WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell communication

  1. Hardwiring Stem Cell Communication through Tissue Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-03-10

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function, but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hardwiring stem cell communication through tissue structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianchi; Greco, Valentina; Myung, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells across diverse organs self-renew and differentiate to maintain tissue homeostasis. How stem cells receive input to preserve tissue structure and function largely relies on their communication with surrounding cellular and non-cellular elements. As such, how tissues are organized and patterned not only reflects organ function but also inherently hardwires networks of communication between stem cells and their environment to direct tissue homeostasis and injury repair. This review highlights how different methods of stem cell communication reflect the unique organization and function of diverse tissues. PMID:26967287

  3. Tunneling Nanotubes: Intimate Communication between Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Maeva; Souriant, Shanti; Lugo-Villarino, Geanncarlo; Maridonneau-Parini, Isabelle; Vérollet, Christel

    2018-01-01

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) are dynamic connections between cells, which represent a novel route for cell-to-cell communication. A growing body of evidence points TNT towards a role for intercellular exchanges of signals, molecules, organelles, and pathogens, involving them in a diverse array of functions. TNT form among several cell types, including neuronal cells, epithelial cells, and almost all immune cells. In myeloid cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts), intercellular communication via TNT contributes to their differentiation and immune functions. Importantly, TNT enable myeloid cells to communicate with a targeted neighboring or distant cell, as well as with other cell types, therefore creating a complex variety of cellular exchanges. TNT also contribute to pathogen spread as they serve as "corridors" from a cell to another. Herein, we addressed the complexity of the definition and in vitro characterization of TNT in innate immune cells, the different processes involved in their formation, and their relevance in vivo . We also assess our current understanding of how TNT participate in immune surveillance and the spread of pathogens, with a particular interest for HIV-1. Overall, despite recent progress in this growing research field, we highlight that further investigation is needed to better unveil the role of TNT in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Tunneling Nanotubes: Intimate Communication between Myeloid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva Dupont

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunneling nanotubes (TNT are dynamic connections between cells, which represent a novel route for cell-to-cell communication. A growing body of evidence points TNT towards a role for intercellular exchanges of signals, molecules, organelles, and pathogens, involving them in a diverse array of functions. TNT form among several cell types, including neuronal cells, epithelial cells, and almost all immune cells. In myeloid cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells, and osteoclasts, intercellular communication via TNT contributes to their differentiation and immune functions. Importantly, TNT enable myeloid cells to communicate with a targeted neighboring or distant cell, as well as with other cell types, therefore creating a complex variety of cellular exchanges. TNT also contribute to pathogen spread as they serve as “corridors” from a cell to another. Herein, we addressed the complexity of the definition and in vitro characterization of TNT in innate immune cells, the different processes involved in their formation, and their relevance in vivo. We also assess our current understanding of how TNT participate in immune surveillance and the spread of pathogens, with a particular interest for HIV-1. Overall, despite recent progress in this growing research field, we highlight that further investigation is needed to better unveil the role of TNT in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  5. Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Monica E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.

  6. Cell-cell communication in the kidney microcirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    the postglomerular vasculature. Cxs form gap junctions between neighboring cells, and as in other organ systems, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be mediation of intercellular communication. Cxs may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of signaling molecules like ATP, and thereby...... mediate paracrine signaling. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerlar apparatus calcium signaling, and enable ECs and VSMCs to communicate. Thus, current research suggests multiple roles for Cxs in important regulatory mechanisms within the kidney, including the renin-angiotensin system...

  7. mCell: Facilitating Mobile Communication of Small Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko T. Tarkiainen; Jonna Häkkilä; Jan Blom; Merja Haveri; Jyri Virtanen

    2008-01-01

    Mobile communication technology offers a potential platform for new types of communication applications. Here, we describe the development and experiences with a mobile group communication application, mCell, that runs on a mobile phone. We present the underlying design implications, the application implementation, and a user study, where three groups used the application for one month. The findings of the user study reveal general user experiences with the application and show different patt...

  8. Intracellular renin disrupts chemical communication between heart cells. Pathophysiological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmor eDe Mello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of intracellular renin on the process of chemical communication between cardiac cells was investigated in cell pairs isolated from the left ventricle of adult Wistar Kyoto rats. The enzyme together with Lucifer yellow CH was dialyzed into one cell of the pair using the whole cell clamp technique. The diffusion of the dye in the dialyzed and in non-dialyzed cell was followed by measuring the intensity of fluorescence in both cells as a function of time. The results indicated that; 1 under normal conditions, Lucifer Yellow flows from cell-to-cell through gap junctions; 2 the intracellular dialysis of renin (100nM disrupts chemical communication-an effect enhanced by simultaneous administration of angiotensinogen (100nM; 3 enalaprilat (10-9M administered to the cytosol together with renin reduced drastically the uncoupling action of the enzyme; 4 aliskiren (10-8M inhibited the effect of renin on chemical communication;5 the possible role of intracellular renin independently of angiotensin II (Ang II was evaluated including the increase of the inward calcium current elicited by the enzyme and the possible role of oxidative stress on the disruption of cell communication; 6 the possible harmful versus the beneficial effect of intracellular renin during myocardial infarction was discussed;7 the present results indicate that intracellular renin due to internalization or in situ synthesis, causes a severe impairment of chemical communication in the heart resulting in derangement of metabolic cooperation with serious consequences for heart function.

  9. Gap-junction-mediated communication in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, R; Ishihara, Y; Kawanabe, N; Sumiyoshi, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Nakamura, M; Imai, Y; Yanagita, T; Fukushima, H; Kamioka, H; Takano-Yamamoto, T; Yamashiro, T

    2013-07-01

    Periodontal tissue homeostasis depends on a complex cellular network that conveys cell-cell communication. Gap junctions (GJs), one of the intercellular communication systems, are found between adjacent human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells; however, the functional GJ coupling between hPDL cells has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated functional gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication in isolated primary hPDL cells. SEM images indicated that the cells were in contact with each other via dendritic processes, and also showed high anti-connexin43 (Cx43) immunoreactivity on these processes. Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) among hPDL cells was assessed by fluorescence recovery after a photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which exhibited dye coupling between hPDL cells, and was remarkably down-regulated when the cells were treated with a GJ blocker. Additionally, we examined GJs under hypoxic stress. The fluorescence recovery and expression levels of Cx43 decreased time-dependently under the hypoxic condition. Exposure to GJ inhibitor or hypoxia increased RANKL expression, and decreased OPG expression. This study shows that GJIC is responsible for hPDL cells and that its activity is reduced under hypoxia. This is consistent with the possible role of hPDL cells in regulating the biochemical reactions in response to changes in the hypoxic environment.

  10. Full Duplex Communications in 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Gatnau, Marta; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2017-01-01

    Full duplex communication promises system performance improvement over conventional half duplex communication by allowing simultaneous transmission and reception. However, such concurrent communication results in strong self interference and an increase in the overall network interference, and can...... only be exploited when traffic is available in both directions. The potential throughput gains of full duplex communication over conventional half duplex transmission in a small cell network with asymmetric traffic conditions is investigated in this contribution. The throughput performance gains...... are analysed using tools from stochastic geometry, and further confirmed through extensive system level simulations. Our findings explicitly quantify how the gains from full duplex communication depend on the traffic profile and the inter-cell interference coupling. The demonstrated throughput gains and delay...

  11. Cell-to-cell communication in plants, animals, and fungi: a comparative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemendal, Sandra; Kück, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is a prerequisite for differentiation and development in multicellular organisms. This communication has to be tightly regulated to ensure that cellular components such as organelles, macromolecules, hormones, or viruses leave the cell in a precisely organized way. During evolution, plants, animals, and fungi have developed similar ways of responding to this biological challenge. For example, in higher plants, plasmodesmata connect adjacent cells and allow communication to regulate differentiation and development. In animals, two main general structures that enable short- and long-range intercellular communication are known, namely gap junctions and tunneling nanotubes, respectively. Finally, filamentous fungi have also developed specialized structures called septal pores that allow intercellular communication via cytoplasmic flow. This review summarizes the underlying mechanisms for intercellular communication in these three eukaryotic groups and discusses its consequences for the regulation of differentiation and developmental processes.

  12. Working together for the common good: cell-cell communication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ann M; Schuster, Martin; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2012-05-01

    The 4th ASM Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria was held in Miami, FL, from 6 to 9 November 2011. This review highlights three key themes that emerged from the many exciting talks and poster presentations in the area of quorum sensing: sociomicrobiology, signal transduction mechanisms, and interspecies communication.

  13. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  14. CellPilot: Seamless communication within Cell BE and heterogeneous clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, N; Carter, J; Gardner, W B; Grewal, G

    2010-01-01

    The Pilot library is targeted to novice scientific programmers within High Performance Computing. The CellPilot library extends the Pilot library to the Cell Broadband Engine processor and heterogeneous clusters. Using Pilot's process and channel abstractions, the CellPilot library can create a process on any of the processor types, both PPEs and SPEs, across the cluster. Communication is achieved by creating a channel between any two processes, and using the write/read channel functions in the participating processes. The CellPilot library uses MPI for the inter-node communication and the Cell SDK within a Cell node. All the architecture specific details of Cell communications are hidden from the user.

  15. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Catriona, E-mail: catriona.kelly@qub.ac.uk [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom); Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H. [SAAD Centre for Pharmacy and Diabetes, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, Coleraine (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. {yields} Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. {yields} Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  16. Cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment alter the somatostatin status of delta cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Catriona; Flatt, Peter R.; McClenaghan, Neville H.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGP52 cells display enhanced functionality in pseudoislet form. → Somatostatin content was reduced, but secretion increased in high glucose conditions. → Cellular interactions and environment alter the somatostatin status of TGP52 cells. -- Abstract: Introduction: Somatostatin, released from pancreatic delta cells, is a potent paracrine inhibitor of insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet cellular interactions and glucose homeostasis are essential to maintain normal patterns of insulin secretion. However, the importance of cell-to-cell communication and cellular environment in the regulation of somatostatin release remains unclear. Methods: This study employed the somatostatin-secreting TGP52 cell line maintained in DMEM:F12 (17.5 mM glucose) or DMEM (25 mM glucose) culture media. The effect of pseudoislet formation and culture medium on somatostatin content and release in response to a variety of stimuli was measured by somatostatin EIA. In addition, the effect of pseudoislet formation on cellular viability (MTT and LDH assays) and proliferation (BrdU ELISA) was determined. Results: TGP52 cells readily formed pseudoislets and showed enhanced functionality in three-dimensional form with increased E-cadherin expression irrespective of the culture environment used. However, culture in DMEM decreased cellular somatostatin content (P < 0.01) and increased somatostatin secretion in response to a variety of stimuli including arginine, calcium and PMA (P < 0.001) when compared with cells grown in DMEM:F12. Configuration of TGP52 cells as pseudoislets reduced the proliferative rate and increased cellular cytotoxicity irrespective of culture medium used. Conclusions: Somatostatin secretion is greatly facilitated by cell-to-cell interactions and E-cadherin expression. Cellular environment and extracellular glucose also significantly influence the function of delta cells.

  17. Ouabain Increases Gap Junctional Communication in Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Ponce

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The finding that endogenous ouabain acts as a hormone prompted efforts to elucidate its physiological function. In previous studies, we have shown that 10 nM ouabain (i.e., a concentration within the physiological range modulates cell-cell contacts such as tight junctions and apical/basolateral polarity. In this study, we examined whether 10 nM ouabain affects another important cell-cell feature: gap junction communication (GJC. Methods: We employed two different approaches: 1 analysis of the cell-to-cell diffusion of neurobiotin injected into a particular MDCK cell (epithelial cells from dog kidneys in a confluent monolayer by counting the number of neighboring cells reached by the probe and 2 measurement of the electrical capacitance. Results: We found that 10 nM ouabain increase GJC by 475% within 1 hour. The Na+-K+-ATPase acts as a receptor of ouabain. In previous works we have shown that ouabain activates c-Src and ERK1/2 in 1 hour; in the present study we show that the inhibition of these proteins block the effect of ouabain on GJC. This increase in GJC does not require synthesis of new protein components, because the inhibitors cycloheximide and actinomycin D did not affect this phenomenon. Using silencing assays we also demonstrate that this ouabain-induced enhancement of GJC involves connexins 32 and 43. Conclusion: Ouabain 10 nM increases GJC in MDCK cells.

  18. Synaptic communication between neurons and NG2+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, Martin; Bergles, Dwight E

    2006-10-01

    Chemical synaptic transmission provides the basis for much of the rapid signaling that occurs within neuronal networks. However, recent studies have provided compelling evidence that synapses are not used exclusively for communication between neurons. Physiological and anatomical studies indicate that a distinct class of glia known as NG2(+) cells also forms direct synaptic junctions with both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Glutamatergic signaling can influence intracellular Ca(2+) levels in NG2(+) cells by activating Ca(2+) permeable AMPA receptors, and these inputs can be potentiated through high frequency stimulation. Although the significance of this highly differentiated form of communication remains to be established, these neuro-glia synapses might enable neurons to influence rapidly the behavior of this ubiquitous class of glial progenitors.

  19. Use of Advanced Solar Cells for Commercial Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    The current generation of communications satellites are located primarily in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Over the next decade, however, a new generation of communications satellites will be built and launched, designed to provide a world-wide interconnection of portable telephones. For this mission, the satellites must be positioned in lower polar and near-polar orbits. To provide complete coverage, large numbers of satellites will be required. Because the required number of satellites decreases as the orbital altitude is increased, fewer satellites would be required if the orbit chosen were raised from low to intermediate orbit. However, in intermediate orbits, satellites encounter significant radiation due to trapped electrons and protons. Radiation tolerant solar cells may be necessary to make such satellites feasible. We analyze the amount of radiation encountered in low and intermediate polar orbits at altitudes of interest to next-generation communication satellites, calculate the expected degradation for silicon, GaAs, and InP solar cells, and show that the lifetimes can be significantly increased by use of advanced solar cells.

  20. Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are not isolated entities, but complex systemic networks involving cell-cell communication between transformed and non-transformed cells. The milieu created by tumor-associated cells may either support or halt tumor progression. In addition to cell-cell contact, cells communicate through secreted factors via a highly complex system involving characteristics such as ligand concentration, receptor expression and integration of diverse signaling pathways. Of these, extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are emerging as novel cell-cell communication mediators in physiological and pathological scenarios. Exosomes, membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by all cells (both healthy and diseased, ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, transport all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and perform intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically. By acting not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelium, leukocytes and progenitor cells, tumor- and non-tumor cells-derived exosomes have emerged as new players in tumor growth and invasion, tumor-associated angiogenesis, tissue inflammation and immunologic remodeling. In addition, due to their property of carrying molecules from their cell of origin to the peripheral circulation, exosomes have been increasingly studied as sources of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsies. Here we review the current literature on the participation of exosomes in the communication between tumor and tumor-associated cells, highlighting the role of this process in the setup of tumor microenvironments that modulate tumor initiation and metastasis.

  1. Validating a Conceptual Framework for the Core Concept of "Cell-Cell Communication"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Martinkova, Patricia; McFarland, Jenny; Wright, Ann; Cliff, William; Modell, Harold; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2017-01-01

    We have created and validated a conceptual framework for the core physiology concept of "cell-cell communication." The conceptual framework is composed of 51 items arranged in a hierarchy that is, in some instances, four levels deep. We have validated it with input from faculty who teach at a wide variety of institutional types. All…

  2. Non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholkmann, F.; Fels, D.; Cifra, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 586-593 ISSN 1943-8141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29294S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Cell-to-cell communication * physical signaling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2013

  3. Multiple Modes of Communication between Neurons and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Paloma P; Angulo, María Cecilia

    2015-06-01

    The surprising discovery of bona fide synapses between neurons and oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) 15 years ago placed these progenitors as real partners of neurons in the CNS. The role of these synapses has not been established yet, but a main hypothesis is that neuron-OPC synaptic activity is a signaling pathway controlling OPC proliferation/differentiation, influencing the myelination process. However, new evidences describing non-synaptic mechanisms of communication between neurons and OPCs have revealed that neuron-OPC interactions are more complex than expected. The activation of extrasynaptic receptors by ambient neurotransmitter or local spillover and the ability of OPCs to sense neuronal activity through a potassium channel suggest that distinct modes of communication mediate different functions of OPCs in the CNS. This review discusses different mechanisms used by OPCs to interact with neurons and their potential roles during postnatal development and in brain disorders. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Verifying cell loss requirements in high-speed communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry W. Fendick

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In high-speed communication networks it is common to have requirements of very small cell loss probabilities due to buffer overflow. Losses are measured to verify that the cell loss requirements are being met, but it is not clear how to interpret such measurements. We propose methods for determining whether or not cell loss requirements are being met. A key idea is to look at the stream of losses as successive clusters of losses. Often clusters of losses, rather than individual losses, should be regarded as the important “loss events”. Thus we propose modeling the cell loss process by a batch Poisson stochastic process. Successive clusters of losses are assumed to arrive according to a Poisson process. Within each cluster, cell losses do not occur at a single time, but the distance between losses within a cluster should be negligible compared to the distance between clusters. Thus, for the purpose of estimating the cell loss probability, we ignore the spaces between successive cell losses in a cluster of losses. Asymptotic theory suggests that the counting process of losses initiating clusters often should be approximately a Poisson process even though the cell arrival process is not nearly Poisson. The batch Poisson model is relatively easy to test statistically and fit; e.g., the batch-size distribution and the batch arrival rate can readily be estimated from cell loss data. Since batch (cluster sizes may be highly variable, it may be useful to focus on the number of batches instead of the number of cells in a measurement interval. We also propose a method for approximately determining the parameters of a special batch Poisson cell loss with geometric batch-size distribution from a queueing model of the buffer content. For this step, we use a reflected Brownian motion (RBM approximation of a G/D/1/C queueing model. We also use the RBM model to estimate the input burstiness given the cell loss rate. In addition, we use the RBM model to

  5. Relation between radio-adaptive response and cell to cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keiichiro Ishii

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been considered to cause severe damages to DNA and do harm to cells in proportion to the dose, however low it might be. In 1984, Wolff et al. showed that human peripheral lymphocytes adapted to the low-dose radiation from 3 H-TdR added in culture medium and became resistant to the subsequent irradiation with high-doses of X-rays. This response, which is called radio-adaptive response, is also induced by X-rays and gamma-rays in human lymphocytes and Chinese hamster V79 cells. However, the mechanisms of and conditions for adaptive responses to radiation have not been clarified. With an objective of clarifying the conditions for adaptive responses of cells to radiation, we examined how the cell to cell communication is involved in the adaptive responses. We irradiated normal human embryo-derived (HE) cells and cancer cells (HeLa) in culture at high density with low-dose X-ray and examined their radio-adaptive responses by measuring the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-ray irradiation using the Trypan Blue dye-exclusion test method. We also conducted experiments to examine the effects of Ca 2+ ions and Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (TPA) which are supposed to be involved in cell to cell communication. (author)

  6. Communication between mast cells and rat submucosal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Anna; Althaus, Mike; Diener, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Histamine is a mast cell mediator released e.g. during food allergy. The aim of the project was to identify the effect of histamine on rat submucosal neurons and the mechanisms involved. Cultured submucosal neurons from rat colon express H1, H2 and H3 receptors as shown by immunocytochemical staining confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with messenger RNA (mRNA) isolated from submucosal homogenates as starting material. Histamine evoked a biphasic rise of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in cultured submucosal neurons, consisting in a release of intracellularly stored Ca(2+) followed by an influx from the extracellular space. Although agonists of all three receptor subtypes evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, experiments with antagonists revealed that mainly H1 (and to a lesser degree H2) receptors mediate the response to histamine. In coculture experiments with RBL-2H3 cells, a mast cell equivalent, compound 48/80, evoked an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration of neighbouring neurons. Like the response to native histamine, the neuronal response to the mast cell degranulator was strongly inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine and reduced by the H2 receptor antagonist cimetidine. In rats sensitized against ovalbumin, exposure to the antigen induced a rise in short-circuit current (I sc) across colonic mucosa-submucosa preparations without a significant increase in paracellular fluorescein fluxes. Pyrilamine strongly inhibited the increase in I sc, a weaker inhibition was observed after blockade of protease receptors or 5-lipoxygenase. Consequently, H1 receptors on submucosal neurons seem to play a pivotal role in the communication between mast cells and the enteric nervous system.

  7. Long distance cell communication using spherical tether balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.; Rajagopalan, Vasudevan; Vasudevan, Rajagopalan; Mehrotra, R. K.; Sreenivasan, S.; Pawaskar, M.; Subba Rao Jonnalagadda, Venkata; Buduru, Suneelkumar; Kulkarni, P. M.

    A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted for long-range cell communication for rural tele-phony and internet. We designed and fabricated a spherical tether balloon to carry the con-ventional micro base transceiver station (BTS) along with three slotted antenna to cover 2-pi radius. AC power and optical fiber were anchored along with the tether line. A special fre-quency license was obtained from Wireless Planning Commission (WPC) wing of Department of Telecommunication (DoT), India for the period of experiment so as not to affect the opera-tional networks. The experiments were carried out for different BTS heights up to 500 meter. Signal measurement both in data mode and voice quality were done in different quadrant using mobile vans. This paper describes the methodology (under patenting) and utility of technique for operational application.

  8. Vectorial signalling mechanism required for cell-cell communication during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Veronica; Schujman, Gustavo E; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; de Mendoza, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis takes place in a sporangium consisting of two chambers, the forespore and the mother cell, which are linked by pathways of cell-cell communication. One pathway, which couples the proteolytic activation of the mother cell transcription factor σ(E) to the action of a forespore synthesized signal molecule, SpoIIR, has remained enigmatic. Signalling by SpoIIR requires the protein to be exported to the intermembrane space between forespore and mother cell, where it will interact with and activate the integral membrane protease SpoIIGA. Here we show that SpoIIR signal activity as well as the cleavage of its N-terminal extension is strictly dependent on the prespore fatty acid biosynthetic machinery. We also report that a conserved threonine residue (T27) in SpoIIR is required for processing, suggesting that signalling of SpoIIR is dependent on fatty acid synthesis probably because of acylation of T27. In addition, SpoIIR localization in the forespore septal membrane depends on the presence of SpoIIGA. The orchestration of σ(E) activation in the intercellular space by an acylated signal protein provides a new paradigm to ensure local transmission of a weak signal across the bilayer to control cell-cell communication during development. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Ochratoxim A alters cell adhesion and gap junction intercellular communication in MDCK cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mally, Angela; Decker, Martina; Bekteshi, Michaela; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most potent renal carcinogens studied to date, but the mechanism of tumor formation by ochratoxin A remains largely unknown. Cell adhesion and cell-cell communication participate in the regulation of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and growth control and it is therefore not surprising that modulation of cell-cell signaling has been implicated in cancer development. Several nephrotoxicants and renal carcinogens have been shown to alter cell-cell signaling by interference with gap junction intercell communication (GJIC) and/or cell adhesion, and the aim of this study was to determine if disruption of cell-cell interactions occurs in kidney epithelial cells in response to OTA treatment. MDCK cells were treated with OTA (0-50 μM) for up to 24 h and gap junction function was analyzed using the scrape-load/dye transfer assay. In addition, expression and intracellular localization of Cx43, E-cadherin and β-catenin were determined by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis. A clear decrease in the distance of dye transfer was evident following treatment with OTA at concentrations/incubation times which did not affect cell viability. Consistent with the functional inhibition of GJIC, treatment with OTA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in Cx43 expression. In contrast to Cx43, OTA did not alter total amount of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. Moreover, Western blot analysis of Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble protein fractions did not indicate translocation of cell adhesion molecules from the membrane to the cytoplasm. However, a ∼78 kDa fragment of β-catenin was detected in the detergent soluble fraction, indicating proteolytic cleavage of β-catenin. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed changes in the pattern of both β-catenin and E-cadherin labeling, suggesting that OTA may alter cell-adhesion. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that disruption of cell-cell

  10. Bacterial cell-cell communication in the host via RRNPP peptide-binding regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David ePerez-Pascual

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Human microbiomes are composed of complex and dense bacterial consortia. In these environments, bacteria are able to react quickly to change by coordinating their gene expression at the population level via small signaling molecules. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication is mostly mediated by peptides that are released into the extracellular environment. Cell-cell communication based on these peptides is especially widespread in the group Firmicutes, in which they regulate a wide array of biological processes, including functions related to host-microbe interactions. Among the different agents of communication, the RRNPP family of cytoplasmic transcriptional regulators, together with their cognate re-internalized signaling peptides, represents a group of emerging importance. RRNPP members that have been studied so far are found mainly in species of bacilli, streptococci, and enterococci. These bacteria are characterized as both human commensal and pathogenic, and share different niches in the human body with other microorganisms. The goal of this mini-review is to present the current state of research on the biological relevance of RRNPP mechanisms in the context of the host, highlighting their specific roles in commensalism or virulence.

  11. CMEIAS-Aided Microscopy of the Spatial Ecology of Individual Bacterial Interactions Involving Cell-to-Cell Communication within Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank B. Dazzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how the quantitative analytical tools of CMEIAS image analysis software can be used to investigate in situ microbial interactions involving cell-to-cell communication within biofilms. Various spatial pattern analyses applied to the data extracted from the 2-dimensional coordinate positioning of individual bacterial cells at single-cell resolution indicate that microbial colonization within natural biofilms is not a spatially random process, but rather involves strong positive interactions between communicating cells that influence their neighbors’ aggregated colonization behavior. Geostatistical analysis of the data provide statistically defendable estimates of the micrometer scale and interpolation maps of the spatial heterogeneity and local intensity at which these microbial interactions autocorrelate with their spatial patterns of distribution. Including in situ image analysis in cell communication studies fills an important gap in understanding the spatially dependent microbial ecophysiology that governs the intensity of biofilm colonization and its unique architecture.

  12. [Cell phone communication: hygienic characteristics, biological action, standardization (a review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudina, M V; Volkotrub, L P

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers the topical issues concerning the functioning of the cellular communication system. It provides the hygienic characteristics of its individual elements. The factors influencing the size of an electromagnetic field generated by mobile phones are stated. Research data on the impact of electromagnetic radiation from a mobile phone on users' health are reviewed. The pivots of present-day Russian hygienic rating regarding the permissible exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic energy generated by the elements of the cellular communication system are identified.

  13. Exosomal Heat Shock Proteins as New Players in Tumour Cell-to-cell Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Campanella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes have recently been proposed as novel elements in the study of intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. The biomolecular composition of exosomes reflects the specialized functions of the original cells. Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a group of chaperone proteins with diverse biological roles. In recent years, many studies have focused on the extracellular roles played by Hsps that appear to be involved in cancer development and immune system stimulation. Hsps localized on the surface of exosomes, secreted by normal and tumour cells, could be key players in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the course of different diseases, such as cancer. Exosomal Hsps offer significant opportunities for clinical applications, including their use as potential novel biomarkers for the diagnoses or prognoses of different diseases, or for therapeutic applications and drug delivery.

  14. Exosomal Heat Shock Proteins as New Players in Tumour Cell-to-Cell Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Campanella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes have recently been proposed as novel elements in the study of intercellular communication in normal and pathological conditions. The biomolecular composition of exosomes reflects the specialized functions of the original cells. Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a group of chaperone proteins with diverse biological roles. In recent years, many studies have focused on the extracellular roles played by Hsps that appear to be involved in cancer development and immune system stimulation. Hsps localized on the surface of exosomes, secreted by normal and tumour cells, could be key players in intercellular cross-talk, particularly during the course of different diseases, such as cancer. Exosomal Hsps offer significant opportunities for clinical applications, including their use as potential novel biomarkers for the diagnoses or prognoses of different diseases, or for therapeutic applications and drug delivery.

  15. Radiation-induced perturbation of cell-to-cell signalling and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, L.; Facoetti, A.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Alloni, D.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the bystander phenomena (i.e. the induction of damage in cells not directly traversed by radiation) is strictly related to the study of the mechanisms of intercellular communication and of the perturbative effects of radiation. A new possible way to try to solve the bystander puzzle is through a 'systems radiation biology' approach with the total integration of experimental and theoretical activities. In particular, this contribution will focus on: (1) 'ad hoc' experiments designed to quantify key parameters involved in intercellular signalling (focusing, as a pilot study, on release, decay and internalization of interleukin-6 molecules, their modulation by radiation, and possible differences between in vivo/in vitro behaviour); (2) the implementation and the development of two different modelling approaches: a stochastic model (based on a Monte Carlo code) that takes account of the local mechanisms of release and internalization of signalling molecules (e.g. cytokines) and an analytical model where signal molecules are treated as a population and their temporal behaviour is described by differential equations. This approach provided instruments to investigate the complex phenomena of signal transmission and the role of cell communication to guarantee (maintain) the robustness of the in vitro experimental systems against the effects of perturbations. (authors)

  16. Visfatin Reduces Gap Junction Mediated Cell-to-Cell Communication in Proximal Tubule-Derived Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the current study we examined if the adipocytokine, visfatin, alters connexin-mediated intercellular communication in proximal tubule-derived epithelial cells. Methods: The effects of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on cell viability and cytotoxicity in HK2-cells were assessed by MTT, crystal violet and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Western blot analysis was used to confirm expression of Cx26, Cx40 and Cx43. The effect of visfatin (10-200ng/mL on TGF-β1 secretion was confirmed by ELISA, and the effects of both TGF-β1 (2-10ng/mL and visfatin (10-200ng/mL on connexin expression were assessed by western blot. Functional intercellular communication was determined using transfer of Lucifer Yellow and paired-whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Results: In low glucose (5mM, visfatin (10-200ng/mL did not affect membrane integrity, cytotoxicity or cell viability at 48hrs, but did evoke a concentration-dependent reduction in Cx26 and Cx43 expression. The expression of Cx40 was unaffected. At 48hrs, visfatin (10-200ng/mL increased the secretion of TGF-β1 and the visfatin-evoked changes in connexin expression were mimicked by exogenous application of the pro-fibrotic cytokine (2-10ng/ml. Visfatin reduced dye transfer between coupled cells and decreased functional conductance, with levels falling by 63% as compared to control. Although input resistance was increased following visfatin treatment by 166%, the change was not significant as compared to control. The effects of visfatin on Cx-expression and cell-coupling were blocked in the presence of a TGF-β1 specific neutralizing antibody. Conclusions: The adipocytokine visfatin selectively evoked a non-toxic reduction in connexin expression in HK2-cells. The loss in gap-junction associated proteins was mirrored by a loss in functional conductance between coupled cells. Visfatin increased TGF-β secretion and the pattern of change for connexins expression was mimicked by exogenous

  17. Cell orientation and regulation of cell–cell communication in human mesenchymal stem cells on different patterns of electrospun fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jui-Chih; Fujita, Satoshi; Tonami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Hiroo; Kato, Koichi; Hsu, Shan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Cell behavior can be manipulated by the topography of the culture surface. In this study, we examined the intercellular communication and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown on electrospun fibers with different orientations and densities. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun scaffolds composed of aligned (1D) or cross-aligned (2D) fibers (1.0–1.2 µm diameter) with high, medium, or low fiber densities. It was found that cells preferred to adhere onto electrospun PCL fibers rather than on the flat substrate. The immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of vinculin, a focal adhesion protein, was limited to the periphery and the two extremities of aligned cells on the edge of the fibers. Electron microscopy showed that cells extended their lamellipodia across the adjacent fibers and proliferated along the direction of fibers. Cells grown on 1D fibrous scaffolds at all fiber densities had an obvious alignment. On 2D fibers, a higher degree of cell alignment was observed at the higher fiber density. On 1D scaffolds, the gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) quantified by the lucifer yellow dye transfer assay was significantly promoted in the aligned cells in the direction parallel to the fibers but was abolished in the direction perpendicular to the fibers. The expression of osteogenic marker genes (RUNX2, ALP, and OCN) was significantly enhanced in seven days by culture on 1D but not 2D fibers. It was thus proposed that the promoted osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs may be associated with the fiber-guided and directional induction of GJIC. (paper)

  18. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.; Cancedda, L.; Coluccio, M. L.; Nanni, M.; Pesce, M.; Malara, N.; Cesarelli, M.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Amato, F.; Gentile, F.

    2017-01-01

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can

  19. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  20. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  1. Investigation of the response of low-dose irradiated cells. Pt. 2. Radio-adaptive response of human embryonic cells is related to cell-to-cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Masami.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells and HeLa cells with low-dose X-ray and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. The results obtained were as follows; (1) When HE cells were irradiated by a high-dose of 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the living cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a preliminary irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the relative growth ratios increased significantly to 45-53%. (2) This preliminary irradiation effect was not observed in HeLa cells, being cancer cells. (3) When the HE cells suspended in a Ca 2+ iron-free medium or TPA added medium while receiving the preliminary irradiation of 13 cGy, the effect of the preliminary irradiation in increasing the relative growth ratio of living cells was not observed. (4) This indicates that normal cells shows an adaptive response to low-dose radiation and become more radioresistant. This phenomenon is considered to involve cell-to-cell communication maintained in normal cells and intracellular signal transduction in which Ca 2+ ion plays a role. (author)

  2. Strategy for signaling molecule detection by using an integrated microfluidic device coupled with mass spectrometry to study cell-to-cell communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sifeng; Zhang, Jie; Li, Haifang; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2013-01-15

    Cell-to-cell communication is a very important physiological behavior in life entity, and most of human behaviors are related to it. Although cell-to-cell communications are attracting much attention and financial support, rare methods have been successfully developed for in vitro cell-to-cell communication study. In this work, we developed a novel method for cell-to-cell communication study on an integrated microdevice, and signaling molecule and metabolites were online-detected by an electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF-MS) after on-chip solid-phase extraction. Moreover, we presented a "Surface Tension Plug" on a microchip to control cell-to-cell communication. The microdevice consists of three functional sections: cell coculture channel, targets pretreatment, and targets detection sections. To verify the feasibility of cell-to-cell communications on the integrated microdevice, we studied the communication between the 293 and the L-02 cells. Epinephrine and glucose were successfully detected using an ESI-Q-TOF-MS with short analysis time (communication study.

  3. Nano-topography Enhances Communication in Neural Cells Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Onesto, V.

    2017-08-23

    Neural cells are the smallest building blocks of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Information in neural networks and cell-substrate interactions have been heretofore studied separately. Understanding whether surface nano-topography can direct nerve cells assembly into computational efficient networks may provide new tools and criteria for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this work, we used information theory approaches and functional multi calcium imaging (fMCI) techniques to examine how information flows in neural networks cultured on surfaces with controlled topography. We found that substrate roughness Sa affects networks topology. In the low nano-meter range, S-a = 0-30 nm, information increases with Sa. Moreover, we found that energy density of a network of cells correlates to the topology of that network. This reinforces the view that information, energy and surface nano-topography are tightly inter-connected and should not be neglected when studying cell-cell interaction in neural tissue repair and regeneration.

  4. Exploring parent-sibling communication in families of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, J Carolyn; Hankins, Jane S; Hardy, Belinda T; Hall, Heather R; Roberts, Ruth J; Neely-Barnes, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Communication within families of children with sickle cell disease is important yet has not been adequately investigated. Focus group interviews were conducted with parents of children with sickle cell disease to explore parent-sibling communication about sickle cell disease. Communication was influenced by attributes and behaviors of the parent, the child with sickle cell disease, and the sibling; extended family, neighbors, friends, and church members or social networks; and available, accessible resources related to the child's health, child's school, and parent employment. Outcomes that influenced and were influenced by factors within and outside the parent-sibling dyad and nuclear family included parent satisfaction, parent roles, family intactness, and status attainment. These findings support previous research with African-American families and expand our views of the importance of educating parents, family members, and others about sickle cell disease. The findings suggest a need to explore sibling perception of this communication, parent and sibling perception of the impact of frequent hospitalizations and clinic visits on the sibling and family, and variations within families of children with sickle cell disease.

