolic dysfunction increase PTP1B, when deletion of PTP1B protects against metabolic disorders by increasing insulin signaling. Although vascular insulin signaling contributes to the control of glucose disposal, little is known regarding the direct role of PTP1B in the control of endothelial function. We hypothesized that metabolic dysfunctions increase PTP1B expression in endothelial cells and that PTP1B deletion prevents endothelial dysfunction in situation of diminished insulin secretion. Type I diabetes (T1DM was induced in wild-type (WT and PTP1B-deficient mice (KO with streptozotocin (STZ injection. After 28 days of T1DM, KO mice exhibited a similar reduction in body weight and plasma insulin levels and a comparable increase in glycemia (WT: 384 ± 20 vs. Ko: 432 ± 29 mg/dL, cholesterol and triglycerides, as WT mice. T1DM increased PTP1B expression and impaired endothelial NO-dependent relaxation, in mouse aorta. PTP1B deletion did not affect baseline endothelial function, but preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation, in T1DM mice. NO synthase inhibition with L-NAME abolished endothelial relaxation in control and T1DM WT mice, whereas L-NAME and the cyclooxygenases inhibitor indomethacin were required to abolish endothelium relaxation in T1DM KO mice. PTP1B deletion increased COX-2 expression and PGI2 levels, in mouse aorta and plasma respectively, in T1DM mice. In parallel, simulation of diabetic conditions increased PTP1B expression and knockdown of PTP1B increased COX-2 but not COX-1 expression, in primary human aortic endothelial cells. Taken together these data indicate that deletion of PTP1B protected endothelial function by compensating the reduction in NO bioavailability by increasing COX-2-mediated release of the vasodilator prostanoid PGI2, in T1DM mice.

  16. Radiation-induced gene amplification in rodent and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Gloss, B.; Herrlich, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ionizing and UV radiations induce amplification of SV40 DNA sequences integrated in the genome of Chinese hamster cells and increase amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene during methotrexate selection in human skin fibroblasts of a patient with ataxia telangiectasia. Various types of external (60-Co-γ-rays, 241-Am-α-particles, UV) or internal radiation (caused by the decay of 125 I incorporated into DNA in form of I-UdR) were applied. By cell fusion experiments it could be shown that SV40 gene amplification is mediated by one or several diffusible trans-acting factors induced or activated in a dose dependent manner by all types of radiation. One of these factors binds to a 10 bp sequence within the minimal origin of replication of SV40. In vivo competition with an excess of a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising this sequence blocks radiation-induced amplification. (author) 25 refs.; 8 figs

  17. Enrichment of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitates transduction for stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kismet; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Romero, Zulema; Campo-Fernandez, Beatriz; Kaufman, Michael L; Cooper, Aaron R; Masiuk, Katelyn; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B

    2015-05-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for sickle cell disease has the potential to treat this illness without the major immunological complications associated with allogeneic transplantation. However, transduction efficiency by β-globin lentiviral vectors using CD34-enriched cell populations is suboptimal and large vector production batches may be needed for clinical trials. Transducing a cell population more enriched for HSC could greatly reduce vector needs and, potentially, increase transduction efficiency. CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, comprising ∼1%-3% of all CD34(+) cells, were isolated from healthy cord blood CD34(+) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing an antisickling form of beta-globin (CCL-β(AS3) -FB). Isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells were able to generate progeny over an extended period of long-term culture (LTC) compared to the CD34(+) cells and required up to 40-fold less vector for transduction compared to bulk CD34(+) preparations containing an equivalent number of CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells. Transduction of isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells was comparable to CD34(+) cells measured by quantitative PCR at day 14 with reduced vector needs, and average vector copy/cell remained higher over time for LTC initiated from CD34(+) /38(-) cells. Following in vitro erythroid differentiation, HBBAS3 mRNA expression was similar in cultures derived from CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells or unfractionated CD34(+) cells. In vivo studies showed equivalent engraftment of transduced CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells when transplanted in competition with 100-fold more CD34(+) /CD38(+) cells. This work provides initial evidence for the beneficial effects from isolating human CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells to use significantly less vector and potentially improve transduction for HSC gene therapy. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. Spatial reconstruction of single-cell gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Rahul; Farrell, Jeffrey A.; Gennert, David; Schier, Alexander F.; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Spatial localization is a key determinant of cellular fate and behavior, but spatial RNA assays traditionally rely on staining for a limited number of RNA species. In contrast, single-cell RNA-seq allows for deep profiling of cellular gene expression, but established methods separate cells from their native spatial context. Here we present Seurat, a computational strategy to infer cellular localization by integrating single-cell RNA-seq data with in situ RNA patterns. We applied Seurat to spatially map 851 single cells from dissociated zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, inferring a transcriptome-wide map of spatial patterning. We confirmed Seurat’s accuracy using several experimental approaches, and used it to identify a set of archetypal expression patterns and spatial markers. Additionally, Seurat correctly localizes rare subpopulations, accurately mapping both spatially restricted and scattered groups. Seurat will be applicable to mapping cellular localization within complex patterned tissues in diverse systems. PMID:25867923

  19. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  20. Downregulation of NF-κB and PCNA in the regulatory pathways of apoptosis by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors in experimental lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Shruti; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are emerging as novel chemopreventive agents against a variety of cancers owing to their capability in blocking the tumor development by cellular proliferation, angiogenesis and by promoting apoptosis. The present study further explored the comparative role of a traditional NSAID, indomethacin and a newly developed coxib, etoricoxib against 9,10-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced lung carcinogenesis in rats. Morphological and histological analysis revealed the occurrence of tumors and lesions along with constricted alveolar spaces in the DMBA treated animals which were largely corrected both by indomethacin and etoricoxib. COX-1 was found to be uniformly expressed in all the groups while COX-2 levels were raised prominently in the DMBA treated animals. Proliferation, as studied by PCNA expression was found to be markedly increased in the DMBA group as compared to the others. Increased NF-κB expression in the DMBA group was found to correct with the co-administration of NSAIDs. Also, fluorescent co-staining of the isolated lung cells revealed a significantly decreased apoptosis and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, these parameters indicate to the chemopreventive action of the two NSAIDs studied in lung cancer and as their mechanism of action suggests, can be achievable both by COX-dependent and COX-independent pathways.

  1. Gene expression pattern of functional neuronal cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron Dominique

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuronal tissue has limited potential to self-renew or repair after neurological diseases. Cellular therapies using stem cells are promising approaches for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, the clinical use of embryonic stem cells or foetal tissues is limited by ethical considerations and other scientific problems. Thus, bone marrow mesenchymal stomal cells (BM-MSC could represent an alternative source of stem cells for cell replacement therapies. Indeed, many studies have demonstrated that MSC can give rise to neuronal cells as well as many tissue-specific cell phenotypes. Methods BM-MSC were differentiated in neuron-like cells under specific induction (NPBM + cAMP + IBMX + NGF + Insulin. By day ten, differentiated cells presented an expression profile of real neurons. Functionality of these differentiated cells was evaluated by calcium influx through glutamate receptor AMPA3. Results Using microarray analysis, we compared gene expression profile of these different samples, before and after neurogenic differentiation. Among the 1943 genes differentially expressed, genes down-regulated are involved in osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, adipogenesis, myogenesis and extracellular matrix component (tuftelin, AGC1, FADS3, tropomyosin, fibronectin, ECM2, HAPLN1, vimentin. Interestingly, genes implicated in neurogenesis are increased. Most of them are involved in the synaptic transmission and long term potentialisation as cortactin, CASK, SYNCRIP, SYNTL4 and STX1. Other genes are involved in neurite outgrowth, early neuronal cell development, neuropeptide signaling/synthesis and neuronal receptor (FK506, ARHGAP6, CDKRAP2, PMCH, GFPT2, GRIA3, MCT6, BDNF, PENK, amphiregulin, neurofilament 3, Epha4, synaptotagmin. Using real time RT-PCR, we confirmed the expression of selected neuronal genes: NEGR1, GRIA3 (AMPA3, NEF3, PENK and Epha4. Functionality of these neuron-like cells was demonstrated by Ca2+ influx through glutamate

  2. Regulatory Oversight of Cell and Gene Therapy Products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony; Agbanyo, Francisca; Wang, Jian; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health Canada regulates gene therapy products and many cell therapy products as biological drugs under the Canadian Food and Drugs Act and its attendant regulations. Cellular products that meet certain criteria, including minimal manipulation and homologous use, may be subjected to a standards-based approach under the Safety of Human Cells, Tissues and Organs for Transplantation Regulations. The manufacture and clinical testing of cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) presents many challenges beyond those for protein biologics. Cells cannot be subjected to pathogen removal or inactivation procedures and must frequently be administered shortly after final formulation. Viral vector design and manufacturing control are critically important to overall product quality and linked to safety and efficacy in patients through concerns such as replication competence, vector integration, and vector shedding. In addition, for many CGTPs, the value of nonclinical studies is largely limited to providing proof of concept, and the first meaningful data relating to appropriate dosing, safety parameters, and validity of surrogate or true determinants of efficacy must come from carefully designed clinical trials in patients. Addressing these numerous challenges requires application of various risk mitigation strategies and meeting regulatory expectations specifically adapted to the product types. Regulatory cooperation and harmonisation at an international level are essential for progress in the development and commercialisation of these products. However, particularly in the area of cell therapy, new regulatory paradigms may be needed to harness the benefits of clinical progress in situations where the resources and motivation to pursue a typical drug product approval pathway may be lacking.

  3. Global Regulatory Differences for Gene- and Cell-Based Therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppens, Delphi G M; De Bruin, Marie L; Leufkens, Hubert G M

    2017-01-01

    Gene- and cell-based therapies (GCTs) offer potential new treatment options for unmet medical needs. However, the use of conventional regulatory requirements for medicinal products to approve GCTs may impede patient access and therapeutic innovation. Furthermore, requirements differ between...... jurisdictions, complicating the global regulatory landscape. We provide a comparative overview of regulatory requirements for GCT approval in five jurisdictions and hypothesize on the consequences of the observed global differences on patient access and therapeutic innovation....

  4. Weak expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with poorer outcome in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma: analysis of data from randomized trial between radiation alone versus concurrent chemo-radiation (SQNP-01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loong, Susan Li Er; Hwang, Jacqueline Siok Gek; Li, Hui Hua; Wee, Joseph Tien Seng; Yap, Swee Peng; Chua, Melvin Lee Kiang; Fong, Kam Weng; Tan, Terence Wee Kiat

    2009-01-01

    Over-expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme has been reported in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the prognostic significance of this has yet to be conclusively determined. Thus, from our randomized trial of radiation versus concurrent chemoradiation in endemic NPC, we analyzed a cohort of tumour samples collected from participants from one referral hospital. 58 out of 88 patients from this institution had samples available for analysis. COX-2 expression levels were stratified by immunohistochemistry, into negligible, weak, moderate and strong, and correlated with overall and disease specific survivals. 58% had negligible or weak COX-2 expression, while 14% and 28% had moderate and strong expression respectively. Weak COX-2 expression conferred a poorer median overall survival, 1.3 years for weak versus 6.3 years for negligible, 7.8 years, strong and not reached for moderate. There was a similar trend for disease specific survival. Contrary to literature published on other malignancies, our findings seemed to indicate that over-expression of COX-2 confer a better prognosis in patients with endemic NPC. Larger studies are required to conclusively determine the significance of COX-2 expression in these patients

  5. An Asp49 Phospholipase A2 from Snake Venom Induces Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production via Activation of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and PKC in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2 are key enzymes for production of lipid mediators. We previously demonstrated that a snake venom sPLA2 named MT-III leads to prostaglandin (PGE2 biosynthesis in macrophages by inducing the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Herein, we explored the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways leading to these MT-III-induced effects. Results demonstrated that MT-III induced activation of the transcription factor NF-κB in isolated macrophages. By using NF-κB selective inhibitors, the involvement of this factor in MT-III-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production was demonstrated. Moreover, MT-III-induced COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 release were attenuated by pretreatment of macrophages with SB202190, and Ly294002, and H-7-dihydro compounds, indicating the involvement of p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKC pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, MT-III triggered early phosphorylation of p38MAPK, PI3K, and PKC. Furthermore, SB202190, H-7-dihydro, but not Ly294002 treatment, abrogated activation of NF-κB induced by MT-III. Altogether, these results show for the first time that the induction of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 release, which occur via NF-κB activation induced by the sPLA2-MT-III in macrophages, are modulated by p38MAPK and PKC, but not by PI3K signaling proteins.

  6. HIV-derived vectors for gene therapy targeting dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maura; Cavarelli, Mariangela; Gregori, Silvia; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-derived lentiviral vectors (LV) have the potential to mediate stable therapeutic gene transfer. However, similarly to other viral vectors, their benefit is compromised by the induction of an immune response toward transgene-expressing cells that closely mimics antiviral immunity. LV share with the parental HIV the ability to activate dendritic cells (DC), while lack the peculiar ability of subverting DC functions, which is responsible for HIV immune escape. Understanding the interaction between LV and DC, with plasmacytoid and myeloid DC playing fundamental and distinct roles, has paved the way to novel approaches aimed at regulating transgene-specific immune responses. Thanks to the ability to target either DC subsets LV might be a powerful tool to induce immunity (i.e., gene therapy of cancer), cell death (i.e., in HIV/AIDS infection), or tolerance (i.e., gene therapy strategies for monogenic diseases). In this chapter, similarities and differences between the LV-mediated and HIV-mediated induction of immune responses, with specific focus on their interactions with DC, are discussed.

  7. Sustainability of keratinocyte gene transfer and cell survival in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, K A; Khavari, P A

    1997-05-20

    The epidermis is an attractive site for therapeutic gene delivery because it is accessible and capable of delivering polypeptides to the systemic circulation. A number of difficulties, however, have emerged in attempts at cutaneous gene delivery, and central among these is an inability to sustain therapeutic gene production. We have examined two major potential contributing factors, viral vector stamina and involvement of long-lived epidermal progenitor cells. Human keratinocytes were either untreated or transduced with a retroviral vector for beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) at > 99% efficiency and then grafted onto immunodeficient mice to regenerate human epidermis. Human epidermis was monitored in vivo after grafting for clinical and histologic appearance as well as for gene expression. Although integrated vector sequences persisted unchanged in engineered epidermis at 10 weeks post-grafting, retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven beta-Gal expression ceased in vivo after approximately 4 weeks. Endogenous cellular promoters, however, maintained consistently normal gene expression levels without evidence of time-dependent decline, as determined by immunostaining with species-specific antibodies for human involucrin, filaggrin, keratinocyte transglutaminase, keratin 10, type VII collagen, and Laminin 5 proteins out to week 14 post-grafting. Transduced human keratinocytes generated multilayer epidermis sustained through multiple epidermal turnover cycles; this epidermis demonstrated retention of a spatially appropriate pattern of basal and suprabasal epidermal marker gene expression. These results confirm previous findings suggesting that viral promoter-driven gene expression is not durable and demonstrate that keratinocytes passaged in vitro can regenerate and sustain normal epidermis for prolonged periods.

