WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell cogeneration systems

  1. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  2. Model predictive control of fuel cell micro cogeneration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Ilic, M.D.; De Schutter, B.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities for incorporating the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. At the residential level energy costs could be reduced with

  3. Cogeneration Systems; Sistemas de Cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez M, Manuel F; Huante P, Liborio; Romo M, Cesar A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The present article deals on relevant aspects on the subject of cogeneration within the Mexican territorial limits. In the first place it is presented the role of Mexico in terms of its cogeneration potential, the type of service that has obtained from this predominant modality of cogeneration for self-supplying, the most propitious sectors to develop it, its legislations on the matter, the projects made for the implementation of cogeneration plants, as well as the existing cogeneration schemes for its respective optimization proposals. Without leaving out the analysis on the different types of evaluation on the efficiency of cogeneration systems and the aspects to consider for the election of a generation cycle. [Spanish] El presente articulo trata sobre aspectos relevantes en materia de cogeneracion dentro de los limites territoriales de la nacion mexicana. Se muestra en primer lugar el papel de Mexico en terminos de su potencial de cogeneracion, el tipo de servicio que ha obtenido de esta predominantemente (modalidad de cogeneracion para autoabastecimiento), los sectores mas propicios para desarrollarla, sus legislaciones al respecto, los proyectos realizados para la implementacion de plantas de cogeneracion, asi como los esquemas de cogeneracion existentes con sus respectivas propuestas de optimizacion. Sin dejar de lado el analisis sobre los distintos tipos de evaluacion de la eficiencia de sistemas de cogeneracion y los aspectos a considerar para la eleccion de un ciclo de generacion.

  4. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  5. Steam Turbine Assisted Cogeneration systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šariský Marián

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Searching for the best way of improving using systems of production electrical energy and heat is part of an intensive development in the field of energetic. Using steam turbines in the cogeneration system is very important step at increasing the effection not only of the whole system, but of the gas turbine as well. The advantages and the characteristic features of the system are shown in the article.

  6. Fuel cell technology for cogeneration systems. Symposium. Proceedings; Brennstoffzellen - Technologie fuer Blockheizkraftwerke. Symposium. Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This proceedings volume contains 11 papers on the following subject: Competence network 'Fuel Cells' in Nordrhein-Westfalen (D. Stolten, Juelich Research Center); Fuel cells in stationary applications (B. Hoehlein, Juelich Research Center); Functional principles of energy conversion in fuel cells (W. Schnurnberger, DLR); Low-temperature fuel cells AFC, PEMFC, PAFC (M. Waidhas, Siemens); High-temperature fuel cells - SOFC, MCFC (D. Stolten); Power plant options - natural gas, hydrogen, etc. (R. Wurster, Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik); Fuel cell supply (A. Heizel, ISE); Hydrogen-fuelled cogeneration units (G. Gummert Hamburg Gas Consult); SOFC high-temperature fuel cells for domestic power supply (R. Diethelm, Sulzer-Hexis); PEFC low-temperature fuel cells for domestic power supply (K. Klinder, Vaillant); Fuel cells, a chance for local utilities (B. Vogel, WINGAS). [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt 11 Beitraege zu folgenden Themen: Kompetenznetzwerk Brennstoffzelle in NRW (D. Stolten, Forschungszentrum Juelich); Brennstoffzellen in der stationaeren Anwendung (B. Hoehlein, Forschungszentrum Juelich); Funktionsprinzipien der Energieumwandlung in Brennstoffzellen (W. Schnurnberger, DLR); Niedertemperaturbrennstoffzellen - AFC, PEMFC, PAFC (M. Waidhas, Siemens); Hochtemperaturbrennstoffzellen - SOFC, MCFC (D. Stolten); Kraftstoffoptionen- Erdgas, Wasserstoff u.a. (R. Wurster, Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik); Brennstoffbereitstellung (A. Heinzel, ISE); Wasserstoffbetriebene BHKW (G. Gummert Hamburg Gas Consult); Hochtemperaturbrennstoffzelle SOFC fuer die Hausenergieversorgung (R. Diethelm, Sulzer-Hexis); Niedertemperaturbrennstoffzelle PEFC fuer die Hausenergieversorgung (K. Klinder, Vaillant); Brennstoffzelle als Chance fuer lokale EVUs (B. Vogel, WINGAS).

  7. Micro-cogeneration with fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Čierny, Jaroslav

    2014-08-01

    The article is aimed at perspective and fast developing field of micro-cogeneration with small performance. Fuel cell application which uses natural gas as a fuel is high sophisticated technology of combined produce of heat and electric power. The aim of article is analysis of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which as a fuel uses natural gas. The device is installed in University of Zilina laboratory. Measured parameters were electric input and output, thermal energy and electric, thermal and overall efficiency.

  8. A Comparison of Optimal Operation of a Residential Fuel Cell Co-Generation System Using Clustered Demand Patterns Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Hasizume

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available When evaluating residential energy systems like co-generation systems, hot water and electricity demand profiles are critical. In this paper, the authors aim to extract basic time-series demand patterns from two kinds of measured demand (electricity and domestic hot water, and also aim to reveal effective demand patterns for primary energy saving. Time-series demand data are categorized with a hierarchical clustering method using a statistical pseudo-distance, which is represented by the generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence of two Gaussian mixture distributions. The classified demand patterns are built using hierarchical clustering and then a comparison is made between the optimal operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell co-generation system and the operation of a reference system (a conventional combination of a condensing gas boiler and electricity purchased from the grid using the appropriately built demand profiles. Our results show that basic demand patterns are extracted by the proposed method, and the heat-to-power ratio of demand, the amount of daily demand, and demand patterns affect the primary energy saving of the co-generation system.

  9. Economic evaluation for adoption of cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si-Doek [Hyosung Corporation, Bangbae-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-850 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hoo-Suk; Kwak, Ho-Young [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    An optimal planning for gas turbine cogeneration system was applied to find whether or not the adoption of the system to an office building or hotel in Seoul, Korea is profitable. The planning problem considered in this study is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipment and optimal operational policy of the system when the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling are given a priori. The optimal configuration of the system equipment has been determined based on annual cost method with proper choice of representative energy demand patterns obtained for the building and hotel in a 1-year period. A mixed-integer linear programming and the branch and bound algorithm have been used to obtain the optimal solution. The planning method employed here may be applied to making decision on the adoption of the cogeneration plant to any specific office building or hotel. (author)

  10. Thermoelectric cells cogeneration from biomass power plant: literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchini, Augusto; Donini, Filippo; Pellegrini, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric cells convert directly heat into electricity but, due to the low conversion efficiency (up to 5%), most applications are in waste heat recovery. Another promising application is in biomass boiler. In this case, the installation of thermoelectric modules converts a biomass boiler into a cogeneration system, where the aim of the integration is not the electricity production for external power supply, but the realization of a stand-alone biomass power plant which could match the c...

  11. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie; Birkl, Christoph; Ropenus, Stephanie; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Obé, Elisabeth; Kötter, Editha; Huber, Andreas; Costa, Ana I.A.; Kroff, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a holistic approach for the commercialisation of fuel cells for stationary applications. We focus our analyses on microCHP based on SOFC units fired with natural gas. We analyse the interaction of operational strategies under different ownership arrangements, required support levels and system integration aspects. The operational strategies, support mechanisms and ownership arrangements have been identified through actor analysis involving experts from Denmark, France and ...

  12. An HTR cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Van Heek, A.I. [Plant Performance and Technology, Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group NRG, Petten (Netherlands); Kikstra, J.F. [Thermal Power Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    Because of its favourable characteristics of safety and simplicity the high-temperature reactor (HTR) could become a competitive heat source for a cogeneration unit. The Netherlands is a world leading country in the field of cogeneration. As nuclear energy remains an option for the medium and long term in this country, systems for nuclear cogeneration should be explored and developed. Hence, ECN Nuclear Research is developing a conceptual design of an HTR for Combined generation of Heat and Power (CHP) for the industry in and outside the Netherlands. The design of this small CHP-unit for industrial applications is mainly based on a pre-feasibility study in 1996, performed by a joint working group of five Dutch organisations, in which technical feasibility was shown. The concept that was subject of that study, INCOGEN, used a 40 MW thermal pebble bed HTR and produced a maximum amount of electricity plus low temperature heat. The system has been improved to produce industrial quality heat, and has been renamed ACACIA. The output of this installation is 14 MW electricity and 17 tonnes of steam per hour, with a pressure of 10 bar and a temperature of 220C. The economic characteristics of this installation turned out to be much more favourable using modern cost data. 15 refs.

  13. DDACE cogeneration systems : 10 case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    DDACE Power Systems are experts in green energy power generation and provide solutions that deal with waste and industrial by-products. The company develops practical energy solutions that address environmental and financial concerns facing both industrial and municipal customers. The following 10 case studies are examples of the installations that DDACE Power Systems have completed in recent years: (1) a combined heat and emergency power installation on the roof of a 19 storey apartment building on Bloor Street in Toronto, Ontario. The cogeneration package provides electricity and heat to the entire building, replacing an old diesel generator, (2) a combined heat and emergency power installation at the Villa Colombo extended care facility in Vaughan, Ontario. The cogeneration system provides heat and power to the building, as well as emergency power, (3) emergency standby power with demand response capabilities at Sobeys Distribution Warehouse in Vaughan, Ontario. The primary purpose of the 2.4 MW low emission, natural gas fuelled emergency standby generator is to provide emergency power to the building in the event of a grid failure, (4) a dual fuel combined heat and power installation at the Queensway Carleton Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario that provides electricity, hot water and steam to all areas of the hospital, (5) a tri-generation installation at the Ontario Police College in Aylmer, Ontario which provides power and heat to the building as well as emergency power in the event of a grid failure. An absorption chiller provides cooling in the summer and an exhaust emission control system reduces NOx emissions, (6) a biomass gasification installation at Nexterra Energy in Kamloops, British Columbia. The 239 kW generator is fueled by synthesis gas, (7) biogas utilization at Fepro Farms in Cobden, Ontario for treatment of the facility's waste products. The biogas plant uses cow manure, as well as fats, oil and grease from restaurants to produce electricity and

  14. Fuel cells for chemicals and energy cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaide, Francisco; Cabot, Pere-Lluis; Brillas, Enric [Laboratori de Ciencia i Tecnologia Electroquimica de Materials (LCTEM), Departament de Quimica Fisica, Facultat de Quimica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-01-23

    Fuel cells (FCs) are mainly applied for electricity generation. This paper presents a review of specific FCs with ability to produce useful chemicals at the same time. The chemical cogeneration processes have been classified according to the different types of fuel cells. Thus, it is shown that a flow alkaline FC (AFC) is able to produce hydrogen peroxide. In aqueous acid or neutral FCs, hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, halogenations and oxidations, together with pollution abatement solutions, are reported. Hydrogen peroxide and valuable organic chemicals can also be obtained from polymer electrolyte FCs (PEFCs). A phosphoric acid FC (PAFC) allows the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, and the production of industrial compounds such as cresols. Molten salt FCs (similar to molten carbonate or MCFCs) can be applied to obtain acetaldehyde with high product selectivity from ethanol oxidation at the anode. Solid oxide FCs (SOFCs) are able of chemical cogeneration of valuable industrial inorganic compounds such as nitric oxide with high yields. Although the number of related papers in the literature is small, the potential economic interest of this emergent field, related to the recent commercial development of fuel cells, is demonstrated in some cases, and the corresponding results encourage the development of FCs with electrocogeneration of useful chemicals with high added value and electricity. (author)

  15. Cost structure of CGAM cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho-Young Kwak; Gi-Taek Byun [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Yong-Ho Kwon [Hyosung Industries Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea). Energy Team; Hyup Yang [Sanchok National University, Samchok City (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The cost structure of the CGAM system, a predefined cogeneration system suggested to unify the different methodologies of thermoeconomic analysis, was investigated by using a thermoeconomic method called modified productive structure analysis (MOPSA). An emphasis has been specially put on how the cost structure of the system is affected by the chosen level of aggregation that specifies the subsystems. It has been found that the unit cost of products is dependent on the chosen level of aggregation of the system only when one considers the entropy flow as one of the parameters to determine the unit cost of products. (author)

  16. Experimental results with a natural gas cogeneration system using a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Mihai; Lottin, Olivier; Feidt, Michel; Lombard, Christophe; Noc, David Le; Doze, Stéphane Le

    This paper reports experimental results of an investigation of five identical CHP (combined heat and power) units using PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and running on natural gas. The natural gas is reformed locally to produce hydrogen. The net electric power is 4.5 kWe and the installations are designed for low temperature heat recovery (6 kW at 60 °C). The performances of the CHP units are analyzed in terms of electrical, thermal and total efficiencies. The electrical efficiency is low and it is shown that this is due mostly to the reforming process and to electric losses, while fuel cell performances are fully satisfying.

  17. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie

    2013-01-01

    a heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro......CHP units with the national energy systems has been analysed. Our main findings are that net metering would be an appropriate tool to support FC based microCHP in Denmark, whereas a price premium would be the preferable tool in France and Portugal. Copyright © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC...

  18. Simulation of an air conditioning absorption refrigeration system in a co-generation process combining a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilatowsky, I.; Gamboa, S.A.; Rivera, W. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Romero, R.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas - UAEM, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Isaza, C.A. [Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin (Colombia). Instituto de Energia y Termodinamica; Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia - UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Moreira, J. [Cuerpo Academico de Energia y Sustentabilidad-UP Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a computer simulation program was developed to determine the optimum operating conditions of an air conditioning system during the co-generation process. A 1 kW PEMFC was considered in this study with a chemical/electrical theoretical efficiency of 40% and a thermal efficiency of 30% applying an electrical load of 100%. A refrigeration-absorption cycle (RAC) operating with monomethylamine-water solutions (MMA-WS), with low vapor generation temperatures (up to 80 C) is proposed in this work. The computer simulation was based on the refrigeration production capacity at the maximum power capacity of the PEMFC. Heat losses between the fuel cell and the absorption air conditioning system at standard operating conditions were considered to be negligible. The results showed the feasibility of using PEMFC for cooling, increasing the total efficiency of the fuel cell system. (author)

  19. Benefit Analysis of Emergency Standby System Promoted to Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyi-Wen Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benefit analysis of emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller promoted to cogeneration system is introduced. Economic evaluations of such upgraded projects play a major part in the decisions made by investors. Time-of-use rate structure, fuel cost and system constraints are taken into account in the evaluation. Therefore, the problem is formulated as a mixed-integer programming problem. Using two-stage methodology and modified mixed-integer programming technique, a novel algorithm is developed and introduced here to solve the nonlinear optimization problem. The net present value (NPV method is used to evaluate the annual benefits and years of payback for the cogeneration system. The results indicate that upgrading standby generators to cogeneration systems is profitable and should be encouraged, especially for those utilities with insufficient spinning reserves, and moreover, for those having difficulty constructing new power plants.

  20. The Dynamic Operation Planning by Genetic AIgorithm of System Constituted from Fuel Cell Cogeneration, Solar Modules and Geo-thermal Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    The chromosome model which simulates the operation patterns of energy system was introduced into simple genetic algorithm, and the method of dynamic optimization was developed. In this paper, the dynamic operation planning of the energy system which carries out combined use of solar power module, proton exchange membrane fuel cell co-generation with methanol steam reforming, geo-thermal heat pump, thermal storage and electric energy storage, commercial power, and the kerosene oil boiler was analyzed. From the calculation result of the developed analysis method, the hours of operation of each devices and the rate of the amount of output in the operational planning to devices were calculated, and the devices optimal capacity was examined. Furthermore, the characteristics of system operation planning under each objective functions were described.

  1. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Volume II. Appendix A. Conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications. Appendix B. Characterization of cogeneration systems (near-term technology). Appendix C. Optimized cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This appendix to a report which evaluates the technical, economic, and institutional aspects of industrial cogeneration for conserving energy in the food, chemical, textile, paper, and petroleum industries contains data, descriptions, and diagrams on conceptual designs and preliminary equipment specifications for cogeneration facilities; characterization of cogeneration systems in terms of fuel utilization, performance, air pollution control, thermal energy storage systems, and capital equipment costs; and optimized cogeneration systems for specific industrial plants. (LCL)

  2. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Fowler, Thomas David [Houston, TX; Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  3. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  4. Optimal planning and economic evaluation of cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Ho-Jun [Hyosung Corporation, Bangbae B/D, 1006-2, Bangbae-Dong, Seocho-Ku, Seoul 137-850 (Korea); Jung, Jung-Yeul; Kwak, Ho-Young [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chung-Ang University, 221, Huksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 156-756 (Korea)

    2007-05-15

    Cogeneration plants, which simultaneously produce electricity and heat energy, have been introduced increasingly for commercial and domestic applications in Korea because of their energy efficiency. The optimal plant configuration of a specific commercial building can be determined by selecting the sizes and the number of cogeneration systems and the auxiliary equipment based on the annual demands of electricity, heating and cooling. In this study, a mixed-integer, linear programming, utilizing the branch and bound algorithm was used to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration system equipment and the optimal operational mode were determined based on the annual cost method for the installation of a cogeneration system to a hospital and a group of apartments in Seoul, Korea. In addition, the economic evaluation for the optimal cogeneration system depending on the fuel tariff system was calculated. A short payback period and higher internal rate of return on the initial investment were found to be essential for the adoption of cogeneration plants to hospitals and apartments. (author)

  5. Reviews on Fuel Cell Technology for Valuable Chemicals and Energy Co-Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisitsree Wiyaratn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of co-generation process in fuel cell type reactor to produce valuable chemical compounds along with electricity. The chemicals and energy co-generation processes have been shown to be a promising alternative to conventional reactors and conventional fuel cells with pure water as a byproduct. This paper reviews researches on chemicals and energy co-generation technologies of three types of promising fuel cell i.e. solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, alkaline fuel cell (AFC, and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. In addition, the research studies on applications of SOFCs, AFCs, and PEMFCs with chemical production (i.e. nitric oxide, formaldehyde, sulfur oxide, C2 hydrocarbons, alcohols, syngas and hydrogen peroxide were also given. Although, it appears that chemicals and energy co-generation processes have potential to succeed in commercial applications, the development of cheaper catalyst materials with longer stability ,and understanding in thermodynamic are still challenging to improve the overall system performance and enable to use in commercial market.

  6. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  7. Introduction to cogeneration; Introducao a cogeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Martins, Andre Luiz Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    This work presents a general view of cogeneration. The paper approaches the development of cogeneration, technological aspects, the cogeneration in Brazil, economical aspects, performance of cogeneration systems, viability, costs, cogeneration potentials and technological trends.

  8. Characterization of solid-waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.; Henriquez, M.; Kay, J.; Walzer, W.

    1978-08-15

    Recovery of municipal solid wastes (MSW) can reduce the mass of landfilled wastes by as much as 95% and can tap a vast new energy resource. The yearly collection of MSW is estimated to be 125 million tons nationwide. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from MSW are considered, namely: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized, or pelleted refuse-derived fuel for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource-recovery systems as well as necessary pollution-control equipment for gaseous emissions. Three end-use applications of cogeneration systems are characterized, including: fluidized-bed cogeneration systems for use in the pulp and paper industry; diesel system using the digested sewage gas of a sewage treatment plant for electricity generation as well as heating and pumping; and an enhanced oil recovery system. Comparisons are made of system inputs per 10/sup 12/ Btu steam output for Landguard pyrolysis, Garrett flash pyrolysis, Union Carbide Purox process, direct combustion, refuse-derived fuels, fluidized-bed cogeneration, diesel cogeneration, and enhanced oil recovery (cogeneration). The RFD system is by far the cheapest to build and is also the most efficient in terms of energy recovery per ton of MSW. The fluidized-bed system has the highest overall system efficiency. However, the PUROX system uses the least ancillary energy and is the only system not requiring an input water flow. Thus the RFD is the most favorable for capital inputs and the PUROX is the most favorable for operational inputs.

  9. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsch Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  10. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF MICROALGAE BASED BIOGAS COGENERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Akkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, economic analysis of the cogeneration system using the biogas produced in the anaerobic reactor feed by microalgae has been performed. This system consists of the following main parts; pool open channel for growing microalgae, pre-concentration section, high-rate anaerobic reactor for producing biogas and cogeneration section that biogas is converted into electricity and heat energy. An economic model to investigate the viability of such a system has been given. The present worth of the net profit, the annual equivalent, rate of return, pay-back time are considered as an economic evaluation criteria. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been performed in order to show the effects of technical and economic parameters on the system economy.

  11. Seasonal heat storage in cogeneration systems; Saesongvaermelager i kraftvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu

    2007-07-01

    There is a rising interest in Sweden for the use of cogeneration power plants in district heating networks, generating both electricity and heat in a coupled operation. This type of cogeneration needs, however, the existence of suitable heat loads. In this study we investigate the use of large long-term heat storages for the cases that the DH-load is not sufficient. For this purpose, the technology of long-term storages is also reviewed based on the know-how developed for solar heating plants at the end of 20th century. Long-term storages have been developed around the 1980s and 1990s. The storages have been built as pits in the ground or as caverns for the storage of hot water or as borehole storages and aquifers for heat storages in rock or ground material. In this report, the different techniques are described and operational experiences from Sweden and Germany are summarised. Furthermore, the storage costs for the different techniques are presented. In order to be of interest for application in cogeneration systems, it is necessary that the storage allows charging and discharging with high heat capacities. The most suitable storage type for that purpose is a rock cavern, which can be constructed in volumes up to millions of m3 water with reasonable costs, as demonstrated in the 1970s with strategic oil storages. Another interesting storage type is the borehole ground storage, as used in solar heating plants. However, in the application for cogeneration, this storage type must be further developed towards higher heat transfer rates. For the analysis of storage applications in cogeneration systems, a number of operational cases from real cogeneration systems in Enkoeping and in Linkoeping have been studied. Models have been developed for calculation in Excel and operational years have been simulated and economically evaluated with different storage sizes. The following basic systems have been analysed: a) System with biofuel-fired cogeneration and biofuel top

  12. A case study on optimal planning of cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.D.; Kwon, Y.H.; Kang, C.G. [Hyosung Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    1999-11-01

    Cogeneration plants have been introduced increasingly for commercial and public purposes in Korea. In order to utilize their high economical and energy saving potentials, Planners are urged to propose good plans for the fundamental design of cogeneration plants. At present, a trial and error method is used conventionally to determine plants capacity using utility maximum electric power demands. But conventional approach has a defect in assumption that the availability would be high cannot necessarily be utilized. The proposed optimal planning method is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipments among every possible match of the equipments and the optimal operational plans of the system, considering the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling, The benefit of he optimal planning is to minimize operational costs and to save energy by efficient energy utilization. The object of this study is to suggest more reliable feasibility study through comparison between conventional method and suggest method. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. CO-GENERATION AND OPERATING NETWORK CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Eli

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark several thousands of generators are connected to the distribution system (10 kV and 0.4 kV). The production from these generators many times exceeds the load. The generators can be divided into two types, Wind turbines and CHP generators. These generators have one thing in common, the ...... concept in along these lines is the “Network Cell”....

  14. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  15. Thermodynamic investigation of a shared cogeneration system with electrical cars for northern Europe climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    cells, heat pump and Stirling engine are utilised as a system to achieve high energy conversion efficiency. A transition from traditional petrol cars to electric mobility is also considered and simulated here. Different types of fuel are considered to demonstrate the high versatility of the simulated....... These goals can be achieved increasing renewable energy sources and/or efficiency on energy production processes. In this paper an innovative micro-cogeneration system for household application is presented: it covers heating, domestic hot water and electricity demands for a residential user. Solid oxide fuel...

  16. Succeeding in the grafting of a cogeneration system to an old space heating installation; Reussir la greffe d'une cogeneration sur une installation ancienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjardins, C.

    2003-05-01

    Substantial energy savings can be made in the tertiary sector thanks to the implementation of cogeneration systems. The 'grafting' of a cogeneration system to an existing space heating installation requires to take some precautions which are explained in this technical article using a real example. In particular, it shows why, despite some visible improvements, some installations can suffer from a lack of performance. (J.S.)

  17. Development of a Robust, Highly Efficient Oxygen-Carbon Monoxide Cogeneration System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a long-life, highly efficient O2-CO cogeneration system to support NASA's endeavors to pursue...

  18. Biomass cogeneration. A business assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelton, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    This guide serves as an overview of the biomass cogeneration area and provides direction for more detailed analysis. The business assessment is based in part on discussions with key officials from firms that have adopted biomass cogeneration systems and from organizations such as utilities, state and federal agencies, and banks that would be directly involved in a biomass cogeneration project. The guide is organized into five chapters: biomass cogeneration systems, biomass cogeneration business considerations, biomass cogeneration economics, biomass cogeneration project planning, and case studies.

  19. Economic optimization of a cogeneration system for apartment houses in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyonuk; Sung, Jinil; Oh, Si-Doek [Hyosung Corporation, Seoul 121-720 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Hoo-suk; Kwak, Ho-Young [Mechanical Engineering Department, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    A cogeneration system which can be used as a distributed generation source produces electricity and heat energy simultaneously from a single source of fuel. For industrial and domestic applications, where both kinds of energy are required, the cogeneration system can return fossil fuel energy savings up to 30%, and can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions correspondingly as compared with a conventional system. In this study, eight apartments with residential areas in the range of 57200 m{sup 2} to 182760 m{sup 2} were chosen to study how much energy savings can be achieved by adoption of the cogeneration system in those apartments. Based on the energy demand data for heat and electricity, an optimum configuration of the cogeneration system for each apartment was determined by a developed computer program. The economic gain achieved by introducing the cogeneration system in those apartments was estimated and the monitored values compared with the estimated ones. By adoption of the cogeneration system, the natural gas saved was more than 30% and an average economic gain of US$ 3.6 m{sup -2}/year in the overall energy cost was obtained. (author)

  20. Thermodynamic Investigation of a Shared Cogeneration System with Electrical Cars for Northern Europe Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Vialetto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transition to alternative energy systems is indicated by EU Commission as a suitable path to energy efficiency and energy saving in the next years. The aims are to decrease greenhouses gases emissions, relevance of fossil fuels in energy production and energy dependence on extra-EU countries. These goals can be achieved increasing renewable energy sources and/or efficiency on energy production processes. In this paper an innovative micro-cogeneration system for household application is presented: it covers heating, domestic hot water and electricity demands for a residential user. Solid oxide fuel cells, heat pump and Stirling engine are utilised as a system to achieve high energy conversion efficiency. A transition from traditional petrol cars to electric mobility is also considered and simulated here. Different types of fuel are considered to demonstrate the high versatility of the simulated cogeneration system by changing the pre-reformer of the fuel cell. Thermodynamic analysis is performed to prove high efficiency with the different fuels.

  1. Development of micro-cogeneration system with porous catalyst microcombustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ieda, N.; Ihara, T.

    2015-10-01

    A self-standing micro-cogeneration system was developed by coupling a microcombustor, thermoelectric (TE) modules, and an air supply device. The microcombustor has a porous monolithic Pt catalyst layer, and a combustion efficiency of 90% was achieved. A microblower is used to supply air to the combustor, and it is driven by electricity from the Bi-Te TE modules through a dc-dc converter. We investigated the optimal point where the output became maximal and the system was self-standing. At the optimal point, the input fuel enthalpy was 13.2 W, and 440 mW of electricity was generated from the TE modules. The microblower consumed 280 mW, and the net generated electricity was 160 mW. Therefore, the final thermal efficiency was 1.21%. The net thermal efficiency of the developed system was the same magnitude as that of TeeDee01 (COX Co. Ltd.), the world’s smallest model plane engine (0.163 cc), even though the magnitude of the output power was less than 1/20 in comparison.

  2. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.D. [Hyosung Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, H.Y. [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Cogeneration systems can result in significant energy efficiency improvements because they produce electrical and heat energy simultaneously from a single source of fuel. This paper discussed planning and design optimization practices for the successful application of a gas turbine cogeneration plant in a hotel and a public building. It was suggested that planners should determine the optimal plant configuration by first selecting the size and number of auxiliary equipment, as well as considering annual electricity costs and heat and cooling requirements. An optimal planning method was presented, employing system configurations among possible combinations of equipment, operational plans and energy demand patterns. A mixed-integer linear program and branch and bound algorithms were adapted to obtain the optimal configuration, based on an annual cost method. A public building and a hotel in Seoul, Korea were selected as case studies. Energy demand patterns for both buildings were presented, with details of maximum outputs and initial equipment costs for co-generation plants. Payback periods and internal rates of return were examined. It was concluded that the optimal configuration of the cogeneration plant is determined by considering the annual energy demand patterns of both buildings, as these patterns are a crucial parameter in determining the feasibility of a cogeneration plant. It was suggested that the methods presented in this study may provide the best configuration of a cogeneration plant fitted to a hotel, or public buildings. 6 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Assesment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systems for nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB. These systems en...

  5. Cogeneration and local authorities; Cogeneration et collectivites territoriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This conference is composed of 15 communications concerning cogeneration systems and applications in local communities. The main themes are: the regulation context and administrative procedures for cogeneration projects in France; legal aspects, risk covering, financing and sellback conditions for cogeneration systems; examples of cogeneration and tri-generation (with refrigeration energy) in different cities, airport, hospitals, campus, combined with the upgrading of district heating systems or municipal waste incineration plants. Impacts on energy savings and air pollution are also discussed

  6. Implementation of gas district cooling and cogeneration systems in Malaysia; Mise en oeuvre de systemes de gas district cooling et de cogeneration en Malaisie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. [Gas District Cooling, M, Sdn Bhd (Malaysia)

    2000-07-01

    With its energy demand in the early 1990's growing at a high rate due to the country's strong economic growth, Malaysia studied various options to improve the efficiency of its energy use. Since its natural gas reserves are almost four times that of its crude oil reserves, efforts were therefore centered on seeking ways to boost the use of natural gas to mitigate the growing domestic energy need. PETRONAS, the national oil company, subsequently studied and chose the District Cooling System using natural gas as the primary source of fuel. The Kuala Lumpur City Center development, which houses the PETRONAS Twin Towers, was subsequently chosen as the first project to use the Gas District Cooling (GDC) System. To acquire the technology and implement this project, PETRONAS created a new subsidiary, Gas District Cooling (Malaysia) Sendirian Berhad (GDC(M)). In the process of improving the plant's efficiency, GDC(M) discovered that the GDC system's efficiency and project economics would be significantly enhanced if its is coupled to a Cogeneration system. Having proven the success of the GDC/Cogeneration system, GDC(M) embarked on a campaign to aggressively promote and seek new opportunities to implement the system, both in Malaysia-and abroad. Apart from enhancing efficiency of energy use, and providing better project economics, the GDC/Cogeneration system also is environment friendly. Today, the GDC/Cogeneration systems is the system of choice for several important developments in Malaysia, which also includes the country's prestigious projects such as the Kuala Lumpur International Airport and the New Federal Government Administrative Center in Putrajaya. (author)

  7. A model predictive control strategy for the space heating of a smart building including cogeneration of a fuel cell-electrolyzer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.; Madsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . In the proposed setup, heat is provided by conventional electric radiators and a combined heat and power generation system, composed by a fuel cell and an electrolyzer. The energy replacement strategy is formulated using model predictive control and mathematical models of the components involved. Simulations show...... that the predictive energy replacement strategy reduces the operating costs of the system and is able to provide a larger amount of regulating power to the grid. In the paper, we also develop a novel dynamic model of a PEM fuel cell suitable for micro-grid applications. The model is realized applying a grey...

  8. Thermal Efficiency of Cogeneration Units with Multi-Stage Reheating for Russian Municipal Heating Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Lisin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the layout of an optimum process for supplying heat to Russian municipal heating systems operating in a market environment. We analyze and compare the standard cogeneration unit design with two-stage reheating of service water coming from controlled extraction locations and layouts that employ three in-line reheaters with heat the supply controlled by a rotary diaphragm and qualitative/quantitative methods (so-called “uncontrolled extraction”. Cogeneration unit designs are benchmarked in terms of their thermal efficiency expressed as a fuel consumption rate. The specific fuel consumption rate on electricity production is viewed as a key parameter of thermal efficiency.

  9. Research on modeling cogeneration-based residential energy systems in rowhouse and high-rise buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodberg, L.; Jacobstein, N.; McNamara, M.; Shapiro, K.; Commoner, B.

    1984-09-01

    A Residential Cogeneration Analysis program has been developed to describe the behavior of cogeneration-based energy systems in urban high-rise buildings and rowhouses. The Program identifies three cogeneration systems which might be installed in the user's building, operating in stand-alone, segregated-load, and utility back-up modes. Information is provided on energy consumption before and after the installation of these cogeneration systems, and a series of economic analyses is performed. Using the program, an analysis was performed of the effect of installing a cogeneration system in a 12-story, 48-unit apartment building in New York City. The most cost-effective mode of operation is the utility back-up mode, in which the cogenerator meets the base electrical and domestic hot water load of the building, with the utility grid providing additional electricity and the existing boiler meeting additional heating loads. In this mode of operation, the simple payback period is approximately two years. A conventional power plant converts only about one-third of the energy available from its fuel into electricity; the remaining two-thirds is not used, but is simply ejected into the atmosphere or nearby rivers. A cogenerator captures this heat for useful purposes, such as providing space heat or domestic hot water. As a result, a cogenerator can operate at an overall efficiency of 60% or better, compared with less than 33% for conventionally generated power. In recent years small cogeneration units suitable for use in residential buildings have become available. Such units can substantially reduce energy costs for the residents of high-rise apartment buildings or a set of adjoining rowhouses. CBNS has assembled data on all currently available cogeneration systems of capacity below 200 kilowatts, along with the heat recovery and electrical control equipment that would be used with these systems. 14 refs.

  10. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: wgarriol@usp.br; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: olivsilj@ipt.br

    2000-07-01

    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  11. Combined cogeneration and emergency power systems: Two for the price of one. Warmte/kracht-noodstroom: Twee halen, een betalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woutersen, G. (Sectie Zakelijke Markt, Unit Gastoepassingen, GASTEC, Apeldoorn (Netherlands))

    1994-05-01

    A brief overview is given of the results of a study on the possibilities to apply combined systems of cogeneration and emergency power in the hospital health care sector. It appears that the reliability of gas-fired cogeneration/emergency power systems is satisfactory. The above-mentioned combined systems are most appropriate for installations which are continuously in operation, while such installations show short periods of interruption. The installations must be operated fully automated and a careful choice must be made for the supercharging groups to realize good results for both the cogeneration system and the emergency power system. 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref.

  12. Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells for cogeneration of electricity and valuable chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Z. F.; Chen, R.; An, L.; Li, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AAEMFCs) have received ever-increasing attentions due to the enhanced electrochemical kinetics and the absence of precious metal electrocatalysts, and thus great progress has been made in recent years. The alkaline anion exchange membrane based direct alcohol fuel cells, one type of alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells utilizing liquid alcohols as fuel that can be obtained from renewable biomass feedstocks, is another attractive point due to its ability to provide electricity with cogeneration of valuable chemicals. Significant development has been made to improve the selectivity towards high added-value chemicals and power output in the past few years. This review article provides a general description of this emerging technology, including fuel-cell setup and potential reaction routes, summarizes the products, performance, and system designs, as well as introduces the application of this concept in the removal of heavy-metal ions from the industrial wastewater. In addition, the remaining challenges and perspectives are also highlighted.

  13. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai [Dept. of Energy Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 EUR kW h{sup -1}. As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate. (author)

  14. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  15. Industrial cogeneration optimization program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to identify up to 10 good near-term opportunities for cogeneration in 5 major energy-consuming industries which produce food, textiles, paper, chemicals, and refined petroleum; select, characterize, and optimize cogeneration systems for these identified opportunities to achieve maximum energy savings for minimum investment using currently available components of cogenerating systems; and to identify technical, institutional, and regulatory obstacles hindering the use of industrial cogeneration systems. The analysis methods used and results obtained are described. Plants with fuel demands from 100,000 Btu/h to 3 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h were considered. It was concluded that the major impediments to industrial cogeneration are financial, e.g., high capital investment and high charges by electric utilities during short-term cogeneration facility outages. In the plants considered an average energy savings from cogeneration of 15 to 18% compared to separate generation of process steam and electric power was calculated. On a national basis for the 5 industries considered, this extrapolates to saving 1.3 to 1.6 quads per yr or between 630,000 to 750,000 bbl/d of oil. Properly applied, federal activity can do much to realize a substantial fraction of this potential by lowering the barriers to cogeneration and by stimulating wider implementation of this technology. (LCL)

  16. Demonstration of an on-site PAFC cogeneration system with waste heat utilization by a new gas absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tatsuo [Tokyo Gas Company, LTD, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Analysis and cost reduction of fuel cells is being promoted to achieve commercial on-site phosphoric acid fuel cells (on-site FC). However, for such cells to be effectively utilized, a cogeneration system designed to use the heat generated must be developed at low cost. Room heating and hot-water supply are the most simple and efficient uses of the waste heat of fuel cells. However, due to the short room-heating period of about 4 months in most areas in Japan, the sites having demand for waste heat of fuel cells throughout the year will be limited to hotels and hospitals Tokyo Gas has therefore been developing an on-site FC and the technology to utilize tile waste heat of fuel cells for room cooling by means of an absorption refrigerator. The paper describes the results of fuel cell cogeneration tests conducted on a double effect gas absorption chiller heater with auxiliary waste heat recovery (WGAR) that Tokyo Gas developed in its Energy Technology Research Laboratory.

  17. Project considerations and design of systems for wheeling cogenerated power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Boyle, J.R.; Fish, J.H. III; Martin, W.A.

    1994-08-01

    Wheeling electric power, the transmission of electricity not owned by an electric utility over its transmission lines, is a term not generally recognized outside the electric utility industry. Investigation of the term`s origin is intriguing. For centuries, wheel has been used to describe an entire machine, not just individual wheels within a machine. Thus we have waterwheel, spinning wheel, potter`s wheel and, for an automobile, wheels. Wheel as a verb connotes transmission or modification of forces and motion in machinery. With the advent of an understanding of electricity, use of the word wheel was extended to be transmission of electric power as well as mechanical power. Today, use of the term wheeling electric power is restricted to utility transmission of power that it doesn`t own. Cogeneration refers to simultaneous production of electric and thermal power from an energy source. This is more efficient than separate production of electricity and thermal power and, in many instances, less expensive.

  18. Co-generation system with a linear concentrator and thermoelectric elements; Senkei shukokei to netsuden henkan soshi wo mochiita netsuden heikyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachi, E.; Suzuki, A.; Fujibayashi, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The co-generation system using a solar cell has the disadvantage that the performance of a cell element deteriorates when the temperature rises. Therefore, the co-generation system in which a BiTe thermoelectric element and linear Fresnel lens are used was constructed. Moreover, the basic characteristics were confirmed and the characteristics of a system model were analyzed. A thermoelectric element area must be reduced to improve the generating efficiency. The generating efficiency depends on the temperature difference between thermoelectric elements rather than the thermoelectric element area. As the thermoelectric area gets lower, the generating efficiency will get higher. This inclination is advantageous on the economic side. The generating efficiency becomes low during operation at high temperature. As a result, the temperature supplied to the thermal load is set to the lower position (100 to 200{degree}C) so as to advance the validity of the system. Even if the co-generation temperature is low, a heat supply capability of 150{degree}C is sufficient for an industrial heat supply system because it holds a large majority of the consumption demand for the whole industry. 3 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The performance of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system producing steam, cooling and dehumidification

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper discusses the performance of a temperature-cascaded cogeneration plant (TCCP), equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP, also called a cogeneration system, produces four types of useful energy-namely, (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification-by utilizing single fuel source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C-30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste-heat-activated devices, namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The performance analysis was conducted under different operation conditions such as different exhaust gas temperatures. It was observed that energy utilization factor could be as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio was found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  20. Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.

  1. Study of technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration system in the tertiary sector; Estudo de viabilidade tecnica-economica de um sistema de cogeracao no setor terciario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rodolffo Aquino de; Rocha, Carlos Roberto; Bortoni, Edson da Costa [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    This study aims to examine the technical feasibility and financial cost for a cogeneration system in a company in the tertiary sector. For this, was studied the electromechanical and thermal characteristics of a shopping center, as well as the technologies associated with the proposed cogeneration system. From the modeling of electric and thermal loads it was determined the system of operation for the system and the possible surplus energy generated. For the analysis of economic viability compare operating costs without cogeneration and with the alternative of cogeneration chosen. Among the calculations are the costs of investment and operation of the system. Was encountered the attractiveness of a cogeneration system, which uses natural gas as fuel for alternative engines and, in turn, reject heat to the absorption chillers. The idealized cogeneration system was also evaluated positively with a view to qualification required for participation in policies to encourage the rational use of energy resources. (author)

  2. Gaz de France and cogeneration: a story which goes on; Gaz de France et la cogeneration: une histoire qui se poursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-15

    This document presents the principle of natural gas cogeneration (gas turbine and gas engine) and gives a general overview of the cogeneration market in France since 1991 and up to 2001 (development factors, results). The perspectives and opportunities of cogeneration are analyzed with respect to the development of new technologies like fuel cells (principle, advantages and future) and to the future energy markets. Follows a compilation and an analysis of French regulation texts about cogeneration systems, their connection to the power grid, and the tariffs of electricity re-purchase by Electricite de France (EdF). (J.S.)

  3. Cogeneration, micro turbines and fuel cells: perspectives for distributed generation in Brazil; Cogeracao, microturbinas e celulas a combustivel: perspectivas para geracao distribuida no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marco Antonio Haikal [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    Brazil has a large potential to install distributed generation systems, using natural gas or renewable like solar, wind or biomass energy. Regarding urban centers, natural gas fired cogeneration and other distributed energy technologies find economical applications. Cogeneration is defined as the generation of two kinds of useful energy from a single energy source. Usually, electrical energy and thermal energy as steam or hot water are produced. By using the absorption refrigeration cycle, chilled water can also be produced to be used in air conditioned systems, often called tri generation, a good alternative to industries, commercial buildings, shopping centers, hospitals, schools and universities. Micro turbines find utilization whenever natural gas is available, but not electricity, like gas compression installations, unmanned platforms or remote production fields. Fuel cells are used in systems requiring high levels of reliability or wherever the non availability cost is high. This paper describe technical and economical data related to PETROBRAS Research Center (CENPES) 3,200 kW electric energy and 1,000 RT chilled water cogeneration system, 200 kW fuel cell and 30 kW and 60 kW microturbines. (author)

  4. Reduction of Life Cycle CO2 Emission in Public Welfare Facilities Equipped with PV/Solar Heat/Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, Shinichiro; Kemmoku, Yoshishige; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Sakakibara, Tateki

    The reduction effect of life cycle CO2 emission is examined in case of introducing a PV/solar heat/cogeneration system into public welfare facilities(hotel and hospital). Life cycle CO2 emission is calculated as the sum of that when operating and that when manufacturing equipments. The system is operated with the dynamic programming method, into which hourly data of electric and heat loads, solar insolation, and atmospheric temperature during a year are input. The proposed system is compared with a conventional system and a cogeneration system. The life cycle CO2 emission of the PV/solar heat/cogeneration system is lower than that of the conventional system by 20% in hotel and by 14% in hospital.

  5. Cogeneration and beyond: The need and opportunity for high efficiency, renewable community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason, T.C.J.

    1992-06-01

    The justification, strategies, and technology options for implementing advanced district heating and cooling systems in the United States are presented. The need for such systems is discussed in terms of global warming, ozone depletion, and the need for a sustainable energy policy. Strategies for implementation are presented in the context of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act and proposed new institutional arrangements. Technology opportunities are highlighted in the areas of advanced block-scale cogeneration, CFC-free chiller technologies, and renewable sources of heating and cooling that are particularly applicable to district systems.