  5. Multiple Modes of Communication between Neurons and Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado, Paloma P; Angulo, María Cecilia

    The surprising discovery of bona fide synapses between neurons and oligodendrocytes precursor cells (OPCs) 15 years ago placed these progenitors as real partners of neurons in the CNS. The role of these synapses has not been established yet, but a main hypothesis is that neuron-OPC synaptic activity

  6. Cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) mediate diverse aspects of cell-cell communication in plant reproduction and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Eleanor; Costa, Liliana M; Gutierrez-Marcos, Jose

    2011-03-01

    Cell-cell communication in plants is essential for the correct co-ordination of reproduction, growth, and development. Studies to dissect this mode of communication have previously focussed primarily on the action of plant hormones as mediators of intercellular signalling. In animals, peptide signalling is a well-documented intercellular communication system, however, relatively little is known about this system in plants. In recent years, numerous reports have emerged about small, secreted peptides controlling different aspects of plant reproduction. Interestingly, most of these peptides are cysteine-rich, and there is convincing evidence suggesting multiple roles for related cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) as signalling factors in developmental patterning as well as during plant pathogen responses and symbiosis. In this review, we discuss how CRPs are emerging as key signalling factors in regulating multiple aspects of vegetative growth and reproductive development in plants.

  7. Multi-level communication of human retinal pigment epithelial cells via tunneling nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dierk Wittig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs may offer a very specific and effective way of intercellular communication. Here we investigated TNTs in the human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cell line ARPE-19. Morphology of TNTs was examined by immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. To determine the function of TNTs between cells, we studied the TNT-dependent intercellular communication at different levels including electrical and calcium signalling, small molecular diffusion as well as mitochondrial re-localization. Further, intercellular organelles transfer was assayed by FACS analysis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microscopy showed that cultured ARPE-19 cells are frequently connected by TNTs, which are not attached to the substratum. The TNTs were straight connections between cells, had a typical diameter of 50 to 300 nm and a length of up to 120 µm. We observed de novo formation of TNTs by diverging from migrating cells after a short time of interaction. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed characteristic features of TNTs. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that TNTs between ARPE-19 cells contain F-actin but no microtubules. Depolymerisation of F-actin, induced by addition of latrunculin-B, led to disappearance of TNTs. Importantly, these TNTs could function as channels for the diffusion of small molecules such as Lucifer Yellow, but not for large molecules like Dextran Red. Further, organelle exchange between cells via TNTs was observed by microscopy. Using Ca²⁺ imaging we show the intercellular transmission of calcium signals through TNTs. Mechanical stimulation led to membrane depolarisation, which expand through TNT connections between ARPE-19 cells. We further demonstrate that TNTs can mediate electrical coupling between distant cells. Immunolabelling for Cx43 showed that this gap junction protein is interposed at one end of 44% of TNTs between ARPE-19 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations indicate that

  8. On the Potential of Full Duplex Communication in 5G Small Cell Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Tavares, Fernando Menezes Leitão

    2015-01-01

    , the potential throughput gain may not be 100% as promised. In this study, we evaluate the performance of full duplex communication in a dense small cell scenario as targeted by future 5th Generation (5G) radio access technology under the ideal assumptions of a full buffer, always active traffic model...

  9. Full Duplex Communication Under Traffic Constraints for 5G Small Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatnau, Marta; Catania, Davide; Berardinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    the framework of 5th generation (5G) small cell systems in order to address its effective gain in such specific scenarios. The factors that affect FD performance are analysed, and its performance is evaluated against a traditional HD communication. System level simulations show that the gain of FD over HD...

  10. Contact-mediated and humoral communication between vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC) co-exist in close apposition to each other in all blood vessels except capillaries. Investigations of the metabolic interactions that may occur between these cells are essential to an understanding of vascular homeostasis and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The authors have developed two in vitro models of co-temporal vascular cell communication. The first facilitates reversible microcarrier-mediated gap junctional communication between EC and SMC monolayers. When either EC or SMC were prelabelled with 3 H-uridine, intracellular nucleotide rapidly transferred across the region of heterocellular attachment to the complementary cell population. Cytoplasmic continuity between EC and SMC allowed metabolic cooperation via ions and small molecules (<1.5 KD). Thus, vascular reactivity, particularly in the microcirculation where myoendothelial gap junctions have been observed, may involve cytoplasmic second messengers transported from EC to SMC. In the second model, humoral communication was established between separated cultures of EC and SMC which shared the same culture medium. Endothelial-specific stimulation of SMC growth and lipoprotein metabolism via soluble factors was demonstrated. Two mechanisms of stimulation of SMC lipoprotein metabolism were identified; one endothelial derived mitogen-dependent, the other mitogen-independent which was mediated via low molecular weight endothelial cell products

  11. In vitro study of stem cell communication via gap junctions for fibrocartilage regeneration at entheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Bibhukalyan Prasad; Goh, James Cho Hong; Toh, Siew Lok; Satpathy, Gyan Ranjan

    2010-03-01

    Entheses are fibrocartilaginous organs that bridge ligament with bone at their interface and add significant insertional strength. To replace a severely damaged ligament, a tissue-engineered graft preinstalled with interfacial fibrocartilage, which is being regenerated from stem cells, appears to be more promising than ligament-alone graft. Such a concept can be realized by a biomimetic approach of establishing a dynamic communication of stem cells with bone cells and/or ligament fibroblasts in vitro. The current study has two objectives. The first objective is to demonstrate functional coculture of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) with mature bone cells/ligament fibroblasts as evidenced by gap-junctional communication in vitro. The second objective is to investigate the role of BMSCs in the regeneration of fibrocartilage within the coculture. Rabbit bone/ligament fibroblasts were dual-stained with DiI-Red and calcein (gap-junction permeable dye), and cocultured with unlabeled BMSCs at fixed ratio (1:10). The functional gap junction was demonstrated by the transfer of calcein from donor to recipient cells that was confirmed and quantified by flow cytometry. Type 2 collagen (cartilage extracellular matrix-specific protein) expressed by the mixed cell lines in the cocultures were estimated by real-time reverse transcription PCR and compared with that of the ligament-bone coculture (control). Significant transfer of calcein into BMSCs was observed and flow cytometry analyses showed a gradual increase in the percentage of BMSCs acquiring calcein with time. Cocultures that included BMSCs expressed significantly more type 2 collagen compared with the control. The current study, for the first time, reported the expression of gap-junctional communication of BMSCs with two adherent cell lines of musculoskeletal system in vitro and also confirmed that incorporation of stem cells augments fibrocartilage regeneration. The results open up a path to envisage a composite

  12. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications

  13. The selective role of ECM components on cell adhesion, morphology, proliferation and communication in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina, E-mail: s.schlie@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ngezahayo, Anaclet, E-mail: ngezahayo@biophysik.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Biophysics, Leibniz University Hannover, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, Hannover 30419 (Germany); Chichkov, Boris N., E-mail: b.chichkov@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-06-10

    Cell binding to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell and tissue functions. In this context, each tissue consists of a unique ECM composition, which may be responsible for tissue-specific cell responses. Due to the complexity of ECM-cell interactions—which depend on the interplay of inside-out and outside-in signaling cascades, cell and tissue specificity of ECM-guidance is poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the role of different ECM components like laminin, fibronectin, and collagen type I with respect to the essential cell behaviour patterns: attachment dynamics such as adhesion kinetic and force, formation of focal adhesion complexes, morphology, proliferation, and intercellular communication. A detailed in vitro comparison of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and chondrocytes reveals significant differences in their cell responses to the ECM: cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand priority ranking, which was independent of the cell type origin. Fibroblasts responded best to fibronectin, chondrocytes best to collagen I, the other cell types best to laminin. This knowledge is essential for optimization of tissue-biomaterial interfaces in all tissue engineering applications and gives insight into tissue-specific cell guidance. -- Highlights: • We analyse the impact of ECM components on cell behaviour in vitro. • We compare five different cell types, using the same culture conditions. • The ECM significantly guides all cell responses. • Cell behaviour follows a cell specific ligand-priority ranking. • This gives insight in tissue formation and is essential for biomedical applications.

  14. Visualization of N-acylhomoserine lactone-mediated cell-cell communication between bacteria colonizing the tomato rhizosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steidle, A.; Sigl, K.; Schuhegger, R.

    2001-01-01

    developed and characterized novel Gfp-based monitor strains that allow in situ visualization of AHL-mediated communication between individual cells in the plant rhizosphere. For this purpose, three Gfp-based AHL sensor plasmids that respond to different spectra of AHL molecules were transferred into AHL......-negative derivatives of Pseudomonas putida IsoF and Serratia liquefaciens MG1, two strains that are capable of colonizing tomato roots. These AHL monitor strains were used to visualize communication between defined bacterial populations in the rhizosphere of axenically grown tomato plants. Furthermore, we integrated...

  15. Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C.

    2006-01-01

    In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels

  16. Cell walls as a stage for intercellular communication regulating shoot meristem development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eTameshige

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aboveground organs of plants are ultimately derived/generated from the shoot apical meristem (SAM, which is the proliferative tissue located at the apex of the stem. The SAM contains a population of stem cells that provide new cells for organ/tissue formation. The SAM is composed of distinct cell layers and zones with different properties. Primordia of lateral organs develop at the periphery of the SAM. The shoot apex is a dynamic and complex tissue, and as such intercellular communications among cells, layers and zones play significant roles in the coordination of cell proliferation, growth and differentiation to achieve elaborate morphogenesis. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of a number of singling molecules acting in the cell wall space for the intercellular communication, including classic phytohormones and secretory peptides. Moreover, accumulating evidences reveal that cell wall properties and their modifying enzymes modulate hormone actions. In this review, we overview how behaviors of singling molecules and changes of cell wall properties are integrated for the shoot meristem regulation.

  17. 7-Ketocholesterol modulates intercellular communication through gap-junction in bovine lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Paulo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Connexin43 (Cx43 is an integral membrane protein that forms intercellular channels called gap junctions. Intercellular communication in the eye lens relies on an extensive network of gap junctions essential for the maintenance of lens transparency. The association of Cx43 with cholesterol enriched lipid raft domains was recently demonstrated. The objective of this study is to assess if products of cholesterol oxidation (oxysterols affect gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC. Results Primary cultures of lens epithelial cells (LEC were incubated with 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH or cholesterol and the subcellular distribution of Cx43 was evaluated by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. The levels of Cx43 present in gap junction plaques were assessed by its insolubility in Triton X-100 and quantified by western blotting. The stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane following incubation with oxysterols was evaluated by biotinylation of cell surface proteins. Gap junction intercellular communication was evaluated by transfer of the dye Lucifer yellow. The results obtained showed that 7-keto induces an accumulation of Cx43 at the plasma membrane and an increase in intercellular communication through gap junction. However, incubation with cholesterol or 25-OH did not lead to significant alterations on subcellular distribution of Cx43 nor in intercellular communication. Data further suggests that increased intercellular communication results from increased stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane, presumably forming functional gap-junctions, as suggested by decreased solubility of Cx43 in 1% Triton X-100. The increased stability of Cx43 at the plasma membrane seems to be specific and not related to disruption of endocytic pathway, as demonstrated by dextran uptake. Conclusions Results demonstrate, for the first time, that 7-keto induces an increase in gap junction intercellular communication

  18. Tunneling Nanotubes are Novel Cellular Structures That Communicate Signals Between Trabecular Meshwork Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kate E; Bradley, John M; Sun, Ying Ying; Yang, Yong-Feng; Acott, Ted S

    2017-10-01

    The actin cytoskeleton of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells plays a role in regulating aqueous humor outflow. Many studies have investigated stress fibers, but F-actin also assembles into other supramolecular structures including filopodia. Recently, specialized filopodia called tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been described, which communicate molecular signals and organelles directly between cells. Here, we investigate TNT formation by TM cells. Human TM cells were labeled separately with the fluorescent dyes, DiO and DiD, or with mitochondrial dye. Fixed or live TM cells were imaged using confocal microscopy. Image analysis software was used to track fluorescent vesicles and count the number and length of filopodia. The number of fluorescently labeled vesicles transferred between cells was counted in response to specific inhibitors of the actin cytoskeleton. Human TM tissue was stained with phalloidin. Live-cell confocal imaging of cultured TM cells showed transfer of fluorescently labeled vesicles and mitochondria via TNTs. In TM tissue, a long (160 μm) actin-rich cell process bridged an intertrabecular space and did not adhere to the substratum. Treatment of TM cells with CK-666, an Arp2/3 inhibitor, significantly decreased the number and length of filopodia, decreased transfer of fluorescently labeled vesicles and induced thick stress fibers compared to vehicle control. Conversely, inhibiting stress fibers using Y27632 increased transfer of vesicles and induced long cell processes. Identification of TNTs provides a means by which TM cells can directly communicate with each other over long distances. This may be particularly important to overcome limitations of diffusion-based signaling in the aqueous humor fluid environment.

  19. Chemical communication between synthetic and natural cells: a possible experimental design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Leoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The bottom-up construction of synthetic cells is one of the most intriguing and interesting research arenas in synthetic biology. Synthetic cells are built by encapsulating biomolecules inside lipid vesicles (liposomes, allowing the synthesis of one or more functional proteins. Thanks to the in situ synthesized proteins, synthetic cells become able to perform several biomolecular functions, which can be exploited for a large variety of applications. This paves the way to several advanced uses of synthetic cells in basic science and biotechnology, thanks to their versatility, modularity, biocompatibility, and programmability. In the previous WIVACE (2012 we presented the state-of-the-art of semi-synthetic minimal cell (SSMC technology and introduced, for the first time, the idea of chemical communication between synthetic cells and natural cells. The development of a proper synthetic communication protocol should be seen as a tool for the nascent field of bio/chemical-based Information and Communication Technologies (bio-chem-ICTs and ultimately aimed at building soft-wet-micro-robots. In this contribution (WIVACE, 2013 we present a blueprint for realizing this project, and show some preliminary experimental results. We firstly discuss how our research goal (based on the natural capabilities of biological systems to manipulate chemical signals finds a proper place in the current scientific and technological contexts. Then, we shortly comment on the experimental approaches from the viewpoints of (i synthetic cell construction, and (ii bioengineering of microorganisms, providing up-to-date results from our laboratory. Finally, we shortly discuss how autopoiesis can be used as a theoretical framework for defining synthetic minimal life, minimal cognition, and as bridge between synthetic biology and artificial intelligence.

  20. Performance enhancement technique of visible light communications using passive photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jhao-Ting; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Hsu, Chin-Wei; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2017-06-01

    The light emitting diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) system can provide lighting and communication simultaneously. It has attracted much attenuation recently. As the photovoltaic cell (also known as solar cell) is physically flexible, low cost, and easily available, it could be a good choice for the VLC receiver (Rx). Furthermore, besides acting as the VLC Rx, the solar cell can convert VLC signal into electricity for charging up the Rx devices. Hence, it could be a promising candidate for the future internet-of-thing (IoT) networks. However, using solar cell as VLC Rx is challenging, since the response of the solar cell is highly limited and it will limit the VLC data rate. In this work, we propose and demonstrate for the first time using pre-distortion Manchester coding (MC) signal to enhance the signal performance of solar cell Rx based VLC. The proposed scheme can significantly mitigate the slow response, as well as the direct-current (DC) wandering effect of the solar cell; hence 50 times increase in data rate can be experimentally achieved.

  1. The neuropeptides CCK and NPY and the changing view of cell-to-cell communication in the taste bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herness, Scott; Zhao, Fang-Li

    2009-07-14

    The evolving view of the taste bud increasingly suggests that it operates as a complex signal processing unit. A number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and their corresponding receptors are now known to be expressed in subsets of taste receptor cells in the mammalian bud. These expression patterns set up hard-wired cell-to-cell communication pathways whose exact physiological roles still remain obscure. As occurs in other cellular systems, it is likely that neuropeptides are co-expressed with neurotransmitters and function as neuromodulators. Several neuropeptides have been identified in taste receptor cells including cholecystokinin (CCK), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Of these, CCK and NPY are the best studied. These two peptides are co-expressed in the same presynaptic cells; however, their postsynaptic actions are both divergent and antagonistic. CCK and its receptor, the CCK-1 subtype, are expressed in the same subset of taste receptor cells and the autocrine activation of these cells produces a number of excitatory physiological actions. Further, most of these cells are responsive to bitter stimuli. On the other hand, NPY and its receptor, the NPY-1 subtype, are expressed in different cells. NPY, acting in a paracrine fashion on NPY-1 receptors, results in inhibitory actions on the cell. Preliminary evidence suggests the NPY-1 receptor expressing cell co-expresses T1R3, a member of the T1R family of G-protein coupled receptors thought to be important in detection of sweet and umami stimuli. Thus the neuropeptide expressing cells co-express CCK, NPY, and CCK-1 receptor. Neuropeptides released from these cells during bitter stimulation may work in concert to both modulate the excitation of bitter-sensitive taste receptor cells while concurrently inhibiting sweet-sensitive cells. This modulatory process is similar to the phenomenon of lateral inhibition that occurs in other sensory systems.

  2. Astrocytes protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and upregulate survival genes via gap junctional communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingtang; Liu, Zhao; Ling, Feng; Xu, Geng

    2016-02-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor. Using current standard treatment regimens, the prognosis of patients with gliomas remains poor, which is predominantly due to the resistance of glioma cells to chemotherapy. The organ microenvironment has been implicated in the pathogenesis and survival of tumor cells. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that astrocytes (the housekeeping cells of the brain microenvironment) may protect glioma cells from chemotherapy and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Immunofluorescent and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that glioma cells were surrounded and infiltrated by activated astrocytes. In vitro co-culture of glioma cells with astrocytes significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects on glioma cells caused by various chemotherapeutic agents, as demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate-propidium iodide flow cytometry. Transwell experiments indicated that this protective effect was dependent on physical contact and the gap junctional communication (GJC) between astrocytes and glioma cells. Microarray expression profiling further revealed that astrocytes upregulated the expression levels of various critical survival genes in the glioma cells via GJC. The results of the present study indicated that the organ microenvironment may affect the biological behavior of tumor cells and suggest a novel mechanism of resistance in glioma cells, which may be of therapeutic relevance clinically.

  3. Non-linear elasticity of extracellular matrices enables contractile cells to communicate local position and orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessamine P Winer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Most tissue cells grown in sparse cultures on linearly elastic substrates typically display a small, round phenotype on soft substrates and become increasingly spread as the modulus of the substrate increases until their spread area reaches a maximum value. As cell density increases, individual cells retain the same stiffness-dependent differences unless they are very close or in molecular contact. On nonlinear strain-stiffening fibrin gels, the same cell types become maximally spread even when the low strain elastic modulus would predict a round morphology, and cells are influenced by the presence of neighbors hundreds of microns away. Time lapse microscopy reveals that fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stem cells on fibrin deform the substrate by several microns up to five cell lengths away from their plasma membrane through a force limited mechanism. Atomic force microscopy and rheology confirm that these strains locally and globally stiffen the gel, depending on cell density, and this effect leads to long distance cell-cell communication and alignment. Thus cells are acutely responsive to the nonlinear elasticity of their substrates and can manipulate this rheological property to induce patterning.

  4. Quorum sensing communication between bacteria and human cells: signals, targets and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika eHolm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Both direct and long-range interactions between pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria and their eukaryotic hosts are important in the outcome of infections. For cell-to-cell communication, these bacteria employ the quorum sensing (QS system to pass on information of the density of the bacterial population and collectively switch on virulence factor production, biofilm formation and resistance development. Thus, QS allows bacteria to behave as a community to perform tasks which would be impossible for individual cells, e.g. to overcome defense and immune systems and establish infections in higher organisms. This review highlights these aspects of QS and our own recent research on how P.aeruginosa communicates with human cells using the small QS signal molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL. We focus on how this conversation changes the behavior and function of neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells and on how the signaling machinery in human cells responsible for the recognition of AHL. Understanding the bacteria-host relationships at both cellular and molecular levels is essential for the identification of new targets and for the development of novel strategies to fight bacterial infections in the future.

  5. The Physical Microbe; An introduction to noise, control, and communication in the prokaryotic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Stephen J.

    2017-10-01

    Physical biology is a fusion of biology and physics. This book narrows down the scope of physical biology by focusing on the microbial cell; exploring the physical phenomena of noise, feedback, and variability that arise in the cellular information-processing circuits used by bacteria. It looks at the microbe from a physics perspective, asking how the cell optimizes its function to live within the constraints of physics. It introduces a physical and information-based (as opposed to microbiological) perspective on communication and signalling between microbes.

  6. Dielectric properties of biological tissues in which cells are connected by communicating junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-01-01

    The frequency dependence of the complex permittivity of biological tissues has been simulated using a simple model that is a cubic array of spherical cells in a parallel plate capacitor. The cells are connected by two types of communicating junctions: one is a membrane-lined channel for plasmodesmata in plant tissues, and the other is a conducting patch of adjoining plasma membranes for gap junctions in animal tissues. Both junctions provided similar effects on the dielectric properties of the tissue model. The model without junction showed a dielectric relaxation (called β-dispersion) that was expected from an interfacial polarization theory for a concentrated suspension of spherical cells. The dielectric relaxation was the same as that of the model in which neighbouring cells were connected by junctions perpendicular to the applied electric field. When neighbouring cells were connected by junctions parallel to the applied electric field or in all directions, a dielectric relaxation appeared at a lower frequency side in addition to the β-dispersion, corresponding to the so called α-dispersion. When junctions were randomly introduced at varied probabilities P j , the low-frequency (LF) relaxation curve became broader, especially at P j of 0.2-0.5, and its intensity was proportional to P j up to 0.7. The intensity and the characteristic frequency of the LF relaxation both decreased with decreasing junction conductance. The simulations indicate that communicating junctions are important for understanding the LF dielectric relaxation in tissues

  7. Dielectric properties of biological tissues in which cells are connected by communicating junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Koji

    2007-06-01

    The frequency dependence of the complex permittivity of biological tissues has been simulated using a simple model that is a cubic array of spherical cells in a parallel plate capacitor. The cells are connected by two types of communicating junctions: one is a membrane-lined channel for plasmodesmata in plant tissues, and the other is a conducting patch of adjoining plasma membranes for gap junctions in animal tissues. Both junctions provided similar effects on the dielectric properties of the tissue model. The model without junction showed a dielectric relaxation (called β-dispersion) that was expected from an interfacial polarization theory for a concentrated suspension of spherical cells. The dielectric relaxation was the same as that of the model in which neighbouring cells were connected by junctions perpendicular to the applied electric field. When neighbouring cells were connected by junctions parallel to the applied electric field or in all directions, a dielectric relaxation appeared at a lower frequency side in addition to the β-dispersion, corresponding to the so called α-dispersion. When junctions were randomly introduced at varied probabilities Pj, the low-frequency (LF) relaxation curve became broader, especially at Pj of 0.2-0.5, and its intensity was proportional to Pj up to 0.7. The intensity and the characteristic frequency of the LF relaxation both decreased with decreasing junction conductance. The simulations indicate that communicating junctions are important for understanding the LF dielectric relaxation in tissues.

  8. Intercellular Communication of Tumor Cells and Immune Cells after Exposure to Different Ionizing Radiation Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Diegeler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation can affect the immune system in many ways. Depending on the situation, the whole body or parts of the body can be acutely or chronically exposed to different radiation qualities. In tumor radiotherapy, a fractionated exposure of the tumor (and surrounding tissues is applied to kill the tumor cells. Currently, mostly photons, and also electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles such as carbon ions, are used in radiotherapy. Tumor elimination can be supported by an effective immune response. In recent years, much progress has been achieved in the understanding of basic interactions between the irradiated tumor and the immune system. Here, direct and indirect effects of radiation on immune cells have to be considered. Lymphocytes for example are known to be highly radiosensitive. One important factor in indirect interactions is the radiation-induced bystander effect which can be initiated in unexposed cells by expression of cytokines of the irradiated cells and by direct exchange of molecules via gap junctions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the indirect effects observed after exposure to different radiation qualities. The different immune cell populations important for the tumor immune response are natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the modulation of their functions due to ionizing radiation exposure of tumor cells. After radiation exposure, cytokines are produced by exposed tumor and immune cells and a modulated expression profile has also been observed in bystander immune cells. Release of damage-associated molecular patterns by irradiated tumor cells is another factor in immune activation. In conclusion, both immune-activating and -suppressing effects can occur. Enhancing or inhibiting these effects, respectively, could contribute to modified tumor cell killing after radiotherapy.

  9. Intercellular Communication of Tumor Cells and Immune Cells after Exposure to Different Ionizing Radiation Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegeler, Sebastian; Hellweg, Christine E

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can affect the immune system in many ways. Depending on the situation, the whole body or parts of the body can be acutely or chronically exposed to different radiation qualities. In tumor radiotherapy, a fractionated exposure of the tumor (and surrounding tissues) is applied to kill the tumor cells. Currently, mostly photons, and also electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles such as carbon ions, are used in radiotherapy. Tumor elimination can be supported by an effective immune response. In recent years, much progress has been achieved in the understanding of basic interactions between the irradiated tumor and the immune system. Here, direct and indirect effects of radiation on immune cells have to be considered. Lymphocytes for example are known to be highly radiosensitive. One important factor in indirect interactions is the radiation-induced bystander effect which can be initiated in unexposed cells by expression of cytokines of the irradiated cells and by direct exchange of molecules via gap junctions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about the indirect effects observed after exposure to different radiation qualities. The different immune cell populations important for the tumor immune response are natural killer cells, dendritic cells, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. In vitro and in vivo studies have revealed the modulation of their functions due to ionizing radiation exposure of tumor cells. After radiation exposure, cytokines are produced by exposed tumor and immune cells and a modulated expression profile has also been observed in bystander immune cells. Release of damage-associated molecular patterns by irradiated tumor cells is another factor in immune activation. In conclusion, both immune-activating and -suppressing effects can occur. Enhancing or inhibiting these effects, respectively, could contribute to modified tumor cell killing after radiotherapy.

  10. Communication Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus: Role of Protein Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, Sophie A; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-10-21

    Understanding how the information is conveyed from outside to inside the cell is a critical challenge for all biologists involved in signal transduction. The flow of information initiated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is mediated by the formation of adhesion complexes involving multiple proteins. Inside adhesion complexes, connective membrane skeleton (CMS) proteins are signal transducers that bind to adhesion molecules, organize the cytoskeleton, and initiate biochemical cascades. Adhesion complex-mediated signal transduction ultimately directs the formation of supramolecular structures in the cell nucleus, as illustrated by the establishment of multi complexes of DNA-bound transcription factors, and the redistribution of nuclear structural proteins to form nuclear subdomains. Recently, several CMS proteins have been observed to travel to the cell nucleus, suggesting a distinctive role for these proteins in signal transduction. This review focuses on the nuclear translocation of structural signal transducers of the membrane skeleton and also extends our analysis to possible translocation of resident nuclear proteins to the membrane skeleton. This leads us to envision the communication between spatially distant cellular compartments (i.e., membrane skeleton and cell nucleus) as a bidirectional flow of information (a dynamic reciprocity) based on subtle multilevel structural and biochemical equilibria. At one level, it is mediated by the interaction between structural signal transducers and their binding partners, at another level it may be mediated by the balance and integration of signal transducers in different cellular compartments.

  11. Mastoparan-Induced Intracellular Ca2+ Fluxes May Regulate Cell-to-Cell Communication in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. B.; Boss, W. F.

    1996-06-01

    The relationship of Ca2+ and plasmodesmatal closure was examined in staminal hairs of Setcreasea purpurea by microinjecting cells with active mastoparan (Mas-7), inactive mastoparan (Mas-17), active inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), or inactive IP3. Calcium green dextran 10,000 was used to study cellular free Ca2+, and carboxyfluorescein was used to monitor plasmodesmatal closure. When Mas-7 was microinjected into the cytoplasm of cell 1 (the tip cell of a chain of cells), a rapid increase in calcium green dextran-10,000 fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasmic areas on both sides of the plasmodesmata connecting cells 1 and 2 during the same time that the diffusion of carboxyfluorescein through them was blocked. The inhibition of cell-to-cell diffusion was transient, and the closed plasmodesmata reopened within 30 s. The elevated Ca2+ level near plasmodesmata was also transient and returned to base level in about 1.5 min. The transient increase in Ca2+, once initiated in cell 1, repeated with an oscillatory period of 3 min. Elevated Ca2+ and oscillations of Ca2+ were also observed near interconnecting cell walls throughout the chain of cells, indicating that the signal had been transmitted. Previously, we reported that IP3 closed plasmodesmata; now we report that it stimulated Ca2+ and oscillations similar to Mas-7. The effect was specific for similar concentrations of Mas-7 over Mas-17 and active IP3 over inactive IP3. It is important that the Ca2+ channel blocker La3+ eliminated the responses from Mas-7 and IP3, indicating that an influx of Ca2+ was required. These results support the contention that plasmodesmata functioning is regulated via Ca2+ and that IP3 may be an intermediary between the stimulus and Ca2+ elevations.

  12. Cell-to-cell communication in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia causing hypercortisolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eLefebvre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well established that, in the human adrenal gland, cortisol secretion is not only controlled by circulating corticotropin but is also influenced by a wide variety of bioactive signals, including conventional neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, released within the cortex by various cell types such as chromaffin cells, neurons, cells of the immune system, adipocytes and endothelial cells. These different types of cells are present in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, a rare etiology of primary adrenal Cushing’s syndrome, where they appear intermingled with adrenocortical cells in the hyperplastic cortex. In addition, the genetic events which cause the disease favor abnormal adrenal differenciation that results in illicit expression of paracrine regulatory factors and their receptors in adrenocortical cells. All these defects constitute the molecular basis for aberrant autocrine/paracrine regulatory mechanisms which are likely to play a role in the pathophysiology of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia-associated hypercortisolism. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on this topic as well as the therapeutic perspectives offered by this new pathophysiological concept.

  13. Methylmercury inhibits gap junctional intercellular communication in primary cultures of rat proximal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Minoru; Sumi, Yawara [Department of Chemistry, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Kujiraoka, Toru [Department of Physiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Hara, Masayuki [Department of Anatomy, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasagi (Japan); Nakazawa, Hirokazu [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Meisei University (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) causes renal injury in addition to central and peripheral neuropathy. To clarify the mechanism of nephrotoxicity by MeHg, we investigated the effect of this compound on intercellular communication through gap junction channels in primary cultures of rat renal proximal tubular cells. Twenty minutes after exposure to 30 {mu}M MeHg, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), which was assessed by dye coupling, was markedly inhibited before appearance of cytotoxicity. When the medium containing MeHg was exchanged with MeHg-free medium, dye coupling recovered abruptly. However, the dye-coupling was abolished again 30 min after replacement with control medium, and the cells were damaged. Intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, which modulates the function of gap junctions, significantly increased following exposure of the cells to 30 {mu}M MeHg and returned to control level following replacement with MeHg-free medium. These results suggest that the inhibiting effect of MeHg on GJIC is related to the change in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. (orig.) With 5 figs., 23 refs.

  14. The Self-Identity Protein IdsD Is Communicated between Cells in Swarming Proteus mirabilis Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saak, Christina C; Gibbs, Karine A

    2016-12-15

    Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain. These two proteins bind in vitro in an allele-restrictive manner. IdsD-IdsE binding is correlated with the merging of populations, whereas a lack of binding is correlated with the separation of populations. Key questions remained about the in vivo interactions of IdsD and IdsE, specifically, whether IdsD and IdsE bind within single cells or whether IdsD-IdsE interactions occur across neighboring cells and, if so, which of the two proteins is exchanged. Here we demonstrate that IdsD must originate from another cell to communicate identity and that this nonresident IdsD interacts with IdsE resident in the recipient cell. Furthermore, we show that unbound IdsD in recipient cells does not cause cell death and instead appears to contribute to a restriction in the expansion radius of the swarming colony. We conclude that P. mirabilis communicates IdsD between neighboring cells for nonlethal kin recognition, which suggests that the Ids proteins constitute a type of cell-cell communication. We demonstrate that self (kin) versus nonself recognition in P. mirabilis entails the cell-cell communication of an identity-encoding protein that is exported from one cell and received by another. We further show that this intercellular exchange affects swarm colony expansion in a nonlethal manner, which adds social communication to the list of potential swarm-related regulatory factors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Examining changes in cellular communication in neuroendocrine cells after noble metal nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Liu, Zhen; Haynes, Christy L

    2012-07-07

    As nanoparticles enjoy increasingly widespread use in commercial applications, the potential for unintentional exposure has become much more likely during any given day. Researchers in the field of nanotoxicity are working to determine the physicochemical nanoparticle properties that lead to toxicity in an effort to establish safe design rules. This work explores the effects of noble metal nanoparticle exposure in murine chromaffin cells, focusing on examining the effects of size and surface functionality (coating) in silver and gold, respectively. Carbon-fibre microelectrode amperometry was utilized to examine the effect of exposure on exocytosis function, at the single cell level, and provided new insights into the compromised functions of cells. Silver nanoparticles of varied size, between 15 and 60 nm diameter, were exposed to cells and found to alter the release kinetics of exocytosis for those cells exposed to the smallest examined size. Effects of gold were examined after modification with two commonly used 'bio-friendly' polymers, either heparin or poly (ethylene glycol), and gold nanoparticles were found to induce altered cellular adhesion or the number of chemical messenger molecules released, respectively. These results support the body of work suggesting that noble metal nanoparticles perturb exocytosis, typically altering the number of molecules and kinetics of release, and supports a direct disruption of the vesicle matrix by the nanoparticle. Overall, it is clear that various nanoparticle physicochemical properties, including size and surface coating, do modulate changes in cellular communication via exocytosis.

  16. Connexin 26-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication suppresses paracellular permeability of human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Hidekazu; Katsuno, Tatsuro; Hoshimoto, Aihiro; Hirano, Noriaki; Saito, Yasushi; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    In some cell types, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is associated with tight junctions. The present study was performed to determine the roles of GJIC in regulation of the barrier function of tight junctions. Caco-2 human colonic cells were used as a monolayer model, and barrier function was monitored by measuring mannitol permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The monolayers were chemically disrupted by treatment with oleic acid and taurocholic acid. Western blotting analyses were performed to evaluate the protein levels of connexins, which are components of gap junctional intercellular channels. Cx26 expression was detected in preconfluent Caco-2 cells, and its level increased gradually after the monolayer reached confluency. These results prompted us to examine whether overexpression of Cx26 affects barrier function. Monolayers of Caco-2 cells stably expressing Cx26 showed significantly lower mannitol permeability and higher TER than mock transfectants when the monolayers were chemically disrupted. The levels of claudin-4, an important component of tight junctions, were significantly increased in the stable Cx26 transfectant. These results suggest that Cx26-mediated GJIC may play a crucial role in enhancing the barrier function of Caco-2 cell monolayers

  17. Enabling cell-cell communication via nanopore formation: structure, function and localization of the unique cell wall amidase AmiC2 of Nostoc punctiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix M; Faulhaber, Katharina; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris; Stehle, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    To orchestrate a complex life style in changing environments, the filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme facilitates communication between neighboring cells through septal junction complexes. This is achieved by nanopores that perforate the peptidoglycan (PGN) layer and traverse the cell septa. The N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase AmiC2 (Npun_F1846; EC 3.5.1.28) in N. punctiforme generates arrays of such nanopores in the septal PGN, in contrast to homologous amidases that mediate daughter cell separation after cell division in unicellular bacteria. Nanopore formation is therefore a novel property of AmiC homologs. Immunofluorescence shows that native AmiC2 localizes to the maturing septum. The high-resolution crystal structure (1.12 Å) of its catalytic domain (AmiC2-cat) differs significantly from known structures of cell splitting and PGN recycling amidases. A wide and shallow binding cavity allows easy access of the substrate to the active site, which harbors an essential zinc ion. AmiC2-cat exhibits strong hydrolytic activity in vitro. A single point mutation of a conserved glutamate near the zinc ion results in total loss of activity, whereas zinc removal leads to instability of AmiC2-cat. An inhibitory α-helix, as found in the Escherichia coli AmiC(E. coli) structure, is absent. Taken together, our data provide insight into the cell-biological, biochemical and structural properties of an unusual cell wall lytic enzyme that generates nanopores for cell-cell communication in multicellular cyanobacteria. The novel structural features of the catalytic domain and the unique biological function of AmiC2 hint at mechanisms of action and regulation that are distinct from other amidases. The AmiC2-cat structure has been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession number 5EMI. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Intercellular Communication of Tumor Cells and Immune Cells after Exposure to Different Ionizing Radiation Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Diegeler, Sebastian; Hellweg, Christine E.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can affect the immune system in many ways. Depending on the situation, the whole body or parts of the body can be acutely or chronically exposed to different radiation qualities. In tumor radiotherapy, a fractionated exposure of the tumor (and surrounding tissues) is applied to kill the tumor cells. Currently, mostly photons, and also electrons, neutrons, protons, and heavier particles such as carbon ions, are used in radiotherapy. Tumor elimination can be supported by an e...