  8. Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in C6 glioma cell line treated with conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, I C; de Campos, R P; Bertoni, A P S; Wink, M R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be important players in the tumor microenvironment. They can affect the glioma progression through the modulation of different genes. This modulation can be evaluated through a very useful model, treating the tumor cells with MSC-conditioned medium. However, for an accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is a prerequisite. We performed a systematic review in an attempt to find a reference gene to use when analyzing gene expression in C6 glioma cells lines. Considering that we were not able to find a reference gene originated by an appropriate validation, in this study we evaluated candidate genes to be used as reference gene in C6 cells under different treatments with adipose-derived stem cells conditioned medium (CM-ADSCs). β-actin (ACTB); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT-1); TATA box binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The mean Cq, the maximum fold change (MFC) and NormFinder software were used for reference gene evaluation and selection. The GAPDH and ACTB genes have been the most widely used reference genes to normalize among the different investigated genes in our review, however, controversially these genes underwent a substantial variability among the genes evaluated in the present work. Individually, TBP gene was more stable when compared with other genes analyzed and the combination of TBP and HPRT-1 was even more stable. These results evidence the importance of appropriate validation of reference genes before performing qPCR experiments. Besides, our data will contribute with researchers that work analyzing the role of ADSCs in glioma microenvironment through gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of γ-radiation on cell growth, cell cycle and promoter methylation of 22 cell cycle genes in the 1321NI astrocytoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamian, Yaman; Abou Alchamat, Ghalia; Murad, Hossam; Madania, Ammar

    2017-09-01

    DNA damage caused by radiation initiates biological responses affecting cell fate. DNA methylation regulates gene expression and modulates DNA damage pathways. Alterations in the methylation profiles of cell cycle regulating genes may control cell response to radiation. In this study we investigated the effect of ionizing radiation on the methylation levels of 22 cell cycle regulating genes in correlation with gene expression in 1321NI astrocytoma cell line. 1321NI cells were irradiated with 2, 5 or 10Gy doses then analyzed after 24, 48 and 72h for cell viability using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide) assay. Flow cytometry were used to study the effect of 10Gy irradiation on cell cycle. EpiTect Methyl II PCR Array was used to identify differentially methylated genes in irradiated cells. Changes in gene expression was determined by qPCR. Azacytidine treatment was used to determine whether DNA methylation affectes gene expression. Our results showed that irradiation decreased cell viability and caused cell cycle arrest at G2/M. Out of 22 genes tested, only CCNF and RAD9A showed some increase in DNA methylation (3.59% and 3.62%, respectively) after 10Gy irradiation, and this increase coincided with downregulation of both genes (by 4 and 2 fold, respectively). with azacytidine confirmed that expression of CCNF and RAD9A genes was regulated by methylation. 1321NI cell line is highly radioresistant and that irradiation of these cells with a 10Gy dose increases DNA methylation of CCNF and RAD9A genes. This dose down-regulates these genes, favoring G2/M arrest. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inactivation of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Reduces Bile Acid/Farnesoid X Receptor Expression through Fxr gene CpG Methylation in Mouse Colon Tumors and Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmin, Ornella I; Fang, Changming; Lyon, Adam M; Doetschman, Tom C; Thompson, Patricia A; Martinez, Jesse D; Smith, Jeffrey W; Lance, Peter M; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2016-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism and possesses tumor suppressor functions. FXR expression is reduced in colorectal tumors of subjects carrying inactivated adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Identifying the mechanisms responsible for this reduction may offer new molecular targets for colon cancer prevention. We investigated how APC inactivation influences the regulation of FXR expression in colonic mucosal cells. We hypothesized that APC inactivation would epigenetically repress nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (FXR gene name) expression through increased CpG methylation. Normal proximal colonic mucosa and normal-appearing adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors were collected from wild-type C57BL/6J and Apc-deficient (Apc(Min) (/+)) male mice, respectively. The expression of Fxr, ileal bile acid-binding protein (Ibabp), small heterodimer partner (Shp), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. In both normal and adjacent colonic mucosa and colon tumors, we measured CpG methylation of Fxr in bisulfonated genomic DNA. In vitro, we measured the impact of APC inactivation and deoxycholic acid (DCA) treatment on FXR expression in human colon cancer HCT-116 cells transfected with silencing RNA for APC and HT-29 cells carrying inactivated APC. In Apc(Min) (/+) mice, constitutive CpG methylation of the Fxrα3/4 promoter was linked to reduced (60-90%) baseline Fxr, Ibabp, and Shp and increased Cox-2 expression in apparently normal adjacent mucosa and colon tumors. Apc knockdown in HCT-116 cells increased cellular myelocytomatosis (c-MYC) and lowered (∼50%) FXR expression, which was further reduced (∼80%) by DCA. In human HCT-116 but not HT-29 colon cancer cells, DCA induced FXR expression and lowered CpG methylation of FXR. We conclude that the loss of APC function favors the silencing of FXR expression through CpG hypermethylation in mouse colonic mucosa and human colon cells

  11. Pancreatic cancer circulating tumour cells express a cell motility gene signature that predicts survival after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeant, Gregory; Eijsden, Rudy van; Roskams, Tania; Van Duppen, Victor; Topal, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Most cancer deaths are caused by metastases, resulting from circulating tumor cells (CTC) that detach from the primary cancer and survive in distant organs. The aim of the present study was to develop a CTC gene signature and to assess its prognostic relevance after surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Negative depletion fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) was developed and validated with spiking experiments using cancer cell lines in whole human blood samples. This FACS-based method was used to enrich for CTC from the blood of 10 patients who underwent surgery for PDAC. Total RNA was isolated from 4 subgroup samples, i.e. CTC, haematological cells (G), original tumour (T), and non-tumoural pancreatic control tissue (P). After RNA quality control, samples of 6 patients were eligible for further analysis. Whole genome microarray analysis was performed after double linear amplification of RNA. ‘Ingenuity Pathway Analysis’ software and AmiGO were used for functional data analyses. A CTC gene signature was developed and validated with the nCounter system on expression data of 78 primary PDAC using Cox regression analysis for disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Using stringent statistical analysis, we retained 8,152 genes to compare expression profiles of CTC vs. other subgroups, and found 1,059 genes to be differentially expressed. The pathway with the highest expression ratio in CTC was p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling, known to be involved in cancer cell migration. In the p38 MAPK pathway, TGF-β1, cPLA2, and MAX were significantly upregulated. In addition, 9 other genes associated with both p38 MAPK signaling and cell motility were overexpressed in CTC. High co-expression of TGF-β1 and our cell motility panel (≥ 4 out of 9 genes for DFS and ≥ 6 out of 9 genes for OS) in primary PDAC was identified as an independent predictor of DFS (p=0.041, HR (95% CI) = 1.885 (1.025 – 3.559)) and OS (p=0.047, HR

  12. Zfp206 regulates ES cell gene expression and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Walker, Emily; Tamplin, Owen J; Rossant, Janet; Stanford, William L; Hughes, Timothy R

    2006-01-01

    Understanding transcriptional regulation in early developmental stages is fundamental to understanding mammalian development and embryonic stem (ES) cell properties. Expression surveys suggest that the putative SCAN-Zinc finger transcription factor Zfp206 is expressed specifically in ES cells [Zhang,W., Morris,Q.D., Chang,R., Shai,O., Bakowski,M.A., Mitsakakis,N., Mohammad,N., Robinson,M.D., Zirngibl,R., Somogyi,E. et al., (2004) J. Biol., 3, 21; Brandenberger,R., Wei,H., Zhang,S., Lei,S., Murage,J., Fisk,G.J., Li,Y., Xu,C., Fang,R., Guegler,K. et al., (2004) Nat. Biotechnol., 22, 707-716]. Here, we confirm this observation, and we show that ZFP206 expression decreases rapidly upon differentiation of cultured mouse ES cells, and during development of mouse embryos. We find that there are at least six isoforms of the ZFP206 transcript, the longest being predominant. Overexpression and depletion experiments show that Zfp206 promotes formation of undifferentiated ES cell clones, and positively regulates abundance of a very small set of transcripts whose expression is also specific to ES cells and the two- to four-cell stages of preimplantation embryos. This set includes members of the Zscan4, Thoc4, Tcstv1 and eIF-1A gene families, none of which have been functionally characterized in vivo but whose members include apparent transcription factors, RNA-binding proteins and translation factors. Together, these data indicate that Zfp206 is a regulator of ES cell differentiation that controls a set of genes expressed very early in development, most of which themselves appear to be regulators.

  13. Changes in gene expression following growth stimulation of cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathans, D.; Lau, L.F.; Lee, S.J.; Linzer, D.I.H.

    1986-01-01

    To identify genes that may be part of a genetic program for the growth of mammalian cells. The authors are characterizing cDNA clones derived from mRNAs that appear at various times after stimulation of resting BALB/c 3T3 cells with serum or growth factors. cDNA libraries were prepared from polyA/sup +/ RNA from cells stimulated with serum for various periods of time, and the libraries were differentially screened with /sup 32/P-cDNA probes made from stimulated or resting cell mRNA. One cDNA library was prepared from cells that were stimulated with serum for 3 hrs in the presence of cycloheximide. The authors purpose in inhibiting protein synthesis was to limit new mRNAs to those that do not require de novo protein synthesis for their accumulation and to amplify mRNAs that are superinduced by serum in the absence of protein synthesis. Of approximately 50,000 recombinant phage plaques screened, 357 clones hybridized to probes derived from stimulated-cell RNA but not to probes from resting-cell RNA. Cross hybridization analysis showed that 4 RNA sequence families accounted for over 95% of the clones; other sequences were found only once

  14. Gene therapy for sickle cell disease: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Uchida, Naoya; Tisdale, John F

    2018-05-30

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common life-threatening monogenic diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. Allogenic hematopietic stem cell transplantation is the only known cure for the disease with high success rates, but the limited availability of matched sibling donors and the high risk of transplantation-related side effects force the scientific community to envision additional therapies. Ex vivo gene therapy through globin gene addition has been investigated extensively and is currently being tested in clinical trials that have begun reporting encouraging data. Recent improvements in our understanding of the molecular pathways controlling mammalian erythropoiesis and globin switching offer new and exciting therapeutic options. Rapid and substantial advances in genome engineering tools, particularly CRISPR/Cas9, have raised the possibility of genetic correction in induced pluripotent stem cells as well as patient-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, these techniques are still in their infancy, and safety/efficacy issues remain that must be addressed before translating these promising techniques into clinical practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Cell of origin associated classification of B-cell malignancies by gene signatures of the normal B-cell hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hans Erik; Bergkvist, Kim Steve; Schmitz, Alexander; Kjeldsen, Malene Krag; Hansen, Steen Møller; Gaihede, Michael; Nørgaard, Martin Agge; Bæch, John; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Frank Svendsen; Johansen, Preben; Bødker, Julie Støve; Bøgsted, Martin; Dybkær, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Recent findings have suggested biological classification of B-cell malignancies as exemplified by the "activated B-cell-like" (ABC), the "germinal-center B-cell-like" (GCB) and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and "recurrent translocation and cyclin D" (TC) classification of multiple myeloma. Biological classification of B-cell derived cancers may be refined by a direct and systematic strategy where identification and characterization of normal B-cell differentiation subsets are used to define the cancer cell of origin phenotype. Here we propose a strategy combining multiparametric flow cytometry, global gene expression profiling and biostatistical modeling to generate B-cell subset specific gene signatures from sorted normal human immature, naive, germinal centrocytes and centroblasts, post-germinal memory B-cells, plasmablasts and plasma cells from available lymphoid tissues including lymph nodes, tonsils, thymus, peripheral blood and bone marrow. This strategy will provide an accurate image of the stage of differentiation, which prospectively can be used to classify any B-cell malignancy and eventually purify tumor cells. This report briefly describes the current models of the normal B-cell subset differentiation in multiple tissues and the pathogenesis of malignancies originating from the normal germinal B-cell hierarchy.

  16. Genomic instability of osteosarcoma cell lines in culture: impact on the prediction of metastasis relevant genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, Roman; Rath, Prisni; Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan; Husmann, Knut; Born, Walter; Baudis, Michael; Fuchs, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages. The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines. Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.

  17. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  18. Clusters of conserved beta cell marker genes for assessment of beta cell phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Geert A; Jiang, Lei; Hellemans, Karine H

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a gene expression blueprint of pancreatic beta cells conserved from rodents to humans and to evaluate its applicability to assess shifts in the beta cell differentiated state. Genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of isolated beta cells were compared to those...... of a large panel of other tissue and cell types, and transcripts with beta cell-abundant and -selective expression were identified. Iteration of this analysis in mouse, rat and human tissues generated a panel of conserved beta cell biomarkers. This panel was then used to compare isolated versus laser capture...... microdissected beta cells, monitor adaptations of the beta cell phenotype to fasting, and retrieve possible conserved transcriptional regulators....

  19. Decreased expression of cell adhesion genes in cancer stem-like cells isolated from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Amrendra; Sriram, Harshini; Chandarana, Pinal; Tanavde, Vivek; Kumar, Rekha V; Gopinath, Ashok; Govindarajan, Raman; Ramaswamy, S; Sadasivam, Subhashini

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to isolate cancer stem-like cells marked by high expression of CD44, a putative cancer stem cell marker, from primary oral squamous cell carcinomas and identify distinctive gene expression patterns in these cells. From 1 October 2013 to 4 September 2015, 76 stage III-IV primary oral squamous cell carcinoma of the gingivobuccal sulcus were resected. In all, 13 tumours were analysed by immunohistochemistry to visualise CD44-expressing cells. Expression of CD44 within The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma RNA-sequencing data was also assessed. Seventy resected tumours were dissociated into single cells and stained with antibodies to CD44 as well as CD45 and CD31 (together referred as Lineage/Lin). From 45 of these, CD44 + Lin - and CD44 - Lin - subpopulations were successfully isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and good-quality RNA was obtained from 14 such sorted pairs. Libraries from five pairs were sequenced and the results analysed using bioinformatics tools. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to experimentally validate the differential expression of selected candidate genes identified from the transcriptome sequencing in the same 5 and an additional 9 tumours. CD44 was expressed on the surface of poorly differentiated tumour cells, and within the The Cancer Genome Atlas-Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma samples, its messenger RNA levels were higher in tumours compared to normal. Transcriptomics revealed that 102 genes were upregulated and 85 genes were downregulated in CD44 + Lin - compared to CD44 - Lin - cells in at least 3 of the 5 tumours sequenced. The upregulated genes included those involved in immune regulation, while the downregulated genes were enriched for genes involved in cell adhesion. Decreased expression of PCDH18, MGP, SPARCL1 and KRTDAP was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lower expression of

  20. Cell culture density affects the stemness gene expression of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Lee, Tae-Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2017-03-01

    The results of clinical trials using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are controversial due to the heterogeneity of human MSCs and differences in culture conditions. In this regard, it is important to identify gene expression patterns according to culture conditions, and to determine how the cells are expanded and when they should be clinically used. In the current study, stemness gene expression was investigated in adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) harvested following culture at different densities. AT-MSCs were plated at a density of 200 or 5,000 cells/cm 2 . After 7 days of culture, stemness gene expression was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. The proliferation rate of AT-MSCs harvested at a low density (~50% confluent) was higher than that of AT-MSCs harvested at a high density (~90% confluent). Although there were differences in the expression levels of stemness gene, such as octamer-binding transcription factor 4, nanog homeobox ( Nanog ), SRY-box 2, Kruppel like factor 4, v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog ( c-Myc ), and lin-28 homolog A, in the AT-MSCs obtained from different donors, RT-qPCR analysis demonstrated differential gene expression patterns according to the cell culture density. Expression levels of stemness genes, particularly Nanog and c-Myc , were upregulated in AT-MSCs harvested at a low density (~50% confluent) in comparison to AT-MSCs from the same donor harvested at a high density (~90% confluent). These results imply that culture conditions, such as the cell density at harvesting, modulate the stemness gene expression and proliferation of MSCs.