  6. Cogeneration of electricity and organic chemicals using a polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, X.; Ma, Z. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Bueb, H.; Drillet, J.-F.; Hagen, J.; Schmidt, V.M. [Institutes of Chemical and Electrochemical Process Engineering, Mannheim University of Applied Sciences, Windeckstrasse 110, D-68163 Mannheim (Germany)

    2005-09-05

    Several unsaturated organic alcohols (allyl alcohol, propargyl alcohol, 2-butin-1,4-diol, 2- buten-1,4-diol) and acids (maleic acid, acrylic acid, crotonic acid, acetylendicarboxylic acid) were used as oxidants together with hydrogen as fuel in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). The standard free enthalpies ({delta}{sub R}G{sup {theta}}) of the overall fuel cell reactions H{sub 2}/oxidant were calculated to be negative and the equilibrium voltages of such systems are in the range of U{sub 00} = 0.4-0.6 V. In this way, the cogeneration of electric energy and desired hydrogenated products in a fuel cell reactor is apparent. Nafion {sup registered} 117, as polymer electrolyte, and commercial gas diffusion electrodes (ETEK) with carbon supported Pt were used in a PEFC reactor. The aqueous solutions of unsaturated alcohols and organic acids (c 1-2 mol dm{sup -3}) were pumped under ambient pressure through the cathode compartment of the cell whereas hydrogen was fed into the cell at p = 0.15 MPa. The open circuit voltages were measured to be in the range of 0.1-0.25 V. Current densities up to 50 mA cm{sup -2} and maximum power densities of around 1 mW cm{sup -2} has been achieved in the case of allyl alcohol, 2-butene-1,4-diol and acrylic acid. HPLC analysis indicates that the double or triple bond in unsaturated alcohols and organic acids is selectively hydrogenated. In addition, the electrochemical behaviour of the alcohols and acids was studied by means of cyclic voltammetry at a smooth polycrystalline Pt electrode in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Reduction reactions were observed at potentials of E < 200 mV versus RHE. It was found that the onset potential for electrochemical hydrogenation of the double and triple bond in the cyclic voltamogram correlates well with the fuel cell performances using these compounds as oxidants. (author)

  7. Low power cogeneration prototype system; Prototipo de sistema de co-geracao de pequena potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sara M.; Martins, Jose A.S.; Camara, Paulo R.; Cortes, Breno P.; Neves, Elierton E. [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil); F. Filho, Roberto; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The fuels from oil and natural gas play an important role, not only in the sector of primary energy, but also in almost all the other sectors of the economy, due to its imbrication as insum of these. The use of the natural gas will have great expansion in Brazil, motivated for the Government decision to increase the participation of this fuel in the Brazilian energy matrix from 4% to 12% up to 2010. Then, it's so important the investment in new technologies and also the improvement. In order to reach the objective related to increase the consumption of natural gas in the energy matrix, and to propose solutions to attend the electric requirements, of heat and refrigeration, using natural gas as primary power plant, the Center of Gas Technologies; CTGAS, in partnership with PETROBRAS and the Fockink Group, has developed the first modular system of generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power, of easy installation and shipment with the characteristics techniques to take care of to companies or industrial sectors that consummate this band of power. The equipment generates 35 kW/55 kVA of electric energy, 7TR (Ton of Refrigeration) of energy for refrigeration and posses the ability to heat 2200 l/h of water in the temperature of 85 deg C. The equipment will be able to produce electric and thermal energy simultaneously, from an only fuel, the natural gas. The main objective of this work is to present the main phases of development of the archetype, functions techniques of the co-generator and its field of performance in the market of systems for generation and co-generation of energy by natural gas of low power. (author)

  8. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2011-10-03

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling and (iv) dehumidification. The proposed plant comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine which generates 24 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heat activated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption chiller and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The numerical analysis for the host of waste heat recovery system and thermally activated devices using FORTRAN power station linked to powerful IMSL library is performed to investigate the performance of the overall system. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor (EUF) could achieve as high as 70% while Fuel Energy Saving Ratio (FESR) is found to be 28%.

  9. Optimization of operation of energy supply systems with co-generation and absorption refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojiljković Mirko M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-generation systems, together with absorption refrigeration and thermal storage, can result in substantial benefits from the economic, energy and environmental point of view. Optimization of operation of such systems is important as a component of the entire optimization process in pre-construction phases, but also for short-term energy production planning and system control. This paper proposes an approach for operational optimization of energy supply systems with small or medium scale co-generation, additional boilers and heat pumps, absorption and compression refrigeration, thermal energy storage and interconnection to the electric utility grid. In this case, the objective is to minimize annual costs related to the plant operation. The optimization problem is defined as mixed integer nonlinear and solved combining modern stochastic techniques: genetic algorithms and simulated annealing with linear programming using the object oriented “ESO-MS” software solution for simulation and optimization of energy supply systems, developed as a part of this research. This approach is applied to optimize a hypothetical plant that might be used to supply a real residential settlement in Niš, Serbia. Results are compared to the ones obtained after transforming the problem to mixed 0-1 linear and applying the branch and bound method.

  10. Preliminary study of nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Hishida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Ogawa, Masuro; Ogata, Kann; Yamada, Seiya

    1995-12-01

    The Nuclear power generation plant (NPGP) releases smaller amount of carbon dioxide than the fossil power plant for the generation of the unit electrical power. Thus, the NPGP is expected to contribute resolving the ecological problems. It is important to investigate the nuclear power cogeneration system using gas turbine process from the view point that it is better to produce electricity in high thermal efficiency from the high temperature energy. We carried out, in the current preliminary study, the survey and selection of the candidate cycles, then conducted the evaluation of cycle efficiency, the selection of R and D items to be solved for the decision of the optimum cycle. Following this, we evaluated nuclear heat application for intermediate and low temperature level released from gas turbine process and overall efficiency of cogeneration system. As a result, it was clarified that overall efficiency of the direct regenerative cycle was the highest in low temperature region below 200degC, and that of the direct regenerative inter cooling cycle was the highest in middle and high temperature region. (author).

  11. Cogeneration technologies, optimisation and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Frangopoulos, Christos A

    2017-01-01

    Cogeneration refers to the use of a power station to deliver two or more useful forms of energy, for example, to generate electricity and heat at the same time. This book provides an integrated treatment of cogeneration, including a tour of the available technologies and their features, and how these systems can be analysed and optimised.

  12. Modelling of cogeneration systems by using gas turbines; Modelagem de sistemas de cogeracao utilizando turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, Julio S.; Silveira, Jose L.; Balestieri, Jose P. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1998-07-01

    In this paper a computational code to select the gas turbine cogeneration system is presented. The technical and economical studies are presented to permit the choice of the best system commercially available. In the first step the energoeconomic method for this study is applied in payback period base. Finally, the exergoeconomic method is applied in irreversibility base. (author)

  13. Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.F.

    1979-10-01

    A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

  14. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The primary objective of the TASE program is to determine the probable consequences to the environment and to public health and safety resulting from widespread implementation of major solar and renewable resource technologies. The specific principal Phase I objective is to determine the levels of residuals most likely to result throughout the complete energy cycle from the utilization of each of the solar and renewable resource technologies. Three basic technologies for recovering energy from M SW are considered in this study. These are: (1) direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; (2) manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and (3) pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described here include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions. To meet the Phase I objective, LBL staff have characterized the individual application associated with each general technology; calculated operational residuals generated by each application; determined the input capital requirements and, when possible, annual operating input requirements; and have identified the technical and institutional constraints for the widespread implementation of each application. A description is presented of the energy and material development cycle required for the implementation of each technology. The capital requirements are compiled and presented in a SEAS system format.

  15. Advanced coal fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Final report, June 1986--April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-05-01

    Demonstration of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that is environmentally, technically, and economically viable depends on the satisfactory resolution of several key issues. Solar Turbines, Incorporates technical approach to these issues was to advance a complete direct coal-fueled gas turbine system that incorporated near-term technology solutions to both historically demonstrated problem areas such as deposition, erosion, and hot end corrosion, and to the emergent environmental constraints based on NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates. Solar`s program approach was keyed to the full commercialization of the coal-fueled cogeneration gas turbine which would occur after extended field verification demonstrations conducted by the private sector. The program was structured in three phases plus an optional fourth phase: Phase 1 -- system description; Phase 2 -- component development; Phase 3 -- prototype system verification; and Phase 4 -- field evaluation.

  16. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, June 1990--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1991-07-01

    Advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past few years, together with recent DOE-METC sponsored studies, have served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine can ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. The objective of the Solar/METC program is to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. The five-year program consists of three phases, namely: (1) system description; (2) component development; (3) prototype system verification. A successful conclusion to the program will initiate a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs.

  17. EFFECTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF CO-GENERATION IN THE DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEM OF THE FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING IN NIŠ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M Stojiljković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of co-generation of thermal and electrical energy in district heating systems often results with higher overall energy efficiency of the systems, primary energy savings and environmental benefits. Financial results depend on number of parameters, some of which are very difficult to predict. After introduction of feed-in tariffs for generation of electrical energy in Serbia, better conditions for implementation of co-generation are created, although in district heating systems barriers are still present. In this paper, possibilities and effects of implementation of natural gas fired co-generation engines are examined and presented for the boiler house that is a part of the district heating system owned and operated by the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Niš. At the moment, in this boiler house only thermal energy is produced. The boilers are natural gas fired and often operate in low part load regimes. The plant is working only during the heating season. For estimation of effects of implementation of co-generation, referent values are taken from literature or are based on the results of measurements performed on site. Results are presented in the form of primary energy savings and greenhouse gasses emission reduction potentials. Financial aspects are also considered and triangle of costs is shown.

  18. Sustainable heat supply with cogeneration and geothermal energy. Conceptualisation of an optimal system; Zukunftsfaehige Waermeversorgung mit KWK und Geothermie. Konzeption eines optimalen Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henle, Markus [SWM Services GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Energiewirtschaft

    2011-07-15

    Explorations performed by the Muenchen public utilities have confirmed that Muenchen has a large potential for geothermal energy. However, at present the city's district heating system is marked by competition between geothermal energy plants and highly efficient cogeneration plants. This calls for the implementation of measures set within a long-term concept which will allow an optimal combination of geothermal energy and cogeneration.

  19. The HTScroll project - Innovative cogeneration system with a high-temperature turbine; Projet HTScroll. Nouveau systeme de cogeneration a turbine spirale haute temperature - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.; Cretegny, D.; Maquet, J. [ENEFTECH Innovation SA, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Laboratoire d' Energetique Industrielle LENI, EPFL Science Park PSE, Lausanne (Switzerland); Favrat, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) proposes an alternative for micro-cogeneration based on a scroll expander to produce electricity from relatively low-temperature heat sources (less than 250 {sup o}C), thus allowing the use of renewable energy resources such as biomass, solar thermal and geothermal energy. The authors note that such a system could produce cost-effective 'green' electricity as well as heat (near 60 {sup o}C) for space heating and domestic hot-water preparation. The design and validation of a new concept for a double-stage scroll expander ('HT-Scroll') operating at high and low pressures and high temperatures is discussed. Design, modelling and construction of a 5 kW unit have been carried out. The organic fluid Rankine Cycle concept is described, the modelling of the turbine, its construction and tests carried out are discussed. Problems encountered and future work are noted.

  20. An overview of the value of parabolic dish solar thermal systems in industrial cogeneration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The essential elements of the cogeneration system configuration to be captured were the displacement of thermal energy by collection and use of the Brayton exhaust stream, and the sale back to the utility of any electricity production in excess of on-site requirements. In contrast to simply dumping these energy flows, their use or sale obviously serves, by itself, to increase gross value of the solar thermal energy system. Net allowable cost of the parabolic dish modules may or may not be increased, however. A consideration is that the waste heat capture and delivery subsystems are not free. This study does not address the incremental cost of adding waste heat capture, transport, and conversion (to steam, if necessary). It does compute a value for the thermal energy thereby displaced. This value can serve as a first-round input to any detailed economic evaluation of waste heat recovery.

  1. Combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources and electrochemical hydrogen systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigor'ev, S. A.; Grigor'ev, A. S.; Kuleshov, N. V.; Fateev, V. N.; Kuleshov, V. N.

    2015-02-01

    The layout of a combined heat and power (cogeneration) plant based on renewable energy sources (RESs) and hydrogen electrochemical systems for the accumulation of energy via the direct and inverse conversion of the electrical energy from RESs into the chemical energy of hydrogen with the storage of the latter is described. Some efficient technical solutions on the use of electrochemical hydrogen systems in power engineering for the storage of energy with a cyclic energy conversion efficiency of more than 40% are proposed. It is shown that the storage of energy in the form of hydrogen is environmentally safe and considerably surpasses traditional accumulator batteries by its capacitance characteristics, being especially topical in the prolonged absence of energy supply from RESs, e.g., under the conditions of polar night and breathless weather. To provide the required heat consumption of an object during the peak period, it is proposed to burn some hydrogen in a boiler house.

  2. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. The fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. This volume of the report contains the appendices: (A) abbreviations and definitions, glossary; (B) 4.5 MWe utility demonstrator power plant study information; (C) rejected heat utilization; (D) availability; (E) conceptual design specifications; (F) details of the economic analysis; (G) detailed description of the selected configuration; and (H) fuel cell power plant penetration analysis. (WHK)

  3. The performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration system equipped with adsorption desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a temperature cascaded cogeneration plant, shortly in TCCP, equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The TCCP or cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling, and (iv) dehumidification and distilled water by utilizing single energy source. The TCCP comprises a Capstone C30 micro-turbine that generates nominal capacity of 26 kW of electricity, a compact and efficient waste heat recovery system and a host of waste heatactivated devices namely (i) a steam generator, (ii) an absorption chiller, (iii) an adsorption desalination system, and (iv) a multi-bed desiccant dehumidifier. The analysis is performed under different operation conditions such as heat source temperatures, flow rates of heat transfer fluids and chilled water inlet temperatures. The only single heat source for TCCP is obtained from exhaust gas of micro-turbine and it is channeled to a series of waste heat recovery heat exchangers to steam and hot water at different temperatures. Hot water produced by such a compact heat exchangers is the driving heat source to produce steam of 15 kg/h, cooling of 2 Rton, dehumidification of 2 Rton, and distilled water of 0.7 m3/day. A set of experiments, both part load and full load, of micro-turbine is conducted to examine the electricity generation and the exhaust gas temperature. It is observed that energy utilization factor could achieve as high as 70% while fuel energy saving ratio is found to be 28%. © 2013 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study: fuel cell cogeneration in a water pollution control facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of a cogeneration fuel cell power plant operating in a large water pollution control facility. In this particular application, the fuel cell power plant would use methane-rich digester gas from the water pollution control facility as a fuel feedstock to provide electrical and thermal energy. Several design configurations were evaluated. These configurations were comprised of combinations of options for locating the fuel cell power plant at the site, electrically connecting it with the water pollution control facility, using the rejected power plant heat, supplying fuel to the power plant, and for ownership and operation. A configuration was selected which met institutional/regulatory constraints and provided a net cost savings to the industry and the electric utility. The displacement of oil and coal resulting from the Bergen County Utilities Authority application was determined. A demonstration program based on the selected configuration was prepared to describe the scope of work, organization, schedules, and costs from preliminary design through actual tests and operation. The potential market for nationwide application of the concept was projected, along with the equivalent oil displacement resulting from estimated commercial application.

  5. Low cost Brayton engine for gas-fired cogeneration system, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesseli, James; Saunders, Roger

    1989-08-01

    The turbo generator portion of a 30 kW recuperated Brayton (gas turbine) cycle has been tested. The intended application for this assembly is for a 20 to 40 kWe cogeneration system. Electrical power is generated by a two shaft gas turbine which drives an induction generator through a single stage gearbox. To minimize capital costs required for production and its initial cost, this innovative engine concept utilizes turbocharger components for both the gasifier and power turbine sections. The design and successful test results achieved with the prototype unit are described. When state point measurements are adjusted for the eventual addition of the recuperator, a thermal to electric efficiency of 34 percent (30 percent at HHV) was attained.

  6. The fuel cell: a coming technology for the cogeneration and the automotive; La pile a combustible: une technologie d'avenir pour la cogeneration et l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the fuel cell use in the automotive and cogeneration industries. This book presents the six papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the fuel cell market, design and advantages. In the automotive domain, the fuel cell integration in the future car at Renault is presented. The PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) concept is also detailed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Cogeneration: technical concepts, trends, prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    In the National Energy Plan, President Carter cited cogeneration as an important technique for conserving domestic energy resources. Cogeneration offers important advantages over conventional approaches in, namely: energy efficiency, fuel flexibility, economics, environment, and power reliability. The basic concepts underlying current and future cogeneration systems, and the types of hardware, fuels, and overall system applications adaptable for use by the different market sectors, are described. Trends in usage are traced and explored, and early cogeneration installations are reviewed to provide insight into the factors underlying those trends. The European experience is compared with the United States experience, and key factors influencing successes and failures are analyzed. Factors that have prompted renewed interest in cogeneration over the past few years are identified, barriers to widespread adoption in all market sectors are discussed, and Federal efforts currently under way to encourage both technological and market development are highlighted in the final section. Brief case studies of cogeneration installations in the various sectors are presented throughout the document to illustrate various aspects of system operation and capabilities. All demonstrate that cogeneration is a viable technological alternative that offers the United States one more strategy for working toward its goal of energy self-sufficiency both now and over the long term. (MCW)

  8. Optimal planning of gas turbine cogeneration system based on linear programming. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, S.-D. [Hyosung Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: ohsidk@hyosung.com; Kwak, H.-Y. [Chung-Ang Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kwakhy@cau.ac.kr

    2005-07-01

    An optimal planning for gas turbine cogeneration system has been studied. The planning problem considered in this study is to determine the optimal configuration of the system equipments and optimal operational policy of the system when the annual energy demands of electric power, heat and cooling are given a priori. The main benefit of the optimal planning is to minimize operational costs and to save energy by efficient energy utilization. A mixed-integer linear programming and the branch and bound algorithm have been adopted to obtain the optimal solution. Both the optimal configuration of the system equipments and the optimal operation policy has been obtained based on annual cost method. The planning method employed here may be applied to the planning problem of the cogeneration plant to any specific building or hotel. (author)

  9. Building energy system optimizations with utilization of waste heat from cogenerations by means of genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayo, Genku [Department of Architecture, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ooka, Ryozo [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    Distributed energy systems based on cogeneration offer significant potential to save energy since they effectively utilize waste heat from power generators. However, unless there is an appropriate combination of machinery and operations, the planned performance cannot be achieved. Thus, it is quite difficult to determine the optimal combination of machinery and operations. For this, an optimal design approach is needed. In this study, a new optimal design method for building energy systems is proposed. There are an enormous variety of combinations with regard to energy supply and demand. This method designs the most efficient energy system by optimizing the operation of available systems with consideration for the optimal capacity of machinery in the systems. Optimization algorithms known as ''genetic algorithms'' (GAs) with the capacity to deal with non-linear optimization problems have been adopted in this optimization analysis. In this study, a single-building energy system is evaluated. The result shows that the proposed method is sufficiently capable of optimizing the design, and has the potential to be applied to very complex energy systems with appropriate improvements. (author)

  10. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  11. HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN COGENERATION UNITS: STUDY OF PRELIMINARY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the mechanization of farm activities, the rise in fuel prices and the environmental aspects concerning gas emissions are the main driving forces behind efforts toward more effective use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration systems even in agricultural and cattle farms. Nevertheless these systems are still not very suitable for this purpose because of their little flexibility in following the changing energy demand as opposed to the extremely various farm load curves, both in daytime and during the year. In heat recovery systems, the available thermal energy supply is always linked to power production, thus it does not usually coincide in time with the heat demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES is necessary in order to reach the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the modelling of a packed bed latent heat TES unit, integrating a cogeneration system made up of a reciprocating engine. The TES unit contains phase change materials (PCMs filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. Water is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF to transfer heat from the tank to the final uses, and exhausts from the engine are used as thermal source. PCMs are considered especially for their large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behaviour during the phase change processes. Despite their high energy storage density, most of them have an unacceptably low thermal conductivity, hence PCMs encapsulation technique is adopted in order to improve heat transfer. The special modular configuration of heat exchange tubes and the possibility of changing water flow through them allow to obtain the right amount of thermal energy from the tank, according to the hourly demand of the day. The model permits to choose the electrical load of the engine, the dimensions of the tank and the spheres, thickness and diameter of heat exchanger and the nature of

  12. Comparative Study of Electric Energy Storages and Thermal Energy Auxiliaries for Improving Wind Power Integration in the Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjuan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In regards to the cogeneration system in Northern China, mainly supported by combined heat and power (CHP plants, it usually offers limited operation flexibility due to the joint production of electric and thermal power. For that large-scale wind farms included in the cogeneration system, a large amount of wind energy may have to be wasted. To solve this issue, the utilization of the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries are recommended, including pumped hydro storage (PHS, compressed air energy storage (CAES, hydrogen-based energy storage (HES, heat storage (HS, electric boilers (EB, and heat pumps (HP. This paper proposes a general evaluation method to compare the performance of these six different approaches for promoting wind power integration. In consideration of saving coal consumption, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing investment cost, the comprehensive benefit is defined as the evaluation index. Specifically, a wind-thermal conflicting expression (WTCE is put forward to simplify the formulation of the comprehensive benefit. Further, according to the cogeneration system of the West Inner Mongolia (WIM power grid, a test system is modelled to perform the comparison of the six different approaches. The results show that introducing the electric energy storages and the thermal energy auxiliaries can both contribute to facilitating wind power integration, and the HP can provide the best comprehensive benefit.

  13. Report on survey for environment harmonizing type energy community project for Chubu International Airport. District heat supply facilities using large-scale cogeneration systems; Chubu kokusai kuko kankyo chowagata energy community jigyo chosa hokokusho. Daikibo cogeneration chiiki netsu kyokyu shisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The Chubu International Airport is positioned as a hub airport scheduled to start its use in the early part of the 21st century, to which introduction of large-scale cogeneration systems was discussed. Structuring an energy supply system conscious of the 21st century is intended, that is friendly to the environment, is attached with importance on the economy, and has high reliability and safety. The systems have cogeneration capacity from 4,500 to 6,000 kW, and utilize high-pressure waste heat from the cogeneration system as the heat source. The system uses the high pressure waste heat, stored heat, and gas at the same time to achieve high economic performance brought about by heat storage and the best energy source mix, while attempting cascade utilization of the heat. Considerations were given to suppress the environmental and energy load on the district as low as possible for the coexistence with the district, and to build framework and coordination to return the merits to the district. Subsidy introduction also has a great effect to assure the economic performance. The optimal specific construction of the system was found in combining the utilization of energy generated from temperature difference in sea water as a heat source system, the topping system utilizing the high pressure waste heat available in the system, high-efficiency heat pumps, and the heat storing system utilizing electric power available at late night. (NEDO)

  14. Thermodynamic optimization of a solar system for cogeneration of water heating/purification and absorption cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovsapian, Zohrob O.

    This dissertation presents a contribution to understanding the behavior of solar powered air conditioning and refrigeration systems with a view to determining the manner in which refrigeration rate; mass flows, heat transfer areas, and internal architecture are related. A cogeneration system consisting of a solar concentrator, a cavity-type receiver, a gas burner, and a thermal storage reservoir is devised to simultaneously produce water heating/purification and cooling (absorption refrigerator system). A simplified mathematical model, which combines fundamental and empirical correlations, and principles of classical thermodynamics, mass and heat transfer, is developed. An experimental setup was built to adjust and validate the numerical results obtained with the mathematical model. The proposed model is then utilized to simulate numerically the system transient and steady state response under different operating and design conditions. A system global optimization for maximum performance (or minimum exergy destruction) in the search for minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum system second law efficiency is performed with low computational time. Appropriate dimensionless groups are identified and the results presented in normalized charts for general application. The numerical results show that the three way maximized system second law efficiency, etaII,max,max,max, occurs when three system characteristic mass flow rates are optimally selected in general terms as dimensionless heat capacity rates, i.e., (Psisps , Psiwxwx, PsiHs)opt ≅ (1.43, 0.17, 0.19). The minimum pull-down and pull-up times, and maximum second law efficiencies found with respect to the optimized operating parameters are sharp and, therefore important to be considered in actual design. As a result, the model is expected to be a useful tool for simulation, design, and optimization of solar energy systems in the context of distributed power generation.

  15. Exergoenvironmental analysis and optimization of a cogeneration plant system using multimodal genetic algorithm (MGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Pouria; Dincer, Ibrahim [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. North, Oshawa, ON L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In the present work, a combined heat and power plant for cogeneration purposes that produces 50 MW of electricity and 33.3 kg/s of saturated steam at 13 bar is optimized using genetic algorithm. The design parameters of the plant considered are compressor pressure ratio (r{sub AC}), compressor isentropic efficiency ({eta}{sub comp}), gas turbine isentropic efficiency ({eta}{sub GT}), combustion chamber inlet temperature (T{sub 3}), and turbine inlet temperature (TIT). In addition, to optimally find the optimum design parameters, an exergoeconomic approach is employed. A new objective function, representing total cost rate of the system product including cost rate of each equipment (sum of the operating cost, related to the fuel consumption) and cost rate of environmental impact (NO{sub x} and CO) is considered. Finally, the optimal values of decision variables are obtained by minimizing the objective function using evolutionary genetic algorithm. Moreover, the influence of changes in the demanded power on various design parameters are parametrically studied for 50, 60, 70 MW of net power output. The results show that for a specific unit cost of fuel, the values of design parameters increase, as the required, with net power output increases. Also, the variations of the optimal decision variables versus unit cost of fuel reveal that by increasing the fuel cost, the pressure ratio, r{sub AC}, compressor isentropic efficiency, {eta}{sub AC}, turbine isentropic efficiency, {eta}{sub GT}, and turbine inlet temperature (TIT) increase. (author)

  16. On the exergy disaggregation for thermoeconomic analysis of a gas turbine cogeneration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Joaquim Conceicao Soares [Federal University of Espirito Santo - UFES/DEM, Goiabeiras, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva, Julio Augusto Mendes da [University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: jams@usp.br; Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar [Federal University of Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Moreira, Hugo Lima [Federal Rural University of Amazonia, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Most analysts agree that exergy, instead of enthalpy only, is the most adequate thermodynamic quantity to associate with cost. Therefore, all thermoeconomic methodologies use the exergy to define productive structure. Sometimes, under a thermoeconomic analysis point of view, it is necessary to consider a mass or an energy flow rate consisting of several exergy components, for example thermal, mechanical and chemical components. Most analysts agree that by considering separate exergy forms the accuracy of the results is improved in thermoeconomics. However, these analysts recognize that the disaggregation of physical exergy might not be always reasonably because of the increase in the computational efforts. Thus, the main questions are: Is this improvement often marginal? Is exergy disaggregation necessary for extracting the main conclusions? This paper aims at answering these questions for the case of external fuel (natural gas) exergy allocation to the two final products (heat and power) of a gas turbine cogeneration system, by applying four different productive structures based on different kind and level of physical exergy disaggregation. The paper also shown that the model that uses enthalpy together with sintropy presents the closest result in relation to the total disaggregated model, showing the rationality of this methodology that intrinsically allocate the residues to the components of the cycle using the entropy variation in each component as a weighting factor. (author)

  17. A basic analysis of cogeneration economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collet, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    The economics of small scale gas turbine based cogeneration systems are analyzed on the basis of avoided costs for an electric utility exploiting such systems. This concerns a theoretical study in which the cogeneration system as a means for electricity generation is assumed to supplant the building

  18. Upscaling a district heating system based on biogas cogeneration and heat pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Richard Pieter; Fink, J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; de Wit, Jan B.

    2015-01-01

    The energy supply of the Meppel district Nieuwveense landen is based on biogas cogeneration, district heating, and ground source heat pumps. A centrally located combined heat and power engine (CHP) converts biogas from the municipal wastewater treatment facility into electricity for heat pumps and

  19. Cogeneration techniques; Les techniques de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    This dossier about cogeneration techniques comprises 12 parts dealing successively with: the advantages of cogeneration (examples of installations, electrical and thermal efficiency); the combustion turbine (principle, performances, types); the alternative internal combustion engines (principle, types, rotation speed, comparative performances); the different configurations of cogeneration installations based on alternative engines and based on steam turbines (coal, heavy fuel and natural gas-fueled turbines); the environmental constraints of combustion turbines (pollutants, techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions); the environmental constraints of alternative internal combustion engines (gas and diesel engines); cogeneration and energy saving; the techniques of reduction of pollutant emissions (pollutants, unburnt hydrocarbons, primary and secondary (catalytic) techniques, post-combustion); the most-advanced configurations of cogeneration installations for enhanced performances (counter-pressure turbines, massive steam injection cycles, turbo-chargers); comparison between the performances of the different cogeneration techniques; the tri-generation technique (compression and absorption cycles). (J.S.)

  20. 75 FR 5075 - Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-612-000; ER10-611-000] Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company, Salinas River Cogeneration Company, Sargent Canyon Cogeneration Company, Sycamore Cogeneration Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  1. Iron-containing N-doped carbon electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daems, Nick; Sheng, Xia; Alvarez-Gallego, Yolanda; Vankelecom, Ivo F. J.; Pescarmona, Paolo P.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-containing N-doped carbon materials were investigated as electrocatalysts for the cogeneration of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and electricity in a H-2-NO fuel cell. This electrochemical route for the production of hydroxylamine is a greener alternative to the present industrial synthesis, because it

  2. Optimization Design Method and Experimental Validation of a Solar PVT Cogeneration System Based on Building Energy Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT technology refers to the integration of a photovoltaic (PV and a conventional solar thermal collector, representing the deep exploitation and utilization of solar energy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of a solar PVT cogeneration system based on specific building energy demand using theoretical modeling and experimental study. Through calculation and simulation, the dynamic heating load and electricity load is obtained as the basis of the system design. An analytical expression for the connection of PVT collector array is derived by using basic energy balance equations and thermal models. Based on analytical results, an optimized design method was carried out for the system. In addition, the fuzzy control method of frequency conversion circulating water pumps and pipeline switching by electromagnetic valves is introduced in this paper to maintain the system at an optimal working point. Meanwhile, an experimental setup is established, which includes 36 PVT collectors with every 6 PVT collectors connected in series. The thermal energy generation, thermal efficiency, power generation and photovoltaic efficiency have been given in this paper. The results demonstrate that the demonstration solar PVT cogeneration system can meet the building energy demand in the daytime in the heating season.

  3. Thermodynamic, Economic and Emissions Analysis of a Micro Gas Turbine Cogeneration System operating on Biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Kunte, Benjamin [UNESP

    2015-01-01

    The most promising methods to reduce greenhouse gases as well as counteract against the imminent depletion of fossil fuels are: a) the use of alternative fuels obtained from biomass, such as biogas or bio-syngas; b) enhancing the power plant efficiency by decreasing the percentage of useful energy lost to the environment. Whereas efficiency optimisation of a particular machine in a power plant, e.g. gas turbine or compressor, is a very longsome development, cogeneration can quickly and signif...

  4. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a cogeneration system burning municipal solid wastes; Analises energetica e exergetica de centrais de cogeracao a partir de residuos solidos municipais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia

    1999-07-01

    Nowadays, face to the potential lack of fossil fuels in a near future, the discussion on the use of biomass and municipal solid wastes is increasing. When differential costs are considered in comparison to the other electricity generation options in a new scenery of availability and prices it is possible to wonder the feasibility of municipal solid wastes cogeneration systems not necessarily because of its economic attractiveness but specially by the solution of environmental impacts. This article aims to present a thermodynamic analysis of first and second laws in a steam cycle cogeneration system proposed to supply electricity and saturated steam to an industrial park. (author)

  5. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  6. An assessment of alternative fuel cell designs for residential and commercial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of three fuel cell systems for application in different buildings and geographic locations is presented. The study was performed at the NASA Lewis Center and comprised the fuel cell design, performance in different conditions, and the economic parameters. Applications in multifamily housing, stores and hospitals were considered, with a load of 10kW-1 MW. Designs were traced through system sizing, simulation/evaluation, and reliability analysis, and a computer simulation based on a fourth-order representation of a generalized system was performed. The cells were all phosphoric acid type cells, and were found to be incompatible with gas/electric systems and more favorable economically than the gas/electric systems in hospital uses. The methodology used provided an optimized energy-use pattern and minimized back-up system turn-on.

  7. Evaluation of Energy Saving Characteristics of a High-Efficient Cogeneration System Utilizing Gas Engine Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Pyong Sik

    A high efficiency cogeneration system (CGS) utilizing high temperature exhaust gas from a gas engine is proposed. In the proposed CGS, saturated steam produced in the gas engine is superheated with a super heater utilizing regenerative burner and used to drive a steam turbine generator. The heat energy is supplied by extracting steam from the steam turbine and turbine outlet low-temperature steam. Both of the energy saving characteristics of the proposed CGS and a CGS constructed by using the original gas engine (GE-CGS) were investigated and compared, by taking a case where energy for office buildings was supplied by the conventional energy systems. It was shown that the proposed CGS has energy saving rate of 24.5%, higher than 1.83 times, compared with that of the original GE-CGS.

  8. Application of sewage sludge gas in a fuel cell-based modular cogeneration plant; Einsatz von Klaergas in einem Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Within the framework of their policy and programme for environmental protection the GEW (Koeln-based municipal gas, electricity and water utility) is the first in Germany to operate (at Koeln-Rodenkirchen) a modular cogeneration plant with a fuel cell using sewage sludge gas for power and heat generation. The objective is to run a feasibility test and to prove the applicability of sewage sludge gas in a fuel cell system. The plant is one of the 25 show cases, i.e. advanced technology demonstration systems, operated in North Rhine-Westfalia under the roof of the EXPO 2000. Furthermore it is a leading project of an 'initiative for the future' programme of the Land government, and was awarded the 3rd prize in the competition entitled 'Innovation Energie 2000', sponsored by the journal 'et'and the IIR Deutschland in connection with the 'enorm 2000' congress in May this year. The award underscores the highly innovative character of the feasibility study. (orig./CB) [German] Im Rahmen ihrer Umweltschutzstrategie betreibt die GEW im Klaerkwerk Koeln-Rodenkirchen die erste Brennstoffzellenanlage in Europa, die aus Klaergas umweltschonend Strom und Waerme erzeugt. Ziel ist es, die Einsatzmoeglichkeit von Klaergas in einer Brennstoffzellenanlage zu erproben und die technische Machbarkeit nachzuweisen. Die Anlage gehoert in Nordrhein-Westfalen zu den 25 registrierten 'Weltweiten Projekten' der EXPO 2000. (orig.)

  9. System of lower cogeneration in the cement industry; Sistema de cogeneracion inferior en la industria del cemento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes, H.; Vazquez, A; Ambriz, J. J.; Fosado, A.; Cedillo, D.; Sanchez, R. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper present work, the design of a cogeneration system was made, taking advantage of the waste thermal flows in a cement manufacturing industry. The costs by concept of energy sources in the cement industry represent between 30 and 60% of the production costs, reason why any diminution in its consumption, will be reflected considerably in the productivity of the company. In order to determine the available capacity of waste energy and to establish the dimension of the cogeneration system it was decided to initially conduct balances of matter and energy of a cement production train. For the evaluation and numerical simulation a case study of a national plant was taken. The analysis takes only into account the rotary kiln, the pre roaster, the gas cooler or conditioner, the cooler of clinker and the separators or dust recuperators. In this study the electrical mills nor the systems that operate all over the plant have been taken in consideration. The results show that in general a high potential of co-generation exists since in some cases the heat losses can reach up to a 50% of the calorific energy input. The capacity of electrical generation by means of a steam turbine when taking advantage of a fraction (in the order of 60%) the residual heat, can be between 200 and 300 watts per kilogram of clinker produced. In conclusion, when recovering by means of appropriate heat exchangers for each one of the mentioned equipment the wasted energy and a network of heat interchange optimized by means of modern technologies an important part of the electrical energy that a cement mill uses can be generated. The method used has been very attractive and with the possibility of applying it to any cement mill and thus evaluate the potentials of energy co-generation. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se realizo el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion aprovechando las corrientes termicas de desecho en una industria de fabricacion de cemento. Los costos por concepto de

  10. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in smallscale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  11. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  12. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Good, Joel

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-à-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2 kW e) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces.

  13. A comparative thermodynamic analysis of ORC and Kalina cycles for waste heat recovery: A case study for CGAM cogeneration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nemati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic modeling and optimization is carried out to compare the advantages and disadvantages of organic Rankine cycle (ORC and Kalina cycle (KC as a bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery from CGAM cogeneration system. Thermodynamic models for combined CGAM/ORC and CGAM/KC systems are performed and the effects of some decision variables on the energy and exergy efficiency and turbine size parameter of the combined systems are investigated. Solving simulation equations and optimization process have been done using direct search method by EES software. It is observed that at the optimum pressure ratio of air compressor, produced power of bottoming cycles has minimum values. Also, evaporator pressure optimizes the performance of cycle, but this optimum pressure level in ORC (11 bar is much lower than that of Kalina (46 bar. In addition, ORC's simpler configuration, higher net produced power and superheated turbine outlet flow, which leads to a reliable performance for turbine, are other advantages of ORC. Kalina turbine size parameter is lower than that of the ORC which is a positive aspect of Kalina cycle. However, by a comprehensive comparison between Kalina and ORC, it is concluded that the ORC has significant privileges for waste heat recovery in this case.

  14. Dual-purpose system optimization (cogeneration and desalination) in a parameter concentrated analysis; Otimizacao de sistemas de duplo proposito (cogeracao e dessalinizacao) em uma analise de parametros concentrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Eduardo Manfredini; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella; Zanardi, Mauricio Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mfeduardo@uol.com.br, e-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br, e-mail: mzanardi@feg.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    World fresh water scarcity is becoming more and more concerning. Processes to produce fresh water from seawater, known as desalination processes, are increasing its participation in the international scenery. To supply its energy content, both cogeneration and desalination technologies are connecting themselves, in the so-called dual-purpose systems, as they can supply the process energy lack (power and process heat) and also permit to sell its surplus to the local concessionaire (in Brazilian case, electricity selling). The paper's aim is to perform an associated desalination-cogeneration system analysis, using competitive fuel sources, with the optimization viewpoint. So, is suggested a superstructure that analyzes different fuels, thermal and power generation units based on gas turbines and heat recovery steam generator, conventional steam generator units and steam turbine under the energy generation unit point-of-view. About the fresh water production, nowadays superstructure encloses four main technologies - electrically driven reverse osmosis, thermally driven reverse osmosis (connected to a steam turbine), multi-effect distillation and multistage flash distillation. The obtained results can show interesting ways of the cogeneration use mainly those related to the fuels, as biomass, gasified biomass, fuel oils and natural gas costs. Besides, desalination technologies costs are decreasing more and more, mainly because of technologies evolutions associated to their performances. (author)

  15. Cogeneration and North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, J. [ed.

    1979-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of 18 individual presentations. Appendices include lists of participants, speakers, and session chairmen plus California and North Carolina reports and legislation dealing with cogeneration.

  16. Assessment of an atmospheric fluidized-bed coal-combustion gas-turbine cogeneration system for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R. L.; Holcomb, R. S.; Tallackson, J. R.

    1979-10-01

    This study was initiated to provide information on the future potential industrial market for a cogeneration system consisting of a fluidized-bed coal combustor coupled to a gas-turbine (Brayton cycle) power system that uses air as the working fluid. In assessing the potential applications for the system, the process heat energy consumption by industry is identified, with special detail included on the six most energy-intensive industries. The potential impact on the nation's oil and natural gas consumption that would result from wide-spread utilization of coal for process heat is also estimated. The fraction of industrial process heat that the system could feasibly satisfy from a thermodynamic viewpoint is estimated, and the performance (potential fuel efficiency and heat/power ratio) of the atmospheric fluidized-bed gas-turbine system is calculated. Also treated are several specific case studies of industries in which the system could be incorporated. Major parameters are specified, and flow sheets are derived for systems that would satisfy the heat and power requirements of the process or industry. The overall fuel utilization efficiency, thermal power rating, and potential number of installations are specified for these case studies. The findings of the study indicate that there is a sizable potential market for the system, with over 1000 possible installations disclosed after reviewing only 8 specific industries from 6 major Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) groups. The potential displacement of oil and gas by coal in process heating is shown to be about 1.60 m/sup 3//sec (870,000 bbl/d) of oil and 4590 m/sup 3//sec (14.0 billion ft/sup 3//d) of natural gas for all industries combined. Continued development of the fluidized-bed coal combustor and power system is recommended so that this potential may be at least partially realized.

  17. An expert system initial prototype for natural gas cogeneration systems design and optimization; Prototipo inicial de um sistema especialista para projeto e otimizacao de sistemas de cogeracao a gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matelli, Jose Alexandre; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos], e-mail: matelli@labcet.ufsc.br, e-mail: ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work is presented an expert system initial prototype (ESIP) for cogeneration plant design. Expert system (ES) technique is a good alternative to approach the cogeneration design and optimization problem because it does not deal with all the possible component combinations. The ESIP presented here is implemented in an ES shell and has a knowledge base based on rules. Considering 1.0 M We of power and hot water at 50 deg C as design requirements, the ESIP provided quickly a qualitative solution, which consists of a engine-based genset with a thermal circuit that recovers the heat associated to the lube oil. (author)

  18. Natural gas- and fuel oil reforming for hydrogen production by fuel cell modular cogeneration plants; Erdgas- und Heizoelreformierung zur Wasserstofferzeugung fuer Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, P. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Natural gas is an ideal energy source for fuel cell cogeneration plants in the residential sector, because it can be reformed mostly efficient. In case of no house connection to natural gas, using liquefied gases or fuel oils is possible. (GL) [German] Erdgas ist der ideale Energietraeger fuer Brennstoffzellen-Blockheizkraftwerke (BZ-BHKW) in der Hausenergieversorgung, da es sehr einfach reformiert werden kann und am wirtschaftlichtsten ist. Falls kein Erdgasanschluss existiert, kann man auch auf die im Heizungsbereich verwendeten Brennstoffe Fluessiggas oder Heizoel zurueckgreifen.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system. Annual report, 2 June 1992--1 June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, L.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1993-06-01

    This program was initiated in June of 1986 because advances in coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the previous few years, together with DOE-METC sponsored studies, served to provide new optimism that the problems demonstrated in the past can be economically resolved and that the coal-fueled gas turbine could ultimately be the preferred system in appropriate market application sectors. In early 1991 it became evident that a combination of low natural gas prices, stringent emission limits of the Clean Air Act and concerns for CO{sub 2} emissions made the direct coal-fueled gas turbine less attractive. In late 1991 it was decided not to complete this program as planned. The objective of the Solar/METC program was to prove the technical, economic, and environmental feasibility of a coal-fired gas turbine for cogeneration applications through tests of a Centaur Type H engine system operated on coal fuel throughout the engine design operating range. Component development of the coal-fueled combustor island and cleanup system while not complete indicated that the planned engine test was feasible. Preliminary designs of the engine hardware and installation were partially completed. A successful conclusion to the program would have initiated a continuation of the commercialization plan through extended field demonstration runs. After notification of the intent not to complete the program a replan was carried out to finish the program in an orderly fashion within the framework of the contract. A contract modification added the first phase of the Advanced Turbine Study whose objective is to develop high efficiency, natural gas fueled gas turbine technology.

  20. Cogeneration: a win-win option for Cadbury Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayo, Felix [Triple ' E' Systems Associates Ltd. (Nigeria); Bogunjoko, S.B.; Sobanwa, A.C. [Cadbury Nigeria plc. (Nigeria)

    2001-02-01

    Like most developing countries, Nigeria is looking to cogeneration as a sustainable and reliable means of overcoming its present unreliable supply of energy. The article focuses on the efforts of the food company Cadbury Nigeria which uses cogeneration for all its steam and power requirements within its own factory. The Company recently decided to upgrade further by switching from liquid fossil fuels to natural gas. Diagrams show the existing system as well as the systems for cogeneration with natural gas. Some of the obstacles to be overcome to improve the viability of cogeneration in developing countries are listed. It is hoped that the outcome of the COP6 meeting to be held in April 2001 will offer encouragement for cogeneration.