  19. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piraino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778 has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa. The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  20. Communicating the non-targeted effects of radiation from irradiated to non-irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laiakis, E.C.; Morgan, W.F.

    2005-01-01

    For many years, the central dogma in radiobiology has been that energy deposited in the cell nucleus is responsible for the biological effects associated with radiation exposure. However, non-targeted and delayed effects of radiation have shifted this belief. The studies of radiation-induced genomic instability, the bystander and abscopal effects, clastogenic factors, and the Death Inducing Effect have dominated the interest of the radiobiology field of late. The passing of signals from irradiated to non-irradiated cells can be accomplished through cell-to-cell gap junction communication or secretion of molecules, which in turn can elicit a response through activation of signal transduction pathways. Proposed mediators of this phenotype include proteins involved with inflammation. Given their size and connection with oxidative stress, cytokines are an attractive candidate as mediators of the induction of the non-targeted effects of radiation. Here we review the evidence for a possible connection between these delayed non-targeted effects of radiation and the cytokine cascades associated with inflammation. (author)

  1. Feasibility and Perceptions of Cell Phone-Based, Health-Related Communication With Adolescents in an Economically Depressed Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Cederna-Meko, Crystal; LaChance, Jenny L; Buttigieg, Angie; Le, Quoc; Nunuk, Irene; Ang, Joyce; Burrell, Katherine M

    2017-02-01

    We examined the feasibility and perception of cell-based (texting, voicemail [VM], and email/social media), health-related communication with adolescents in Genesee County, MI, where 22% reside below the poverty level. Results of an anonymous survey found that 86% of respondents owned a cell phone, 87% had data, 96% texted, 90.5% emailed/used social media, and 68% had VM. Most adolescents were interested in cell-based communication via texting (52%), VM (37%), and email/social media (31%). Interest in types of health communication included appointment reminders (99% texting; 94% VM; 95% email/social media), shot reminders (84.5% texting; 74.5% VM; 81% email/social media), call for test results (71.5% texting; 75% VM; 65% email/social media), medication reminders (63% texting; 54% VM; 58% e-mail/social media), and health tips (36% texting; 18.5% VM; 73% email/social media). Cell-based health-related communication with adolescents is feasible even within low socioeconomic status populations, primarily via texting. Health providers should embrace cell-based patient communication.

  2. Cell-to-Cell Communication Circuits: Quantitative Analysis of Synthetic Logic Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman-Sommer, Marta; Supady, Adriana; Klipp, Edda

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals in the field of synthetic biology is the construction of cellular computation devices that could function in a manner similar to electronic circuits. To this end, attempts are made to create biological systems that function as logic gates. In this work we present a theoretical quantitative analysis of a synthetic cellular logic-gates system, which has been implemented in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Regot et al., 2011). It exploits endogenous MAP kinase signaling pathways. The novelty of the system lies in the compartmentalization of the circuit where all basic logic gates are implemented in independent single cells that can then be cultured together to perform complex logic functions. We have constructed kinetic models of the multicellular IDENTITY, NOT, OR, and IMPLIES logic gates, using both deterministic and stochastic frameworks. All necessary model parameters are taken from literature or estimated based on published kinetic data, in such a way that the resulting models correctly capture important dynamic features of the included mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. We analyze the models in terms of parameter sensitivity and we discuss possible ways of optimizing the system, e.g., by tuning the culture density. We apply a stochastic modeling approach, which simulates the behavior of whole populations of cells and allows us to investigate the noise generated in the system; we find that the gene expression units are the major sources of noise. Finally, the model is used for the design of system modifications: we show how the current system could be transformed to operate on three discrete values. PMID:22934039

  3. Heavy-ion-induced bystander killing of human lung cancer cells. Role of gap junctional intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kosaku; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Nakano, Takashi; Funayama, Tomoo; Kakizaki, Takehiko

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanisms of cell death induced by heavy-ion irradiation focusing on the bystander effect in human lung cancer A549 cells. In microbeam irradiation, each of 1, 5, and 25 cells under confluent cell conditions was irradiated with 1, 5, or 10 particles of carbon ions (220 MeV), and then the surviving fraction of the population was measured by a clonogenic assay in order to investigate the bystander effect of heavy-ions. In this experiment, the limited number of cells (0.0001-0.002%, 5-25 cells) under confluent cell conditions irradiated with 5 or 10 carbon ions resulted in an exaggerated 8-14% increase in cell death by clonogenic assay. However, these overshooting responses were not observed under exponentially growing cell conditions. Furthermore, these responses were inhibited in cells treated with an inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), whereas they were markedly enhanced by the addition of a stimulator of GJIC. The present results suggest that bystander cell killing by heavy-ions was induced mainly by direct cell-to-cell communication, such as GJIC, which might play important roles in bystander responses. (author)

  4. Science, ethics and communication remain essential for the success of cell-based therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Dominici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based therapeutics, such as marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, are a standard of care for certain malignancies. More recently, a wider variety of cell-based therapeutics including the use of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, T-cells, and others show great promise in a wider range of diseases. With increased efforts to expand cell-based treatments to several clinical settings, many institutions around the world have developed programs to explore cellular therapy's potential for safe and effective applications. In legitimate investigations, usually conducted through academic centers or biotechnology industry-sponsored efforts, these studies are regulated and peer-reviewed to ensure safety and clear determination of potential efficacy. However, in some cases, the use of cell-based approaches is conducted with insufficient preclinical data, scientific rationale, and/or study plan for the diseases claimed to be treated, with patients being charged for these services without clear evidence of clinical benefit. In this context, patients may not be properly informed regarding the exact treatment they are receiving within a consenting process that may not be completely valid or ethical. Here, the authors emphasize the importance of distinguishing “proven cell-based therapies” from “unproven” and unauthorized cell-based therapies. This publication also addresses the necessity for improved communication between the different stakeholders in the field, patient associations, and advocacy groups in particular, to favor medical innovation and provide legitimate benefits to patients. Considering the progressive growth of cell-based treatments, their increasing therapeutic value and the expectation that society has about these therapies, it is critically important to protect patients and ensure that the risk/benefit ratio is favorable. This paper is a review article. Literature referred to in this paper has been listed in the

  5. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of "exogenous" signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and "endogenous" host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a "communications hub" in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell-cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  6. Trash or Treasure: extracellular microRNAs and cell-to-cell communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi eKosaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Circulating RNAs in human body fluids are promising candidates for diagnostic purposes. However, the biological significance of circulating RNAs remains elusive. Recently, small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs, were isolated from multiple human body fluids, and these circulating miRNAs have been implicated as novel disease biomarkers. Concurrently, miRNAs were also identified in the extracellular space associated with extracellular vesicles (EVs, which are small membrane vesicles secreted from various types of cells. The function of these secreted miRNAs has been revealed in several papers. Circulating miRNAs have been experimentally found to be associated with EVs, however, other types of extracellular miRNAs were also described. This review discusses studies related to extracellular miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs and secreted miRNAs, to highlight the importance of studying not only secreted miRNAs but also circulating miRNAs to determine the contribution of extracellular miRNAs especially in cancer development.

  7. An Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm Inspired from Cell Communication Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuncai Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA invented recently is a new swarm intelligence method based on fruit fly’s foraging behaviors and has been shown to be competitive with existing evolutionary algorithms, such as particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. However, there are still some disadvantages in the FOA, such as low convergence precision, easily trapped in a local optimum value at the later evolution stage. This paper presents an improved FOA based on the cell communication mechanism (CFOA, by considering the information of the global worst, mean, and best solutions into the search strategy to improve the exploitation. The results from a set of numerical benchmark functions show that the CFOA outperforms the FOA and the PSO in most of the experiments. Further, the CFOA is applied to optimize the controller for preoxidation furnaces in carbon fibers production. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the CFOA.

  8. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Withers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of “exogenous” signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and “endogenous” host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a “communications hub” in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell–cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases.

  9. Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells: Communications Hubs of the Intestinal Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R.; Hepworth, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of mammalian health requires the generation of appropriate immune responses against a broad range of environmental and microbial challenges, which are continually encountered at barrier tissue sites including the skin, lung, and gastrointestinal tract. Dysregulated barrier immune responses result in inflammation, both locally and systemically in peripheral organs. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are constitutively present at barrier sites and appear to be highly specialized in their ability to sense a range of environmental and host-derived signals. Under homeostatic conditions, ILC3 respond to local cues to maintain tissue homeostasis and restrict inflammatory responses. In contrast, perturbations in the tissue microenvironment resulting from disease, infection, or tissue damage can drive dysregulated pro-inflammatory ILC3 responses and contribute to immunopathology. The tone of the ILC3 response is dictated by a balance of “exogenous” signals, such as dietary metabolites and commensal microbes, and “endogenous” host-derived signals from stromal cells, immune cells, and the nervous system. ILC3 must therefore have the capacity to simultaneously integrate a wide array of complex and dynamic inputs in order to regulate barrier function and tissue health. In this review, we discuss the concept of ILC3 as a “communications hub” in the intestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues and address the variety of signals, derived from multiple biological systems, which are interpreted by ILC3 to modulate the release of downstream effector molecules and regulate cell–cell crosstalk. Successful integration of environmental cues by ILC3 and downstream propagation to the broader immune system is required to maintain a tolerogenic and anti-inflammatory tone and reinforce barrier function, whereas dysregulation of ILC3 responses can contribute to the onset or progression of clinically relevant chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:29085366

  10. Estrogenic compounds inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse Leydig TM3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Yumiko; Fukata, Hideki; Mori, Chisato

    2006-01-01

    Some estrogenic compounds are reported to cause testicular disorders in humans and/or experimental animals by direct action on Leydig cells. In carcinogenesis and normal development, gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays an essential role in maintaining homeostasis. In this study, we examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen), 17β-estradiol (E 2 , a natural estrogen), and genistein (GEN, a phytoestrogen) on GJIC between mouse Leydig TM3 cells using Lucifer yellow microinjection. The three compounds tested produced GJIC inhibition in the TM3 cells after 24 h. Gradually, 10 μM DES began to inhibit GJIC for 24 h and this effect was observed until 72 h. On the other hand, both 20 μM E 2 and 25 μM GEN rapidly inhibited GJIC in 6 h and 2 h, respectively. The effects continued until 24 h, but weakened by 72 h. Furthermore, a combined effect at μM level between DES and E 2 on GJIC inhibition was observed, but not between GEN and E 2 . DES and E 2 showed GJIC inhibition at low dose levels (nearly physiological estrogen levels) after 72 h, but GEN did not. DES-induced GJIC inhibition at 10 pM and 10 μM was completely counteracted by ICI 182,780 (ICl), an estrogen receptor antagonist. On the other hand, the inhibitory effects on GJIC with E 2 (10 pM and 20 μM) and GEN (25 μM) were partially blocked by ICI or calphostin C, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and were completely blocked by the combination of ICI and calphostin C. These results demonstrate that DES inhibits GJIC between Leydig cells via the estrogen receptor (ER), and that E 2 and GEN inhibit GJIC via ER and PKC. These estrogenic compounds may have different individual nongenotoxic mechanism including PKC pathway on testicular carcinogenesis or development

  11. [Metabolic changes in cells under electromagnetic radiation of mobile communication systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakimenko, I L; Sidorik, E P; Tsybulin, A S

    2011-01-01

    Review is devoted to the analysis of biological effects of microwaves. The results of last years' researches indicated the potential risks of long-term low-level microwaves exposure for human health. The analysis of metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure of microwaves from mobile communication systems indicates that this factor is stressful for cells. Among the reproducible effects of low-level microwave radiation are overexpression of heat shock proteins, an increase of reactive oxygen species level, an increase of intracellular Ca2+, damage of DNA, inhibition of DNA reparation, and induction of apoptosis. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases ERK and stress-related kinases p38MAPK are involved in metabolic changes. Analysis of current data suggests that the concept of exceptionally thermal mechanism of biological effects of microwaves is not correct. In turn, this raises the question of the need to revaluation of modern electromagnetic standards based on thermal effects of non-ionizing radiation on biological systems.

  12. RovS and its associated signaling peptide form a cell-to-cell communication system required for Streptococcus agalactiae pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pascual, David; Gaudu, Philippe; Fleuchot, Betty; Besset, Colette; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Guillot, Alain; Monnet, Véronique; Gardan, Rozenn

    2015-01-20

    Bacteria can communicate with each other to coordinate their biological functions at the population level. In a previous study, we described a cell-to-cell communication system in streptococci that involves a transcriptional regulator belonging to the Rgg family and short hydrophobic peptides (SHPs) that act as signaling molecules. Streptococcus agalactiae, an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium responsible for fatal infections in neonates and immunocompromised adults, has one copy of the shp/rgg locus. The SHP-associated Rgg is called RovS in S. agalactiae. In this study, we found that the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system is active in the strain NEM316 of S. agalactiae, and we identified different partners that are involved in this system, such as the Eep peptidase, the PptAB, and the OppA1-F oligopeptide transporters. We also identified a new target gene controlled by this system and reexamined the regulation of a previously proposed target gene, fbsA, in the context of the SHP-associated RovS system. Furthermore, our results are the first to indicate the SHP/RovS system specificity to host liver and spleen using a murine model, which demonstrates its implication in streptococci virulence. Finally, we observed that SHP/RovS regulation influences S. agalactiae's ability to adhere to and invade HepG2 hepatic cells. Hence, the SHP/RovS cell-to-cell communication system appears to be an essential mechanism that regulates pathogenicity in S. agalactiae and represents an attractive target for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Rgg regulators and their cognate pheromones, called small hydrophobic peptides (SHPs), are present in nearly all streptococcal species. The general pathways of the cell-to-cell communication system in which Rgg and SHP take part are well understood. However, many other players remain unidentified, and the direct targets of the system, as well as its link to virulence, remain unclear. Here, we identified the different players

  13. Intercellular communication and cell proliferation in precision-cut rat liver slices : effect of medium composition and DDT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, I.A.M.; Tajima, O.; Groten, J.P.; Wolterbeek, A.P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and cell proliferation were studied in control and 1,1'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2,-trichloroethane (DDT) treated precision-cut liver slices of rat by evaluating connexin 32 (Cx32) expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. In

  14. Effect of retinol and cigarette-smoke and condensate on dye-coupled intercellular communication between hamster tracheal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A.A.J.J.L.; Jongen, W.M.F.; Haan, L.H.J.de; Hendriksen, E.G.J.; Koeman, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The dye-coupled intercellular communication across gap junctions in primary hamster tracheal epithelial cells has been studied in serum-free, hormone-supplemented medium. In the absence of vitamin A, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cigarette-smoke condensate (CSC) inhibited intercellular

  15. Studies of Bystander Effect and Intercellular Communication in Human Epithelial Cell Cultures Irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romppanen, E.; Trott, K. R.; Musatonen, R.; Leszcznski, D.; Belyakov, O.

    2004-01-01

    The bystander effect is a phenomenon whereby biological consequences of irradiation are expressed in nonexposed cells in the vicinity of exposed cells. Two main pathways have been proposed to mediate the bystander effect: Gap Junction Intercellular Communication (GJIC) and medium borne soluble factors dependent mechanisms. The present study was designed to evaluate the relative contributions of gap junction intercellular communication and of soluble extracellular factors on the bystander effects of low dose X-ray irradiation. HaCaT human epithelial cell monolayers were exposed to X-ray using specially constructed shield, which cover 95% or 56% or 0% of the cells from the radiation. To evaluate whether the GJIC is involved in transmission of the bystander signal from irradiated to nonirradiated cells, irradiations were performed in presence or absence of GJIC inhibitor lindane. The cytochalasin B block technique was used to quantify fractions of micronucleated cells 48 hours after the irradiation. Our results suggest that more micronucleated cells are induced in partially shielded monolayers than expected according to back extrapolation of the data from open field irradiation. Treatment with lindane considerably reduced amount of the bystander damage. We demonstrated that fraction of micronucleated cells after X-rays irradiation of 5% of cells with 1 Gy was 0.07±0.08 (without lindane) and 0.05±0.004 (in presence of lindane). Irradiation of 100% of cells with the same dose resulted in 0.023±0.04 /without lindane) and 0.013±0.02 (in presence of lindane) fractions of micronucleated cells. Comparison with open field data showed that the fraction of micronucleated cells after irradiation of 5% of the cell culture was 5-10 times greater than the estimated fraction assuming no bystander effect. Irradiation of 44% of cells ded not demonstrate a pronounced bystander effect. (Author) 20 refs

  16. Use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J S

    1985-01-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate /sup 14/C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions.

  17. The use of cultured cells with defects of citrulline metabolism in diagnosis and in the study of intercellular communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.S.

    1985-02-01

    Citrullinemia and argininosuccinic aciduria are two disorders resulting from defects in two consecutive enzymes of the urea cycle, argininosuccinate synthetase and argininosuccinate lyase. Fibroblast cell lines were derived from patients with these disorders and the diagnoses, which had been made on the basis of amino acid levels in plasma and urine, were confirmed by demonstrating that the cell lines were unable to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. DNA from the argininosuccinate synthetase-deficient (ASS-) cells was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion and hybridisation to a cDNA probe which had been cloned from human argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA. No defect in the patient's DNA could be demonstrated, indicating that no major deletions in the argininosuccinate synthetase genes were present in this patient. Co-cultures of the ASS- and argininosuccinate lyase-deficient (ASL-) fibroblasts were able to incorporate 14 C-citrulline into protein. Co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells were used as an assay system for measuring intercellular junctional communication. This allowed quantitation of the effects of pH and extra-cellular divalent cations on junctional communication. Tumor promoters such as phorbol esters and organochlorine pesticides have been reported to inhibit intercellular junctional communication in other systems, and this inhibitory activity may be related to the mechanism of tumor promotion. Retinoic acid and other retinoids also inhibited junctional communication, and the inhibitory effects of retinoic acid and TPA were additive. It is concluded that co-cultures of ASS- and ASL-cells constitute a useful system for providing quantitative measurements of intercellular junctional communication under a wide range of experimental conditions

  18. Stat3 is a positive regulator of gap junctional intercellular communication in cultured, human lung carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geletu Mulu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoplastic transformation of cultured cells by a number of oncogenes such as src suppresses gap junctional, intercellular communication (GJIC; however, the role of Src and its effector Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 upon GJIC in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC has not been defined. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed high Src activity in NSCLC biopsy samples compared to normal tissues. Here we explored the potential effect of Src and Stat3 upon GJIC, by assessing the levels of tyr418-phosphorylated Src and tyr705-phosphorylated Stat3, respectively, in a panel of NSCLC cell lines. Methods Gap junctional communication was examined by electroporating the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow into cells grown on a transparent electrode, followed by observation of the migration of the dye to the adjacent, non-electroporated cells under fluorescence illumination. Results An inverse relationship between Src activity levels and GJIC was noted; in five lines with high Src activity GJIC was absent, while two lines with extensive GJIC (QU-DB and SK-LuCi6 had low Src levels, similar to a non-transformed, immortalised lung epithelial cell line. Interestingly, examination of the mechanism indicated that Stat3 inhibition in any of the NSCLC lines expressing high endogenous Src activity levels, or in cells where Src was exogenously transduced, did not restore GJIC. On the contrary, Stat3 downregulation in immortalised lung epithelial cells or in the NSCLC lines displaying extensive GJIC actually suppressed junctional permeability. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that although Stat3 is generally growth promoting and in an activated form it can act as an oncogene, it is actually required for gap junctional communication both in nontransformed lung epithelial cells and in certain lung cancer lines that retain extensive GJIC.

  19. Heterotypic contact reveals a COX-2-mediated suppression of osteoblast differentiation by endothelial cells: A negative modulatory role for prostanoids in VEGF-mediated cell: cell communication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkin, Claire E.; Garonna, Elena; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P.D.

    2008-01-01

    In bone, angiogenesis must be initiated appropriately, but limited once remodelling or repair is complete. Our recent findings have supported a role for prostaglandins (PG), known modulators of osteoblast (OB) and endothelial cell (EC) behaviour, in facilitating VEGF-mediated paracrine communication from OBs to 'remotely located' ECs, but the mechanism(s) regulating OB:EC crosstalk when these cells are closely opposed are undefined. In this study we have examined: (i) the effects of exogenous PGE 2 on VEGF-driven events in ECs, and (ii) the role of endogenous COX-2-derived prostanoids in mediating communication between intimately opposed OBs and ECs in direct contact. Exposure of ECs to PGE 2 increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, COX-2 induction, 6-keto-PGF 1α release and EC proliferation. In contrast, PGE 2 attenuated VEGF 165 -induced VEGFR2/Flk1 phosphorylation, ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of ECs, suggesting that exogenous PGE 2 restricts the actions of VEGF. However, the COX-2-selective inhibitor, NS398, also attenuated VEGF-induced proliferation, implying a distinct role for endogenous COX-2 activity in regulating EC behaviour. To examine the effect of OB:EC proximity and the role of COX-2 products further, we used a confrontational co-culture model. These studies showed that COX-2 blockade with NS398 enhanced EC-dependent increases in OB differentiation, that this effect was reversed by exogenous PGH 2 (immediate COX-2 product), and that exogenous VEGF did not influence EC-dependent OB differentiation under these conditions. Our findings indicate that locally produced prostanoids may serve distinct roles depending on OB:EC proximity and negatively modulate VEGF-mediated changes in EC behaviour when these cells are closely opposed to control angiogenesis during bone (re)modelling

  20. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  1. Xenobiotic Modulation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Randall

    1999-01-01

    .... These agents also inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). This inhibition may contribute to the enhancement of breast epithelial growth and breast cancer formation by xenobiotics...

  2. Participation of intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response of human fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells with low-dose X-rays and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the viable cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a conditioning irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the growth ratio increased significantly to 45-53%, and a peak was reached at a conditioning dose of 13 cGy. Cells blocked off intercellular communication either in Ca 2+ ion-free medium or in TPA added medium during the conditioning irradiation of 13 cGy did not show the improvement of growth ratio. Addition of H-7, as an inhibitor of PKC, to the medium during the conditioning irradiation inhibited the induction of the radio-adaptive response. However, addition of either inhibitor of A kinase, H-89, or inhibitor of G kinase, H-8, failed to inhibit the induction of the radio-adaptive response. These results suggest that: (1) normal cells show an adaptive response to low-dose radiation, (2) intercellular communication may play a role in radio-adaptive responses, (3) the transduction of the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation via protein kinase C was involved in radio-adaptive responses, not via A kinase nor G kinase. (author)

  3. Physically disconnected non-diffusible cell-to-cell communication between neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and DRG primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Victor V; Cho, Taehoon; Reid, Christopher B; Norris, Keith C

    2013-01-01

    Cell-cell communication occurs via a variety of mechanisms, including long distances (hormonal), short distances (paracrine and synaptic) or direct coupling via gap junctions, antigen presentation, or ligand-receptor interactions. We evaluated the possibility of neuro-hormonal independent, non-diffusible, physically disconnected pathways for cell-cell communication using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We assessed intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]) in primary culture DRG neurons that express ATP-sensitive P2X3, capsaicinsensitive TRPV1 receptors modulated by estradiol. Physically disconnected (dish-in-dish system; inner chamber enclosed) mouse DRG were cultured for 12 hours near: a) media alone (control 1), b) mouse DRG (control 2), c) human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y cells (cancer intervention), or d) mouse DRG treated with KCl (apoptosis intervention). Chemosensitive receptors [Ca(2+)](i) signaling did not differ between control 1 and 2. ATP (10 μM) and capsaicin (100nM) increased [Ca(2+)](i) transients to 425.86 + 49.5 nM, and 399.21 ± 44.5 nM, respectively. 17β-estradiol (100 nM) exposure reduced ATP (171.17 ± 48.9 nM) and capsaicin (175.01±34.8 nM) [Ca(2+)](i) transients. The presence of cancer cells reduced ATP- and capsaicin-induced [Ca(2+)](i) by >50% (pcommunication.

  4. Communication between corneal epithelial cells and trigeminal neurons is facilitated by purinergic (P2) and glutamatergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Duane J; Lee, Albert; Trinidad, Monique; Chi, Cheryl; Ren, Ruiyi; Rich, Celeste B; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that nucleotides released upon mechanical injury to corneal epithelium activate purinergic (P2) receptors resulting in mobilization of a Ca(2+) wave. However, the tissue is extensively innervated and communication between epithelium and neurons is critical and not well understood. Therefore, we developed a co-culture of primary trigeminal neurons and human corneal limbal epithelial cells. We demonstrated that trigeminal neurons expressed a repertoire of P2Yand P2X receptor transcripts and responded to P2 agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanical injuries to epithelia in the co-cultures elicited a Ca(2+) wave that mobilized to neurons and was attenuated by Apyrase, an ectonucleotidase. To elucidate the role of factors released from each cell type, epithelial and neuronal cells were cultured, injured, and the wound media from one cell type was collected and added to the other cell type. Epithelial wound media generated a rapid Ca(2+) mobilization in neuronal cells that was abrogated in the presence of Apyrase, while neuronal wound media elicited a complex response in epithelial cells. The rapid Ca(2+) mobilization was detected, which was abrogated with Apyrase, but it was followed by Ca(2+) waves that occurred in cell clusters. When neuronal wound media was preincubated with a cocktail of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitors, the secondary response in epithelia was diminished. Glutamate was detected in the neuronal wound media and epithelial expression of NMDA receptor subunit transcripts was demonstrated. Our results indicate that corneal epithelia and neurons communicate via purinergic and NMDA receptors that mediate the wound response in a highly orchestrated manner.

  5. Communication between corneal epithelial cells and trigeminal neurons is facilitated by purinergic (P2 and glutamatergic receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane J Oswald

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that nucleotides released upon mechanical injury to corneal epithelium activate purinergic (P2 receptors resulting in mobilization of a Ca(2+ wave. However, the tissue is extensively innervated and communication between epithelium and neurons is critical and not well understood. Therefore, we developed a co-culture of primary trigeminal neurons and human corneal limbal epithelial cells. We demonstrated that trigeminal neurons expressed a repertoire of P2Yand P2X receptor transcripts and responded to P2 agonists in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanical injuries to epithelia in the co-cultures elicited a Ca(2+ wave that mobilized to neurons and was attenuated by Apyrase, an ectonucleotidase. To elucidate the role of factors released from each cell type, epithelial and neuronal cells were cultured, injured, and the wound media from one cell type was collected and added to the other cell type. Epithelial wound media generated a rapid Ca(2+ mobilization in neuronal cells that was abrogated in the presence of Apyrase, while neuronal wound media elicited a complex response in epithelial cells. The rapid Ca(2+ mobilization was detected, which was abrogated with Apyrase, but it was followed by Ca(2+ waves that occurred in cell clusters. When neuronal wound media was preincubated with a cocktail of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor inhibitors, the secondary response in epithelia was diminished. Glutamate was detected in the neuronal wound media and epithelial expression of NMDA receptor subunit transcripts was demonstrated. Our results indicate that corneal epithelia and neurons communicate via purinergic and NMDA receptors that mediate the wound response in a highly orchestrated manner.

  6. HDAC inhibition amplifies gap junction communication in neural progenitors: Potential for cell-mediated enzyme prodrug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zahidul; Akhtar, Monira; Asklund, Thomas; Juliusson, Bengt; Almqvist, Per M.; Ekstroem, Tomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Enzyme prodrug therapy using neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as delivery vehicles has been applied in animal models of gliomas and relies on gap junction communication (GJC) between delivery and target cells. This study investigated the effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on GJC for the purpose of facilitating transfer of therapeutic molecules from recombinant NPCs. We studied a novel immortalized midbrain cell line, NGC-407 of embryonic human origin having neural precursor characteristics, as a potential delivery vehicle. The expression of gap junction protein connexin 43 (C x 43) was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. While C x 43 levels were decreased in untreated differentiating NGC-407 cells, the HDAC inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) increased C x 43 expression along with increased membranous deposition in both proliferating and differentiating cells. Simultaneously, Ser 279/282-phosphorylated form of C x 43 was declined in both culture conditions by 4-PB. The 4-PB effect in NGC-407 cells was verified by using HNSC.100 human neural progenitors and Trichostatin A. Improved functional GJC is of imperative importance for therapeutic strategies involving intercellular transport of low molecular-weight compounds. We show here an enhancement by 4-PB, of the functional GJC among NGC-407 cells, as well as between NGC-407 and human glioma cells, as indicated by increased fluorescent dye transfer

  7. INHIBITION OF GAP JUNCTIONAL INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION BY PERFLUORINATED COMPOUNDS IN RAT LIVER AND DOLPHIN KIDNEY EPITHELIAL CELL LINES IN VITRO AND SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS IN VIVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication (GJIC) is the major pathway of intercellular signal transduction, and is, thus, important for normal cell growth and function. Recent studies have revealed a global distribution of some perfluorinated organic compounds e...

  8. Interspecies communication between plant and mouse gut host cells through edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Jingyao; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Wang, Qilong; Jiang, Hong; Deng, Zhong-Bin; Wang, Baomei; Zhang, Lifeng; Kakar, Sham; Jun, Yan; Miller, Donald; Zhang, Huang-Ge

    2014-07-01

    Exosomes, small vesicles participating in intercellular communication, have been extensively studied recently; however, the role of edible plant derived exosomes in interspecies communication has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the biological effects of edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles (EPDENs) on mammalian cells. In this study, exosome-like nanoparticles from four edible plants were isolated and characterized. We show that these EPDENs contain proteins, lipids, and microRNA. EPDENs are taken up by intestinal macrophages and stem cells. The results generated from EPDEN-transfected macrophages indicate that ginger EPDENs preferentially induce the expression of the antioxidation gene, heme oxygenase-1 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10; whereas grapefruit, ginger, and carrot EPDENs promote activation of nuclear factor like (erythroid-derived 2). Furthermore, analysis of the intestines of canonical Wnt-reporter mice, i.e. B6.Cg-Tg(BAT-lacZ)3Picc/J mice, revealed that the numbers of β-galactosidase(+) (β-Gal) intestinal crypts are increased, suggesting that EPDEN treatment of mice leads to Wnt-mediated activation of the TCF4 transcription machinery in the crypts. The data suggest a role for EPDEN-mediated interspecies communication by inducing expression of genes for anti-inflammation cytokines, antioxidation, and activation of Wnt signaling, which are crucial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Short communication: Antiproliferative effect of wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from fermented foods on HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Y F; Zhang, L W; Yi, H X; Zhang, Y C; Zhang, W Q; Han, X; Du, M; Jiao, Y H; Wang, S M

    2010-06-01

    In vitro studies, animal models, epidemiology, and human intervention studies provide evidence that some lactic acid bacteria can reduce the risk of certain cancers. In this study, heat-killed bacterial cells, genomic DNA, and cell wall of 7 wild Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented foods in western China were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity on colonic cancer cell line HT-29 by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The heat-killed bacterial cells, genomic DNA, and cell wall of the 7 strains exhibited direct antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells. Among the strains, the cellular components of Lactobacillus coryniformis ssp. torquens T3L exerted marked antiproliferative activities against HT-29 cells. The maximum inhibition rates of HT-29 cells by the heat-killed bacterial cells (1x10(7) cfu/mL), cell wall (20 microg of protein/mL) and genomic DNA (100 microg/mL) of L. coryniformis ssp. torquens T3L were 30, 44.9, and 35.9%, respectively. The results indicate that the heat-killed bacterial cells, cell wall, and genomic DNA of the 7 wild Lactobacillus strains could inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating risks and benefits about ethically controversial topics: the case of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; McDonald, Michael; Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Many are supportive of approaches that incorporate lay citizens into policy making and risk management decisions. However, a great deal of learning must first take place about how citizen engagement for controversial topics is best accomplished. Online risk communication efforts are increasing in popularity but there is little empirical evidence accrued to demonstrate the effectiveness of such methods. The intention of our overall study is to create a powerful method for in-depth two-way communication with the public and expert communities about complex and sensitive issues at the heart of stem cell (SC) research. The fundamental objective is to raise awareness of SC science with lay citizens by fostering more holistic or "all things considered" ethical judgments. Our risk communication study demonstrates that lay citizens are both interested in, and capable of learning about, complex scientific issues provided the right tools are used to convey information and assess understanding. Our results show that it is worth the time and effort for SC researchers to continue posting podcasts and FAQ's about their work for non-expert communities to view. In addition, despite having increased our participants' risk perceptions about induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell research, almost all were very supportive of this type of research in Canada by the end of the survey. In other words, participants understood that this research did in fact pose some risks and learned a great deal about both the risks and benefits of iPS cell research, and still thought this research was worthwhile to pursue.

  11. ATP-dependent paracrine communication between enteric neurons and glia in a primary cell culture derived from embryonic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Chevalier, J; Boesmans, W; Roosen, L; van den Abbeel, V; Neunlist, M; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P

    2009-08-01

    The importance of dynamic interactions between glia and neurons is increasingly recognized, both in the central and enteric nervous system. However, apart from their protective role, little is known about enteric neuro-glia interaction. The aim was to investigate neuro-glia intercellular communication in a mouse culture model using optical techniques. Complete embryonic (E13) guts were enzymatically dissociated, seeded on coverslips and studied with immunohistochemistry and Ca(2+)-imaging. Putative progenitor-like cells (expressing both PGP9.5 and S-100) differentiated over approximately 5 days into glia or neurons expressing typical cell-specific markers. The glia-neuron ratio could be manipulated by specific supplements (N2, G5). Neurons and glia were functionally identified both by their Ca(2+)-response to either depolarization (high K(+)) or lysophosphatidic acid and by the expression of typical markers. Neurons responded to ACh, DMPP, 5-HT, ATP and electrical stimulation, while glia responded to ATP and ADPbetas. Inhibition of glial responses by MRS2179 suggests involvement of P2Y1 receptors. Neuronal stimulation also caused delayed glial responses, which were reduced by suramin and by exogenous apyrases that catalyse nucleotide breakdown. Conversely, glial responses were enhanced by ARL-67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor. In this mouse enteric co-culture, functional glia and neurons can be easily monitored using optical techniques. Glial cells can be activated directly by ATP or ADPbetas. Activation of neuronal cells (DMPP, K(+)) causes secondary responses in glial cells, which can be modulated by tuning ATP and ADP breakdown. This strongly supports the involvement of paracrine purinergic communication between enteric neurons and glia.

  12. HIV-1 intersection with CD4 T cell vesicle exocytosis: intercellular communication goes viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena eSoares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In cells of the immune system the secretion of extracellular vesicles is modulated through cellular activation. In particular, T cell activation is achieved through cell-cell contacts with antigen presenting cells and the consequent formation of a specialized signaling junction called the immunological synapse. Recent works on CD4 T cells have elucidated that cognate antigen recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR engages two distinct exocytic events. The first, involves the exocytic targeting of signaling molecules at the synaptic membrane and drives the functional architecture of the immunological synapse. The second, enlists the extracellular secretion of the TCR itself, once the functional architecture of the immunological synapse is accomplished. HIV-1, a human lymphotropic virus, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms to co-opt CD4 T cell physiology. Notably, it has become apparent that HIV-1 intersects the regulated secretory system of CD4 T cells in order to bud from the plasma membrane of the infected cell and to promote bystander cell death. Here, I review the relevance of CD4 vesicle exocytosis to immune regulation and to HIV-1 pathogenesis and discuss their potential therapeutic applications.