  1. Personalized Medicine: Cell and Gene Therapy Based on Patient-Specific iPSC-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chan, Lawrence; Nguyen, Huy V; Tsang, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Interest in generating human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for stem cell modeling of diseases has overtaken that of patient-specific human embryonic stem cells due to the ethical, technical, and political concerns associated with the latter. In ophthalmology, researchers are currently using iPS cells to explore various applications, including: (1) modeling of retinal diseases using patient-specific iPS cells; (2) autologous transplantation of differentiated retinal cells that undergo gene correction at the iPS cell stage via gene editing tools (e.g., CRISPR/Cas9, TALENs and ZFNs); and (3) autologous transplantation of patient-specific iPS-derived retinal cells treated with gene therapy. In this review, we will discuss the uses of patient-specific iPS cells for differentiating into retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, uncovering disease pathophysiology, and developing new treatments such as gene therapy and cell replacement therapy via autologous transplantation.

  2. Benzyl isothiocyanate alters the gene expression with cell cycle regulation and cell death in human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Chueh, Fu-Shin; Yu, Chien-Chih; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Wu, King-Chuen; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant devastating brain tumor in adults. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is one of the isothiocyanates that have been shown to induce human cancer cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Herein, the effect of BITC on cell viability and apoptotic cell death and the genetic levels of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells in vitro were investigated. We found that BITC induced cell morphological changes, decreased cell viability and the induction of cell apoptosis in GBM 8401 cells was time-dependent. cDNA microarray was used to examine the effects of BITC on GBM 8401 cells and we found that numerous genes associated with cell death and cell cycle regulation in GBM 8401 cells were altered after BITC treatment. The results show that expression of 317 genes was upregulated, and two genes were associated with DNA damage, the DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3) was increased 3.66-fold and the growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible α (GADD45A) was increased 2.34-fold. We also found that expression of 182 genes was downregulated and two genes were associated with receptor for cell responses to stimuli, the EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) was inhibited 2.01-fold and the TNF receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) was inhibited 2.08-fold. BITC inhibited seven mitochondria ribosomal genes, the mitochondrial ribosomal protein; tumor protein D52 (MRPS28) was inhibited 2.06-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L23 (MRPL23) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S2 (MRPS2) decreased 2.07-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12) decreased 2.08-fold, the mitochondria ribosomal protein L12 (MRPL12) decreased 2.25-fold and the mitochondria ribosomal protein S34 (MRPS34) was decreased 2.30-fold in GBM 8401 cells. These changes of gene expression can provide the effects of BITC on the genetic level and are

  3. Differential expression of the klf6 tumor suppressor gene upon cell damaging treatments in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrau, Ricardo C.; D'Astolfo, Diego S.; Andreoli, Veronica; Bocco, Jose L.; Koritschoner, Nicolas P.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian Krueppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is involved in critical roles such as growth-related signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation, development, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Also, KLF6 appears to be an emerging key factor during cancer development and progression. Its expression is thoroughly regulated by several cell-damaging stimuli. DNA damaging agents at lethal concentrations induce a p53-independent down-regulation of the klf6 gene. To investigate the impact of external stimuli on human klf6 gene expression, its mRNA level was analyzed using a cancer cell line profiling array system, consisting in an assortment of immobilized cDNAs from multiple cell lines treated with several cell-damaging agents at growth inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ). Cell-damaging agents affected the klf6 expression in 62% of the cDNA samples, though the expression pattern was not dependent on the cell origin type. Interestingly, significant differences (p 50 concentrations of physical and chemical stimuli in a p53-dependent manner. Most of these agents are frequently used in cancer therapy. Induction of klf6 expression in the absence of functional p53 directly correlates with cell death triggered by these compounds, whereas it is down-regulated in p53+/+ cells. Hence, klf6 expression level could represent a valuable marker for the efficiency of cell death upon cancer treatment.

  4. A systematic study on drug-response associated genes using baseline gene expressions of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yi; Fang, Yun; Wang, Fayou; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoqi; Yang, Jialiang

    2016-03-01

    We have studied drug-response associated (DRA) gene expressions by applying a systems biology framework to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia data. More than 4,000 genes are inferred to be DRA for at least one drug, while the number of DRA genes for each drug varies dramatically from almost 0 to 1,226. Functional enrichment analysis shows that the DRA genes are significantly enriched in genes associated with cell cycle and plasma membrane. Moreover, there might be two patterns of DRA genes between genders. There are significantly shared DRA genes between male and female for most drugs, while very little DRA genes tend to be shared between the two genders for a few drugs targeting sex-specific cancers (e.g., PD-0332991 for breast cancer and ovarian cancer). Our analyses also show substantial difference for DRA genes between young and old samples, suggesting the necessity of considering the age effects for personalized medicine in cancers. Lastly, differential module and key driver analyses confirm cell cycle related modules as top differential ones for drug sensitivity. The analyses also reveal the role of TSPO, TP53, and many other immune or cell cycle related genes as important key drivers for DRA network modules. These key drivers provide new drug targets to improve the sensitivity of cancer therapy.

  5. Gene expression in epithelial cells in response to pneumovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenberg Helene F

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM are viruses of the family Paramyxoviridae, subfamily pneumovirus, which cause clinically important respiratory infections in humans and rodents, respectively. The respiratory epithelial target cells respond to viral infection with specific alterations in gene expression, including production of chemoattractant cytokines, adhesion molecules, elements that are related to the apoptosis response, and others that remain incompletely understood. Here we review our current understanding of these mucosal responses and discuss several genomic approaches, including differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and gene array strategies, that will permit us to unravel the nature of these responses in a more complete and systematic manner.

  6. Cell cycle and anti-estrogen effects synergize to regulate cell proliferation and ER target gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Dalvai

    Full Text Available Antiestrogens are designed to antagonize hormone induced proliferation and ERalpha target gene expression in mammary tumor cells. Commonly used drugs such as OH-Tamoxifen and ICI 182780 (Fulvestrant block cell cycle progression in G0/G1. Inversely, the effect of cell cycle stage on ER regulated gene expression has not been tested directly. We show that in ERalpha-positive breast cancer cells (MCF-7 the estrogen receptor gene and downstream target genes are cell cycle regulated with expression levels varying as much as three-fold between phases of the cell cycle. Steroid free culture conditions commonly used to assess the effect of hormones or antiestrogens on gene expression also block MCF-7 cells in G1-phase when several ERalpha target genes are overexpressed. Thus, cell cycle effects have to be taken into account when analyzing the impact of hormonal treatments on gene transcription. We found that antiestrogens repress transcription of several ERalpha target genes specifically in S phase. This observation corroborates the more rapid and strong impact of antiestrogen treatments on cell proliferation in thymidine, hydroxyurea or aphidicolin arrested cells and correlates with an increase of apoptosis compared to similar treatments in lovastatin or nocodazol treated cells. Hence, cell cycle effects synergize with the action of antiestrogens. An interesting therapeutic perspective could be to enhance the action of anti-estrogens by associating hormone-therapy with specific cell cycle drugs.

  7. Effects of chronic morphine and morphine withdrawal on gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Desjardins , Stephane; Belkai , Emilie; Crete , Dominique; Cordonnier , Laurie; Scherrmann , Jean-Michel; Noble , Florence; Marie-Claire , Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Chronic morphine treatment alters gene expression in brain structures. There are increasing evidences showing a correlation, in gene expression modulation, between blood cells and brain in psychological troubles. To test whether gene expression regulation in blood cells could be found in drug addiction, we investigated gene expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear (PBMC) cells of saline and morphine-treated rats. In rats chronically treated with morphine, th...

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and knee prosthesis surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Meunier, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Adverse effects of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on bone healing have previously been demonstrated in diaphyseal fracture models in animals. In spite of that, they are widely used as postoperative analgesics in orthopaedic surgery. After joint replacement, a bone repair process starts at the interface between bone and cement. If this process is disturbed, the prosthesis may never become rigidly fixed to the bone, leading to migration and with time loosening. This thesis investigates the eff...

  9. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (∼2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was

  10. Conditional IL-2 gene deletion: consequences for T cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2 in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analogue, tamoxifen (TAM as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT, conventional IL-2 (-/-, TAM-treated Cre recombinase negative (Cre-/IL2fl/fl, and Cre+/IL-2fl/fl (Cre+, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2 (-/- and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production, so that both strains were IL-2 deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre- switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2 (-/- mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21, whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2 (-/- Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre- mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch to aerobic glycolysis is attributable to IL-2, and proliferation

  11. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, Zahida; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Rafi, Mohammed; Wenger, David A.; Siddiqui, Khwaja M.; Siler, Catherine A.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dornburg, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The avian retroviruses reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A (REV-A) and spleen necrosis virus (SNV) are not naturally infectious in human cells. However, REV-A-derived viral vectors efficiently infect human cells when they are pseudotyped with envelope proteins displaying targeting ligands specific for human cell-surface receptors. Here we report that vectors containing the gag region of REV-A and pol of SNV can be pseudotyped with the envelope protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the glycoproteins of different rabies virus (RV) strains. Vectors pseudotyped with the envelope protein of the highly neurotropic RV strain CVS-N2c facilitated cell type-specific gene delivery into mouse and human neurons, but did not infect other human cell types. Moreover, when such vector particles were injected into the brain of newborn mice, only neuronal cells were infected in vivo. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neurons may present quite specific gene therapy approaches for many degenerative diseases of the brain

  12. Liver cell-derived microparticles activate hedgehog signaling and alter gene expression in hepatic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witek, Rafal P; Yang, Liu; Liu, Renshui; Jung, Youngmi; Omenetti, Alessia; Syn, Wing-Kin; Choi, Steve S; Cheong, Yeiwon; Fearing, Caitlin M; Agboola, Kolade M; Chen, Wei; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis contributes to vascular remodeling during cirrhosis. In cirrhotic livers, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblastic hepatic stellate cells (MF-HSC) produce Hedgehog (Hh) ligands. During embryogenesis Hh ligands are released from ligand-producing cells in microparticles and activate Hh signaling in endothelial cells. We studied whether adult liver cell-derived microparticles contain Hh ligands that alter hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC). MF-HSC and cholangiocytes were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor to induce Hh ligands; microparticles were isolated from medium, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots, and applied to Hh-reporter-containing cells. Microparticles were obtained from serum and bile of rats after bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery and applied to normal primary liver SEC with or without cyclopamine, an Hh signaling inhibitor. Effects on SEC gene expression were evaluated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Hh target gene expression and SEC activation markers were compared in primary SEC and in liver sections from healthy and BDL rats. Platelet-derived growth factor-treated MF-HSC and cholangiocytes released exosome-enriched microparticles containing biologically-active Hh ligands. BDL increased release of Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles into plasma and bile. Transmission electron microscopy and immunoblots revealed similarities among microparticles from all sources; all microparticles induced similar Hh-dependent changes in SEC gene expression. SEC from healthy livers did not express Hh target genes or activation markers, but both were up-regulated in SEC after BDL. Hh-containing exosome-enriched microparticles released from liver cells alter hepatic SEC gene expression, suggesting a novel mechanism for cirrhotic vasculopathy.

  13. Identification of Cell Cycle-Regulated Genes by Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenglin; Cui, Peng; Huang, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The cell cycle-regulated genes express periodically with the cell cycle stages, and the identification and study of these genes can provide a deep understanding of the cell cycle process. Large false positives and low overlaps are big problems in cell cycle-regulated gene detection. Here, a computational framework called DLGene was proposed for cell cycle-regulated gene detection. It is based on the convolutional neural network, a deep learning algorithm representing raw form of data pattern without assumption of their distribution. First, the expression data was transformed to categorical state data to denote the changing state of gene expression, and four different expression patterns were revealed for the reported cell cycle-regulated genes. Then, DLGene was applied to discriminate the non-cell cycle gene and the four subtypes of cell cycle genes. Its performances were compared with six traditional machine learning methods. At last, the biological functions of representative cell cycle genes for each subtype are analyzed. Our method showed better and more balanced performance of sensitivity and specificity comparing to other machine learning algorithms. The cell cycle genes had very different expression pattern with non-cell cycle genes and among the cell-cycle genes, there were four subtypes. Our method not only detects the cell cycle genes, but also describes its expression pattern, such as when its highest expression level is reached and how it changes with time. For each type, we analyzed the biological functions of the representative genes and such results provided novel insight to the cell cycle mechanisms. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Ex-Vivo Gene Therapy Using Lentiviral Mediated Gene Transfer Into Umbilical Cord Blood Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Jalali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Introduction of therapeutic genes into the injured site of nervous system can be achieved using transplantation of cellular vehicles containing desired gene. To transfer exogenous genes into the cellular vehicles, lentiviral vectors are one of interested vectors because of advantages such high transduction efficiency of dividing and non-dividing cells. Unrestricted somatic stem cells are subclasses of umbilical cord blood derived stem cells which are appreciate candidates to use as cellular vehicles for ex vivo gene therapy of nervous system. Objectives In current study we investigated the effect of lentiviral vector transduction on the neuronal related features of unrestricted somatic stem cells to indicate the probable and unwanted changes related to transduction procedure. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, lentiviral vector containing green fluorescent protein (GFP were transduced into unrestricted somatic stem cells and its effect was investigated with using MTT assay, qPCR and immunohistochemistry techniques. For statistical comparison of real time PCR results, REST software (2009, Qiagen was used. Results Obtained results showed lentiviral vector transduction did not have cytotoxic effects on unrestricted somatic stem cells and did not change neuronal differentiation capacity of them as well the expression of some neuronal related genes and preserved them in multilineage situation. Conclusions In conclusion, we suggested that lentiviral vectors could be proper vectors to transfer therapeutic gene into unrestricted somatic stem cells to provide a cellular vehicle for ex vivo gene therapy of nervous system disorders.

  15. Differential expression of the klf6 tumor suppressor gene upon cell damaging treatments in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrau, Ricardo C.; D' Astolfo, Diego S.; Andreoli, Veronica [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquimica Clinica e Inmunologia (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Bocco, Jose L., E-mail: jbocco@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquimica Clinica e Inmunologia (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Koritschoner, Nicolas P. [Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquimica Clinica e Inmunologia (CIBICI-CONICET), Departamento de Bioquimica Clinica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-02-10

    The mammalian Krueppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is involved in critical roles such as growth-related signal transduction, cell proliferation and differentiation, development, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Also, KLF6 appears to be an emerging key factor during cancer development and progression. Its expression is thoroughly regulated by several cell-damaging stimuli. DNA damaging agents at lethal concentrations induce a p53-independent down-regulation of the klf6 gene. To investigate the impact of external stimuli on human klf6 gene expression, its mRNA level was analyzed using a cancer cell line profiling array system, consisting in an assortment of immobilized cDNAs from multiple cell lines treated with several cell-damaging agents at growth inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Cell-damaging agents affected the klf6 expression in 62% of the cDNA samples, though the expression pattern was not dependent on the cell origin type. Interestingly, significant differences (p < 0.0001) in KLF6 mRNA levels were observed depending on the cellular p53 status upon cell damage. KLF6 expression was significantly increased in 63% of p53-deficient cells (122/195). Conversely, KLF6 mRNA level decreased nearly 4 fold in more than 70% of p53+/+ cells. In addition, klf6 gene promoter activity was down-regulated by DNA damaging agents in cells expressing the functional p53 protein whereas it was moderately increased in the absence of functional p53. Consistent results were obtained for the endogenous KLF6 protein level. Results indicate that human klf6 gene expression is responsive to external cell damage mediated by IC{sub 50} concentrations of physical and chemical stimuli in a p53-dependent manner. Most of these agents are frequently used in cancer therapy. Induction of klf6 expression in the absence of functional p53 directly correlates with cell death triggered by these compounds, whereas it is down-regulated in p53+/+ cells. Hence, klf6 expression level could represent a valuable

  16. Low-Dose Radiation Induces Genes Promoting Cell Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shu-Zheng; Chen, Dong; Mu, Ying

    1999-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important process controlling homeostasis of the body. It is influenced by stimuli constantly arising from the external and internal environment of the organism. It is well known that radiation could induce apoptosis of cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the dose-effect relationship of apoptosis extending to the low-dose range has scarcely been studied. Here, the molecular basis of the phenomenon is explored by examining the changes in expression of some of the proapoptotic and antiapoptotic genes

  17. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.brozek@gmx.at; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S. [Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-07-26

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression.