  1. Cogeneration at Heineken Zoeterwoude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albronda, T.K.

    1988-02-01

    In 1982 Shell and Heineken entered into a basic agreement on investing and exploiting a cogeneration installation for the Heineken production department in Zoeterwoude, Netherlands. For this purpose the Energy Conversion Company Zoeterwoude (ECMZ) was founded. The ECMZ purpose is to converse gas and water into electric power and steam. Before realizing the construction of a cogeneration plant a feasibility study was done, of which the results are given. Details of the cogeneration installation are explained with the help of illustrations. The installation is in operation for more than two years and in technical respect not disappointing. Financial-economical the project did not come up to expectations as a consequence of decrease in energy prices in 1985.

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a shared cogeneration system and electrical mobility located in a Northern Europe climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Noro, Marco; Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    and supplies electricity for user. SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells), heat pump and Stirling engine are utilised all together to achieve the maximum efficiency. In this case it is also simulated a transition from traditional petrol cars to electricity mobility. Different types of fuels are considered in this study...

  3. SOLHYCO Project: cogeneration system with concentrated solar energy and biofuels; Projeto SOLHYCO: sistema de cogeracao de energia solar concentrada e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso Eduardo Lins de; Rabi, Jose Antonio; Carrer, Celso da Costa; Cavinatto, Betina; Tomasella, Peterson Ricardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FZEA-USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2008-07-01

    Dispatchable renewable power generation is usually associated with expensive storages or additional back-up systems. Solar-hybrid systems can combine solar energy with an additional fuel and thus reliably provide electric power. If renewable fuels (e.g., biofuels) are employed, power generation becomes 100% sustainable at zero net emissions. Systems based on gas turbines are suited for cogeneration or combined cycles, making them very efficient and cost effective. These cycles require high temperatures and pressures, thus the solar energy has to be concentrated by a heliostat field onto the top of a tower and transferred by a solar receiver into the gas turbine cycle. At smaller power levels, cogeneration of heat and power is an attractive option by making use of the high exhaust temperature of the gas turbine, thus getting an additional benefit. The aim of this proposal is an significant extension of the objectives of the recently started SOLHYCO project by means A profound knowledge for market introduction will be gained by the assessment of the Brazilian market concerning solar resources, biofuels, electricity markets, heat markets and social needs. A detailed design study for a first demonstration unit will deliver all necessary economical, social and environmental data and accordingly 3 case studies have been defined. (author)

  4. Modeling and Control of Cogeneration Power Plants: A Hybrid System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ferrari-Trecate (Giancarlo); E. Gallestey (Eduardo); P. Letizia (Paolo); M. Spedicato (Matteo); M. Morari (Manfred); M. Antoine (Marc)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper the short term scheduling optimization of a combined cycle power plant is accomplished by exploiting hybrid systems, i.e. systems evolving according to continuous dynamics, discrete dynamics, and logic rules. Discrete features of a power plant are, for instance, the

  5. Economic and technical analysis of retrofit to cogenerating district energy systems: North-Central cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Davis, A.A.; Marder, S.M.

    1979-06-01

    Six major US cities (Washington, DC, St. Louis, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Chicago) were studied to achieve reasonably accurate estimates of costs required to retrofit them with district energy systems. Demand estimates and energy-supply analyses are made, and component capital costs are estimated to arrive at annualized system costs. Finally, a comparison of alternative energy delivery options is made, and estimates of scarce-fuel savings are derived.

  6. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system -- combustion development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.

    1994-06-01

    This topical report summarizes the combustor development work accomplished under the subject contract. The objective was to develop a combustion system for the Solar 4MW Type H Centaur gas turbine generator set which was to be used to demonstrate the economic, technical and environmental feasibility of a direct coal-fueled gas turbine in a 100 hour proof-of-concept test. This program started with a design configuration derived during the CSC program. The design went through the following evolution: CSC design which had some known shortcomings, redesigned CSC now designated as the Two Stage Slagging Combustor (TSSC), improved TSSC with the PRIS evaluated in the IBSTF, and full scale design. Supporting and complimentary activities included computer modelling, flow visualization, slag removal, SO{sub x} removal, fuel injector development and fuel properties evaluation. Three combustor rigs were utilized: the TSSC, the IBSTF and the full scale rig at Peoria. The TSSC rig, which was 1/10th scale of the proposed system, consisted of a primary and secondary zone and was used to develop the primary zone performance and to evaluate SO{sub x} and slag removal and fuel properties variations. The IBSTF rig which included all the components of the proposed system was also 1/10th scale except for the particulate removal system which was about 1/30th scale. This rig was used to verify combustor performance data obtained on the TSSC and to develop the PRIS and the particulate removal system. The full scale rig initially included the primary and secondary zones and was later modified to incorporate the PRIS. The purpose of the full scale testing was to verify the scale up calculations and to provide a combustion system for the proof-of-concept engine test that was initially planned in the program.

  7. Proceedings. 22. CIMAC international congress on combustion engines. Vol. 6: Diesel engines - Design aspects/Poster session 3; Diesel engine emissions - The broader issues gas engines. Information management systems, cogeneration and combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    The present 22nd CIMAC congress in Copenhagen has its focus on user aspects, emissions and the environment as well as engine systems. Volume 6 of the proceedings contains papers dealing with Diesel Engines (design aspects and emissions), Gas engines, Information Management Systems, and Cogeneration and Combined Cycles. (LN)

  8. Techno-economic and Exergoeconomic Analysis of a micro cogeneration system for a residential use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvaro Antonio Ochoa; José Carlos Charamba Dutra; Jorge Recarte Henríquez; Carlos Antonio Cabral dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ...) and exergoeconomic analysis (exergy view). This system uses a natural gas-fueled 30 kW microturbine to generate electricity, and to produce hot water by recovering energy from the waste heat in the exhaust gases by using a heat exchanger...

  9. Hybrid cogeneration system fueled with biogas obtained from urban sewage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Călin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available When treating urban waste water, a large quantity of sludge is produced. This sludge may by used in fermentation tanks to obtain biogas with medium to high levels of methane, which is ideal for electric energy and heat production. The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical study regarding the use of biogas in power and heat generation modules. Biogas can be used for fueling internal combustion engines or fuel cells, which in turn generate electricity. Waste heat contained in the exhaust gas can be recovered in order to maximize efficiency. The theoretical study presented in this paper evaluates electrical and overall efficiency of a biogas production installation inside an urban waste water treatment.

  10. Industrial cogeneration optimization program. Final report, September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jerry; McWhinney, Jr., Robert T.

    1980-01-01

    This study program is part of the DOE Integrated Industry Cogeneration Program to optimize, evaluate, and demonstrate cogeneration systems, with direct participation of the industries most affected. One objective is to characterize five major energy-intensive industries with respect to their energy-use profiles. The industries are: petroleum refining and related industries, textile mill products, paper and allied products, chemicals and allied products, and food and kindred products. Another objective is to select optimum cogeneration systems for site-specific reference case plants in terms of maximum energy savings subject to given return on investment hurdle rates. Analyses were made that define the range of optimal cogeneration systems for each reference-case plant considering technology applicability, economic factors, and energy savings by type of fuel. This study also provides guidance to other parts of the program through information developed with regard to component development requirements, institutional and regulatory barriers, as well as fuel use and environmental considerations. (MCW)

  11. Technical overview of cogeneration: the hardware, the industries, the potential development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Because the by-product heat from a power-conversion process is captured for productive use in a cogeneration system, instead of exhausted to the environment as it is in a conventional power plant, cogeneration represents an important energy-conservation technique. By cogenerating, an industrial plant can save the fuel that would have been needed to produce the amount of heat captured. Recognizing the significant energy-savings potential offered by cogeneration, DOE has undertaken a major R, D, and D program to investigate and promote cogeneration in industry. Resource Planning Associates, Inc. (RPA), has been working to accomplish four of the program's objectives: (1) survey current, near state-of-the-art, and future cogeneration equipment, and identify any gaps or deficiencies; (2) characterize the energy requirements of the manufacturing sectors of five of the country's most energy-intensive industries - chemical, petroleum refining, paper and pulp, textiles, and food; (3) identify principal targets for, and barriers to, the increased market development of cogeneration systems; and (4) estimate the potential maximum and the probable energy savings that could be achieved in the five selected industries through cogeneration. In investigating cogeneration hardware, three specific technologies - steam turbines, gas turbines, and diesel engines - were emphasized. It is estimated that the widespread application of cogeneration technology in the five industries studied could result in a maximum potential savings of 2.4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (or a maximum incremental capacity of 140,000 MWe) by 1985.

  12. Cogeneration feasibility study in the Gulf States Utilities service area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    Sites in the Gulf States Utilities service are considered for cogeneration feasibility studies. The sources of steam considered for the Orange, Texas and Geismar, Lake Charles, and North Baton Rouge, Louisiana sites include oil, coal, HTGR steamers, consolidated nuclear steam system, atmospheric fluidized-bed coal combustion, and coal gasification. Concepts concerning cogeneration fuel systems were categorized by technical applicability as: current technology (pulverized coal-fired boilers and fuel oil-fired boilers), advanced technology under development (HTGR steamers and the CNSS), and advanced technology for future development (atmospheric fluidized-bed boilers and coal gasification). In addition to providing data on cogeneration plant generally useful in the US, the study determined the technical and economic feasibility of steam and electric power cogeneration using coal and nuclear fuels for localized industrial complexes. Details on site selection, plant descriptions, cost estimates, economic analysis, and plant schedule and implementation. (MCW)

  13. Survey on field test project in fiscal 2001 for environment harmonizing type energy community. Survey report on survey project to install for demonstration of parallel type wood biomass gasification cogeneration system; 2001 nendo kankyo chowa gata energy community field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Heiretsu gata baiomasu gaska co-generation system no jissho secchi chosa jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Technical and economical feasibility surveys toward installation of a practical demonstration system have been performed in Memuro Town in Hokkaido on a wood biomass gasification cogeneration system using waste woods produced in sawmills as the raw material. This system requires two kinds of performances: being usable in cold areas (20 to 30 degrees C below zero) and being capable of achieving size expansion optionally by using the parallel type system configuration. As a result of the discussions, the following facts have been made clear: with respect to the aspects of wood biomass supply quantity and energy demand, the planned operating system is provided with sufficient conditions to satisfy the requirements; technological improvement and enhancement of the gasification cogeneration system are judged to require about half a year to one year; in the economic evaluation, the initial introduction cost is so large that the self-burden of up to 25% is a limit, and financial assistance from the national and prefectural governments is a prerequisite. In addition, enhancement of the operation rate in the initial stage is required, and so is the completeness in the technical aspects. (NEDO)

  14. Preliminary study of large cogeneration/district heating power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenco, G.F.; Englesson, G.A.; Hu, M.C.

    1978-03-01

    The concept of cogeneration is receiving national attention as a measure of energy conservation, for cogeneration increases the ratio of useful energy output to the energy input of a steam-electric power plant. The heat energy supplied by way of steam can be used for both industrial processing and district heating. In the latter case, the steam is used either directly as a heat carrier or indirectly for heating the water recirculated in hot-water district-heating systems. This study is centered on a condensing cogeneration turbine with four controllable steam extractions at two different pressure levels 6 to 13 psia and 10 to 29 psia) so that the water used for district heating is heated in two stages in series. When the heat load demand is small, steam can be further expanded in the condensing tails downstream from the controllable extractions, thereby enabling a certain degree of independence between the production of heat and electric power. This cycle is especially suitable when the heat load varies considerably during the year, as is the case for district-heating requirement. Currently, there are no large cogeneration facilities and the intent of this study is to prepare a preliminary technical and economic assessment of an 800-MWe condensing cogeneration turbine for hot-water district heating. The study includes: (1) a review of the basic principles of cogeneration; (2) the conceptual design of an 800-MWe cogeneration plant cycle; and (3) the comparison of cogeneration and conventional electric power plants of equal rated capacity in terms of heat rate, fuel savings, and cooling-water consumption. Technical and economic areas that need extensive and detailed evaluation are identified. The ultimate goal is to establish the utility criteria for a prototype large district heating/electricity system in the USA. (MCW)

  15. Electricity and heat production by biomass cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčič, Simon; Marčič, Milan

    2017-07-01

    In Slovenia, approximately 2 % of electricity is generated using cogeneration systems. Industrial and district heating networks ensure the growth of such technology. Today, many existing systems are outdated, providing myriad opportunities for reconstruction. One concept for the development of households and industry envisages the construction of several small biomass units and the application of natural gas as a fuel with a relatively extensive distribution network. This concept has good development potential in Slovenia. Forests cover 56 % of the surface area in Slovenia, which has, as a result, a lot of waste wood to be turned into biomass. Biomass is an important fuel in Slovenia. Biomass is gasified in a gasifier, and the wood gas obtained is used to power the gas engine. This paper describes a biomass cogeneration system as the first of this type in Slovenia, located in Ruše.

  16. Status report on compact gasifier cogeneration units in Germany. Applications of the cogeneration gasifier technology; Stand kleintechnischer Vergaser-BHKW-Anlagen in Deutschland. Einsatz der BHKW-Vergasertechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschunke, Tobias; Schuessler, Ingmar; Salomo, Bert [Hochschule Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany); Braekow, Dieter [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V., Berlin (Germany); Treppe, Konrad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Umwelttechnik

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to biogas, the use of solid biomass with low water content in cogeneration units is lagging several years of development behind. A promising variant is a wood gas engine cogeneration unit. Different energy sources can be combined, e.g. in an Otto engine and a Stirling engine. The authors describe the technology for compact systems. (orig.)

  17. Co-generation of electricity and syngas on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cell with a perovskite layer as a precursor of a highly efficient reforming catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tingting; Zhu, Ankang; Guo, Youmin; Wang, Chunchang; Huang, Shouguo; Chen, Huili; Yang, Guangming; Wang, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a proton conducting solid oxide fuel cell (layered H+-SOFC) is prepared by introducing a La2NiO4perovskite oxide with a Ruddlesden-Popper structure as a catalyst layer onto a conventional NiO + BaZr0.4Ce0.4Y0.2O3-δ (NiO + BZCY4) anode for in situ CO2 dry reforming of methane. The roles of the La2NiO4 catalyst layer on the reforming activity, coking tolerance, electrocatalytic activity and operational stability of the anodes are systematically studied. The La2NiO4 catalyst layer exhibits greater catalytic performance than the NiO + BZCY4 anode during the CO2 dry reforming of methane. An outstanding coking resistance capability is also demonstrated. The layered H+-SOFC consumes H2 produced in situ at the anode and delivers a much higher power output than the conventional cell with the NiO + BZCY4 anode. The improved coking resistance of the layered H+-SOFC results in a steady output voltage of ∼0.6 V under a constant current density of 200 mA cm-2. In summary, the H+-SOFC with La2NiO4 perovskite oxide is a potential energy conversion device for CO2 conversion and utilization with co-generation of electricity and syngas.

  18. Micro cogeneration in residential scale; Bancada de sistema de cogeracao de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Primo, Ana Rosa Mendes; Magnani, Fabio Santana; Henriquez, Jorge R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Moura, Newton Reis de; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Zimmerle, Sergio Ricardo T.S. [Companhia Pernambucana de Gas (COPERGAS), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Cogeneration is very important to spread the use of natural gas in Brazil. Most of the existing cogeneration plants are of considerable size, as used in industries or commercial centers. Places with low demand on electrical or thermal energy (e.g. small industries, blocs of houses, etc.) could also benefit of cogeneration, but there is no available data about micro-cogeneration in Brazil. In order to verify the technical and economical viability of small size systems of cogeneration, FINEP/PETROBRAS/COPERGAS financed a project of micro-cogeneration at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), involving experiments on a micro turbine and a generator group, both with 30 kW power. The laboratory is also composed by two heat exchangers to regenerate the heat from the micro-turbine and generator group, a single effect absorption chiller, with 10 TR capacity, two thermal storage tanks (for hot and cold water) and a compression split of 5 TR. Data to build performance curves of the equipment will be stored and analyzed, in order to build their performance curves, allowing the overall cogeneration efficiency to be found. Most probable situations of thermal and electric power demands will be simulated. The aim of the simulations is to achieve the optimal situation for micro-cogeneration, which will offer the best efficiency, the lowest cost for buying the equipment and the lowest operational cost. A software was also developed, which optimizes micro-cogeneration systems. (author)

  19. Installation and investigation of a cogeneration system in a hospital building at Anieres; Installation et suivi d'un couplage chaleur-force (CCF) sur le site de l'ORT a Anieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    A system for combined heat and power generation has been added to the complex energy system of the ORT building of the general hospital at Anieres (canton Geneva, Southwestern Switzerland). Such a system allows both to reduce deficiencies of electric power and to supply the necessary sanitary hot water. The detailed investigation showed that the hydraulic inclusion of the cogeneration unit is of prime importance for obtaining a high number of operating hours, a prerequisite for economic operation. A hydraulic control of the primary loop by a temperature sensor in the return flow has proven to be adequate. Another critical point is the control of the cogeneration unit. The control must be very precisely adjusted if the requirements for electric power and warm water are to be fulfilled without heat dissipation. In this context, the management of the warm water storage tanks plays a decisive role.

  20. Development of technology and systems for air-conditioned and cogenerations using natural gas; Desenvolvimento de tecnologia e sistemas para climatizaco e cogeracao usando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Antonio Cabral dos; Varani, Celina Maria Ribeiro [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar; Campos, Michel Fabianski [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This preset work deal with a technological project that has as main objective the development of national technology in absorption refrigeration for application in the human thermal comfort with natural gas as energy source in direct fired or through energy recuperation of the combustion gases in cogeneration systems. This project makes part of the REDEGASENERGY and also receive financial support from CT-PETRO founds through FINEP, and also has as partner the local gas distributed company. The focus to be reached is the obtaining of a system of double effect using the solution pair Water-Lithium Bromide as work fluid to the capacity range of five to fifty tons of refrigeration. This range means a important branch on the market for minis-shopping, medical clinics, conveniences shopping, small hotels, motels, etc. The system is compound basically of heat exchangers: vapor generator, absorber, condenser, evaporator and intermediary exchanger. The design of the system is based on the thermodynamic, heat and mass analyses for each component. The concepts of exergy and irreversibility are used for through second thermodynamic law to realize the exegetic analysis and to identify the points of the most thermal lost. The correction on the identified components allows the improvements on the performance of each components and all system. As proposed steps to reach the final objective is established first the development of a single effect system operating in similar conditions of capacity and work fluid that the intended double effect system. (author)

  1. Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems-an assessment of the national possibilities in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeskog, Andrea [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Hansson, Julia, E-mail: julia.hansson@chalmers.s [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Berndes, Goeran [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, SE-301 18 Halmstad (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (i) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (ii) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP.

  2. Co-generation of biofuels for transportation and heat for district heating systems. An assessment of the national possibilities in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeskog, Andrea; Hansson, Julia; Berndes, Goeran [Physical Resource Theory, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [School of Business and Engineering, Halmstad University, SE-301 18 Halmstad (Sweden)

    2009-12-15

    Biomass gasification with subsequent synthesis to liquid or gaseous biofuels generates heat possible to use in district heating (DH) systems. The purpose here is to estimate the heat sink capacity of DH systems in the individual EU nations and assess the possibilities for biomass-gasification-based co-generation of synthetic biofuels for transportation and heat (CBH) for DH systems in the EU countries. The possibilities are assessed (1) assuming different levels of competiveness relative to other heat supply options of CBH corresponding to the EU target for renewable energy for transportation for 2020 and (2) assuming that the potential expansion of the DH systems by 2020 is met with CBH. In general, the size of the DH heat sinks represented by the existing national aggregated DH systems can accommodate CBH at a scale that is significant compared to the 2020 renewable transportation target. The possibilities for CBH also depend on its cost-competitiveness compared to, e.g., fossil-fuel-based CHP. The possible expansion of the DH systems by 2020 represents an important opportunity for CBH and is also influenced by the potential increase in the use of other heat supply options, such as, industrial waste heat, waste incineration, and CHP. (author)

  3. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy consumption by providing both heat and power on site without transmission losses. The high grade heat produced during the operation of the power causes high thermal transients during startup/shutdown pha...

  4. Energetic, exergetic, thermoeconomic and environmental analysis of various systems for the cogeneration of biogas produced by an urban wastewater treatment plant UWTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, J.J. [Nebrija Univ., Madrid (Spain). Industrial Engineering Dept.; Contreras, A. [Industrial Engineering College, Madrid (Spain). Chemistry Dept.

    2010-07-01

    General awareness that the world's energy resources are limited has meant that it is increasingly important to examine energy-saving devices and fuels more closely, in order to use our limited available resources in a more sustainable manner. With this in mind, we studied biogas from a UWTP, because it is a renewable fuel with a neutral contribution to CO2 emissions. We compared two technologies for using biogas as an energy source: cogeneration using either motor-generators or phosphoric acid fuel cells. The comparison was made from the energetic, exergetic, thermo-economic and environmental points of view, internalizing all the costs involved in each case. We used data supplied by the UWTP at the City of Madrid Plant Nursery, which uses motor-generators, and the UWTPs in Portland, Oregon, and in Red Hook, New York, which use a phosphoric acid fuel cell. The joint work carried out has been divided into three parts for publication purposes, and we present here the first of these, which refers to the energy analysis. (orig.)

  5. A Development of the Decision Support System for the Optimum Cogeneration Planning Under the Constraints of the Economic Efficiency and Partial Load Properties for the Commercial Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takeshi; Mori, Shunsuke; Douwaki, Kiyoshi

    It is said that the cogeneration system (CGS) is an effective countermeasure for energy saving and CO2 reduction in the commercial building. However, the economic, energy and environmental efficiency of CGS varies so much depending on the annual load factor and the demand patterns of heat and electric power. In this research, we develop a model to evaluate the optimum decision on the capacity and the operating pattern of CGS by nonlinear mixing integer programming in order to formulate the partial load properties of CGS in practical operation, since the existing optimization models without partial load properties could have generated too optimistic evaluation of CGS. The compatibility between the economy and the energy saving of the CGS implementation planning has been the problem. Our system proposes a new measure to develop an optimal energy saving system under the constraint of economic efficiency as the investment recovery years of CGS for the commercial building. Our system has been applied to the case of hotel building. The results show us that the optimum CGS capacity planning generated by our model provides more effective solution compared to the existing simulation tools used generally without optimization capability.

  6. EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A COGENERATION POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Manuel Nuñez Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration power plants connected to industrial processes have a direct impact on the overall efficiency of the plant and therefore on the economic results. Any modification to the thermal outline of these plants must first include an exergetic analysis to compare the benefits it can bring the new proposal. This research is performed to a cogeneration plant in operation with an installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW, it shows a study made from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Exergetic evaluation of each component of the plant was applied and similarly modified cogeneration scheme was evaluated. The results illustrate that the exergy losses and irreversibilities are completely different from one subsystem to another. In general, the total exergy destruction represented 70,7% from the primary fuel exergy. Steam generator was the subsystem with the highest irreversibility of the plant with 54%. It was demonstrated that the increase of the steam parameters lead to reduce exergy destruction and exergy efficiency elevation. The suppression of the reduction system and the adding of an extraction-condensing steam turbine produce the same effect and contribute to drop off the electrical consumption from the grid.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF SYSTEM EFFICIENCY OF EXPANSION OF EXISTING COGENERATING POWER PLANTS IN THE POWER SYSTEM OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the energy modes of Moldova at the introduction of new facilities at the existing heating plants. Its influence on the change in the intra-and inter-system power flows and the amount of power losses in power systems of Moldova and Ukraine in parallel operation is studied as well.

  8. Cogeneration with fuel oil at the Nancy district hall; Cogeneration au fuel a l`hotel du Departement de Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contelly, P. [CGC Lorraine Sud, 54 (France); Jacquemin, G. [Conseil General de Meurthe et Moselle, 54 (France)

    1996-07-01

    In the framework of the renovation and construction of a block of buildings for the new district hall in Nancy (France), a cogeneration system operating with fuel oil has been studied for space heating and power generation. The cogeneration system is composed of a diesel engine generating plant (1275 kWe) with a combined production of hot water. Electric power is combined to the national grid for optimizing the peak day rate system. Technical characteristics of the generating plant, electric and control equipment, remote control and maintenance systems are presented together with an environmental and economic analysis of the project. Installation and functional diagrams are provided

  9. Application of the Pinch analysis for the design of a cogeneration system in a paper mill; Aplicacion del analisis Pinch para el diseno de un sistema de cogeneracion en una industria papelera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani Gonzalez, A. G.; Arriola Medellin, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Pinch Analysis is a set of principles, tools and rules for the design that allow the engineer find the best way to configure the elements of a process. In the last ten years it has been utilized for the design of new processes as well as in the energy optimization of existing processes. In this paper the tools utilized for the integration of a cogeneration system in a process for the production of paper is presented. It is also presented how the combined treatment of the Pinch Analysis and the exergy concept allows to define, before the detailed design, the cogeneration potential, the fuel consumption and the amount of pollutant emissions for different cogeneration schemes. [Espanol] El analisis Pinch es un conjunto de principios, herramientas y reglas de diseno que permiten al ingeniero encontrar la mejor manera de configurar los elementos de un proceso. En los ultimos diez anos se ha utilizado para el diseno de procesos nuevos asi como en la optimacion energetica de procesos existentes. En el presente articulo se presentan las herramientas utilizadas para la integracion de un sistema de cogeneracion en un proceso de produccion de papel. Se muestra tambien como el tratamiento combinado del analisis Pinch y el concepto de energia permite definir, antes del diseno detallado, el potencial de cogeneracion, el consumo de combustible y la cantidad de emisiones contaminantes para diferentes esquemas de cogeneracion.

  10. Procedure to determine the convenience of installing a co-generation system; Procedimiento para determinar la conveniencia de instalar un sistema de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin Castellanos, Carlos; Acosta Torres, Aracely [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    In this article a methodology for the selection of the co-generation system better adapted to the energy needs of an industry is presented, covering the following schemes: a) Satisfy the thermal demand and deliver to the net the excess electricity generated. b) Reduce the functioning level of the machine and produce electricity in accordance with the internal demand. The thermal demand will be satisfied, for instance, integrating a boiler in the cycle. c) Satisfy the electric demand and utilize only in part the available heat. d) Or else, reduce the operation level of the machine and produce only the necessary thermal energy, taking from the net the electric energy needed to cover the total demand. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta una metodologia para la seleccion del sistema de cogeneracion que mejor se adapte a las necesidades energeticas de una industria, cubriendo los siguientes esquemas: a) Satisfacer la demanda termica y ceder a la red el exceso de energia electrica generada. b) Reducir el nivel de funcionamiento de la maquina y producir electricidad de acuerdo a la demanda interna. La demanda termica se cubrira, por ejemplo, integrando una caldera al ciclo. c) Satisfacer la demanda electrica y, utilizar solo en parte el calor disponible. d) O bien, reducir el nivel de operacion de la maquina y solo producir la energia termica necesaria, tomando de la red la energia electrica para cubrir la demanda total.

  11. New developments in cogeneration: opening remarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuster, C.N.

    1982-06-01

    Cogeneration is defined as Total energy, that is, multiple use of a single source of energy. Dual utilization of radiation in an ancient bath in Pompeii is perhaps the earliest such use. Because of PURPA in 1978 development of small power production facilities and cogeneration is encouraged. A map shows the projected cogeneration facilities across the country in 1995.

  12. Project development of a modern wood-fired cogeneration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A.C.; Schueler, B.E.; Shield, J.J. [Polsky Energy Corp., Northbrook, IL (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Brooklyn Energy Centre is a cogeneration facility located in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia which supplies electric energy to Nova Scotia Power Inc., and thermal energy to the adjacent Bowater Mersey Papermill. The wood-fired cogeneration facility began commercial operation in December 1995. In order to provide maximum flexibility and utilize the most economic fuels, the facility was designed to handle a wide range of fuels including bark, sawdust, whole tree chips, slash and other woodwastes, including the potential addition of coal. The fuel mix as well as seasonal fuel variations provided a challenge in designing the fuel handling system and also played a significant role in the design and selection of many other plant systems. This paper gives an overview of the importance of paying special attention to a nonhomogeneous fuel mix and to the need for an uninterruptible steam supply in the design and operation of a modern wood-fired cogeneration facility. (author)

  13. A new dynamism for the cogeneration of 2000 - from the medium to the mini-cogeneration; Une nouvelle dynamique pour la cogeneration en l'an 2000 - de la moyenne vers le mini-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the medium and mini-cogeneration market. This book presents the fourteen papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the cogeneration technology for the medium and mini-systems. The state of the art concerning the turbines and examples of dual systems (heating and warm water) are provided. Some economical aspects are also presented with the international and national market, the contracts management with EDF and the investments. (A.L.B.)

  14. Forward-looking energy supply in the Thuringia Forest; From a 2 MW electric heating system to a natural gas modular cogeneration plant. Zukunftsweisende Energieversorgung im Thueringer Wald; Vom 2 MW-Elektroheizsystem zum Erdgas-BHKW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tech, T. (GERTEC GmbH - Beratende Ingenieure, Essen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    Within the scope of the conversion of a hotel into a spa clinic also the heating system with an electric central storage system of 855 m[sup 2] consuming large amounts of primary energy was replaced by a modern heating system. In the first stage a boiler plant and a district heat network were installed. For space heating and hot water supply seven heat terminal stations were integrated in the supply system. In the second stage a natural gas cogeneration plantt with several modules was built. With heat-oriented operation 80% of the heat demand in the supply network is to be covered with combined heat and power generation. (BWI)

  15. A feasibility assessment of cogeneration from a regenerative glass furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Coles, W.F.

    1985-07-01

    In typical oil/gas-fired regenerative glass furnaces, approximately one-third of the total thermal input is exhausted out the stack at temperatures in the range of 700-1000/sup 0/F. The results of a site specific feasibility assessment of cogeneration from the stack gas waste heat of a regenerative glass furnace is summarized. Three different cogeneration concepts were evaluated for heat recovery. They included: a) a conventional steam Rankine cycle, b) an organic Rankine cycle, and c) a pressurized Brayton cycle. The performance and economics of the three cogeneration heat recovery systems are compared for a range of flue gas temperatures and flow rates which encompass expected operating conditions for a nominal furnace campaign period.

  16. Which future for cogeneration in local communities? which impediments to overcome?; Quel avenir pour la cogeneration dans les collectivites territoriales? Quels obstacles a surmonter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descartes, P.

    1996-07-01

    The situation of cogeneration in France is reviewed, pointing the reasons for its low development compared to other countries in Europe; the centralization of power generation and especially nuclear power production, and the price regulation appear as the main causes. Recommendations for promoting cogeneration, based on the implementation of long term buying contracts and prices, power output thresholds, cogeneration industry organizations and relations with EDF (Electricite de France), are presented and discussed. Application potential in hospitals and other local community systems are presented, and the energy savings and pollution reductions are evaluated and compared following various scenarios

  17. Smart intermittency-friendly cogeneration: Techno-economic performance of innovative double storage concept for integrating compression heat pumps in distributed cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Increasing penetration levels of intermitttent renewables are posing challenges to system operators and electricity producers. In West Denmark, which is a paradigmatic case by global comparison in terms of combining intermittent renewables and distributed cogeneration, we find that distributed...... plants may adapt their plant design and operational strategy to improve the co-existence between cogeneration and intermittent renewables. A novel intermittency-friendly and super-efficient concept in cogeneration is presented that involves integrating a high-pressure compression heat pump using heat...

  18. Multimedia tutorial system to aid the technical training in energy cogeneration; Sistema tutorial multimedio para apoyar la capacitacion tecnica en cogeneracion de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Guerrero Briseno, Pedro [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Monedero De La Vega, Arturo F. [Seccion Ingenieria Energetica, DEPFI UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The incorporation of computer aided teaching technologies increases the efficiency in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge, allowing the handling of large information volumes, the knowledge homogenization among the students, the availability, the massive teaching and the permanent updating of the same. On the other hand, considering that all energy saving policy must be supported in a training and dissemination program of the respective energy technologies an immediate option is the use of computerized systems of teaching-learning. Precisely, in this paper, are presented the fundamental technical aspects for the development of a tutorial expert system, to aid the training in energy cogeneration, trying to integrate in the application, the usage of multimedia tools with the intelligent handling of the teaching-learning process through the inference machine of an expert system. [Espanol] La incorporacion de metodologias de ensenanza auxiliada por computadora incrementa la eficiencia en la transmision y adquisicion del conocimiento, permitiendo la manipulacion de grandes volumenes de informacion, la homogeneizacion del conocimiento en los educandos, la disponibilidad, masificacion y la permanente actualizacion del mismo. Por otro lado, considerando que toda politica de ahorro de energia debe estar soportada en un programa de capacitacion y de divulgacion de las tecnologias energeticas respectivas, una alternativa inmediata es el empleo de sistemas computarizados de ensenanza-aprendizaje. Precisamente, en este trabajo, se presenta los aspectos tecnicos fundamentales del desarrollo de un sistema experto tutorial para apoyar la capacitacion en cogeneracion de energia, tratando de integrar en la aplicacion, el empleo de las herramientas multimedios con el manejo inteligente del proceso de ensenanza-aprendizaje a traves de la maquina de inferencia de un sistema experto.

  19. Development of a Direct Carbon Fuel Cell for Power and Fuels Cogeneration Directly from Plastic Trash Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This small business innovation research is intended to develop a simple processing concept based-on an advanced direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) technology enabling...

  20. Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blarke, Morten; Dotzauer, Erik

    2011-01-01

    -efficiency and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as low....... It is found that CHP-HP-FG-CS offers significant reductions in fuel consumption (−8.9%) and operational production costs (−11.4%). The plant’s fuel-to-energy efficiency increases from 88.9 to 95.5%, which is state-of-the-art. The plant’s intermittency-friendliness coefficient Rc improves only marginally due...

  1. Cogeneration handbook for the food processing industry. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakin, D.E.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Fasbender, A.G.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the food processing industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  2. Cogeneration handbook for the chemical process industries. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, A.G.; Fassbender, L.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Moore, N.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Gorges, H.A.

    1984-03-01

    The desision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. In addition, an annotated bibliography and a glossary of terminology are provided. Appendix A provides an energy-use profile of the chemical industry. Appendices B through O provide specific information that will be called out in subsequent chapters.

  3. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Balodis, M.; Sarma, U.; Cers, A.; Linkevics, O.

    2015-12-01

    Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand. In this paper, the authors attempt to assess the potential conflicts between policy political objectives to increase the share of high-efficiency co-generation and renewable energy sources (RES), based on the example of Riga district heating system (DHS). If a new heat source using biomass is built on the right bank of Riga DHS to increase the share of RES, the society could overpay for additional heat production capacities, such as a decrease in the loading of existing generating units, thereby contributing to an inefficient use of existing capacity. As a result, the following negative consequences may arise: 1) a decrease in primary energy savings (PES) from high-efficiency cogeneration in Riga DHS, 2) an increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Baltic region, 3) the worsening security situation of electricity supply in the Latvian power system, 4) an increase in the electricity market price in the Lithuanian and Latvian price areas of Nord Pool power exchange. Within the framework of the research, calculations of PES and GHG emission volumes have been performed for the existing situation and for the situation with heat source, using biomass. The effect of construction of biomass heat source on power capacity balances and Nord Pool electricity prices has been evaluated.

  4. Micro cogeneration - rich-methane gasifier and micro gas turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a concept of integration a gasifier system with distributed generation of electricity and heat cogeneration system based on a gas microturbine. The gas generator is supplied by the RDF fuel from waste and biomass fuel Bio-CONOx. In the scale considered, the cogeneration system is designed to produce 30kWe of electricity and approx. 50kW of heat. Important perspective directions of technology development are: (i the possibility of gas microturbine to cooperate with the gasifier (up to date, in such systems were used, and continue to apply only piston engines, (ii the production of syngas in the gasifier (for efficient cogeneration in the composition of which there is a high content of methane (CH4 = 18%-22%. In the first step of possible commercialization a mathematical model to simulate single shaft gas turbine cogeneration plant has been developed. In conceptual design is application of microturbine as the prime mover of Combined Heat and Power (CHP system but with especial emphasis on possible use of a low calorific gas attainable from presented in details a gasifier unit. To support the calculations for preliminary design analysis, a computer program is developed in EES software environment.

  5. Diffusion paths for micro cogeneration using hydrogen in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taanman, M.; Groot, A.de; Kemp, R.; Verspagen, B.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the diffusion of micro cogeneration systems (MiCoGen) using hydrogen produced from natural gas in the Netherlands for the 2000-2050 period on the basis of economical factors. The diffusion is important for the transition to a hydrogen economy based on renewables, with natural gas paving

  6. Feasibility analysis of installing a natural gas cogeneration system in a slaughterhouse; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um sistema de cogeracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro Tomio; Dib, Fernando Henrique; Campitelli, Flavio Moreti; Romao Junior, Ricardo Agudo; Ramos, Ricardo Alan Verdu [Universidade Estadual Paulista (NUPLEN/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], Email: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the analysis of the viability of implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse is carried out. Among the studied configurations there are the current plant and the modified plant that allow the use of natural gas. For evaluation of the performance, energetic and exegetic analyses for each one of the configurations are carried out. It's also accomplished a thermo economic analysis that makes possible to evaluate the reflexes of the investment and combustible on the composition of the cost of products. (author)

  7. Grid-optimized operation of modular cogeneration plants. Thermal and electrical balance; Netzoptimierte Betriebsweise von Blockheizkraftwerken. Thermische und elektrische Bilanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christian; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Wittwer, Christof [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    With increasing numbers of decentral power supply systems, utilities are faced with problems of grid integration and operation. The authors discuss various operational options for decentral cogeneration units together with fluctuating power supply from photovoltaic systems. The basis is the formulation of a model of the components of cogeneration unit, heat store and auxiliary heating boiler. (orig.)

  8. Co-generation system with integrated functions of active filter; Sistema de cogeneracion con funciones de filtro activo integradas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, Humberto Raul

    2002-07-15

    Without question, the electrical energy is the form of energy more widely used in the economic and social activities of our modern world. For that reason, it is possible to say that the electricity generating and distributing companies assume two challenges of present relevant preoccupation. One is to generate with greater efficiency, less costs and with a minimum impact on the environment. The second is to fulfill the quality of the provision, that has gotten to be an important point as much for the users as for the companies that distribute the electrical energy, and that is reflected in more efficient distribution and consumption of energy. The thesis work that is presented, describes a photovoltaic system (PVS) interconnected to the electric network that helps to surpass the mentioned challenges. This PSV has the function of receiving the power generated by the solar energy delivered by an array of PV cells; to operate in the maximum point of power of the cells (for greater advantage of the collected energy); to condition it to an alternating signal, within the normative technical parameters for the electrical interconnection established by the company; (Comision Federal de Electricidad in Mexico); and to inject it to the electric network in order to compensate reactive power (active filtering) demanded by lineal and non-lineal loads, reducing the contamination of the electric network; in addition to compensating the active power in demand peaks of maximum electrical energy. The system works as active filter throughout day, which allows that the power installed capacity by the equipment takes advantage to the maximum and not only during the period of the day in which the solar radiation is available. The main advantages that are obtained are: simple, robust implementation and high immunity to the parameters variation. In the active filter functions, the necessary reference signals to modulate the inverter, are obtained using the cancellation technique of

  9. Co-generation: Increasing energy efficiency in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Alija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main sources for power generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are domestic coals, mainly lignite and brown coals, which are relatively characterized with a high content of sulphur (3-5% and incombustibles (˜30%. From the 70’s, use of this type of fuels was not allowed in the city of Sarajevo due to very unfavorable emissions to the atmosphere, during the heating period, and since then Sarajevo has been supplied with natural gas. All the heating installations in the city were reconstructed and adapted. The district heating system Toplane Sarajevo is supplied with electrical energy from the Public electrical distribution network (Elektrodistribucija Sarajevo at low voltage (0.4 kV. The boiler-house Dobrinja III-2 (KDIII-2, from the district heating system of Sarajevo Suburb Dobrinja, which was not in use after the war 1992-1995, had a lot of advantages for the reconstruction into the co-generation plant. The Government of Canton Sarajevo financially supported this proposal. An analysis of co-generations for the district heating system and a selection of most appropriate co-generation systems were made. In the proposed conceptual design, the co-generation KDIII-2 was located in the existing boiler-house KDIII-2, connected with the heating system in Dobrinja. The operating costs of production of electricity and heat were evaluated in the study and compared with the costs of conventional energy supply to the district heating system. This analysis resulted in economic indicators, which showed that this investment was economically viable, and it also determined the payback period of the investment. In this paper results of the mentioned study and an overview of co-generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented.

  10. Decision making in cogeneration systems of electric energy: a case study in the sugar-alcohol sector from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; Tomada de decisao em sistemas de cogeracao de energia eletrica: um estudo de caso do setor sucroalcooleiro de Mato Grosso do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.P. [Agencia Estadual de Regulacao de Servicos Publicos de Mato Grosso do Sul (AGEPAN), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Ortega, J.M. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a tool to determine the influence of the regulatory aspects in the decision making related to the power surpluses production by cogeneration, from the sugar cane bagasse in the sugar and alcohol plants in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The tool was developed from the identification, within the regulatory aspects, of the determinant conditions (interest variables) applied to the modelling of the cogeneration system in a computational environment. The applied technique was the System Dynamic, implemented through the software Powersim. It were identified and understood the various causal relations of the events related to the power cogeneration and applied in the dynamic simulation of the business, and of the interactive processes that influence its viability. The obtained simulation using the tool allowed the identification, of various investment scenarios, and the main influences of the regulatory aspects in the decision making of the investor.

  11. Steam generators in cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [Abco Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper addresses the performance aspects of packaged steam generators and small to medium sized single pressure gas turbine heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) used in cogeneration plants. HRSGs in combined cycle plants are not addressed here as they usually involve multiple steam pressure operation and comparison with steam generators, which operate at single pressure, would be difficult. Also,the paper deals with simple Brayton cycles with heat recovery for cogeneration only and hence discussions on steam turbines is avoided. The paper addresses the behavior of the steam generators with respect to load with emphasis on fuel utilization, efficiency and performance. The information, it is hoped, would be of interest to plant engineers who would like to operate the steam generators at their best efficiency points.

  12. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Outline specifications of cogeneration plant; continued

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    Specifications are presented for the electrical equipment, site preparation, building construction and mechanical systems for a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota campus. This power plant will supply steam and electrical power to a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  13. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar

  14. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacobescu, Flavius [Department of Applied Thermodynamics, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania); Badescu, Viorel, E-mail: badescu@theta.termo.pub.r [Candida Oancea Institute, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2011-01-15

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. - Research Highlights: {yields}Birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating system in a medium size city. {yields}The industrialization degree is the main factor which controlled the reconfiguration of the district heating system. {yields}Each stage of the evolution of district heating system has been a technological leap. {yields}Cogeneration is a solution for district heating even in case of abrupt social changes.