  13. Exposure Setup and Dosimetry for a Study on Effects of Mobile Communication Signals on Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rohland

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the design of an exposure setup used to study possible non-thermal effects due to the exposure of human hematopoietic stem cells to GSM, UMTS and LTE mobile communication signals. The experiments are performed under fully blinded conditions in a TEM waveguide located inside an incubator to achieve defined environmental conditions as required for the living cells. Chamber slides containing the cells in culture medium are placed on the septum of the waveguide. The environmental and exposure parameters such as signal power, temperatures, relative humidity and CO2 content of the surrounding atmosphere are monitored permanently during the exposure experiment. The power of the exposure signals required to achieve specific absorption rates of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 W kg−1 are determined by numerical calculation of the field distribution inside the cell culture medium at 900 MHz (GSM, 1950 MHz (UMTS and 2535 MHz (LTE. The dosimetry is verified both with scattering parameter measurements on the waveguide with and without containers filled with cell culture medium and with temperature measurements with non-metallic probes in separate heating experiments.

  14. Transfer of vesicles from Schwann cell to axon: a novel mechanism of communication in the peripheral nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra eLopez-Verrilli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwann cells (SCs are the glial component of the peripheral nervous system, with essential roles during development and maintenance of axons, as well as during regenerative processes after nerve injury. SCs increase conduction velocities by myelinating axons, regulate synaptic activity at presynaptic nerve terminals and are a source of trophic factors to neurons. Thus, development and maintenance of peripheral nerves are crucially dependent on local signalling between SCs and axons. In addition to the classic mechanisms of intercellular signalling, the possibility of communication through secreted vesicles has been poorly explored to date. Interesting recent findings suggest the occurrence of lateral transfer mediated by vesicles from glial cells to axons that could have important roles in axonal growth and axonal regeneration. Here, we review the role of vesicular transfer from SCs to axons and propose the benefits of this means in supporting neuronal and axonal maintenance and regeneration after nerve damage.

  15. US DOE-EM On-Site Disposal Cell Working Group - Fostering Communication On Performance Assessment Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Roger R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Site Restoration, Germantown, MD (United States); Phifer, Mark [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-03-01

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These facilities are typically developed with regulatory oversight from States and/or the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in addition to USDOE. The facilities are developed to meet design standards for disposal of hazardous waste as well as the USDOE performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. The involvement of multiple and different regulators for facilities across separate sites has resulted in some differences in expectations for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RA) that are developed for the disposal facilities. The USDOE-EM Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to performance and risk assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement. The working group holds teleconferences, as needed, focusing on specific topics of interest. The topics addressed to date include an assessment of the assumptions used for performance assessments and risk assessments (PA/RAs) for on-site disposal cells, requirements and assumptions related to assessment of inadvertent intrusion, DOE Manual 435.1-1 requirements, and approaches for consideration of the long-term performance of liners and covers in the context of PAs. The working group has improved communication among the staff and oversight personnel responsible for onsite disposal cells and has provided a forum to identify and resolve common concerns.

  16. Connexin 43 Communication Channels in Follicular Dendritic Cell Development and in Follicular Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Rajnai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular dendritic cells (FDC show homo- and heterocellular metabolic coupling through connexin 43 (Cx43 gap junctions and support B cell selection and maturation in germinal centers. In follicular lymphomas B cells escape apoptosis while FDC develop abnormally. Here we tested Cx43 channels in reactive FDC development and follicular lymphomas. In culture, the treatment of FDC-B cell clusters (resembling to “ex vivo” germinal centers with Gap27 peptide, mimicking the 2nd extracellular loop of Cx43 protein, significantly impaired FDC-B cell cluster formation and cell survival. In untreated cultures of intact clusters, cell proliferation showed a moderate reduction. In tissues, Cx43 protein levels run parallel with the density of FDC both in reactive germinal centers and in malformed follicles of follicular lymphomas and showed strong upregulation in newly generated and/or degrading bi-/multinuclear FDC of rudimentary processes. However, the inverse correlation between Cx43 expression and B cell proliferation seen in reactive germinal centers was not detected in follicular lymphomas. Furthermore, Cx43 levels were not associated with either lymphoma grade or bone marrow involvement. Our results suggest that Cx43 channels are critical in FDC and “ex vivo” germinal center development and in the persistence of FDC in follicular lymphomas but do not affect tumor progression.

  17. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog.

  18. GGPP-Mediated Protein Geranylgeranylation in Oocyte Is Essential for the Establishment of Oocyte-Granulosa Cell Communication and Primary-Secondary Follicle Transition in Mouse Ovary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Folliculogenesis is a progressive and highly regulated process, which is essential to provide ova for later reproductive life, requires the bidirectional communication between the oocyte and granulosa cells. This physical connection-mediated communication conveys not only the signals from the oocyte to granulosa cells that regulate their proliferation but also metabolites from the granulosa cells to the oocyte for biosynthesis. However, the underlying mechanism of establishing this communication is largely unknown. Here, we report that oocyte geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP, a metabolic intermediate involved in protein geranylgeranylation, is required to establish the oocyte-granulosa cell communication. GGPP and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (Ggpps levels in oocytes increased during early follicular development. The selective depletion of GGPP in mouse oocytes impaired the proliferation of granulosa cells, primary-secondary follicle transition and female fertility. Mechanistically, GGPP depletion inhibited Rho GTPase geranylgeranylation and its GTPase activity, which was responsible for the accumulation of cell junction proteins in the oocyte cytoplasm and the failure to maintain physical connection between oocyte and granulosa cells. GGPP ablation also blocked Rab27a geranylgeranylation, which might account for the impaired secretion of oocyte materials such as Gdf9. Moreover, GGPP administration restored the defects in oocyte-granulosa cell contact, granulosa cell proliferation and primary-secondary follicle transition in Ggpps depletion mice. Our study provides the evidence that GGPP-mediated protein geranylgeranylation contributes to the establishment of oocyte-granulosa cell communication and then regulates the primary-secondary follicle transition, a key phase of folliculogenesis essential for female reproductive function.

  19. Programmable full-adder computations in communicating three-dimensional cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausländer, David; Ausländer, Simon; Pierrat, Xavier; Hellmann, Leon; Rachid, Leila; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic biologists have advanced the design of trigger-inducible gene switches and their assembly into input-programmable circuits that enable engineered human cells to perform arithmetic calculations reminiscent of electronic circuits. By designing a versatile plug-and-play molecular-computation platform, we have engineered nine different cell populations with genetic programs, each of which encodes a defined computational instruction. When assembled into 3D cultures, these engineered cell consortia execute programmable multicellular full-adder logics in response to three trigger compounds.

  20. Autophagy and gap junctional intercellular communication inhibition are involved in cadmium-induced apoptosis in rat liver cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Hui [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Zhuo, Liling [College of Life Science, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong, 277160 (China); Han, Tao; Hu, Di; Yang, Xiaokang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Gu, Jianhong; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China); Liu, Zongping, E-mail: liuzongping@yzu.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, 225009 (China)

    2015-04-17

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to induce hepatotoxicity, yet the underlying mechanism of how this occurs is not fully understood. In this study, Cd-induced apoptosis was demonstrated in rat liver cells (BRL 3A) with apoptotic nuclear morphological changes and a decrease in cell index (CI) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and autophagy in Cd-induced apoptosis was investigated. Cd significantly induced GJIC inhibition as well as downregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43). The prototypical gap junction blocker carbenoxolone disodium (CBX) exacerbated the Cd-induced decrease in CI. Cd treatment was also found to cause autophagy, with an increase in mRNA expression of autophagy-related genes Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion from cytosolic LC3-I to membrane-bound LC3-II. The autophagic inducer rapamycin (RAP) prevented the Cd-induced CI decrease, while the autophagic inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused a further reduction in CI. In addition, CBX promoted Cd-induced autophagy, as well as changes in expression of Atg-5, Atg-7, Beclin-1 and LC3. CQ was found to block the Cd-induced decrease in Cx43 and GJIC inhibition, whereas RAP had opposite effect. These results demonstrate that autophagy plays a protective role during Cd-induced apoptosis in BRL 3A cells during 6 h of experiment, while autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition which has a negative effect on cellular fate. - Highlights: • GJIC and autophagy is crucial for biological processes. • Cd exposure causes GJIC inhibition and autophagy increase in BRL 3A cells. • Autophagy protects Cd induced BRL 3A cells apoptosis at an early stage. • Autophagy exacerbates Cd-induced GJIC inhibition. • GJIC plays an important role in autophagy induced cell death or survival.

  1. Modulatory effects of cAMP and PKC activation on gap junctional intercellular communication among thymic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves-dos-Santos Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the effects of the signaling molecules, cyclic AMP (cAMP and protein-kinase C (PKC, on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC between thymic epithelial cells (TEC. Results Treatment with 8-Br-cAMP, a cAMP analog; or forskolin, which stimulates cAMP production, resulted in an increase in dye transfer between adjacent TEC, inducing a three-fold enhancement in the mean fluorescence of coupled cells, ascertained by flow cytometry after calcein transfer. These treatments also increased Cx43 mRNA expression, and stimulated Cx43 protein accumulation in regions of intercellular contacts. VIP, adenosine, and epinephrine which may also signal through cyclic nucleotides were tested. The first two molecules did not mimic the effects of 8-Br-cAMP, however epinephrine was able to increase GJIC suggesting that this molecule functions as an endogenous inter-TEC GJIC modulators. Stimulation of PKC by phorbol-myristate-acetate inhibited inter-TEC GJIC. Importantly, both the enhancing and the decreasing effects, respectively induced by cAMP and PKC, were observed in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, experiments using mouse thymocyte/TEC heterocellular co-cultures suggested that the presence of thymocytes does not affect the degree of inter-TEC GJIC. Conclusions Overall, our data indicate that cAMP and PKC intracellular pathways are involved in the homeostatic control of the gap junction-mediated communication in the thymic epithelium, exerting respectively a positive and negative role upon cell coupling. This control is phylogenetically conserved in the thymus, since it was seen in both mouse and human TEC preparations. Lastly, our work provides new clues for a better understanding of how the thymic epithelial network can work as a physiological syncytium.

  2. Xenobiotic Modulation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Gap junctional Intercellular Communication and Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Randall

    1998-01-01

    ...), phthalate esters, and dioxin have been implicated in this increase. Many xenobiotics such as DDT and PCBs have weak estrogenic activity and may enhance breast cancer formation by an estrogenic effect on breast epithelial cell growth...

  3. Xenobiotic Modulation of Human Mammary Epithelial Cell Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruch, Randall

    1997-01-01

    ...), phthalate esters, and dioxin have been implicated in this increase. Many xenobiotics such as DDT and PCBs have weak estrogenic activity and may enhance breast cancer formation by an estrogenic effect on breast epithelial cell growth...

  4. Ghrelin is involved in the paracrine communication between neurons and glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avau, B; De Smet, B; Thijs, T; Geuzens, A; Tack, J; Vanden Berghe, P; Depoortere, I

    2013-09-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally active orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that activates vagal afferents to stimulate food intake and to accelerate gastric emptying. Vagal sensory neurons within the nodose ganglia are surrounded by glial cells, which are able to receive and transmit chemical signals. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin activates or influences the interaction between both types of cells. The effect of ghrelin was compared with that of leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK). Cultures of rat nodose ganglia were characterized by immunohistochemistry and the functional effects of peptides, neurotransmitters, and pharmacological blockers were measured by Ca(2+) imaging using Fluo-4-AM as an indicator. Neurons responded to KCl and were immunoreactive for PGP-9.5 whereas glial cells responded to lysophosphatidic acid and had the typical SOX-10-positive nuclear staining. Neurons were only responsive to CCK (31 ± 5%) whereas glial cells responded equally to the applied stimuli: ghrelin (27 ± 2%), leptin (21 ± 2%), and CCK (30 ± 2%). In contrast, neurons stained more intensively for the ghrelin receptor than glial cells. ATP induced [Ca(2+) ]i rises in 90% of the neurons whereas ACh and the NO donor, SIN-1, mainly induced [Ca(2+) ]i changes in glial cells (41 and 51%, respectively). The percentage of ghrelin-responsive glial cells was not affected by pretreatment with suramin, atropine, hexamethonium or 1400 W, but was reduced by l-NAME and by tetrodotoxin. Neurons were shown to be immunoreactive for neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS). Our data show that ghrelin induces Ca(2+) signaling in glial cells of the nodose ganglion via the release of NO originating from the neurons. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Short communication: selective cytotoxicity of curcumin on osteosarcoma cells compared to healthy osteoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Run Chang,1 Linlin Sun,1 Thomas J Webster1,21Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Curcumin is a natural phenolic compound extracted from the plant Curcuma longa L. In previous studies, curcumin has been shown to have anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity of different concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 µM of curcumin dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide was compared between MG-63 osteosarcoma and healthy human osteoblast cells. Consequently, the viability of osteosarcoma cells was less than 50% at a concentration of 10 µM compared to the control sample without curcumin, but healthy osteoblast cells had at least 80% viability throughout all the concentrations tested. The results demonstrated that MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were much more sensitive in terms of cytotoxicity to curcumin, while the healthy human osteoblasts exhibited a higher healthy viability after 24 hours of curcumin treatment. Therefore, this study showed that at the right concentrations (5 µM to 25 µM, curcumin, along with a proper nanoparticle drug delivery carrier, may selectively kill bone cancer cells over healthy bone cells.Keywords: curcumin, osteosarcoma, human osteoblast, viability, bone cancer

  6. Communication between B-Cells and Microbiota for the Maintenance of Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestine is populated with an extremely dense and diverse bacterial community. Commensal bacteria act as an important antigenic stimulus producing the maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. The production of immunoglobulin (Ig A by B-cells in the GALT is one of the immune responses following intestinal colonization of bacteria. The switch of B-cells from IgM to IgA-producing cells in the Peyer’s patches and neighboring lamina propria proceeds by T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent mechanisms. Several grams of secretory IgA (SIgA are released into the intestine each day. SIgA serves as a first-line of defense in protecting the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. SIgA has a capacity to directly quench bacterial virulence factors, influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and promote the transportation of antigens across the intestinal epithelium to GALT and down-regulate proinflammatory responses associated with the uptake of highly pathogenic bacteria and potentially allergenic antigens. This review summarizes the reciprocal interactions between intestinal B cells and bacteria, specifically, the formation of IgA in the gut, the role of intestinal IgA in the regulation of bacterial communities and the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, and the effects of probiotics on IgA levels in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Sunday O; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid), Web of Science (ISI), and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication) to either make calls or send text messages. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  8. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  9. Modelling emergence of oscillations in communicating bacteria: a structured approach from one to many cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Petros; di Bernardo, Mario; Savery, Nigel J; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira

    2013-01-06

    Population-level measurements of phenotypic behaviour in biological systems may not necessarily reflect individual cell behaviour. To assess qualitative changes in the behaviour of a single cell, when alone and when part of a community, we developed an agent-based model describing the metabolic states of a population of quorum-coupled cells. The modelling is motivated by published experimental work of a synthetic genetic regulatory network (GRN) used in Escherichia coli cells that exhibit oscillatory behaviour across the population. To decipher the mechanisms underlying oscillations in the system, we investigate the behaviour of the model via numerical simulation and bifurcation analysis. In particular, we study the effect of an increase in population size as well as the spatio-temporal behaviour of the model. Our results demonstrate that oscillations are possible only in the presence of a high concentration of the coupling chemical and are due to a time scale separation in key regulatory components of the system. The model suggests that the population establishes oscillatory behaviour as the system's preferred stable state. This is achieved via an effective increase in coupling across the population. We conclude that population effects in GRN design need to be taken into consideration and be part of the design process. This is important in planning intervention strategies or designing specific cell behaviours.

  10. Spindle disturbances in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells induced by mobile communication frequency range signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Thorsten; Münter, Klaus; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schmid, Ernst

    2008-12-01

    The production of spindle disturbances in FC2 cells, a human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cell line, by non-ionizing radiation was studied using an electromagnetic field with a field strength of 90 V/m at a frequency of 835 MHz. Due to the given experimental conditions slide flask cultures were exposed at room temperature in a microTEM (transversal electromagnetic field) cell, which allows optimal experimental conditions for small samples of biological material. Numerical calculations suggest that specific absorption rates of up to 60 mW/kg are reached for maximum field exposure. All exposure field parameters--either measured or calculable--are precisely defined and, for the first time, traceable to the standards of the SI system of physical units. Compared with co-incident negative controls, the results of two independently performed experiments suggest that exposure periods of time from 0.5 to 2 h with an electric field strength of 90 V/m are spindle acting agents as predominately indicated by the appearance of spindle disturbances at the ana- and telophase stages (especially lagging and non-disjunction of single chromosomes) of cell divisions. The spindle disturbances do not change the fraction of mitotic cells with increasing exposure time up to 2 h. Due to the applied experimental conditions an influence of temperature as a confounder parameter for spindle disturbances can be excluded.

  11. Synaptic communication and signal processing among sensory cells in taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2014-08-15

    Taste buds (sensory structures embedded in oral epithelium) show a remarkable diversity of transmitters synthesized and secreted locally. The known transmitters accumulate in a cell type selective manner, with 5-HT and noradrenaline being limited to presynaptic cells, GABA being synthesized in both presynaptic and glial-like cells, and acetylcholine and ATP used for signalling by receptor cells. Each of these transmitters participates in local negative or positive feedback circuits that target particular cell types. Overall, the role of ATP is the best elucidated. ATP serves as a principal afferent transmitter, and also is the key trigger for autocrine positive feedback and paracrine circuits that result in potentiation (via adenosine) or inhibition (via GABA or 5-HT). While many of the cellular receptors and mechanisms for these circuits are known, their impact on sensory detection and perception remains to be elaborated in most instances. This brief review examines what is known, and some of the open questions and controversies surrounding the transmitters and circuits of the taste periphery. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  12. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  13. S-aryl-L-cysteine sulphoxides and related organosulphur compounds alter oral biofilm development and AI-2-based cell-cell communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S H; Samarian, D; Jadhav, A P; Rickard, A H; Musah, R A; Cady, N C

    2014-11-01

    To design and synthesize a library of structurally related, small molecules related to homologues of compounds produced by the plant Petiveria alliacea and determine their ability to interfere with AI-2 cell-cell communication and biofilm formation by oral bacteria. Many human diseases are associated with persistent bacterial biofilms. Oral biofilms (dental plaque) are problematic as they are often associated with tooth decay, periodontal disease and systemic disorders such as heart disease and diabetes. Using a microplate-based approach, a bio-inspired small molecule library was screened for anti-biofilm activity against the oral species Streptococcus mutans UA159, Streptococcus sanguis 10556 and Actinomyces oris MG1. To complement the static screen, a flow-based BioFlux microfluidic system screen was also performed under conditions representative of the human oral cavity. Several compounds were found to display biofilm inhibitory activity in all three of the oral bacteria tested. These compounds were also shown to inhibit bioluminescence by Vibrio harveyi and were thus inferred to be quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Due to the structural similarity of these compounds to each other, and to key molecules in AI-2 biosynthetic pathways, we propose that these molecules potentially reduce biofilm formation via antagonism of QS or QS-related pathways. This study highlights the potential for a non-antimicrobial-based strategy, focused on AI-2 cell-cell signalling, to control the development of dental plaque. Considering that many bacterial species use AI-2 cell-cell signalling, as well as the increased concern of the use of antimicrobials in healthcare products, such an anti-biofilm approach could also be used to control biofilms in environments beyond the human oral cavity. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  15. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  16. Method of configuring a cell of a wireless communication system for improved resource utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    At least one base station of a wireless network adjusts its access area so as to drive at least one measure of utilization of a resource or resources of that cell toward, but not to exceed, a specified maximum level. The adjustment is dynamic in that it responds in real time to traffic fluctuations.

  17. Transglial transmission at the dorsal root ganglion sandwich synapse: glial cell to postsynaptic neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Gabriela M; Li, Qi; Stanley, Elise F

    2013-04-01

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) contains a subset of closely-apposed neuronal somata (NS) separated solely by a thin satellite glial cell (SGC) membrane septum to form an NS-glial cell-NS trimer. We recently reported that stimulation of one NS with an impulse train triggers a delayed, noisy and long-lasting response in its NS pair via a transglial signaling pathway that we term a 'sandwich synapse' (SS). Transmission could be unidirectional or bidirectional and facilitated in response to a second stimulus train. We have shown that in chick or rat SS the NS-to-SGC leg of the two-synapse pathway is purinergic via P2Y2 receptors but the second SGC-to-NS synapse mechanism remained unknown. A noisy evoked current in the target neuron, a reversal potential close to 0 mV, and insensitivity to calcium scavengers or G protein block favored an ionotropic postsynaptic receptor. Selective block by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (AP5) implicated glutamatergic transmission via N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors. This agent also blocked NS responses evoked by puff of UTP, a P2Y2 agonist, directly onto the SGC cell, confirming its action at the second synapse of the SS transmission pathway. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2B subunit was implicated by block of transmission with ifenprodil and by its immunocytochemical localization to the NS membrane, abutting the glial septum P2Y2 receptor. Isolated DRG cell clusters exhibited daisy-chain and branching NS-glial cell-NS contacts, suggestive of a network organization within the ganglion. The identification of the glial-to-neuron transmitter and receptor combination provides further support for transglial transmission and completes the DRG SS molecular transmission pathway. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  19. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Eight-logic memory cell based on multiferroic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhou, Y. C.; Tang, M. H.; Liu, Fen; Ma, Ying; Zheng, X. J.; Zhao, W. F.; Xu, H. Y.; Sun, Z. H.

    2009-04-01

    A model is proposed for a device combining a multiferroic tunnel junction with a magnetoelectric (ME) film in which the magnetic configuration is controlled by the electric field. Calculations embodying the Green's function approach show that the magnetic polarization can be switched on and off by an electric field in the ME film due to the effect of elastic coupling interaction. Using a model including the spin-filter effect and screening of polarization charges, we have produced eight logic states of tunnelling resistance in the tunnel junction and have obtained corresponding laws that control them. The results provide some insights into the realization of an eight-logic memory cell.

  1. Communication between integrin receptors facilitates epicardial cell adhesion and matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, So Hyun; Dokic, Danijela; Dettman, Robert W

    2008-04-01

    Formation of the epicardium requires interactions between alpha(4)beta(1) integrin, and the extracellular matrix. We investigated the role of other integrins expressed by epicardial cells. We detected transcripts for alpha(5), alpha(8), alpha(v), beta(1), beta(3), and beta(5) integrins in the chick proepicardial organ (PE). We demonstrate that alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are expressed by chick epicardial mesothelial cells (EMCs). Migration of EMCs in vitro was reduced by RGD-containing peptides. Using adenoviruses expressing an antisense to chick alpha(4) (AdGFPalpha4AS), full-length (Adhalpha4V5), and C-terminal deleted alpha(4) (Adhalpha4DeltaCV5), we found that EMCs were less able to adhere to vitronectin and fibronectin(120) indicating that alpha(4)beta(1) plays a role in regulating EMC adhesion to ligands of alpha(5)beta(1), alpha(8)beta(1), and alpha(v)beta(3). In Adhalpha4DeltaCV5-infected EMCs, alpha(5)beta(1) was diminished in fibrillar adhesions and new FN matrix assembly was abnormal. We propose that cooperation between alpha(4)beta(1) and RGD integrins is important for EMC adhesion and subepicardial matrix formation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells for the measurement of red cell mass in newborn infants: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderkamp, O.; Betke, K.; Fendel, H.; Klemm, J.; Lorenzen, K.; Riegel, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo investigations were performed to examine the binding of Tc-99m to neonatal red blood cells (RBC). Labeling efficiency was about 90%, and unbound Tc-99m less than 3% after one washing, in premature and full-term newborns and in children. Thus presence of high percentages of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) did not influence the labeling of RBCs with Tc-99m. RBCs of 11 newborns were hemolysed and the distribution of Tc-99m on RBC components was analyzed. Although Hb F percentage averaged (60.0 +- 8.10)% (s.d.), only (11.9 +- 3.7)% of Tc-99m was bound by Hb F, whereas (45.0 +- 6.1)% was associated with Hb A. RBC membranes bound (13.7 +- 4.3)% and (29.3 +- 4.0)% were found unbound in hemolysates. These results indicate that Tc-99m preferentially binds to beta chains. In vivo equilibration of Tc-99m RBCs and of albumin labeled with Evans blue was investigated in five newborn infants. Tc-99m RBCs were stable in each case during the first hour after injection. Elution of Tc-99m from RBCs was (3.4 +- 1.5)% per h. Body-to-venous hematocrit ratio averaged 0.86 +- 0.03

  3. GABAergic interneuron to astrocyte signalling: a neglected form of cell communication in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losi, Gabriele; Mariotti, Letizia; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2014-10-19

    GABAergic interneurons represent a minority of all cortical neurons and yet they efficiently control neural network activities in all brain areas. In parallel, glial cell astrocytes exert a broad control of brain tissue homeostasis and metabolism, modulate synaptic transmission and contribute to brain information processing in a dynamic interaction with neurons that is finely regulated in time and space. As most studies have focused on glutamatergic neurons and excitatory transmission, our knowledge of functional interactions between GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes is largely defective. Here, we critically discuss the currently available literature that hints at a potential relevance of this specific signalling in brain function. Astrocytes can respond to GABA through different mechanisms that include GABA receptors and transporters. GABA-activated astrocytes can, in turn, modulate local neuronal activity by releasing gliotransmitters including glutamate and ATP. In addition, astrocyte activation by different signals can modulate GABAergic neurotransmission. Full clarification of the reciprocal signalling between different GABAergic interneurons and astrocytes will improve our understanding of brain network complexity and has the potential to unveil novel therapeutic strategies for brain disorders. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldawy, H.A.; Khattab, F.I.; Hassan, N.H.A.; Amin, Y.M.; Mahmoud, M.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

  5. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied. PMID:22720901

  6. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  7. Uncovering the Role of Erythrocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Malaria: From Immune Regulation to Cell Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Ankarklev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs in parasite biology has burgeoned in recent years. Human infecting protozoan parasites, such as Trypanosoma cruzi, Lesihmania sp . and Trichomonas vaginalis , have all demonstrated the utilization of EVs as virulence factors in order to activate or hamper host immunity. Novel findings have provided evidence that the deployment of EVs by Plasmodium sp . has a major impact in disease outcomes and serves as an integral part in controlling stage switching in its life cycle. Clinical studies have highlighted elevated levels of EVs in patients with severe malaria disease and EVs have been linked to increased sequestration of infected red blood cells to the endothelium, causing obstruction of blood flow. It has also been found that EVs produced during malaria disease activate innate immunity. Intriguingly, recent discoveries indicate that Plasmodium sp . “highjack” the erythrocyte microvesiculation system in order to cross-communicate. Both the transfer of DNA and parasite density regulation has been suggested as key mechanisms of EVs in malaria biology.

  8. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  9. Communication of carrier status information following universal newborn screening for sickle cell disorders and cystic fibrosis: qualitative study of experience and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, J; Ulph, F; Cullinan, T; Qureshi, N

    2009-11-01

    To describe and explore current practice, methods and experience of communicating carrier status information following newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (CF) and sickle cell (SC) disorders, to inform practice and further research. Three linked qualitative studies. All nine health regions in England. Child health screening coordinators in all English health regions, health professionals communicating results to parents and parents of newborn carriers. A preliminary phase of semi-structured telephone interviews with child health screening coordinators in all nine English health regions, and thematic analysis of data; semi-structured face-to-face interviews with purposeful samples of 67 family members of 51 infants identified by universal newborn screening as carriers of CF or SC with data analysis by constant comparison; and semi-structured telephone interviews, and focus groups, with a key informant sample of 16 differing health professionals currently tasked with communicating results to parents in a range of ways, with thematic analysis of data. Methods for and respondents' experiences of communication of carrier results varied considerably within and between regions, and within and between SC and CF contexts. Approaches ranged from letter or telephone call alone, to in-person communication in the clinic or at home, with health professionals from haemoglobinopathy, CF, screening and genetics backgrounds, or from community and primary care, such as health visitors with SC carrier results. Health professionals identified pros and cons of different methods, preferring opportunity for face-to-face communication with parents where possible, particularly for CF carrier results. They were concerned by regional variations in protocols, the lack of availability of translated information on SC carrier results, and the feasibility of sustaining more 'specialist' involvement at current levels, particularly for SC carriers. Parents were often poorly prepared for the

  10. Using pre-distorted PAM-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the passive solar cell based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Jhao-Ting; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Liao, Xin-Lan; Lin, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Using solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) for visible light communication (VLC) is attractive. Apart from acting as a VLC receiver (Rx), the solar cell can provide energy harvesting. This can be used in self-powered smart devices, particularly in the emerging ;Internet of Things (IoT); networks. Here, we propose and demonstrate for the first time using pre-distortion pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM)-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the transmission performance of solar cell Rx based VLC. Pre-distortion is a simple non-adaptive equalization technique that can significantly mitigate the slow charging and discharging of the solar cell. The equivalent circuit model of the solar cell and the operation of using parallel resistance to increase the bandwidth of the solar cell are discussed. By using the proposed schemes, the experimental results show that the data rate of the solar cell Rx based VLC can increase from 20 kbit/s to 1.25 Mbit/s (about 60 times) with the bit error-rate (BER) satisfying the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit.

  11. Community and communication in the third age: the impact of internet and cell phone use on attachment to place in later life in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Hyde, Martin; Higgs, Paul

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the following question: Would access to and use of domestic information and communication technology affect people's attachment to place in later life? Drawing upon data on ownership of cell phones and use of Internet/e-mail from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we measured the association between access to such technology and self-rated attachment to one's neighborhood. There was a significant negative association between attachment to place and ownership and use of domestic information and communication technology, particularly the Internet. This association remained after taking account of age/cohort differences, as well as the influence of gender, disability, socioeconomic status of the neighborhood, differences in income and educational status, and length of residence in the area. The results suggest that ownership and use of domestic information and communication technology reduces the sense of attachment to the local neighborhood among individuals 50 and older in England. It does not, however, influence the perceived sense of trust in or perceived friendliness of people in the neighborhood. We suggest that domestic information and communication technology may be more liberating of neighborhood boundedness than destructive of social capital.

  12. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  13. Antiproliferative Action of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells Mediated by Enhancement of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication through Inactivation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdur Rakib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA isomers, c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA, have anticancer effects; however, the exact mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. Evidence suggests that reversal of reduced gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in cancer cells inhibits cell growth and induces cell death. Hence, we determined that CLA isomers enhance GJIC in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. The CLA isomers significantly enhanced GJIC of MCF-7 cells at 40 μM concentration, whereas CLA inhibited cell growth and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CLA increased connexin43 (Cx43 expression both at the transcriptional and translational levels. CLA inhibited nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB activity and enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. No significant difference was observed in the efficacy of c9,t11-CLA and t10,c12-CLA. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of CLA is associated with upregulation of GJIC mediated by enhanced Cx43 expression through inactivation of NF-κB and generation of ROS in MCF-7 cells.

  14. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  15. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  16. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  17. Cell wall amidase AmiC1 is required for cellular communication and heterocyst development in the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120 but not for filament integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendt, Susanne; Lehner, Josef; Zhang, Yao Vincent; Rasse, Tobias M; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2012-10-01

    Filamentous cyanobacteria of the order Nostocales display typical properties of multicellular organisms. In response to nitrogen starvation, some vegetative cells differentiate into heterocysts, where fixation of N(2) takes place. Heterocysts provide a micro-oxic compartment to protect nitrogenase from the oxygen produced by the vegetative cells. Differentiation involves fundamental remodeling of the gram-negative cell wall by deposition of a thick envelope and by formation of a neck-like structure at the contact site to the vegetative cells. Cell wall-hydrolyzing enzymes, like cell wall amidases, are involved in peptidoglycan maturation and turnover in unicellular bacteria. Recently, we showed that mutation of the amidase homologue amiC2 gene in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 distorts filament morphology and function. Here, we present the functional characterization of two amiC paralogues from Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. The amiC1 (alr0092) mutant was not able to differentiate heterocysts or to grow diazotrophically, whereas the amiC2 (alr0093) mutant did not show an altered phenotype under standard growth conditions. In agreement, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies showed a lack of cell-cell communication only in the AmiC1 mutant. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged AmiC1 was able to complement the mutant phenotype to wild-type properties. The protein localized in the septal regions of newly dividing cells and at the neck region of differentiating heterocysts. Upon nitrogen step-down, no mature heterocysts were developed in spite of ongoing heterocyst-specific gene expression. These results show the dependence of heterocyst development on amidase function and highlight a pivotal but so far underestimated cellular process, the remodeling of peptidoglycan, for the biology of filamentous cyanobacteria.

  18. Strategizing Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Ib Tunby; Just, Sine Nørholm

    beyond, but not past instrumental, rational plans in order to become better able to understand and manage the concrete, incremental practices and contexts in which communication becomes strategic. Thus, we argue that although strategic communicators do (and should) make plans, a plan in itself does...... of the specific communicative disciplines and practices employed by the organization and/or its individual members, be they marketing, public relations, corporate communication, branding, public affairs or social advocacy. In all cases, strategic communicators do well to focus more on the process of communicating...... for understanding and managing strategic communication processes....

  19. Do not let death do us part: ‘find-me' signals in communication between dying cells and the phagocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, C B; Ravichandran, K S

    2016-01-01

    The turnover and clearance of cells is an essential process that is part of many physiological and pathological processes. Improper or deficient clearance of apoptotic cells can lead to excessive inflammation and autoimmune disease. The steps involved in cell clearance include: migration of the phagocyte toward the proximity of the dying cells, specific recognition and internalization of the dying cell, and degradation of the corpse. The ability of phagocytes to recognize and react to dying cells to perform efficient and immunologically silent engulfment has been well-characterized in vitro and in vivo. However, how apoptotic cells themselves initiate the corpse removal and also influence the cells within the neighboring environment during clearance was less understood. Recent exciting observations suggest that apoptotic cells can attract phagocytes through the regulated release of ‘find-me' signals. More recent studies also suggest that these find-me signals can have additional roles outside of phagocyte attraction to help orchestrate engulfment. This review will discuss our current understanding of the different find-me signals released by apoptotic cells, how they may be relevant in vivo, and their additional roles in facilitating engulfment. PMID:26891690

  20. Inhibition of gap junctional Intercellular communication in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells by triphenyltin chloride through MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Ming-Che

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organotin compounds (OTCs have been widely used as stabilizers in the production of plastic, agricultural pesticides, antifoulant plaints and wood preservation. The toxicity of triphenyltin (TPT compounds was known for their embryotoxic, neurotoxic, genotoxic and immunotoxic effects in mammals. The carcinogenicity of TPT was not well understood and few studies had discussed the effects of OTCs on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC of cells. Method In the present study, the effects of triphenyltin chloride (TPTC on GJIC in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells were evaluated, using the scrape-loading dye transfer technique. Results TPTC inhibited GJIC after a 30-min exposure in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Pre-incubation of cells with the protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor did not modify the response, but the specific MEK 1 inhibitor PD98059 and PI3K inhibitor LY294002 decreased substantially the inhibition of GJIC by TPTC. After WB-F344 cells were exposed to TPTC, phosphorylation of Cx43 increased as seen in Western blot analysis. Conclusions These results show that TPTC inhibits GJIC in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells by altering the Cx43 protein expression through both MAPK and PI3-kinase pathways.

  1. CSR communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golob, Ursa; Podnar, Klement; Elving, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make...... a summary of the state of CSR communication knowledge. Design/methodology/approach – The existing literature on CSR communication was approached via systematic review. with a combination of conventional and summative qualitative content analysis. The final dataset contained 90 papers from two main business...... communications. The most important outlets for CSR communication-related topics are Journal of Business Ethics and Corporate Communications: An International Journal. Originality/value – This paper represents the first attempt to perform a systematic and comprehensive overview of CSR communication papers...