  18. Relative Expression of Vitamin D Hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Heterogeneity of Human Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Age, Gender, Tumor Location, and Malignancy: Results from Factor and Cluster Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brozek, Wolfgang; Manhardt, Teresa; Kállay, Enikö; Peterlik, Meinrad; Cross, Heide S.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on the significance of vitamin D insufficiency and chronic inflammation in colorectal cancer development clearly indicated that maintenance of cellular homeostasis in the large intestinal epithelium requires balanced interaction of 1,25-(OH) 2 D 3 and prostaglandin cellular signaling networks. The present study addresses the question how colorectal cancer pathogenesis depends on alterations of activities of vitamin D hydroxylases, i.e., CYP27B1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase and CYP24A1-encoded 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase, and inflammation-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Data from 105 cancer patients on CYP27B1, VDR, CYP24A1, and COX-2 mRNA expression in relation to tumor grade, anatomical location, gender and age were fit into a multivariate model of exploratory factor analysis. Nearly identical results were obtained by the principal factor and the maximum likelihood method, and these were confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis: Within the eight mutually dependent variables studied four independent constellations were found that identify different features of colorectal cancer pathogenesis: (i) Escape of COX-2 activity from restraints by the CYP27B1/VDR system can initiate cancer growth anywhere in the colorectum regardless of age and gender; (ii) variations in COX-2 expression are mainly responsible for differences in cancer incidence in relation to tumor location; (iii) advancing age has a strong gender-specific influence on cancer incidence; (iv) progression from well differentiated to undifferentiated cancer is solely associated with a rise in CYP24A1 expression

  19. Multi-gene epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in T-cell lymphoma cells; delayed expression of the p16 protein upon reversal of the silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagasawa, T; Zhang, Q; Raghunath, P N

    2006-01-01

    To understand better T-cell lymphomagenesis, we examined promoter CpG methylation and mRNA expression of closely related genes encoding p16, p15, and p14 tumor suppressor genes in cultured malignant T-cells that were derived from cutaneous, adult type, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-express...

  20. Expression of minichromosome maintenance genes in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong HB

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hongbin Zhong,1,* Bin Chen,1,* Henrique Neves,2 Jinchun Xing,1 Youxin Ye,1 Ying Lin,1 Guohong Zhuang,3 Shu-Dong Zhang,4 Jiyi Huang,1,5 Hang Fai Kwok2 1Xiang’an Branch, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR; 3Medical College of Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 4Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Ulster University, Londonderry, UK; 5The First Clinical School of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Minichromosome maintenance (MCM proteins play an essential role in DNA replication. They have been shown to be overexpressed in various types of cancer. However, the role of this family in renal cell carcinoma (RCC is widely unknown. In this study, we have identified a number of RCC datasets in the Gene Expression Omnibus database and also investigated the correlation between the expression levels of MCM genes and clinicopathological parameters. We found that the expression levels of MCM genes are positively correlated with one another. Expression levels of MCM2, MCM5, MCM6, and MCM7, but not of MCM3 and MCM4, were higher in RCC compared to paired adjacent normal tissue. Only the expression level of MCM4, but not of other MCMs, was positively correlated with tumor grade. In addition, a high-level expression of MCM2 in either primary tumor or metastases of RCC predicted a shorter disease-free survival time, while a high-level expression of MCM4 or MCM6 in primary tumor was also associated with poorer disease-free survival. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that patients with their primary RCC overexpressing 2 or more MCM genes had a shorter disease-free survival time, while those with RCC metastases overexpressing 3 or more MCM genes had a shorter

  1. Gene expression analysis uncovers novel Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) effects in human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Sathirapongsasuti, J. Fah.; Cho, Michael H.; Mancini, John D.; Lao, Taotao; Thibault, Derek M.; Litonjua, Gus; Bakke, Per S.; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hersh, Craig P.; Anderson, Christopher; Geigenmuller, Ute; Raby, Benjamin A.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Perrella, Mark A.; Choi, Augustine M.K.; Quackenbush, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog Interacting Protein (HHIP) was implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, it remains unclear how HHIP contributes to COPD pathogenesis. To identify genes regulated by HHIP, we performed gene expression microarray analysis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) stably infected with HHIP shRNAs. HHIP silencing led to differential expression of 296 genes; enrichment for variants nominally associated with COPD was found. Eighteen of the differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR in Beas-2B cells. Seven of 11 validated genes tested in human COPD and control lung tissues demonstrated significant gene expression differences. Functional annotation indicated enrichment for extracellular matrix and cell growth genes. Network modeling demonstrated that the extracellular matrix and cell proliferation genes influenced by HHIP tended to be interconnected. Thus, we identified potential HHIP targets in human bronchial epithelial cells that may contribute to COPD pathogenesis. PMID:23459001

  2. Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ouyang, Qing; Chen, Cheng-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Li, Xiang-Nan; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of metalloproteinase family proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using the spinal nerve ligation model, we investigated whether ADAM10 proteins participate in pain regulation. By implementing invitro methods, we produced a purified culture of satellite glial cells to study the underlying mechanisms of ADAM10 in regulating neuropathic pain. Results showed that the ADAM10 protein was expressed in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, and expression was upregulated following spinal nerve ligation surgery invivo. Intrathecal administration of GI254023X, an ADAM10 selective inhibitor, to the rats one to three days after spinal nerve ligation surgery attenuated the spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of ADAM10 recombinant protein simulated pain behavior in normal rats to a similar extent as those treated by spinal nerve ligation surgery. These results raised a question about the relative contribution of ADAM10 in pain regulation. Further results showed that ADAM10 might act by cleaving E-cadherin, which is mainly expressed in satellite glial cells. GI254023X reversed spinal nerve ligation-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and activation of cyclooxygenase 2 after spinal nerve ligation. β-catenin, which creates a complex with E-cadherin in the membranes of satellite glial cells, was also downregulated by spinal nerve ligation surgery in satellite glial cells. Finally, knockdown expression of β-catenin by lentiviral infection in purified satellite glial cells increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Our findings indicate that neuron-derived ADAM10 production stimulates peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain by cleaving E-cadherin in satellite glial cells. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine

  3. Polycomb-group genes sustaining the stem cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takihara, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Polycomb-group genes (PcG) have a role in constituting the cellular memory mechanisms through which the once expressed phenotypes during development are transmitted thereafter and this review describes, together with authors' findings of sustaining hematopoietic stem cell activity by the PcG products, what molecular bases, involving the control of histone code, are concerned in the memory. Recent investigations have gradually elucidated the outline of epigenetic control mechanisms of the memory: messages are set up as a histone code in the chromatin and the PcG complex recruited by recognition of the code regulates the chromatin structure leading to DNA transcription and maintenance of the phenotype. Proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo will be possible if exact and detailed mechanisms for PcG are made clear in future. Such ex vivo techniques are especially awaited for marrow remodeling treatment of hematopoietic failure induced by radiation exposure. (T.I.)

  4. Musashi1 modulates cell proliferation genes in the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Jaclyn Y

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musashi1 (Msi1 is an RNA binding protein with a central role during nervous system development and stem cell maintenance. High levels of Msi1 have been reported in several malignancies including brain tumors thereby associating Msi1 and cancer. Methods We used the human medulloblastoma cell line Daoy as model system in this study to knock down the expression of Msi1 and determine the effects upon soft agar growth and neurophere formation. Quantitative RT-PCR was conducted to evaluate the expression of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Msi1 depleted Daoy cells. Results We observed that MSI1 expression was elevated in Daoy cells cultured as neurospheres compared to those grown as monolayer. These data indicated that Msi1 might be involved in regulating proliferation in cancer cells. Here we show that shRNA mediated Msi1 depletion in Daoy cells notably impaired their ability to form colonies in soft agar and to grow as neurospheres in culture. Moreover, differential expression of a group of Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathway related genes including MYCN, FOS, NOTCH2, SMO, CDKN1A, CCND2, CCND1, and DKK1, was also found in the Msi1 knockdown, demonstrating that Msi1 modulated the expression of a subset of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival genes in Daoy. Conclusion Our data suggested that Msi1 may promote cancer cell proliferation and survival as its loss seems to have a detrimental effect in the maintenance of medulloblastoma cancer cells. In this regard, Msi1 might be a positive regulator of tumor progression and a potential target for therapy.

  5. Stem Cell Gene Therapy for Fanconi Anemia: Report from the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolar, Jakub; Adair, Jennifer E; Antoniou, Michael; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; Becker, Pamela S; Blazar, Bruce R; Bueren, Juan; Carroll, Thomas; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Clapp, D Wade; Dalgleish, Robert; Galy, Anne; Gaspar, H Bobby; Hanenberg, Helmut; Von Kalle, Christof; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Lindeman, Dirk; Naldini, Luigi; Navarro, Susana; Renella, Raffaele; Rio, Paula; Sevilla, Julián; Schmidt, Manfred; Verhoeyen, Els; Wagner, John E; Williams, David A; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) have increased dramatically since 2000. However, the use of autologous stem cell gene therapy, whereby the patient's own blood stem cells are modified to express the wild-type gene product, could potentially avoid the early and late complications of allogeneic HCT. Over the last decades, gene therapy has experienced a high degree of optimism interrupted by periods of diminished expectation. Optimism stems from recent examples of successful gene correction in several congenital immunodeficiencies, whereas diminished expectations come from the realization that gene therapy will not be free of side effects. The goal of the 1st International Fanconi Anemia Gene Therapy Working Group Meeting was to determine the optimal strategy for moving stem cell gene therapy into clinical trials for individuals with FA. To this end, key investigators examined vector design, transduction method, criteria for large-scale clinical-grade vector manufacture, hematopoietic cell preparation, and eligibility criteria for FA patients most likely to benefit. The report summarizes the roadmap for the development of gene therapy for FA. PMID:21540837

  6. Alteration of the gene expression profile of T-cell receptor αβ-modified T-cells with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xianfeng; Yin, Qingsong; Tan, Huo; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Li, Bo; Wu, Xiuli; Li, Yangqiu

    2013-05-01

    Antigen-specific, T-cell receptor (TCR)-modified cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that target tumors are an attractive strategy for specific adoptive immunotherapy. Little is known about whether there are any alterations in the gene expression profile after TCR gene transduction in T cells. We constructed TCR gene-redirected CTLs with specificity for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-associated antigens to elucidate the gene expression profiles of TCR gene-redirected T-cells, and we further analyzed the gene expression profile pattern of these redirected T-cells by Affymetrix microarrays. The resulting data were analyzed using Bioconductor software, a two-fold cut-off expression change was applied together with anti-correlation of the profile ratios to render the microarray analysis set. The fold change of all genes was calculated by comparing the three TCR gene-modified T-cells and a negative control counterpart. The gene pathways were analyzed using Bioconductor and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Identical genes whose fold change was greater than or equal to 2.0 in all three TCR gene-redirected T-cell groups in comparison with the negative control were identified as the differentially expressed genes. The differentially expressed genes were comprised of 33 up-regulated genes and 1 down-regulated gene including JUNB, FOS, TNF, INF-γ, DUSP2, IL-1B, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL9, CCL2, CCL4, and CCL8. These genes are mainly involved in the TCR signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways. In conclusion, we characterized the gene expression profile of DLBCL-specific TCR gene-redirected T-cells. The changes corresponded to an up-regulation in the differentiation and proliferation of the T-cells. These data may help to explain some of the characteristics of the redirected T-cells.

  7. 75 FR 54351 - Cell and Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Pediatric Populations; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ...] Cell and Gene Therapy Clinical Trials in Pediatric Populations; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) is announcing a public workshop entitled ``Cell and Gene Therapy... Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), gene and cellular therapy clinical researchers, and other stakeholders...

  8. Epigenetic mechanisms of peptidergic regulation of gene expression during aging of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashapkin, V V; Linkova, N S; Khavinson, V Kh; Vanyushin, B F

    2015-03-01

    Expression levels of genes encoding specific transcription factors and other functionally important proteins vary upon aging of pancreatic and bronchial epithelium cell cultures. The peptides KEDW and AEDL tissue-specifically affect gene expression in pancreatic and bronchial cell cultures, respectively. It is established in this work that the DNA methylation patterns of the PDX1, PAX6, NGN3, NKX2-1, and SCGB1A1 gene promoter regions change upon aging in pancreatic and bronchial cell cultures in correlation with variations in their expression levels. Thus, stable changes in gene expression upon aging of cell cultures could be caused by changes in their promoter methylation patterns. The methylation patterns of the PAX4 gene in pancreatic cells as well as those of the FOXA1, SCGB3A2, and SFTPA1 genes in bronchial cells do not change upon aging and are unaffected by peptides, whereas their expression levels change in both cases. The promoter region of the FOXA2 gene in pancreatic cells contains a small number of methylated CpG sites, their methylation levels being affected by cell culture aging and KEDW, though without any correlation with gene expression levels. The promoter region of the FOXA2 gene is completely unmethylated in bronchial cells irrespective of cell culture age and AEDL action. Changes in promoter methylation might be the cause of age- and peptide-induced variations in expression levels of the PDX1, PAX6, and NGN3 genes in pancreatic cells and NKX2-1 and SCGB1A1 genes in bronchial cells. Expression levels of the PAX4 and FOXA2 genes in pancreatic cells and FOXA1, FOXA2, SCGB3A2, and SFTPA1 genes in bronchial cells seem to be controlled by some other mechanisms.

  9. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  10. Chinese medicine protein and peptide in gene and cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yinglu; Yin, Zifei; Zhang, Daniel; Srivastava, Arun; Ling, Chen

    2018-06-11

    The success of gene and cell therapy in clinic during the past two decades as well as our expanding ability to manipulate these biomaterials are leading to new therapeutic options for a wide range of inherited and acquired diseases. Combining conventional therapies with this emerging field is a promising strategy to treat those previously-thought untreatable diseases. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has evolved for thousands of years in China and still plays an important role in human health. As part of the active ingredients of TCM, proteins and peptides have attracted long-term enthusiasm of researchers. More recently, they have been utilized in gene and cell therapy, resulting in promising novel strategies to treat both cancer and non-cancer diseases. This manuscript presents a critical review on this field, accompanied with perspectives on the challenges and new directions for future research in this emerging frontier. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Alterations in radioresistance of eucaryotic cells after the transfer of genomic wildtype DNA and metallothionein genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrer, H.