  15. Gas turbine cogeneration: the use of heat pipes to recover exhaust gas energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, J. L.; Perella Balestieri, J. A.; Masanobu Tanisho, P.; Araujo Zanardi, M.; Murcia, N. [Paulista State University, Guaratingueta (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Heat pipe heat exchangers for the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbines for the simultaneous cogeneration of electricity were described. Technical and economic implications were reviewed. The overall conclusion was that cogeneration systems using heat pipe heat exchanger technology could be a useful alternative in the supply and use of energy, of particular interest for application in industrial, hospital, hotel or other large building system environment. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Grid connected integrated community energy system. Phase II: final stage 2 report. Preliminary design of cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-03-22

    The preliminary design of a dual-purpose power plant to be located on the University of Minnesota is described. This coal-fired plant will produce steam and electric power for a grid-connected Integrated Community Energy System. (LCL)

  17. Metamorphoses of cogeneration-based district heating in Romania. A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iacobescu, Flavius [Department of Applied Thermodynamics, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania); Badescu, Viorel [Candida Oancea Institute, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Spl. Independentei 313, Bucharest 060042 (Romania)

    2011-01-15

    The paper presents the birth and evolution of the cogeneration-based district heating (DH) system in a medium size city in Romania (Targoviste). The evolution of the industrialization degree was the main factor which controlled the population growth and led to a continuous reconfiguration of the DH system. The DH system assisted by cogeneration emerged as a solution in a certain phase of the demographic development of the city. The political and social changes occurring in Romania after 1990 have had important negative consequences on the DH systems in small towns. In Targoviste the DH system survived but in 2001 the solution based on cogeneration became economically inefficient, due to the low technical quality of the existing equipment and the low gas prices, to the procedure of setting the DH tariffs and the service cost at consumer's level and to some bureaucratic problems. Energy policy measures taken at national and local levels in 2003 and 2005 led to the re-establishment of the cogeneration-based district heating in 2005. However, a different technical solution has been adopted. Details about the present (2009) cogeneration-based DH system in Targoviste are presented together with several technical and economical indicators. The main conclusion is that by a proper amendment of the technical solutions, cogeneration could be a viable solution for DH even in case of abrupt social and demographic changes, such as those occurring in Romania after 1990. (author)

  18. Effect of heat storage and fuel price on energy management and economics of micro CCHP cogeneration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askari, I. Baniasad [University of Zabol, Zabol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadegh, M. Oukati [University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ameri, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, a typical combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system comprised of boiler, flat solar collectors, absorption chiller and heat storage tank was investigated. The described system was considered to supply the given electricity, cooling and heating demand of a residential building; with heating and cooling needs of 100 and 50 kW, respectively. To find the optimum hybrid configurations with high reliability, low costs, low fuel consumption and emissions, a computer program was provided by authors in FORTRAN language. Different fuel prices were considered in the present work. The results indicated that the optimal operation strategy changes with Boiler and NGG fuel prices while it also changes with increasing the number of solar collectors, heat storage capacity and consequently decreasing total annual emission.

  19. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlaugh, H. E.; Hall, E. W.; Brown, D. H.; Priestley, R. R.; Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Large savings can be made in industry by cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed-cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum-based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules for determining performance and cost in individual plants and on a national level. It was found that: (1) atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed steam turbine systems were the most attractive of the direct coal-fired systems; and (2) open-cycle gas turbines with heat recovery steam generators and combined-cycles with NO(x) emission reduction and moderately increased firing temperatures were the most attractive of the coal-derived liquid-fired systems.

  20. Utility-affiliated cogeneration developer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrar, T.A.

    1985-11-01

    The ability of the cogeneration industry to address electric power market requirements, some market observations and forecasts, and changes in the cogeneration industry are discussed. It is concluded that utility planning will increasingly need to account for the noted changing power market characteristics. Effective planning for electric utilities will require recognition of the competitive nature of the power business.

  1. Cogeneration from glass furnace waste heat recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1982-06-01

    In glass manufacturing 70% of the total energy utilized is consumed in the melting process. Three basic furnaces are in use: regenerative, recuperative, and direct fired design. The present paper focuses on secondary heat recovery from regenerative furnaces. A diagram of a typical regenerative furnace is given. Three recovery bottoming cycles were evaluated as part of a comparative systems analysis: steam Rankine Cycle (SRC), Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), and pressurized Brayton cycle. Each cycle is defined and schematicized. The net power capabilities of the three different systems are summarized. Cost comparisons and payback period comparisons are made. Organic Rankine cycle provides the best opportunity for cogeneration for all the flue gas mass flow rates considered. With high temperatures, the Brayton cycle has the shortest payback period potential, but site-specific economics need to be considered.

  2. Optimal Design of Cogeneration Systems in Industrial Plants Combined with District Heating/Cooling and Underground Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dovì

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP systems in both power stations and large plants are becoming one of the most important tools for reducing energy requirements and consequently the overall carbon footprint of fundamental industrial activities. While power stations employ topping cycles where the heat rejected from the cycle is supplied to domestic and industrial consumers, the plants that produce surplus heat can utilise bottoming cycles to generate electrical power. Traditionally the waste heat available at high temperatures was used to generate electrical power, whereas energy at lower temperatures was either released to the environment or used for commercial or domestic heating. However the introduction of new engines, such as the ones using the organic Rankine cycle, capable of employing condensing temperatures very close to the ambient temperature, has made the generation of electrical power at low temperatures also convenient. On the other hand, district heating is becoming more and more significant since it has been extended to include cooling in the warm months and underground storage of thermal energy to cope with variable demand. These developments imply that electric power generation and district heating/cooling may become alternative and not complementary solutions for waste energy of industrial plants. Therefore the overall energy management requires the introduction of an optimisation algorithm to select the best strategy. In this paper we propose an algorithm for the minimisation of a suitable cost function, for any given variable heat demand from commercial and domestic users, with respect to all independent variables, i.e., temperatures and flowrates of warm fluid streams leaving the plants and volume and nature of underground storage. The results of the preliminary process integration analysis based on pinch technology are used in this algorithm to provide bounds on the values of temperatures.

  3. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 3: Industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, W. B.; Gerlaugh, H. E.; Priestley, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Cogenerating electric power and process heat in single energy conversion systems rather than separately in utility plants and in process boilers is examined in terms of cost savings. The use of various advanced energy conversion systems are examined and compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the target energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. An attempt was made to use consistent assumptions and a consistent set of ground rules specified by NASA for determining performance and cost. Data and narrative descriptions of the industrial processes are given.

  4. Cogeneration development and market potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.; Levine, M.D.; Naeb, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Xin, D. [State Planning Commission of China, Beijing, BJ (China). Energy Research Inst.

    1996-05-01

    China`s energy production is largely dependent on coal. China currently ranks third in global CO{sub 2} emissions, and rapid economic expansion is expected to raise emission levels even further in the coming decades. Cogeneration provides a cost-effective way of both utilizing limited energy resources and minimizing the environmental impacts from use of fossil fuels. However, in the last 10 years state investments for cogeneration projects in China have dropped by a factor of 4. This has prompted this study. Along with this in-depth analysis of China`s cogeneration policies and investment allocation is the speculation that advanced US technology and capital can assist in the continued growth of the cogeneration industry. This study provides the most current information available on cogeneration development and market potential in China.

  5. Technical and economical analysis of the conversion of an emergency generator in cogeneration system: the case study of a hospital; Analise tecnica e economica da conversao de um gerador de emergencia em sistema de cogeracao: estudo de caso para um hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Cavalcanti, Mauro Jose Leite [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia; Santos, Francisco Eulalio Alves dos; Luengo, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Aplicada. Grupo de Combustiveis Alternativos

    1997-12-31

    This work presents studies concerning the conversion of an emergency generator into a cogeneration system aiming the complementary production of hot water (70 Celsius degrees) for sanitary utilization in a hospital. Also presented are technical and economical feasibility studies including the pay back time. (author) 8 refs., 3 figs.; e-mail: joseluz at feg.unesp.br; luengo at ifi.unicamp.br

  6. A New Cogeneration Residential System Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vialetto, Giulio; Rokni, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    are performed under different strategies at a resort located in a northern European climate (Denmark) to cover electricity, space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands. The results of these simulations are analyzed with thermodynamic and techno-economic benchmarks, considering different economic...

  7. Cogeneration for the Rouen hospital; La cogenerationau CHU de Rouen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolucci, P. [CHU, Hopital Charles Nicolle de Rouen, 76 (France)

    1996-07-01

    In order to decrease the annual costs of heat and electric power at the Rouen hospital (France), a cogeneration system has been studied, using gas turbines or gas engines (fuel oil is excluded for environmental reasons). Electric power needs being larger than thermal needs, gas motors were preferred. The technical specifications of the equipment are described and annual power consumptions and generations (sellback to the national grid) are evaluated. An economic analysis is presented together with the technical drawings of the system

  8. Economical analysis of combined fuel cell generators and absorption chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morsy El-Gohary

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a co-generation system based on combined heat and power for commercial units. For installation of a co-generation system, certain estimates for this site should be performed through making assessments of electrical loads, domestic water, and thermal demand. This includes domestic hot water, selection of the type of power generator, fuel cell, and the type of air conditioning system, and absorption chillers. As a matter of fact, the co-generation system has demonstrated good results for both major aspects, economic and environmental. From the environmental point of view, this can be considered as an ideal solution for problems concerned with the usage of Chlorofluoro carbons. On the other hand, from the economic point of view, the cost analysis has revealed that the proposed system saves 4% of total cost through using the co-generation system.

  9. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  10. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: leonardo.zamboni@poli.usp.br; atribess@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  11. Experimental analysis of solar thermal integrated MD system for cogeneration of drinking water and hot water for single family villa in dubai using flat plate and evacuated tube solar collectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asim, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Leung, Michael K.H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental analysis performed on solar thermal integrated membrane distillation (MD) system using flat plate and evacuated tube collectors. The system will be utilized for cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water for single family in Dubai comprising of four...... on MD setup at optimized flow rates of 6 L/min on hot side and 3 L/min on cold side for producing the desired distillate. The hot side and cold side MD temperature has been maintained between 60°C and 70°C, and 20°C and 30°C. The total annual energy demand comes out to be 8,223 kWh (6,000 k...

  12. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  13. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Redundancy for Power Generating Unit in a Cogeneration Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshid Meseret Nasir

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Redundancy system is very useful to enhance the performance and reliability of the power generation system of a cogeneration plant. However, the associated operating cost of redundancy system is very high. The common redundancies used in a cogeneration power plant are public utility and generator set. In order to select the best redundancy options which incurs minimum operating cost, it is required to evaluate the cost of different redundancy options. In this paper, net present value model (NPV is developed to evaluate the cost of redundancy considering availability and reliability of the cogeneration system. Two steps applied to evaluate the redundancy cost of the cogeneration system. The first step is predicting the number of failures and downtime hours using availability and reliability analysis because redundancy is frequently used when the system failed. The second step is evaluating the cost of redundancy using NPV model. The results indicate that the use of public utility as redundancy option is costly compared to generator set option for long period of time. The major operation cost of public utility is contributed by the maximum demand charge cost which is about 57.9% of the total cost of redundancy. The study will be useful as a guide for the cogeneration operation to evaluate and select the redundancy option.

  15. Nuclear cogeneration based on HTR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Heek, A.I.; Haverkate, B.R.W. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-09-01

    Since 1993, activities on the development of high temperature reactors (HTR) are being undertaken in The Netherlands. After a general investigation of the available reactor concepts, and a familiarisation period to gain expertise on the different calculational methods for simulation of this reactor type, five partner companies and institutions focused their efforts on a small heat and power cogeneration system with an HTR as heat source, INCOGEN. At the same time, work on a number of selected HTR topics like waste management and vessel stress assessment has continued. Besides this, we participate in three IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programs. EW and JRC Petten participate in a Concerted Action on HTR technology, supported by the European Union. Finally, two bilateral co-operative activities with Germany and South-Africa complete the list. Based on an estimated market demand a 40 MWth basis configuration for the INCOGEN heat and power cogeneration plant was identified. Of this plant concept many aspects have been researched. Calculational analyses of the pebble fuel and reactor behaviour during normal operation and accident scenarios have been made. Plant lay-out has been worked out in more detail. The energy conversion system with helium turbine has been designed and simulated to assess its thermodynamic performance. Auxiliary systems and inspection and maintenance aspects are studied. Licensing has received a lot of attention: national and foreign licensing experience has been analysed and a listing of IAEA rules to be amended has been produced. Possible markets for the INCOGEN installation are identified and analysed. The economic assessment concluded that energy prices of this basis configuration of INCOGEN would be too high for The Netherlands on this moment, but this may turn out differently for other, more remote parts of the world. The study has been concluded with a number of recommendations for future efforts. Future plans include continuation of the

  16. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  17. Analysis on the electrothermal performance of a energy generation system using fuel cells; Analise acerca do desempenho eletrotermico de um sistema de geracao de energia com celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, J.G. de M.; Serra, E.T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Codeceira Neto, A. [Companhia Hidro Eletrica de Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work performs a study centered on the analysis of the electrothermal performance of a power generation system with proton exchange polymer membrane fuel cells, and presents considerations related to the optimization of the power generation and the operational performance of the cogeneration system considering the 5 kW nominal electric power of the Fuel Cells Laboratory of CEPEL - ELETROBRAS. The obtained results indicates that the energy generation system base on the fuel cells presents optimum operation temperatures of 40 grade Celsius.

  18. Survey on construction of the database for new energy technology development. Cogeneration; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    As a part of the activity promoting use of new energy, the data related to cogeneration were systematically compiled. For new energy technology, such various policies for introducing new energy are in promotion with a progress of technological development as preparation of subsidy systems, field test business, and support advisory business for introducing new energy. For further effective promotion, integral systematic compilation of various data, and arrangement as basic data are necessary. Such latest announced data in a cogeneration field were collected and compiled as outline of new energy systems, concrete applications, subsidy systems, and approaches to new energy of various countries. Main data items are as follows: trend of cogeneration, outline of system, domestic and foreign concrete applications, prediction data on the use of new energy, overview of domestic and foreign policies for cogeneration, basic terminology, and tables of main related enterprises and organizations. This database is useful for the present activities promoting use of new energy, and preparation of the future vision. 29 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Rational use of energy and cogeneration in Argentina; Uso racional de la energia y la cogeneracion en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M.I. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (GECCU/UNLP), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Sistemas de Generacion de Energia, Cogeneracion, Ciclos Combinados, Uso Racional de la Energia], E-mail: misosa@ing.unlp.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the energy situation in Argentina and indicates possibilities for the implementation of cogeneration projects in the industrial sector, which would include energy generated by a centralized system, without additional consumption of primary resources. We discuss the physical potential of cogeneration and regulatory barriers that do not assist in its implementation. Mentioned government measures on rational and efficient use of energy.

  20. Cogeneration through small and medium sized gas turbines in Italy: Marketing survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, A.; Schieppati, P.

    1992-12-01

    In Italy, the use of cogeneration systems by private industrial concerns has greatly increased in the early 90's. The successful technological development of highly efficient low and medium sized gas turbines and the successful application of cogenerated power to a number of industrial processes, favourable legislation and financial incentives on the part of the Italian Government, especially interested in promoting energy conservation and the use of natural gas as an alternative to petroleum, as well as, fast payback periods for such investments are amongst the major regions for the growing demand for this type of power system alternative in Italy.

  1. Ecological and economic considerations combined. Economically feasible: Cogeneration system and wood heating project of KWA GmbH; Oekologie und Oekonomie unter einen Hut gebracht. Wirtschaftlich sinnvoll: BHKW- und Holzheizprojekt der KWA GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-06-01

    Kraftwaermeanlagen GmbH (KWA) at Bietigheim-Bissingen is a company that shows how ecological power systems can be operated with profit. At Sandhausen near Heidelberg, a KWA cogeneration system provides heat to a communal school center and a housing project and, simultaneously, electricity to several communal institutions. Two further examples of Leutkirch in southern Bavaria and Ostfildern near Stuttgart show that heat from wood chips may be cheaper than heat from gas or heating oil. The wood is obtained from landscaping measures. It is shown that wood heating projects ensure economical heat supply and efficient air pollution abatement on the basis of waste materials. [German] Die Umwelt freut's und hoehere Kosten entstehen nicht: Die Kraftwaermeanlagen GmbH (KWA) aus Bietigheim-Bissingen zeigt, wie trotz niedriger Strompreise oekologisch arbeitende Energieanlagen Gewinn bringend betrieben werden koennen. So beliefert das Unternehmen in Sandhausen bei Heidelberg aus einem BHKW ein kommunales Schulzentrum und ein nahe gelegenes Neubaugebiet mit Waerme und verschiedene kommunale Einrichtungen mit Strom. Zwei weitere Beispiele aus Leutkirch im Allgaeu und Ostfildern bei Stuttgart zeigen, dass Waerme aus Holzhackschnitzeln oft schon guenstiger bereitgestellt werden kann als Waerme aus Gas oder Heizoel. Hierbei kommt Holz aus Landschaftspflegemassnahmen zum Einsatz. Es wird belegt, dass Holzheizprojekte eine oekonomische Waermeversorgung, effizienten Klimaschutz und sinnvolle Reststoffverwertung optimal kombinieren koennen. (orig.)

  2. Developer's perspective: financing cogeneration projects at public facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banhazl, G.

    1986-03-01

    Cogeneration projects for state, federal and local municipal facilities have tremendous potential, particularly on the smaller capacity end of the spectrum. Packaged cogeneration modules, which offer uniformity of design, pretesting prior to delivery and relatively uncomplicated installation should dominate the market. These units can be outfitted with an absorption cycle chiller to provide summer air conditioning. Through proper sizing, selection of compatible components and integration with existing building systems, initial costs should be reasonable. Legislative removal of barriers to multiyear contracts and acceptance of other than low bids will increase private sector funding to these projects. 5 tables.

  3. Limoges, cogeneration in center town: a logical approach; Limoges, une cogeneration en centre ville: la logique d`une demarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trouville, B. [Services Technique Ville de l`Imoges, 87 (France)

    1996-07-01

    A large building project is developed in the center part of the Limoges city, using cogeneration for heat production through a district heating system and for power production as a primary resource, the national grid (EDF) being used as a safety resource. Savings in equipment costs and energy costs are evaluated. The power production level has been reduced in the project in order to reach the power and thermal needs of the area. The project is largely self-financed by the city community

  4. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

    2009-06-30

    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall

  5. Modern fluidized bed combustion in Ostrava-Karvina cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazac, V. [Energoprojekt Praha, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Novacek, A. [Moravskoslezske teplamy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Volny, J. [Templamy Karvina (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The contemporary situation of our environment claims the sensitive approach to solving effective conversion of energy. Limited supplies of noble fuels and their prices evoke the need to use new combustion technologies of accessible fuels in given region without negative ecological influences. Energoproject participates in the preparation of the two projects in Ostrava-Karvin{acute a} black coal field in Czech Republic. The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined of electricity and heat. If this physical principle is supported by a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) one obtains a high electricity/heat ratio integrated steam-gas cycle on the basis of solid fuel. Cogeneration plant Toebovice is the dominant source (600 MW{sub th}) of Ostrava district heating system (1100 MW{sub th}). The high utilization of the installed output and utilization of the clean, compact and efficient of the PFBC technology is the principal but not the single reason for the selection of the Toebovice power plant as the first cogeneration plant for installation of the PFBC in Czech Republic. The boiler will burn black coal from the neighboring coal basin.

  6. Cogeneration plants using thermal fluid generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellucci, R.

    1987-10-01

    When the following conditions coexist in an industrial plant - there is a contemporary need for electric power and steam at low pressure, 3-7 atm (for technological purposes or for heating); heat is rather constant; operation is continuous - it is worthwhile to consider the construction of a plant for the combined production of electric power and heat. The construction of such a plant allows an important recovery in operating costs, and, moreover, it falls within the category of initiatives rewarded by Law No. 308, (29/5/82) - Risparmio Energetico. Under Article 10 of this Law, which is refunded every year, incentives are provided, through capital grants of up to 30% of total cost, to those companies who build cogeneration plants. Cogeneration plants, unlike plants producing separately electric power or heat, save valuable fossil fuels.

  7. Efficient Use of Cogeneration and Fuel Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy of the European Community is implemented by setting various goals in directives and developing support mechanisms to achieve them. However, very often these policies and legislation come into contradiction with each other, for example Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency, repealing Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand.

  8. Cogeneration in breweries analysis and simulation of systems for simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration using natural gas; Sistemas de refrigeracao a partir da cogeracao: analise e simulacao de propostas para o caso de cervejarias utilizando gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, Antonio Garrido

    1998-07-01

    The present work analyses some proposals of cogeneration systems for the simultaneous generation of power, heat and refrigeration in a brewery. The requirements of steam, refrigeration and electricity, as well as the production of beer in a plant of the Antarctica Company, located in Jaguariuna - SP were collected monthly for the year of 1997. Three conceptions of systems using two gas turbines with heat recovery steam generator were then proposed to meet the surveyed demand. The proposals differ in the refrigeration system: the first one uses a traditional ammonia compression system while the second uses an ammonia absorption system, the third proposal is a combination of the compression and absorption systems. These proposals are compared to the present configuration which purchases electricity from the Public Utility for power and refrigeration (using an ammonia compression)system, and fuel oil to generate steam for process heat. The technical, economical and environmental feasibility of the proposals, as well as of the present configuration are discussed on the basis of mass balances, energy balances (first law of Thermodynamics), exergy fluxes (second law analysis), operational and capital cost, based on simulation of the performance of each configuration proposed to meet the monthly electricity, steam and refrigeration requirements for the referred plant. The turbines were chosen so as to meet the peek energy demand of the plant and two cases were simulated for each proposal: turbine operational meets only the demand of the plant and turbine operates at full load, selling electricity for the Public utility. Results obtained show that the current operational costs are higher than any of the proposals presented. The high capital costs of the proposals, though,make them less interesting financially. The simulation of the case of excess electricity to the Public Utility is very attractive, considering the cost of natural gas 3,38 U$/M btu and the fare of 40 U

  9. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 6: Computer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential technical capabilities of energy conversion systems in the 1985 - 2000 time period were defined with emphasis on systems using coal, coal-derived fuels or alternate fuels. Industrial process data developed for the large energy consuming industries serve as a framework for the cogeneration applications. Ground rules for the study were established and other necessary equipment (balance-of-plant) was defined. This combination of technical information, energy conversion system data ground rules, industrial process information and balance-of-plant characteristics was analyzed to evaluate energy consumption, capital and operating costs and emissions. Data in the form of computer printouts developed for 3000 energy conversion system-industrial process combinations are presented.

  10. Data book on new energy technology development in FY 1997. Cogeneration; Shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa. Cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Various policies are being implemented in the field of new energy technology in line with progress in technological development. Examples are about assistance mechanism, field test projects and advisory projects to support the introduction of new energy technology. In order to promote the introduction of new energy efficiently, it is necessary to compile the various information regarding new energy in a comprehensive and systematic way, and formulate a basic data set. Among various new energy technologies, cogeneration is discussed in this report. The latest published data on the respective technologies are compiled particularly regarding their overall systems, examples of introduction, assistance mechanisms and state of implementation in foreign countries. Items included in this report are the trend of cogeneration, outline of system, state of introduction, forecast of introduction, overview of policies, basic terms, and related organizations. 9 figs.

  11. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  12. Technical feasibility and economics of retrofitting an existing nuclear power plant to cogeneration for hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, J.O.; Bauman, H.F.; Jones, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the hypothetical conversion of the Prairie Island Nuclear Plant of the Northern States Power Company to cogeneration operation to supply a future hot water district heating system load in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St. Paul. The conceptual design of the nuclear turbine retrofitted for cogeneration and of a hot water transmission system has been performed, and the capital investment and annual owning and operating costs have been estimated for thermal energy capacities of 600 and 1200 MW(t). Unit costs of thermal energy (in mid-1982 dollars/million Btu) have been estimated for cogenerated hot water at the plant gate and also for the most economic transmission system from Prairie Island to the Twin Cities. The economic results from the analysis of the Prairie Island plant and transmission route have been generalized for other transmission distances in other locations.

  13. Multi-criteria optimization of a district cogeneration plant integrating a solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine combined cycle, heat pumps and chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burer, M.; Favrat, D. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland). Institute of Energy Science; Tanaka, K. [UMIST, Tyndall Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Yamada, K. [Shinshu University, Nagano (Japan). Department of Fine Materials Engineering

    2003-05-01

    A simultaneous optimization of the design and operation of a district heating, cooling and power generation plant supplying a small stock of residential buildings has been undertaken with regards to cost and CO{sub 2} emissions. The simulation of the plant considers a superstructure including a solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine combined cycle, a compression heat pump, a compression chiller and/or an absorption chiller and an additional gas boiler. The Pareto-frontier obtained as the global solution of the optimization problem delivers the minimal CO{sub 2} emission rates, achievable with the technology considered for a given accepted investment, or respectively the minimal cost associated with a given emission abatement commitment. (author)

  14. Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market. Partial project: BoFiT, an integrated decision support system for retaining the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology. Final report; Risiken und Chancen des liberalisierten Strommarktes. Teilprojekt: Integrierte Entscheidungsunterstuetzung durch BoFiT zur Erhaltung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, G.; Scheidt, M.

    2002-06-04

    The energy management system called BoFiT and specific new applications are explained which have been developed as one project task of the coordinated research project sponsored by the German ministry of economics,(BMWi), entitled ''Risks and opportunities of the liberalized electricity market''. The major objective of the project is: Finding efficient strategies to ensure the competitiveness of the cogeneration technology in the deregulated power and gas markets, in particular for the purpose of enhancing the penetration of the ecologically beneficial, cogenerated district heating supply in those markets. The focus of this report is on a specific application of the integrated BoFiT decision support system, for which the ''model for microsimulation of spot transactions at the Power Exchange based on a multi-agent system'' has been developed and is explained in great detail. (orig./CB) [German] Mit dem Energiemanagementsystem BoFiT soll den Unternehmen eine effektive und operativ nutzbare Entscheidungsunterstuetzung angeboten werden. Wesentliche Ziele des Verbundprojektes des BMWi sind: Unterstuetzung der KWK und speziell der darauf basierenden oekologisch sinnvollen Fernwaermeversorgung durch Anpassung von Arbeitsablaeufen und Werkzeugen zur Findung betriebswirtschaftlich optimaler Einsatz- und Betriebsstrategien; Kostenoptimierung der Kraftwerke, Vertraege und Stromhandelsaktivitaeten unter den Randbedingungen der deregulierten Strom- und Gasmaerkte. Als Beispiel einer solchen integrierten Entscheidungsunterstuetzung wird das ''Modell zur Mikrosimulation des Spothandels von Strom auf der Basis eines Multi-Agenten-Systems'' ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig./CB)

  15. A simulation model for Carson Ice Co-Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N.K.W.; Elmasri, M. [Thermoflow, Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Brownell, G. [SMUD, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes a software system to simulate the performance of the Carson Ice Co-gen Facility operated by the Carson Energy Group. This 100 MW plant consists of a cogeneration combined cycle and a simple cycle unit powered by LM6000 gas turbine generators. Features of the system include inlet heating/absorption chilling for the gas turbines, supplementary firing capability, and a broad range of steam turbine extractions and admissions. The software enables the operator to model complex operating scenarios. It predicts technical and economic performance under a wide range of conditions, taking into account various equipment constraints and operation preferences. For any set of user-specified operating inputs, the corresponding heat and mass balance diagrams as well as economic figures may be viewed virtually instantaneously. Interactive plots of plant heat rate, incremental heat rate, operating income, and other parameters reveal issues and trade-offs involved in performance and economic optimization.

  16. The forest biomass cogeneration establishment at Quebec; L'implantation de la cogeneration a la biomasse forestiere au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonneau, R.; Tremblay, J.M. [Ministere des Ressources Naturelles du Quebec, Dir. du Developpement Electrique (Canada)

    2002-11-01

    In spite of the hydroelectric power establishment strength, the cogeneration using the forest biomass, profited by the energetic market opportunities to install durably. This paper takes stock on this cogeneration implantation at Quebec, the energetic context, the advantages and the forecast. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear cogeneration based on HTR technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W.; Van Heek, A.I.; Jehee, J.N.T

    1998-03-01

    The Dutch market for combined generation of heat and power identifies a unit size of 40 MW thermal for the conceptual design of an Inherently safe Nuclear COGENeration plant (INCOGEN). Technical, economical and licensing issues have been investigated of the INCOGEN design which comprises pebble fuel cooled by helium, and directly coupled with a helium compressor and turbine. Thermohydraulic and reactor physics analyses show favourable control characteristics during normal operation and a benign response to loss of helium coolant and loss of flow conditions. Throughout the response on these highly infrequent conditions, ample margin exists between the highest fuel temperatures and the temperature above which fuel degradation will occur. 7 refs.

  18. Comparative analysis of cogeneration power plants optimization based on stochastic method using superstructure and process simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leonardo Rodrigues de [Instituto Federal do Espirito Santo, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: leoaraujo@ifes.edu.br; Donatelli, Joao Luiz Marcon [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: joaoluiz@npd.ufes.br; Silva, Edmar Alino da Cruz [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Azevedo, Joao Luiz F. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (CTA/IAE/ALA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Thermal systems are essential in facilities such as thermoelectric plants, cogeneration plants, refrigeration systems and air conditioning, among others, in which much of the energy consumed by humanity is processed. In a world with finite natural sources of fuels and growing energy demand, issues related with thermal system design, such as cost estimative, design complexity, environmental protection and optimization are becoming increasingly important. Therefore the need to understand the mechanisms that degrade energy, improve energy sources use, reduce environmental impacts and also reduce project, operation and maintenance costs. In recent years, a consistent development of procedures and techniques for computational design of thermal systems has occurred. In this context, the fundamental objective of this study is a performance comparative analysis of structural and parametric optimization of a cogeneration system using stochastic methods: genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. This research work uses a superstructure, modelled in a process simulator, IPSEpro of SimTech, in which the appropriate design case studied options are included. Accordingly, the cogeneration system optimal configuration is determined as a consequence of the optimization process, restricted within the configuration options included in the superstructure. The optimization routines are written in MsExcel Visual Basic, in order to work perfectly coupled to the simulator process. At the end of the optimization process, the system optimal configuration, given the characteristics of each specific problem, should be defined. (author)

  19. Steam microturbines in distributed cogeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the most recent trends and concepts in power engineering, especially with regard to prosumer and civic energy generation. In so doing, it draws widely on his experience gained during the development of steam microturbines for use in small combined heat and power stations based on the organic Rankine cycle (CHP-ORC). Major issues concerning the dynamic properties of mechanical systems, in particular rotating systems, are discussed, and the results obtained when using unconventional bearing systems, presented. Modeling and analysis of radial-flow and axial-flow microturbines a

  20. Evaluation of a Cogeneration Plant with Integrated Fuel Factory; Integrerad braenslefabrik med kraftvaermeanlaeggning - en utvaerdering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atterhem, Lars

    2002-12-01

    A feasibility study was carried out in 1993 by Skellefteaa Kraft AB, to analyse the technical and economical possibilities to build a new baseload district heating production plant. The conclusion from the study was that, as a first step, a new cogeneration plant, based on a circulating fluidised bed boiler, should be built. The commissioning of the cogeneration plant took place in autumn 1996. The plant was prepared for a future integration with a biofuel drying process for pellets production. During spring 1996 an investment decision was taken and the fuel factory was erected in may 1997. Vaermeforsk Service AB has financed this research project and the Swedish state energy program (Fabel) has contributed with 33,7 Million SEK to the financing of the recovery electric power generation part of the fuel factory. The aim with this research project has been to evaluate and compare the integrated cogeneration plant fuel factory concept with a conventional co-generation plant, specially when it comes to increased power generation. The fuel factory comprises of fuel feeding system, fuel dryer, steam converter from fuel moisture to low pressure process steam, low pressure condensing turbine, cooling water system, fuel pellets production and storage with ship loading plant in the harbour of Skellefteaa. The steam to the fuel factory is extracted from the cogeneration turbine at a pressure level between 12-26 bar and the extraction flow has then already generated power in the cogeneration turbine. Power is also generated in the low pressure condensing turbine of the fuel factory. The low pressure steam is generated with fuel moisture in the steam converter. During the first years of operation there has been both conventional commissioning problems but also technical problems related to the new process concept. The last are for example corrosion and erosion problems, fouling problems of heat exchangers, capacity and leakage problems. The performance goals of the fuel

  1. Opportunities of integrating desalination to cogeneration for Brazilian conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Balestieri, J.A.P.; Zanardi, M.A. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: mfeduardo@uol.com.br; perrella@feg.unesp.br; mznardi@feg.unesp.br

    2006-06-15

    One of the major problems in this century refers to the availability of potable water, necessary to the survival of populations. The world population is continually increasing and natural resources are proportionally decreasing, and the development of potable water production techniques demands intensive efforts. Electric power requirement is also necessary to the development of nations. Desalination processes are widely used in countries with low offer of potable water. Technologies nowadays in use are multi-stage-flash distillation (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) process. In MSF and MED processes, the main technique is distillation. Reverse osmosis technique relies on the osmotic principle, in which a solvent passes through a membrane. Since the middle of 1950, these desalting techniques are widely used mainly in the Middle East countries, where water shortage is almost absolute. Although uncommonly conceived, discussing the implementation of desalination processes in association to cogeneration systems in Brazil is a necessary task for the long-term planning. In this way, this paper proposes to review the successful experiences presented in the literature as a way of establishing how electric power and fresh water production can be produced from seawater desalting processes in an optimized way. Another objective pursued in this paper is stimulating more attention to this matter, that deserves discussing the skill staff formation and the know-how of such technologies in the strategic planning to the water resource management, specially because these investments require a considerable time for human resources development and the knowledge of the most adequate technology to be implemented for the integration of desalting and cogeneration units. (author)

  2. High-efficiency Gas Cogeneration – an Assessment of the Support Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sołtysik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of a single European energy market implies the need to harmonise national laws and the directions of the sector’s growth to EU determinants. One of these elements was the introduction of a system to support the development of high-efficiency cogeneration, including gas cogeneration. Several years of the mechanisms’ performance allows for analysis of the advisability and correctness of the support model format, and assessment of its impact on the sub-sector’s development and the cost of its operation. Against the background of the support system introduction origins, the paper presents results of volumetric and price analyses, trends, and assessment of the balance of property rights and of the mechanism’s effectiveness.

  3. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  4. System analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration from biomass cogeneration plants (Bio-CHP-CCS). Technology, economic efficiency, sustainability; Systemanalyse der CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung aus Biomasse-Heizkraftwerken (Bio-KWK-CCS). Technik, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Nachhaltigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Claus

    2014-10-15

    In the present work a system analysis is carried out to determine the extent to which a combination of the three areas of energetic biomass use, combined heat and power (CHP) and CO{sub 2} sequestration (CCS - Carbon Capture and Storage) is fundamentally possible and meaningful. The term ''CO{sub 2} sequestration'' refers to the process chain from CO{sub 2} capture, CO{sub 2} transport and CO{sub 2} storage. While the use of biomass in combined heat and power plants is a common practice, CO{sub 2} sequestration (based on fossil fuels) is at the research and development stage. A combination of CCS with biomass has so far been little studied, a combination with combined heat and power plants has not been investigated at all. The two technologies for the energetic use of biomass and cogeneration represent fixed variables in the energy system of the future in the planning of the German federal government. According to the lead scenario of the Federal Ministry of the Environment, electricity generation from biomass is to be almost doubled from 2008 to 2020. At the same time, the heat generated in cogeneration is to be trebled [cf. Nitsch and Wenzel, 2009, p. 10]. At the same time, the CCS technology is to be used in half of all German coal-fired power plants until 2030 [cf. Krassuki et al., 2009, p. 17]. The combination of biomass and CCS also represents an option which is conceivable for the German federal policy [cf. Bundestag, 2008b, p. 4]. In addition, the CCS technology will provide very good export opportunities for the German economy in the future [cf. Federal Government, 2010, p. 20]. The combination of biomass combined heat and power plants with CCS offers the interesting opportunity to actively remove CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere as a future climate protection instrument by means of CO{sub 2} neutrality. Therefore, in the energy concept of the German federal government called for a storage project for industrial or biogenic CO{sub 2

  5. Evaluation. The actions of european towns on the utilization of new little cogeneration technologies. Contract n. 99.07.071; Etat de l'Art. Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration. Contrat n. 99.07.071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-04-01

    After many experiences in the large cogeneration domain, some european municipalities, especially in Germany, develop now little cogeneration projects. This study aims to examine in a first part the policies and experiences of the municipalities and of the energy municipal companies in term of appropriate technology and in a second part the integration of these installations in the existing systems. The study brings also information on the technical aspects and the organization, in particular the difficulties and the results. (A.L.B.)

  6. Planning for a Low Carbon Future? Comparing Heat Pumps and Cogeneration as the Energy System Options for a New Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Heinonen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare, from an urban planning perspective, the choice between combined heat and power (CHP and a ground-source heat pump (HP as the energy systems of a new residential area in the light of the uncertainty related to the assessments. There has been a strong push globally for CHP due to its climate mitigation potential compared to separate production, and consequently it is often prioritized in planning without questioning. However, the uncertainties in assessing the emissions from CHP and alternative options in a certain planning situation make it very difficult to give robust decision guidelines. In addition, even the order of magnitude of the climate impact of a certain plan is actually difficult to assess robustly. With a case study of the new residential development of Härmälänranta in Tampere, Finland, we show how strongly the uncertainties related to (1 utilizing average or marginal electricity as the reference; (2 assigning emissions intensities for the production; and (3 allocating the emissions from CHP to heat and electricity affect the results and lead to varying decision guidelines. We also depict how a rather rarely utilized method in assigning the emissions from CHP is the most robust for planning support.

  7. Brampton paperboard mill turns to cogeneration as a solution to its power supply problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensink, M.

    1997-11-01

    A small cogeneration system installed at Sonoco Limited`s 100 per cent recycled paperboard mill in Brantford, Ontario was described. The system generates electricity as well as useful process heat used in the mill. It generates 3.9 MW of electricity and it was provided as a turnkey design-build project. The heart of the new cogeneration system is a standard U.S.Turbine Model 4000 electric generating system, rated at 3944 kWe at ISO conditions. It employs an Allison 501-KB5S natural gas-fired combustion turbine. Steam is generated by an ABCO Industries` waste heat recovery boiler and it is used primarily for the paper machine, as well as for office heating. Maximum steam generation is 55,000 lbs/hour when turbine exhaust is supplemented with 32 million BTU/hour of natural gas. Feedwater to the boiler is preheated by a boiler exhaust gas economizer. Cycle efficiency is as high as 86 per cent. The plant was installed in 1993 in about 10 months. The prime economic advantage of the plant has been energy savings which amount to more than a million dollars a year and the avoidance of some 20 power outages per year that plagued the plant prior to the installation of the cogeneration facility. Besides being flexible and cost-efficient, the plant is also safe to operate and environmentally sound.

  8. Microfluidic fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bernard; Kjeang, Erik

    2011-06-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a microfabricated device that produces electrical power through electrochemical reactions involving a fuel and an oxidant. Microfluidic fuel cell systems exploit co-laminar flow on the microscale to separate the fuel and oxidant species, in contrast to conventional fuel cells employing an ion exchange membrane for this function. Since 2002 when the first microfluidic fuel cell was invented, many different fuels, oxidants, and architectures have been investigated conceptually and experimentally. In this mini-review article, recent advancements in the field of microfluidic fuel cell systems are documented, with particular emphasis on design, operation, and performance. The present microfluidic fuel cell systems are categorized by the fluidic phases of the fuel and oxidant streams, featuring gaseous/gaseous, liquid/gaseous, and liquid/liquid systems. The typical cell configurations and recent contributions in each category are analyzed. Key research challenges and opportunities are highlighted and recommendations for further work are provided.

  9. Cogeneration projects in PEMEX refining; Proyectos de cogeneracion en PEMEX Refinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerra O' Leary, Jose [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    Mexican Petroleum proposes the electric power cogeneration, the energy consumption and rationalization as well as the operative performance improvement. This is the reason Pemex refining considers the cogeneration projects development possibility related with the Refining National System to supply the six refineries with steam and electric power. And also the energy auto-supply to other Pemex refining, using the liquid and solid residuals as fuels for petroleum refining. [Spanish] Petroleos Mexicanos propone la Cogeneracion de energia electrica, el aprovechamiento y la racionalizacion del consumo de energia, asi como el mejoramiento del desempeno operativo, por lo cual Pemex Refinacion plantea la posibilidad del desarrollo de proyectos de Cogeneracion asociados a las refinerias del Sistema Nacional de Refinacion, para abastecer de vapor y energia electrica a cada una de las seis refinerias, asi como el autoabastecimiento de energia a otras instalaciones de Pemex Refinacion, utilizando como combustibles los residuales liquidos y solidos de la refinacion del petroleo.

  10. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  11. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  12. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  13. Implementing a cogeneration project - a developer's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casten, T.R.

    1985-09-01

    This article draws lessons from the author's experience that applies to all cogeneration development. Cogeneration is complex and multi-faceted. A cogeneration developer lives or dies on his ability to somehow blend all of the diverse elements together in a manner that satisfies legal requirements, selects workable technology, picks competent designers and installers, and develops workable contracts with numerous parties. One can liken a cogeneration project to a Rubik's cube in which each general area of knowledge represents one face of the cube, and each face consists of many smaller sub-faces. The main faces include (1) technology choice, (2) contracts, (3) environmental impact, (4) tax law, (5) regulatory law, (6) project management, (7) finance, (8) utility economics and the all important (9) other.

  14. Residential Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Scandinavian Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost. This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system and heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered. Simulations of the system...

  15. Evaluation of the national cogeneration potential as an option for the expansion of the national electric system; Evaluacion del potencial nacional de cogeneracion como opcion en la expansion del sistema electrico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieva Gomez, Rolando; Hernandez Galicia, Julio Alberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Portes Mascorro, Enrique; Alvarez Chavez, Jose Maria [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) carried out a study to determine the amount of electric energy available by cogeneration in the industrial sector of our country. This study is based in a survey among the enterprises with the largest fuel consumption belonging to the industrial and commercial sectors and to the petrochemical branch of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The results of the study are presented, which show the location of the cogeneration potential by the following estimates: a) The scenario under a potential of 5770 MW to generate annually 4.55 x 107 MWh of electric energy. b) The scenario with a potential of 10819 MW to generate annually 9.47 x 107 Mwh of electric energy [Espanol] La Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) llevo acabo un estudio para determinar la cantidad de energia electrica disponible por cogeneracion en el sector industrial de nuestro pais. El estudio se fundamenta en una encuesta entre las empresas con mayor consumo de combustibles pertenecientes a los sectores industrial y comercial y al ramo petroquimico de Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). Se presentan los resultados del estudio, el cual muestra la ubicacion del potencial de cogeneracion por los siguientes estimados: a) El escenario bajo con un potencial de 5770 MW para producir anualmente 4.55 x 107 Mwh de energia electrica. b) El escenario alto con un potencial de 10819 MW para producir anualmente 9.47 x 107 MWh de energia electrica

  16. High temperature reactors for cogeneration applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, Karl [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; Allelein, Hans-Josef [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). IEK-6; RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Reaktorsicherheit und -technik (LRST)

    2016-05-15

    There is a large potential for nuclear energy also in the non-electric heat market. Many industrial sectors have a high demand for process heat and steam at various levels of temperature and pressure to be provided for desalination of seawater, district heating, or chemical processes. The future generation of nuclear plants will be capable to enter the wide field of cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), to reduce waste heat and to increase efficiency. This requires an adjustment to multiple needs of the customers in terms of size and application. All Generation-IV concepts proposed are designed for coolant outlet temperatures above 500 C, which allow applications in the low and medium temperature range. A VHTR would even be able to cover the whole temperature range up to approx. 1 000 C.

  17. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  18. The Use of Spark Ignition Engine in Domestic Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiza Memet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration plants are strongly sustained by EU energy policies, one of the best beneficiary of this technology being residential buildings. This paper focus on spark ignition engine as a cogeneration application in order to supply energy for domestic consumers. Are considered two aspects of this solution: the energetic aspect and the environmental one. The energetic aspect deals with the energetic ratios, while the environmental aspect refers to the nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions.

  19. Cogeneration – development and prospect in Polish energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuszewska Dominika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next 10-15 years are crucial for condition of Polish energy sector in light of challenges arising mainly from increasing demand for electric energy, need of reducing greenhouse gases emissions and shutdowns of old units. In this situation cogeneration can be one of the most rational way to meet those circumstances. This paper analyzes present development of cogeneration in Poland and its prospect for future.