  2. Building a Communication, Education, an Outreach Program for the ShakeAlert National Earthquake Early Warning Program - Recommendations for Public Alerts Via Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, R. M.; Long, K.; Strauss, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing the ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning System for the West Coast of the United States. To be an integral part of successful implementation, ShakeAlert engagement programs and materials must integrate with and leverage broader earthquake risk programs. New methods and products for dissemination must be multidisciplinary, cost effective, and consistent with existing hazards education and communication efforts. The ShakeAlert Joint Committee for Communication, Education, and Outreach (JCCEO), is identifying, developing, and cultivating partnerships with ShakeAlert stakeholders including Federal, State, academic partners, private companies, policy makers, and local organizations. Efforts include developing materials, methods for delivery, and reaching stakeholders with information on ShakeAlert, earthquake preparedness, and emergency protective actions. It is essential to develop standards to ensure information communicated via the alerts is consistent across the public and private sector and achieving a common understanding of what actions users take when they receive a ShakeAlert warning. In February 2017, the JCCEO convened the Warning Message Focus Group (WMFG) to provide findings and recommendations to the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions on the use of earthquake early warning message content standards for public alerts via cell phones. The WMFG represents communications, education, and outreach stakeholders from various sectors including ShakeAlert regional coordinators, industry, emergency managers, and subject matter experts from the social sciences. The group knowledge was combined with an in-depth literature review to ensure that all groups who could receive the message would be taken into account. The USGS and the participating states and agencies acknowledge that the implementation of ShakeAlert is a collective effort requiring the participation of hundreds of

  3. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  4. Green heterogeneous small-cell networks: Toward reducing the CO2 emissions of mobile communications industry using uplink power adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Tabassum, Hina; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Serpedin, Erchin; Imran, Muhammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous small cell networks, or Het- SNets, are considered as a standard part of future mobile networks in which multiple lowpower low-cost user deployed base stations complement the existing macrocell infrastructure. This article proposes an energy-efficient deployment of the cells where the small cell base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell, and the deployment is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) deployment. The proposed deployment ensures an increase in the network spectral and energy efficiency by facilitating cell edge mobile users with small cells. Moreover, COE deployment guarantees reduction of the carbon footprint of mobile operations by employing adaptive uplink power control. In order to calibrate the reduction in CO2 emissions, this article quantifies the ecological and associated economical impacts of energy savings in the proposed deployment. Simulation results quantify the improvements in CO2 emissions and spectral and energy gains of the proposed COE deployment compared to macro-only networks and typical small cell deployment strategies where small cells are randomly deployed within a given macrocell. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Green heterogeneous small-cell networks: Toward reducing the CO2 emissions of mobile communications industry using uplink power adaptation

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous small cell networks, or Het- SNets, are considered as a standard part of future mobile networks in which multiple lowpower low-cost user deployed base stations complement the existing macrocell infrastructure. This article proposes an energy-efficient deployment of the cells where the small cell base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell, and the deployment is referred to as cell-on-edge (COE) deployment. The proposed deployment ensures an increase in the network spectral and energy efficiency by facilitating cell edge mobile users with small cells. Moreover, COE deployment guarantees reduction of the carbon footprint of mobile operations by employing adaptive uplink power control. In order to calibrate the reduction in CO2 emissions, this article quantifies the ecological and associated economical impacts of energy savings in the proposed deployment. Simulation results quantify the improvements in CO2 emissions and spectral and energy gains of the proposed COE deployment compared to macro-only networks and typical small cell deployment strategies where small cells are randomly deployed within a given macrocell. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining computer communication systems used in nuclear power plants. The recommendations cover three areas important to these communications systems: system design, communication protocols, and communication media. The first area, system design, considers three aspects of system design--questions about architecture, specific risky design elements or omissions to look for in designs being reviewed, and recommendations for multiplexed data communication systems used in safety systems. The second area reviews pertinent aspects of communication protocol design and makes recommendations for newly designed protocols or the selection of existing protocols for safety system, information display, and non-safety control system use. The third area covers communication media selection, which differs significantly from traditional wire and cable. The recommendations for communication media extend or enhance the concerns of published IEEE standards about three subjects: data rate, imported hazards and maintainability

  7. Communication, Communication, Communication! Growth through Laboratory Instructing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie J.; DeAngelo, Samantha; Mack, Nancy; Thompson, Claudia; Cooper, Jennifer; Sesma, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined gains undergraduate students made in their communication and collaboration skills when they served as peer teachers, i.e., laboratory instructors (LIs), for a General Psychology laboratory. Self-ratings of communication and collaboration skills were completed before and after teaching the laboratory. When compared to before the…

  8. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  9. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling

  10. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  11. Stereotypes Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuli; Deng, Dongyuan

    2009-01-01

    We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people's attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving…

  12. Communication Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinman, Robin Lynn

    2010-01-01

    When the author recently turned her attention to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) "Principles and Standards," she was startled to see communication as key. She adjusted her teaching to meet the NCTM Communication Standard and promote communication in her classroom by providing a safe environment, developing discourse and…

  13. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  14. In the Know and in the News: How Science and the Media Communicate About Stem Cells, Autism and Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Kimberly; Di Pietro, Nina; Illes, Judy

    2016-02-01

    Stem cell research has generated considerable attention for its potential to remediate many disorders of the central nervous system including neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebral palsy (CP) that place a high burden on individual children, families and society. Here we characterized messaging about the use of stem cells for ASD and CP in news media articles and concurrent dissemination of discoveries through conventional science discourse. We searched LexisNexis and Canadian Newsstand for news articles from the US, UK, Canada and Australia in the period between 2000 and 2014, and PubMed for peer reviewed articles for the same 10 years. Using in-depth content analysis methods, we found less cautionary messaging about stem cells for ASD and CP in the resulting sample of 73 media articles than in the sample of 87 science papers, and a privileging of benefits over risk. News media also present stem cells as ready for clinical application to treat these neurodevelopmental disorders, even while the science literature calls for further research. Investigative news reports that explicitly quote researchers, however, provide the most accurate information to actual science news. The hope, hype, and promise of stem cell interventions for neurodevelopmental disorders, combined with the extreme vulnerability of these children and their families, creates a perfect storm in which journalists and stem cell scientists must commit to a continued, if not even more robust, partnership to promote balanced and accurate messaging.

  15. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  16. Flagellar membrane fusion and protein exchange in trypanosomes; a new form of cell-cell communication? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Imhof

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Diverse structures facilitate direct exchange of proteins between cells, including plasmadesmata in plants and tunnelling nanotubes in bacteria and higher eukaryotes.  Here we describe a new mechanism of protein transfer, flagellar membrane fusion, in the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei. When fluorescently tagged trypanosomes were co-cultured, a small proportion of double-positive cells were observed. The formation of double-positive cells was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was enhanced by placing cells in medium supplemented with fresh bovine serum. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that double-positive cells arose by bidirectional protein exchange in the absence of nuclear transfer.  Furthermore, super-resolution microscopy showed that this process occurred in ≤1 minute, the limit of temporal resolution in these experiments. Both cytoplasmic and membrane proteins could be transferred provided they gained access to the flagellum. Intriguingly, a component of the RNAi machinery (Argonaute was able to move between cells, raising the possibility that small interfering RNAs are transported as cargo. Transmission electron microscopy showed that shared flagella contained two axonemes and two paraflagellar rods bounded by a single membrane. In some cases flagellar fusion was partial and interactions between cells were transient. In other cases fusion occurred along the entire length of the flagellum, was stable for several hours and might be irreversible. Fusion did not appear to be deleterious for cell function: paired cells were motile and could give rise to progeny while fused. The motile flagella of unicellular organisms are related to the sensory cilia of higher eukaryotes, raising the possibility that protein transfer between cells via cilia or flagella occurs more widely in nature.

  17. Data communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Byeong Ho; Baek, Jeong Hun

    1998-01-01

    The contents of this book are notion of data communications : summary on data communication, data transmission, data communications system, data transmission technology, data conversion, data link control and control over error of data transmission and exchange of data communications network in the first part, computer communications network architecture : data communications architecture, OSI model, lower layer of OSI model, upper layer of OSI model and distributed surroundings in the second part, data information networking : LAN, FDDI, 100 Base T, DQDB and Frame Relay in the third part, Public Network : PSDN, N-ISDN, B-ISDN in the fourth part, internet and PC communication : emulator program, Binary file, BBS, E-mail service and user on-line service in the last part.

  18. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Philip E B; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Wallace, Valerie A

    2018-01-01

    Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME). This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field's use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  19. Material Exchange in Photoreceptor Transplantation: Updating Our Understanding of Donor/Host Communication and the Future of Cell Engraftment Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip E. B. Nickerson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research effort has been invested into the transplantation of mammalian photoreceptors into healthy and degenerating mouse eyes. Several platforms of rod and cone fluorescent reporting have been central to refining the isolation, purification and transplantation of photoreceptors. The tracking of engrafted cells, including identifying the position, morphology and degree of donor cell integration post-transplant is highly dependent on the use of fluorescent protein reporters. Improvements in imaging and analysis of transplant recipients have revealed that donor cell fluorescent reporters can transfer into host tissue though a process termed material exchange (ME. This recent discovery has chaperoned a new era of interpretation when reviewing the field’s use of dissociated donor cell preparations, and has prompted scientists to re-examine how we use and interpret the information derived from fluorescence-based tracking tools. In this review, we describe the status of our understanding of ME in photoreceptor transplantation. In addition, we discuss the impact of this discovery on several aspects of historical rod and cone transplantation data, and provide insight into future standards and approaches to advance the field of cell engraftment.

  20. Acquired Tumor Cell Radiation Resistance at the Treatment Site Is Mediated Through Radiation-Orchestrated Intercellular Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindan, Natarajan, E-mail: naravind@ouhsc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Aravindan, Sheeja; Pandian, Vijayabaskar; Khan, Faizan H.; Ramraj, Satish Kumar; Natt, Praveen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Natarajan, Mohan [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation resistance induced in cancer cells that survive after radiation therapy (RT) could be associated with increased radiation protection, limiting the therapeutic benefit of radiation. Herein we investigated the sequential mechanistic molecular orchestration involved in radiation-induced radiation protection in tumor cells. Results: Radiation, both in the low-dose irradiation (LDIR) range (10, 50, or 100 cGy) or at a higher, challenge dose IR (CDIR), 4 Gy, induced dose-dependent and sustained NFκB-DNA binding activity. However, a robust and consistent increase was seen in CDIR-induced NFκB activity, decreased DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity and attenuation of CDIR-inhibited clonal expansion when the cells were primed with LDIR prior to challenge dose. Furthermore, NFκB manipulation studies with small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing or p50/p65 overexpression unveiled the influence of LDIR-activated NFκB in regulating CDIR-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. LDIR significantly increased the transactivation/translation of the radiation-responsive factors tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1α (IL-1α), cMYC, and SOD2. Coculture experiments exhibit LDIR-influenced radiation protection and increases in cellular expression, secretion, and activation of radiation-responsive molecules in bystander cells. Individual gene-silencing approach with siRNAs coupled with coculture studies showed the influence of LDIR-modulated TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 in induced radiation protection in bystander cells. NFκB inhibition/overexpression studies coupled with coculture experiments demonstrated that TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 are selectively regulated by LDIR-induced NFκB. Conclusions: Together, these data strongly suggest that scattered LDIR-induced NFκB-dependent TNF-α, IL-1α, cMYC, and SOD2 mediate radiation protection to the subsequent challenge dose in tumor cells.

  1. Telecommand and monitoring of automatic recloser through cell phone communication; Telecomando e monitoramento de religadoras automaticas via comunicacao celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiman, Vitor Luiz G.; Pires Neto, Francisco M.; Rufini, Ricardo; Marques, Rogerio [Bandeirante Energia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the system of tele command and monitoring automatic recloser of the medium voltage distribution network adopted by the Bandeirante Energia, Brazil, by using the cell phone network. The system, installed in 110 automatic reclosers, presented short term availability of tele supervision and tele control, fast installation, and operation and reliability low costs.

  2. "Sickle Cell Anemia: Tracking down a Mutation": An Interactive Learning Laboratory That Communicates Basic Principles of Genetics and Cellular Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients…

  3. Communication theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Irene F.; Stelter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Communication theory covers a wide variety of theories related to the communication process (Littlejohn, 1999). Communication is not simply an exchange of information, in which we have a sender and a receiver. This very technical concept of communication is clearly outdated; a human being...... is not a data processing device. In this chapter, communication is understood as a process of shared meaning-making (Bruner, 1990). Human beings interpret their environment, other people, and themselves on the basis of their dynamic interaction with the surrounding world. Meaning is essential because people...... ascribe specific meanings to their experiences, their actions in life or work, and their interactions. Meaning is reshaped, adapted, and transformed in every communication encounter. Furthermore, meaning is cocreated in dialogues or in communities of practice, such as in teams at a workplace or in school...

  4. Postcultural Communication?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Iben

    2015-01-01

    When we as scholars use the concept of intercultural communication in its classic definition, as communication between people with different cultural backgrounds, we perpetuate the notion that national differences influence communication more than other differences; in doing so, ethnic minorities...... is presented as a postcultural prism composed by practice theory (Schatzki 1996, Reckwitz 2002, Nicolini 2012, Kemmis 2012), Intersectionality (Brah, Phoenix, Collins Rahsack) and positioning theory (Harre & Langenhove 1998)....

  5. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haugen, Margaretha; Schjølberg, Synnve; Magnus, Per; Brunborg, Gunnar; Vrijheid, Martine; Alexander, Jan

    2017-09-05

    Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  6. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. Methods This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89 lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. Conclusions We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  7. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-01-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance

  8. Splenic scintigraphy using Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cells in pediatric patients: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, C.P.; Papanicolaou, N.; Treves, S.; Hurwitz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1982-03-01

    Ten children underwent splenic imaging with heat-denatured red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m DRBC). The presenting problems included the heterotaxia syndrome, recurrent idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following splenectomy, mass in the left posterior hemithorax, and blunt abdominal trauma. In nine patients, the presence or absence of splenic tissue was established. A splenic hematoma was identified in the tenth patient. All patients were initially scanned with Tc-99m sulfur colloid (Tc-99m SC), and were selected for Tc-99m DRBC scintigraphy only after the results of the SC scans failed to establish the clinical problem beyond doubt. The availability of kits containing stannous ions, essential for efficient and stable labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m and requiring only a small volume of blood, make splenic scintigraphy in children a relatively simple and definitive diagnostic procedure, when identification of splenic tissue is of clinical importance.

  9. Inhibition of Connexin 26/43 and Extracellular-Regulated Kinase Protein Plays a Critical Role in Melatonin Facilitated Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication in Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated HaCaT Keratinocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Though melatonin was known to regulate gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC in chick astrocytes and mouse hepatocytes, the underlying mechanism by melatonin was not elucidated in hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2- treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells until now. In the current study, though melatonin at 2 mM and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 at 300 μM showed weak cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocyte cells, melatonin significantly suppressed the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells compared to untreated controls. Also, the scrape-loading dye-transfer assay revealed that melatonin enhances the intercellular communication by introducing Lucifer Yellow into H2O2-treated cells. Furthermore, melatonin significantly enhanced the expression of connexin 26 (Cx26 and connexin 43 (Cx43 at mRNA and protein levels, but not that of connexin 30 (Cx30 in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Of note, melatonin attenuated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs more than p38 MAPK or JNK in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Conversely, ERK inhibitor PD98059 promoted the intercellular communication in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, combined treatment of melatonin (200 μM and vitamin C (10 μg/mL significantly reduced ROS production in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. Overall, these findings support the scientific evidences that melatonin facilitates gap junctional intercellular communication in H2O2-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells via inhibition of connexin 26/43 and ERK as a potent chemopreventive agent.

  10. Labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m after oral administration of SnCl2. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.C.; Parab, P.B.; Samuel, A.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m was possible after prior oral administration of SnCl 2 , both in rats and human volunteers. Absorption of oral SnCl 2 was low but sufficient for more than 95% labeling efficiency. Prior i.v. administration of stannous chloride is known to induce in vivo labeling of red blood cells with pertechnetate. We have observed that such labeling is possible even after oral administration of stannous chloide. Nearly 95% of the circulating radioactivity and 93.7% of the administered radioactivity was in RBCs 30 min after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/TcO 4 - in rats that were fed 5 mg of stannous chloride (3.13 mg Sn 2+ ion) 2 hr before injection. Red blood cells from four human volunteers could bind pertechnetate, both in vitro and in vivo, after oral administration of 100 mg of SnCl 2 . We have obtained a blood-pool image of the human heart by labeling the RBCs in vivo by this method. We have also studied various parameters affecting the in vivo binding of RBCs with Tc-99m - such as the amount of orally administered SnCl 2 , the time of injection of radionuclide after oral SnCl 2 , and the optimum time for the imaging

  11. "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation": an interactive learning laboratory that communicates basic principles of genetics and cellular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Kevin; Williams, Mary; Horn, Spencer; Radford, David; Wyss, J Michael

    2016-03-01

    "Sickle cell anemia: tracking down a mutation" is a full-day, inquiry-based, biology experience for high school students enrolled in genetics or advanced biology courses. In the experience, students use restriction endonuclease digestion, cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis, and microscopy to discover which of three putative patients have the sickle cell genotype/phenotype using DNA and blood samples from wild-type and transgenic mice that carry a sickle cell mutation. The inquiry-based, problem-solving approach facilitates the students' understanding of the basic concepts of genetics and cellular and molecular biology and provides experience with contemporary tools of biotechnology. It also leads to students' appreciation of the causes and consequences of this genetic disease, which is relatively common in individuals of African descent, and increases their understanding of the first principles of genetics. This protocol provides optimal learning when led by well-trained facilitators (including the classroom teacher) and carried out in small groups (6:1 student-to-teacher ratio). This high-quality experience can be offered to a large number of students at a relatively low cost, and it is especially effective in collaboration with a local science museum and/or university. Over the past 15 yr, >12,000 students have completed this inquiry-based learning experience and demonstrated a consistent, substantial increase in their understanding of the disease and genetics in general. Copyright © 2016 The American Physiological Society.

  12. Mathematical simulation of influence of irradiated cell reparative system saturation on cell survival. Communication 1. Simulation of survival curves in prokaryotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyigavko, V.G.; Meshcheryakova, O.P.; Radzyishevs'ka, Je.B.

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical models of the processes of forming survival curves for prokaryotes which are based on the idea about the possibility of saturation of radiation lesion reparation systems of DNA of the irradiated cells at the dose increase were worked out. For the simplest of the discussed models the authors discuss the question about the methods of evaluation of the model parameters

  13. Championship Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDerveer, Beth; Butterick, Betsy

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses team development and focuses specifically on championship communication and team-building activities. Team development takes time and the process typically occurs in stages. Regardless of the sport or what the competitive field may look like, communication is an often overlooked, yet vital element in cultivating a…

  14. Effective communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    At the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) the responsibilities assigned to public affairs (PA) include communications to two main groups: institutional representatives and the general public. Research data indicates that these two populations perceive risk in different fashions. This paper discusses these distinct perceptions and how the communication programs at WIPP have been designed to accommodate these two differences

  15. Satellite Communications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Satellite Communications. Arthur C Clarke wrote a seminal paper in 1945 in wireless world. Use three satellites in geo-synchronous orbit to enable intercontinental communications. System could be realised in '50 to 100 years'

  16. Cellular communication through light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fels

    Full Text Available Information transfer is a fundamental of life. A few studies have reported that cells use photons (from an endogenous source as information carriers. This study finds that cells can have an influence on other cells even when separated with a glass barrier, thereby disabling molecule diffusion through the cell-containing medium. As there is still very little known about the potential of photons for intercellular communication this study is designed to test for non-molecule-based triggering of two fundamental properties of life: cell division and energy uptake. The study was performed with a cellular organism, the ciliate Paramecium caudatum. Mutual exposure of cell populations occurred under conditions of darkness and separation with cuvettes (vials allowing photon but not molecule transfer. The cell populations were separated either with glass allowing photon transmission from 340 nm to longer waves, or quartz being transmittable from 150 nm, i.e. from UV-light to longer waves. Even through glass, the cells affected cell division and energy uptake in neighboring cell populations. Depending on the cuvette material and the number of cells involved, these effects were positive or negative. Also, while paired populations with lower growth rates grew uncorrelated, growth of the better growing populations was correlated. As there were significant differences when separating the populations with glass or quartz, it is suggested that the cell populations use two (or more frequencies for cellular information transfer, which influences at least energy uptake, cell division rate and growth correlation. Altogether the study strongly supports a cellular communication system, which is different from a molecule-receptor-based system and hints that photon-triggering is a fine tuning principle in cell chemistry.

  17. Transient toxicity of 2-Deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-Glucose in mammalian cells: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassis, A.I.; Adelstein, S.J.; Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.G.; Shiue, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetics of uptake and toxicity of the positron emitter F-18 have been examined in a cultured cell line. 2-Deoxy-2[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) concentrated rapidly within Chinese hamster V79 cells, and the uptake was linear with the extracellular radioactive concentrations. Whereas 18 FDG sythesized 2 hr before the incubation did not appear to be toxic, that synthesized 5 hr previously was highly toxic. Toxicity was transient and independent of both the extracellular/intracellular radioactive concentration and the energy released from the decay of fluorine-18. Similarly synthesized nonradioactive FDG and Na 18 F were not toxic under comparable experimental conditions. The authors conclude that this transient toxicity is due to an unidentified chemical species that is cytocidal following intracellular localization. These toxic levels are not likely to be achieved in the clinical use of 18 FDG due to dilution factors that are orders of magnitude greater than those used in these in vitro studies

  18. Major Tom to Ground Control: How Lipoproteins Communicate Extracytoplasmic Stress to the Decision Center of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloux, Géraldine; Collet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    The envelope of bacteria is a complex multilayered shield that ensures multiple essential functions, including protecting the cell from external assaults. Hence, bacterial cells have evolved intricate mechanisms called envelope stress response systems (ESRS) to monitor all kinds of perturbations affecting the integrity of their envelope and to mount an appropriate response to contain or repair the damage. In the model bacterium Escherichia coli , several ESRS are built around a two-component system, in which envelope stress triggers a phosphotransfer between a sensor protein in the inner membrane of the envelope and a response regulator in the cytoplasm. In this review, we focus on two major ESRS in E. coli , the Rcs and Cpx pathways, in which additional proteins not directly involved in the phosphotransfer modulate signal transduction. Both the Rcs and Cpx systems can be turned on by a lipoprotein anchored in the outer membrane, RcsF and NlpE, respectively, providing a molecular connection between the most exterior layer of the envelope and the ground control center in the cytoplasm. Here, we review how these two lipoproteins, which share a striking set of features while being distinct in several aspects, act as sentinels at the front line of the bacterium by sensing and transducing stress to the downstream components of the Rcs and Cpx systems. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. EU PVSEC: New products: Cells and modules, production technology, monitoring and communication, measuring technology, inverters, tracking systems etc.; EU PVSEC: Produktneuheiten. Zellen und Module, Produktionstechnik, Monitoring und Kommunikation, Messtechnik, Wechselrichter, Nachfuehrsysteme, Was man sonst noch braucht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossenbrink, Ralf; Augsten, Eva; Gesthuizen, Jan; Maeuler, Desiree; Buddensiek, Volker; Garus, Katharina

    2010-09-01

    The contribution takes a look back at the EU PVSEC trade fair and presents some of the innovations that were shown. There was news in many areas, e.g. cells and modules, production technology, monitoring and communication, measuring technology, inverters, tracking systems etc. (orig./AKB)

  20. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling through its receptor initiates profibrotic epithelial cell fibroblast communication mediated by epithelial cell derived connective tissue growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Norihiko; Chun, Jerold; Duffield, Jeremy S; Lagares, David; Wada, Takashi; Luster, Andrew D; Tager, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    The expansion of the fibroblast pool is a critical step in organ fibrosis, but the mechanisms driving expansion remain to be fully clarified. We previously showed that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling through its receptor LPA 1 expressed on fibroblasts directly induces the recruitment of these cells. Here we tested whether LPA-LPA 1 signaling drives fibroblast proliferation and activation during the development of renal fibrosis. LPA 1 -deficient (LPA 1 -/- ) or -sufficient (LPA 1 +/+ ) mice were crossed to mice with green fluorescent protein expression (GFP) driven by the type I procollagen promoter (Col-GFP) to identify fibroblasts. Unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced increases in renal collagen were significantly, though not completely, attenuated in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice, as were the accumulations of both fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Connective tissue growth factor was detected mainly in tubular epithelial cells, and its levels were suppressed in LPA 1 -/- Col-GFP mice. LPA-LPA 1 signaling directly induced connective tissue growth factor expression in primary proximal tubular epithelial cells, through a myocardin-related transcription factor-serum response factor pathway. Proximal tubular epithelial cell-derived connective tissue growth factor mediated renal fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation. Administration of an inhibitor of myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor suppressed obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Thus, targeting LPA-LPA 1 signaling and/or myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor-induced transcription could be promising therapeutic strategies for renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Short communication: Cytokine profiles from blood mononuclear cells of dairy cows classified with divergent immune response phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Paibomesai, M A; Emam, S M; Gallienne, J; Hine, B C; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced immune response has been shown to decrease disease occurrence in dairy cattle. Cows can be classified as high (H), average, or low responders based on antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR), predominated by type-2 cytokine production, and cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) through estimated breeding values for these traits. The purpose of this study was to identify in vitro tests that correlate with in vivo immune response phenotyping in dairy cattle. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from cows classified as H-AMIR and H-CMIR through estimated breeding values for immune response traits were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and gene expression, cytokine production, and cell proliferation was determined at multiple time points. A repeated measures model, which included the effects of immune response group, parity, and stage of lactation, was used to compare differences between immune response phenotype groups. The H-AMIR cows produced more IL-4 protein than H-CMIR cows at 48 h; however, no difference in gene expression of type-2 transcription factor GATA3 or IL4 was noted. The BMC from H-CMIR cows had increased production of IFN-γ protein at 48, 72, and 96 h compared with H-AMIR animals. Further, H-CMIR cows had increased expression of the IFNG gene at 16, 24, and 48 h post-treatment with ConA, although expression of the type-1 transcription factor gene TBX21 did not differ between immune response groups. Although proliferation of BMC increased from 24 to 72 h after ConA stimulation, no differences were found between the immune response groups. Overall, stimulation of H-AMIR and H-CMIR bovine BMC with ConA resulted in distinct cytokine production profiles according to genetically defined groups. These distinct cytokine profiles could be used to define disease resistance phenotypes in dairy cows according to stimulation in vitro; however, other immune response phenotypes should be assessed

  2. Two cell circuits of oriented adult hippocampal neurons on self-assembled monolayers for use in the study of neuronal communication in a defined system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darin; Stancescu, Maria; Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2013-08-21

    In this study, we demonstrate the directed formation of small circuits of electrically active, synaptically connected neurons derived from the hippocampus of adult rats through the use of engineered chemically modified culture surfaces that orient the polarity of the neuronal processes. Although synaptogenesis, synaptic communication, synaptic plasticity, and brain disease pathophysiology can be studied using brain slice or dissociated embryonic neuronal culture systems, the complex elements found in neuronal synapses makes specific studies difficult in these random cultures. The study of synaptic transmission in mature adult neurons and factors affecting synaptic transmission are generally studied in organotypic cultures, in brain slices, or in vivo. However, engineered neuronal networks would allow these studies to be performed instead on simple functional neuronal circuits derived from adult brain tissue. Photolithographic patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create the two-cell "bidirectional polarity" circuit patterns. This pattern consisted of a cell permissive SAM, N-1[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] diethylenetriamine (DETA), and was composed of two 25 μm somal adhesion sites connected with 5 μm lines acting as surface cues for guided axonal and dendritic regeneration. Surrounding the DETA pattern was a background of a non-cell-permissive poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) SAM. Adult hippocampal neurons were first cultured on coverslips coated with DETA monolayers and were later passaged onto the PEG-DETA bidirectional polarity patterns in serum-free medium. These neurons followed surface cues, attaching and regenerating only along the DETA substrate to form small engineered neuronal circuits. These circuits were stable for more than 21 days in vitro (DIV), during which synaptic connectivity was evaluated using basic electrophysiological methods.

  3. Science communication as political communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science. PMID:25225389

  4. Science communication as political communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheufele, Dietram A

    2014-09-16

    Scientific debates in modern societies often blur the lines between the science that is being debated and the political, moral, and legal implications that come with its societal applications. This manuscript traces the origins of this phenomenon to professional norms within the scientific discipline and to the nature and complexities of modern science and offers an expanded model of science communication that takes into account the political contexts in which science communication takes place. In a second step, it explores what we know from empirical work in political communication, public opinion research, and communication research about the dynamics that determine how issues are debated and attitudes are formed in political environments. Finally, it discusses how and why it will be increasingly important for science communicators to draw from these different literatures to ensure that the voice of the scientific community is heard in the broader societal debates surrounding science.

  5. Satellite Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pelton, Joseph N

    2012-01-01

    The field of satellite communications represents the world's largest space industry. Those who are interested in space need to understand the fundamentals of satellite communications, its technology, operation, business, economic, and regulatory aspects. This book explains all this along with key insights into the field's future growth trends and current strategic challenges. Fundamentals of Satellite Communications is a concise book that gives all of the key facts and figures as well as a strategic view of where this dynamic industry is going. Author Joseph N. Pelton, PhD, former Dean of the International Space University and former Director of Strategic Policy at Intelstat, presents a r

  6. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  7. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  8. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  9. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-05

    Nov 5, 2013 ... Brief communication. Published ... showed longer FIDs in response to a human looking at them than to a human not looking at them (Burger et al. 1992). ..... Rivas JA and Burghardt GM 2001 Understanding sexual size dimor-.

  10. Brief communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... 1Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, 2Department of Horticulture, University of Arkansas, ... controlled by the soybean heat-shock promoter is an effective tool for conditional removal ... Brief communication ...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  12. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  13. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  15. Police Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Oklahoma City Police Department developed a computerized communications system, based on Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) 1960-mission control knowledge. JSC furnished information on lighting and other fatigue reducing measures, and provided specifications for equipment and design layouts. JSC also advised OCPD how to avoid communications bottlenecks associated with simultaneous handling of telephone, radio and inner-office transmissions. Oklahoma City saved money in reduced design and engineering costs by utilizing the already developed NASA technology.

  16. Antifragile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtman, Marc Louis

    2016-01-01

    Jamming is an ongoing threat that plagues wireless communications in contested areas. Unfortunately, jamming complexity and sophistication will continue to increase over time. The traditional approach to addressing the jamming threat is to harden radios, such that they sacrifice communications performance for more advanced jamming protection. To provide an escape from this trend, we investigate the previously unexplored area of jammer exploitation. This dissertation develops the concep...

  17. Aesthetic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting. As communic......Based on Niklas Luhmann's systems theory, aesthetics is defined as a manner of reinforcing the connectivity, or Anschlusswert, of communication. Without changing the content, a message can be made more attractive, strengthening the receiver's willingness to be attentive and accepting....... As communication inevitably makes use of a sensuous medium, such as light or sound, all communication has an aesthetic dimension. In the 19th Century, an important distinction was made between pure and applied art, following Immanuel Kant's separation of theory of knowledge, moral theory and aesthetic theory....... Whereas pure art is produced in order to be observed, applied art has to fulfill practical purposes as well. Modern organizations, defined as systems of communication, may use art works to embellish and define themselves. But they inevitably use applied art as a practical tool in their normal...

  18. The Visual Communication or Graphic Communication Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecik, John T.

    1975-01-01

    The author reviews the history of communication and communications technology, considers differences between "visual communication" and "graphic communication," and comments on "seeds of revolution" in the industry. He offers four components of an educational structure or organization titled "graphic…

  19. Dysfunction in gap junction intercellular communication induces aberrant behavior of the inner cell mass and frequent collapses of expanded blastocysts in mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Kazue; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Emiko; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Shimoda, Yuki; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Omori, Yasufumi; Terada, Yukihiro

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of gap junctions (GJs) in embryological differentiation, and observed the morphological behavior of the inner cell mass (ICM) by time-lapse movie observation (TLM) with gap junction inhibitors (GJis). ICR mouse embryos were exposed to two types of GJis in CZB medium: oleamide (0 to 50 μM) and 1-heptanol (0 to 10 mM). We compared the rate of blastocyst formation at embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) with E5.5. We also observed and evaluated the times from the second cleavage to each embryonic developing stage by TLM. We investigated embryonic distribution of DNA, Nanog protein, and Connexin 43 protein with immunofluorescent staining. In the comparison of E4.5 with E5.5, inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) delayed embryonic blastocyst formation. The times from the second cleavage to blastocyst formation were significantly extended in the GJi-treated embryos (control vs with oleamide, 2224 ± 179 min vs 2354 ± 278 min, p = 0.013). Morphological differences were traced in control versus GJi-treated embryos until the hatching stage. Oleamide induced frequent severe collapses of expanded blastocysts (77.4 % versus 26.3 %, p = 0.0001) and aberrant ICM divisions connected to sticky strands (74.3 % versus 5.3 %, p = 0.0001). Immunofluorescent staining indicated Nanog-positive cells were distributed in each divided ICM. GJIC plays an important role in blastocyst formation, collapses of expanded blastocysts, and the ICM construction in mouse embryos.

  20. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  1. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  2. Communication & Management

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 s...

  3. Management & Communication

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Calendar of courses for September to December 2006 Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available, which may vary. Management Curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Quality Management 18, 19 September Bilingual Managing Teams 19, 20, 21 September English Communicating Effectively - Residential 20, 21, 22 septembre Bilingual (Full) Personal Awareness & Impact 26, 27, 28 September Bilingual Introduction to Leadership 4, 5, 6 October Bilingue IProject Scheduling & Costing 12, 13 October English CDP-SL part 1 Several sessions Dates to be fixed English or French Personal Awareness & Impact 23, 24 October Bilingual Communicating to Convince 23, 24, 25 October Bilingual CDP-GL part 2 25, 26, 27 October English CDP-GL part 1 Dates to be fixed Bilingual Risk Management 20, 21 December Bilingual Communication curriculum 2nd semester 2006 Titles Dates Language Techniques d'exposé et de présentation 18, 19 sept...

  4. Interlimb communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    A continual coordination between the two legs is necessary for maintaining a symmetric walking pattern and adapting to changes in the external environment. Recent evidence in animals and humans suggests that spinal interneuronal circuits under supraspinal control may mediate communication between...... the lower limbs. The overall objective of the present thesis was to further investigate and elucidate neural pathways underlying interlimb communication in humans, focusing primarily on the possible interlimb connections to the biceps femoris muscle. The major aims were 1) to investigate whether interlimb...... walking (Study IV). The results of the this thesis provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying human interlimb communication, as well as their functional relevance to human locomotion. Although it is difficult to propose the exact neural pathways mediating interlimb reflexes...

  5. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  6. Constructive communication

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Richard Ellis is a consultant in communications and the successful author of 'Communication for Engineers'. In each chapter he highlights key points and situations, and provides exercises to consolidate what has already been learnt. The book ends with a 'toolbox' of useful information on subjects such as writing letters, spelling, punctuation, using abbreviations, studying for exams, using libraries and training.Written in clear, informative English, with the emphasis on the practical, this book is essential reading for both students and professionals in the con

  7. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  8. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-25

    Oct 25, 2011 ... Korea) rapid kits on mothers´ serum samples. For all HIV positive women, CD4 cell counts were measured in the referral laboratory. The method used a flow cytometer for measuring the percentage of CD4 T cells; an automated blood cell counter helped to measure the total number of lymphocytes. Results ...

  9. Health communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mariann B.

    communication changes from information to conversation and negotiation of a chared understanding and challenges the concept of professionalism. The success of conversations depends on the interactions and the capacity to deal with several voices in a complex context. The study discusses the opportunity...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  12. Communication & Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  13. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  14. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. ... using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication .... Assume Alice and Bob know a good error correcting code. E : {0, 1}n → {0, 1}10n with distance, say, 3n. Alice.

  15. Communication Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Communication planning in developing countries is discussed in individual articles on theory, knowledge production and utilization, planning at the regional level, software, and rural development. A nutrition education project and three experiments in developing educational materials with feedback from villagers in Africa are described in the…

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  17. Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penland, Patrick R.