    1987-01-01

    The presented paper describes experiments concerning the alteration of radiosensitivity of eucaryotic cells after gene transfer. Ionizing radiation (γ- or X-ray) induces DNA single- or double strand breaks, which are religated by an unknown repair system. Repair deficient cells are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. In the experiments described, cells from a patient with the heritable disease Ataxia telangiectasia were used as well as two X-ray sensitive CHO mutant cell lines. After gene transfer of an intact human DNA repair gene or a metallothionein gene the cells should regain radioresistance. (orig.) [de

  12. Gene expression profiling of resting and activated vascular smooth muscle cells by serial analysis of gene expression and clustering analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beauchamp, Nicholas J.; van Achterberg, Tanja A. E.; Engelse, Marten A.; Pannekoek, Hans; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are key events in atherosclerosis. However, little is known about alterations in gene expression upon transition of the quiescent, contractile SMC to the proliferative SMC. We performed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) of

  13. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv [Portola Valley, CA; Pritha, Ray [Mountain View, CA

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  14. Suppression of the cell proliferation in stomach cancer cells by the ZNRD1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Liu; Zhang Yumei; Liu Na; Liu Changjiang; Zhi Min; Pan Yanglin; Lan Mei; Sun Li; Fan Daiming

    2004-01-01

    Zinc ribbon domain-containing 1 (ZNRD1), a transcription-associated gene, was recently found to be downregulated in human gastric cancer tissues as compared to the matched adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. In this study, we constructed the siRNA eukaryotic expression vectors of ZNRD1 and transfected them into normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). We also introduced the ZNRD1 gene into gastric cancer cells that do (SGC7901) and do not (AGS) express ZNRD1 endogenously. GES-1 cells stably transfected with the ZNRD1-RNAi were found to exhibit significantly quicker proliferation than empty vector transfectants. AGS cells stably transfected with the ZNRD1 cDNA exhibited significantly decreased growth rate as compared to control vector transfectants, whereas SGC7901 cells did not. Furthermore, ZNRD1 suppresses growth of AGS cells in soft agar and tumor formation in athymic nude mice. This study clearly demonstrates that ZNRD1 may play an important role in the control of human gastric cancer development by regulating cell proliferation. These results provide new insights into the function of ZNRD1 and further validate ZNRD1 as a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer

  15. Studies of globin gene expression in differentiating erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    The author has addressed questions concerning globin gene expression and the loss of protein synthesis in the terminal stages of erythroid development. (1) The hypothesis that the rate of cell division affects the relative synthesis of γ and β globin in erythroid cells was investigated. The effect of hydroxyurea, aminopterin, or low culture temperature on the in vitro growth of erythroid progenitor cells and on the relative synthesis of γ and β globin was measured. No consistent change in γ globin synthesis was detected. (2) The hypothesis that the ratio of γ and β globin synthesis decreases during erythroid maturation because of differential mRNA stability was investigated. The half-lives of γ and β globin mRNAs and γ and β globin protein synthesis were measured in cultured reticulocytes. γ and β globin mRNAs were assayed by solution hybridization and by in vitro translation. Globin synthesis was determined by 3 H-leucine incorporation into the γ and β globin chains. γ and β globin mRNAs decay with similar half-lives in cultured reticulocytes. Therefore, the change in the ratio of γ and β globin synthesis during erythroid maturation cannot be explained by differences in mRNA stability and is likely to result from asynchronous transcription of the genes. These data suggest that protein synthesis in maturing reticulocytes is not limited by the quantity of mRNA but by the availability of translation factors. (3) The hypothesis was tested that the initiation factor GEF becomes limiting for protein synthesis during reticulocyte maturation

  16. Discovery of a novel gene involved in autolysis of Clostridium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liejian; Bao, Guanhui; Zhu, Yan; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2013-06-01

    Cell autolysis plays important physiological roles in the life cycle of clostridial cells. Understanding the genetic basis of the autolysis phenomenon of pathogenic Clostridium or solvent producing Clostridium cells might provide new insights into this important species. Genes that might be involved in autolysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum, a model clostridial species, were investigated in this study. Twelve putative autolysin genes were predicted in C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 genome through bioinformatics analysis. Of these 12 genes, gene SMB_G3117 was selected for testing the in tracellular autolysin activity, growth profile, viable cell numbers, and cellular morphology. We found that overexpression of SMB_G3117 gene led to earlier ceased growth, significantly increased number of dead cells, and clear electrolucent cavities, while disruption of SMB_G3117 gene exhibited remarkably reduced intracellular autolysin activity. These results indicate that SMB_G3117 is a novel gene involved in cellular autolysis of C. acetobutylicum.

  17. Genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells: recent advances in the gene therapy of inherited diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueren, Juan A; Guenechea, Guillermo; Casado, José A; Lamana, María Luisa; Segovia, José C

    2003-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells constitute a rare population of precursor cells with remarkable properties for being used as targets in gene therapy protocols. The last years have been particularly productive both in the fields of gene therapy and stem cell biology. Results from ongoing clinical trials have shown the first unquestionable clinical benefits of immunodeficient patients transplanted with genetically modified autologous stem cells. On the other hand, severe side effects in a few patients treated with gene therapy have also been reported, indicating the usefulness of further improving the vectors currently used in gene therapy clinical trials. In the field of stem cell biology, evidence showing the plastic potential of adult hematopoietic stem cells and data indicating the multipotency of adult mesenchymal precursor cells have been presented. Also, the generation of embryonic stem cells by means of nuclear transfer techniques has appeared as a new methodology with direct implications in gene therapy.

  18. Comparative analysis of gene expression in normal and cancer human prostate cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Rosenberg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in men with malignant tumors. The urgent problem was a search for biomarkers of prostate cancer, which would allow distinguishing between aggressive metastatic and latent tumors. The aim of this work was to search for differentially expressed genes in normal epithelial cells PNT2 and prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, DU145 and PC3, produced from tumors with different aggressiveness and metas­tatic ability. Such genes might be used to create a panel of prognostic markers for aggressiveness and metastasis. Relative gene expression of 65 cancer-related genes was determined by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR. Expression of 29 genes was changed in LNCaP cells, 20 genes in DU145 and 16 genes in PC3 cell lines, compared with normal line PNT2. The obtained data make it possible to conclude that the epithelial-mesenchymal cell transition took place, which involved the loss of epithelial markers, reduced cell adhesion and increased migration. We have also found few differentially expressed genes among 3 prostate cancer cell lines. We have found that genes, involved in cell adhesion (CDH1, invasiveness and metastasis (IL8, CXCL2 and cell cycle control (P16, CCNE1 underwent most changes. These genes might be used for diagnosis and prognosis of invasive metastatic prostate tumors.

  19. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shang-Lang; Chao, Chuck C.-K.

    2015-01-01

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug

  20. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shang-Lang [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chao, Chuck C.-K., E-mail: cckchao@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research and Development, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-16

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug.

  1. PDGF-receptor beta-targeted adenovirus redirects gene transfer from hepatocytes to activated stellate cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, Marieke H.; Rots, Marianne G.; Beljaars, Leonie; Ypma, Arjen Y.; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Poelstra, Klaas; Moshage, Albert; Haisma, Hidde J.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic liver damage may lead to liver fibrosis. In this process, hepatic activated stellate cells are the key players. Thus, activated stellate cells are attractive targets for antifibrotic gene therapy. Recombinant, adenovirus is a promising vehicle for delivering therapeutic genes to liver cells.

  2. Distinct gene expression signatures in human embryonic stem cells differentiated towards definitive endoderm at single-cell level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrman, Karin; Strömbeck, Anna; Semb, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    for the three activin A based protocols applied. Our data provide novel insights in DE gene expression at the cellular level of in vitro differentiated human embryonic stem cells, and illustrate the power of using single-cell gene expression profiling to study differentiation heterogeneity and to characterize...... of anterior definitive endoderm (DE). Here, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells towards DE using three different activin A based treatments. Differentiation efficiencies were evaluated by gene expression profiling over time at cell population level. A panel of key markers was used to study DE...... formation. Final DE differentiation was also analyzed with immunocytochemistry and single-cell gene expression profiling. We found that cells treated with activin A in combination with sodium butyrate and B27 serum-free supplement medium generated the most mature DE cells. Cell population studies were...

  3. Microarray analysis of gene expression alteration in human middle ear epithelial cells induced by micro particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Jee Young; Park, Moo Kyun; Seo, Young Rok

    2013-10-01

    The primary aim of this study is to reveal the effect of particulate matter (PM) on the human middle ear epithelial cell (HMEEC). The HMEEC was treated with PM (300 μg/ml) for 24 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for microarray analysis. Molecular pathways among differentially expressed genes were further analyzed by using Pathway Studio 9.0 software. For selected genes, the changes in gene expression were confirmed by real-time PCR. A total of 611 genes were regulated by PM. Among them, 366 genes were up-regulated, whereas 245 genes were down-regulated. Up-regulated genes were mainly involved in cellular processes, including reactive oxygen species generation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell differentiation, inflammatory response and immune response. Down-regulated genes affected several cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis and cell migration. A total of 21 genes were discovered as crucial components in potential signaling networks containing 2-fold up regulated genes. Four genes, VEGFA, IL1B, CSF2 and HMOX1 were revealed as key mediator genes among the up-regulated genes. A total of 25 genes were revealed as key modulators in the signaling pathway associated with 2-fold down regulated genes. Four genes, including IGF1R, TIMP1, IL6 and FN1, were identified as the main modulator genes. We identified the differentially expressed genes in PM-treated HMEEC, whose expression profile may provide a useful clue for the understanding of environmental pathophysiology of otitis media. Our work indicates that air pollution, like PM, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, R Y; Liu, S

    2016-06-20

    To investigate the toxic effect of trichloroethylene on liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect. The normal human liver cells (L02 cells) and liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect were exposed to trichloroethylene at different doses (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L). CCK8 assay and RT-qPCR were used to measure cell viability and changes in the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes. After being exposed to trichloroethylene at doses of 1.6, 3.2, and 6.4 mmol/L, the liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect showed significantly higher cell viability than L02 cells (0.91±0.06/0.89±0.05/0.85±0.07 vs 0.80±0.04/0.73±0.06/0.67±0.07, Ptrichloroethylene groups showed significant increases in the expression of the apoptosis genes caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 (PTrichloroethylene exposure has a less effect on the expression of apoptosis genes and oncogenes in liver cells with CYP3A4 gene defect than in normal human liver cells, suggesting that CYP3A4 gene defect reduces the inductive effect of trichloroethylene on apoptosis genes and oncogenes.

  5. Meta-analysis of differentiating mouse embryonic stem cell gene expression kinetics reveals early change of a small gene set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive H Glover

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell differentiation involves critical changes in gene expression. Identification of these should provide endpoints useful for optimizing stem cell propagation as well as potential clues about mechanisms governing stem cell maintenance. Here we describe the results of a new meta-analysis methodology applied to multiple gene expression datasets from three mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC lines obtained at specific time points during the course of their differentiation into various lineages. We developed methods to identify genes with expression changes that correlated with the altered frequency of functionally defined, undifferentiated ESC in culture. In each dataset, we computed a novel statistical confidence measure for every gene which captured the certainty that a particular gene exhibited an expression pattern of interest within that dataset. This permitted a joint analysis of the datasets, despite the different experimental designs. Using a ranking scheme that favored genes exhibiting patterns of interest, we focused on the top 88 genes whose expression was consistently changed when ESC were induced to differentiate. Seven of these (103728_at, 8430410A17Rik, Klf2, Nr0b1, Sox2, Tcl1, and Zfp42 showed a rapid decrease in expression concurrent with a decrease in frequency of undifferentiated cells and remained predictive when evaluated in additional maintenance and differentiating protocols. Through a novel meta-analysis, this study identifies a small set of genes whose expression is useful for identifying changes in stem cell frequencies in cultures of mouse ESC. The methods and findings have broader applicability to understanding the regulation of self-renewal of other stem cell types.

  6. Clinical Relevance of Gene Copy Number Variation in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhaud, François-Xavier; Blanchard, France; Sesboue, Richard; Flaman, Jean-Michel; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Pfister, Christian; Di Fiore, Frédéric

    2018-02-23

    Gene copy number variations (CNVs) have been reported to be frequent in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), with potential prognostic value for some. However, their clinical utility, especially to guide treatment of metastatic disease remains to be established. Our objectives were to assess CNVs on a panel of selected genes and determine their clinical relevance in patients who underwent treatment of metastatic RCC. The genetic assessment was performed on frozen tissue samples of clear cell metastatic RCC using quantitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction of short fluorescent fragment method to detect CNVs on a panel of 14 genes of interest. The comparison of the electropherogram obtained from both tumor and normal renal adjacent tissue allowed for CNV identification. The clinical, biologic, and survival characteristics were assessed for their associations with the most frequent CNVs. Fifty patients with clear cell metastatic RCC were included. The CNV rate was 21.4%. The loss of CDKN2A and PLG was associated with a higher tumor stage (P relevance, especially those located on CDKN2A, PLG, and ALDOB, in a homogeneous cohort of patients with clear cell metastatic RCC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fanconi anemia genes are highly expressed in primitive CD34+ hematopoietic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodeur Isabelle

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fanconi anemia (FA is a complex recessive genetic disease characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BM and a predisposition to cancer. We have previously shown using the Fancc mouse model that the progressive BM failure results from a hematopoietic stem cell defect suggesting that function of the FA genes may reside in primitive hematopoietic stem cells. Methods Since genes involved in stem cell differentiation and/or maintenance are usually regulated at the transcription level, we used a semiquantitative RT-PCR method to evaluate FA gene transcript levels in purified hematopoietic stem cells. Results We show that most FA genes are highly expressed in primitive CD34-positive and negative cells compared to lower levels in more differentiated cells. However, in CD34- stem cells the Fancc gene was found to be expressed at low levels while Fancg was undetectable in this population. Furthermore, Fancg expression is significantly decreased in Fancc -/- stem cells as compared to wild-type cells while the cancer susceptibility genes Brca1 and Fancd1/Brac2 are upregulated in Fancc-/- hematopoietic cells. Conclusions These results suggest that FA genes are regulated at the mRNA level, that increased Fancc expression in LTS-CD34+ cells correlates with a role at the CD34+ differentiation stage and that lack of Fancc affects the expression of other FA gene, more specifically Fancg and Fancd1/Brca2, through an unknown mechanism.