  20. Improving sustainability of bio-cogeneration in horticulture; Verbetering duurzaamheid (bio)WKK in de glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolwijk, E.; Peeters, S.; Schlatmann, S. [Energy Matters, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generating gas engines have become an inseparable part of greenhouses. An overview is given of the technical developments in CHP that could result in cost effectiveness, clean and sustainable operation of the CHP installation. This can be achieved by improving existing or new cogeneration systems: e.g. increasing the electrical or thermal efficiency and reduce emissions. Also attention is paid to alternatives for the gas engine: gas turbine and fuel cell. Finally, the options and state of affairs concerning biofuels, related techniques and potential use of 'green' CO2 were investigated [Dutch] WKK op basis van gasmotoren is de laatste 10 jaar uitgegroeid tot een onlosmakelijk operationeel onderdeel van de hedendaagse glastuinbouw. Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de technische ontwikkelingen rond WKK die er toe kunnen leiden dat WKK kosteneffectiever/rendabeler, schoner en duurzamer bedreven kan worden. Dit kan onder andere door verbeteringen van de bestaande of nog te plaatsen WKK's: verhogen van het elektrisch of thermisch rendement en verlagen van de emissies. Ook is gekeken naar de mogelijke alternatieven voor de gasmotor: gasturbine en brandstofcel. Tevens wordt ingegaan op de mogelijkheden en stand zaken rond biobrandstoffen, de daarbij behorende technieken en mogelijke toepassing van 'groene' CO2.

  1. Installation of a small central thermoelectric using biomass and cogeneration with absorption refrigeration system: alternative for small rural isolated communities; Instalacao de uma pequena central termeletrica a biomassa e cogeracao com sistema de refrigeracao por absorcao: alternativa para pequenas comunidades agricolas isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukowski Junior, Joel Carlos; Marcon, Rogerio Olavo; Reys, Marcos Alves dos [Centro Universitario Luterano de Palmas (CEULP), TO (Brazil); Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of electrical energy in several localities of Brazil results in a slow perspective of in terms of economic growth and scientific and technological development. In order to minimize these problems it is proposed the use of co-generation systems with small thermoelectric plants burning rice rusk (an abundant biomass in certain regions of Brazil, as for example the Tocantins State) as a heat source and to utilize the discharged steam from the turbine to generate cold through an absorption refrigeration system. The work intends to show a possible solution to the problems originated from the absence of electric power in small and isolated rural villages, also problems of processing storage of agricultural residues and to generate cold for several applications. (author)

  2. Acidogenic fermentation of food waste for volatile fatty acid production with co-generation of biohydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shikha; Sarkar, Omprakash; Swamy, Y V; Mohan, S Venkata

    2015-04-01

    Fermentation experiments were designed to elucidate the functional role of the redox microenvironment on volatile fatty acid (VFA, short chain carboxylic acid) production and co-generation of biohydrogen (H2). Higher VFA productivity was observed at pH 10 operation (6.3g/l) followed by pH 9, pH 6, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8 and pH 11 (3.5 g/l). High degree of acidification, good system buffering capacity along with co-generation of higher H2 production from food waste was also noticed at alkaline condition. Experiments illustrated the role of initial pH on carboxylic acids synthesis. Alkaline redox conditions assist solubilization of carbohydrates, protein and fats and also suppress the growth of methanogens. Among the carboxylic acids, acetate fraction was higher at alkaline condition than corresponding neutral or acidic operations. Integrated process of VFA production from waste with co-generation of H2 can be considered as a green and sustainable platform for value-addition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative Household Systems Based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for a Northern European climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Vialetto, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Energy saving is an open point in most European countries where energy policies are oriented to reduce the use of fossil fuels, greenhouses emissions and energy independence and to increase the use of renewable energies. In the last several years, new technologies have been developed, and some...... of them received subsidies to increase installation and reduce cost.This article presents an innovative cogeneration system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systemand heat pump for household applications with a focus on primary energy and economic savings using electric equivalent load parameter...... which is a function of the electricity and heat demand of the user, and allows different operation strategies to be considered. The proposal is to maximize the efficiency of the system and to make it profitable, even though technologies with a high purchase cost are considered.Simulations of the system...

  4. Cogeneration and Heat Recovery in the Industrial Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujasinović, E.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Related to energy requirements for non-cellulose i. e. polyester production as an energy-intensive process, potential saving options are proposed. From the process data, it is evident that unit operations need electric and thermal energy in significant amounts. At the same time, improved energy management could be realized by applying a combined heat and power system (CHP instead of the usually used process with separate heat and power production. In addition, the boiler flue gases with a sufficiently high outlet temperature could be used for combustion air preheating.Considering industrial process data, a calculation and comparison between the primary energy demand for conventional, CHP system and flue-gas heat recovery is presented. Comparison between separate heat and electricity production i.e. the conventional system with an overall efficiency of 55.6 % and CHP with efficiency of 85 %, shows an absolute efficiency increase of 29.4 %. Using an air preheater for combustion air temperature increasing saves 5.6 % of the fuel and at the same time diminishes thermal pollution because the exhaust flue-gas temperature becomes 77.3 °C instead of 204 °C. Conclusively, cogeneration and flue-gas heat recovery presentsfuel savings, which also implies economic and environmental benefits.

  5. CDM incidence in the economical feasibility of cogeneration in Argentine; Incidencia del MDL en la factibilidad economica de sistemas de cogeneracion industrial en Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, Maria Isabel; Fushimi, Alberto [Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA (Argentina). Fac. de Ingenieria. Area Departamental Mecanica], e-mail: misosa@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar, e-mail: afushimi@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the contribution to the financial and economic feasibility of cogeneration systems with gas turbine and exhaust gas heat recovery boiler is discussed in function of the financial credit for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GH Gs) by using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It has to be kept in mind the restrictions of these systems to be capital intensive projects subject to the effects of the economy of scale. Other factors to take into account are the constancy of the heat demand, the rates of sale of electricity and steam surpluses, the regulatory laws, the ignorance of the cogeneration technologies on the part of the investor, among others. The profitability of the investment for implementation of a cogeneration system can be elevated in large facilities with gas turbines and heat recovery boiler (T G + HRSG). Results discussed in previous papers are pointed out and new conclusions are enunciated. (author)

  6. Economic viability study of micro-cogeneration plants at residential scale; Estudo de viabilidade economica de plantas de micro-cogeracao em escala residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Ramalho e Soares, Ravi [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Michalewicz, Jacek Stanislaw [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Recife, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a technical and economical feasibility study for the use of micro cogeneration systems in residential scale, using natural gas as an energy source. It was considered two micro-cogeneration systems to meet demand of some types of fictitious establishment of commercial and residential plants, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The first system has as a main driving machine a micro turbine with a nominal capacity of 30 kw, the second one uses a gas motor-generator, with nominal capacity of 35 kw. (author)

  7. Electricity Cogenerator from Hydrogen and Biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinate, W.; Chinnasa, P.; Dangphonthong, D.

    2017-09-01

    This research studied about electricity cogenerator from Hydrogen and Biogas and the factors that cause that effecting Hydrogen from Aluminium which was a cylindrical feature. By using a catalyst was NaOH and CaO, it was reacted in distilled water with percentage of Aluminium: the catalyst (NaOH and CaO) and brought to mix with Biogas afterwards, that have been led to electricity from generator 1 kilowatt. The research outcomes were concentration of solutions that caused amount and percent of maximum Hydrogen was to at 10 % wt and 64.73 % which rate of flowing of constant gas 0.56 litter/minute as temperature 97 degree Celsius. After that led Hydrogen was mixed by Biogas next, conducted to electricity from generator and levelled the voltage of generator at 220 Volt. There after the measure of electricity current and found electricity charge would be constant at 3.1 Ampere. And rate of Biogas flowing and Hydrogen, the result was the generator used Biogas rate of flowing was highest 9 litter/minute and the lowest 7.5 litter/minute, which had rate of flowing around 8.2 litter/minute. Total Biogas was used around 493.2 litter or about 0.493 m3 and Hydrogen had rate of flowing was highest 2.5 litter/minute.

  8. Efficiently generate steam from cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As cogeneration gets more popular, some plants have two choices of equipment for generating steam. Plant engineers need to have a decision chart to split the duty efficiently between (oil-fired or gas-fired) steam generators (SGs) and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) using the exhaust from gas turbines. Underlying the dilemma is that the load-versus-efficiency characteristics of both types of equipment are different. When the limitations of each type of equipment and its capability are considered, analysis can come up with several selection possibilities. It is almost always more efficient to generate steam in an HRSG (designed for firing) as compared with conventional steam generators. However, other aspects, such as maintenance, availability of personnel, equipment limitations and operating costs, should also be considered before making a final decision. Loading each type of equipment differently also affects the overall efficiency or the fuel consumption. This article describes the performance aspects of representative steam generators and gas turbine HRSGs and suggests how plant engineers can generate steam efficiently. It also illustrates how to construct a decision chart for a typical installation. The equipment was picked arbitrarily to show the method. The natural gas fired steam generator has a maximum capacity of 100,000 lb/h, 400-psig saturated steam, and the gas-turbine-exhaust HRSG has the same capacity. It is designed for supplementary firing with natural gas.

  9. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  10. Fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  11. Development of the local own power generation by means of cogeneration plants. District heating concepts of the public utilities Norderstedt; Ausbau der kommunalen Eigenstromerzeugung durch Blockheizkraftwerke. Fernwaermekonzept der Stadtwerke Norderstedt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellmann, Nico [Stadtwerke Norderstedt (Germany). Energiesysteme; Heimann, Martin [Kraftanlagen Hamburg GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Umwelttechnik

    2012-03-15

    The public utilities Norderstedt (Federal Republic of Germany) increase their own power generation by means of the development of combined heat and power generation with cogeneration plants. This requires a comprehensive approach to generate heat and electricity supply and the acquisition of customers. In compliance with urban interests suitable sites for the installation of cogeneration plants have to be found. The public utilities Norderstedt have developed a standard solution that enables a realization of the system concept at each site.

  12. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    Various advanced energy conversion systems (ECS) are compared with each other and with current technology systems for their savings in fuel energy, costs, and emissions in individual plants and on a national level. About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidates which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on-site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented for coal fired process boilers. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented.

  13. Concept for urban heating systems using co-generation; Conception de systemes de chauffage urbain pour la cogeneration. Phase I: application au quartier des Morasses (Martigny) de la methode de conception des reseaux de chauffage urbain developpe au LENI. Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherix, G. [Centre de competence en urbistique CREM, Martigny (Switzerland); Weber, C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' energetique industrielle (LENI), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the work done in the first phase of a project concerning the concept for a district heating system in Martigny, Switzerland. This work was carried out by the Centre for Municipal and Energy Research CREM in Martigny, Switzerland, and the Laboratory for Industrial Energy LENI at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. Software developed at the LENI is introduced and its use for the determination of the necessary configuration and modes of operation of a district heating system in Martigny is discussed. The situation in the Morasses district of Martigny and the promising results obtained are looked at. These can lead to the optimisation of heating supply in other such areas.

  14. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  16. Operating experience of mini cogeneration plants. For use in single-family houses; Betriebserfahrungen beim Einsatz von Mini-Blockheizkraftwerken. Speziell fuer den Betrieb in Einfamilienhaeusern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Lutz [Berliner Energieagentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Unternehmensbereich Contracting

    2010-07-15

    Space heating is the biggest end use energy consumption sector in Germany, with a share of 38 percent in 2006. In this sector, private households have the biggest share, i.e. 88.6 percent. Using the example of Berlin, the author outlines the energy conservation possibilities of decentral mini cogeneration plants. Calculations show that 9,600 mini cogeneration units could be installed in Berlin by 2020 for higher economic efficiency. Currently, there are about 400 such systems in the city. (orig.)

  17. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 2: Residual-fired nocogeneration process boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  18. Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS). Volume 6: Computer data. Part 1: Coal-fired nocogeneration process boiler, section B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightly, W. F.

    1980-01-01

    About fifty industrial processes from the largest energy consuming sectors were used as a basis for matching a similar number of energy conversion systems that are considered as candidate which can be made available by the 1985 to 2000 time period. The sectors considered included food, textiles, lumber, paper, chemicals, petroleum, glass, and primary metals. The energy conversion systems included steam and gas turbines, diesels, thermionics, stirling, closed cycle and steam injected gas turbines, and fuel cells. Fuels considered were coal, both coal and petroleum based residual and distillate liquid fuels, and low Btu gas obtained through the on site gasification of coal. Computer generated reports of the fuel consumption and savings, capital costs, economics and emissions of the cogeneration energy conversion systems (ECS's) heat and power matched to the individual industrial processes are presented. National fuel and emissions savings are also reported for each ECS assuming it alone is implemented. Two nocogeneration base cases are included: coal fired and residual fired process boilers.

  19. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...... gasification platforms are included in the assessment: The Harboøre up draft gasifier with gas engine, the Güssing FICFB gasifier with gas engine or PDU, the LT-CFB gasifier with steam cycle and nutrient recycling and finally the TwoStage down draft gasifier with gas engine, micro gas turbine (MGT), SOFC, SOFC...

  20. Application and design of an economizer for waste heat recovery in a cogeneration plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martić Igor I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy increase cost has required its more effective use. However, many industrial heating processes generate waste energy. Use of waste-heat recovery systems decreases energy consumption. This paper presents case study of waste heat recovering of the exhaust flue gas in a 1415 kWe cogeneration plant. This waste heat can be recovered by installing an economizer to heat the condensed and fresh water in thermal degasification unit and reduce steam use for maintaining the temperature of 105˚C for oxygen removal. Design methodology of economizer is presented.

  1. Biomass gasification cogeneration – A review of state of the art technology and near future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Tobias; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource from which a broad variety of commodities can be produced. However, the resource is scarce and must be used with care to avoid depleting future stock possibilities. Flexibility and efficiency in production are key characteristics for biomass conversion technologies...... in future energy systems. Thermal gasification of biomass is proved throughout this article to be both highly flexible and efficient if used optimally. Cogeneration processes with production of heat-and-power, heat-power-and-fuel or heat-power-and-fertilizer are described and compared. The following...

  2. Opportunities for cogeneration in a brewery. Moeglichkeiten der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung in einer Brauerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, H.J. (Brauerei Felsenkeller, Herford (Germany)); Geiger, R. (EDS Energie, Dienstleistung + Service, Essen (Germany)); Nebel, U. (EDS Energie, Dienstleistung + Service, Essen (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The Felsenkeller brewery in Herford, founded in 1878, is a family business now in the fourth generation. With an annual output of 1.05 million hl, it is one of the ten largest private breweries and ranks 25th among all the breweries in Germany. In 1989, construction of a cogeneration facility based on a gas turbine with waste heat boiler (1 MW electrical power) started. The system was commissioned after a construction phase lasting one year. Following three years of operation, amounting to almost 20,000 operating hours, this article reports on the design and cost-effectiveness of the plant, and on experience in service. (orig.)

  3. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request...... that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab...... is low (for instance during the night), taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas...

  4. Performance and economic enhancement of cogeneration gas turbines through compressor inlet air cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucia, M. De; Bronconi, R.; Carnevale, E. (Univ. di Firenze (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica)

    1994-04-01

    Gas turbine air cooling systems serve to raise performance to peak power levels during the hot months when high atmospheric temperatures cause reductions in net power output. This work describes the technical and economic advantages of providing a compressor inlet air cooling system to increase the gas turbine's power rating and reduce its heat rate. The pros and cons of state-of-the-art cooling technologies, i.e., absorption and compression refrigeration, with and without thermal energy storage, were examined in order to select the most suitable cooling solution. Heavy-duty gas turbine cogeneration systems with and without absorption units were modeled, as well as various industrial sectors, i.e., paper and pulp, pharmaceuticals, food processing, textiles, tanning, and building materials. The ambient temperature variations were modeled so the effects of climate could be accounted for the simulation. The results validated the advantages of gas turbine cogeneration with absorption air cooling as compared to other systems without air cooling.

  5. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard

    2016-12-20

    The present invention includes an integrated planar, series connected fuel cell system having electrochemical cells electrically connected via interconnects, wherein the anodes of the electrochemical cells are protected against Ni loss and migration via an engineered porous anode barrier layer.

  6. The actions of European cities about the use of new technologies of small size cogeneration; Les actions de villes europeennes sur l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies de petite cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    After numerous experiences in the domain of big and medium-size cogeneration, some European municipalities, in particular in Germany, are developing small-size cogeneration units. The aim of this study is, first, to examine the policies and experiences of municipalities and municipal energy companies in terms of technology utilization and the way they have integrated these new technologies in existing installations. Secondly, its aim is to provide some information about the technical and organizational aspects, in particular about the difficulties encountered and the results obtained. In the domain of small cogeneration, various technologies enter in competition: combustion engines, combustion turbines, Stirling engine and fuel cells, which have reached different stages of technical and commercial development. All these technologies are described in case-forms. The ten examples described in these forms (Aachen (DE), Armagh (UK), Arnhem (NL), Basel (CH), Bielefeld (DE), Berlin (DE), Chelles (FR), Frankfurt (DE), Land Hessen (DE), and Ludwigshafen (DE)), indicate that today, only the facilities equipped with gas engines are economically competitive with respect to other means of electricity and heat generation. (J.S.)

  7. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit...... of delivering hot water for the household and returning the coldest fluid back to SOFC heat recovery heat-exchanger. A model of the SOFC system is developed to determine the energy required to meet the hourly average electric load of the residence. The model evaluates the amount of heat generated and the amount...... of heat used for thermal loads of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation is used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small...

  8. Cogeneration development in Mexico and its recent environmental impact; Desarrollo de la cogeneracion en Mexico y su reciente impacto ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Garcia Pelaez, Juan [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the historical development of the electric auto supply systems and cogeneration in Mexico since 1942 to 1995 with the understanding that these are clearly differentiated and defined since 1992. Though it is not, but until 1994 when the first ex profeso permit for cogeneration was granted. It also develops a short prospective vision of the cogeneration in our country, as well as the fuel consumption employed by auto- supply systems during 1993. The pollution emissions to the environment are also analyzed and with it the environmental impact of these electric systems in this year. [Espanol] Se presenta el desarrollo historico de los sistemas de autoabastecimiento electrico y cogeneracion en Mexico desde 1942 a 1995, en el entendido que estos se diferencian y definen claramente desde 1992. Es, sin embargo, hasta 1994 cuando se otorgo el primer permiso ex profeso de cogeneracion. Se desarrolla, ademas, una breve vision prospectiva de la cogeneracion en nuestro pais. Asimismo, se analiza el consumo de combustibles empleados por los sistemas de autoabastecimiento en 1993. Se estiman las emisiones contaminantes a la atmosfera y con ello se valora el impacto ambiental de estos sistemas electricos en ese ano.

  9. Innovative coupling of cogeneration units with fire tube boilers: thermo-fluid dynamics of the fire tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioccolanti, L.; Arteconi, A.; Bartolini, C. M.; Polonara, F.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays the thermal energy demand in the industrial sector is usually satisfied by means of fire tube boilers while electricity is supplied from the grid. Alternatively cogeneration units could be adopted for thermal and electrical energy self-production, whilst installing boilers only as back-up units. However, even when cogeneration is profitable, it is not widespread because industries are usually unwilling to accept cogeneration plants for reliability and high investment costs issues. In this work a system aimed at overcoming the above mentioned market difficulties is proposed. It consists of an innovative coupling of a combined heat and power unit with a modified fire tube boiler. In particular, a CFD analysis was carried out by the authors in order to address the most critical aspects related with the coupling of the two systems. More precisely, the following aspects were evaluated in detail: (i) pressure losses of the exhausts going from the prime mover to the boiler due to the sudden cross-section area variations; (ii) thermal power recoverable from the exhausts in the tubes of the boiler; (iii) dependence of the system on the final users’ specification.

  10. Optimized climate protection by bio-natural gas in modular cogeneration plants; Optimierter Klimaschutz durch Bio-Erdgas in BHKW-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, Arthur [m+p consulting Sued GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Biogas plants without heat utilisation on the one hand and cogeneration systems fuelled with natural gas on the other hand should not be the end of technical development. The contribution stresses the advantages of optimum CO2 reduction by interdisciplinary contracting.

  11. Heat storage enhances efficiency of cogeneration. Chances and problems of heat store use; Waermespeicherung erhoeht die Effizienz der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung. Chancen und Probleme der Speichernutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, Achim [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik; Nestke, Claudius [Ingenieurbuero Karla Nestke, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The optimum integration of electric power from cogeneration systems into the public grid is hardly possible without heat stores. Further, no increase of the market share of renewable energy sources and no integration in existing district heating grids will be possible without heat stores. The authors present their experience in grid storage and in the use of hot water displacement stores.

  12. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail: rcruz@uea.edu.br; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  13. New purchasing conditions for the electricity produced by cogeneration; Nouvelles conditions d`achat de l`electricite produite par cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch.

    1998-12-31

    This short note summarizes the new conditions of electricity purchase as stipulated in the contracts passed between Electricite de France (EdF) and the independent companies exploiting cogeneration units. These new conditions should allow the continuation of the development of cogeneration units in a power market progressively opened to competition. (J.S.)

  14. Defense applications of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, R. R.

    Applications and developmental efforts by the service branches of the U.S. toward implementation of fuel cells for military purposes are reviewed. The fuel cells are being produced as a petroleum fuel substitute and are foreseen to offer quieter, more efficient power at less expense, with lower logistic problems, and to possess cogeneration potential. Applications are indicated for mobile, remote, facility, and emergency/auxiliary power systems. The systems range from one kilowatt to several MW, and can be interfaced with weapon systems. Research in phosphoric acid fuel cells is noted, as are applications in space, undersea, and in aircraft.

  15. Energy-Exergy, Environmental and Economic Criteria in Combined Heat and Power (CHP Plants: Indexes for the Evaluation of the Cogeneration Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F. Torchio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, combined heat and power (CHP criteria pertaining to energy, exergy, environmental (pollutant emission and economic aspects, have been investigated and compared. Although the constraints in legislation usually refer to energy efficiency, primary energy savings and greenhouse gas savings, other criteria should also be taken into account in order to obtain a better evaluation of a cogeneration plant. Here particular attention has been paid to saving indexes for both an individual CHP-unit and for a CHP-system, that is the complete system with all the cogeneration units and the auxiliary plants necessary to cover the users’ demand. Five indexes, named potential indexes, have been introduced to evaluate the cogeneration potential: one for energy saving, one for exergy, two for environmental aspects (global and local scale and one for economic aspects. Finally, some indexes analysed in the paper have been applied to a case study concerning a district heating cogeneration system, and the different behaviour of the energy-exergy, environmental and economic aspects has been discussed.

  16. Entropy generation minimization: A practical approach for performance evaluation of temperature cascaded co-generation plants

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung

    2012-10-01

    We present a practical tool that employs entropy generation minimization (EGM) approach for an in-depth performance evaluation of a co-generation plant with a temperature-cascaded concept. Co-generation plant produces useful effect production sequentially, i.e., (i) electricity from the micro-turbines, (ii) low pressure steam at 250 °C or about 8-10 bars, (iii) cooling capacity of 4 refrigeration tones (Rtons) and (iv) dehumidification of outdoor air for air conditioned space. The main objective is to configure the most efficient configuration of producing power and heat. We employed entropy generation minimization (EGM) which reflects to minimize the dissipative losses and maximize the cycle efficiency of the individual thermally activated systems. The minimization of dissipative losses or EGM is performed in two steps namely, (i) adjusting heat source temperatures for the heat-fired cycles and (ii) the use of Genetic Algorithm (GA), to seek out the sensitivity of heat transfer areas, flow rates of working fluids, inlet temperatures of heat sources and coolant, etc., over the anticipated range of operation to achieve maximum efficiency. With EGM equipped with GA, we verified that the local minimization of entropy generation individually at each of the heat-activated processes would lead to the maximum efficiency of the system. © 2012.

  17. Nuclear Co-generation: The Analysis of Technical Capabilities and Cost Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Reński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of the parallel connection of a nuclear power plant fitted to provide heat for district heating application, with the CHP and heat plants existing in the supply region, in this case with the heating systems of Wejherowo and Gdynia. Presented variant proposes to add heat to a nuclear power plant’s total output by supplying heat exchangers with the steam from bleeders of low pressure (LP turbine stage and from the crossover pipe between its high pressure (HP and intermediate pressure (IP stages. A detailed diagram of the EPR nuclear turbine system adapted to supply district heat is also presented. Also determined are the formulas for: electric power output of a nuclear CHP plant; electric power generated strictly in cogeneration, and the decrease in the electric power and energy resulting from the operation in cogeneration mode. Finally, the profitability (competitiveness criteria for a nuclear power plant adapted to supply district heat in a selected heat supply region were proposed.

  18. On-site co-generation: cost savings in view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granson, E.

    2004-03-31

    The technical and economic aspects of cogeneration are explained with examples from Alberta and British Columbia. One of the examples is the cogeneration of steam and electricity at the ATCO/EPCOR/NOVA power plant in Joffre, Alberta, which generates enough electricity, steam and heat to supply the whole ethylene and polyethylene plant; it also boosts the provincial grid by four per cent. Another good example cited is TransCanada Pipelines' Carseland, Alberta, operation, which generates 80 MW of electricity, along with about 120 tonnes/hr of steam for Agrium's adjacent Carseland Nitrogen Operation. The electricity is generated by two GE LM6000 PD combustion turbines using natural gas as fuel. Each turbine is equipped with a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG), which captures the gas turbine exhaust heat to raise steam. The high pressure, superheated steam is sent to the Agrium facility for use by the company's nitrogen operation. Dow Chemical Canada Inc also has a power and utilities combined-cycle cogeneration plant at its Fort Saskatchewan site. By utilizing a steam turbine down the line, Dow Chemicals' Fort Saskatchewan operations are able to achieve at least an 80 per cent thermal efficiency rating for the overall process, or about a 10 to 20 per cent gain on alternate designs. The Dow Canada plant operates three GE gas turbines and two steam turbines for a total rated capacity of 300 MW of power. Cogeneration is not limited to turbines fuelled by natural gas; pulp and paper mills throughout Western Canada use wood residue as fuel to produce steam and the hot water required by the mills. Methane gas is another source of fuel being put to use in the Vancouver Landfill Cogeneration Facility at Delta, BC, which, using three Caterpillar 3532 engines, generates 5.6 MW of electricity and 6.7 MW of thermal energy. The electricity is sold to BC Hydro, while the thermal energy is used by the CanAgro greenhouses. In addition to the substantial

  19. Parametric Analysis of a High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Based Microcogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myalelo Nomnqa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on performance analysis of a 1 kWe microcogeneration system based on a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEM fuel cell by means of parametric investigation. A mathematical model for a system consisting of a fuel processor (steam reforming reactor and water-gas shift reactor, a HT-PEM fuel cell stack, and the balance-of-plant components was developed. Firstly, the fuel processor performance at different fuel ratios and equivalence ratio was examined. It is shown that high fuel ratios of 0.9–0.95 and equivalence ratios of less than 0.56 are suitable for acceptable carbon monoxide content in the synthetic gas produced. Secondly, a parametric study of the system performance at different fuel and equivalence ratios using key system operating parameters was conducted. Steam-to-carbon ratio, stack operating temperature, and anode stoichiometry were varied to observe the changes in the microcogeneration system. The analysis shows that the system can reach electrical and cogeneration efficiencies of 30% and 84%, respectively.

  20. JV 38-APPLICATION OF COFIRING AND COGENERATION FOR SOUTH DAKOTA SOYBEAN PROCESSORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-11-01

    Cogeneration of heat and electricity is being considered by the South Dakota Soybean Processors for its facility in Volga, South Dakota, and a new facility to be located in Brewster, Minnesota. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed a feasibility study, with 40% funding provided from the U.S. Department of Energy's Jointly Sponsored Research Program to determine the potential application of firing biomass fuels combined with coal and comparative economics of natural gas-fired turbines. Various biomass fuels are available at each location. The most promising options based on availability are as follows. The economic impact of firing 25% biomass with coal can increase return on investment by 0.5 to 1.5 years when compared to firing natural gas. The results of the comparative economics suggest that a fluidized-bed cogeneration system will have the best economic performance. Installation for the Brewster site is recommended based on natural gas prices not dropping below a $4.00/MMBtu annual average delivered cost. Installation at the Volga site is only recommended if natural gas prices substantially increase to $5.00/MMBtu on average. A 1- to 2-year time frame will be needed for permitting and equipment procurement.

  1. Opportunities for saving energy by means of cogeneration in Vegetales's Cannery of Sancti Spiritus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Alberto Clemente Corujo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the viability to install a system of cogeneration and to save energy at Vegetales's Cannery. The type of more convenient arrangement according to the conditions of the industry was defined. The magnitude of necessary investment, the equipment required, and also the additional quantity of diesel were determined for the correct operation of the project. It was considered the steam production and the consumptions of combustible oil and the electricity in the year 2008. As a primary motor was each engine Volvo of 3 existent generating sets. A minimal time of 4 daily hours during 300 days was calculated to work annually and they analyzed the necessary investments for expected benefits. The economic evaluation has as possitive results: a VAN of $192 646,89's and 36 %'s TIR. The cogeneration scheme more convenient is with Topping cycle. The necessary investment is about $144 000 and for having profitability it is necessary to work the same amount of hours from 6 to 10 p.m. that in the rest of a day.

  2. Animal Cell Expression Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, M; Reichl, Ing U

    2017-10-03

    control. Over the past decade, however, there have been various commercial influenza vaccines made available from cell technology using animal host cells. Analysis of glycosylation control shows that the type of host cell has the greatest influence on the final analyzed glycan profile. Other factors such as the virus strain, the cultivation system, or various process parameters have been shown to have only a minor effect on the glycosylation pattern. We predict that the analysis of glycan profiles in viral vaccines will become increasingly important in the development and consistent manufacturing of safe and potent vaccines. Graphical Abstract.

  3. Operating experience with a flexible cogeneration plant in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadman, B.

    1997-01-01

    Much has been written about the interesting gas turbine cogeneration Project in Fort Lupton, Colorado, U.S.A., as created and developed by the Thermo Cogeneration Partnership under the leadership of Paul Steinway, project general manager. The plant is based on five 40 MW-class gas turbine generator modules supplied by Stewart & Stevenson, who is also responsible for operation and maintenance of the plant through its operating arm, Stewart & Stevenson Operations, Inc. The plant, first placed into service in mid-1994 after only 18 months of construction, is of particular interest because it has to function with a wide degree of flexibility in load management, and it also uses one of the latest-design aeroderivative gas turbines, namely the GE LM6000. This article describes the plant design, equipment and operating experience thus far. 6 figs.

  4. EVALUATION OF ENERGY COGENERATION FROM SUGAR CANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanserth Abreu Elizundia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper were simulated and evaluated five alternatives of cogeneration scheme that promote a higher production of thermal and electrical energies as well as its right management. The first three alternatives are directed to increasing the boiler pressure and a change of steam turbines which are the extraction-condensation type, and then the fourth alternative proposed a boiler change to implement a bubbling fluidized bed and finally in the fifth alternative a scheme of biomass gasification is analyzed. All scheme were analyzed energetic and exergetically. The five cogeneration alternatives were simulated in ASPEN PLUS; they showed that the largest surplus bagasse and electricity are obtained with the scheme of a biomass gasification and the worst results in these parameters were obtained in the alternative that function in low pressure and temperature parameters

  5. Technical-Economic Evaluation of a Cogeneration Unit Considering Carbon Emission Savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of combined heat and power production systems has gained policy attention, because these are often considered to be less polluting and more efficient than conventional energy conversion systems. As a consequence, the potential market for these energy systems that contribute to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to enhance energy security on a national level, is shifting from large-scale existing units to small and micro-size emerging technologies. This paper presents a numerical model based on a cost-benefit analysis used to design an optimal cogeneration system for a small-scale building application, considering the Portuguese context and the comparison with the harmonized efficiency reference values for the separate production of electricity and useful heat. The model includes the identification of the objective function terms (i.e., the elements involved in the financial analysis across the system lifetime and the economic evaluation of costs and benefits of the combined heat and power production system. The economic viability of cogeneration systems significantly depends on system technology, client energy requirements and support schemes implemented in the respective countries. A strategic approach is necessary to adequately embed the new technology as a feasible solution in terms of investment and operational costs. Only by matching the energy supply to the needs and expectations of the energy users, it will be possible to improve the market competitiveness of these alternative power production plants. The optimal solution disclosed a positive annual worth, which is higher if the carbon emission savings are monetized. In addition, the optimal system represents a more efficient way to produce useful heat and electricity (i.e. a positive primary energy saving and to reduce gas emissions. A cost-benefit analysis can be applied for the techno-economic evaluation of a CHP system by assessing the monetary socio-environmental costs

  6. Study of cogeneration plant operation during its work for consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razuvaev, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The actuality of reducing heat consumption and energy resources in the real economy sector is provided; the analysis of the cogeneration plant operation and the efficiency of its application, taking into account the electrical load of the consumer is carried out and the technique of calculating heat balance of diesel generator by means a developed and registered computer training program is considered. The actuality and basic objectives of training to increase the energy efficiency of facilities are given.

  7. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2017-12-12

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  8. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Richard; Liu, Zhien

    2015-03-10

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having a plurality of adjacent electrochemical cells formed of an anode layer, a cathode layer spaced apart from the anode layer, and an electrolyte layer disposed between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The fuel cell system also includes at least one interconnect, the interconnect being structured to conduct free electrons between adjacent electrochemical cells. Each interconnect includes a primary conductor embedded within the electrolyte layer and structured to conduct the free electrons.

  9. Stationary fuel cell systems. Danish strategy for maturing micro- combined power and heat generation for the market. To make the house owners environmentally conscious prosumers; Stationaere braendselscellesystemer. Dansk plan for markedsmodning af mikrokraftvarme. Goer boligejerne til miljoevenlige prosumenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    The aim of this new market maturing plan is to show how innovative technologies for micro stationary fuel cell cogeneration systems can enter both the Danish and the international markets. The report first presents a general description of all types of stationary plants. Not all of them are yet ready for commercialization - some are still in the research and development phase. The plan documents that there is a need for incentives for maturing the technologies for the market after the demonstration phase, and it presents methods for market introduction in Denmark and internationally. (ln)

  10. High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

    1996-01-01

    As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

  11. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  12. Exergy analysis of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell and organic Rankine cycle for cooling, heating and power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Sulaiman, Fahad A. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, Carleton University 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Hamdullahpur, Feridun [Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    The study examines a novel system that combined a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for cooling, heating and power production (trigeneration) through exergy analysis. The system consists of an SOFC, an ORC, a heat exchanger and a single-effect absorption chiller. The system is modeled to produce a net electricity of around 500 kW. The study reveals that there is 3-25% gain on exergy efficiency when trigeneration is used compared with the power cycle only. Also, the study shows that as the current density of the SOFC increases, the exergy efficiencies of power cycle, cooling cogeneration, heating cogeneration and trigeneration decreases. In addition, it was shown that the effect of changing the turbine inlet pressure and ORC pump inlet temperature are insignificant on the exergy efficiencies of the power cycle, cooling cogeneration, heating cogeneration and trigeneration. Also, the study reveals that the significant sources of exergy destruction are the ORC evaporator, air heat exchanger at the SOFC inlet and heating process heat exchanger. (author)

  13. 75 FR 13534 - Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization March 16, 2010. This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Grays Ferry Cogeneration Partnership application for...

  14. Increasing of Manoeuvrability of Cogeneration Combined Cycle Power Plants Owing to the Usage of Electric Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kachan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the results of efficiency evaluation  of using the electric boilers to improve maneuver capabilities of the cogeneration combined cycle power plants (as an example, 230 MW combined cycle unit of Minsk CHP-3 in comparison with the traditional steam-turbine units of cogeneration power plants.

  15. Influence of Regulations on Market Efficiency from the Viewpoint of High-efficiency Cogeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Sołtysik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of a common European energy market implies the necessity of making adjustments to domestic law and adopting market development possibilities in order to meet European Union regulations. Implementation of system support to develop high-efficiency cogeneration was one of those aspects. Several years of such a mechanism functioning allow one to: analyze those regulations and their impact on sub-sector development, make a deep cost analysis and discuss its continuation in the future as well. Taking into account the background of implementation of EU regulations, this paper presents the results of volume-price estimations, current trends, evaluation of property rights regulated in the system, the analysis of market participants’ behaviours, as well as legal issues within this context.

  16. Analysis of the technical and economical feasibility of the utilization of a compact co-generator for the production of electric power and cold water; Analise de viabilidade tecnica e economica de utilizacao de um cogerador compacto para producao de eletricidade e agua gelada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugueredo, Andre Vieira; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia

    1997-12-31

    Cogeneration based on alternative motor engines has been successfully proposed in many application, especially when the electro-mechanic demand is greater than the thermal one. In this work the technical and economical feasibility of a compact cogeneration system to produce electricity (160 kW) and cold water (75 kW) is studied in order to supply the demand of a computer center building. (author) 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: avieira at feg.unesp.br

  17. Benefices environnementaux de la cogeneration d'energie en milieu hospitalier et cas de l'Hopital de Moncton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kone, Diakalia

    The present study aimed at assessing the environmental benefits of power management practices based on cogeneration in the particular industrial sector of hospitals and healthcare. Cogeneration power systems, also known as "Combined Heat and Power" (CHP) or Cogen, supply on-site electricity and heat from a single fuel source (natural gas in general). While the efficiency of conventional plants to produce power and heat separately is limited to about 30%, the efficiency of a CHP plant is close to 80% and can reach up to 90% in some applications (Borbely et Kreider, 2001). One of the distinctive features of hospitals is their continuous demand for both type of energy (electricity and heat), which makes them good candidate for cogeneration. However, in North America at the present time, less than 5% of hospitals run on CHP. Most are being supplied with electricity by conventional power plants, run by specialized companies, and use on-site boiler(s) to generate heat. Energy spending can reach up to 3% of an hospital's annual operational budget. There are also environmental impacts related to current energy supply and use in hospitals. For instance, the burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases (GHG), which contribute to human health problems and climate change. The first objective of the study was to outline the main benefits and challenges faced by hospitals that aim at becoming their own energy co-generator, in comparison to having power and heat produced separately. Our second objective was to assess prospectively (proactively) the environmental impacts of a cogeneration plant that is being planned, but not yet operated, in a Canadian hospital. The methodology was based on literature reviews and on a case study, namely that of The Moncton Hospital (TMH)/L'Hopital de Moncton, Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada. This hospital is considered a large hospital with 375 beds and a major and expanding ambulatory care service. It is also in the process of developing a 1

  18. Compliant fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott [Albany, NY; Gudlavalleti, Sauri [Albany, NY

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  19. Experiences of energy saving and co-generation projects; Experiencias de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Barajas, Alberto [Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V., Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this document are presented the successful projects of energy saving and co-generation that Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. has made in diverse industries. The investment recovery periods have been smaller to 18 months. The projects have been made for different companies within Mexican Republic. [Spanish] Se presentan los casos exitosos de proyectos de ahorro de energia y cogeneracion que Heat and Power Systems, S.A. de C.V. ha realizado en diversas industrias cuyo periodo de recuperacion de la inversion han sido menores a 18 meses. Los proyectos han sido realizados para distintas empresas dentro de la Republica Mexicana.

  20. Novel layered solid oxide fuel cells with multiple-twinned Ni0.8Co0.2 nanoparticles: the key to thermally independent CO2 utilization and power-chemical cogeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, B.; Yan, N.; Li, M.; Zhang, Y.-Q.; Sun, Y.-F.; Li, J.; Etsell, T.; Sarkar, P.; Chuang, K.T.; Luo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    To energy-efficiently offset our carbon footprint, we herein developed a novel CH4–CO2 dry reforming process to co-produce electricity and CO-concentrated syngas, which takes advantage of the selective oxidation of H2 in high performance proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). In these

  1. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, Sherrell R [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  2. Fuel-oil cogeneration plant for textile Industry. Central de cogeneracion a fueloleo para industria textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Larrauri, M.; Diez Hernandez, J.; Villasante Diaz, A. (IDOM, Ingenieria y Consultoria, S.A. (Spain))

    1993-10-01

    Aznar S.A. is a textile factory especially sensitive to electricity distribution failures. They produce the subsequent shut down at the manufacturing process and several hours of maintenance tasks. A cogeneration plant has been installed to provide electricity and thermal energy to the process. Since the location is far from Natural Gas pipelines the system includes fuel-oil as energy source. Annual electricity production will be 23.300 MWh and 6.400 MWh of them will be exported into the grid. Fuel-oil consumption at the heat exchanger is reduced by 47%, but the whole factory consumption increases a 247% due to the high consumption of the engine. This increase is compensated by revenues from selling electricity and electricity savings. These facts, together with maintenance cost saving leads to a pay back time of 3.3. years. (Author)

  3. Wood burning for energy production utility and industry cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsulavage, A.; Barten, T.; Stillman, G.; Winegar, P.

    1983-06-01

    This paper describes the identification of a bank of possible cogeneration sites and the subsequent selection of the best two sites to construct a wood-fired power plant - denoted as Phase I. Phase II, the final part of the development, consists of a conceptual engineering study, including economic analyses, of those two sites. In parallel with the engineering and site development efforts, a wood availability analysis was conducted to determine the extent of the wood-fuel resource available for use on an integrated, mechanized wood harvesting basis.

  4. Status of molten carbonate fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianowski, L. G.; Osullivan, J. B.

    A molten carbonate fuel cell integrated with a coal gasification power plant is one of the most promising coal-using technologies because of its high efficiency acceptable cost, and environmental acceptability. The high temperature heat available from the fuel cell may be used in a bottoming cycle and/or industrial cogeneration applications; however, for the molten carbonate system to achieve these goals, continued developmental work is required which must take account of the operating conditions of the application. The progress made in improving cell performance and life and in producing inexpensive cell components is discussed. The status, direction, and priority of future research and engineering efforts is also discussed.

  5. Analysis methodology of power generation/cogeneration designs in VNG (Vehicular Natural Gas) stations; Metodologia de analise de projetos de geracao/cogeracao em postos GNV (Gas Natural Veicular)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanos, Rafael Reami [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the methodology for analysis of generation/cogeneration projects in NGV filling stations, determining the influence of critical parameters in its technical-economic viability. To achieve this methodology, it was necessary to define parameters that influence directly or indirectly the size of a generating system, as the total electric demand of the filling station, ratio (power of the compressor) / (total installed power), load factor, factor of simultaneity, technical data of major equipment, among others. The methodology has been validated by comparing with data measured in a NGV filling station and allows screening and identifying customers with technical feasibility to evolve in a generation or cogeneration project. The cogeneration with NG generators was highlighted during the analysis of the NGV filling stations and was feasible for establishments which have large thermal demand, as filling stations along the road with large amounts of electric showers in changing rooms. (author)

  6. Review on the Recent Developments of Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC Based Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkepli Afzam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic Thermal (PV/T system emerged as one of the convenient type of renewable energy system acquire the ability to generate power and thermal energy in the absence of moving parts. However, the power output of PV/T is intermittent due to dependency on solar irradiation condition. Furthermore, its efficiency decreases because of cells instability at high temperature. On the other hand, fuel cell co-generation system (CGS is another technology that can generate power and heat simultaneously. Integration of PV/T and fuel cell CGS could enhance the reliability and sustainability of both systems as well as increasing the overall system performance. Hence, this paper intended to present the parameters that affect performance of PV/T and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC CGS. Moreover, recent developments on PV/T-fuel cell hybrid system are also presented. Based on literates, mass flow rate of moving fluid in PV/T was found to affect the system efficiency. For the PEMFC, when the heat is utilized, the system performance can be increased where the heat efficiency is similar to electrical efficiency which is about 50%. Recent developments of hybrid PV/T and fuel cell show that most of the studies only focus on the power generation of the system. There are less study on the both power and heat utilization which is indeed necessary in future development in term of operation strategy, optimization of size, and operation algorithm.

  7. Experts on micro-size cogeneration units: 'No fear of low capacities'; Mikro-KWK-Experten: 'Mehr Mut zu kleineren Leistungen'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2009-01-15

    In October 2008, the Renexpo, an international fair on renewable energy sources and energy-efficient construction and modernisation, was held at Augsburg together with a congress with a comprehensive programme. During the expert meeting on small and micro-size cogeneration units, some of the 2007 statements on market trends were revised (Sunmachine), savings options were corrected (Whispergen), and an interesting new technology was presented (Adaturb). There is still need for scepticism concerning the market introduction of micro-size cogeneration units with Stirling engines. Although many 'new' systems will surely be presented at the ISH 2009, serial production probably will not start until 2011. (orig.)