    Three papers are presented which delineate the foundation of theory and principles which underlie the research and instructional approach to communications at the Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Pittsburgh. Cybernetic principles provide the integration, and validation is based in part on a situation-producing…

  18. Quantum communications

    CERN Document Server

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates that a quantum communication system using the coherent light of a laser can achieve performance orders of magnitude superior to classical optical communications Quantum Communications provides the Masters and PhD signals or communications student with a complete basics-to-applications course in using the principles of quantum mechanics to provide cutting-edge telecommunications. Assuming only knowledge of elementary probability, complex analysis and optics, the book guides its reader through the fundamentals of vector and Hilbert spaces and the necessary quantum-mechanical ideas, simply formulated in four postulates. A turn to practical matters begins with and is then developed by: ·         development of the concept of quantum decision, emphasizing the optimization of measurements to extract useful information from a quantum system; ·         general formulation of a transmitter–receiver system ·         particular treatment of the most popular quantum co...

  19. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  20. Crisis Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Jarmila Guţă

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the manner in which the crisis of different types can disturb the normal activity of an organization and also the modalities by which the communication in this situation can solve or attenuate the negative effects of a crisis.

  1. Core Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David

    2011-01-01

    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  2. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  3. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  4. Digital communication communication, multimedia, security

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The authors give a detailed summary about the fundamentals and the historical background of digital communication. This includes an overview of the encoding principles and algorithms of textual information, audio information, as well as images, graphics, and video in the Internet. Furthermore the fundamentals of computer networking, digital security and cryptography are covered. Thus, the book provides a well-founded access to communication technology of computer networks, the internet and the WWW. Numerous pictures and images, a subject-index and a detailed list of historical personalities in

  5. Disruption of gap junctional intercellular communication by antibiotic gentamicin is associated with aberrant localization of occludin, N-cadherin, connexin 43, and vimentin in SerW3 Sertoli cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheet, Souad H M; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2009-09-01

    Spermatogenesis is a very complex process by which male germ cells differentiate into mature spermatozoa. The sophisticated communication network that controls spermatogenesis can be derailed so that dysfunction of one cell type propagates to all types as a cascade. This accounts for the particular vulnerability of the testis to environmental factors such as drugs and xenobiotics. Sertoli cells play an important role in protecting developing germ cells by forming a physiological barrier, limiting exposure to potentially toxic substrates, or conversely, facilitating uptake of xenobiotics within the testis. In this study, cells from the rat Sertoli line (SerW3) were incubated for 3, 6 and 9 subsequent days in serum free DMEM (SFDM) composed of DMEM supplemented with three different concentrations of antibiotic gentamicin (10, 30, and 100 μg). The effect of the three different concentrations of this antibiotic was determined on Sertoli cell-cell interaction through impaired expression of their constitutive tight junction proteins as early targets for different toxicants in vitro by immunochemistry analysis. The Sertoli SerW3 cell line illustrated the cytotoxicity of GS, as the intercellular junction proteins such as occludin, N-cadherin, connexin 43, and vimentin were delocalized from the membrane to the cytoplasmic compartment during exposure to the antibiotic. This study underlines the potential deleterious effects of the routine use of antibiotics during continuous cell culture.

  6. [Effects of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on actin, Cx43 expressions and gap junctional intercellular communication functions of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 viral myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; He, Wei; Gu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    To observe the effect of Chinese herbal compound for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation (CHC) on the gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) function of myocardial cells in patients with Coxsackie virus B 3 (CVB3) viral myocarditis. Expressions of actin and connexin43 (Cx43) in myocardial cells of patients arranged in three groups (the normal control group, the viral infected group and the CHC treated group) were detected by immunohistochemical method; the fluorescence photobleaching recovery rate of cells was detected by laser scanning confocal microscope. As compared with the viral infected group, the expressions of actin and Cx43 were increased and the GJIC function was improved in the CHC treated group. CHC could antagonize viral injury on skeleton protein, and repair the structure of gap junction channel to improve the GJIC function of myocardial cells after being attacked by CVB3.

  7. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  8. Communication Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Strate, Simon Wolter; Loznica, Javor; Nærland, Kristoffer; Skipper, Mads Christian; Jensen, Charlotte Haagen

    2013-01-01

    This project focuses on the oil company, Shell, and their way of conducting themselves on social media sites, specifically Facebook and twitter. We establish this by using social media theory, and corporate campaign theories, and applying these to the content that Shell puts out on these particular social media sites. Furthermore, the project establishes a critical evaluation of the weight and presence of social media within modern corporate communication and issue management. This project...

  9. Improving Family Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Vilma; Bonilla, Gladys; Hernández, Ericka; Romanjek, Mariana Harnecker; Gómez, Adriana; Hernández, Jasón; Reyes, Marcela Ríos; Lindenberg, Cathy Strachan

    2017-03-01

    TeenSmart International harnesses the power and flexibility of technology to empower youth to take personal responsibility for their health and lifestyle choices. Access to the Internet via mobile phones is often cheaper than paying to connect to a wired broadband service, and in rural areas, mobile networks may be the only means of accessing the Internet. This study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of "cues to action" or brief motivating cell phone text messages to improve adolescent family communication and relationships. A quasi-experimental design using a voluntary sample of 100 Nicaraguan youth at high risk for poor family communication participated. Pre- and posttest quantitative measures using Student t statistical analysis, a focus group, and a participant testimony provided the evaluation evidence. Findings suggest that there are economic and motivational barriers to the use of text messages, but when barriers are eliminated, the behavioral results are positive. Youth who received two weekly text messages over a 6-month period demonstrated statistically significant improvements in family communication perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors, strengthening their family communications and relationships. Brief and personalized text messaging "cues to action" may be a cost-effective intervention to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors.

  10. In-depth analysis of patient-clinician cell phone communication during the WelTel Kenya1 antiretroviral adherence trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia L van der Kop

    Full Text Available The WelTel Kenya1 trial demonstrated that text message support improved adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART and suppression of HIV-1 RNA load. The intervention involved sending weekly messages to patients inquiring how they were doing; participants were required to respond either that they were well or that there was a problem.1 Describe problems participants identified through mobile phone support and reasons why participants did not respond to the messages; 2 investigate factors associated with indicating a problem and not responding; and 3 examine participant perceptions of the intervention.Secondary analysis of WelTel Kenya1 trial data.Reasons participants indicated a problem or did not respond were extracted from the study log. Negative binomial regression was used to determine participant characteristics associated with indicating a problem and non-response. Data from follow-up questionnaires were used to describe participant perceptions of the intervention.Between 2007 and 2009, 271 participants generated 11,873 responses; 377 of which indicated a problem. Health issues were the primary reason for problem responses (72%. Rural residence (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.96; 95%CI 1.19-3.25; p=0.009 and age were associated with indicating a problem (adjusted IRR 0.63 per increase in age group category; 95%CI 0.50-0.80; p<0.001. Higher educational level was associated with a decreased rate of non-response (adjusted IRR 0.81; 95%CI 0.69-0.94; p=0.005. Of participants interviewed, 62% (n=129 stated there were no barriers to the intervention; cell phone issues were the most common barrier. Benefits included reminding patients to take medication and promoting a feeling that "someone cares".The WelTel intervention enabled frequent communication between clinicians and patients during the WelTel Kenya1 trial. Many patients valued the service for the support it provided, with health-related concerns comprising the majority of problems

  11. Successes and failures of using the cell phone as a main mode of communication between participants and facilitators from a distance: an innovative method of training rural health facility managers in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Rural Health Facility Management Training is a training program developed by the National Department of Health in collaboration with AUSAID through the office of the Capacity Building Service Centre. The purpose of the training is to train officers-in-charge who did not acquire knowledge and skills of managing a health facility. As part of this study, it is essential to assess whether the cell phone is a better mode of communication between the participants and the facilitators compared with other modes of communication from a distance. The study used the cross-sectional method to collect 160 samples from 12 provinces and the statistical software Stata (version 8) was used to analyse the data. The results showed that mobile coverage is not very effective in most rural areas, though, it is efficient and accessible. Furthermore, it is expensive to make a call compared with sending text massages. In spite of the high cost involved, most health managers prefer to use the cell phone compared to normal post, email, or fax. This clearly shows that the mobile phone is a better device for distant learning in rural Papua New Guinea compared to other modes of communication.

  12. Communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldie, Charles M

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.

  13. Risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, Wolf R.; Kiel Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The study on risk communication identifies the deficiencies concerning empirical and theoretical knowledge on objective radiation hazards of the acting personnel (managers, politicians, jurists, etc.) in administrations, governmental agencies, and business management. This is especially problematic with respect to emergency planning and estimations concerning the public behavior. The incident/accident information in Germany is discussed based on the legislative regulations revealing the controversial perception between industry, legislative and public interest. Further topics include the meandering of the modern safety semantics and the public opinion concerning catastrophic risk.

  14. Interdisciplinary Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagib Callaos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication is fundamental in scientific practice and an integral part of academic work. The practice of communication cannot be neglected by those who are trying to advance scientific research. Effective means should continuously be identified in order to open channels of communication within and among disciplines, among scientists and between scientists and the general public.[1]The increasing importance of interdisciplinary communication has been pointed out by an increasing number of researchers and scholars, as well as in conferences and roundtables on the subject. Some authors even estimate that "interdisciplinary study represents the future of the university."[2] Since interdisciplinary study is "the most underthought critical, pedagogical and institutional concept in modern academy"[3] it is important to think and reflect, and even do some research, on this concept or notion. Research and practice based reflections with regards to this issue are important especially because the increasing complexity and proliferation of scientific research is generating countless specialties, sub-specialties and sub-sub-specialties, with their respective special languages; which were "created for discrete local areas of research based upon the disconnected branches of science."[4] On the other hand, scientific, technical and societal problems are requiring multi- or inter-disciplinary consideration. Consequently, interdisciplinary communication channels are being needed with urgency, and scientific research should be integrated, not just in the context of its discipline, but also in the context of related disciplines. Much more reflection and research should be done on this issue. Research on adequate research integration and communication is urgently required, i.e. meta-research efforts should be done in order to relate research results in an adequate and more useful way. This meta-research effort might be done in the context of each particular

  15. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  16. Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence%Intercultural Communication Ethics and Communication Competence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时婷洁

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates intercultural communication ethics is a vital element to promote intercultural communication competence. Firstly, it defines the concept of intercultural communication ethics; Secondly, it illustrates the relation between ethics and the key point of intercultural communication competence; and finally addresses how intercultural communication ethics can improve intercultural communication competence.

  17. Data communications and computer communications network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jang Gwon; Gu, Chang Hoe

    2005-03-01

    This textbook is composed of twelve chapters, which are communication network introduction, foundation of data communication, data link control, circuit switching system, packet switching system, multiple access communication system, protocol and architecture, LAN, MAN communication network, integrated service digital network, internet and Asymmetric digital subscriber Line and Wireless Local Loop. Each chapter has the introduction of the technique, structure, function and practice problems. It also has the appendix on electricity and communication standards organization, characteristic table and glossary.

  18. Crisis Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkle, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how one of the strongest examples of how destructive poor crisis communications can be the Three Mile Island accident of March 1979. This was an event that was minimal in its physical effects on the public and environment beyond the walls of that nuclear power plant. However, the emotional trauma on the local public, the economic impact on area businesses and property owners, and the long term impact on the entire nuclear utility industry were great. Approximately 80,000 people as far as 15 miles from the plant evacuated over a weekend. There have been no new orders for nuclear plants and many cancellations since the event 10 years ago. This paper presents an analysis of the accident at Three Mile Island

  19. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  20. Solar cell phones. Communication solution for the future or technological dead-end?; Sonne am Ohr. Solarhandys. Kommunikationsloesung der Zukunft oder technologische Sackgasse?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, Jochen

    2010-06-15

    There are still only very few cell phones with photovoltaic power supply as the technical problems are insurmountable. The perfect solar cell phone will not be commercially available for a long time. Still, there are some interesting solutions in the market. PHOTON presents a market survey of solar cell phones that are commercially available in Germany. (orig.)

  1. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-25

    Oct 25, 2011 ... Regardless of cost, such results are conclusive and may be ... A threshold of ≤ 1.8 log10 was considered as undetectable ... eligibility to more effective antiretroviral regimen especially at high levels of CD4 cell count. Our key ...

  2. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-05-03

    May 3, 2014 ... Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from ...

  3. Communication Technology and Postdivorce Coparenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn; Feistman, Richard; Jamison, Tyler; Markham, Melinda Stafford

    2012-01-01

    Divorced individuals who share parenting responsibilities have to figure out ways to work together to raise their children. The purpose of this qualitative study of 49 divorced coparents was to examine how they used technology (e.g., cell phones, computers) to communicate. For parents in effective coparenting relationships, communication…

  4. Airborne wireless communication systems, airborne communication methods, and communication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Juan D [Menan, ID; Schmitt, Michael J [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Warren F [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-13

    An airborne wireless communication system includes circuitry configured to access information describing a configuration of a terrestrial wireless communication base station that has become disabled. The terrestrial base station is configured to implement wireless communication between wireless devices located within a geographical area and a network when the terrestrial base station is not disabled. The circuitry is further configured, based on the information, to configure the airborne station to have the configuration of the terrestrial base station. An airborne communication method includes answering a 911 call from a terrestrial cellular wireless phone using an airborne wireless communication system.

  5. Virtually Endless Possibilities for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Susan Evans

    2010-01-01

    Business communication educators need to realize that as technology changes and evolves, they must also change and evolve their teaching methods and content. Cell phones, email, blogs, wikis, and text messaging are just a few examples of business communication technologies that not so long ago were viewed as entertainment for teens or techies, but…

  6. Guidelines for Acceptable Electronic Communication with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoric, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Rarely does a day go by when one doesn't hear or read something relating to digital communication and school. Whether it's referencing cell phones, email, Facebook, texting, blogs, or Twitter, this constant barrage of messages in the media makes it clear that electronic communications are in the forefront of students' lives. They are also an…

  7. Chemical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    Losick R, & Kolter R (2010) Amyloid fibers provide structural integrity to Bacillus subtilis biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(5):2230-2234. 22...success of DNA transfection. One commonly used selection marker in bacteria confers antibiotic resistance to the cell. In order to demonstrate the...possibility of using antibiotic resistance as a cipher key, all seven FP genes were cloned into kanamycin-resistant expression vectors containing a T7

  8. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  9. Communicating EAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

     (Schaeffer’s work in Paris, the studio in Cologne and in the studio EMS in Stockholm) and in relation to today’s discussions of EAM and Sound Art. The extended rhetoric about the music and the production of it is a useful tool in our discussions of musical development and analysis, but can in some cases lead......Since the early years of electro acoustic music great self-awareness is found among the field’s composers who often and willingly have communicated historical chronology, thoughts about analysis, aesthetic directions and rivalries. This we find both in relation to the historical studios...... to the disappearing of the aesthetic work and contemplation. In the paper I will illustrate this by presenting an analysis of the rhetoric at the electronic music studio EMS, Stockholm: It’s aesthetic and scientific context and its function in a political context. I will discuss what impact this displacement of focus...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  11. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  12. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2009-05-05

    A method determines a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  13. β-catenin at the centrosome: discrete pools of β-catenin communicate during mitosis and may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbom, Bertrade C; Nelson, W James; Barth, Angela

    2013-09-01

    Beta-catenin is a multifunctional protein with critical roles in cell-cell adhesion, Wnt-signaling and the centrosome cycle. Whereas the roles of β-catenin in cell-cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling have been studied extensively, the mechanism(s) involving β-catenin in centrosome functions are poorly understood. β-Catenin localizes to centrosomes and promotes mitotic progression. NIMA-related protein kinase 2 (Nek2), which stimulates centrosome separation, binds to and phosphorylates β-catenin. β-Catenin interacting proteins involved in Wnt signaling such as adenomatous polyposis coli, Axin, and GSK3β, are also localized at centrosomes and play roles in promoting mitotic progression. Additionally, proteins associated with cell-cell adhesion sites, such as dynein, regulate mitotic spindle positioning. These roles of proteins at the cell cortex and Wnt signaling that involve β-catenin indicate a cross-talk between different sub-cellular sites in the cell at mitosis, and that different pools of β-catenin may co-ordinate centrosome functions and cell cycle progression. © 2013 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluating Internal Communication: The ICA Communication Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Gerald M.

    1978-01-01

    The ICA Communication Audit is described in detail as an effective measurement procedure that can help an academic institution to evaluate its internal communication system. Tools, computer programs, analysis, and feedback procedures are described and illustrated. (JMF)

  15. Communication and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Communication and Alzheimer's Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print ... stage Communication in the late stage Changes in communication In addition to changes in the brain caused ...

  16. Modulation of gap junctional intercellular communication between human smooth muscle cells by leukocyte-derived growth factors and cytokines in relation to atherogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, A.

    1997-01-01


    In this thesis, the effect of leukocyte-derived growth factors and cytokines on GJIC between SMC was investigated. GJIC is regarded as an important mechanism in the control of cell growth, cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Disturbance of SMC growth control is regarded to be a

  17. Communication in organization

    OpenAIRE

    Zajíc, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Communication is one of the most discussed themes of today and its significance is ever growing. Most often, communication is divided in verbal and nonverbal. It depends if the content of the communicated message is put across in words or not. Every person uses his or her communication style in the contact with others which is different in each situation. The art of communication is the ground not only in everyday life but also in employment. Every organization is a place where communication ...

  18. Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication and Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donahue, Henry

    2001-01-01

    .... We found that: 1) expressing the metastasis suppressing gene BRMS1 in diverse cancer cell lines, including breast and melanoma, restores homotypic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC); 2...

  19. Intervehicle Communication Research – Communication Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarūnas Stanaitis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently intervehicle communications are attracting much attention from industry and academia. Upcoming standard for intervehicle communication IEEE 802.11p, known as Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE, is still in its draft stage, but already coming into final standardization phase. Problematic, regarding mobile WAVE nodes, are described in several articles, simulations prepared and experiments done. But most of these works do not consider possible maximal communication load. This paper presents intervehicle communication scenario in respect to radio communications, mobility and other aspects of vehicular environments.Article in English

  20. Short Communication: Immunohistochemical localization of the immune cell marker CD68 in bovine adipose tissue: impact of tissue alterations and excessive fat accumulation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, S; Germeroth, D; Laubenthal, L; Ruda, L F; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Sauerwein, H

    2017-01-01

    With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT. In the present study, CD68 positive cells were localized in AT from 10 early lactating Holstein cows displaying different grades of AT alterations. Biopsies were sampled from visceral and subcutaneous AT and the number of CD68 positive cells was immunohistochemically determined. In addition, AT biopsies from over-conditioned, non-pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=8) were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD68 positive cells. The percentage of CD68 positive cells was less than 2% in AT biopsies with tissue alterations and in AT from over-conditioned cows. Therefore, immune cell infiltration demonstrated via the localization of CD68 positive cells seems to play only a minor role in AT from over-conditioned cows as well as in different bovine AT depots with tissue alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proactive Parent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Sharel; Backlund, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Presents examples of teacher-parent interactions designed to help teachers communicate with parents. The scenarios involve a teacher communicating with parents about a struggling student, a teacher communicating with parents about a student's behavior problems, and a teacher attempting to communicate with a confrontational parent. Teacher prompts…

  2. Future of wireless communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, M

    1996-12-31

    This document reproduces slides from a conference presentation giving an overview of current and upcoming wireless communication methods of interest to Canadian electric utilities. Both voice and data communication methods are considered, including cellular telephone, satellite communications, personal communication services, regulated licensed arrowband data systems, and integrated services.

  3. Internet-Based Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2014-01-01

    Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…

  4. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  5. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  6. Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Kerry D [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Morgan Hill, CA

    2011-02-01

    Communications device identification methods, communications methods, wireless communications readers, wireless communications systems, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a communications device identification method includes providing identification information regarding a group of wireless identification devices within a wireless communications range of a reader, using the provided identification information, selecting one of a plurality of different search procedures for identifying unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices within the wireless communications range, and identifying at least some of the unidentified ones of the wireless identification devices using the selected one of the search procedures.

  7. I-centric Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Arbanowski, S; Steglich, S; Popescu-Zeletin, R

    2001-01-01

    During the last years, a variety of concepts for service integration and corresponding systems have gained momentum. On the one hand, they aim for the interworking and integration of classical telecommunications and data communications services. On the other hand, they are focusing on universal service access from a variety of end user systems. Looking at humans' communication behavior and communication space, it is obvious that human beings interact frequently in a set of contexts in their environment (communication space). Following this view, we want to build communication systems on the analysis of the individual communication spaces. The results are communication systems adapted to the specific demands of each individual. The authors introduce I-centric Communication Systems, an approach to design communication systems which adapt to the individual communication space and individual environment and situation. In this context "I" means I, or individual, "Centric" means adaptable to I requirements and a ce...

  8. Effective communication with seniors

    OpenAIRE

    PONCAROVÁ, Ester

    2008-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called "The Effective Communication With Seniors". The aim of this thesis is to describe communication, its various kinds and the basic principles of the effective communication. I will also describe the communication with seniors suffering from dementia. Another aim of this thesis is to find out whether workers in the senior houses know and use the principles of the effective communication.

  9. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  10. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  11. Newnes communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    1994-01-01

    Newnes Communications Technology Handbook provides a discussion on different topics relevant to communications technology. The book is comprised of 39 chapters that tackle a wide variety of concern in communications technology. The coverage of the text includes technologies, such as analog digital communications systems, radio frequency receiver, and satellite systems. The book also discusses some methods and techniques used in communications technology, including mixer signal processing, modulation and demodulation, and spread spectrum techniques. The text will be of great use to engineers, t

  12. Handbook of Technical Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler , Alexander; Romary , Laurent; Gibbon , Dafydd

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The handbook "Technical Communication" brings together a variety of topics which range from the role of technical media in human communication to the linguistic, multimodal enhancement of present-day technologies. It covers the area of computer-mediated text, voice and multimedia communication as well as of technical documentation. In doing so, the handbook takes professional and private communication into account. Special emphasis is put on technical communication bas...

  13. Wireless communication technology NFC

    OpenAIRE

    MÁROVÁ, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to handle the issue of new wireless communication technology NFC (Near Field Communication) including a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of NFC with other wireless technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.). NFC is a technology for wireless communications between different electronic devices, one of which is typically a mobile phone. Near Field Communication allows wireless communication at very short distance by approaching or enclosing two devices and can...

  14. Online communication and adolescent relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social

  15. Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Черничкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence

  16. Wind, photovoltaic and fuel cell energy for communication stations; Energia eolica, fotovoltaica e de celula a combustivel para estacoes de comunicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Iolanda; Pereira, Jose; Alcobia, Hernani [Net Plan Telecomunicacoes e Energia, Lisboa (Portugal); Pereirinha, Paulo [Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto para Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores de Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents a hybrid system that provides power to a remote and autonomously telecommunications station by means of electrical solar generators, wind and hydrogen fuel cell. In the absence of sufficient sun and wind, a bank of batteries and hydrogen produced on-site guarantee the power supply. The station can still be remote monitored and managed.

  17. Improving Pathologists' Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dintzis, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The 2015 Institute of Medicine report on diagnostic error has placed a national spotlight on the importance of improving communication among clinicians and between clinicians and patients [1]. The report emphasizes the critical role that communication plays in patient safety and outlines ways that pathologists can support this process. Despite recognition of communication as an essential element in patient care, pathologists currently undergo limited (if any) formal training in communication skills. To address this gap, we at the University of Washington Medical Center developed communication training with the goal of establishing best practice procedures for effective pathology communication. The course includes lectures, role playing, and simulated clinician-pathologist interactions for training and evaluation of pathology communication performance. Providing communication training can help create reliable communication pathways that anticipate and address potential barriers and errors before they happen. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  18. [Sickle-cell disease: short communication on how children express through games what it means for them to have the disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Ana Augusta Maciel; Ribeiro, Circéa Amália; de Borba, Regina Issuzu Hiroka

    2011-03-01

    Brief notice of a study aimed at understanding the significance of sickle cell anemia in children between 3 and 12 years old. This qualitative research is grounded in Symbolic Interactionism as a theoretical perspective, and in Grounded Theory as a research method. The data have been collected through interviews with children, with the use of therapeutic play sessions. Preliminary data analysis has allowed us to understand that sickle cell anemia is a sad experience for children, because that more than experiencing pain, children realize they are powerless in relation to the suffering; they recognize its symptoms, understand the need for treatment, and consider it only as palliative. Children also consider their family as an important support, and have the hospital as reference.

  19. Digital Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Corniani

    2006-01-01

    Digital marketing communication is directed to profiled targets, which are active in the communication process. Every communication flow can ask for an information answer from the market. This opportunity grants immediate feed-backs and feed-forwards, so that digital communication can be easily and cheaply measured; digital communication flows are diffused at costs that are getting lower and lower, but it asks specialized and deep competences to communication managers. The ease in the flowing...

  20. Energy and scientific communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, E.

    2013-06-01

    Energy communication is a paradigmatic case of scientific communication. It is particularly important today, when the world is confronted with a number of immediate, urgent problems. Science communication has become a real duty and a big challenge for scientists. It serves to create and foster a climate of reciprocal knowledge and trust between science and society, and to establish a good level of interest and enthusiasm for research. For an effective communication it is important to establish an open dialogue with the audience, and a close collaboration among scientists and science communicators. An international collaboration in energy communication is appropriate to better support international and interdisciplinary research and projects.

  1. Short communication: Effect of inhibition of fatty acid synthase on triglyceride accumulation and effect on lipid metabolism genes in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Luo, J; Sun, Y T; Shi, H B; Li, J; Wu, M; Yu, K; Haile, A B; Loor, J J

    2015-05-01

    The role of fatty acid synthase (FASN) on de novo fatty acid synthesis has been well established. In monogastrics, unlike acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, FASN is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level. However, no data exist on ruminant mammary cells evaluating effects of FASN knockdown on mRNA expression of lipogenic genes. Inhibition of FASN in mammary cells by C75-mediated interference, a synthetic inhibitor of FASN activity, and short hairpin RNA-mediated interference markedly reduced cellular triglyceride content at least in part by decreasing the expression of genes related to triglyceride synthesis (GPAT, AGPAT6, and DGAT2) and enhancing the expression of lipolysis-related genes (ATGL and HSL). Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47, ADFP, BTN1A1, and XDH), cellular lipid droplets also were reduced sharply after incubation with C75 or adenovirus-short-hairpin-RNA. The results underscored the essential role of FASN in the overall process of milk-fat formation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Communicating with Professionals Updated:Mar 8,2018 After a cardiac event ... shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get ...

  3. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the ...

  5. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over ... at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better results from the time ...

  6. Communication System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Strawser, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A communication system for communicating over high-latency, low bandwidth networks includes a communications processor configured to receive a collection of data from a local system, and a transceiver in communication with the communications processor. The transceiver is configured to transmit and receive data over a network according to a plurality of communication parameters. The communications processor is configured to divide the collection of data into a plurality of data streams; assign a priority level to each of the respective data streams, where the priority level reflects the criticality of the respective data stream; and modify a communication parameter of at least one of the plurality of data streams according to the priority of the at least one data stream.

  7. Intimacy and Computer Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Dave; Robson, Maggie

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between intimacy and communication that is based on computer technology. Discusses definitions of intimacy and the nature of intimate conversations that use computers as a communications medium. Explores implications for counseling. (MKA)

  8. A novel immune-to-CNS communication pathway: cells of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space produce proinflammatory cytokines in response to an inflammatory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieseler-Frank, Julie; Jekich, Brian M; Mahoney, John H; Bland, Sondra T; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R

    2007-07-01

    Pain is enhanced in response to elevations of proinflammatory cytokines in spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), following either intrathecal injection of these cytokines or intrathecal immune challenge with HIV-1 gp120 that induces cytokine release. Spinal cord glia have been assumed to be the source of endogenous proinflammatory cytokines that enhance pain. However, assuming that spinal cord glia are the sole source of CSF cytokines may be an underestimate, as the cellular composition of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord CSF space includes several cell types known to produce proinflammatory cytokines. The present experiments provide the first investigation of the immunocompetent nature of the spinal cord meninges. Here, we explore whether rat meninges are responsive to intrathecal gp120. These studies demonstrate that: (a) intrathecal gp120 upregulates meningeal gene expression of proinflammatory signals, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and (b) intrathecal gp120 induces meningeal release of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6. In addition, stimulation of isolated meninges in vitro with gp120 induced the release of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating that the resident cells of the meninges are able to respond without immune cell recruitment. Taken together, these data document that the meninges are responsive to immunogenic stimuli in the CSF and that the meninges may be a source of immune products detected in CSF. The ability of the meninges to release to proinflammatory signals suggests a potential role in the modulation of pain.

  9. Molecular mechanism of cell damage and protection against ionizing radiation. Communication 3. Correlation between the protective effect and development of a non-specific reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, A.M.; Ermekova, V.M.; Kozlovich, L.I.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamics of reversible unspecific reaction (UR) of chinese hamster fibroblast cell culture to hypothermia and cysteamine addition has been studied. A correlation between UR development and radioresistance has been established. The post-irradiation protection has been shown to grow undulatorilly o cysteamine addition at different times after irradiation. This is explained by superimposition of two processes: realization of latent lesions which is delayed by UR development, and repair of these lesions by the enzymatic system the activity of which changes periodicallY, also as a result of UR development

  10. Communication, the centrosome and the immunological synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2014-09-05

    Recent findings on the behaviour of the centrosome at the immunological synapse suggest a critical role for centrosome polarization in controlling the communication between immune cells required to generate an effective immune response. The features observed at the immunological synapse show parallels to centrosome (basal body) polarization seen in cilia and flagella, and the cellular communication that is now known to occur at all of these sites.

  11. Improving Communication in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Doenmez, Denniz; Hepperle, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Communication permeates every aspect of an engineer’s work – from clarifying product specifications to shaping social ties. This paper offers an overview of recommendations from literature to improve communication within and among engineering teams. We assume communication problems are often...... of tasks. To improve these factors in order to enable effective communication, this paper collates more than hundred recommendations from journal articles and textbooks published in the fields of engineering design, management science, sociology, and psychology. Recommendations include, for example...

  12. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    OpenAIRE

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms ...

  13. Intercultural communication: conceptual delimitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela SPÎNU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era of interference, intercultural communication is timely and advisable. The article analyzes the relation between communication/ language and culture. Starting from a description of different approaches and models of the concept of culture that have influenced and still influence the intercultural communication, and a description of the linguistic theories regarding the relation between language and culture.

  14. Communicating with Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Harrelson, Peggy O'Neill, 1947-

    2009-01-01

    Communicating positively with young children helps them develop confidence, feelings of self-worth, and good relationships with others. Adults sometimes have difficulty communicating positively with children when feelings are involved-either their own or the child's. This publication explores ways for parents to improve their communication with children.

  15. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  16. Terrorism as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Warren; Rainey, Daniel

    Terrorism has become not merely a political act, but a carefully designed and rhetorically sophisticated attempt at communication. What role should the communication scholar play in the investigation of terrorism? Specifically, there are six areas within which the communication scholar may actively contribute to an understanding of terrorism as…

  17. IBM 3705 Communications Controller

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The IBM 3705 Communications Controller is a simple computer which attaches to an IBM System/360 or System/370. Its purpose is to connect communication lines to the mainframe channel. It was a first communications controller of the popular IBM 37xx series.

  18. CSR communication: quo vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golob, U.; Podnar, K.; Elving, W.J.; Ellerup Nielsen, A.; Thomsen, C.; Schultz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to introduce the special issue on CSR communication attached to the First International CSR Communication Conference held in Amsterdam in October 2011. The aim of the introduction is also to review CSR communication papers published in scholarly journals in order to make a

  19. Communication Games: Participant's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupar, Karen R.

    Using a series of communicational games, the author leads the participant through self-awareness, verbal and nonverbal communication, decision-making, problem-solving, and skills in perception, listening, and small group, organizational, and cultural communications. The thesis behind the book is that model-making, role-playing, or other forms of…

  20. Teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfrimmer, Dale

    2009-07-01

    Effective teamwork and communication is critical to the delivery of safe and reliable patient care. Communication breakdowns account for the overwhelming majority of sentinel events. Effective teamwork and communication can help prevent mistakes and decrease patient risk. The implementation of simple tools and behaviors can greatly enhance patient safety and improve perceptions of teamwork.

  1. Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    A two-part presentation on cross-cultural communication consists of a discussion of cultural differences in interpersonal communication and an article from a Greek English-language publication concerning telephone use skills in a foreign country. Cultural differences in communication are divided into eight types and illustrated: (1) when to talk;…

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  3. Diagnosing Communication Pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carol J.

    This paper addresses the concept of the communication audit, i.e., a fact-finding analysis, interpretation, and reporting process that studies the communication philosophy, structure, flow, and practice of the organization. Reasons for doing a communication audit are identified: (1) to uncover information blockages and organizational hindrances;…

  4. Measuring Communication in Parallel Communicating Finite Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Bordihn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Systems of deterministic finite automata communicating by sending their states upon request are investigated, when the amount of communication is restricted. The computational power and decidability properties are studied for the case of returning centralized systems, when the number of necessary communications during the computations of the system is bounded by a function depending on the length of the input. It is proved that an infinite hierarchy of language families exists, depending on the number of messages sent during their most economical recognitions. Moreover, several properties are shown to be not semi-decidable for the systems under consideration.

  5. N-cadherin in adult rat cardiomyocytes in culture. II. Spatio-temporal appearance of proteins involved in cell-cell contact and communication. Formation of two distinct N-cadherin/catenin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertig, C M; Butz, S; Koch, S; Eppenberger-Eberhardt, M; Kemler, R; Eppenberger, H M

    1996-01-01

    The spatio-temporal appearance and distribution of proteins forming the intercalated disc were investigated in adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC). The 'redifferentiation model' of ARC involves extensive remodelling of the plasma membrane and of the myofibrillar apparatus. It represents a valuable system to elucidate the formation of cell-cell contact between cardiomyocytes and to assess the mechanisms by which different proteins involved in the cell-cell adhesion process are sorted in a precise manner to the sites of function. Appearance of N-cadherin, the catenins and connexin43 within newly formed adherens and gap junctions was studied. Here first evidence is provided for a formation of two distinct and separable N-cadherin/catenin complexes in cardiomyocytes. Both complexes are composed of N-cadherin and alpha-catenin which bind to either beta-catenin or plakoglobin in a mutually exclusive manner. The two N-cadherin/catenin complexes are assumed to be functionally involved in the formation of cell-cell contacts in ARC; however, the differential appearance and localization of the two types of complexes may also point to a specific role during ARC differentiation. The newly synthesized beta-catenin containing complex is more abundant during the first stages in culture after ARC isolation, while the newly synthesized plakoglobin containing complex progressively accumulates during the morphological changes of ARC. ARC formed a tissue-like pattern in culture whereby the new cell-cell contacts could be dissolved through Ca2+ depletion. Presence of cAMP and replenishment of Ca2+ content in the culture medium not only allowed reformation of cell-cell contacts but also affected the relative protein ratio between the two N-cadherin/catenin complexes, increasing the relative amount of newly synthesized beta-catenin over plakoglobin at a particular stage of ARC differentiation. The clustered N-cadherin/catenin complexes at the plasma membrane appear to be a prerequisite for the

  6. Exosomes: mediators of communication in eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A Lopez-Verrilli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the established mechanisms of intercellular signaling, a new way of communication has gained much attention in the last decade: communication mediated by exosomes. Exosomes are nanovesicles (with a diameter of 40-120 nm secreted into the extracellular space by the multivesicular endosome after its outer membrane fuses with the plasma membrane. Once released, exosomes modulate the response of the recipient cells that recognize them. This indicates that exosomes operate in a specific manner and participate in the regulation of the target cell. Remarkably, exosomes occur from unicellular organisms to mammals, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of communication. In this review we describe the cascade of exosome formation, intracellular traffic, secretion, and internalization by recipient cells, and review their most relevant effects. We also highlight important steps that are still poorly understood.

  7. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  8. Engagement through communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we work from the assumption that university engagement can be fostered by addressing the dissemination of scientific knowledge as a communication process, and we explore how university engagement can be encouraged through the communication of scientific knowledge to SMEs (small...... and potentials) in relation to scientific knowledge, which must be taken into account in attempts to communicate scientific knowledge to SMEs. Based on this analysis, we discuss solutions and outline some communicative principles that can contribute with a solution-oriented perspective on how communicating...