  8. A phase II study with antioxidants, both in the diet and supplemented, pharmaconutritional support, progestagen, and anti-cyclooxygenase-2 showing efficacy and safety in patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanni; Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Gramignano, Giulia; Lusso, Maria Rita; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Astara, Giorgio; Deiana, Laura

    2006-05-01

    To test the efficacy and safety of an integrated treatment based on a pharmaconutritional support, antioxidants, and drugs, all given orally, in a population of advanced cancer patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia and oxidative stress. An open early-phase II study was designed according to the Simon two-stage design. The integrated treatment consisted of diet with high polyphenols content (400 mg), antioxidant treatment (300 mg/d alpha-lipoic acid + 2.7 g/d carbocysteine lysine salt + 400 mg/d vitamin E + 30,000 IU/d vitamin A + 500 mg/d vitamin C), and pharmaconutritional support enriched with 2 cans per day (n-3)-PUFA (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), 500 mg/d medroxyprogesterone acetate, and 200 mg/d selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib. The treatment duration was 4 months. The following variables were evaluated: (a) clinical (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status); (b) nutritional [lean body mass (LBM), appetite, and resting energy expenditure]; (c) laboratory [proinflammatory cytokines and leptin, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzymes]; (d) quality of life (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D, and MFSI-SF). From July 2002 to January 2005, 44 patients were enrolled. Of these, 39 completed the treatment and were assessable. Body weight increased significantly from baseline as did LBM and appetite. There was an important decrease of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and a negative relationship worthy of note was only found between LBM and IL-6 changes. As for quality of life evaluation, there was a marked improvement in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Euro QL-5D(VAS), and multidimensional fatigue symptom inventory-short form scores. At the end of the study, 22 of the 39 patients were "responders" or "high responders." The minimum required was 21; therefore, the

  9. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki; Naganuma, Kaori; Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  10. 3-Deazaneplanocin A suppresses aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, Mitsutoki, E-mail: hatta@college.fdcnet.ac.jp [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Naganuma, Kaori [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan); Kato, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Jun [Department of Physiological Science and Molecular Biology, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    In tumor tissues, alterations of gene expression caused by aberrant epigenetic modifications confer phenotypic diversity on malignant cells. Although 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to reactivate tumor suppressor genes in several cancer cells, it remains unclear whether DZNep attenuates the malignant phenotypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of DZNep on the expression of genes related to aggressive phenotypes, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition, in OSCC cells. We found that DZNep reduced the cellular levels of polycomb group proteins (EZH2, SUZ12, BMI1, and RING1A) and the associated trimethylation of Lys27 on histone H3 and monoubiquitination of Lys119 on histone H2A in the poorly differentiated OSCC cell line SAS. Immunocytochemical staining demonstrated that DZNep induced the reorganization of filamentous actin and the membrane localization of E-cadherin associated with cell–cell adhesions. We also found an inhibitory effect of DZNep on cell proliferation using a WST assay. Finally, quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that genes involved in the aggressive phenotypes (TWIST2, EGFR, ACTA2, TGFB1, WNT5B, and APLIN) were down-regulated, whereas epithelial phenotype genes (CDH1, CLDN4, IVL, and TGM1) were up-regulated in SAS cells treated with DZNep. Collectively, our findings suggest that DZNep reverses the aggressive characteristics of OSCC cells through the dynamic regulation of epithelial plasticity via the reprogramming of gene expression patterns. - Highlights: • DZNep reduced PcG proteins and associated histone modifications in OSCC cells. • DZNep enhanced cell–cell adhesion indicative of epithelial phenotype in OSCC cells. • DZNep suppressed the aggressive phenotype-related gene expression in OSCC cells. • DZNep activated the gene expression of epithelial markers in OSCC cells.

  11. Microarray Analysis on Gene Regulation by Estrogen, Progesterone and Tamoxifen in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-E Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial stromal cells represent a major cellular component of human uterine endometrium that is subject to tight hormonal regulation. Through cell-cell contacts and/or paracrine mechanisms, stromal cells play a significant role in the malignant transformation of epithelial cells. We isolated stromal cells from normal human endometrium and investigated the morphological and transcriptional changes induced by estrogen, progesterone and tamoxifen. We demonstrated that stromal cells express appreciable levels of estrogen and progesterone receptors and undergo different morphological changes upon hormonal stimulation. Microarray analysis indicated that both estrogen and progesterone induced dramatic alterations in a variety of genes associated with cell structure, transcription, cell cycle, and signaling. However, divergent patterns of changes, and in some genes opposite effects, were observed for the two hormones. A large number of genes are identified as novel targets for hormonal regulation. These hormone-responsive genes may be involved in normal uterine function and the development of endometrial malignancies.

  12. Potential in a single cancer cell to produce heterogeneous morphology, radiosensitivity and gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Ishikawa, Ken-ichi; Kawai, Seiko; Koyama-Saegusa, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Atsuko; Imai, Takashi; Shimada, Yutaka; Inazawa, Johji

    2005-01-01

    Morphologically heterogeneous colonies were formed from a cultured cell line (KYSE70) established from one human esophageal carcinoma tissue. Two subclones were separated from a single clone (clone 13) of KYSE70 cells. One subclone (clone 13-3G) formed mainly mounding colonies and the other (clone 13-6G) formed flat, diffusive colonies. X-irradiation stimulated the cells to dedifferentiate from the mounding state to the flat, diffusive state. Clone 13-6G cells were more radiosensitive than the other 3 cell lines. Clustering analysis for gene expression level by oligonucleotide microarray demonstrated that in the radiosensitive clone 13-6G cells, expression of genes involved in cell adhesion was upregulated, but genes involved in the response to DNA damage stimulus were downregulated. The data demonstrated that a single cancer cell had the potential to produce progeny heterogeneous in terms of morphology, radiation sensitivity and gene expression, and irradiation enhanced the dedifferentiation of cancer cells. (author)

  13. Long-term in vitro, cell-type-specific genome-wide reprogramming of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakelien, Anne-Mari; Gaustad, Kristine G.; Taranger, Christel K.; Skalhegg, Bjorn S.; Kuentziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a cell extract-based, genome-wide and heritable reprogramming of gene expression in vitro. Kidney epithelial 293T cells have previously been shown to take on T cell properties following a brief treatment with an extract of Jurkat T cells. We show here that 293T cells exposed for 1 h to a Jurkat cell extract undergo genome-wide, target cell-type-specific and long-lasting transcriptional changes. Microarray analyses indicate that on any given week after extract treatment, ∼2500 genes are upregulated >3-fold, of which ∼900 are also expressed in Jurkat cells. Concomitantly, ∼1500 genes are downregulated or repressed, of which ∼500 are also downregulated in Jurkat cells. Gene expression changes persist for over 30 passages (∼80 population doublings) in culture. Target cell-type specificity of these changes is shown by the lack of activation or repression of Jurkat-specific genes by extracts of 293T cells or carcinoma cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirms the long-term transcriptional activation of genes involved in key T cell functions. Additionally, growth of cells in suspended aggregates, expression of CD3 and CD28 T cell surface markers, and interleukin-2 secretion by 293T cells treated with extract of adult peripheral blood T cells illustrate a functional nuclear reprogramming. Therefore, target cell-type-specific and heritable changes in gene expression, and alterations in cell function, can be promoted by extracts derived from transformed cells as well as from adult primary cells

  14. Mesenchymal stromal cells retrovirally transduced with prodrug-converting genes are suitable vehicles for cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďuriniková, E; Kučerová, L; Matúšková, M

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) possess a set of several fairly unique properties which make them ideally suitable both for cellular therapies and regenerative medicine. These include: relative ease of isolation, the ability to differentiate along mesenchymal and non-mesenchymal lineages in vitro and the ability to be extensively expanded in culture without a loss of differentiative capacity. MSC are not only hypoimmunogenic, but they mediate immunosuppression upon transplantation, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory properties. They are able to home to damaged tissues, tumors, and metastases following systemic administration. The ability of homing holds big promise for tumor-targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. Viruses are naturally evolved vehicles efficiently transferring their genes into host cells. This ability made them suitable for engineering vector systems for the delivery of genes of interest. MSC can be retrovirally transduced with genes encoding prodrug-converting genes (suicide genes), which are not toxic per se, but catalyze the formation of highly toxic metabolites following the application of a nontoxic prodrug. The homing ability of MSC holds advantages compared to virus vehicles which display many shortcomings in effective delivery of the therapeutic agents. Gene therapies mediated by viruses are limited by their restricted ability to track cancer cells infiltrating into the surrounding tissue, and by their low migratory capacity towards tumor. Thus combination of cellular therapy and gene delivery is an attractive option - it protects the vector from immune surveillance, and supports targeted delivery of a therapeutic gene/protein to the tumor site.

  15. A gene expression analysis of cell wall biosynthetic genes in Malus × domestica infected by ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma mali’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Giorno, Filomena; Ciccotti, Anna Maria; Schmidt, Silvia; Baric, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Apple proliferation (AP) represents a serious threat to several fruit-growing areas and is responsible for great economic losses. Several studies have highlighted the key role played by the cell wall in response to pathogen attack. The existence of a cell wall integrity signaling pathway which senses perturbations in the cell wall architecture upon abiotic/biotic stresses and activates specific defence responses has been widely demonstrated in plants. More recently a role played by cell wall-related genes has also been reported in plants infected by phytoplasmas. With the aim of shedding light on the cell wall response to AP disease in the economically relevant fruit-tree Malus × domestica Borkh., we investigated the expression of the cellulose (CesA) and callose synthase (CalS) genes in different organs (i.e., leaves, roots and branch phloem) of healthy and infected symptomatic outdoor-grown trees, sampled over the course of two time points (i.e., spring and autumn 2011), as well as in in vitro micropropagated control and infected plantlets. A strong up-regulation in the expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes was recorded in roots from infected trees. Secondary cell wall CesAs showed up-regulation in the phloem tissue from branches of infected plants, while either a down-regulation of some genes or no major changes were observed in the leaves. Micropropagated plantlets also showed an increase in cell wall-related genes and constitute a useful system for a general assessment of gene expression analysis upon phytoplasma infection. Finally, we also report the presence of several ‘knot’-like structures along the roots of infected apple trees and discuss the occurrence of this interesting phenotype in relation to the gene expression results and the modalities of phytoplasma diffusion. PMID:23086810

  16. Transfer of Chinese hamster DNA repair gene(s) into repair-deficient human cells (Xeroderma pigmentosum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karentz, D.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Transfer of repair genes by DNA transfection into repair-deficient Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells has thus far been unsuccessful, presenting an obstacle to cloning XP genes. The authors chose an indirect route to transfer repair genes in chromosome fragments. DNA repair-competent (UV resistant) hybrid cell lines were established by PEG-mediated fusions of DNA repair-deficient (UV sensitive) human fibroblasts (XP12RO) with wild type Chinese hamster (CHO) cells (AA8). CHO cells were exposed to 5 Krad X-rays prior to fusions, predisposing hybrid cells to lose CHO chromosome fragments preferentially. Repair-competent hybrids were selected by periodic exposures to UV light. Secondary and tertiary hybrid cell lines were developed by fusion of X-irradiated hybrids to XP12RO. The hybrid cell lines exhibit resistance to UV that is comparable to that of CHO cells and they are proficient at repair replication after UV exposure. Whole cell DNA-DNA hybridizations indicate that the hybrids have greater homology to CHO DNA than is evident between XP12RO and CHO. These observations indicate that CHO DNA sequences which can function in repair of UV-damaged DNA in human cells have been transferred into the genome of the repair-deficient XP12RO cells

  17. Time- and dose-dependent effects of curcumin on gene expression in human colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Erk Marjan J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin is a spice and a coloring food compound with a promising role in colon cancer prevention. Curcumin protects against development of colon tumors in rats treated with a colon carcinogen, in colon cancer cells curcumin can inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis, it is an anti-oxidant and it can act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The aim of this study was to elucidate mechanisms and effect of curcumin in colon cancer cells using gene expression profiling. Methods Gene expression changes in response to curcumin exposure were studied in two human colon cancer cell lines, using cDNA microarrays with four thousand human genes. HT29 cells were exposed to two different concentrations of curcumin and gene expression changes were followed in time (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. Gene expression changes after short-term exposure (3 or 6 hours to curcumin were also studied in a second cell type, Caco-2 cells. Results Gene expression changes (>1.5-fold were found at all time points. HT29 cells were more sensitive to curcumin than Caco-2 cells. Early response genes were involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, DNA repair, gene transcription, cell adhesion and xenobiotic metabolism. In HT29 cells curcumin modulated a number of cell cycle genes of which several have a role in transition through the G2/M phase. This corresponded to a cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase as was observed by flow cytometry. Functional groups with a similar expression profile included genes involved in phase-II metabolism that were induced by curcumin after 12 and 24 hours. Expression of some cytochrome P450 genes was downregulated by curcumin in HT29 and Caco-2 cells. In addition, curcumin affected expression of metallothionein genes, tubulin genes, p53 and other genes involved in colon carcinogenesis. Conclusions This study has extended knowledge on pathways or processes already reported to be affected by curcumin (cell cycle arrest, phase

  18. Thioridazine affects transcription of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mette; Højland, Dorte Heidi; Kolmos, Hans Jørn

    2011-01-01

    have previously shown that the expression of some resistance genes is abolished after treatment with thioridazine and oxacillin. To further understand the mechanism underlying the reversal of resistance, we tested the expression of genes involved in antibiotic resistance and cell wall biosynthesis...... in response to thioridazine in combination with oxacillin. We observed that the oxacillin-induced expression of genes belonging to the VraSR regulon is reduced by the addition of thioridazine. The exclusion of such key factors involved in cell wall biosynthesis will most likely lead to a weakened cell wall...... reversal of resistance by thioridazine relies on decreased expression of specific genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis....

  19. Reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Shona; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Differentiation between malignant renal cell carcinoma and benign oncocytoma is of great importance to choose the optimal treatment. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor is therefore crucial; however, existing imaging techniques and histologic examinations are incapable of providing an optimal differentiation profile. Analysis of gene expression of molecular markers is a new possibility but relies on appropriate standardization to compare different samples. The aim of this study was to identify stably expressed reference genes suitable for the normalization of results extracted from gene expression analysis of renal tumors. Expression levels of 8 potential reference genes (ATP5J, HMBS, HPRT1, PPIA, TBP, 18S, GAPDH, and POLR2A) were examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor and normal tissue from removed kidneys from 13 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 5 patients with oncocytoma. The expression levels of genes were compared by gene stability value M, average gene stability M, pairwise variation V, and coefficient of variation CV. More candidates were not suitable for the purpose, but a combination of HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP was found to be the best combination with an average gene stability value M of 0.9 and a CV of 0.4 in the 18 tumors and normal tissues. A combination of 4 genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP, is a possible reference in renal tumor gene expression analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A combination of four genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J and TBP, being stably expressed in tissues from RCC is possible reference genes for gene expression analysis.

  20. Identification and Regulation of c-Myb Target Genes in MCF-7 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, Anita M; Liu, Fan; O'Rourke, John P; Ness, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    The c-Myb transcription factor regulates differentiation and proliferation in hematopoietic cells, stem cells and epithelial cells. Although oncogenic versions of c-Myb were first associated with leukemias, over expression or rearrangement of the c-myb gene is common in several types of solid tumors, including breast cancers. Expression of the c-myb gene in human breast cancer cells is dependent on estrogen stimulation, but little is known about the activities of the c-Myb protein or what genes it regulates in estrogen-stimulated cells. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with whole genome promoter tiling microarrays to identify endogenous c-Myb target genes in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and characterized the activity of c-Myb at a panel of target genes during different stages of estrogen deprivation and stimulation. By using different antibodies and different growth conditions, the c-Myb protein was found associated with over 10,000 promoters in MCF-7 cells, including many genes that encode cell cycle regulators or transcription factors and more than 60 genes that encode microRNAs. Several previously identified c-Myb target genes were identified, including CCNB1, MYC and CXCR4 and novel targets such as JUN, KLF4, NANOG and SND1. By studying a panel of these targets to validate the results, we found that estradiol stimulation triggered the association of c-Myb with promoters and that association correlated with increased target gene expression. We studied one target gene, CXCR4, in detail, showing that c-Myb associated with the CXCR4 gene promoter and activated a CXCR4 reporter gene in transfection assays. Our results show that c-Myb associates with a surprisingly large number of promoters in human cells. The results also suggest that estradiol stimulation leads to large-scale, genome-wide changes in c-Myb activity and subsequent changes in gene expression in human breast cancer cells

  1. Frequent mutations of genes encoding ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis pathway components in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Guangwu; Gui, Yaoting; Gao, Shengjie

    2012-01-01

    We sequenced whole exomes of ten clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and performed a screen of similar to 1,100 genes in 88 additional ccRCCs, from which we discovered 12 previously unidentified genes mutated at elevated frequencies in ccRCC. Notably, we detected frequent mutations in the u...