  8. Urban cogeneration: a potential for energy and environment; Cogeneration urbaine: enjeux pour l`energie et l`environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanes, A. [Amorce (France)

    1996-07-01

    The coupling of heat and power production is particularly interesting in urban areas where these energies present several common factors: an equivalent seasonal variation, with a winter demand largely superior to the summer demand, and a highly concentrated localization in dense urban zones, therefore inducing a minimization of network losses and transport infrastructure requirements, with the advantages of energy savings and pollution reductions. The 1995 situation of cogeneration in France is examined and its potential development is discussed, depending on legal, economical and political conditions. A 1000 MW capacity potential could be reached

  9. Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project, Centennial Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Clay; Mandon, Jim; DeGiulio, Thomas; Baker, Ryan

    2014-04-29

    The Waste-to-Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park has allowed methane from the closed Centennial landfill to export excess power into the the local utility’s electric grid for resale. This project is part of a greater brownfield reclamation project to the benefit of the residents of Munster and the general public. Installation of a gas-to-electric generator and waste-heat conversion unit take methane byproduct and convert it into electricity at the rate of about 103,500 Mwh/year for resale to the local utility. The sale of the electricity will be used to reduce operating budgets by covering the expenses for streetlights and utility bills. The benefits of such a project are not simply financial. Munster’s Waste-to Energy Cogeneration Project at Centennial Park will reduce the community’s carbon footprint in an amount equivalent to removing 1,100 cars from our roads, conserving enough electricity to power 720 homes, planting 1,200 acres of trees, or recycling 2,000 tons of waste instead of sending it to a landfill.

  10. Studies on Steam Absorption Chillers Performance at a Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers can be of either single-effect or double effect configuration and the coefficient of performance (COP depends on the selection made. The COP varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on the types of chillers. Single effect chillers normally have COP in the range of 0.68 to 0.79. Double effect chillers COP are higher and can reach 1.2. However due to factors such as inappropriate operations and maintenance practices, COP could drop over a period of time. In this work the performances of double effect steam absorption chillers at a cogeneration plant were studied. The study revealed that during the period of eleven years of operation the COP of the chillers deteriorated from 1.25 to 0.6. Regression models on the operation data indicated that the state of deterioration was projected to persist. Hence, it would be recommended that the chillers be considered for replacement since they had already undergone a series of costly repairs.

  11. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  12. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  13. Design process and instrumentation of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for micro-cogeneration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, O.B.; Gauthier, J.E.D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Hughes, P.M.; Brandon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Air pollution and global climate change have become a serious environmental problem leading to increasingly stringent government regulations worldwide. New designs and methods for improving combustion systems to minimize the production of toxic emissions, like nitrogen oxides (NOx) are therefore needed. In order to control smog, acid rain, ozone depletion, and greenhouse-effect warming, a reduction of nitrogen oxide is necessary. One alternative for combined electrical power and heat generation (CHP) are micro-cogeneration units which use a micro-turbine as a prime mover. However, to increase the efficiencies of these units, micro-cogeneration technology still needs to be developed further. This paper described the design process, building, and testing of a new low NOx wire-mesh duct burner (WMDB) for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. The primary goal of the study was to develop a practical and simple WMDB, which produces low emissions by using lean-premixed surface combustion concept and its objectives were separated into four phases which were described in this paper. Phase I involved the design and construction of the burner. Phase II involved a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to assist the new design of the burner by introducing an efficient premixer that could be used in this new application. Phase III of this research program involved non-reacting flow modeling on the burner premixer flow field using a commercial computational fluid dynamic model. In phase IV, the reacting flow experimental investigation was performed. It was concluded that the burner successfully increased the quantity and the quality of the heat released from the micro-CHP unit and carbon monoxide emissions of less than 9 ppm were reached. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

    2004-06-30

    Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy

  15. Determination of the feasibility of cogeneration by means of the computer program HaWK-GASTEC 2. 1. Haalbaarheid warmte/kracht HaWK-GASTEC 2. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woutersen, G.; Kooiman, A.

    1994-08-01

    To estimate the energetic and financial feasibility of a cogeneration project is a difficult task, taking into account the annually changing energy prices and pricing structure. By means of the title program the right decision for investment can be made in a simple way. By means of basic data the most accurate configuration of the required cogeneration system can be produced. The annual costs and benefits can be calculated. Based on the results a financial-economical evaluation can be carried to determine the payback period of the project. Several energy price scenarios can be selected. The calculations are possible for the tariff structures that were valid in 1994. In this report several aspects of the computer program are illustrated, described and explained

  16. Exergoeconomic and thermodynamics analysis of an autonomous distillery operating with different technologies of cogeneration and distillation; Analise termodinamica e exergoeconomica de uma destilaria autonoma operando com tecnologias diferentes de cogeracao e destilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Jose Carlos Escobar; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Santos, Jose Joaquim; Reno, Maria Luiza Grillo [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (NEST/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Excelencia em Geracao Termeletrica e Distribuida; Moura, Adler [DEDINI Industrias de Base S.A., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present work evaluates through thermodynamics and exergoeconomics the performance of an autonomous distillery. This is based in cogeneration systems which operate with different parameters and technologies. On the base of the carried out was possible to quantify the improvement obtained in the distillery performance indicators when it works with high steam parameters and technologies which increase the energy efficiency of distillation. (author)

  17. FY1998 survey on preparation of data collection related to new energy technology development (cogeneration); 1998 nendo shin energy gijutsu kaihatsu kankei data shu sakusei chosa (cogeneration) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    New energy technologies have had the subsidy institutions established in association with advancement of the technologies, and such introduction promoting measures developed as the introduction assistance and advisory project. To promote this development more effectively, it is necessary that different data related to new energies are put into order comprehensively and systematically to be retained as the basic data. Therefore, this paper collects and puts into order the latest published data on cogeneration from among other new energy technology areas, with main regard to system listing, specific introduction examples, subsidy institutions, and how other countries are working on the technologies. Hydroelectric power generation uses up head energy of water by installing power plants along a river from higher location to lower location. Similarly the cogeneration is a kind of multi-stage energy utilization (cascade utilization) system that uses up energy serially from as high oil and natural gas combustion temperature as 1,500 degrees C or higher down to temperature levels used for hot water supply and air conditioning as low as 45 to 50 degrees C. It generates electric power by using a thermal engine, and utilizes waste heat effectively. (NEDO)

  18. Micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine for heating and their real operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čierny, Jaroslav; Patsch, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This article was deal with micro-cogeneration units based on Stirling engine. We watched problematic of real working Stirling engine. The article also contain hookup of unit constructed at University of Zilina.

  19. Cogeneration institutional study in the Geismar, LA, and Orange, Texas areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a better understanding of the institutional problems involved in the use of coal-fueled cogeneration. The viewpoints of industry, utilities, and government were probed extensively through indepth confidential interviews. To provide a real-life basis for this investigation, two existing industrial sites in the Gulf Coast area were studied. The projected effects of the installation of coal-burning cogeneration plants supplying steam and electricity to several industries, replacing existing oil and gas burning boilers, were studied for each site. This report provides insights into the overall institutional problem that will be useful at other locations. It covers the regulatory, economic, financial, engineering, operating, contractual, and corporate relations aspects of cogeneration. It concludes with suggestions for future action by the Federal government, state governments, industries, and utilities that should be helpful in removing the institutional constraints that are retarding cogeneration installations and the use of coal.

  20. Methods of Assessing the Efficiency of Cogeneration of Electricity and Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolaty V.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that allows calculating the primary energy savings of fuel cogeneration of electricity and heat as compared to separate methods produce the same amount of these types of energy. An analytic expression relating the energy consumption of fuel for production of electricity and heat, taking into account the efficiency with the technologies of production of electricity and heat separately, and the total efficiency when these types of energy are in cogeneration. The results are illustrated by the example. Basing on these results it is recommended to amend the Law on thermal energy and cogeneration of electricity and heat concerning the methodologies for calculating performance of these types of energy cogeneration.

  1. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  2. Analysis of energy performance in two systems of cogeneration used in plants of sugar cane; Analise de desempenho energetico em dois sistemas de cogeracao empregados em usinas de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Felipe A.A.; Rosa, Rodrigo A. [Cogeracao Sistemas de Energia Ltda., Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    One of the options to overcome the current volatility in Brazil's power consumption outlook relates to the employment of other sources for power generation, namely solar energy, wind power or the use of biomass, namely the power generation through the cane bagasse. One should realize, however, that the economic accomplishment for launching a generation system should depend on the level of effectiveness of all processes and/or equipment comprising the system thereof. As far as the sugar-alcohol industry is concerned, the larger the system effectiveness is, the bigger the surplus of bagasse becomes and, hence, the better the chance of achieving financial earnings. Two generation systems shall be evaluated, aiming to thermo-dynamically identify the differences between the use of small equipment-driven turbines (like choppers, shredders and mills) and multi-stage turbo-generators, in order to replace the electric-powered drive units. Therefore, one shall follow thermodynamic-based criteria, namely the steam specific consumption, the equipment availability and effectiveness, thus allowing a comparison for each engine. Such survey shows that the effectiveness reaches nearly 68% for the turbo-generators and 43% for the small turbines. Under the economic perspective, one can find a saving of 89.500 tonnes per crop of bagasse, standing for an additional turnover of US$ 895.000,00 annually. (author)

  3. How to calculate avoided costs in a cogeneration cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, H.

    1985-09-01

    When calculating the value of heat recovered from engine exhaust in a cogeneration cycle, some energy managers and engineers use the 3413 standard of evaluation: that is, that 3413 Btu of recovered engine exhaust heat has a financial value equivalent to the cost of one kilowatt hour of utility-purchased electricity. The standard establishing 3413 Btu as the equivalent of one kilowatt hour is valid where the heat output from a 1000-watt electric resistance heater is used to add 3413 Btu from electric resistance heat to 23.70 pounds of water in one hour. The temperature of that amount of water will, in one hour, increase 144/sup 0/F (3413/23.70 = 144). To avoid the latent heat range, the starting temperature of the water must not be greater than 67/sup 0/F at sea level. Unless the 3413 standard is understood, it can lead to expensive mistakes in projected avoided costs.

  4. Co-generation at CERN Beneficial or not?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, M

    1998-01-01

    A co-generation plant for the combined production of electricity and heat has recently been installed on the CERN Meyrin site. This plant consists of: a gas turbine generator set (GT-set), a heat recovery boiler for the connection to the CERN primary heating network, as well as various components for the integration on site. A feasibility study was carried out and based on the argument that the combined use of natural gas -available anyhow for heating purposes- gives an attractively high total efficiency, which will, in a period of time, pay off the investment. This report will explain and update the calculation model, thereby confirming the benefits of the project. The results from the commissioning tests will be taken into account, as well as the benefits to be realized under the condition that the plant can operate undisturbed by technical setbacks which, incidentally, has not been entirely avoided during the first year of test-run and operation.

  5. Case study of McCormick place cogeneration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overstreet, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    In the authors business of providing district energy services, competition is the key to his being able to have a positive impact on the environment, business stability, and economic activity. In the district energy industry, the competitive options are for property owners to continue to self generate energy to meet their needs, purchase energy from a company that utilizes electricity during off-peak hours to produce chilled water or take advantage of a total solution of purchasing tri-generation energy from Trigen-Peoples District Energy Company. Tri-generation is an innovative technology which involves the simultaneous production of steam, chilled water, and electricity. The McCormick Place cogeneration project calls for producing steam and chilled water (co-) for use by the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA). The plant will produce electricity (tri-) to run the production equipment.

  6. The state of the United States cogeneration industry from a developer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents opinions regarding the future of the cogeneration industry in the U.S. Background information on the non-utility U.S. power industry is summarized. The future of the wholesale electric markets and deregulation of the generation sector is discussed. The future of the retail market is related to issues of open access, stranded investment, and power marketing. A new growth period, spurred by deregulation, is predicted for U.S. cogeneration developers.

  7. Current status of and future prospect on introduction of cogeneration. Ota Ward Industrial Plaza combining composite energy sources; Kojene no donyu jokyo to kongo no tenkai. Fukugo energy gen wo kumiawaseta Otaku sangyo plaza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, T.; Saito, A. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    This paper introduces a cogeneration facility installed in a composite facility for the Small and Medium Enterprise Promotion Center in the Jonan area of Tokyo, the Ota Ward Industrial Plaza, and municipally owned houses. With this cogeneration system, electric power generated by a gas engine generator is linked with a commercial power supply system and supplied into buildings. Waste heat recovered into warm water is utilized for room cooling by means of a warm water absorbing freezer, and for room warming and hot water supply via a heat exchanger. The system can select freely an optimal combination of composite energy sources, taking waste heat as one of the heat sources. According to a result of the simulation on cogeneration and waste heat, the annual load rate is 1950 Gcal, of which the waste heat utilization amount is 883 Gcal corresponding to 45.3%. The ratio of annual waste heat utilization to heat utilization in the facility was 41.6% for room cooling utilization, 51.6% for room warming utilization, and 6.8% for hot water supply utilization. The cogeneration generated power accounted for 22.9% of the power demand in the facility. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Report on the installations of cogeneration under obligation to buy; Rapport sur les installations de cogeneration sous obligation d'achat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Facing the problem of the climatic change and the increase of the fossil energies prices, the government policy of the cogeneration development follows many objectives. Among these objectives it is necessary of implement a new tariff of obligation to buy of the electricity from cogeneration and allow the existing installations to reaffirm their obligation to buy contract. The first part of this report defines the necessary conditions to better use the ecological and economical interest of the natural gas cogeneration and shows that these conditions are not favorable in France. The second part preconizes to modify the actual tariff device in order to maintain the existing park to 2015 in acceptable economical and ecological conditions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Analysis of viability for implantation of a natural gas cogeneration system in a bovine slaughterhouse in expansion; Analise da viabilidade da implantacao de um systema de cobracao de energia a gas natural em um frigorifico bovni em expansao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Alessandro T.; Dib, Fernando H.; Romao Junior, Ricardo A.; Campitelli, Flavio M.; Ramos, Ricardo A.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Planejamento Energetico, Geracao e Cogeracao de Energia], e-mail: nuplen@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2006-07-01

    In this work the use of natural gas as fuel in a tri generation system proposed for a bovine slaughterhouse is analyzed. Traditionally, great part of the slaughterhouses uses firewood, and eventually oil, as fuel to supply the thermal energy and purchases electric energy from a concessionaire. The configuration proposed will allow the simultaneous generation of electricity, vapor for the processes and refrigeration to the slaughterhouse consumption, as well as generation of electricity surplus for commercialization. For evaluation of the plants performances, energetic and exegetic analyses are carried out for the plant expanded by conventional mode and by means of the tri generation system. Finally, thermo economical analyses, for evaluation of reflexes of the costs of capital investment and of fuel on the composition of products costs, are accomplished for each case considered. (author)

  10. Analysis of the internal temperature of the combustion chamber of a compact system of co-generation; Analise das temperaturas internas da camara de combustao de um sistema compacto de co-geracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Joao B.F. [Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), CE (Brazil)], email: furlan@unifor.br; Couto, Heraldo S. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil)], email: heraldo@lcp.inpe.br; Holanda, Carlos A.M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais], email: almir@metalmat.ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, the energy deficit represents one of the biggest governmental challenges, since there is still a great number of communities living in areas without electricity energy; and thus without access to electro-electronic equipment such as television, refrigerators, computers. The main focus of this work is to present the possibility of electricity energy generation in conjunction with the frozen or hot water production in for places without electricity transmission nets or even any type of alternative power plants. The system is based on the standard air cycle called Brayton cycle composed of a turbo-compressor model 4LGZ from BorgWarner, a combustion chamber, a power turbine, a heat exchanger, a water-ammonia chiller, a 5.0 kV A generator, and a command panel for automation and distribution of energy. This system that uses natural gas or LPG, will supply electric energy from the generator, hot water from the heat exchange with the gases of combustion, and water frozen from chiller using as the hot source the gases proceeding from the power system. The prototype is already being tested and the first results obtained are excellent. In this paper, we analyze the internal combustion chamber temperatures. (author)

  11. Cogeneration and the regulatory framework of energy law; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und der energiewirtschaftliche Ordnungsrahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornehl, Angelika Bettina

    2009-06-15

    The present publication shows that the existing regulatory framework poses numerous impediments to cogeneration plants. This holds especially for industrial operators, but also for municipalities. It has prevented cogeneration from developing its full potential both as an element of competition and as a relief for the environment. Unlike industrial cogeneration plants, those serving the public energy supply at least enjoy the privilege of regional monopoly rights. In today's liberalised electricity market, however, this can be a burden for existing municipal plants which were installed under territorial protection and in many cases have incurred high cost levels and become inflexible and lacking in entrepreneurial spirit as a result. On account of its tendency to promote optimal resource input and efficiency, competition promises positive impulses for the use of cogeneration in small-scale heat grids, where high fuel efficiency matters more. A reform of the competition regime in the power economy would eliminate numerous impediments, particularly for industrial cogeneration operators. Good hopes for the future of cogeneration in a liberalised electricity and gas market are also nurtured by cooperative supply concepts and, within the large domain of services, opportunities held out by special contracting offers.

  12. Electricity cogeneration evaluation from cane bagasse in gasifier systems/gas turbine; Avaliacao da cogeracao de eletricidade a partir de bagaco de cana em sistemas de gaseificador/turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    1992-07-01

    Before the beginning of PROALCOOL in 1975, the first effective program in the world using biomass in large scale as an automotive fuel, sugar/alcohol industries already used sugar cane bagasse - a by-product of sugar/alcohol production - to generate energy for sugar production. Currently, besides the fact that they are self-sufficient in thermal/electrical energy, sugar/alcohol industries produce small electricity excess which is exported to local utilities. Gasifier/gas turbine systems are more advanced technologies which are being developed and shall be commercialized in eight to ten years approximately, presenting much higher efficiency, at low cost and inducing more exportable electricity. In this study, possibilities of gasifier/gas turbine systems are evaluated and projections of bagasse based electricity production are presented, until year 2010, for Sao Paulo state and Brazil. Generation costs of gasified bagasse based electricity are calculated: they shall be lower than electricity cost from fossil origin. Influence of electricity sale on the reduction of alcohol production cost are also evaluated for several opportunity costs of bagasse. Environmental and social impacts are analyzed, including evaluation of the cost of avoided carbon, related to the substitution of fossil fuel by sugar cane bagasse in thermoelectric power plants. (author)

  13. GTA-based framework for evaluating the role of design parameters in cogeneration cycle power plant efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, Nikhil; Samsher,; Kachhwaha, S.S.; Attri, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology based on graph theoretic approach (GTA) to design a new cogeneration cycle power plant (CGCPP), improvement of existing plant and comparison of two real life operating cogeneration cycle power plants. Different combinations may be suggested by a manufacturer to an organization for selecting or improving the efficiency of a power plant. This paper identifies various design parameters affecting cogeneration cycle power plant efficiency. All these parameters are...

  14. Dynamic Simulation and Exergo-Economic Optimization of a Hybrid Solar–Geothermal Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a dynamic simulation model and a parametric analysis of a solar-geothermal hybrid cogeneration plant based on an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC powered by a medium-enthalpy geothermal resource and a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. The fluid temperature supplying heat to the ORC varies continuously as a function of the solar irradiation, affecting both the electrical and thermal energies produced by the system. Thus, a dynamic simulation was performed. The ORC model, developed in Engineering Equation Solver, is based on zero-dimensional energy and mass balances and includes specific algorithms to evaluate the off-design system performance. The overall simulation model of the solar-geothermal cogenerative plant was implemented in the TRNSYS environment. Here, the ORC model is imported, whereas the models of the other components of the system are developed on the basis of literature data. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting energetic, economic and exergetic performance data. Finally, a rigorous optimization has been performed to determine the set of system design/control parameters minimizing simple payback period and exergy destruction rate. The system is profitable when a significant amount of the heat produced is consumed. The highest irreversibilities are due to the solar field and to the heat exchangers.

  15. The ARCHER project (Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knol, S., E-mail: knol@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Fütterer, M.A. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F. [Nuclear Research and consultancy Group (NRG), PO Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kohtz, N. [TÜV Rheinland, Köln (Germany); Laurie, M. [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium elements, Karlsruhe (Germany); Buckthorpe, D. [UMAN, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Scheuermann, W. [IKE, Stuttgart University, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    The European HTR R&D project ARCHER (Advanced High-Temperature Reactors for Cogeneration of Heat and Electricity R&D) builds on a solid HTR technology foundation in Europe, established through former national UK and German HTR programs and in European framework programs. ARCHER runs from 2011 to 2015 and targets selected HTR R&D subjects that would specifically support demonstration, with a focus on experimental effort. In line with the R&D and deployment strategy of the European Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) ARCHER contributes to maintaining, strengthening and expanding the HTR knowledge base in Europe to lay the foundations for demonstration of nuclear cogeneration with HTR systems. The project consortium encompasses conventional and nuclear industry, utilities, Technical Support Organizations, R&D organizations and academia. ARCHER shares results with international partners in the Generation IV International Forum and collaborates directly with related projects in the US, China, Japan, the Republic of Korea and South Africa. The ARCHER project has finished, and the paper comprises an overview of the achievements of the project.

  16. Benefits of compressor inlet air cooling for gas turbine cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lucia, M.; Lanfranchi, C. [Univ. di Firenze (Italy). Dept. di Energetica; Boggio, V. [CRIT S.r.l., Prato (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    Compressor inlet air cooling is an effective method for enhancing the performance of gas turbine plants. This paper presents a comparative analysis of different solutions for cooling the compressor inlet air for the LM6000 gas turbine in a cogeneration plant operated in base load. Absorption and evaporative cooling systems are considered and their performance and economic benefits compared for the dry low-NO{sub x} LM6000 version. Reference is made to two sites in Northern and Southern Italy, whose climate data series for modeling the variations in ambient temperature during the single day were used to account for the effects of climate in the simulation. The results confirmed the advantages of inlet air cooling systems. In particular, evaporative cooling proved to be cost effective, though capable of supplying only moderate cooling, while absorption systems have a higher cost but are also more versatile and powerful in base-load operation. An integration of the two systems proved to be able to give both maximum performance enhancement and net economic benefit.

  17. Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration - A Prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanfeng Liu; Martin, Andrew [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    Cost-effective, reliable, and energy efficient water treatment systems are an integral part of modern cogeneration facilities. Demineralized water is required for make-up water in district heating networks and in boilers. In addition, increasing attention has been paid to the treatment of flue gas condensate for possible recycling. A number of membrane technologies like reverse osmosis (RO) and electrode ionization (EDI) have been developed for the above applications. Besides these methods, membrane distillation (MD) is promising technology in this context. MD utilizes differences in vapor pressure to purify water via a hydrophobic membrane. The process can utilize district heat supply temperatures or low-grade steam, thus making it attractive for cogeneration applications. This investigation consists of a pre-study to evaluate the viability of membrane distillation as a new water treatment technology in cogeneration plants. Results obtained from the study will be used as an input to follow-on research, which may include the construction of a pilot plant. Target groups for this study include environmental engineers with particular interest in emerging water purification technologies. Specific elements of this work include a literature survey, theoretical considerations of heat and mass transfer, and scale-up of experimental results. Data obtained from the test facility owned by Xzero AB and located at Royal Inst. of Technology was employed for this purpose. Actual water production was found to be lower than the theoretical maximum, illustrating the potential for improvements in MD module design. A case study considering a 10 m{sup 3} pure water/hr system is explored to shed light on commercial-scale aspects. Results show that MD is a promising alternative to RO in existing or new treatment facilities. The most favorable results were obtained for alternatives where either the district heat supply line or low-grade steam (2-3 bar, 200 deg C) are available. Specific

  18. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  19. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; When, C.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report covers the activity during the period from 2 June 1991 to 1 June 1992. The major areas of work include: the combustor sub-scale and full size testing, cleanup, coal fuel specification and processing, the Hot End Simulation rig and design of the engine parts required for use with the coal-fueled combustor island. To date Solar has demonstrated: Stable and efficient combustion burning coal-water mixtures using the Two Stage Slagging Combustor; Molten slag removal of over 97% using the slagging primary and the particulate removal impact separator; and on-site preparation of CWM is feasible. During the past year the following tasks were completed: The feasibility of on-site CWM preparation was demonstrated on the subscale TSSC. A water-cooled impactor was evaluated on the subscale TSSC; three tests were completed on the full size TSSC, the last one incorporating the PRIS; a total of 27 hours of operation on CWM at design temperature were accumulated using candle filters supplied by Refraction through Industrial Pump Filter; a target fuel specification was established and a fuel cost model developed which can identify sensitivities of specification parameters; analyses of the effects of slag on refractory materials were conducted; and modifications continued on the Hot End Simulation Rig to allow extended test times.

  20. Cost of electricity from small scale co-generation of electricity and heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    2012-07-15

    There is an increasing interest in Sweden for using also small heat loads for cogeneration of electricity and heat. Increased use of small CHP-plants with heat supply capacities from a few 100 kW(h) up to 10 MW(h) cannot change the structure of the electricity supply system significantly, but could give an important contribution of 2 - 6 TWh(e) annually. The objective of this study was to clarify under what conditions electricity can be generated in small wood fired CHP-plants in Sweden at costs that can compete with those for plants using fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The capacity range studied was 2 - 10 MW(h). The results should facilitate decisions about the meaningfulness of considering CHP as an option when new heat supply systems for small communities or sawmills are planned. At the price for green certificates in Sweden, 250 - 300 SEK/MWh(e), generation costs in small wood fired CHP-plants should be below about 775 SEK/MWh(e) to compete with new nuclear power plants and below about 925 SEK/MWh(e) to compete with generation using fossil fuels.

  1. Fuel cell system blower configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Kirtikumar H.; Saito, Kazuo

    2017-11-28

    An exemplary fuel cell system includes a cell stack assembly having a plurality of cathode components and a plurality of anode components. A first reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a first reactant to the cathode components. A second reactant blower has an outlet situated to provide a second reactant to the anode components. The second reactant blower includes a fan portion that moves the second reactant through the outlet. The second reactant blower also includes a motor portion that drives the fan portion and a bearing portion associated with the fan portion and the motor portion. The motor portion has a motor coolant inlet coupled with the outlet of the first reactant blower to receive some of the first reactant for cooling the motor portion.

  2. Fluorescent multiplex cell flow systems and methods

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-06-01

    Systems and methods are provided for simultaneously assaying cell adhesion or cell rolling for multiple cell specimens. One embodiment provides a system for assaying adhesion or cell rolling of multiple cell specimens that includes a confocal imaging system containing a parallel plate flow chamber, a pump in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber inlet line and a cell suspension in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber outlet line. The system also includes a laser scanning system in electronic communication with the confocal imaging system, and a computer in communication with the confocal imaging system and laser scanning system. In certain embodiments, the laser scanning system emits multiple electromagnetic wavelengths simultaneously it cause multiple fluorescent labels having different excitation wavelength maximums to fluoresce. The system can simultaneously capture real-time fluorescence images from at least seven cell specimens in the parallel plate flow chamber.

  3. Testing of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for micro-cogeneration unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, O.B.; Gauthier, J.E.D. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Hughes, P.M.; Brandon, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration involves the generation of electricity in addition to the productive use of waste heat from the combustion process using the same primary fuel. An alternative to combined electrical power and heat generation is a micro-cogeneration unit which uses a micro-turbine as a prime mover. This type of unit is expected to result in a shift from large and centralized plants to smaller, more economical on-site generation plants. This paper presented a new low nitrogen oxide (NOx) wire-mesh duct burner (WMDB) for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. In order to increase its thermal output, the low NOx WMDB was designed, built and integrated for evaluation with the Ingersol-Rand 70 kw micro-cogeneration unit. The wire-mesh burner had a conical shape and was manufactured by ACOTECH. The paper also discussed the advantages of micro-CHP units which are more attractive to building owners, retail establishments, commercial and light industrial facilities. Advantages include quality of the power supply; more economical, cleaner power; and the addition of new capacity without new transmission lines. It was concluded that low levels of emission were achieved with the development of a low NOx wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration plant. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Efficiency Assessment of Support Mechanisms for Wood-Fired Cogeneration Development in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, Anna; Siirde, Andres

    2010-01-01

    There are various support mechanisms for wood-fired cogeneration plants, which include both support for cogeneration development and stimulation for increasing consumption of renewable energy sources. The efficiency of these mechanisms is analysed in the paper. Overview of cogeneration development in Estonia is given with the focus on wood-fired cogeneration. Legislation acts and amendments, related to cogeneration support schemes, were described. For evaluating the efficiency of support mechanisms an indicator - fuel cost factor was defined. This indicator includes the costs related to the chosen fuel influence on the final electricity generation costs without any support mechanisms. The wood fuel cost factors were compared with the fuel cost factors for peat and oil shale. For calculating the fuel cost factors, various data sources were used. The fuel prices data were based on the average cost of fuels in Estonia for the period from 2000 till 2008. The data about operating and maintenance costs, related to the fuel type in the case of comparing wood fuel and oil shale fuel were taken from the CHP Balti and Eesti reports. The data about operating and maintenance costs used for peat and wood fuel comparison were taken from the Tallinn Elektrijaam reports. As a result, the diagrams were built for comparing wood and its competitive fuels. The decision boundary lines were constructed on the diagram for the situation, when no support was provided for wood fuels and for the situations, when various support mechanisms were provided during the last 12 years.

  5. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  6. Bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundinya, Sandeep; Maria Ambrose Raj, Y.; Sreeram, K.; Divakar Shetty A., S.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is widely used all over the world in almost all power plants. The dependence on coal has increased enormously as the demand for electricity has reached its peak. Coal being a non-renewable source is depleting fast. We being the engineers, it's our duty to conserve the natural resources and optimize the coal consumption. In this project, we have tried to optimize the bio-mass utilization in high pressure cogeneration boiler. The project was carried in Seshasayee Paper and Boards Limited, erode related to Boiler No:10 operating at steam pressure of 105 kscg and temperature of 510°C. Available bio-mass fuels in and around the mill premises are bagasse, bagasse pith, cane trash and chipper dust. In this project, we have found out the coal equivalent replacement by the above bio-mass fuel(s) to facilitate deciding on the optimized quantity of coal that can be replaced by biomass without modifying the existing design of the plant. The dominant fuel (coal) which could be displaced with the substitute biomass fuel had been individually (biomass) analyzed.

  7. Determination of Fuel Consumption Indexes of Co-generation Combined Cycle Steam and Gas Units with unfired waste heat boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the developed methodology and the results of determination of fuel consumption indexes of co-generation combined cycle steam and gas units (PGU with unfired waste heat boilers apply to PGU-230 of 3-d co-generation power plant ofMinsk. 

  8. 76 FR 22695 - Yuba City Cogenerations Partners, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Yuba City Cogenerations Partners, LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Yuba City Cogeneration Partners, LP's application for market...

  9. The operation of small cogeneration plants and short-term storage for district heating and public electric power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, J; Petersen, P.M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the economics of cogeneration supplemented by warm-water storage and subjected to a three-step price schedule for electricity, has been carried out. Some general guidelines can be derived, but no simple design rules, such as those for cogeneration plants operating...

  10. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in theory fuel cell systems can be far more efficient than thermal power systems. This advantage is only partly utilized in present fuel cell pilot plants and additional optimization is needed. The comp...

  11. The optimal scheduling of decentralised co-generation plants in microgrids; Optimale Einsatzplanung von Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen in Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunkel, David [TU Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hess, Tobias; Schegner, Peter [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Elektrische Energieversorgung und Hochspannungstechnik

    2011-07-01

    The daily operational scheduling of decentralised unit is an important optimization task of power systems. This proceeding deals with planning of small scaled co-generation power units for district heating in a microgrid. This power system can be mathematically formulated and solved by an optimization algorithm. The solution process consists of a unit commitment and dispatch. The starting unit commitment is characterised by a mixed integer nonlinear problem defining the on-off-state of all units. Subsequently, the dispatch distributes the generation requirements to every committed unit considering thermal demand. The dispatching is based on a mixed integer linear problem. Additionally, it presents a way for flexible reducing the outage reserve related to the operational condition. The given microgrid operates in an islanding mode. The method can also be applied in a grid connected model considering the possible requirements of a grid operator. (orig.)

  12. Economic Dispatch of Hydrogen Systems in Energy Spot Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2015-01-01

    of energy spot markets. The generic hydrogen system is comprised of an electrolysis for hydrogen production, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell system for cogeneration of electricity and heat. A case study is presented with information from practical hydrogen systems and the Nordic energy markets......Hydrogen system, as a new energy carrier, could deliver clean and efficient energy services in a wide range of applications. This paper presents an economic dispatch-based mathematical model that facilitates investigations on the techno-economic feasibility of hydrogen systems in the context...

  13. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  14. Evaluation of Ethanol Production and Cogeneration of Energy by Sweet Sorghum Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Olivieri De Nóbile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of fossil fuels and environmental pollution have led to the discussions of new biofuels. For this reason new sources of renewable fuels are sought and an alternative to ethanol production, besides sugar cane, is sweet sorghum, using it as a complement, not as a competitor of sugar cane, considering that the demand for biofuels is growing on a large scale worldwide. The aim was to analyze the production of ethanol and the cogeneration of sweet sorghum in the offseason of sugar cane, and to compare the yield of sweet sorghum with sugar cane, the processes to obtain and to produce etnhanol from sweet sorgo and the production cost, supplying the lack of raw materials in the offseason and increasing the period of grinding mill. The methodology used was a bibliographical review in scientific journals, books and internet. In a near future, with research of new more productive varieties, sweet sorghum is an alternative to produce ethanol during the offseason of sugar cane for its short cycle of sowing and harvesting, besides climatic factors which favor its development and utilization of the same systems used for the production of ethanol from sugar cane.

  15. Retrofitting of municipal coal fired heating plant with integrated biomass gasification gas turbine based cogeneration block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Jacek [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Thermal Technologies, Knarskiego 22, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-05-15

    Biomass has a significant potential for reduction of both CO{sub 2} emission and consumption of fossil fuels in energy production sector. On the other hand the successful implementation of biomass into regional energy systems is strongly influenced by many political, economic and technical factors. The best effects can be obtained if a proper choice of biomass plant technology has been made. The objective of this work is the analysis and discussion of technical and economic benefits of retrofitting an existing coal-fired municipal heating plant with integrated biomass gasification cogeneration block. The project leads to both local and global reduction of emission and fossil fuels consumption. An investment decision is however dependent on economic profitability, which is also examined in this work. Four design alternatives were proposed and modeled with using Cycle-Tempo simulation software. An annual mass and energy balance of the plant was calculated and economic analysis was performed. The results indicate a great energy and emission savings potential. An effective financial support, that results from local renewable energy promotion policy, can make an economic performance of the project attractive. The best technical solution for the retrofitting the analyzed heating plant was the combined cycle integrated with gasification of biomass with steam. (author)

  16. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  17. The Qualification of Electricity Production in High Efficiency Cogeneration for the Access to the Support Scheme through Green Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasoae P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of high efficiency cogeneration is a priority of the European Union, given the potential benefits of cogeneration relating to primary energy savings, avoiding network losses and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The paper presents the manner of determining the amount of electricity generated in high efficiency cogeneration for access to the support scheme through green certificates. The support scheme for the promotion of cogeneration is based on useful heat demand and primary energy savings compared with separate production of electricity and heat. We examine a cogeneration heat and power plant with ORC technology and biomass fuel, which have the technical characteristics in the nominal conditions of 1.3 MWe (electrical power and 5.4 MWth (thermal power. We also propose an algorithm for determining the useful heat, who takes into account the operational requirements of the analysed CHP unit.

  18. Estimating cell capacity for multi-cell electrical energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Iman Ahari

    A Multi-Cell Electrical Energy System is a set of batteries that are connected in series. The series batteries provide the required voltage necessary for the contraption. After using the energy that is provided by the batteries, some cells within the system tend to have a lower voltage than the other cells. Also, other factors, such as the number of times a battery has been charged or discharged, how long it has been within the system and many other factors, result in some cells having a lesser capacity compared to the other cells within the system. The outcome is that it lowers the required capacity that the electrical energy system is required to provide. By having an unknown cell capacity within the system, it is unknown how much of a charge can be provided to the system so that the cells are not overcharged or undercharged. Therefore, it is necessary to know the cells capacity within the system. Hence, if we were dealing with a single cell, the capacity could be obtained by a full charge and discharge of the cell. In a series system that contains multiple cells a full charging or discharging cannot happen as it might result in deteriorating the structure of some cells within the system. Hence, to find the capacity of a single cell within an electrical energy system it is required to obtain a method that can estimate the value of each cell within the electrical energy system. To approach this method an electrical energy system is required. The electrical energy system consists of rechargeable non-equal capacity batteries to provide the required energy to the system, a battery management system (BMS) board to monitor the cells voltages, an Arduino board that provides the required communication to BMS board, and the PC, and a software that is able to deliver the required data obtained from the Arduino board to the PC. The outcome, estimating the capacity of a cell within a multi-cell system, can be used in many battery related technologies to obtain unknown

  19. COGENERATION SOLUTION FOR RECOVERING RENEWABLE RESOURCES EXISTING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia OBREJA∗

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration or the factories that produce heat and power, represent one of the alternatives available to the European Union to achieve the objectives of energy policy, with the obligativity to implement new measures to support this technology, which ensures the reduction of the consume of primary energy, reducing CO2 emissions, reducing network losses and increasing competition in the electricity market. In this context, the European Parliament, by the resolution promoted on January 2009, regarding the second strategic review of energy policy, welcomed the Committee plan on industry, research and energy, to follow carefully the evolution of cogeneration, but called and reminded the Commission, that during the review of the Action Plan for energy efficiency in 2009, to identify and promote methods, processes, tools that will ensure full valorification of the cogeneration potential using renewable resources existing throughout the EU.

  20. Comparative evaluation of recent reports on the energy conservation potential from cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, R. W.; Klepper, O. H.

    1979-02-01

    Most of the electricity generated in the U.S. and the heat used by industry, buildings, and homes are produced independently from the combustion of separate fuels. Cogeneration, the combined production of electricity and useful heat, could reduce significantly the total amount of fuel required. This report discusses areas of application and alternative technologies for cogeneration. Projections by various investigators indicate potential U.S. energy savings from 1 to 2% up to almost 10%. Several of the published estimates of potential energy conservation benefits from cogeneration are analyzed and reduced to common bases for comparison. Significant differences in the various projections arise from differences in estimating the size of the industrial steam demand and from divergent assumptions concerning the tractability of various implementation problems. 16 references.

  1. State Support for Promotion of Electrical Energy Produced in High Efficiency Cogeneration in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushatescu V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Romania accumulated a useful experience in supporting high efficient cogeneration through a bonus type scheme. Spreading this experience to other countries that can choose a similar support scheme could lead to important savings and better results in developing this efficient tool. This state aid is operational, targeted to new investments stimulation for cogeneration technologies and replacement or existing plants rehabilitation. Present paper focuses on the results of support scheme after five years of its application: increase of number of producers who benefit of this aid, raising of general efficiency of high efficient cogeneration, important savings of primary energy and CO2 emissions avoided. On the other hand, use of this scheme showed a number of problems (to which this paper proposes adequate solutions on institutional/administrative, investition, technical, economical-financial and social frameworks that influences beneficiaries and/or financiers of state aid.

  2. Flexibility and uncertainty in agribusiness projects: investing in a cogeneration plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar Arenaro e Mello Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy generation from biomass has become a source of increasing interest due to growing environmental concerns and the depletion of the world’s fossil fuel reserves. In this paper we analyze a sugar and ethanol producing plant in Brazil which has both the option to expand and to add a cogeneration unit to allow the sale of surplus energy, generated by burning sugar cane bagasse, where the existence of the second option is conditional to the exercise of the first option. We model sugar, ethanol, and electricity prices as geometric mean reverting processes and apply the real options approach to determine the value of these managerial flexibilities, considering that these options have three distinct underlying assets. The option to expand production is a function of the expected future prices of sugar and ethanol, while, on the other hand, the decision to invest in the cogeneration plant will depend on the future prices of energy. Both decisions are modeled as American Compound Options over their respective underlying assets. The model is then solved using the non-censored binomial mean reverting lattice proposed by Bastian-Pinto, Brandão, and Hahn (2010 using the software DPLTM. The results indicate that a significant value can be derived from the flexibility to choose the optimal timing of investment in both options: the investment in the cogeneration unit adds an amount equivalent to the value of the expanding sugar and ethanol production, and represents up to 44% of the project’s static NPV of R$ 195.9 million. We conclude that given that only half of the sugar cane crushing mills currently have cogeneration units installed and given the increasing demand for clean and renewable sources of energy, this may indicate there is a significant potential for investment and further development of bioelectricity cogeneration power plants, and even in the retrofit of older cogeneration units, and that government incentives have been effective in

  3. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  4. A preliminary economic analysis of a small-scale cogeneration system to be used in the UFSC - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina hospital; Estudo de pre-viabilidade economica de uma planta de cogeracao de pequena escala para uso no hospital da UFSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco Junior, Roberto Wolf; Matelli, Jose Alexandre; Bazzo, Edson [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos (LabCET)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a small scale cogeneration plant to be installed at the HU is presented. The study consists in a preliminary technical and economical analysis regarding the electrical demands and the hot water supply to the HU. A 90 kWe and a 280 kWe gensets based on internal combustion engines are considered.The heat associated to the jacket water is recovered in a heat exchanger to pre-heat the water to be used in the HU. The heat associated to the gases is recovered in another heat exchanger to increase the water temperature up to 60 deg C. Considering the 90 kWe engine operating 3 h/day in the peak period, it is obtained a saving around R$ 18.000/year and a 10 % internal rate of return. Since HU is not connected to the gas pipeline, currently compressed natural gas is considered as energy source. (author)

  5. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  6. Optimization of Gas Turbine Cogeneration Systemfor Various Heat Exchanger Configurations Optimisation des systèmes de turbine à combustion en cogénération pour différentes configurations des échangeurs de chaleur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea M.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates and compares the performance of three configurations of Gas Turbine systems allowing cogeneration of heat and electricity, on the basis of an irreversible regenerative Brayton-Joule cycle. The proposed model is developed for two different cycle constraints, namely, an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, or an imposed maximum cycle temperature. The model also includes the irreversibility due to the friction in the compressor and turbine, and due to the heat losses in the combustion chamber and heat exchangers. Energy efficiency for the system without and with cogeneration, and the exergetic efficiency are used in order to emphasize the cogeneration advantages, but also to help the designer to choose the best configuration of the Gas Turbine system that suits to his needs. Experimental data from a real operating microturbine were used to validate the model. The power output and the energy and exergetic efficiencies are optimized with respect to a set of operating parameters. The optimum values of the Gas Turbine engine parameters corresponding to maximum power output and respectively to maximum thermodynamic efficiency are discussed. The results show same optimal values of the compression ratio corresponding to almost all maximum performances for an imposed heat transfer rate released by the fuel combustion, excepting the maximum exergetic efficiency that requires higher optimal values of the compression ratio than the maximum exergy rate one. A performance comparison of the three configurations is done and future perspectives of the work are proposed. Cet article explore et compare les performances des trois configurations de systèmes de turbine à combustion permettant la production combinée de chaleur et d’électricité, sur la base du cycle irréversible régénératif de Brayton-Joule. Le modèle proposé est développé pour deux contraintes différentes sur le cycle, notamment le

  7. Biomek Cell Workstation: A Variable System for Automated Cell Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, R; Severitt, J C; Roddelkopf, T; Junginger, S; Thurow, K

    2016-06-01

    Automated cell cultivation is an important tool for simplifying routine laboratory work. Automated methods are independent of skill levels and daily constitution of laboratory staff in combination with a constant quality and performance of the methods. The Biomek Cell Workstation was configured as a flexible and compatible system. The modified Biomek Cell Workstation enables the cultivation of adherent and suspension cells. Until now, no commercially available systems enabled the automated handling of both types of cells in one system. In particular, the automated cultivation of suspension cells in this form has not been published. The cell counts and viabilities were nonsignificantly decreased for cells cultivated in AutoFlasks in automated handling. The proliferation of manual and automated bioscreening by the WST-1 assay showed a nonsignificant lower proliferation of automatically disseminated cells associated with a mostly lower standard error. The disseminated suspension cell lines showed different pronounced proliferations in descending order, starting with Jurkat cells followed by SEM, Molt4, and RS4 cells having the lowest proliferation. In this respect, we successfully disseminated and screened suspension cells in an automated way. The automated cultivation and dissemination of a variety of suspension cells can replace the manual method. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  8. The French stock of cogeneration equipment at 31 December 1997; Le parc francais des equipements de cogeneration au 31/12/1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie [ed.] [Direction generale de l' energie et des matieres premieres, Secretariat d' Etat a l' Industrie, Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    This study carried out by the General Direction for energy and raw materials of the State Secretariat for Industry of France presents the situation of the French stock of equipment for cogeneration extant at 31 December 1997. Industry, where the situation is rather well-known, and heating units in residential or service sector, as well as the heating grids and refuse-fueled plants are considered. The cogeneration of heat and motive power, often transformed in electricity, is recognized as privileged a way of sparing primary energy as long as it can be installed on sites where the simultaneous demand of heat and electricity (or motive power) is justified. The cogeneration stock as recorded at 31 December 1997 equals 940 units with 3,600 MW electric and 1,900 MW thermal total power. Their annual energy output is 11.6 TWh electricity and 44 TWh heat. The corresponding fuel consumption is 72 TWh or 6.2 Mtep. Other additional 90 units with 530 MW total electric are now under way. This equipment consists of 330 steam turbines, 105 combustion turbines and 505 heat engines. The stock is foreseen to grow significantly between 1998 and 2000. The reports gives details for each type of equipment as regarding the energy consumption, electric power (from < 1 MW to > 10 MW), age (from 4 month and less to 20 years and more), yield (from < 65% to {>=} 85%) and sector of application (industry, services, district heating, energy and water sector, agriculture). The equipment the installation of which is in progress in industry, service sector, district and grid heating, and in agriculture amounts 30, 17, 46 and 7, respectively. Responses to an inquiry concerning the equipment used in industry for cogeneration of heat/force in industry and energy sector, district and grid heating and service and agriculture are finally commented.