  9. Data communication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Seon; Lee, Sang Mok

    1998-02-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of data communication on definition, purpose and history, information terminal about data communication system and data transmission system, data transmit equipment of summary, transmission cable, data port, concentrator and front-end processor, audio communication equipment like phones, radio communication equipment of summary on foundation of electromagnetic waves, AM transmitter, AM receiver, FM receiver and FM transmitter, a satellite and mobile communication equipment such as earth station, TT and C and Cellular phone, video telephone and new media apparatus.

  10. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  11. Regulation of connexin43 gap junctional communication by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, Leonie; Ponsioen, Bas; Giepmans, Ben N G; Ariaens, Aafke; Postma, Friso R; Várnai, Péter; Balla, Tamas; Divecha, Nullin; Jalink, Kees; Moolenaar, Wouter H

    2007-01-01

    Cell-cell communication through connexin43 (Cx43)-based gap junction channels is rapidly inhibited upon activation of various G protein coupled receptors; however, the mechanism is unknown. We show that Cx43-based cell-cell communication is inhibited by depletion of phosphatidylinositol

  12. The Trouble With Strategic Communication(s)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    .... There is no overarching U.S. government definition of strategic communication. There is, however, a Department of Defense definition as a result of the most recent Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR...

  13. Crisis Communication Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utz, Sonja; Schultz, Friederike; Glocka, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Social media play in today's societies a fundamental role for the negotiation and dynamics of crises. However, classical crisis communication theories neglect the role of the medium and focus mainly on the interplay between crisis type and crisis communication strategy. Building on the recently...... developed “networked crisis communication model” we contrast effects of medium (Facebook vs. Twitter vs. online newspaper) and crisis type (intentional vs. victim) in an online experiment. Using the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster as crisis scenario, we show that medium effects are stronger than...... the effects of crisis type. Crisis communication via social media resulted in a higher reputation and less secondary crisis reactions such as boycotting the company than crisis communication in the newspaper. However, secondary crisis communication, e.g. talking about the crisis communication, was higher...

  14. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  15. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct cellular vs. indirect pager communication during orthopaedic surgical procedures: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gil R; Taksali, Sudeep; Smart, Ryan; Baumgaertner, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone use within the hospital setting has increased as physicians, nurses, and ancillary staff incorporate wireless technologies in improving efficiencies, cost, and maintaining patient safety and high quality healthcare [11]. Through the use of wireless, cellular communication, an overall improvement in communication accuracy and efficiency between intraoperative orthopaedic surgeons and floor nurses may be achieved. Both communication types occurred while the surgeon was scrubbed in the operating room (OR). Indirect communication occurred when the pager call was answered by the OR circulating nurse with communication between the surgeon, circulating nurse, and floor nurse. Direct communication consisted of cell phone and Jabra Bluetooth BT200 wireless ear piece used by the surgeon. The surgeon answered the floor nurse's cellular call by phone ring-activated automatic answering. The study was conducted during scheduled orthopaedic procedures. An independent observer measured time variables with a stop-watch while orthopaedic nurses randomly called via pager or cell phone. The nurses asked for patient caregiver confirmation and answers to 30 different patient-care questions. Sixty trials were performed with 30 cell and 30 page communications. Direct cellular communication showed a better response rate than indirect page (Cell 100%, Page 73%). Indirect page communication allowed a 27% and 33% error rate with patient problem and surgeon solution communications, respectively. There were no reported communication errors while using direct wireless, cellular communication. When compared to page communications, cellular communications showed statistically significant improvements in mean time intervals in response time (Cell = 11s, Page = 211s), correct patient identification (Cell = 5s, Page = 172s), patient problem and solution time (Cell = 13s, Page = 189s), and total communication time (Cell = 32s, Page = 250s) (s = seconds, all P < 0.001). Floor nurse

  17. Resilient Communication: A New Crisis Communication Strategy for Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    communication theory. Author, Timothy Coombs , in Ongoing Crisis Communication , discusses the need for a crisis management 10 plan to prepare for potential... COMMUNICATION : A NEW CRISIS COMMUNICATION STRATEGY FOR HOMELAND SECURITY by Sharon L. Watson March 2012 Thesis Advisor: Christopher Bellavita...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Resilient Communication : A New Crisis Communication

  18. Short communication: Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L J A

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC (Fossomatic 5000, Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) and TBC (BactoScan FC 150, Foss) were measured. Staphylococcal count was correlated to SCC (r=0.40), TBC (r=0.51), and SPC (r=0.53). Coliform count was correlated to TBC (r=0.33), but not to any of the other variables. Staphylococcus aureus did not correlate to SCC. The contribution of the staphylococcal count to the SPC was 31%, whereas the coliform count comprised only 1% of the SPC. The agreement of the repeated measurements was low. This study indicates that staphylococci in goat bulk milk are related to SCC and make a significant contribution to SPC. Because of the high variation in bacterial counts, repeated sampling is necessary to draw valid conclusions from bulk milk culturing. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, Katleen; Cabooter, Liesbet; Paemeleire, Koen; Leybaert, Luc

    2004-02-01

    The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astrocytic calcium signals can be induced by neuronal stimulation and can be communicated back to the neurons to modulate synaptic transmission. In addition to this, cells that are generally not considered as brain cells become progressively incorporated in the picture, as astrocytic calcium signals are reported to be communicated to endothelial cells of the vessel wall and can affect smooth muscle cell tone to influence the vessel diameter and thus blood flow. We review the available evidence for calcium signal communication in the central nervous system, taking into account a basic functional unit -the brain cell tripartite- consisting of neurons, glial cells and vascular cells and with emphasis on glial-vascular calcium signaling aspects.

  20. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo

    2007-09-01

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant

  1. Quantum cryptography communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Yu Rak; Jung, Gwang Il; Jung, Jong Eun; Hong, Seok Boong; Koo, In Soo

    2007-09-15

    Quantum cryptography communication based on quantum mechanics provides and unconditional security between two users. Even though huge advance has been done since the 1984, having a complete system is still far away. In the case of real quantum cryptography communication systems, an unconditional security level is lowered by the imperfection of the communication unit. It is important to investigate the unconditional security of quantum communication protocols based on these experimental results and implementation examples for the advanced spread all over the world. The Japanese report, titled, 'Investigation report on the worldwide trends of quantum cryptography communications systems' was translated and summarized in this report. An unconditional security theory of the quantum cryptography and real implementation examples in the domestic area are investigated also. The goal of the report is to make quantum cryptography communication more useful and reliable alternative telecommunication infrastructure as the one of the cyber security program of the class 1-E communication system of nuclear power plant. Also another goal of this report is to provide the quantitative decision basis on the quantum cryptography communication when this secure communication system will be used in class 1-E communication channel of the nuclear power plant.

  2. Engineering nanoparticles to silence bacterial communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Publicover Miller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The alarming spread of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has warranted the study of alternative antimicrobial agents. Quorum sensing is a chemical cell-to-cell communication mechanism utilized by bacteria to coordinate group behaviors and establish infections. Quorum sensing is integral to bacterial survival, and therefore provides a unique target for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, silicon dioxide nanoparticles (Si-NP were engineered to target the signaling molecules (i.e. acylhomoserine lactones (HSL used for quorum sensing in order to halt bacterial communication. Specifically, when Si-NP were surface functionalized with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD, then added to cultures of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri, whose luminous output depends upon HSL-mediated quorum sensing, the cell-to-cell communication was dramatically reduced. Reductions in luminescence were further verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analyses of luminescence genes. Binding of AHLs to Si-NPs was examined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The results indicated that by delivering high concentrations of engineered NPs with associated quenching compounds, the chemical signals were removed from the immediate bacterial environment. In actively-metabolizing cultures, this treatment blocked the ability of bacteria to communicate and regulate quorum sensing, effectively silencing and isolating the cells. Si-NPs provide a scaffold and critical stepping-stone for more pointed developments in antimicrobial therapy, especially with regard to quorum sensing – a target that will reduce resistance pressures imposed by traditional antibiotics.

  3. Short communication: Prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle classified as high, average, or low antibody- and cell-mediated immune responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, S L; Malchiodi, F; Thompson-Crispi, K; Miglior, F; Mallard, B A

    2017-10-01

    Lameness is a major animal welfare issue affecting Canadian dairy producers, and it can lead to production, reproduction, and health problems in dairy cattle herds. Although several different lesions affect dairy cattle hooves, studies show that digital dermatitis is the most common lesion identified in Canadian dairy herds. It has also been shown that dairy cattle classified as having high immune response (IR) have lower incidence of disease compared with those animals with average and low IR; therefore, it has been hypothesized that IR plays a role in preventing infectious hoof lesions. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of digital dermatitis in Canadian dairy cattle that were classified for antibody-mediated (AMIR) and cell-mediated (CMIR) immune response. Cattle (n = 329) from 5 commercial dairy farms in Ontario were evaluated for IR using a patented test protocol that captures both AMIR and CMIR. Individuals were classified as high, average, or low responders based on standardized residuals for AMIR and CMIR. Residuals were calculated using a general linear model that included the effects of herd, parity, stage of lactation, and stage of pregnancy. Hoof health data were collected from 2011 to 2013 by the farm's hoof trimmer using Hoof Supervisor software (KS Dairy Consulting Inc., Dresser, WI). All trim events were included for each animal, and lesions were assessed as a binary trait at each trim event. Hoof health data were analyzed using a mixed model that included the effects of herd, stage of lactation (at trim date), parity (at trim date), IR category (high, average, and low), and the random effect of animal. All data were presented as prevalence within IR category. Results showed that cows with high AMIR had significantly lower prevalence of digital dermatitis than cattle with average and low AMIR. No significant difference in prevalence of digital dermatitis was observed between high, average, and low CMIR cows. These results

  4. Developing Intercultural Communicative Competence in ELF Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Cavalheiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional notion of English as a foreign language solely for communicating with native speakers can no longer be applied in a world that is constantly changing, hence paving the way for an alternative use of the language known as English as a lingua franca. As a result, instead of focusing only on grammatical correctness, research into language pedagogy has also come to recognize the importance of exploring bottom-up learning processes, and developing intercultural communicative competence (ICC and more communicative-based methods. Nowadays, it is essential to acquire the knowledge, skills, attitudes and critical cultural awareness necessary to communicate successfully. To show the importance of integrating ICC in language pedagogy, a recording from the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English is analysed here to demonstrate the significance of developing critical awareness as well as several communicative strategies, so that language learners can afterwards have the necessary ICC to interact in today’s multi-lingual/cultural society.

  5. Organizational communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Spaho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managers spend majority of their time communicating in several forms: meeting, face-to –face dis- cussion, letters, emails etc. Also more and more employees realize that communication is a very im- portant part of their work because a lot of their work activities are based on teamwork among workers in different functional groups. This is the reason why communication has become more important in companies. The experience shows that there are significant differences in manners of communication and that it appears to be a very important factor which makes some organizations more successful than others. Communication is the most important for managers because research shows that the spent long period in work time in communication.

  6. Communicating Your Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective science communication can open doors, accelerate your career and even make you a better scientist. Part of being an effective and productive scientist means being an effective science communicator. The scientist must communicate their work in talks, posters, peer-reviewed papers, internal reports, proposals as well as to the broader public (including law makers). Despite the importance of communication, it has traditionally not been part of our core training as scientists. Today's science students are beginning to have more opportunities to formally develop their science communication skills. Fortunately, new and even more established scientists have a range of tools and resources at their disposal. In this presentation, we will share some of these resources, share our own experiences utilizing them, and provide some practical tools to improve your own science communication skills.

  7. Exploring Constrained Creative Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Creative collaboration via online tools offers a less ‘media rich’ exchange of information between participants than face-to-face collaboration. The participants’ freedom to communicate is restricted in means of communication, and rectified in terms of possibilities offered in the interface. How do...... these constrains influence the creative process and the outcome? In order to isolate the communication problem from the interface- and technology problem, we examine via a design game the creative communication on an open-ended task in a highly constrained setting, a design game. Via an experiment the relation...... between communicative constrains and participants’ perception of dialogue and creativity is examined. Four batches of students preparing for forming semester project groups were conducted and documented. Students were asked to create an unspecified object without any exchange of communication except...

  8. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system.   Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: E2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  9. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system. Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: F2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  10. Communication in nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao

    1996-01-01

    In order to take protection measures smoothly at the time of emergency in nuclear power stations and others, it is necessary to prepare information communication facilities mutually among disaster prevention organizations including the state and information transmission network for residents in surrounding areas. The matters decided in ''the measures to be taken for the time being for the countermeasures to prevent disaster in nuclear power stations and others'' are shown. In order to avoid the congestion of communication, the exclusively used communication systems are adopted for disaster prevention organizations, in which facsimile is used to transmit graphic information. The data communication circuits for distributing SPEEDI are installed between Science and Technology Agency, Nuclear Power Safety Technology Center and respective prefectures. The routes, means and order of notices must be confirmed beforehand mutually among the related organizations. As to the general communication for disaster countermeasures, the communication systems in ministries and agencies are described. (K.I.)

  11. Green symbiotic cloud communications

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafa, H D; Desai, Uday B; Baveja, Brij Mohan

    2017-01-01

    This book intends to change the perception of modern day telecommunications. Communication systems, usually perceived as “dumb pipes”, carrying information / data from one point to another, are evolved into intelligently communicating smart systems. The book introduces a new field of cloud communications. The concept, theory, and architecture of this new field of cloud communications are discussed. The book lays down nine design postulates that form the basis of the development of a first of its kind cloud communication paradigm entitled Green Symbiotic Cloud Communications or GSCC. The proposed design postulates are formulated in a generic way to form the backbone for development of systems and technologies of the future. The book can be used to develop courses that serve as an essential part of graduate curriculum in computer science and electrical engineering. Such courses can be independent or part of high-level research courses. The book will also be of interest to a wide range of readers including b...

  12. Designing for Networked Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development explains how to plan, use, and understand the products and the dynamic social processes and tasks some of the most vital innovations in the knowledge society depend upon– social as well as technological. Focusing on various forms...... of design, implementation and integration of computer mediated communication, this book bridges the academic fields of computer science and communication studies. Designing for Networked Communications: Strategies and Development uses an interdisciplinary approach, and presents results from recent...... and important research in a variety of forms for networked communications. A constructive and critical view of the interplay between the new electronic and the more conventional modes of communication are utilized, while studies of organizational work practices demonstrate that the use of new technologies...

  13. Organizational communication process

    OpenAIRE

    Kenan Spaho

    2012-01-01

    Managers spend majority of their time communicating in several forms: meeting, face-to –face dis- cussion, letters, emails etc. Also more and more employees realize that communication is a very im- portant part of their work because a lot of their work activities are based on teamwork among workers in different functional groups. This is the reason why communication has become more important in companies. The experience shows that there are significant differences in manners of ...

  14. Digital communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Union, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A digital communication system for communicating among two central consoles and a plurality of local controllers, e.g. in a radiation and monitoring system, provides communication between each of the consoles and all of the local controllers via dual paths. Each path is independent of the other and each extends from one of the consoles to all of the local controllers from opposite directions, thereby forming a unique non-continuous loop. (author)

  15. Secure Fiberoptic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodara, Henri

    At the heart of our current information explosion is the communication network. Networks are now an intrinsic part of our daily activities, whether they are for Internet business transactions or military communications in Future Combat Systems. Protection of this communication infrastructure is a must. In this article, we discuss two approaches for securing all-optical networks. The first is an optical encryption technique that denies the information to intruders. The second is an authentication scheme capable of detecting and identifying unauthorized users.

  16. Communications and media services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculla, James W.; Kukowski, James F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's internal and external communication methods are reviewed. NASA information services for the media, for the public, and for employees are discussed. Consideration is given to electron information distribution, the NASA TV-audio system, the NASA broadcast news service, astronaut appearances, technology and information exhibits, speaker services, and NASA news reports for internal communications. Also, the NASA worldwide electronic mail network is described and trends for future NASA communications and media services are outlined.

  17. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...

  18. Corruption and Organizational Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    , and societal levels, as well as how corruption is and can be responded to through public scandals and more elaborate communicative strategies of corruption control, or anti-corruption. A focus on corruption and corruption control provides organizational communication scholars with entry points to explore...... the powerful communicative dynamics playing out between the local organizational meanings of particular practices and externally imposed definitions of what constitutes appropriate organizational behavior....

  19. A Novel Health Information Technology Communication System to Increase Caregiver Activation in the Context of Hospital-Based Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Molly; Hanauer, David A; Kaziunas, Elizabeth; Ackerman, Mark S; Derry, Holly; Forringer, Rachel; Miller, Kristen; O'Reilly, Dennis; An, Lawrence; Tewari, Muneesh; Choi, Sung Won

    2015-10-27

    Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), commonly referred to as blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), is an intense treatment modality that requires the involvement of engaged caregivers during the patient's (child's) prolonged hospitalization. The ubiquity of electronic health records (EHRs) and a trend toward patient-centered care could allow a novel health information technology (IT) system to increase parental engagement. The paucity of research on acute care, hospital-based (inpatient) health IT applications for patients or caregivers provides an opportunity for testing the feasibility of such applications. The pediatric BMT population represents an ideal patient group to conduct an evaluation due to the lengthy inpatient stays and a heightened need for patient activation. The primary objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of implementing the BMT Roadmap in caregivers as an intervention during their child's inpatient hospitalization. The BMT Roadmap is an inpatient portal prototype optimized for tablet with a user-centered design. It integrates patient-specific laboratory and medication data from the EHR in real-time and provides support in terms of discharge goals, home care education, and other components. Feasibility will be proven if (1) the BMT Roadmap functions and can be managed by the study team without unexpected effort, (2) the system is accessed by users at a defined minimum threshold, and (3) the qualitative and quantitative research conducted provides quality data that address the perceived usefulness of the BMT Roadmap and could inform a study in a larger sample size. This will be a single-arm, nonrandomized feasibility study. We aim to enroll 10 adult caregivers (age ≥ 18 years) of pediatric patients (aged 0-25 years) undergoing autologous (self-donor) or allogeneic (alternative donor) BMT. Assenting minors (aged 10-18) will also be invited to participate. Recruitment of study participants will take place in the

  20. Wire communication engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Byeong Tae

    1997-02-01

    This book describes wire telecommunication engineering/ It is divided into eleven chapter, which deal with Introduction with development of telecommunication, voice and sound wave and communication network, Telegraphy with summary of telegraphy, code of telegraphy, communication speed, morse and telex, Telephone on structure, circuit and image telephone, Traffic on telecommunication traffic, transmission of line about theory, cable line and loaded cable, carrier communication with carrier telegraphy and carrier telephone, optical communication with types, structure, specialty, laser and equipment, DATA, Mobile telecommunication on summary, mobile telephone, radio paging and digital mobile telecommunication, ISDN with channel of ISDN, and service of ISDN, and design of telecommunication.

  1. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  2. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Being Active - FAQs About Physical Activity Managing Your Medicines - Introduction - Taking Control of Your Medicines - Medicine Assistance Programs - Medicine Checklist - Medication Tracker Communicating ...

  3. Networked Constellation Communications Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop communications architectures and enabling technologies for mission concepts relying on multiple spatially distributed spacecraft to perform coordinated...

  4. The art of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Emma

    2014-03-01

    Effective communication is an essential skill in general practice consultations. The art of communication is the development of effective skills and finding a style of communication that suits the clinician and produces benefits for both patient and doctor. This paper outlines the essential skills required for effective communication with a patient and suggests that clinicians consider this communication as an art that can be developed throughout a medical career. Good communication can improve outcomes for patients and doctors, and deserves equal importance as developing clinical knowledge and procedural skill. The importance of good communication is so critical that Australian guidelines list effective communication as part of the required conduct for all doctors. A therapeutic patient-doctor relationship uses the clinician as a therapeutic intervention and is part of the art of communication. Despite all the technological advances of recent decades, caring, compassionate, healing doctors remain the best therapeutic tool in medicine. The ability of a doctor to provide comfort through their presence and their words is a fundamental component of good medical care.

  5. Improve your communication skills

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Excellent communication skills are vital in today's workplace. Whether keeping the interest of a large audience, impressing a potential employer or simply winning the argument at an important meeting, sounding the part is key. This fourth edition of Improve Your Communication Skills is full of practical advice on all aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication. It gives vital tips on improving conversations and building rapport with colleagues, learning the skills of persuasion, and writing effective emails, letters and reports. This editionincludes new information focusing on communicating across borders and virtual teams and a new chapter on managing difficult conversations."

  6. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  7. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) is a strong inductor of smooth muscle cell migration via activation of the P2Y2 receptor and cross-communication to the PDGF receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedon, Annette; Tölle, Markus; Bastine, Joschika; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Huang, Tao; Jankowski, Vera; Jankowski, Joachim; Zidek, Walter; Giet, Markus van der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Up 4 A induces VSMC migration. ► VSMC migration towards Up 4 A involves P2Y 2 activation. ► Up 4 A-induced VSMC migration is OPN-dependent. ► Activation of ERK1/2 pathway is necessary for VSMC migration towards Up 4 A. ► Up 4 A-directed VSMC migration cross-communicates with the PDGFR. -- Abstract: The recently discovered dinucleotide uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up 4 A) was found in human plasma and characterized as endothelium-derived vasoconstrictive factor (EDCF). A further study revealed a positive correlation between Up 4 A and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. Due to the dominant role of migration in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions our aim was to investigate the migration stimulating potential of Up 4 A. Indeed, we found a strong chemoattractant effect of Up 4 A on VSMC by using a modified Boyden chamber. This migration dramatically depends on osteopontin secretion (OPN) revealed by the reduction of the migration signal down to 23% during simultaneous incubation with an OPN-blocking antibody. Due to inhibitory patterns using specific and unspecific purinoreceptor inhibitors, Up 4 A mediates it’s migratory signal mainly via the P2Y 2 . The signaling behind the receptor was investigated with luminex technique and revealed an activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway. By use of the specific PDGF receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor AG1296 and siRNA technique against PDGFR-β we found a strongly reduced migration signal after Up 4 A stimulation in the PDGFR-β knockdown cells compared to control cells. In this study, we present substantiate data that Up 4 A exhibits migration stimulating potential probably involving the signaling cascade of MEK1 and ERK1/2 as well as the matrix protein OPN. We further suggest that the initiation of the migration process occurs predominant through direct activation of the P2Y 2 by Up 4 A and via transactivation of the PDGFR.

  8. Nonprofit Communications from a Corporate Communications Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ava

    2006-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations, such as social service agencies, charities, and hospitals, plan and prepare communications that are vital to their missions. Although not corporations, these organizations produce news releases, newsletters, and annual reports that are similar to those created in the corporate sector. In this research project for a course…

  9. Ordinateur et communication (Computer and Communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangenot, Francois

    1994-01-01

    Because use of computers in second-language classrooms may tend to decrease interpersonal interaction, and therefore communication, ways to promote interaction are offered. These include small group computer projects, and suggestions are made for use with various computer functions and features: tutorials, word processing, voice recording,…

  10. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  11. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  12. Flesh as communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Falk

    2012-01-01

    , action. A correlative bond lies in communication theory as the operational difference between ego and alter-ego. This article investigates the non-semiotic intertwinement of ‘flesh’ in art perception and theory based on communication theory in performance art (body art). The thesis is that ‘flesh...

  13. Business Communication in BELF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  14. Marketing communication in tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kashkina, Katsiaryna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this graduation thesis was to analyze some possibilities of marketing communication in tourism. For this analize were chosen travel agencies in Tábor. The partial objects consisted in the analysis of supply of researched travel agencies including their marketing communication. There was found out also demand of products in tourism. After analyses were prepared some recommendations for improvement.

  15. International Communication and Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Humphrey

    The author discusses (1) the nature of communication, (2) sociological aspects of the communication problem, and (3) solutions to the language problem that have been tried. He believes that "there is a solution easier and more successful than multilingualism, and less discriminatory than the unilateral imposition of one national language for…

  16. Intracultural Communication: Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    The 63 books and journal articles listed in this bibliography address the problem of intracultural communication. A short introduction to the bibliography defines intracultural communication as the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geo-political system who come from various tributary cultures (groups distinguishable from…

  17. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  18. Communication of the popular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božilović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the communication of popular culture. It considers the more specialized meaning of popular culture, which primarily encompasses the works of artistic forms which have a popular character - easily understandable and entertaining contents and wide audience. The aesthetic communication of the popular through popular literature, film, pop and rock music is examined. The paper is divided into three parts. The first parts deals with the aesthetics of the communication of popular culture. It contains the analysis of the major formal-aesthetic procedures embedded in the creative expression of the popular. In the part which is dedicated to social aspects of the communication of popular art, the author examines the industrial, market and commercial principles upon which this whole culture is based. It is a time of new technologies and mass consumption, which represent, in the words of Eric Hobsbawm, a 'cultural landscape' that has transformed the manner in which a new audience experiences the artistic. Finally, popular culture stars are observed as communicators. The author adds them as a new, even crucial, link in the already known chain of communication comprising the author, the work and the audience. Stars (film, popular music are active factors of communication as well as its bearers. They are the intermediaries through which the audience establishes relationships with the authors (writers, directors, composers and the works in which those stars appear. Stars as 'new Olympians' (Morin are, indeed, another significant category that distinguishes the communication of popular culture.

  19. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  20. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  1. Participatory Development Communication

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Training Needs in Participatory Development Communication .... to the development of society (communications in the service of development), ... There are also some definitions that give a more restrictive meaning to the way ...... Although proponents of participation appreciate that there is more good than bad in the ...

  2. Communication Signals in Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses mechanisms and functional intent of visual communication signals in iguanid/agamid lizards. Demonstrated that lizards communicate with each other by using pushups and head nods and that each species does this in its own way, conveying different types of information. (JN)

  3. Socio-Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, James David

    The focus of this work is the introduction and description of a quasi-new concept called socio-communication. In chapter 1 the term "socio communication" is defined as "human interaction, among and between different classes of people, by means of verbal and nonverbal expression in day-to-day social situations." In chapter 2 social communication…

  4. Mask Phenomenon in Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎丽璇

    2013-01-01

    People sometimes wear masks. Abusive expression may be used to convey love while polite words can be exchanged among enemies. This essay describes and discusses this special phenomenon in communication and analyzes the elements that con-tribute to the success of a mask communication.

  5. Communication Challenge Softball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Tom; Vance, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Communication Challenge Softball is a developmentally appropriate game for middle school students. The game allows them to develop new communication skills using American Sign Language (signing). Traditional softball has been a part of physical education for years, and remains a popular sport played by children in community leagues throughout the…

  6. Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  7. Project Communications Management

    OpenAIRE

    José C. Santiago-Guevara; Mauricio Rojas-Contreras; Luis A. Esteban-Villamizar

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review in relation to the object of study: Communications Management as an important factor in the management of projects. The review includes the most relevant and most renowned authors in the field of project management, focusing on telecommunications projects, which lets you define a communications management model.

  8. Communication Analysis of Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This textbook was developed for use in a Concordia University (Quebec) course entitled "Communication Analysis of Environment." Designed as a practical application of information theory and cybernetics in the field of communication studies, the course is intended to be a self-instructional process, whereby each student chooses one…

  9. Marxism and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  10. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela JIREGHIE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the idea of an effective communication between teacher and students aiming to prove that classroom activities maximize opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way for meaningful activities. The emphasis lies on meaning (messages they are creating or tasks they are completing rather than form (correctness of language and language structure.

  11. Subliminal communication technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various types of subliminal communication devices presently in use, the psychological basis for subliminal technology, and the effectiveness of subliminal communication for therapy are examined as well as potentials for abuse. Social, legal, and ethical aspects are considered with respect to the privacy and autonomy of captive audiences. Implications for the regulation of subliminal techniques are reviewed with application to the various media.

  12. Communication in cartelized industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cayseele, P.J.G.; Camesasca, P.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we first survey both the European Commission’s legal standard and economic theory on communication in industries in which a cartel is operating. We notice a strong tension between the per se illegal nature of communication on price and price fixing, considered to be proof of the

  13. Data communications pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Data Communications Pocket Book, Second Edition presents information relevant to data communication. The book provides tabulated reference materials with a brief description and diagrams. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations, terminal control codes, and conversion tables. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the interconnection of computer systems.

  14. Communicating research results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Fryk

    1999-01-01

    A research finding is of little value until it is known and applied. Hence) communication of results should be regarded as a natural, integrated part of research) and thus addressed in the research plans from the very beginning. A clearly defined information strategy and operational goals for information activities are needed for successful communication. For maximum...

  15. Communicating the seemingly unintelligible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    -communicable to others. Unintelligible imaginations may be grounds for suffering, as an individual’s struggles cannot be communicatively exchanged with others and may therefore never be overcome – one’s sense, so to say, may never be turned into a shareable common sense and consequently never finds its expression...

  16. Reinventing Corporate Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elizabeth L.; Trujillo, Nick

    1987-01-01

    Urges a "re-inventing" of corporate communications in today's organizations, and provides information about how corporations can change in new and positive ways during the current "information age." Discusses specific public relations and organizational communication concepts essential for a comprehensive understanding of…

  17. Comparative Political Communication Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Kenski, K.; Jamieson, K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of comparative political communication research (CPCR). CPCR is a growing field since there is wide acknowledgement that many questions are not answered satisfactorily with single case studies. The chapter explains why political communication researchers should care

  18. Essays on Strategic Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sharif (Zara)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThree essays on strategic communication are discussed in this dissertation. These essays consider different settings in which a decision maker has to rely on another agent for information. In each essay, we analyze how much information the sender is able to credibly communicate to

  19. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  20. Organizational Communication and Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

      The paper reflects an interest in the relation between organizational communication and media. It tries to answer the question, how we can observe the relationship between organizational communication and media. It is a work-in-progress which tries to combine organizational studies inspired...... of Niklas Luhmann (Tække & Paulsen 2008, Tække 2008a) with analysis of how organizations communicate in and about media. Using systems theory and form theory, it puts forward a theoretical framework and a strategy for analysing organisational communication in and about media. The medium aspect is inspired...... is a possible framework to draw the two disciplines together in, because it is a theory about the relation between the social and the media it is based on. First the paper sum up the Luhmann inspired theory about organizations, fleshing out how organizations are thought to communicate in and about media and how...

  1. Scholarly communication changing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims at investigating the changing scholarly communication in general and more specifically the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The overall research question is: What are the effects of open access on scholarly communication? The dissertation...... consists of five empirical studies of various aspects of the implications of open access on scholarly communication. The five studies, published as journal articles, are bibliometric studies conducted on three different levels. The first level consists of two studies of a general, more explorative....... Furthermore, the dissertation includes a chapter that presents and discusses the research findings in a theoretical framework. Initially the chapter presents and discusses terminology needed for analysing open access and scholarly communication. Following the necessary definitions and clarifications...

  2. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  3. Heidegger, communication, and healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Casey

    2018-01-12

    Communication between medical professionals and patients is an important aspect of therapy and patient satisfaction. Common barriers that get in the way of effective communication in this sphere include: (1) gender, age, and cultural differences; (2) physical or psychological discomfort or pain; (3) medical literacy; and (4) distraction due to technological factors or simply being overworked. The author examines these communicative barriers from a philosophical lens and then utilizes Martin Heidegger's phenomenology and hermeneutics to provide guidance for medical professional-patient interactions. The phenomenological approach espoused emphasizes the particular, contextual nature of such interactions, and thus is opposed to abstract, theoretical principles. Heidegger's hermeneutics provides a philosophical approach to communication that may guide the back-and-forth interpretation that should happen between medical professionals and patients to achieve effective communication.

  4. Interdiscursive leadership communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Broeng, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Communication realized as discourses, positions, and stories are the stuff leadership primarily is made of and recreated by. Leadership and organizational communication in late capitalism and postmodernity are characterized by hybridity, interdicursivity, and subtle discursive forms of power. We...... Communication (AMOC). We draw on developments in theories of leadership, power, and paradigms within the field of organizational communication. These developments are related to their social and historical contexts. We claim that awareness of approaches, paradigms, forms of power, and positions, as well...... as their historical background, form an important background of knowledge. Such knowledge gives the possibility to learn, meta-reflect, and react and relate in different ways to leadership, communication, power, and the interpersonal relations in organizations. It also gives the possibility to change position...

  5. Strategic Communication Institutionalized

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2013-01-01

    of institutionalization when strategic communication is not yet visible as organizational practice, and how can such detections provide explanation for the later outcome of the process? (2) How can studies of strategic communication benefit from an institutional perspective? How can the virus metaphor generate a deeper...... understanding of the mechanisms that interact from the time an organization is exposed to a new organizational idea such as strategic communication until it surfaces in the form of symptoms such as mission and vision statements, communication manuals and communication positions? The first part of the article...... focuses on a discussion of the virus metaphor as an alternative to the widespread fashion metaphor for processes of institutionalization. The second part of the article provides empirical examples of the virus metaphor employed, examples that are drawn from a study of the institutionalization of strategic...

  6. Communication in Adult Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Časar

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In their paper the authors point to the importance of communication in adult education, seeing man as a relational creature. They stress the importance verbal as well as non-verbal communication, which discloses the speaker's attitude to both what is being said and the students. The authors detail the components of non-verbal communication, which the group leaders can use as guide­ lines in their educational work. They define constructive and destructive, content-related and relationship-related types of communication, concluding that communication is at its best when it is relaxed and involves all members of the group as well as the tutor-organiser. Only then can feedback be generated, resulting in a closer connectedness and enhanced quality of the process of education.

  7. INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena ALBU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication is involved in all social life acts, being the constituent factor of creation and of cultural processes. Cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue are intensely discussed topics in today's society which is marked by globalization. Cultural differences are the core subject for studies addressing intercultural communication. Good knowledge of other cultures is a necessary step to get to recognize the nature of these differences and to relate to others through attitudes of understanding and tolerance which are premises for genuine intercultural dialogue, especially in the tourism industry. While communication is an act of human relationships, culture is the motive of this act. In tourism, quality of communication is related to the level of the culture involved and to the degree of improvement of the means of which is done. Intercultural communication experiences help tourists to know and to appreciate other cultures, but also help them to a better understanding of their own culture.

  8. COMMUNICATION, ETHICS AND ANTHROPOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  9. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  10. Communication plan of GPS monitoring system based on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiangpeng; Liu, Zhenan; Bao, Yuanlu

    2005-11-01

    In GPS monitoring system, wireless communications network is necessary to keep base station in contact with mobile stations. Public communications network and personal communications network can't work well all the time. In this article, an economical communications network that can be competent for communication of GPS monitoring system is introduced. Personal communications network is used in this GPS monitoring system. In order to enlarge the coverage area and to expand the capacity of the personal communications network, the concept of cellular radio system is introduced. Because only the non-adjacent cells can use the same frequency channel, handoff of mobile station is extremely important when it goes in another cell. The mobile station of the system will know its own longitude and latitude by receiving data from GPS satellites all the time, so it can change its working frequency channel according to its position. Internet, instead of personal communication cable, is used to connect the base stations. So the communications network has the advantage of public communications network and personal one.

  11. Communication regarding the thorp event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.

    2007-01-01

    HSE investigated the circumstances of the leak of highly radioactive product liquor inside the cell of the THORP plant at Sellafield which went undetected for a period of approximately 9 months between 2004 and 2005. The leak resulted in 83 000 litres of the liquor being deposited on the floor of the cell and although all indications are that none of this liquor escaped into the ground and no--one was harmed, it did attract considerable media attention. HSE's Nuclear Safety Directorate instigated its own investigation which resulted in enforcement action being taken. BNG Sellafield was charged with 3 offenses under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, pleaded guilty and was fined pounds 500 k in Crown Court in January 2007. The incident was categorized as '3' on the International Nuclear Event Scale and attracted a lot of attention in this country and abroad. The event is useful in illustrating the difficulties in handling communications related to a high hazard nuclear site which even in normal operation can attract considerable attention. The role of the safety regulator is considered. It is proposed that communications issues can be grouped in to three distinct areas; - Early information by the licensee on the incident, status of the plant etc. which would be aimed at the public and media. - Ministerial reporting and as a result reporting to OGDs and our responsibility to early notify our international neighbours. - Lessons learnt from the event which in this case are fed hack to the industry through an HSE openly published report. This presentation covers each type of communication in the context of this event and draws conclusions on what can be considered good practice and what are some of the difficulties which may need to be overcome. (author)

  12. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  13. NASA science communications strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  14. JINR rapid communications. Collection no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The volume includes 7 communications in the field of elementary particle physics (3 communications), nuclear physics (1 communication), atoms and molecules (1 communication), accelerators (1 communication) and nuclear instrumentation (1 communication). A separate abstract was prepared for each of them

  15. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  16. Communications technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This is the first point of reference for the communications industries. It offers an introduction to a wide range of topics and concepts encountered in the field of communications technology. Whether you are looking for a simple explanation, or need to go into a subject in more depth, the Communications Technology Handbook provides all the information you need in one single volume.This second edition has been updated to include the latest technology including: Video on DemandWire-less Distribution systemsHigh spee

  17. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  18. Serial interprocessor communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labiak, W.; Siemens, P.; Bailey, C.