  2. Integrative analysis of genome-wide gene copy number changes and gene expression in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Jabs

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents a genomically unstable cancer type with extensive copy number aberrations. The relationship of gene copy number alterations and subsequent mRNA levels has only fragmentarily been described. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide analysis of gene copy number gains and corresponding gene expression levels in a clinically well annotated NSCLC patient cohort (n = 190 and their association with survival. While more than half of all analyzed gene copy number-gene expression pairs showed statistically significant correlations (10,296 of 18,756 genes, high correlations, with a correlation coefficient >0.7, were obtained only in a subset of 301 genes (1.6%, including KRAS, EGFR and MDM2. Higher correlation coefficients were associated with higher copy number and expression levels. Strong correlations were frequently based on few tumors with high copy number gains and correspondingly increased mRNA expression. Among the highly correlating genes, GO groups associated with posttranslational protein modifications were particularly frequent, including ubiquitination and neddylation. In a meta-analysis including 1,779 patients we found that survival associated genes were overrepresented among highly correlating genes (61 of the 301 highly correlating genes, FDR adjusted p<0.05. Among them are the chaperone CCT2, the core complex protein NUP107 and the ubiquitination and neddylation associated protein CAND1. In conclusion, in a comprehensive analysis we described a distinct set of highly correlating genes. These genes were found to be overrepresented among survival-associated genes based on gene expression in a large collection of publicly available datasets.

  3. Ectopic expression of miR-34a enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Weiming; Xu Yaxiang; Dong Yujin; Cao Lili; Tong Jian; Zhou Xinwen

    2013-01-01

    miR-34a is transcriptionally induced by the tumor suppressor gene p53, which is often downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address whether the downstream signal of miR-34a is sufficient to induce apoptosis and to alter cellular radiosensitivity, a chemical synthetic miR-34a mimic was delivered into A549 and H1299 cells, with or without co-treatment of γ-irradiation. Results showed that ectopic expression of miR-34a induced dose-dependent cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in both NSCLC cell lines. Interestingly, LyGDI was discovered as a new target gene of miR-34a, and downregulation of LyGDI promoted Rac1 activation and membrane translocation, resulting in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, restoration of miR-34a indirectly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that restoration of miR-34a expression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway, and miR-34a could possibly be used as a radiosensitizer for non-small cell lung cancer therapy. (author)

  4. Quantitative rather than qualitative differences in gene expression predominate in intestinal cell maturation along distinct cell lineages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velcich, Anna; Corner, Georgia; Paul, Doru; Zhuang Min; Mariadason, John M.; Laboisse, Christian; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2005-01-01

    Several cell types are present in the intestinal epithelium that likely arise from a common precursor, the stem cell, and each mature cell type expresses a unique set of genes that characterizes its functional phenotype. Although the process of differentiation is intimately linked to the cessation of proliferation, the mechanisms that dictate intestinal cell fate determination are not well characterized. To investigate the reprogramming of gene expression during the cell lineage allocation/differentiation process, we took advantage of a unique system of two clonal derivatives of HT29 cells, Cl16E and Cl19A cells, which spontaneously differentiate as mucus producing goblet and chloride-secreting cells, respectively, as a function of time. By profiling gene expression, we found that these two cell lines show remarkably similar kinetics of change in gene expression and common clusters of coordinately regulated genes. This demonstrates that lineage-specific differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells is characterized overall by the sequential recruitment of functionally similar gene sets independent of the final phenotype of the mature cells

  5. Reduced rates of gene loss, gene silencing, and gene mutation in Dnmt1-deficient embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, M.F.; van Amerongen, R.; Nijjar, T.; Cuppen, E.; Jones, P.A.; Laird, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene inactivation is a crucial event in oncogenesis. Gene inactivation mechanisms include events resulting in loss of heterozygosity (LOH), gene mutation, and transcriptional silencing. The contribution of each of these different pathways varies among tumor suppressor genes and by

  6. Genomic instability of osteosarcoma cell lines in culture: impact on the prediction of metastasis relevant genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Muff

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant cancer of the bone. As a consequence, the number of established cell lines used for experimental in vitro and in vivo osteosarcoma research is limited and the value of these cell lines relies on their stability during culture. Here we investigated the stability in gene expression by microarray analysis and array genomic hybridization of three low metastatic cell lines and derivatives thereof with increased metastatic potential using cells of different passages.The osteosarcoma cell lines showed altered gene expression during in vitro culture, and it was more pronounced in two metastatic cell lines compared to the respective parental cells. Chromosomal instability contributed in part to the altered gene expression in SAOS and LM5 cells with low and high metastatic potential. To identify metastasis-relevant genes in a background of passage-dependent altered gene expression, genes involved in "Pathways in cancer" that were consistently regulated under all passage comparisons were evaluated. Genes belonging to "Hedgehog signaling pathway" and "Wnt signaling pathway" were significantly up-regulated, and IHH, WNT10B and TCF7 were found up-regulated in all three metastatic compared to the parental cell lines.Considerable instability during culture in terms of gene expression and chromosomal aberrations was observed in osteosarcoma cell lines. The use of cells from different passages and a search for genes consistently regulated in early and late passages allows the analysis of metastasis-relevant genes despite the observed instability in gene expression in osteosarcoma cell lines during culture.

  7. Association Mapping of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes and Cell Wall Quality in Switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, Laura [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Biology; Wu, Y. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Zhu, L. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Brummer, E. C. [Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States); Saha, M. [Noble Foundation, Ardmore, OK (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Inefficient conversion of biomass to biofuels is one of the main barriers for biofuel production from such materials. Approximately half of polysaccharides in biomass remain unused by typical biochemical conversion methods. Conversion efficiency is influenced by the composition and structure of cell walls of biomass. Grasses such as wheat, maize, and rice, as well as dedicated perennial bioenergy crops, like switchgrass, make up ~55% of biomass that can be produced in the United States. Grass cell walls have a different composition and patterning compared with dicotyledonous plants, including the well-studied model plant, Arabidopsis. This project identified genetic determinants of cell wall composition in grasses using both naturally occurring genetic variation of switchgrass and gene network reconstruction and functional assays in rice. In addition, the project linked functional data in rice and other species to switchgrass improvement efforts through curation of the most abundant class of regulators in the switchgrass genome. Characterizing natural diversity of switchgrass for variation in cell wall composition and properties, also known as quality, provides an unbiased avenue for identifying biologically viable diversity in switchgrass cell walls. To characterizing natural diversity, this project generated cell wall composition and enzymatic deconstruction data for ~450 genotypes of the Switchgrass Southern Association Collection (SSAC), a diverse collection composed of 36 switchgrass accessions from the southern U.S. distribution of switchgrass. Comparing these data with other measures of cell wall quality for the same samples demonstrated the complementary nature of the diverse characterization platforms now being used for biomass characterization. Association of the composition data with ~3.2K single nucleotide variant markers identified six significant single nucleotide variant markers co-associated with digestibility and another compositional trait. These

  8. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A role for prostaglandins in rapid cycling suggested by episode-specific gene expression shifts in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurvich, Artem; Begemann, Martin; Dahm, Liane

    2014-01-01

    and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS), aldo-ketoreductase family 1, member C3 (AKR1C3), cyclooxygenase-2 (PAN means all splice variants) (COX2PAN ), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and purinergic receptor P2X, ligand...

  10. Analysis of gene expression in fetal and adult cells infected with rubella virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, Maria Pilar; Zapata, Marta; Frey, Teryl K.

    2008-01-01

    Congenital infection with rubella virus (RUB) leads to persistent infection and congenital defects and we showed previously that primary human fetal fibroblasts did not undergo apoptosis when infected with RUB, which could promote fetal virus persistence [Adamo, P., Asis, L., Silveyra, P., Cuffini, C., Pedranti, M., Zapata, M., 2004. Rubella virus does not induce apoptosis in primary human embryo fibroblasts cultures: a possible way of viral persistence in congenital infection. Viral Immunol. 17, 87-100]. To extend this observation, gene chip analysis was performed on a line of primary human fetal fibroblasts (10 weeks gestation) and a line of human adult lung fibroblasts (which underwent apoptosis in response to RUB infection) to compare gene expression in infected and uninfected cells. A total of 632 and 516 genes were upregulated or downregulated in the infected fetal and adult cells respectively in comparison to uninfected cells, however only 52 genes were regulated in both cell types. Although the regulated genes were different, across functional gene categories the patterns of gene regulation were similar. In general, regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes following infection appeared to favor apoptosis in the adult cells and lack of apoptosis in the fetal cells, however there was a greater relative expression of anti-apoptotic genes and reduced expression of pro-apoptotic genes in uninfected fetal cells versus uninfected adult cells and thus the lack of apoptosis in fetal cells following RUB infection was also due to the prevailing background of gene expression that is antagonistic to apoptosis. In support of this hypothesis, it was found that of a battery of five chemicals known to induce apoptosis, two induced apoptosis in the adult cells, but not in fetal cells, and two induced apoptosis more rapidly in the adult cells than in fetal cells (the fifth did not induce apoptosis in either). A robust interferon-stimulated gene response was induced

  11. Precise gene modification mediated by TALEN and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Wang

    Full Text Available The development of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs facilitates in vitro studies of human disease mechanisms, speeds up the process of drug screening, and raises the feasibility of using cell replacement therapy in clinics. However, the study of genotype-phenotype relationships in ESCs or iPSCs is hampered by the low efficiency of site-specific gene editing. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs spurred interest due to the ease of assembly, high efficiency and faithful gene targeting. In this study, we optimized the TALEN design to maximize its genomic cutting efficiency. We showed that using optimized TALENs in conjunction with single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide (ssODN allowed efficient gene editing in human cells. Gene mutations and gene deletions for up to 7.8 kb can be accomplished at high efficiencies. We established human tumor cell lines and H9 ESC lines with homozygous deletion of the microRNA-21 (miR-21 gene and miR-9-2 gene. These cell lines provide a robust platform to dissect the roles these genes play during cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. We also observed that the endogenous homologous chromosome can serve as a donor template for gene editing. Overall, our studies demonstrate the versatility of using ssODN and TALEN to establish genetically modified cells for research and therapeutic application.

  12. Gene Delivery into Plant Cells for Recombinant Protein Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. General gene delivery methodologies in plants are first summarized, followed by extensive discussion on the application and scalability of each agroinfiltration method. New development of a spray-based agroinfiltration and its application on field-grown plants is highlighted. The discussion of agroinfiltration vectors focuses on their applications for producing complex and heteromultimeric proteins and is updated with the development of bridge vectors. Progress on agroinfiltration in Nicotiana and non-Nicotiana plant hosts is subsequently showcased in context of their applications for producing high-value human biologics and low-cost and high-volume industrial enzymes. These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications.

  13. Stem Cells and Gene Therapy for Cartilage Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umile Giuseppe Longo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cartilage defects represent a common problem in orthopaedic practice. Predisposing factors include traumas, inflammatory conditions, and biomechanics alterations. Conservative management of cartilage defects often fails, and patients with this lesions may need surgical intervention. Several treatment strategies have been proposed, although only surgery has been proved to be predictably effective. Usually, in focal cartilage defects without a stable fibrocartilaginous repair tissue formed, surgeons try to promote a natural fibrocartilaginous response by using marrow stimulating techniques, such as microfracture, abrasion arthroplasty, and Pridie drilling, with the aim of reducing swelling and pain and improving joint function of the patients. These procedures have demonstrated to be clinically useful and are usually considered as first-line treatment for focal cartilage defects. However, fibrocartilage presents inferior mechanical and biochemical properties compared to normal hyaline articular cartilage, characterized by poor organization, significant amounts of collagen type I, and an increased susceptibility to injury, which ultimately leads to premature osteoarthritis (OA. Therefore, the aim of future therapeutic strategies for articular cartilage regeneration is to obtain a hyaline-like cartilage repair tissue by transplantation of tissues or cells. Further studies are required to clarify the role of gene therapy and mesenchimal stem cells for management of cartilage lesions.

  14. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  15. Identifying Genes Controlling Ferulate Cross-Linking Formation in Grass Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de O. Buanafina, Marcia Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2013-10-16

    This proposal focuses on cell wall feruloylation and our long term goal is to identify and isolate novel genes controlling feruloylation and to characterize the phenotype of mutants in this pathway, with a spotlight on cell wall properties.

  16. Identification of novel senescence-associated genes in ionizing radiation-induced senescent carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Bong Cho; Han, Na Kyung; Hong, Mi Na; Park, Su Min; Yoo, Hee Jung; Chu, In Sun; Lee, Sun Hee

    2009-01-01

    Cellular senescence is considered as a defense mechanism to prevent tumorigenesis. Ionizing radiation (IR) induces stress-induced premature senescence as well as apoptosis in various cancer cells. Senescent cells undergo functional and morphological changes including large and flattened cell shape, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-βGal) activity, and altered gene expressions. Even with the recent findings of several gene expression profiles and supporting functional data, it is obscure that mechanism of IR-induced premature senescence in cancer cells. We performed microarray analysis to identify the common regulated genes in ionizing radiation-induced prematurely senescent human carcinoma cell lines

  17. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  18. Spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cells exhibit a distinct gene expression pattern from the breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qianqian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous immortalisation of cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs is an extremely rare event, and the molecular mechanism behind spontaneous immortalisation of MECs is unclear. Here, we report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalised bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME65Cs and the changes in gene expression associated with BME65Cs cells. Results BME65Cs cells maintain the general characteristics of normal mammary epithelial cells in morphology, karyotype and immunohistochemistry, and are accompanied by the activation of endogenous bTERT (bovine Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase and stabilisation of the telomere. Currently, BME65Cs cells have been passed for more than 220 generations, and these cells exhibit non-malignant transformation. The expression of multiple genes was investigated in BME65Cs cells, senescent BMECs (bovine MECs cells, early passage BMECs cells and MCF-7 cells (a human breast cancer cell line. In comparison with early passage BMECs cells, the expression of senescence-relevant apoptosis-related gene were significantly changed in BME65Cs cells. P16INK4a was downregulated, p53 was low expressed and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was reversed. Moreover, a slight upregulation of the oncogene c-Myc, along with an undetectable level of breast tumor-related gene Bag-1 and TRPS-1, was observed in BME65Cs cells while these genes are all highly expressed in MCF-7. In addition, DNMT1 is upregulated in BME65Cs. These results suggest that the inhibition of both senescence and mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathways contribute to the immortality of BME65Cs cells. The expression of p53 and p16INK4a in BME65Cs was altered in the pattern of down-regulation but not "loss", suggesting that this spontaneous immortalization is possibly initiated by other mechanism rather than gene mutation of p53 or p16INK4a. Conclusions Spontaneously immortalised BME65Cs cells maintain many characteristics of normal BMEC cells and

  19. Genome-wide methylation analysis identifies genes silenced in non-seminoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Dzul Azri Mohamed; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Alhazmi, Safiah; Carr, Matthew; Squibb, Benjamin; Wallace, Claire; Tan, Christopher; Cusack, Martin; Hughes, Jaime; Reader, Tom; Shipley, Janet; Sheer, Denise; Scotting, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Silencing of genes by DNA methylation is a common phenomenon in many types of cancer. However, the genome-wide effect of DNA methylation on gene expression has been analysed in relatively few cancers. Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a complex group of malignancies. They are unique in developing from a pluripotent progenitor cell. Previous analyses have suggested that non-seminomas exhibit much higher levels of DNA methylation than seminomas. The genomic targets that are methylated, the extent to which this results in gene silencing and the identity of the silenced genes most likely to play a role in the tumours' biology have not yet been established. In this study, genome-wide methylation and expression analysis of GCT cell lines was combined with gene expression data from primary tumours to address this question. Genome methylation was analysed using the Illumina infinium HumanMethylome450 bead chip system and gene expression was analysed using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Regulation by methylation was confirmed by demethylation using 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Large differences in the level of methylation of the CpG islands of individual genes between tumour cell lines correlated well with differential gene expression. Treatment of non-seminoma cells with 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine verified that methylation of all genes tested played a role in their silencing in yolk sac tumour cells and many of these genes were also differentially expressed in primary tumours. Genes silenced by methylation in the various GCT cell lines were identified. Several pluripotency-associated genes were identified as a major functional group of silenced genes.