  9. Cogeneration is a precondition for economic efficiency. Market for mini-cogeneration plants; Strom/waermegefuehrter Betrieb Voraussetzung fuer Wirtschaftlichkeit. Markt fuer Kleinst-KWK-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musall, Eike; Voss, Karsten; Spars, Guido; Mrosek, Holger [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Architektur; Wittwer, Christof; Sauer, Christian [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Mini-cogeneration plants have emerged in the market only a few years ago. Without exception, they are heat-controlled. Most of the power generated is not utilized on site but is fed into the public power grid. This makes for lower economic efficiency, not least because of the high investment cost. The authors discuss the available options for optimizing operation both economically and energetically. (orig.)

  10. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - An Introduction to Glial Cells. Medha S Rajadhyaksha Yasmin Khan. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 4-10 ...

  11. Thermodynamic model for an alkaline fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Ivan; De Paepe, Michel; Mulder, Grietus

    Alkaline fuel cells are low temperature fuel cells for which stationary applications, e.g. cogeneration in buildings, are a promising market. In order to guarantee a long life, water and thermal management has to be done in a careful way. In order to better understand the water, alkali and thermal flows, a two-dimensional model for an Alkaline Fuel Cell is developed using a control volume approach. In each volume the electrochemical reactions together with the mass and energy balance are solved. The model is created in Aspen Custom Modeller, the development environment of Aspen Plus, where special attention is given to the physical flow of hydrogen, water and air in the system. In this way the developed component, the AFC-cell, can be built into stack configurations to understand its effect on the overall performance. The model is validated by experimental data from measured performance by VITO with their Cell Voltage Monitor at a test case, where the AFC-unit is used as a cogeneration unit.

  12. Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

  13. Cogenerating a Competency-based HRM Degree: A Model and Some Lessons from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Elden, Max

    2001-01-01

    A competency-based degree program in human resource management was co-generated by six groups of stakeholders who synthesized competency models using group decision support software. The program focuses on core human resource processes, general business management, strategic decision making and problem solving, change management, and personal…

  14. Cogeneration : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, Joyce; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This guidebook focuses on cogeneration development. It is one of a series of four guidebooks recently prepared to introduce the energy developer to the federal, state and local agencies that regulate energy facilities in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington (the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory). It was prepared specifically to help cogeneration developers obtain the permits, licenses and approvals necessary to construct and operate a cogeneration facility. The regulations, agencies and policies described herein are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever energy or a project becomes a political issue, a state legislature meets, a preexisting popular or valuable land use is thought threatened, elected and appointed officials change, and new directions are imposed on states and local governments by the federal government. Accordingly, cogeneration developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans. Developers are cautioned that the regulations described herein may only be a starting point on the road to obtaining all the necessary permits.

  15. Cogeneration: A solution from energetical auditoring. Cogeneracion: hipotesis de solucion en auditorias energeticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomara Martinez, E.; Riesco Leal, P.

    1993-01-01

    An energetical auditor provides the solutions to avoid environmental problems generated from the consumption of a determined fuel and reduces fuel consumption. One of the solutions is changing the energy source or introducing cogeneration. The author introduces under the point of view of an auditor the reasons to use to generation. (Author)

  16. Assessing the economic feasibility of flexible integrated gasification Co-generation facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the economic effects of introducing flexibility to state-of-the-art integrated gasification co-generation (IGCG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture. In a previous paper the technical and energetic performances of these flexible IG-CG facilities were evaluated. This paper

  17. Case history study of cogeneration facility at Southeast Missouri State University, Cape Girardeau, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The Southeast Missouri State University total energy plant, its fuel, control, production, operation, and maintenance are examined. A financial analysis looks at comparative operating costs for central heating (case 1), stand along (case 2), and cogeneration (case 3). Finally an evaluation of the performance of the plant indicates continuation of operation with some modifications.

  18. Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using bagasse. The sugar industry has the potential to generate about 960 MW per year from bagasse based on the average of 20 million tons of sugar cane...

  19. 'World's largest' biomass cogeneration plant opens in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickull, Stig [Alholmens Kraft Ab (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    The use of biofuels for cogeneration on a large scale is focused mainly on forest industry sites, where considerable quantities of biomass are available. One such plant, completed recently on the west coast of Finland and fuelled by a range of forest-based biofuels and peat, together with a little coal, is thought to be the largest in the world. (Author)

  20. Creation of digital heat consumption maps using 3D laser scanning data. Assessing the cogeneration potential of Nordrhein-Westfalen; Erstellung digitaler Waermebedarfskarten mit 3D-Laserscanningdaten. Potenzialermittlung von KWK in NRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, Bernd [Bremer Energie Institut, Bremen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Digital heat consumption maps are an ideal basis for the development of supply strategies, especially for systematic further development of district heating pipeline systems. In order to define the cogeneration potential of residential areas in the German state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, Bremer Energie Institut for the first time used 3D laser scanning data to establish a high-resolution digital heat atlas for seven model communities.

  1. Systems Biology and Stem Cell Pluripotency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashayekhi, Kaveh; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Freude, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in stem cell biology have accelerated research in the area of regenerative medicine. Over the past years, it has become possible to derive patient-specific stem cells which can be used to generate different cell populations for potential cell therapy. Systems biological...... modeling of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation have largely been based on prior knowledge of signaling pathways, gene regulatory networks, and epigenetic factors. However, there is a great need to extend the complexity of the modeling and to integrate different types of data, which would further...... improve systems biology and its uses in the field. In this chapter, we first give a general background on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. Stem cell potency is introduced together with the hierarchy of stem cells ranging from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem...

  2. The RedeGasEnergia and associated technologies to distributed generation, cogeneration and thermoelectric in developing the natural gas in Brazil; A RedeGasEnergia e as tecnologias associadas a geracao distribuida, cogeracao e termeletrica, no desenvolvimento da industria de gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    From the PETROBRAS Strategic Plan, where 2015 mission and vision are defined, one search to reach the corporative strategy: 'to lead the natural gas market (NG) and to act in a integrated way in the energy market'. Amongst the corporative politics to guide the business strategies, we will be focusing the new businesses development, having as guide line the annual average growth in the domestic demand of NG, 14.2%. The Investment Plan foresees for the energy and gas area investments around US$ 1.8 billion for the 2003/2007 period, being approximately US$ 500 million destined to the conclusion of the already initiated projects of thermoelectric plants. The Strategic Technological Committee of Energy and Gas (COMEG 2003) defined as technologies of interest for PETROBRAS: renewed energies; sustainable development; NG chemical transformation; NG transport, distribution and storage; distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric; production, distribution and use of hydrogen as energy vector; industrial, commercial and residential applications of NG; energy efficiency; automotive systems applications; high power electrical systems and environment. The technology explained in this work, for development of the Brazilian Natural Gas Industry, highly compliant with the NG mass use plan, is the distributed generation, co-generation and thermoelectric and its associated technologies (combustion, IGCC, thermoelectric cycles optimization, gas turbines, boiler/heat recovers, microturbines, fuel cells, combustion engines, renewed energies and cold generation among others). There are several business strategies related to this technology: to play in the electric energy business to assure the NG and derivatives market commercialized by PETROBRAS; to play in the development of alternative sources of energy and; to invest in conservation of energy and renewable energy to add value to the company business. The RedeGasEnergia portfolio has 22 projects in this

  3. Public health impact assessment of a proposed cogeneration plant in the Quebec city metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, P.; Bolduc, D.; Gauvin, D.; Guerrier, P.; Gauthier, R. [Quebec Public Health Center, Ste-Foy (Canada); Laflamme, P. [Laval Univ. (Canada). Dept. of Preventive Medicine

    1995-12-31

    In 1994, public hearings were held in Quebec city concerning a 120 megawatt (MW) gas cogeneration project that was to be coupled with an already existing pulp and paper mill in the downtown area. Cogeneration plants are often described as highly beneficial from the point of view of local environment. It is well known that the burning of natural gas emits far less sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate matters (PM) than the combustion of oil or coal. The proposed plant would use high pressure vapour from a nearby incinerator plant and natural gas to produce low pressure vapor for the paper mill industry as well as electricity. The cogeneration plant would allow the paper mill to stop burning heavy oil. By using natural gas instead of heavy oil, the new cogeneration-paper mill complex (CPC) is expected to reinforce the recent trend and willingness towards improving downtown air quality. On the other hand, the CPC would emit more CO{sub 2}, due to the production of additional electricity. According to the Rio de Janeiro Agreement ratified in 1988, Canada is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions by the year 2000. Nevertheless, the cogeneration file is a new option considered by the Quebec Provincial Governement in its last energy triennal plan. However, it must be specified that the Province of Quebec contributes to less than 15 % of the total Canadian CO{sub 2} production although it represents more than 25 % of its population. Furthermore the maximum production of electricity by this file has been set to 250 MW. It is a very small fraction of the total production of electricity in Quebec, which is 200 TW

  4. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisca Segura; Jose Manuel Andújar

    2015-01-01

      The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator) system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system...

  5. Analysis of energy cogeneration incentive politics to a sodium-chlorine Brazilian chemical plant energy cogeneration; Analise de politicas de incentivo a cogeracao de energia numa planta quimica brasileira de soda-cloro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, J.B.V.; Borschiver, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (CT/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia], E-mail: suzana@eq.ufrj.br; Szklo, A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], E-mail: szklo@ppe.ufrj.br; Andrade, M.H.S. [Braskem S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: marcio.andrade@braskem.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper evaluates, from a pont of view of investor and through the use of a simulator, the impact of incentive politics to the cogeneration, from the sugar cane bagasse, at a plant for production of sodium-chlorine.

  6. The cogeneration as an alternative of conservation of energy or increased productivity in industrial asphalt plants; A cogeracao como alternativa de conservacao de energia ou aumento da produtividade industrial em usinas de asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Liodoro de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Santos, SP (Brazil)], Email: mellostopa@pop.com.br; Souza, Marcelo de Oliveira e [Centrais Eletricas Brasileira S.A - ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Mello, Eliane Stopa de

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents a detailed study on the implantation of the combined and simultaneous generation of usable energy (cogeneration) in industrial units that provide support for the flow of wealth to the country, across roads and highways, as is the case of plant Asphalt EMPAV. The study, by the sensitivity analysis of economic and financial, completed in 2004, showed the feasibility of cogeneration system for the company. The fact is that this study would not have been exhaustively discussed, otherwise would be institutional actions towards improving the completion of work. In order to resume this discussion in this article was concerned to measure the monetary losses, especially energy, during the period 2004-2006 the production of asphalt for the conventional way.

  7. Mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration in the cultivation and hot bed of tulip and hyacinth; Mini-wkk in de bloembollensector. Toepassing van wkk bij teelt en broei van tulp en hyacint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Visser, I.; Koolwijk, E. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    This study shows that by deploying cogeneration, energy savings can be realized in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration at medium-sized to large flower bulb companies is interesting from the viewpoint of finance. [Dutch] Uit de studie blijkt dat met de toepassing van WKK energiebesparing gerealiseerd kan worden in de bollensector. Op de middelgrote tot grote bollenbedrijven is de toepassing van WKK uit financieel oogpunt interessant.

  8. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, J.H.W.; Kouffeld, R.W.J.; Hemmes, K.; Au, Siu Fai

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  9. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  10. Hybrid fuel cells technologies for electrical microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, Jose Ignacio; Zamora, Inmaculada; San Martin, Jose Javier; Aperribay, Victor; Eguia, Pablo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Alda. de Urquijo, s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Hybrid systems are characterized by containing two or more electrical generation technologies, in order to optimize the global efficiency of the processes involved. These systems can present different operating modes. Besides, they take into account aspects that not only concern the electrical and thermal efficiencies, but also the reduction of pollutant emissions. There is a wide range of possible configurations to form hybrid systems, including hydrogen, renewable energies, gas cycles, vapour cycles or both. Nowadays, these technologies are mainly used for energy production in electrical microgrids. Some examples of these technologies are: hybridization processes of fuel cells with wind turbines and photovoltaic plants, cogeneration and trigeneration processes that can be configured with fuel cell technologies, etc. This paper reviews and analyses the main characteristics of electrical microgrids and the systems based on fuel cells for polygeneration and hybridization processes. (author)

  11. Cogeneration in a plywood factory; Sistema de cogeneracion en una planta maderera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelazo Hernandez, Arturo; Mendoza Arcaraz, Alfonso [Ultra Energia, S. A. de C. V. Naucalpan (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    Cogeneration that is the joint production of two energy manifestations departing from a single energy source, appears as one of the more viable options to achieve the optimum utilization of the finite resources. In the last decades, in which the economic growth of Mexico has been tied to the generation and supply of electric power, the State has functioned as an organizer and director of the national system of electric power generation, although the participation of the private enterprise has been determining. We must take into account that in order to cover the future electricity needs of the national development, it will be required approximately 17 thousand additional MW, for which the private sector, among which the small and medium industry can be highlighted, will have the road opened to generate them, taking advantage of the changes in the Law and Rules for the Public Service of Electric Power, published in the Diario Oficial de la Federacion on December 23, 1992 and on May 31, 1993. In having an optimized co-generation system, the annual cost for the plywood factory for energy (electricity and fuel) will be substantially reduced. The plywood factory requires the installation of a co-generation system that supplies 4.75 MWe and 1,861 KWt (1.6 Gcal/hr). The electric power will be used in the manufacture of NOVOPAN (Plywood) Panels and the thermal energy to heat up the thermal oil utilized in the wood press and for the preparation of the emulsion used in the process. To satisfy the energy requirements two options have been analyzed: Electric power generation with an internal combustion motor using fuel oil as fuel, utilizing the exhaust gases from the motor to preheat the thermal oil in a heat exchanger exhaust gases-thermal oil. Due to the fact that the motor exhaust gases do no contain enough energy to heat up the thermal oil at the desired temperature, a thermal fluid boiler burning wood wastes and tree barks will be used. Electric power generation with a

  12. Conversion of coal-fired power plants to cogeneration and combined-cycle thermal and economic effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Bartnik, Ryszard

    2014-01-01

    This book covers methodology, calculation procedures and tools to support enterprise planning for adapting power stations to cogeneration and combined-cycle forms. It examines the optimum selection of the structure of heat exchangers in a 370 MW power block.

  13. PEM fuel cell monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Grot, Stephen Andreas

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for monitoring the performance of H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 PEM fuel cells. Outputs from a cell/stack voltage monitor and a cathode exhaust gas H.sub.2 sensor are corrected for stack operating conditions, and then compared to predetermined levels of acceptability. If certain unacceptable conditions coexist, an operator is alerted and/or corrective measures are automatically undertaken.

  14. Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco contemplates the benefits of cogeneration in its new plant; Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco contempla beneficios de la cogeneracion para su nueva planta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza, R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Khouri Solis, A. [Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the feasibility study performed in BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM PROMECO to determine the benefits that a cogeneration system could render in satisfying the energy demand of its plant currently being expanded. The results showed that in accordance with the operation mode of the already expanded plant, the highest benefits could be obtained of a cogeneration system with a capacity of 1,600 Kw that would partially satisfy the thermal and electrical demands of BOEHRINGER INGELHEIM PROMECO. [Espanol] El presente articulo presenta los resultados de factibilidad que se realizo en Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco para determinar los beneficios que podria rendir un sistema de cogeneracion al satisfacer las demandas energeticas de su planta actualmente en ampliacion. Los resultados mostraron que de acuerdo al modo de operacion de la planta ya ampliada, los beneficios mas altos se obtendrian de un sistema de cogeneracion con capacidad de 1,600 kW que satisfaria parcialmente las demandas termicas y electricas de Boehringer Ingelheim Promeco.

  15. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 6. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Oligodendrocytes – Ensheathers of the CNS. Yasmin Khan Medha S Rajadhyaksha. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 6 June 2002 pp 6-13 ...

  16. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  18. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and absorption heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cachorro, Irene Albacete; Daraban, Iulia Maria; Lainé, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a system consisting of an SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power and vapour absorption heat pump for cooling and freezing is assessed and performance is evaluated. Food industry where demand includes four forms of energy simultaneously is a relevant application such a system...... with natural gas. The natural gas is first converted to a mixture of H2 and CO which feed the anode after a preheating step. The cathode is supplied with preheated air and gives, as output, electrical energy. The anode output is the exhaust gas which represents the thermal energy reservoir for heating...... in order to meet the bought cooling and freezing demands. This is an innovative configuration for absorption heat pumps because the cascade is implemented only in vapour compression heat pumps. A smaller ratio of the exhausted gases supplies the energy demand for space heating. The SOFC is fuelled...

  19. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  20. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  1. Thermodynamic study of residual heat from a high temperature nuclear reactor to analyze its viability in cogeneration processes; Estudio termodinamico del calor residual de un reactor nuclear de alta temperatura para analizar su viabilidad en procesos de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan R, A.; Valle H, J.; Escalante, J. A., E-mail: santillanaura@gmail.com [Universidad Politecnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo, Boulevard acceso a Tolcayuca 1009, Ex-Hacienda San Javier, 43860 Tolcayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant of high temperature at gas turbine (GTHTR300) is presented for estimating the exploitable waste heat in a process of desalination of seawater. One of the most studied and viable sustainable energy for the production of electricity, without the emission of greenhouse gases, is the nuclear energy. The fourth generation nuclear power plants have greater advantages than those currently installed plants; these advantages have to do with security, increased efficiencies and feasibility to be coupled to electrical cogeneration processes. In this paper the thermodynamic study of a nuclear power plant type GTHTR300 is realized, which is selected by greater efficiencies and have optimal conditions for use in electrical cogeneration processes due to high operating temperatures, which are between 700 and 950 degrees Celsius. The aim of the study is to determine the heat losses and the work done at each stage of the system, determining where they are the greatest losses and analyzing in that processes can be taken advantage. Based on the study was appointed that most of the energy losses are in form of heat in the coolers and usually this is emitted into the atmosphere without being used. From the results a process of desalination of seawater as electrical cogeneration process is proposed. This paper contains a brief description of the operation of the nuclear power plant, focusing on operation conditions and thermodynamic characteristics for the implementation of electrical cogeneration process, a thermodynamic analysis based on mass and energy balance was developed. The results allow quantifying the losses of thermal energy and determining the optimal section for coupling of the reactor with the desalination process, seeking to have a great overall efficiency. (Author)

  2. Stepping on the gas for district heating in Germany. Gas and steam turbines for cogeneration; Gas geben fuer Fernwaerme in Deutschland. Gas- und Dampfturbinen fuer die KWK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohtz, Christian [Alstom Power, Baden (Switzerland). Marketing and Product Management Gas Business

    2011-07-15

    Measured by its intensive efforts to lower CO{sub 2} emissions Germany is one of the leading countries in the EU. One contribution to this end is to be had from cogeneration. As a provider of cogeneration plants Alstom is working to improve the fuel efficiency as well as the overall efficiency and flexibility of its products. The author explains the technology of gas-fired cogeneration plants and gives three examples of their use.

  3. Automated live cell imaging systems reveal dynamic cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirieleison, Steven M; Bissell, Taylor A; Scelfo, Christopher C; Anderson, Jordan E; Li, Yong; Koebler, Doug J; Deasy, Bridget M

    2011-07-01

    Automated time-lapsed microscopy provides unique research opportunities to visualize cells and subcellular components in experiments with time-dependent parameters. As accessibility to these systems is increasing, we review here their use in cell science with a focus on stem cell research. Although the use of time-lapsed imaging to answer biological questions dates back nearly 150 years, only recently have the use of an environmentally controlled chamber and robotic stage controllers allowed for high-throughput continuous imaging over long periods at the cell and subcellular levels. Numerous automated imaging systems are now available from both companies that specialize in live cell imaging and from major microscope manufacturers. We discuss the key components of robots used for time-lapsed live microscopic imaging, and the unique data that can be obtained from image analysis. We show how automated features enhance experimentation by providing examples of uniquely quantified proliferation and migration live cell imaging data. In addition to providing an efficient system that drastically reduces man-hours and consumes fewer laboratory resources, this technology greatly enhances cell science by providing a unique dataset of temporal changes in cell activity. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  4. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  5. A Reversible Planar Solid Oxide Fuel-Fed Electrolysis Cell and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Hydrogen and Electricity Production Operating on Natural Gas/Biomass Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Greg, G.

    2007-03-31

    A solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis technique was developed to co-generate hydrogen and electricity directly from a fuel at a reduced cost of electricity. Solid oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs), which were comprised of 8YSZ electrolytes sandwiched between thick anode supports and thin cathodes, were constructed and experimentally evaluated at various operation conditions on lab-level button cells with 2 cm2 per-cell active areas as well as on bench-scale stacks with 30 cm2 and 100 cm2 per-cell active areas. To reduce the concentration overpotentials, pore former systems were developed and engineered to optimize the microstructure and morphology of the Ni+8YSZ-based anodes. Chemically stable cathode materials, which possess good electronic and ionic conductivity and exhibit good electrocatalytic properties in both oxidizing and reducing gas atmospheres, were developed and materials properties were investigated. In order to increase the specific hydrogen production rate and thereby reduce the system volume and capital cost for commercial applications, a hybrid system that integrates the technologies of the SOFEC and the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC), was developed and successfully demonstrated at a 1kW scale, co-generating hydrogen and electricity directly from chemical fuels.

  6. Mini/micro cogeneration, basis for installation. Dimensioning, accounting and potential. Project report 1; Mini/mikrokraftvarme, forudsaetninger for installation. Dimensionering, afregningsforhold og potentiale. Projektrapport 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wit, J. de; Iskov, H.

    2005-11-15

    Cogeneration is quite spread in Denmark. Approx. 50 % of the power supply and 80 % of the district heating supply come from cogeneration. Combined heat and power is produced on both centralized (large) plants and decentralized plants. Decentralized combined heat and power plants (typically based on natural gas) use gas motors or gas turbines for power and heat production. Cogeneration of heat and power saves primary fuels and a directly derived effect from cogeneration is CO{sub 2} emission reduction. If fuels with higher specific CO{sub 2} emission than natural gas (e.g. coal, oil) are substituted, additional CO{sub 2} reduction can be reached. (BA)

  7. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the normal physiology and various pathologies of the cardiovascular system. PMID:16547202

  8. Analysing Scenarios of Cell Population System Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Vinogradova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers an isolated population system consisting of two types of human stem cells, namely normal cells and cells with chromosomal abnormalities (abnormal ones. The system develops in the laboratory (in vitro. The article analyses possible scenarios of the population system development, which are implemented for different values of its parameters. An investigated model of the cell population system takes into account the limited resources. It is represented as a system of two nonlinear differential equations with continuous right-hand part. The model is considered with non-negative values of the variables; the domain is divided into four sets. The model feature is that in each set the right part of the system of differential equations has a different form.The article analyses a quality of the rest points of the system in each of four sets. The analytical conditions for determination of the number of rest points and the quality of rest points, with, at least, one zero coordinate, are obtained.It is shown that the population system under study cannot have more than two points of rest, both coordinates of which are positive (non-zero. It is difficult to determine quality of such rest points depending on the model parameters due to the complexity of the expressions, which define the systems of the first approximation, recorded in a neighborhood of these points of rest. Numerical research results of the stability of these points of rest are obtained, and phase portraits with the specified specific values of the system parameters are demonstrated. The main scenarios for the cell population development are adduced. Analysis of mathematical model shows that a cell population system may remain the system consisting of populations of normal and abnormal cells; it can degenerate into a population of abnormal cells or perish. The scenario, in which there is only the population of normal cells, is not implemented. The numerical simulation

  9. Microbial Heat Recovery Cell (MHRC) System Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This factsheet describes a project that aimed to develop a microbial heat recovery cell (MHRC) system that combines a microbial reverse electrodialysis technology with waste heat recovery to convert industrial effluents into electricity and hydrogen.

  10. Co-generation potentials of municipal solid waste landfills in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Goran B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in the Republic of Serbia is based on landfilling. As a result of such year-long practice, a huge number of municipal waste landfills has been created where landfill gas has been generated. Landfill gas, which is essentially methane (50-55% and carbon dioxide (40-45% (both GHGs, has a great environmental impact which can be reduced by using landfill gas in cogeneration plants to produce energy. The aim of this paper is to determine economic and environmental benefits from such energy production. For that purpose, the database of cogeneration potentials (CP of 51 landfills in the Republic of Serbia (RS was created. Amount of landfill gas generated at each municipal landfill was calculated by applying a first order decay equation which requires the data about solid waste production and composition and about some landfill characteristics. For all landfills, which have over 100,000 m3 each, a techno-economic analysis about building a CHP plant was conducted. The results have shown, that the total investment in 14 CHP plants with payback period of less than 7 years amounts € 11,721,288. The total nominal power of these plants is 7 MW of electrical power and 7.9 MW of thermal power, and an average payback period is about 61 months. In addition, using landfill biogas as energy source in proposed plants would reduce methane emission for 161,000 tons of CO2 equivalent per year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 42013: Research of cogeneration potential of municipal and industrial energy power plant in Republic of Serbia and opportunities for rehabilitation of existing and construction of new cogeneration plants

  11. Performance evaluation of cogeneration power plants; Cogenerazione. La valutazione delle prestazioni di un impianto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacone, M. (comp.)

    2001-04-01

    The free market has changed the criteria for measuring the cogeneration plant performances. Further at the technical-economic parameters, are considered other connected at the profits of the power plant. [Italian] Il libero mercato ha cambiato i criteri con i quali vengono misurate le prestazioni di un impianto di cogenerazione. Ai parametri tecnico-economici utilizzati sino a ora se ne aggiungono altri legati alla redditivita' dell'impianto.

  12. Gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration; Turbina de gas reactor modular con helio en cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon de los Santos, G. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Division de Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: tesgleon@gmail.com

    2009-10-15

    This work carries out the thermal evaluation from the conversion of nuclear energy to electric power and process heat, through to implement an outline gas turbine modular helium reactor in cogeneration. Modeling and simulating with software Thermo flex of Thermo flow the performance parameters, based on a nuclear power plant constituted by an helium cooled reactor and helium gas turbine with three compression stages, two of inter cooling and one regeneration stage; more four heat recovery process, generating two pressure levels of overheat vapor, a pressure level of saturated vapor and one of hot water, with energetic characteristics to be able to give supply to a very wide gamma of industrial processes. Obtaining a relationship heat electricity of 0.52 and efficiency of net cogeneration of 54.28%, 70.2 MW net electric, 36.6 MW net thermal with 35% of condensed return to 30 C; for a supplied power by reactor of 196.7 MW; and with conditions in advanced gas turbine of 850 C and 7.06 Mpa, assembly in a shaft, inter cooling and heat recovery in cogeneration. (Author)

  13. Co-generation and reality Potential in Mexico; Potencial de cogeneracion y realidad en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This document deals with the Mexican use of co-generation -the efficient use of the energy- through the support offered by the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE), since this is the agency in charge of fomenting the efficient use of energy by means of actions coordinated with diverse dependencies and organizations of the Administracion Publica Federal and with the governments of the federal entities as well as municipalities, social and private sectors. Among the subjects to be dealt are quality of the electrical and thermal energy, types of fuels that can be used in the co-generation project, the present situation of the co-generation in Mexico and the conditions for their development. [Spanish] Este documento analiza el uso de la cogeneracion en Mexico es decir, el uso eficiente de la energia a traves del apoyo que brinda la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) ya que es el organo encargado de fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de la energia mediante acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal y con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. Se trataran temas como calidad de la energia electrica y termica, los tipos de combustibles que pueden utilizarse en el proyecto de cogeneracion, la situacion actual de la cogeneracion en Mexico y las ccondiciones para su desarrollo.

  14. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  15. Live cell imaging and systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Myong-Hee; McNally, James G

    2010-01-01

    Much of the experimental data used to construct mathematical models of molecular networks are derived from in vitro measurements. However, there is increasing evidence that in vitro measurements fail to capture both the complexity and the individuality found in single, living cells. These limitations can be overcome by live cell microscopy which is evolving to enable in vivo biochemistry. Here we survey the current capabilities of live cell microscopy and illustrate how a number of different imaging approaches could be applied to analyze a specific molecular network. We argue that incorporation of such quantitative live cell imaging methods is critical for the progress of systems biology. PMID:20730797

  16. Single cell microfluidics for systems oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong

    2012-02-01

    The singular term ``cancer'' is never one kind of disease, but deceivingly encompasses a large number of heterogeneous disease states, which makes it impossible to completely treat cancer using a generic approach. Rather systems approaches are urgently required to assess cancer heterogeneity, stratify patients and enable the most effective, individualized treatment. The heterogeneity of tumors at the single cell level is reflected by the hierarchical complexity of the tumor microenvironment. To identify all the cellular components, including both tumor and infiltrating immune cells, and to delineate the associated cell-to-cell signaling network that dictates tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, we developed a single cell microfluidics chip that can analyze a panel of proteins that are potentially associated inter-cellular signaling network in tumor microenvironment from hundreds of single cells in parallel. This platform integrates two advanced technologies -- microfluidic single cell handling and ultra-high density protein array. This device was first tested for highly multiplexed profiling of secreted proteins including tumor-immune signaling molecules from monocytic leukemia cells. We observed profound cellular heterogeneity with all functional phenotypes quantitatively identified. Correlation analysis further indicated the existence of an intercellular cytokine network in which TNFα-induced secondary signaling cascades further increased functional cellular diversity. It was also exploited to evaluate polyfunctionality of tumor antigen-specific T cells from melanoma patients being treated with adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy. This platform could be further extended to analyze both solid tumor cells (e.g. human lung carcinoma cells) and infiltrating immune cells (e.g. macrophages) so as to enable systems analysis of the complex tumor microenvironment from small amounts of clinical specimens, e.g. skinny needle biopsies. Thus, it could potentially

  17. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  18. Efficient upconversion systems for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Löper, P.; Goldschmidt, J. C.; Peters, M.; Biner, D.; Krämer, K.; Schultz, O.; Glunz, S.W.; Luther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Frequency upconversion of sub-bandgap photons is one approach to push the efficiency limit of solar cells with one bandgap. A highly efficient upconversion system is Erbium doped NaYF4. In this paper we present photoluminescence studies on NaYF4 with 10%, 20% and 30% Erbium doping. We show experimental results of an upconversion system consisting of an upconverting powder on a bifacial silicon solar cell. The system has a quantum efficiency of 2.5·10-3% at 1520nm wavelength. We model the effi...

  19. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  20. Cryogenic distribution system for the first cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D P; Schneider, W J

    1980-01-01

    The ISABELLE refrigeration system utilizes compressed liquid helium to supply refrigeration to nearly 1100 superconducting bending and focusing magnets. These magnets steer the proton orbits of the accelerator and are arranged into two interlocking rings. The cryogenic distribution system that is used to transmit the helium cooling from the central refrigerator to the superconducting magnets makes up a substantial portion (34%) of the total heat load that the refrigerator must be capable of supplying. This piping system has been designed to minimize the heat input into the refrigeration system. The design and test results of the distribution system in use on the ISABELLE prototype, the first cell are described.

  1. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology. Daya Maghani is the. Deputy Director of the. Depa rtment of N europa- thology and Applied. Biology, Medical. Research Center, Bombay. Hospital, Mumbai. She specializes in electron microscopy of muscle, ... update students about these important other cells of the nervous system. The present article highlights ...

  2. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  3. Evaluation of avoided carbon dioxide emissions in cogeneration projects; Evaluacion de las emisiones evitadas de bioxido de carbono en proyectos de cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Zamudio, Jesus Antonio; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco; Alcaraz Calderon, Agustin Moises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jesus.flores@iie.org.mx; mffm@iie.org.mx; malcaraz@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    In this paper, presents a methodology of how to calculate the emissions of CO{sub 2} (Carbon Dioxide) in cogeneration of plants for evaluate future cases with the type of fuel and fuel flow used in the plant. The methodology was in spreadsheets developed a series of stoichiometric balances. The methodology was done for three types of fossil fuels: solid, liquid and gas. The analysis is made only to the percentages of the items contained in the fuel flow automatically used and results in the combustion products in tons per hour. This method was compared with the results obtained in the software Thermoflow Inc. (Used in Gerencia de Procesos Termicos of Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas for evaluate various process systems that produce energy power) using different cogeneration systems, that is to say about the technology used emissions compared according to the amount of excess air for each type of technology and at one point before the gas cleaning systems. The results can be evaluated for emissions avoided through the fuel type used and developing a cogeneration plant compared to a conventional plant. [Spanish] En este articulo, se presenta una metodologia de como calcular las emisiones de CO{sub 2} (Bioxido de carbono) en plantas de cogeneracion, para evaluar casos a futuro por medio del tipo de combustible y flujo de combustible a utilizar en la planta. La metodologia se realizo en hojas de calculo, donde se desarrollaron una serie de balances estequiometricos. La metodologia se hizo para tres tipos de combustibles fosiles: solido, liquido y gas. El analisis se realiza con solo dar los porcentajes de los elementos que contiene el combustible y el flujo a utilizarse y automaticamente da como resultado los productos de la combustion en toneladas por hora. Esta metodologia se comparo con los resultados obtenidos en el software Thermoflow Inc. (Empleado en la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas para evaluar diversos

  4. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  5. Energetic-economical analysis of a stationary for energy generation with fuel cells and natural gas reforming; Analise energetico-economica de um sistema estacionario de geracao de energia com celulas a combustivel e reforma de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose Geraldo de Melo; Silva Junior, Fernando Rodrigues; Silva, Cristiane Abrantes da; Soares, Guilherme Fleury Wanderley; Lopes, Francisco da Costa; Serra, Eduardo Torres [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: furtado@cepel.br; Codeceira Neto, Alcides [Companhia HidroEletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economicity of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  6. High throughput solar cell ablation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2012-09-11

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  7. Methodological specifics of the study of micro HPP based on internal combustion engines with air cooling and cogeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchinnikov, P. A.; Tomilov, V. G.; Sinelnikov, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers some aspects of the research methodology of micro heat power plants based on internal combustion engines with air cooling and cogeneration based on energy balance equations and the laws of heat transfer. The research is conducted for such a setup based on the Hitachi internal combustion engine with 2.4 kW capacity. It has shown the efficiency of cogeneration use in the form of useful heat flow from air, cooling the cylinder head, with its further heating by utilizing the heat of flue gases in an additional plate heat exchanger. It has been shown that the cogeneration can save fuel costs 3-10 times compared with heat guns, depending on the duration of the setup use.

  8. Feedback control in planarian stem cell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, Marc; Bonsall, Michael B; Aboobaker, Aziz

    2016-02-13

    In planarian flatworms, the mechanisms underlying the activity of collectively pluripotent adult stem cells (neoblasts) and their descendants can now be studied from the level of the individual gene to the entire animal. Flatworms maintain startling developmental plasticity and regenerative capacity in response to variable nutrient conditions or injury. We develop a model for cell dynamics in such animals, assuming that fully differentiated cells exert feedback control on neoblast activity. Our model predicts a number of whole organism level and general cell biological and behaviours, some of which have been empirically observed or inferred in planarians and others that have not. As previously observed empirically we find: 1) a curvilinear relationship between external food and planarian steady state size; 2) the fraction of neoblasts in the steady state is constant regardless of planarian size; 3) a burst of controlled apoptosis during regeneration after amputation as the number of differentiated cells are adjusted towards their homeostatic/steady state level. In addition our model describes the following properties that can inform and be tested by future experiments: 4) the strength of feedback control from differentiated cells to neoblasts (i.e. the activity of the signalling system) and from neoblasts on themselves in relation to absolute number depends upon the level of food in the environment; 5) planarians adjust size when food level reduces initially through increased apoptosis and then through a reduction in neoblast self-renewal activity; 6) following wounding or excision of differentiated cells, different time scales characterize both recovery of size and the two feedback functions; 7) the temporal pattern of feedback controls differs noticeably during recovery from a removal or neoblasts or a removal of differentiated cells; 8) the signaling strength for apoptosis of differentiated cells depends upon both the absolute and relative deviations of the

  9. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System-Schwann Cells ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 8. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System - Schwann Cells – Regulators of the Periphery. Yasmin Khan Medha S Rajadhyaksha. Series Article Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 8-15 ...

  10. Fuel cell system for transportation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Romesh; Ahmed, Shabbir; Krumpelt, Michael; Myles, Kevin M.

    1993-01-01

    A propulsion system for a vehicle having pairs of front and rear wheels and a fuel tank. An electrically driven motor having an output shaft operatively connected to at least one of said pair of wheels is connected to a fuel cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode separated by an electrolyte for producing dc power to operate the motor. A partial oxidation reformer is connected both to the fuel tank and to the fuel cell receives hydrogen-containing fuel from the fuel tank and water and air and for partially oxidizing and reforming the fuel with water and air in the presence of an oxidizing catalyst and a reforming catalyst to produce a hydrogen-containing gas. The hydrogen-containing gas is sent from the partial oxidation reformer to the fuel cell negative electrode while air is transported to the fuel cell positive electrode to produce dc power for operating the electric motor.

  11. A web-server of cell type discrimination system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    ...), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs...

  12. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    ...), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs...

  13. Solar cell power systems for space vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, N.W. (Inst. for Defense Analyses, Washington, DC); Karcher, R.W.

    1961-01-01

    On May 3 and 4, 1960, a symposium was held in Washington, DC, under the sponsorship of the Advanced Research Projects Agency by the Institute for Defense Analyses. Ten programs involving solar cell power systems for current US space vehicles conducted under government sponsorship were discussed by the project engineers who directed these programs. The results of that symposium are highlighted and summarized.

  14. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D.; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty measure dSpec, which measures the effect of noise on specificity. Using global gene expression data from the mouse brain, plant root and human white blood cells, we show that Spec identifies genes with variable expression levels that are nonetheless highly specific of particular cell types. When samples from different individuals are used, dSpec measures genes’ transcriptional plasticity in each cell type. Our approach is broadly applicable to mapped gene expression measurements in stem cell biology, developmental biology, cancer biology and biomarker identification. As an example of such applications, we show that Spec identifies a new class of biomarkers, which exhibit variable expression without compromising specificity. The approach provides a unifying theoretical framework for quantifying specificity in the presence of noise, which is widely applicable across diverse biological systems. PMID:21803789

  15. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  16. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission Fourth Quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    At the end of 1983, the number of signed contracts and letter agreements for cogeneration and small power production projects was 305, with a total estimated nominal capacity of 2,389 MW. Of these totals, 202 projects, capable of producing 566 MW, are operational (Table A). A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided as Figure A. Developers of cogeneration, solid waste, or biomass projects had signed 101 contracts with a potential of 1,408 MW. In total, 106 contracts and letter agreements had been signed with projects capable of producing 1,479 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 29 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 402 MW to 444 MW, and 13 solid waste or biomass projects with a potential of 84 MW to 89 MW. One contract had been signed for a geothermal project, capable of producing 80 MW. There were 7 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 37 MW, as well as 3 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract numbered 28, with a generating capability of 618 MW. Also, discussions were being conducted with 14 wind farm projects, totaling 365 MW. There were 100 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of 1 MW, as well as 8 other small wind projects under active discussion. There were 59 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 146 MW, as well as 72 projects under active discussion for 169 MW. In addition, there were 31 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 185 MW, that PG and E was planning to construct. Table B displays the above information. In tabular form, in Appendix A, are status reports of the projects as of December 31, 1983.

  17. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission First Quarter 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-01-01

    At the end of the First Quarter of 1984, the number of signed contracts and letter agreements for cogeneration and small power production projects was 322, with a total estimated nominal capacity of 2,643 MW. Of these totals, 215 projects, capable of producing 640 MW, are operational. A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided. Developers of cogeneration, solid waste, or biomass projects had signed 110 contracts with a potential of 1,467 MW. In total, 114 contracts and letter agreements had been signed with projects capable of producing 1,508 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 35 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 425 MW to 467 MW, and 11 solid waste or biomass projects with a potential of 94 MW to 114 MW. One contract had been signed for a geothermal project, capable of producing 80 MW. There were 7 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 37 MW, as well as 5 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract numbered 32, with a generating capability of 848 MW. Also, discussions were being conducted with 18 wind farm projects, totaling 490 MW. There were 101 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of 1 MW, as well as 6 other small wind projects under active discussion. There were 64 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 148 MW, as well as 75 projects under active discussion for 316 MW. In addition, there were 31 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 187 MW, that Pg and E was planning to construct.

  18. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  19. Profitable use. Gas turbines modular cogeneration plants in a malting company; Lohnender Einsatz. Gasturbinen-BHKW in Maelzerei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtkamp, E. [ENERATIO, Ingenieurbuero fuer Rationellen Energieeinsatz, Hamburg (Germany); Schommer, R. [Tivoli-Werke, Hamburg (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    The article presents a gas turbines modular cogeneration plants for a malting company in Hamburg. Cogeneration is in this case particularly profitable as the company needs both, power and heat. With flow charts the structure and mode of operation are described. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt ein Gasturbinen-Blockheizkraftwerk fuer einen Maelzereibetrieb in Hamburg vor. Die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung ist dabei besonders geeignet, da Strom und Waerme in diesem Betrieb gleichzeitig benoetigt werden. Anhand von Flussdiagrammen werden Aufbau und Funktionsweise dargestellt. (HW)

  20. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission. Second Quarter 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-01-01

    At the end of the Second Quarter of 1984, the number of signed contracts and letter agreements for cogeneration and small power production projects was 334, with total estimated nominal capacity of 2,876 MW. Of these totals, 232 projects, capable of producing 678 MW, are operational (Table A). A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided as Figure A. Developers of cogeneration projects had signed 80 contracts with a potential of 1,161 MW. Thirty-three contracts had been signed for solid waste/biomass projects for a total of 298 MW. In total, 118 contracts and letter agreements had been signed with cogeneration, solid waste, and biomass projects capable of producing 1,545 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 46 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 688 MW to 770 MW, and 13 solid waste or biomass projects with a potential of 119 MW to 139 MW. One contract had been signed for a geothermal project, capable of producing 80 MW. Two geothermal projects were under active discussion for a total of 2 MW. There were 8 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 37 MW, as well as 4 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract numbered 34, with a generating capability of 1,042 MW, Also, discussions were being conducted with 23 wind farm projects, totaling 597 MW. There were 100 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of 1 MW, as well as 7 other small wind projects under active discussion. There were 71 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 151 MW, as well as 76 projects under active discussion for 505 MW. In addition, there were 18 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 193 MW, that PG and E was planning to construct. Table B displays the above information. Appendix A displays in tabular form the status reports of the projects as of June 30, 1984.