    1980-01-01

    A serial communications system based on the EIA RS232-C standard with modem control lines has been developed. The DLV11-E interface is used for this purpose. All handshaking is done with the modem control lines. This allows totally independent full duplex communication. The message format consists of eight bit data with odd parity and a sixteen bit checksum on the whole message. All communications are fully interrupt driven. A program was written to load a program into a remote LSI-11 using the serial line without bootstrap ROM

  19. COMMUNICATING FOR SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria Popa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational communication, both internal and external, affects organizational efficiency and effectiveness and consequently, the objectives of the organization. Communication is one the elements of the organizational life which is taken for granted and most of the times overlooked. It is pervasive and inherent in all activities thus, it cannot be analyzed in isolation, but in an organizational context. A well structured communication system will impact the performance of the organization through the quantity, but mostly the quality of the information it transports. Information should be clear, concise, specific, open, multi-directional.

  20. Digital communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L. G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A digital communication system is reported for parallel operation of 16 or more transceiver units with the use of only four interconnecting wires. A remote synchronization circuit produces unit address control words sequentially in data frames of 16 words. Means are provided in each transceiver unit to decode calling signals and to transmit calling and data signals. The transceivers communicate with each other over one data line. The synchronization unit communicates the address control information to the transceiver units over an address line and further provides the timing information over a clock line. A reference voltage level or ground line completes the interconnecting four wire hookup.

  1. 75 FR 5241 - Maritime Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...] Maritime Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this... that its rules governing the Maritime Radio Services continue to promote maritime safety, maximize effective and efficient use of the spectrum available for maritime communications, accommodate technological...

  2. Visual implementation of computer communication

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Tobias; Johansson, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a fundamental part of life and during the 20th century several new ways for communication has been developed and created. From the first telegraph which made it possible to send messages over long distances to radio communication and the telephone. In the last decades, computer to computer communication at high speed has become increasingly important, and so also the need for understanding computer communication. Since data communication today works in speeds that are so high...

  3. Machine Translation Effect on Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Bjørn, Pernille

    2011-01-01

    Intercultural collaboration facilitated by machine translation has gradually spread in various settings. Still, little is known as for the practice of machine-translation mediated communication. This paper investigates how machine translation affects intercultural communication in practice. Based...... on communication in which multilingual communication system is applied, we identify four communication types and its’ influences on stakeholders’ communication process, especially focusing on establishment and maintenance of common ground. Different from our expectation that quality of machine translation results...

  4. Informationization nuclear apparatus communication technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tiqi; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin

    2006-01-01

    The paper explains the request of communication ability in nuclear technique application area. Based on the actuality of nuclear apparatus communication ability, and mainly combining with the development of communication technique, the authors analyzes the application trend of communication technique applying in nuclear apparatus, for the apparatus and system needing communication ability, they need selecting suitable communication means to make them accomplish the task immediately and effectively. (authors)

  5. Karl Marx & Communication @ 200: Towards a Marxian Theory of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for reflecting on foundations of a Marxian theory of communication. It aims to show that Marx provides a consistent account as foundation for a critical, dialectical theory of communication. The article first discusses the relationship of communication and materialism in order to ground a communicative materialism that avoids the dualist assumption that communication is a superstructure erected on a material base. Second, the paper provides an overview of how Marx’s approach helps us to understand the role of the means of communication and communicative labour in capitalism. Third, it conceives of ideology as a form of fetishised communication and fetishism as ideological communication. Given that communicative capitalism is a significant dimension of contemporary society, it is about time to develop a Marxian theory of communication.

  6. Organizational Communication: Communication and Motivation in The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Ramadanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every human activity was basically driven by the motivation. Work motivation was a condition or an energy that directed employees to achieve organizational goals of the company. Nowadays, the development of organizational communication saw the communication as one of the most dominant and important activity in the organization and it could be able to motivate employees. The purpose of this study was to reveal how the role of the communication that occurs within the organization could give the motivation to employee. The problem of the research was the relationship employee motivation with factors of communication, such as nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate. The method used descriptive qualitative method. Methods of data collection of this study were literature study. Research finds that nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate have a significant role to form employee motivation. Nonverbal communication has slightly strong role in shaping the positive motivation to employee. The role includes body communication, facial communication and eye communication. Interpersonal communication leader is based on the satisfaction level of information between management and employees. Management and transparency in openness in downward communication under the form of information from superiors are by listening the communication between supervisors and employees are running smoothly. 

  7. Identifying Error in AUV Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Joseph; Merrill, Kaylani; O'Rourke, Michael; Rajala, Andrew G; Edwards, Dean B

    2006-01-01

    Mine Countermeasures (MCM) involving Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are especially susceptible to error, given the constraints on underwater acoustic communication and the inconstancy of the underwater communication channel...

  8. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    .... This book critically examines the origin of this drive to improve communication, and discusses why simply improving scientists' communication skills and understanding of their audiences may not be...

  9. Communication satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    The status and future of the technologies, numbers and services provided by communications satellites worldwide are explored. The evolution of Intelsat satellites and the associated earth terminals toward high-rate all-digital telephony, data, facsimile, videophone, videoconferencing and DBS capabilities are described. The capabilities, services and usage of the Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Arabsat and Palapa systems are also outlined. Domestic satellite communications by means of the Molniya, ANIK, Olympus, Intelsat and Palapa spacecraft are outlined, noting the fast growth of the market and the growing number of different satellite manufacturers. The technical, economic and service definition issues surrounding DBS systems are discussed, along with presently operating and planned maritime and aeronautical communications and positioning systems. Features of search and rescue and tracking, data, and relay satellite systems are summarized, and services offered or which will be offered by every existing or planned communication satellite worldwide are tabulated.

  10. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  11. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow-up ... or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, ...

  12. Political communication research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    2014-01-01

    The rise of new media and the broader set of social changes they are part of present political communication research with new challenges and new opportunities at a time when many think the field is at an intellectual impasse (e.g., Bennett & Iyengar, 2008). In this article, I argue that parts...... of the field’s problems are rooted in the way in which political communication research has developed since the 1960s. In this period, the field has moved from being interdisciplinary and mixed-methods to being more homogenous and narrowly focused, based primarily on ideas developed in social psychology......, certain strands of political science, and the effects-tradition of mass communication research. This dominant paradigm has contributed much to our understanding of some aspects of political communication. But it is struggling to make sense of many others, including questions concerning people’s experience...

  13. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more rushed than you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – ...

  14. Emotional crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organizational crises are usually highly emotional experiences for both organizations and stakeholders. Hence, crisis situations often result in emotionally charged communication between the two parties. Despite the attention of organizations and scholars to the emotions of stakeholders during

  15. Economic communication model set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Olga M.; Berg, Dmitry B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper details findings from the research work targeted at economic communications investigation with agent-based models usage. The agent-based model set was engineered to simulate economic communications. Money in the form of internal and external currencies was introduced into the models to support exchanges in communications. Every model, being based on the general concept, has its own peculiarities in algorithm and input data set since it was engineered to solve the specific problem. Several and different origin data sets were used in experiments: theoretic sets were estimated on the basis of static Leontief's equilibrium equation and the real set was constructed on the basis of statistical data. While simulation experiments, communication process was observed in dynamics, and system macroparameters were estimated. This research approved that combination of an agent-based and mathematical model can cause a synergetic effect.

  16. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concerns, asking questions and getting the facts. Usually, office visits and phone calls are shorter and more ... over the phone, at the hospital or during office visits. Good communication skills help you get better ...

  17. Psychology of communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunns, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A theory is proposed relating to the structuring of mental models and this theory used to account for a number of human error mechanisms. Communications amongst operators and the systems around them is seen as a vital factor in the area of human error and a technique, communications analysis, is proposed as one approach to systematically predicting the ways in which actual system state and the operators' perceptions of that state can get out of step and lead to catastrophe. To be most effective it is expected that the analyst would apply communications analyst with an interactive computer system. Of particular importance is the ability to trace the operator-system communication scenarios in various abnormal system configurations. (orig.)

  18. Laser Communications Relay Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LCRD is a minimum two year flight demonstration in geosynchronous Earth orbit to advance optical communications technology toward infusion into Deep Space and Near...

  19. Research and Communication Officer

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    guidance on problems relating to the Centre's programming and issues of ... Ability to use information and communication technologies and virtual media navigation ... Tact and maturity for successful interpersonal and professional contacts.

  20. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to follow-up with your medical team. You can help improve the care you receive at follow- ... you (or your professionals) want. Simple communication skills can help you get what you need – over the ...

  1. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... summarizes communication tips This content was last reviewed March 2018. Video: Recovering From Your Surgery Find helpful ... Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 4 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 5 ...

  2. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  3. Credentialed Secure Communication "Switchboards"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freudenthal, Eric; Port, Lawrence; Keenan, Edward; Pesin, Tracy; Karamcheti, Vijay

    2001-01-01

    ... with connection monitoring facilities. Switchboard extends the secure authenticated communication channel abstraction provided by standard interfaces such as SSL/TLS with mechanisms to support trust management, key sharing, service...

  4. Communicating with Professionals

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... communication skills can help you get what you need – over the phone, at the hospital or during ... complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  5. Domestic Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of the Federal Communications Commission's new policy on domestic satellites in light of our 1) military and economic history; 2) corporate interests; 3) citizen surveillance; and 4) media control. (HB)

  6. The Corporate Communication Manager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Thomas E.; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of Fortune 500 companies regarding the position of communications manager. Profiles the responsibilities, typical salary, and usefulness of the position as perceived by respondents. (MS)

  7. Political communication in referendums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Reinemann, C.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews research on political communication in referendums that have become increasingly popular in democracies worldwide. The authors define key characteristics of referendums, touch upon participation in and popular support for referendums, and highlight the differences between them

  8. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    ...; and the Deputy Secretary of Defense requested the audit. The Deputy Secretary of Defense emphasized that this review should be as thorough as possible of all White House Communications Agency (WHCA...

  9. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  10. Management in Professional Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Irama Milei Flores

    2012-01-01

    The following work describes to the type of existing communication in the professional schools and the strategies that use this type of organizations, to interact with its public. This reality is compared, with the theoretical expositions that in the matter of organizational communication, contribute students like: The Fernandez (1997), Goldhaber (1984), Serna (1996), Bartoli (1992), Go Rail (1998), among others. The study was developed in a sample of 104 affiliated and 4 Secretary Generals o...

  11. Programmable synchronous communications module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horelick, D.

    1979-10-01

    The functional characteristics of a programmable, synchronous serial communications CAMAC module with buffering in block format are described. Both bit and byte oriented protocols can be handled in full duplex depending on the program implemented. The main elements of the module are a Signetics 2652 Multi-Protocol Communications Controller, a Zilog Z-808 8 bit microprocessor with PROM and RAM, and FIFOs for buffering

  12. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  13. Industrial communication technology handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Featuring contributions from major technology vendors, industry consortia, and government and private research establishments, the Industrial Communication Technology Handbook, Second Edition provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of wire- and wireless-based specialized communication networks used in plant and factory automation, automotive applications, avionics, building automation, energy and power systems, train applications, and more.New to the Second Edition:46 brand-new chapters and 21 substantially revised chaptersInclusion of the latest, most significant developments in spe

  14. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  15. The SKI communication programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Sweden has, since many years, an ongoing debate on nuclear power in general and nuclear safety and nuclear waste in particular. SKI is not the only part who wants to communicate about these subjects. The nuclear power plants, other authorities, the anti-nuclear groups and the politicians are other parts on the communication scene. The role of SKI is to provide the Swedish public with objective and prompt information based on facts. (author)

  16. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  17. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Spring 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 9......Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Spring 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 9...

  18. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Autumn 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 18......Fundamental principles in modern digital communication system like modems and wire- and wireless transmission over physical channels. Class room sessions and projects. Semester: Autumn 2010 Extent: 7.5 ects Class size: 18...

  19. Communication about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conditions, difficulties and possibilities of communication on technological risks are detailed here. There is a description of the types and levels of argument on risks and the risk-concept itself, of the research field of risk communication, of the conceptional frame-work of the working-party, of the research programme and of the chances for a long-term prospect from the group. (DG) [de

  20. Relativity of Visual Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-01-01

    Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is conn...

  1. Multichannel Human Body Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przystup, Piotr; Bujnowski, Adam; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication is an attractive alternative for traditional wireless communication (Bluetooth, ZigBee) in case of Body Sensor Networks. Low power, high data rates and data security makes it ideal solution for medical applications. In this paper, signal attenuation for different frequencies, using FR4 electrodes, has been investigated. Performance of single and multichannel transmission with frequency modulation of analog signal has been tested. Experiment results show that HBC is a feasible solution for transmitting data between BSN nodes

  2. RELATIONSHIPS AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan VLADUTESCU

    2012-01-01

    The main feature of the present situation regarding communication is the impregnation of the social with technology. Computer-mediated communication systems has led to the crystallization of a strong specific interactions. This article describes how human relationships constitues the ontological pillar of society and social relations form the axis irradiance of sociology. Overall, as social agents in social space, people come in a variety of social relationships. Thus, a distinct note of the ...

  3. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanova, I.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers language as the organization of the speech of any person in any situation, without which it is impossible to characterize the internal structure of the speech stream. Language is exactly a system of guidelines necessary for the activity in the social world. Communication is primarily nothing but as a way of making one or another correction in the image of the interlocutor’s world. In order for a language to serve as a means of communication, it must have a single or a similar understanding of reality behind it. Conversely, the unity of understanding the reality and the unity of coherence presuppose the possibility of adequate communication. A mandatory component of communication is the communicative act, that is, the act of sharing information between people. The speech, i.e. the natural sound language is an important means of conveying information that defines this aspect of the communication process as verbal communication. The idea of dialogue as the space, in which the exchange of information takes place, is defined as initial. Essentially, it is the dialogue that in this case acts as the backbone principle in dealing with problems of language. It is here that the essence of social and psychological transition to the analysis of communication is most visibly concentrated. An individual essentially "lives" in the world of Another person’s worlds, and studying the words of this person, he or she studies the "world" of Another person. Thus, the dialogue is not merely the interaction (verbal with another person, but, ultimately, the interaction with the world of culture.

  4. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  5. Solar effects on communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, F.; Malcolm, W.; Nordell, D.E.; Zirker, J.

    1991-01-01

    When people involved in the power industry think of Solar Magnetic Disturbances (SMD), they normally consider the potential for disrupting power transmission which results form solar-induced disturbances to the earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms. However, in addition to the disruption of power transmission, solar phenomena can interfere with utility communication systems. Utilities use many different types of communication media, some of which can be affected by various solar phenomena. These include wire-based facilities (metallic cables and power line carrier), radio systems (HF, VHF, UHF mobile radio, microwave networks, and satellite transmissions), and fiber optic systems. This paper reports that the solar flares and other solar phenomena can affect these media through different mechanisms: Radio communications can be disturbed by flare-induced changes in the ionispheric layer of the atmosphere; Cable communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced changes in the magnetosphere which surrounds the earth. These changes, in turn, induce currents in the power equipment that energizes long communications cables; Satellite communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced perturbations of satellite orbits and equipment

  6. [Communication among hospital leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberey-Knuessi, Véronique; Heeb, Jean-Luc; De Morgan, Paula Emilie

    2013-12-01

    New management styles imposed on hospital institutions in recent years, have fundamentally changed the organization of the latter. Many texts discuss the consequences, specifically on the field of communication. The aim of this study was to understand the real impact of new management methods on communication by managers in hospital, but also on care teams in termes of satisfaction and/or stress. This two-year study was conducted among 900 executives in hospitals in Western Switzerland using a mixed methodology. A first phase of questionnaires highlighted the problematic areas, while a second phase in the form of organized group interviews in each hospital, had the objective of achieving a better understanding of the relationship between management and communication. The latter proved to be particularly significant in terms of results, and this is the one we focused on in this article.These results indeed show that a crucial role is given to communication by carers, and, at the same time a lessening of the time devoted to relationships, both among peers and with patients. Frustration then arises, which is not without consequences both for the management of patients and the institutions themselves. It is by means of these results that awareness is raised of the omnipresence of communication at all levels and the major advantages that positive dynamic supports. And, on the contrary, of the serious problems which may arise from management practice that do not give due importance to the dimension of communication, present in all sectors of the hospital.

  7. Belgonucleaire's emergency exercises; Report on communication experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoele, Sabine van

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is not to have a theoretical explanation about risk communication but rather to give some practical communication hints we learned from the Regional Emergency Exercise Belgonucleaire had a few months ago. Belgonucleaire fabricates Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel since 1973. This fuel is produced at Belgonucleaire's plant at Dessel, which is located in the vicinity of other Belgian plants related to the nuclear sector. Every year Belgonucleaire organises an Internal Emergency Exercise and every 3 years a Regional Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this Emergency Exercise is to make sure that Belgonucleaire is capable of successfully handling in cooperation with the other plants in the nuclear sector, the authorities and security teams a hypothetical crisis scenario. The scenario elaborated this time was that due to a tear in a glove some radioactivity was emitted and because the filter system failed some of this radioactivity came into the air. Some contamination could be measured. The goal of this Emergency Exercise is multiple: to bring under control and to master an emergency situation; to emit an immediate warning to and to protect the employees and the visitors present on the site; to communicate essential information to the security service and co-ordination centre of the government in conformance with the emergency plan for nuclear risks on the Belgian territory. Communication plays a vital role in this emergency organisation plan. It concerns contacts with the authorities (at federal, regional and local level), the nearby-located plants, the support- and emergency services and last but not least with the media. In addition a communication cell was set up at the Dessel Town Hall. An established relationship with all of the organisation's stakeholders based on credibility and trust is the best insurance policy for handling communications during a crisis. This is indeed a process we work on the whole year round. A proactive communication

  8. Cancer patients' evaluation of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication.......The aims of this study were to assess how communication with health care staff is perceived by Danish cancer patients and to characterise those patients who report problems in communication....

  9. The Science of Strategic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of Strategic Communication involves a focused effort to identify, develop, and present multiple types of communication media on a given subject. A Strategic Communication program recognizes the limitations of the most common communication models (primarily “one s...

  10. Communication Barriers in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Dabaj, Fahme; Altinay, Fahriye; Altinay, Zehra

    2003-01-01

    Communication is a key concept as being the major tool for people in order to satisfy their needs. It is an activity which refers as process and effective communication requires qualified communication with the elimination of communication barriers. As it is known, distance education is a new trend by following contemporary facilities and tools…

  11. Communicating science: professional, popular, literary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russell, N

    2010-01-01

    ... patterns of communication among scientists, popular communication to the public and science in literature and drama. This three-part framework shows how historical and cultural factors operate in today's complex communication landscape, and should be actively considered when designing and evaluating science communication. Ideal for students and p...

  12. Quantum secure communication models comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Petrov Bebrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the quantum cryptography, more specifically, the quantum secure communication type of schemes. The main focus here is on making a comparison between the distinct secure quantum communication models – quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication, in terms of three parameters: resource efficiency, eavesdropping check efficiency, and security (degree of preserving the confidentiality.

  13. Smart Grid Communications System Blueprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Adrian; Pavlovski, Chris

    2010-10-01

    Telecommunications operators are well versed in deploying 2G and 3G wireless networks. These networks presently support the mobile business user and/or retail consumer wishing to place conventional voice calls and data connections. The electrical power industry has recently commenced transformation of its distribution networks by deploying smart monitoring and control devices throughout their networks. This evolution of the network into a `smart grid' has also motivated the need to deploy wireless technologies that bridge the communication gap between the smart devices and information technology systems. The requirements of these networks differ from traditional wireless networks that communications operators have deployed, which have thus far forced energy companies to consider deploying their own wireless networks. We present our experience in deploying wireless networks to support the smart grid and highlight the key properties of these networks. These characteristics include application awareness, support for large numbers of simultaneous cell connections, high service coverage and prioritized routing of data. We also outline our target blueprint architecture that may be useful to the industry in building wireless and fixed networks to support the smart grid. By observing our experiences, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers will be able to augment their current networks and products in a way that accommodates the needs of the emerging industry of smart grids and intelligent electrical networks.

  14. Social communication in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Russo, Danilo

    2018-05-15

    Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories. However, while the study of communication in bats is rapidly growing, it still lags behind other taxa. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of communication in bats, from the reasons why they communicate to the diversity and application of different signal modalities. The most widespread form of communication is the transmission of a signaller's characteristics, such as species identity, sex, individual identity, group membership, social status and body condition, and because many species of bats can rely little on vision due to their nocturnal lifestyles, it is assumed that sound and olfaction are particularly important signalling modes. For example, research suggests that secretions from specialized glands, often in combination with urine and saliva, are responsible for species recognition in several species. These olfactory signals may also convey information about sex and colony membership. Olfaction may be used in combination with sound, particularly in species that emit constant frequency (CF) echolocation calls, to recognize conspecifics from heterospecifics, yet their simple structure and high frequency do not allow much information of individual identity to be conveyed over long distances. By contrast, social calls may encode a larger number of cues of individual identity, and their lower frequencies increase their range of detection. Social

  15. Satellite Communications for ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamma, Mohammed A.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation is an overview on Satellite Communication for the Aeronautical Telecommunication Management (ATM) research. Satellite Communications are being considered by the FAA and NASA as a possible alternative to the present and future ground systems supporting Air Traffic Communications. The international Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) have in place Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS) for the Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services (AMSS) which is mainly derived from the pre-existing Inmarsat service that has been in service since the 1980s. The Working Group A of the Aeronautical Mobile Communication Panel of ICAO has also been investigating SARPS for what is called the Next Generation Satellite Service (NGSS) which conforms less to the Inmarsat based architecture and explores wider options in terms of satellite architectures. Several designs are being proposed by Firms such as Boeing, ESA, NASA that are geared toward full or secondary usage of satellite communications for ATM. Satellite communications for ATM can serve several purposes ranging from primary usage where ground services would play a minimal backup role, to an integrated solution where it will be used to cover services, or areas that are less likely to be supported by the proposed and existing ground infrastructure. Such Integrated roles can include usage of satellite communications for oceanic and remote land areas for example. It also can include relieving the capacity of the ground network by providing broadcast based services of Traffic Information Services messages (TIS-B), or Flight Information Services (FIS-B) which can take a significant portion of the ground system capacity. Additionally, satellite communication can play a backup role to support any needs for ground replacement, or additional needed capacity even after the new digital systems are in place. The additional bandwidth that can be provided via satellite communications can also open the door for many new

  16. Salutogenesis, globalization, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Theodor Dierk; Lehmann, Nadja

    2011-12-01

    Achieving successful communication in transcultural contexts means integrating emotional communication patterns into a global context. Professional, rational communication is characteristic of the cultural dimension, and emotions are characteristic of the direct, interpersonal dimension of human existence. Humans strive to achieve coherence in all dimensions of their lives; this goal is in the end the most essential aspect of psychophysical self-regulation. A major role in integrating emotional needs and cultural features in global coherence is played by the attractor 'global affinity'. The transitions from emotional coherence to cultural coherence, and likewise from cultural coherence to global coherence, can cause considerable insecurity as well as psychological problems, which previously went by the name 'adjustment disorders'. However, instead of pathologizing these processes, we should understand them in a salutogenic sense as challenges important for both individual and collective development. The development of more coherence is regulated by the neuropsychological approach and avoidance system. This system can be consciously fostered by directing our attention to the commonalities of all human beings. Such a global salutogenic orientation furthers both communication and creativity in teamwork. This article introduces a consequent salutogenic and evolutionary systemic view of transcultural communication and demonstrates its effectiveness in a number of case examples.

  17. Management in Professional Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irama Milei Flores

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The following work describes to the type of existing communication in the professional schools and the strategies that use this type of organizations, to interact with its public. This reality is compared, with the theoretical expositions that in the matter of organizational communication, contribute students like: The Fernandez (1997, Goldhaber (1984, Serna (1996, Bartoli (1992, Go Rail (1998, among others. The study was developed in a sample of 104 affiliated and 4 Secretary Generals of the schools of Lawyers, Engineers, Accountants Public and Journalists of the state Nueva Esparta (Venezuela and used like technique and tool to the survey and the questionnaire. Between the conclusions they tell, that the type of communication that predominates in the schools is the unreliable person (rumors and formal the descendent one, but of regular way in amount and occasional form, they do not have communication plans and they fail to take advantage of the use of Internet. The elaboration of a plan of communications was recommended, according to the necessities of each union.

  18. Students' communicative competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šafranj Jelisaveta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Communicative competence is the ability to send messages which promote attainment of goals while maintaining social acceptability. Competent communicators attempt to align themselves with each others goals and methods to produce a smooth, productive and often enjoyable dialogue. The aim of this research was to investigate self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC of students of Engineering Management in General English and English for Specific Purposes (ESP. A longitudinal study was carried out starting with the first year students at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad and was repeated with the same sample of students during their second and third year of study. Participation was voluntary and took place during regular class time. The measure of communicative competence employed was the Self-perceived Communication Competence Scale. The results of the study indicated that differences in SPCC between the years do exist. The SPCC gradually improved between the first, the second and the third year. The research was also motivated by gaining better overview of the teaching activity. An anonymous questionnaire provided many useful hints and ideas for further work and thus, language teacher made a thorough analysis of the overall teaching procedure. However, it is essential to get some feedback and talk to students in order to evaluate both them and ourselves as well as the teaching syllabus.

  19. Apologies in business communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Ruzaitė

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to examine the routine of apologizing in spoken business communication. Being face-threatening acts, apologies are of special importance in communication. Since apologies express sincerity and are remedial acts, apologizing helps to enhance mutual respect and to keep the relationship between colleagues stable, which is especially important in business communication. The present analysis focuses on four main expressions of explicit apologies, i.e. apologies with sorry, I apologise, pardon and excuse me. The data have been obtained from the sub-corpus of the British National Corpus, which includes transcripts of business communication and amounts to 1,321,844 words. The analysis accounts for the general frequency of different forms of apology in business communication as well as their frequency in relation to gender. The paper also focuses on the most typical patterns of apologies and argues that apologies range from neutral to highly emphatic or tentative. Finally, the present analysis investigates what is commonly apologised for in business settings.

  20. Communication with patients and colleagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Although patient-centred communication has provided a focus point in health care for many years, patient surveys continuously reveal serious communication problems as experienced by patients, due to poor communication. Likewise, poor inter-collegial communication can cause problems for both health...... care staff and patients. So, knowing that patient-centred communication and good inter-collegial communication is for the benefit of both health professionals and patients, the relevance of improving health care professionals' communication skills and investigating the effect on both professionals...

  1. Cell boundary fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2011-04-19

    An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

  2. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  3. Feasible quantum communication complexity protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Ernesto F.

    2002-01-01

    I show that a simple multiparty communication task can be performed more efficiently with quantum communication than with classical communication, even with low detection efficiency η. The task is a communication complexity problem in which distant parties need to compute a function of the distributed inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. A realistic quantum optical setup is suggested that can demonstrate a five-party quantum protocol with higher-than-classical performance, provided η>0.33

  4. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  5. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-15

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  6. Management & Communication Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please check our Web site to find out the number of places available which may vary. Calendar of courses for May to June 2006 Management Curriculum 1st semester 2006 Titles Dates language CDP for Supervisors & section Leaders - part 2 2, 3 May English Personal Awareness & Impact 9, 10, 11 May Bilingual CDP pour superviseurs & chefs de section - part 2 11, 12 mai français Introduction to Leadership 17, 18, 19 May English Communicating Effectively - Residential 14, 15, 16 June Bilingual CDP for Group Leaders - part 2 19, 20, 21 June Bilingual Project Management 19, 20, 21 June Bilingual Personal Awareness & Impact - Follow-up 19, 20 June bilingual Leadership Competencies 27, 28 June Bilingual Communication curriculum 1st semester 2006 Titles Dates language Personal Awareness & Impact 9, 10, 11 May Bilingual Personal Awareness & Impact - Follow-up 19, 20 June Bilingual Communicating Effectively 15, 16 May &...

  7. Crisis Communication and Social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The academic field of crisis communication is more relevant than ever due to the digital media revolution, setting new standards for how to manage criticism and crises. This paper presents a systems theoretical approach to crisis communication in the age of digital media with a special regard...... to social media. The paper shows that the recent changes in the media environment require that organizations be more observant, reflected and responsive to the public opinion. Correspondingly, organizations need to engage in strategic impression management with the aim to be, or to be observed to be, more...... consistent with their communicated values and strategies, thus managing to appear as trustworthy in a hyper-dynamic social surrounding world. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Communication as practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholamian, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    sort of human activity also include communication as practice. Inspired by Bakhtin, I believe that dialogical relationship is almost a universal phenomenon that permeates all human speech and in general all relationships and manifestations of human life, and "everything in life is dialogue", (Dysthe...... of communicational practices within conversations contexts. Based on Bakhtin’s thought, I understand any conversation as a sociocultural communicative practice. In this concept, the focus will be on how participants via interaction create meaning. In order to elaborate and examine these notions, I will include some......According to Schatzki "Practice" brings into view activities which are situated, corporeal, and shaped by habits without reflection. This notion has been extraordinarily successful and has now been extended to cover every sort of human activity” (Schatzki 2001:2). And I would like to add that every...

  9. Experience Communication and Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    to user aspect (web 2.0), the personal engagement or the community spirit. This increasing demand of experiences reflects the postmodern cultural trends where rules for how to think and behave no longer exist. This results in individualism, where the identity of the human being has changed from something......-actualization. The individualization of the human being can lead to loneliness and a need of participating in communities as a replacement of an overall fixed point in one's life. (Anthony Giddens, 1990, 1991; Zygmunt Bauman, 1997; Carsten René Jørgensen, 2002). The field of communication is consequently experiencing a great......In this article the term "experience communication" will be introduced and discussed. It will be illustrated how different concepts of aesthetical experiences are an integrated part of experience communication and how these concepts are produced within the industries of consumerism, branding...

  10. Quantum communication with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittel, W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The discovery that transmission of information encoded into single quantum systems enables new forms of communication let to the emergence of the domain of quantum communication. During the last ten years, various key experiments based on photons as carrier of the quantum information have been realized. Today, quantum cryptography systems based on faint laser pulses can be purchased commercially, bi-partite entanglement has been distributed over long distances and has been used for quantum key distribution, and quantum purification, teleportation and entanglement swapping have been demonstrated. I will give a general introduction into this fascinating field and will review experimental achievements in the domain of quantum communication with discrete two-level quantum systems (qubits) encoded into photons. (author)

  11. Relativity of Visual Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Mutanen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication is sharing and conveying information. In visual communication especially visual messages have to be formulated and interpreted. The interpretation is relative to a method of information presentation method which is human construction. This holds also in the case of visual languages. The notions of syntax and semantics for visual languages are not so well founded as they are for natural languages. Visual languages are both syntactically and semantically dense. The density is connected to the compositionality of the (pictorial languages. In the paper Charles Sanders Peirce’s theory of signs will be used in characterizing visual languages. This allows us to relate visual languages to natural languages. The foundation of information presentation methods for visual languages is the logic of perception, but only if perception is understood as propositional perception. This allows us to understand better the relativity of information presentation methods, and hence to evaluate the cultural relativity of visual communication.

  12. Innovating science communication

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051192; The ATLAS collaboration; Marcelloni De Oliveira, Claudia; Shaw, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Education & Outreach project has, over the years, developed a strong reputation for supporting innovation. Animated event displays, musical CDs, 3d movies, 3-storey murals, photo books, data sonifications, multi-media art installations, pub slams, masterclasses, documentaries, pop-up books, LEGO® models, and virtual visits are among the many diverse methods being exploited to communicate to the world the goals and accomplishments of the ATLAS Experiment at CERN. This variety of creativity and innovation does not pop out of a vacuum. It requires underlying motivation by the collaboration to communicate with the public; freedom and encouragement to do so in a creative manner; and a support structure for developing, implementing and promoting these activities. The ATLAS Outreach project has built this support structure on a well-defined communication plan, high-quality content, and effective delivery platforms. Most importantly, implementation of the program has been based on the effective engagem...

  13. Communication of the Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Słomski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication always takes place by means of symbols. Information must be coded by the sender, i.e. expressed by the use of symbols (mostly language symbols, and then decoded by the recipient. The process of message decoding may be divided into two stages: the acquisition and the interpretation of the message, so-called "understanding" through the attaching of the meaning to symbols, which made up the message. Itself the understanding of the message is a not a sufficient condition of communication, as it may happen so, that the recipient interprets (understands the message in a more or less different way from what the sender intended to transfer, what in practice may lead to the consequences more or less similar to the total impossibility of decoding the message. We may speak about communication only if the meanings attached by the sender to the individual symbols are close or identical to the meanings attached to these symbols by the recipient.

  14. Communication: I like

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    To fulfill its mission to represent CERN personnel with the Management and the Member States, the Staff Council has set up a series of Commissions: employment conditions, pensions, legal matters, social protection, health and safety, InformAction, CAPA (individual cases) and, more recently, Media-Com. As its name suggests the Media-Com Commission deals with all matters of communication. The mandate of the new Commission is to implement and optimize the communication channels that the Staff Association uses to keep you informed. To attract the greatest number of people, Media-Com operates through multiple communication channels, such as articles in the Echo, the Staff Association information bulletin, the Staff Association website (http://staff- association.web.cern.ch/), Facebook, and, more recently, the intra-CERN Social platform. The Social platform is a discussion forum, for exchanging ideas, expressing views, reacting to, and commenting on current events of the Staff Association. To participa...

  15. Underwater wireless communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, J H; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I

    2009-01-01

    Underwater communication has a range of applications including remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) communication and docking in the offshore industry. Current underwater transmission techniques is primarily utilise sound waves for large distance at lower frequencies and the velocity of sound in water is approximately 1500m/s the resultant communications have problems with multi-path propagation and low bandwidth problems. The use of electromagnetic (EM) techniques underwater has largely been overlooked because of the attenuation due to the conductivity of seawater. However, for short range applications, the higher frequencies and much higher velocity can prove advantageous. This paper will outline a project which will utilise recent investigations that demonstrate EM wave propagation up to the MHz frequency range is possible in seawater.

  16. WHO risk communication seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International EMF project organised by the WHO is now entering its third year. In addition to providing authoritative reviews of the scientific literature on the health effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, a key objective of the five year programme is to provide information on the perception, communication and management of risk, and how this relates to electric and magnetic fields. To this end, an International seminar on: Risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure, was held in Vienna on 22-23 October last year, bringing togehter an array of speakers from around the world to talk about perceptions of risk, how best to communicate risks to the public and present some practical examples. (author)

  17. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  18. Near field communications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A; Furht, Borko

    2011-01-01

    Near Field Communication, or NFC, is a short-range high frequency wireless communication technology that enables the exchange of data between devices over about a decimeter. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO 14443 proximity-card standard (contact less card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device with practical implications. A complete reference for NFC, this handbook provides technical information about all aspects of NFC, as well as applications. It covers basic concepts as well as research grade material and includes a discussion of

  19. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...... attention to the role of culturally-variable dimensions, including communication preferences, in the design, implementation, and use of ICTs - and thereby helping to bring into the mainstream of related scholarship and research (e.g., HCI, etc.) what was then a novel perspective and series of questions...

  20. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.