  20. Gene selection for the reconstruction of stem cell differentiation trees: a linear programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadie, Mohamed A; Japkowicz, Nathalie; Perkins, Theodore J

    2015-08-15

    Stem cell differentiation is largely guided by master transcriptional regulators, but it also depends on the expression of other types of genes, such as cell cycle genes, signaling genes, metabolic genes, trafficking genes, etc. Traditional approaches to understanding gene expression patterns across multiple conditions, such as principal components analysis or K-means clustering, can group cell types based on gene expression, but they do so without knowledge of the differentiation hierarchy. Hierarchical clustering can organize cell types into a tree, but in general this tree is different from the differentiation hierarchy itself. Given the differentiation hierarchy and gene expression data at each node, we construct a weighted Euclidean distance metric such that the minimum spanning tree with respect to that metric is precisely the given differentiation hierarchy. We provide a set of linear constraints that are provably sufficient for the desired construction and a linear programming approach to identify sparse sets of weights, effectively identifying genes that are most relevant for discriminating different parts of the tree. We apply our method to microarray gene expression data describing 38 cell types in the hematopoiesis hierarchy, constructing a weighted Euclidean metric that uses just 175 genes. However, we find that there are many alternative sets of weights that satisfy the linear constraints. Thus, in the style of random-forest training, we also construct metrics based on random subsets of the genes and compare them to the metric of 175 genes. We then report on the selected genes and their biological functions. Our approach offers a new way to identify genes that may have important roles in stem cell differentiation. tperkins@ohri.ca Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Identifying arsenic trioxide (ATO) functions in leukemia cells by using time series gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Lin, Shan; Cui, Jingru

    2014-02-10

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is presently the most active single agent in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). In order to explore the molecular mechanism of ATO in leukemia cells with time series, we adopted bioinformatics strategy to analyze expression changing patterns and changes in transcription regulation modules of time series genes filtered from Gene Expression Omnibus database (GSE24946). We totally screened out 1847 time series genes for subsequent analysis. The KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathways enrichment analysis of these genes showed that oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome were the top 2 significantly enriched pathways. STEM software was employed to compare changing patterns of gene expression with assigned 50 expression patterns. We screened out 7 significantly enriched patterns and 4 tendency charts of time series genes. The result of Gene Ontology showed that functions of times series genes mainly distributed in profiles 41, 40, 39 and 38. Seven genes with positive regulation of cell adhesion function were enriched in profile 40, and presented the same first increased model then decreased model as profile 40. The transcription module analysis showed that they mainly involved in oxidative phosphorylation pathway and ribosome pathway. Overall, our data summarized the gene expression changes in ATO treated K562-r cell lines with time and suggested that time series genes mainly regulated cell adhesive. Furthermore, our result may provide theoretical basis of molecular biology in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cell Wall Composition and Candidate Biosynthesis Gene Expression During Rice Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Fan; Manisseri, Chithra; Fagerström, Alexandra; Peck, Matthew L.; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Williams, Brian; Chiniquy, Dawn M.; Saha, Prasenjit; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Conlin, Brian; Zhu, Lan; Hahn, Michael G.; Willats, William G. T.; Scheller, Henrik V.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Bartley, Laura E.

    2016-08-01

    Cell walls of grasses, including cereal crops and biofuel grasses, comprise the majority of plant biomass and intimately influence plant growth, development and physiology. However, the functions of many cell wall synthesis genes, and the relationships among and the functions of cell wall components remain obscure. To better understand the patterns of cell wall accumulation and identify genes that act in grass cell wall biosynthesis, we characterized 30 samples from aerial organs of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Kitaake) at 10 developmental time points, 3-100 d post-germination. Within these samples, we measured 15 cell wall chemical components, enzymatic digestibility and 18 cell wall polysaccharide epitopes/ligands. We also used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure expression of 50 glycosyltransferases, 15 acyltransferases and eight phenylpropanoid genes, many of which had previously been identified as being highly expressed in rice. Most cell wall components vary significantly during development, and correlations among them support current understanding of cell walls. We identified 92 significant correlations between cell wall components and gene expression and establish nine strong hypotheses for genes that synthesize xylans, mixed linkage glucan and pectin components. This work provides an extensive analysis of cell wall composition throughout rice development, identifies genes likely to synthesize grass cell walls, and provides a framework for development of genetically improved grasses for use in lignocellulosic biofuel production and agriculture.

  3. Roles of bHLH genes in neural stem cell differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Jun; Ohsawa, Ryosuke

    2005-01-01

    Neural stem cells change their characteristics over time during development: they initially proliferate only and then give rise to neurons first and glial cells later. In the absence of the repressor-type basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes Hes1, Hes3 and Hes5, neural stem cells do not proliferate sufficiently but prematurely differentiate into neurons and become depleted without making the later born cell types such as astrocytes and ependymal cells. Thus, Hes genes are essential for maintenance of neural stem cells to make cells not only in correct numbers but also in full diversity. Hes genes antagonize the activator-type bHLH genes, which include Mash1, Math and Neurogenin. The activator-type bHLH genes promote the neuronal fate determination and induce expression of Notch ligands such as Delta. These ligands activate Notch signaling and upregulate Hes1 and Hes5 expression in neighboring cells, thereby maintaining these cells undifferentiated. Thus, the activator-type and repressor-type bHLH genes regulate each other, allowing only subsets of cells to undergo differentiation while keeping others to stay neural stem cells. This regulation is essential for generation of complex brain structures of appropriate size, shape and cell arrangement

  4. Efficient gene transfer into lymphoma cells using adenoviral vectors combined with lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttgereit, P; Weineck, S; Röpke, G; Märten, A; Brand, K; Heinicke, T; Caselmann, W H; Huhn, D; Schmidt-Wolf, I G

    2000-08-01

    Tumor cells, such as lymphoma cells, are possible targets for gene therapy. In general, gene therapeutic approaches require efficient gene transfer to host cells and sufficient transgene expression. However, lymphoma cells previously have been demonstrated to be resistant to most of the currently available gene transfer methods. The aim of this study was to analyze various methods for transfection of lymphoma cells and to improve the efficiency of gene delivery. In accordance with previously published reports, lymphoma cells were demonstrated to be resistant to lipofection and electroporation. In contrast, we present an improved adenoviral protocol leading to highly efficient gene transfer to lymphoma cell lines derived from B cells as well as primary lymphoma cells being achieved with an adenoviral vector system encoding the beta-galactosidase protein. At a multiplicity of infection of 200, up to 100% of Daudi cells and Raji cells and 70% of OCI-Ly8-LAM53 cells could be transfected. Even at high adenoviral concentrations, no marked toxicity was observed, and the growth characteristics of the lymphoma cell lines were not impaired. The transfection rates in primary cells derived from six patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were 30-65%, respectively. Transfection efficiency could be further increased by addition of cationic liposomes to adenoviral gene transfer. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the Coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) and the integrin receptors on the lymphoma cell surface. Flow cytometric analysis showed that 88% of Daudi cells, 69% of Raji cells, and 6% of OCI-Ly8-LAM53 cells expressed CAR on the cell surface. According to our data, adenoviral infection of lymphoma cells seems to be mediated by CAR. In contrast, integrin receptors are unlikely to play a major role, because lymphoma cells were negative for alphavbeta3-integrins and negative for alphavbeta5-integrins. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that B-lymphoma cell lines and

  5. UV-induced changes in cell cycle and gene expression within rabbit lens epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidjanin, D.; Grdina, D.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Damage to lens epithelial cells is a probable initiation process in cataract formation mediated by UV radiation. In these experiments, we investigated the effects of exposure to 254 nm radiation on cell cycle progression in the rabbit lens epithelial cell line N/N1003A. The RNA was harvested at various times following exposure to UV (254 nm) radiation and analyzed by dot-blot and northern blot hybridizations. These results revealed that during the first 6 h following exposure of the cells to UV, there was, associated with decreasing dose, a decrease in accumulation of transcripts specific for histones H3 and H4 and an increase in the mRNA encoding protein kinase C and β- and γ-actin. Using flow cytometry, we detected an accumulation of cells in G1/S phase of the cell cycle 1 h following exposure to 254 nm radiation. The observed changes in gene expression, especially the decreased accumulation of histone transcripts reported here, may play a role in UV-induced inhibition of cell cycle progression. (Author)

  6. Differences in gene expression of cells growing in conventional 2D versus 3D cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschenker, Oliver; Cordes, Nils; Streichert, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Telomeres are DNA protein complexes on the ends of chromosomes that distinguish the ends of chromosomes from double strand breaks and prevent degradation or fusion by nonhomologous end-joining. The loss of telomeres is associated with a loss of heterochromatic features leading to a less compact chromatin structure which allows e.g. DNA repair proteins to get better access to the site of the DNA damage and facilitate chromosome fusions. Telomerase is an enzyme that can counteract the loss of telomeres by adding telomeric repeats on the ends of chromosomes. Since telomerase is active in most tumor cells, telomerase is suggested to be the reason for the unlimited number of cell divisions of cancer cells. TRF2 is one of the most important proteins of the Shelterin complex protecting the telomeres from shortening by inhibiting ATM which is up-stream of the DNA repair mechanisms. Thus, we are concentrating on TRF2 and telomerase to investigate the differences in DNA repair in telomeric (heterochromatic) versus euchromatic regions. Human cancer cells with differences in status of p53 and telomerase like A549, UT-SCC15 and FaDu cells are used. Without any treatment, FaDu cells express high levels of telomerase and TRF2 in conventional 2D cell culture which is in contrast to e.g. A549. We found that telomerase is even higher expressed in 3D than in 2D cell culture. To connect telomere associated processes to both repair of radiogenic DNA damage/lesions and to cell-extracellular matrix interactions, we performed whole genome microarray analysis. By comparing the differential expression of genes associated with these three cell functions, we intend to yield new molecular insight into radiotherapy relevant tumor characteristics, particularly radioresistance and DNA damage response network processing. (author)

  7. Identification of mechanosensitive genes during skeletal development: alteration of genes associated with cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Rebecca A; Nowlan, Niamh C; Kenny, Elaine M; Cormican, Paul; Morris, Derek W; Prendergast, Patrick J; Kelly, Daniel; Murphy, Paula

    2014-01-20

    Mechanical stimulation is necessary for regulating correct formation of the skeleton. Here we test the hypothesis that mechanical stimulation of the embryonic skeletal system impacts expression levels of genes implicated in developmentally important signalling pathways in a genome wide approach. We use a mutant mouse model with altered mechanical stimulation due to the absence of limb skeletal muscle (Splotch-delayed) where muscle-less embryos show specific defects in skeletal elements including delayed ossification, changes in the size and shape of cartilage rudiments and joint fusion. We used Microarray and RNA sequencing analysis tools to identify differentially expressed genes between muscle-less and control embryonic (TS23) humerus tissue. We found that 680 independent genes were down-regulated and 452 genes up-regulated in humeri from muscle-less Spd embryos compared to littermate controls (at least 2-fold; corrected p-value ≤0.05). We analysed the resulting differentially expressed gene sets using Gene Ontology annotations to identify significant enrichment of genes associated with particular biological processes, showing that removal of mechanical stimuli from muscle contractions affected genes associated with development and differentiation, cytoskeletal architecture and cell signalling. Among cell signalling pathways, the most strongly disturbed was Wnt signalling, with 34 genes including 19 pathway target genes affected. Spatial gene expression analysis showed that both a Wnt ligand encoding gene (Wnt4) and a pathway antagonist (Sfrp2) are up-regulated specifically in the developing joint line, while the expression of a Wnt target gene, Cd44, is no longer detectable in muscle-less embryos. The identification of 84 genes associated with the cytoskeleton that are down-regulated in the absence of muscle indicates a number of candidate genes that are both mechanoresponsive and potentially involved in mechanotransduction, converting a mechanical stimulus

  8. Validation of endogenous normalizing genes for expression analyses in adult human testis and germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, T; Jørgensen, Anne; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

    2014-01-01

    to define suitable normalizing genes for specific cells and tissues. Here, we report on the performance of a panel of nine commonly employed normalizing genes in adult human testis and testicular pathologies. Our analyses revealed significant variability in transcript abundance for commonly used normalizers......, highlighting the importance of selecting appropriate normalizing genes as comparative measurements can yield variable results when different normalizing genes are employed. Based on our results, we recommend using RPS20, RPS29 or SRSF4 when analysing relative gene expression levels in human testis...... and associated testicular pathologies. OCT4 and SALL4 can be used with caution as second-tier normalizers when determining changes in gene expression in germ cells and germ cell tumour components, but the relative transcript abundance appears variable between different germ cell tumour types. We further...

  9. Identification of differences in gene expression in primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells following their interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Mette; Islin, Henrik; Møller, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the cell types was simulated in vitro by growing primary cell cultures of human endometrial epithelial cells and trophoblast cells together (co-culture) and separately (control cultures). Gene expression in the cell cultures was compared using the Differential Display method and confirmed...

  10. Signed weighted gene co-expression network analysis of transcriptional regulation in murine embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Qing; Plath Kathrin; Fan Guoping; Mason Mike J; Horvath Steve

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent work has revealed that a core group of transcription factors (TFs) regulates the key characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells: pluripotency and self-renewal. Current efforts focus on identifying genes that play important roles in maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal in ES cells and aim to understand the interactions among these genes. To that end, we...

  11. Potential gene regulatory role for cyclin D3 in muscle cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-27

    Jun 27, 2015 ... D3-expressing cells on induction of differentiation. 2. Materials and .... 2 –ΔΔCt method was used for quantification and each gene ..... of pluripotency genes known to be silenced by deposition of ..... embryonic stem cells.

  12. Imaging gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: from small to large animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning.......To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning....

  13. Monitoring single-cell gene regulation under dynamically controllable conditions with integrated microfluidics and software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, Matthias; Jug, Florian; Julou, Thomas; Deshpande, S.R.; Pfohl, Thomas; Silander, Olin K.; Myers, Gene; Van Nimwegen, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Much is still not understood about how gene regulatory interactions control cell fate decisions in single cells, in part due to the difficulty of directly observing gene regulatory processes in vivo. We introduce here a novel integrated setup consisting of a microfluidic chip and accompanying

  14. 40 CFR 798.5300 - Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cells in culture. 798.5300 Section 798.5300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5300 Detection of gene mutations in somatic cells in culture. (a) Purpose. Mammalian cell culture... selected by resistance to ouabain. (2) Description. Cells in suspension or monolayer culture are exposed to...

  15. Effect of Smac gene on apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Baofeng; Tian Mei; Ruan Jianlei; Su Xu

    2007-01-01

    To explore the effect of Smac gene on apoptosis of HeLa cells induced by γ-ray and its possible mechanisms, the full length cDNA of Smac gene was transferred into HeLa cells. 24 h after transferring, the results of Western Blot indicated the expression of Smac was increased but the expression of Survivin decreased. After HeLa cells was irradiated by γ-rays, Smac gene transferred HeLa/Smac cells showed more cell apoptosis rates and the higher activity of Caspase-3 than vector transferred control HeLa/pcDNA3.1 cells. However, the damage and repair of DNA and the cell cycle don't change significantly, comparing HeLa/Smac cells with HeLa/pcDNA3.1 cells. (authors)

  16. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin gene system as containment control in yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, P.; Jensen, G. B.; Gerdes, K.