  1. 250 MW single train CFB cogeneration facility. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This Technical Progress Report (Draft) is submitted pursuant to the Terms and Conditions of Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-90MC27403 between the Department of Energy (Morgantown Energy Technology Center) and York County Energy Partners, L.P. a wholly owned project company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. covering the period from January 1994 to the present for the York County Energy Partners CFB Cogeneration Project. The Technical Progress Report summarizes the work performed during the most recent year of the Cooperative Agreement including technical and scientific results.

  2. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2003-01-01

    Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells (URFC) have recently been developed by several fuel cell manufacturers. These manufacturers have concentrated their efforts on the development of the cell stack technology itself, and have not up to this point devoted much effort to the design and development of the balance of plant. A fuel cell technology program at the Glenn Research Center (GRC) that has as its goal the definition and feasibility testing of the URFC system balance of plant. Besides testing the feasibility, the program also intends to minimize the system weight, volume, and parasitic power as its goal. The design concept currently being developed uses no pumps to circulate coolant or reactants, and minimizes the ancillary components to only the oxygen and hydrogen gas storage tanks, a water storage tank, a loop heat pipe to control the temperature and two pressure control devices to control the cell stack pressures during operation. The information contained in this paper describes the design and operational concepts employed in this concept. The paper also describes the NASA Glenn research program to develop this concept and test its feasibility.

  3. Study of a hybrid system using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and gas turbine; Estudo de um sistema hibrido empregando celula de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) e turbina a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Gallo, Giulliano Batelochi; Silveira, Jose Luz [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia], e-mail: caetano@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system, applying a combined cycle using gas turbine for rational decentralized energy production is analyzed. The relative concepts about the fuel cell are presented, followed by some chemical and technical information such as the change of Gibbs free energy in isothermal fuel oxidation directly into electricity. This represents a very high fraction of the lower heating value (LHV) of a hydrocarbon fuel. In the next step a methodology for the study of SOFC and gas turbine system is developed, considering the electricity and steam production for a hospital. This methodology is applied to energetic analysis. Natural gas is considered as a fuel. A Sankey Diagram shows that the hybrid SOFC system is a good opportunity to strengthen the decentralized energy production in Brazil. It is necessary to consider that the cogeneration in this version also is a good technical alternative, demanding special methods of design, equipment selection and contractual deals associated to electricity and fuel supply. (author)

  4. Method for separating biological cells. [suspended in aqueous polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D. E. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A method for separating biological cells by suspending a mixed cell population in a two-phase polymer system is described. The polymer system consists of droplet phases with different surface potentials for which the cell populations exhibit different affinities. The system is subjected to an electrostatic field of sufficient intensity to cause migration of the droplets with an attendant separation of cells.

  5. Final report of phase 2 'Mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry'; Eindrapportage Fase 2 'Mini-WKK in de bloembollensector'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolwijk, E. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands); Smailbegovic, N. [SenterNovem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    Phase 2 of the project 'mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry' is the sequel to the report 'mini-cogeneration in the flower bulb industry. Use of cogeneration in the cultivation and hot bed of tulip and hyacinth', Addressing the incentivisation of the use of cogeneration in the sector and working toward realizing a number of demonstration projects. To this end it is necessary that potential investors are given insight in the feasibility of cogeneration at their business and that their enthusiasm is kindled for the use of cogeneration. This was done by disseminating information in the flower bulb industry about the opportunities of cogeneration and by informing growers about technique, economy and points of interest. [Dutch] Fase 2 van het project 'Mini- WKK in de bloembollensector' is een vervolg op het rapport 'Mini-wkk in de bloembollensector. Toepassing van wkk bij teelt en broei van tulp en hyacint' en richt zich op het stimuleren van de toepassing van WKK in de sector en toewerken naar realisatie van een aantal demonstratieprojecten. Daartoe is het noodzakelijk dat potentiele investeerders inzicht krijgen over de haalbaarheid van WKK op hun bedrijf en geenthousiasmeerd worden voor het gebruik van WKK. Dit is gedaan door informatie in de bollensector te verspreiden over de mogelijkheden van WKK en telers te informeren over techniek, economie en aandachtspunten.

  6. Evaluation results and use of software tools for a cogeneration plant comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, W.C.; Sopocy, D.M.; Roche, R.V.

    1998-07-01

    Today's concerns for the environment and the necessity to address the extremely competitive business situation demand that existing and new industrial plants are analyzed to optimize the supply of electricity, process steam and other forms of energy. This paper presents a review of four plant designs for steam and electricity supply. The plants are: 1. Rankine cycle--natural gas fired boiler, 2. Rankine cycle--petroleum coke fired circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) 3. Cogeneration cycle--natural gas fired combustion turbine, and 4. Combined cycle--natural gas fired combustion turbine. Petroleum coke, refereed to as pet coke or coke, is a refining waste product which can be used as a boiler fuel. It is usually high in carbon and sulfur content and typically indexed to and priced below coal. Plant operating performance and financial results are compared. Note these four designs are based on one set of project site, project and economic parameters and the results could vary significantly for another project with different parameters. The intent of this comparison is to illustrate calculation methodology and the use of cogeneration cycles, not to suggest a preference for fuels or technology.

  7. Vacuum evaporation treatment of digestate: full exploitation of cogeneration heat to process the whole digestate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercini, S; Castelli, G; Rumor, C

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum evaporation represents an interesting and innovative solution for managing animal waste surpluses in areas with high livestock density. To reduce operational costs, a key factor is the availability of an inexpensive source of heat, such as that coming from an anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The aim of this study was to test vacuum evaporation for the treatment of cattle slurry digestate focusing on heat exploitation. Tests were performed with a pilot plant fed with the digestate from a full-scale AD plant. The results were used to evaluate if and how cogeneration heat can support both the AD plant and the subsequent evaporation of the whole daily digestate production in a full-scale plant. The concentrate obtained (12% total solids) represents 40-50% of the influent. The heat requirement is 0.44 kWh/kg condensate. Heat power availability exceeding the needs of the digestor ranges from 325 (in winter) to 585 kW (in summer) versus the 382 kW required for processing the whole digestate production. To by-pass fluctuations, we propose to use the heat coming from the cogenerator directly in the evaporator, tempering the digestor with the latent heat of distillation vapor.

  8. Arancia-Corn Products S. A. de C. V. : cogeneration plant in San Juan del Rio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trellez, L.A. (Secretaria de Energia, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1999-01-01

    A description of a cogeneration plant in San Juan del Rio, Mexico was presented. The Arancia-Corn Products, S.A. de C.V. corn processing plant makes use of an aero-derivative gas turbogenerator and a heat recovery boiler. The total installed capacity at the plant is 17.5 MW. The project was first considered when the plant production capacity nearly tripled, thereby increasing the need for electrical energy. The cogeneration project, which went into production in December 1996 makes use of the considerable amounts of steam from the plants operation. There is also the possibility of wheeling electric energy to other plants owned by the same company. The authorities involved in the project are the Mexican Ministry of Energy, Comision Reguladora de Energia, Petroleos Mexicanos (which supplied the natural gas), Comision Federal de Electricidad, and other federal, state and local authorities. A review of the permits and contracts that made up the agreement was also included. 2 figs.

  9. Cogeneration in Mexico: Weaknesses, Threats, strengths and opportunities; Cogeneracion en Mexico: Debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde Baltierra, Alberto; Garcia Pelaez, Juan [Programa Universitario de Energia, UNAM (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    In this paper the strategies are formulated and evaluated, taking into account the internal and external aspects of the cogeneration in Mexico that foment their development in the medium term (two or four years). In the formulation of strategies a matrix DAFO (Weaknesses, Threats, Strengths and Opportunities) is employed and in the evaluation is applied the procedure of analytical hierarchical structuring. The future on the cogeneration in the next years will depend on diverse factors, among which can be mentioned: the legal frame; the financial situation of the interested companies; the outsourcing of financing; the prices of the electricity and fuels, as well as their availability, among others. [Spanish] En este trabajo se formulan y evaluan estrategias que, tomando en cuenta los aspectos internos y externos de la cogeneracion en Mexico, fomenten su desarrollo en el mediano plazo (dos o cuatro anos). En la formulacion de estrategias se emplea la matriz DAFO (Debilidades, Amenazas, Fortalezas y Oportunidades) y en la evaluacion se aplica el procedimiento de jerarquizacion analitica. El futuro de la cogeneracion en los proximos anos dependera de diversos factores, entre los que se pueden mencionar: el marco legal; la situacion financiera de las empresas interesadas; las fuentes externas de financiamiento; los precios de la electricidad y de los combustibles, asi como su disponibilidad, entre otros.

  10. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  11. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...

  12. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  13. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  14. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type I) within the product group: small cogeneration plants; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen in Anlehnung an ISO 14024 (Type I) fuer die Produktgruppe: Kleine Blockheizkraftwerk-Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Hirschl, B.; Kaliske, J. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); Reese, I.; Grimpe, T. [Hamburg Gas Consult (HGC) GmbH (Germany)

    2000-11-02

    This study is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for small cogeneration plants and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel on cogeneration plants could be specified. The study began with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants was analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between cogeneration plants and heating plants was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were presented and discussed in an expert talk by various company representatives and experts in this field. As a result of the expert talk and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for small cogeneration plants can be recommended. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding the compliance with directives, efficient energy use (electrical and overall efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, mentioning the plant's supplementary energy consumption), emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, sound emissions, the offer of maintenance contracts, plant take back obligations, as well as requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel. because energy-efficient'. Besides cogeneration plants based on engines, the study also focused on small stationary fuel cells. They are currently in the development phase and are tested within the scope of several field studies. Compared to conventional heating plants and cogeneration plants powered by engines, this new technology promises clear ecological advantages and constitutes a future alternative to engine powered equivalents. Faced by the current state of development and the limited quality of the

  15. Cogeneration: A new opportunity for energy production market; La cogenerazione: Una nuova opportunita` per il mercato della produzione di energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minghetti, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Cogeneration or Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an advantageous technique based on the simultaneous utilisation of electricity and heat produced. For this purpose existing energetic technologies are used. Cogeneration is based on the thermodynamics principle that producing electricity by combustion process means, at the same time, producing waste heat that can be useful utilised. Three main advantages can be lay out in a cogeneration plant: 1. High efficiency (the global efficiency is often around 80-90%). 2. Economic profit (pay back time is usually not longer than 2-4 years). 3. Low pollutant emissions (as a consequence of the high efficiency less fuel is burned for generating the same quantity of electricity). In this report are analysed various aspects of cogeneration (technical and economical) and the conditions influencing is development. Some figures on the european and national situation are also given. Finally are presented the research and development activities carried out by Italian National Agency for new Technology Energy and the Environment Energy Department to improve the efficiency and the competitiveness of this technology.

  16. Cogeneration of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} from water hyacinth by two-step anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jun; Zhou, Junhu; Song, Wenlu; Cen, Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xie, Binfei [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Pyneo Company Limited, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel reaction mechanism of H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} cogeneration from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was originally proposed to increase the energy conversion efficiency. The glucose and xylose hydrolysates derived from cellulose and hemicellulose are fermented to cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} by two-step anaerobic fermentation. The total volatile solid of hyacinth leaves can theoretically cogenerate H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields of 303 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS and 211 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS, which dramatically increases the theoretical energy conversion efficiency from 19.1% in only H{sub 2} production to 63.1%. When hyacinth leaves are pretreated with 3 wt% NaOH and cellulase in experiments, the cogeneration of H{sub 2} (51.7 ml-H{sub 2}/g-TVS) and CH{sub 4} (143.4 ml-CH{sub 4}/g-TVS) markedly increases the energy conversion efficiency from 3.3% in only H{sub 2} production to 33.2%. Hyacinth leaves, which have the most cellulose and hemicellulose and the least lignin and ash, give the highest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields, while hyacinth roots, which have the most ash and the least cellulose and hemicellulose, give the lowest H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields. (author)

  17. Production of Bioethanol from Agricultural Wastes Using Residual Thermal Energy of a Cogeneration Plant in the Distillation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaela Cutzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic fermentations were performed, adapting the technology to exploit the residual thermal energy (hot water at 83–85 °C of a cogeneration plant and to valorize agricultural wastes. Substrates were apple, kiwifruit, and peaches wastes; and corn threshing residue (CTR. Saccharomyces bayanus was chosen as starter yeast. The fruits, fresh or blanched, were mashed; CTR was gelatinized and liquefied by adding Liquozyme® SC DS (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland; saccharification simultaneous to fermentation was carried out using the enzyme Spirizyme® Ultra (Novozymes, Dittingen, Switzerland. Lab-scale static fermentations were carried out at 28 °C and 35 °C, using raw fruits, blanched fruits and CTR, monitoring the ethanol production. The highest ethanol production was reached with CTR (10.22% (v/v and among fruits with apple (8.71% (v/v. Distillations at low temperatures and under vacuum, to exploit warm water from a cogeneration plant, were tested. Vacuum simple batch distillation by rotary evaporation at lab scale at 80 °C (heating bath and 200 mbar or 400 mbar allowed to recover 93.35% (v/v and 89.59% (v/v of ethanol, respectively. These results support a fermentation process coupled to a cogeneration plant, fed with apple wastes and with CTR when apple wastes are not available, where hot water from cogeneration plant is used in blanching and distillation phases. The scale up in a pilot plant was also carried out.

  18. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Domestic Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Shigeru; Hihara, Eiji

    Among the growing number of environmental issues, the global warming due to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide CO2, is the most serious one. In order to reduce CO2 emissions in energy use, it is necessary to reduce primary energy consumption, and to replace energy sources with alternatives that emit less CO2.One option of such ideas is to replace fossil gas for water heating with electricity generated by nuclear power, hydraulic power, and other methods with low CO2 emission. It is also important to use energy efficiently and to reduce waste heat. Co-generation system is one of the applications to be able to use waste heat from a generator as much as possible. The CO2 heat pump water heaters, the polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and the micro gas turbines have high potential for domestic energy systems. In the present study, the life-cycle cost, the life-cycle consumption of primary energy and the life-cycle emission of CO2 of these domestic energy systems are compare. The result shows that the CO2 heat pump water heaters have an ability to reduce CO2 emission by 10%, and the co-generation systems also have another ability to reduce primary energy consumption by 20%.

  19. Optimization cogeneration and use of biogas; Optimalisatie WKK en Biogasbenutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clevering-Loeffen, P.; Klaassens, N.; Schelleman, F.; Geraats, B.

    2011-12-15

    The Dutch local water authorities are producing biogas via sludge digestion installations, which is usually deployed in a CHP installation that produces energy for the sewage water treatment plant. However, new energy techniques are entering the market (ORC, fuel cell) while energy policy supports the production of green gas. Various studies have examined the sustainability and feasibility of these routes. This report examines the different options. It answers questions such as: (1) How can the operational management of CHP installations in sewage water treatment plants be improved; and (2) What is the most favorable route for biogas utilization in sewage water treatment plants [Dutch] De waterschappen in Nederland produceren biogas via slibvergistingsinstallaties, meestal benut in een WKK die elektriciteit voor de RWZI (rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie) produceert. Er komen echter nieuwe energietechnieken op de markt (ORC, brandstofcel) terwijl er vanuit het energiebeleid de productie van groen gas wordt gestimuleerd. In diverse studies zijn de duurzaamheid en de haalbaarheid van deze routes onderzocht. In dit rapport worden de verschillende mogelijkheden onderzocht. De vraagstelling voor deze studie is: (1)Hoe kan de bedrijfsvoering van WKK's bij RWZI's worden verbeterd; en (2) Wat is de meest gunstige route voor biogasbenutting bij RWZI's.

  20. Membrane Distillation and Applications for Water Purification in Thermal Cogeneration. Pilot Plant Trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullab, Alaa; Martin, Andrew

    2007-12-15

    Water treatment is an important auxiliary process in all thermal cogeneration plants. In this context membrane distillation (MD) is a novel technology that is potentially advantageous to technologies like reverse osmosis in the following ways: ability to utilize low-grade heat; reduced sensitivity to fluctuations in pH or salt concentrations; and lower capital and operation and maintenance costs (assumed in the case of fully-developed technology only). This research is a continuation of a Varmeforsk prestudy (report no. 909) and encompasses field trials at Idbaecken Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Facility (Nykoeping). Target groups for this study include environmental engineers with particular interest in emerging water purification technologies. The test rig consisted of a five-module MD unit capable of producing 1-2 m3/day purified water. District heating supply was employed for heating; feed stocks include municipal water and flue gas condensate. Field trials can be divided into three phases: (1) parametric study of yield; (2) long term operation with municipal water as feed stock; and (3) evaluation of flue gas condensate as a feed stock. Testing commenced in the beginning of April 2006. The performance of MD concerning production rate is highly dependent on the feed stock temperature, flow rate and temperature difference across the membrane. Initial results for municipal water feed stocks showed that product water fluxes were in line with previous experiments, thus confirming the findings made in the prestudy. Connecting several MD modules in series has the advantage of reducing the electrical energy consumption needed for recirculation; the penalty comes in less efficient operation from flux point of view. This is more critical in the case of low flow rates, and hence much careful design studies are needed to optimize the system. Regarding the long term performance, the test period lasted for 13 days on a continuous operation basis before the first flux

  1. Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber Cogeneration Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertryckx, Roger [Laborelec GDF-Suez (Belgium); Poelemans, Nancy [Electrabel GDF-Suez (Belgium)

    2011-07-01

    The Lanxess Rubber Antwerp power plant is a cogeneration plant owned and operated by Electrabel- GDF-Suez. The unit consists of a natural gas fired turbine (45 MWe) combined with a single pressure level heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) (101 bar, 510 C, 118 t/h). The HRSG powers a backpressure steam turbine (15 MWe) and delivers steam (max. 120 t/h at 10 barg, 210 C) to the client. As there are no condensates returning to this cycle, the make-up water flow equals the feedwater flow. Make-up water is produced on site by ion exchange (IX) technology. The IX-design is a compact bed system with downflow production and upflow regeneration in the main street and a classic mixed bed system for polishing. The cation and anion vessels of the main street contain weak and strong resin types in separate compartments. An atmospheric degasser is foreseen between the cation and anion vessels. Three identical production lines are available with a capacity of 3 x 80 m{sup 3}/h. The water to be treated is a mixture of tap water and return condensate (6m{sup 3}/h). Immediately after the first firing of the gas turbine to the HRSG, the cation conductivity (CC) of the steam deviated from the normal chemistry guideline (<0,20 {mu}S/cm) applicable for an all volatile treatment with ammonia AVT(R). In equilibrium, the impurities in the steam resulted in a cation conductivity (CC) of about 0,8 {mu}S/cm, seriously exceeding the alarm threshold. The other measured parameters in the water-steam cycle (WSC) and demineralization production plant (DWPP) complied with their corresponding guidelines values.

  2. Are high penetrations of commercial cogeneration good for society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jeremy F.; Apt, Jay

    2016-12-01

    Low natural gas prices, market reports and evidence from New York State suggest that the number of commercial combined heat and power (CHP) installations in the United States will increase by 2%-9% annually over the next decade. We investigate how increasing commercial CHP penetrations may affect net emissions, the distribution network, and total system energy costs. We constructed an integrated planning and operations model that maximizes owner profit through sizing and operation of CHP on a realistic distribution feeder in New York. We find that a greater penetration of CHP reduces both total system energy costs and network congestion. Commercial buildings often have low and inconsistent heat loads, which can cause low fuel utilization efficiencies, low CHP rates-of-return and diminishing avoided emissions as CHP penetration increases. In the northeast, without policy intervention, a 5% penetration of small commercially owned CHP would increase CO2 emissions by 2% relative to the bulk power grid. Low emission CHP installations can be encouraged with incentives that promote CHP operation only during times of high heat loads. Time-varying rates, such as time-of-day and seasonal rates, are one option and were shown to reduce customer emissions without reducing profits. In contrast, natural gas rate discounts, a common incentive for industrial CHP in some states, can encourage CHP operation during low heat loads and thus increase emissions.

  3. Diesel engine cogeneration plants in the context of integration of renewable energy sources in power supply; Dieselmotor-Kraft-Waerme-Kopplungsanlagen im Kontext der Integration Erneuerbarer Energien in die Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, John

    2010-10-29

    be used optimally for mobility. The main assessment criteria for this are global warming potential, cumulated energy demand and exergy generation. Furthermore it also investigates potential sources from where the necessary bio energy for Diesel motors could be obtained. It is evident that the agricultural area available in Germany will only enable the production of a small part of the bio energy needed for the German power supply. An interesting option would be to make use of biogas on a larger scale and to import vegetable oils from outside Europe. This should mainly be carried out using degraded land, which would require an agricultural area in the range of 6 to 12 Mio. ha. Final results show that using renewable fuels, and after the integration of wind power, a full balance of the residual load by cogeneration, is reasonable and feasible. Such a wind-cogeneration DSM system should be supplemented by a stronger UCTE electricity grid and by the integration of hydro power plants for balancing power, which will enable the large-scale exchange of renewable energies within Europe and the neighboring regions.

  4. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  5. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on the phase II research and development for the hydrogen utilizing international clean energy system technology (WE-NET). Task 1. Investigations and researched on system assessment; 2000 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dai 2 ki kenkyu kaihatsu. Task 1. System hyoka ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in fiscal 2000 from the WE-NET Phase II for Task-1. Technologies drawing attentions relate to fuel cell driven automobiles and hybrid automobiles in the field of utilizing hydrogen derived from reproducible energies and fossil energies, and fuel cell co-generation and micro gas turbine co-generation in the field of electric power generation. Hydrogen reformed from gasoline on board the automobile as the fuel for fuel cell driven automobiles, hydrogen as a by-product of coke furnace off-gas (COG), and reproducible energy hydrogen have the same fuel consumption performance as in the hybrid automobiles. Particularly the COG is low in cost, and has large supply potential. Liquefied hydrogen is as promising as compressed hydrogen in view of the cost for automotive hydrogen supply stations. What has high economic performance as the self-sustaining systems for islands are photovoltaic and wind power generation, and the system using hydrogen as the secondary energy. Since much of the reproducible energies is used for electric power demand in Japan, the by-product hydrogen and the reformed hydrogen in an amount of 9.3 billion Nm{sup 3}/year would take care of majority of the demand in view of the short time period. For a longer time span, hydrogen originated from the reproduced energies in the Pan-Pacific Region should be introduced. (NEDO)

  7. Long-term maintenance of human induced pluripotent stem cells by automated cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konagaya, Shuhei; Ando, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Toshiaki; Suemori, Hirofumi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2015-11-17

    Pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, are regarded as new sources for cell replacement therapy. These cells can unlimitedly expand under undifferentiated conditions and be differentiated into multiple cell types. Automated culture systems enable the large-scale production of cells. In addition to reducing the time and effort of researchers, an automated culture system improves the reproducibility of cell cultures. In the present study, we newly designed a fully automated cell culture system for human iPS maintenance. Using an automated culture system, hiPS cells maintained their undifferentiated state for 60 days. Automatically prepared hiPS cells had a potency of differentiation into three germ layer cells including dopaminergic neurons and pancreatic cells.

  8. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  9. Phase Space Cell in Nonextensive Classical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Quarati

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We calculate the phase space volume Ω occupied by a nonextensive system of N classical particles described by an equilibrium (or steady-state, or long-term stationary state of a nonequilibrium system distribution function, which slightly deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB distribution in the high energy tail. We explicitly require that the number of accessible microstates does not change respect to the extensive MB case. We also derive, within a classical scheme, an analytical expression of the elementary cell that can be seen as a macrocell, different from the third power of Planck constant. Thermodynamic quantities like entropy, chemical potential and free energy of a classical ideal gas, depending on elementary cell, are evaluated. Considering the fractional deviation from MB distribution we can deduce a physical meaning of the nonextensive parameter q of the Tsallis nonextensive thermostatistics in terms of particle correlation functions (valid at least in the case, discussed in this work, of small deviations from MB standard case.

  10. Aalestrup wood-fired cogeneration plant. Pilot project; Aalestrup traefyret kraftvarmevaerk; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrupgaard, N.P.; Karlsen, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    A pilot project investigating the technical and economical potentials for a small cogeneration plant (500kW) fuelled with wood wastes is described. The boiler comprises a pre-combustion area for burning wood chips and sawdust coupled to a standard two-channel industrial steam boiler supplied with an overheater after each channel providing steam at a temperature of 225 degrees centigrade. The overheater gives overheating to the level of 380 degrees centigrade. A steam motor will be used for the expansion of the steam. The total cost of the plant is estimated to be 12.2 million Danish kroners and the capacity 500/2050 kW. The payback period should be about 10 years. The design, operation and economy of the plant are illustrated and described and a number of tables exemplify related budgets and investment. (AB)

  11. Systems biology for organotypic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Sonia; Dougherty, Edward R; Alexander, Francis J; Auerbach, Scott S; Berridge, Brian R; Bittner, Michael L; Casey, Warren; Cooley, Philip C; Dash, Ajit; Ferguson, Stephen S; Fennell, Timothy R; Hawkins, Brian T; Hickey, Anthony J; Kleensang, Andre; Liebman, Michael N J; Martin, Florian; Maull, Elizabeth A; Paragas, Jason; Qiao, Guilin Gary; Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa; Sumner, Susan J; Yoon, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, "organotypic" cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data.

  12. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  13. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission Third Quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    In the Third Quarter of 1983, the number of signed contracts and committed projects rose from 240 to 258, with a total estimated nominal capacity of these projects of 1,547 MW. Of this nominal capacity, about 416 MW is operational, and the balance is under contract for development. A map indicating the location of operational facilities under contract with PG and E is provided. Of the 258 signed contracts and committed projects, 83 were cogeneration, solid waste, or biomass projects with a potential of 779 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 38 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 797 MW to 848 MW, and 19 solid waste/biomass projects with a potential of 152 MW to 159 MW. Two contracts have been signed with geothermal projects, capable of producing 83 MW. There are 6 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 36 MW, as well as 3 solar projects under active discussion for 31 MW. Wind farm projects under contract number 21, with a generating capability of 528 MW. Also, discussions are being conducted with 17 wind farm projects, totaling 257 to 262 MW. There are 94 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of almost 1 MW, as well as 8 other small wind projects under active discussion. There are 50 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 112 MW, as well as 67 projects under active discussion for 175 MW. In addition, there are 31 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 185 MW, that PG and E is planning to construct.

  14. Cogeneration and Small Power Production Quarterly Report to the California Public Utilities Commission Second Quarter 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    In the Second Quarter of 1983, the number of signed contracts and committed projects rose from 223 to 240, with a total estimated nominal capacity of these projects of 1,449 MW. Of this nominal capacity, about 361 MW is operational, and the balance is under contract for development. A map indicating the location of currently operating facilities is provided as Figure A. Of the 240 signed contracts and committed projects, 75 were cogeneration, solid waste, or biomass projects with a potential of 740 MW. PG and E also had under active discussion 32 cogeneration projects that could generate a total of 858 MW to 921 MW, and 10 solid waste/biomass projects with a potential of 113 MW to 121 MW. Two contracts have been signed with geothermal projects, capable of producing 83 MW. There are 6 solar projects with signed contracts and a potential of 36 MW, as well as another solar project under active discussion for 30 MW. Wind farm projects under contract number 19, with a generating capability of 471 MW. Also, discussions are being conducted with 12 wind farm projects, totaling 273 to 278 MW. There are 89 wind projects of 100 kW or less with signed contracts and a potential of almost 1 MW, as well as 10 other projects under active discussion. There are 47 hydroelectric projects with signed contracts and a potential of 110 MW, as well as 65 projects under active discussion for 175 MW. In addition, there are 30 hydroelectric projects, with a nominal capacity of 291 MW, that PG and E is constructing or planning to construct. Table A displays the above information. In tabular form, in Appendix A, are status reports of the projects as of June 30, 1983.

  15. A study of the applicability of a straw-fired batch boiler as a heat source for a small-scale cogeneration unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sornek Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Straw-fired batch boilers, due to their relatively simple structure and low operating costs, are an excellent source of heat for a wide range of applications. A concept prototype of a cogeneration system with a straw-fired batch boiler was developed. The basic assumptions were based on the principles of the Rankine Cycle and the Organic Rankine Cycle systems with certain design modifications. Using the prototype design of a system that collects high-temperature heat from the boiler, studies were performed. The studies involved an analysis of the flue gas temperature distribution in the area of the oil exchanger, a comparison of the instantaneous power of the boiler’s water and oil circuits for different modes of operation, as well as an analysis of the flue gas. In the proposed system configuration where the electricity production supplements heat generation, the power in the oil circuit may be maintained at a constant level of approx. 20-30 kW. This is possible provided that an automatic fuel supply system is applied. Assuming that the efficiency of the electricity generation system is not less than 10%, it will be possible to generate 2-3 kW of electricity. This value will be sufficient, for an on-site operation of the boiler.

  16. Fiscal 1999 report on basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs. Feasibility study on energy saving and environmental improvement for Radom City district cogeneration station; 1999 nendo Radom shi chiiki netsuden heikyu station sho energy oyobi kankyo kaizen kanosei chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Pursuant to the COP3 (Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) protocol, studies are conducted on a district cogeneration station for Radom City, Poland. Using the annual load pattern of heat supply, cogeneration will be built only for the amount that covers utilization factors not lower than a specified level, and the shortage in winter when the load is heavy due to demand for heat will be dealt with by the existing hot water boilers. Daily change in load is to be covered by a new, additional boiler which will bear 20% of the whole output. The system is a natural gas fired turbine cogenerator, and hot water is supplied by a waste heat recovery boiler. Cogeneration will cover 80% of the annual heat supply. As for heat supply capability, it is set at 72MWt with the additional boiler taken into account, and 35MWe is to be generated. Heat efficiency will increase to be higher than 80%, coal consumption will decrease, and 28,117 tons/year in terms of oil will be saved with the increase in natural gas consumption subtracted. CO2 reduction will also be as large as 206,000 tons/year, decreasing air pollutants. Provided that 4.336-billion yen for facilities are financed by Japan's environmental yen loan, Poland's National Fund, and Radom City's own fund, IRR (internal rate of return) on investment will be fairly good at 10% in 30 years of operation. Investment will be recovered in nine years and there is no problem in cash flow. (NEDO)

  17. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Purified 5chwann cells from monkey sciatic nerve grown in culture. Note the typical bipolar spindle shaped appearance of the cells (x 200). shaped appearance when grown in isolation in tissue culture. (Figure 2), stretch in cords around the axons. While one Schwann cell can enclose several small unmyelinated axons, one ...

  18. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conduction is restored within a few days. This is probably because at this stage the spinal cord lacks myelin and has few glial cells. Thus the inhibitory signals are absent and the regeneration is possible. 2. Transplantation of Schwann cells (either a graft of sciatic nerve or cultured Schwann cells) into the lesioned area of the.

  19. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Belard

    2006-09-21

    Verizon is presently operating the largest Distributed Generation Fuel Cell project in the USA. Situated in Long Island, NY, the power plant is composed of seven (7) fuel cells operating in parallel with the Utility grid from the Long Island Power Authority (LIPA). Each fuel cell has an output of 200 kW, for a total of 1.4 mW generated from the on-site plant. The remaining power to meet the facility demand is purchased from LIPA. The fuel cell plant is utilized as a co-generation system. A by-product of the fuel cell electric generation process is high temperature water. The heat content of this water is recovered from the fuel cells and used to drive two absorption chillers in the summer and a steam generator in the winter. Cost savings from the operations of the fuel cells are forecasted to be in excess of $250,000 per year. Annual NOx emissions reductions are equivalent to removing 1020 motor vehicles from roadways. Further, approximately 5.45 million metric tons (5 millions tons) of CO2 per year will not be generated as a result of this clean power generation. The project was partially financed with grants from the New York State Energy R&D Authority (NYSERDA) and from Federal Government Departments of Defense and Energy.

  20. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the optical system for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment that flew on two Spacelab missions. Silicone oil served as the atmosphere around a rotating metal sphere and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  1. Direct hydrogen fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.

    Hybridizing a fuel cell system with an energy storage system offers an opportunity to improve the fuel economy of the vehicle through regenerative braking and possibly to increase the specific power and decrease the cost of the combined energy conversion and storage systems. Even in a hybrid configuration it is advantageous to operate the fuel cell system in a load-following mode and use the power from the energy storage system when the fuel cell alone cannot meet the power demand. This paper discusses an approach for designing load-following fuel cell systems for hybrid vehicles and illustrates it by applying it to pressurized, direct hydrogen, polymer-electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems for a mid-size family sedan. The vehicle level requirements relative to traction power, response time, start-up time and energy conversion efficiency are used to select the important parameters for the PEFC stack, air management system, heat rejection system and the water management system.

  2. Issues in fuel cell commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, A. J.

    After 25 years of effort, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is approaching commercialization as cell stack assemblies (CAS) show convincingly low degradation and its balance-of-plant (BOP) achieves mature reliability. A high present capital cost resulting from limited cumulative production remains an issue. The primary PAFC developer in the USA (International Fuel Cells, IFC) has only manufactured 40 MW of PAFC components to date, the equivalent of a single large gas turbine aero-engine or 500 compact car engines. The system is therefore still far up the production learning curve. Even so, the next generation of on-site 40% electrical efficiency (LHV) combined heat-and-power (CHP) PAFC system was available for order from IFC in 1995 at US 3000/kW (1995). To effectively compete in the marketplace with diesel generators, the dispersed cogeneration PAFC must cost approximately US 1550/kW (1995) in the USA and Europe. At somewhat lower costs than this, dispersed cogeneration PAFCs will compete with large combined-cycle generators. However, in Japan, costs greater than US 2000/kW will be competitive, based on the late-1995 trade exchange rate of 100-105 Yen/US ). The perceived advantages of fuel cell technologies over developments of more conventional generators (e.g., ultra-low emissions, siting) are not strong selling points in the marketplace. The ultimate criterion is cost. Cost reduction is now the key to market penetration. This must include reduced installation costs, for which the present goal is US$ 385/kW (1995). How further capital cost reductions can be achieved by the year 2000 is discussed. Progress to date is reviewed, and the potential for pressurized electric utility PAFC units is determined. Markets for high-temperature fuel cell system (molten carbonate, MCFC, and solid oxide, SOFC), which many consider to be 20 and 30 years, respectively, behind the PAFC, are discussed. Their high efficiency and high-quality waste heat should make them attractive

  3. Optimising the operation of an LNG import terminal (Zeebrugge) with an integrated cogeneration plant; Optimisation de l'exploitation d'un terminal importateur de GNL (Zeebrugge) lie a une unite de cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Walle, F.; Gerard, A. [Distrigas (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    Distrigas (Belgium) is operating an LNG Terminal in Zeebrugge since 1987, receiving some 3.25 million tonnes of LNG per year (60 shiploads of 125,000 m{sup 3} LNG). This LNG import covers some 30 % of the total natural gas consumption in Belgium. Re-gasification from 1987 until 1996 was solely with high-efficiency submerged combustion LNG vaporizers (open rack seawater vaporizers were not an option because in the winter period sea water temperature in Zeebrugge is too low: 4 deg. C and below). In 1995/1996 a 40 MW gas turbine cogeneration plant with a 72.5 MW heat recovery unit of novel design (including a direct-contact condensing cooling tower and a 50 deg. C/15 deg. C hot water circuit) was installed and integrated with the existing submerged combustion vaporizers. To realize this project, Distrigas signed a so-called 'cogeneration partnership' with its electric power supplier Electrabel. Start-up and initial operation were implemented without any interruption in the operation of the terminal. This poster presentation describes this cogeneration plant, and the optimisation since its initial operation in early 1997. (authors)

  4. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  5. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  6. Sensitivity of several cell systems to acrylamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooisma, J.; Groot, D.M.G.de; Magchielse, T.; Muijser, H.

    1980-01-01

    Chick spinal ganglia, chick muscle cells combined with mouse spinal cord explants, C1300 neuroblastoma cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells and newborn rat cerebral cells were exposed to various concentrations of acrylamide in culture. Four morphological and 1 electrophysiological parameter were

  7. Large cogeneration project in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands; Groot WKK-project in de glastuinbouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolwijk, E.; Schlatmann, S. [Cogen Projects, Driebergen (Netherlands)

    2005-02-01

    A brief overview is given of a large cogeneration project of the 'Tuinbouw Combinatie Harmelerwaard (TCH)' in Harmelerwaard, Netherlands. The TCH is founded by six greenhouse owners to develop and maintain an innovative and sustainable horticulture industry. Part of their activities of the TCH has been the installation and exploitation of a large cogeneration installation. [Dutch] Hoewel momenteel in Nederland weinig warmtekrachtkoppelingsinstallaties worden geinstalleerd geldt dat niet voor de glastuinbouw. Zeker bij een collectieve aanpak onstaat er een symbiose tussen warmte- en krachtbehoefte. Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van een WKK-project van 'Tuinbouw Combinatie Harmelerwaard (TCH)' in Harmelerwaard, een samenwerkingsverband tussen zes glastuinders met het doel een innovatieve en duurzame glastuinbouw sector te ontwikkelen en te onderhouden.

  8. Micro-Cogeneration Incl. The Conversion of Chemical Energy of Biomass to Electric Energy and the Low Potential Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzvar, Jozef; Kapjor, Andrej

    2011-06-01

    This article deals with combined production of heat and electricity for small premises, such as households, where energy consumption is around few kilowatts. This proposal of micro co-generation unit uses as a heat source an automatic burner for combustion of wood pellets. Construction of an equipment for the heat transport can be designed using different basic ways of heat transfer. Electricity is produced by the two-stroke steam engine and the generator.

  9. A novel multilayer immunoisolating encapsulation system overcoming protrusion of cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhujbal, Swapnil V.; de Haan, Bart; Niclou, Simone P.; de Vos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Application of alginate-microencapsulated therapeutic cells is a promising approach for diseases that require a local and constant supply of therapeutic molecules. However most conventional alginate microencapsulation systems are associated with low mechanical stability and protrusion of cells which

  10. Cogeneration with gas turbines. Use of heat pipe type exchangers for the energy recuperation of exhausted gases; Cogeracao com turbinas a gas. O uso de trocador tipo tubos de calor (heat pipe) para a recuperacao energetica dos gases de exaustao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Jose Luz; Balestieri, Jose A.P.; Tanisho, Petronio Masanobu; Zanardi, Mauricio Araujo; Murcia, Nelson [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia

    1995-07-01

    Gas turbine cogeneration systems are being widely used in the simultaneous production of electricity and useful heat. Several devices can be indicated to the recovery of exhaust gas heat from gas turbine systems, for example heat recovery steam generators, boiling-water heaters, absorption refrigerating systems (cooled water), drying systems (heated air), each one indicated for a specific use of recovery heat. In this paper it is proposed the use of heat pipes exchangers in the recovery of exhaust gas heat to produce heated water to be used in a process. Heat pipes are devices that has high thermal conductance that can be used to reduce thermal losses to the environment. The use of heat pipes in these types of equipment can provide heat recoveries of high efficiency since both fluid flows are external and there are less contamination risks between the hot and cold streams. (author)

  11. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    2017-11-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cell is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.

  12. Generation of a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent cells and immobilized nonadherent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Ichikawa, Takashi; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Patterned co-culture is a promising technique used for fundamental investigation of cell-cell communication and tissue engineering approaches. However, conventional methods are inapplicable to nonadherent cells. In this study, we aimed to establish a patterned co-culture system composed of adherent and nonadherent cells. Nonadherent cells were immobilized on a substrate using a cell membrane anchoring reagent conjugated to a protein, in order to incorporate them into the co-culture system. Cross-linked albumin film, which has unique surface properties capable of regulating protein adsorption, was used to control their spatial localization. The utility of our approach was demonstrated through the fabrication of a patterned co-culture consisting of micropatterned neuroblastoma cells surrounded by immobilized myeloid cells. Furthermore, we also created a co-culture system composed of cancer cells and immobilized monocytes. We observed that monocytes enhanced the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and its influence was limited to cancer cells located near the monocytes. Therefore, the incorporation of nonadherent cells into a patterned co-culture system is useful for creating culture systems containing immune cells, as well as investigating the influence of these immune cells on cancer drug sensitivity. Various methods have been proposed for creating patterned co-culture systems, in which multiple cell types are attached to a substrate with a desired pattern. However, conventional methods, including our previous report published in Acta Biomaterialia (2010, 6, 526-533), are unsuitable for nonadherent cells. Here, we developed a novel method that incorporates nonadherent cells into the co-culture system, which allows us to precisely manipulate and study microenvironments containing nonadherent and adherent cells. Using this technique, we demonstrated that monocytes (nonadherent cells) could enhance the drug sensitivity of cancer cells and that their influence had a

  13. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    , the direction in which these systems develop must be considered. In this dissertation, fuel cells are analysed in the context of energy systems that are gradually changing from the current design, with large amounts of fossil fuel combustion technologies, to a future design based on 100 per cent renewable...... in terms of replacing conventional gas turbines. Fuel cells have higher efficiencies than these, also in part load. Fuel cells should not be developed for base load operation, but for flexible regulation in energy systems with large amounts of intermittent renewable energy and CHP plants. Base load plants...... are not required in such energy systems. With such abili‐ ties fuel cells can replace steam turbines. Synergy can be created by using fuel cells in re‐ newable energy systems, because the number of operation hours decreases and the life‐ time of the cells becomes less significant. Hydrogen micro‐fuel cell CHPs...

  14. Glial Cells: The Other Cells of the Nervous System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    series of articles that aims to update students on what is known about glia today. It provides an overview of the various types of glia and their origins. The following .... The advancement in glial cell biology in the recent years has been immense. In the following four articles some aspects of each of the glial cell types will be ...

  15. Synergies between solar building technology and fuel cell vehicles; Synergien zwischen solarer Gebaeudetechnik und Brennstoffzellenfahrzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blome, C.D.

    2008-07-01

    The publication shows up synergies between two fields of application of fuel cells, i.e. household cogeneration units and vehicle drives. This is done by means of computer simulations of a system comprising a fuel cell vehicle and low-energy building with thermal and photovoltaic solar systems. The work comprises the development of a concept including component selection, modelling and simulation, as well as an evaluation from a technical, practical and economic view. The feasibility of combined heat and power generation and full-scale solar energy supply to a one-family building with support of the fuel cell and seasonal storage of power in the form of hydrogen by electrolysis is described, including the utilisation of excess solar gains for mobility purposes. System dimensioning and design make up the main part of the publication. In the simulations, a minimum collector surface of 13 m{sup 2} and PV power of 9.2 kW{sub peak} was sufficient for supplying a four-person household including a fuel cell vehicle. A fuel cell module was used for the vehicle, and a cogeneration unit and an electrolyzer for power supply. The system is modular, can be introduced step by step, and is scalable. The concept is a contribution to the development of technologies for using renewable energy sources and for CO2-free power generation for households and individual traffic. If it were used in all German households, 43.2 percent of the end use energy conservation could be covered. (orig.)

  16. The corticostriatal system in dissociated cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona E Randall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The sparse connectivity within the striatum in vivo makes the investigation of individual corticostriatal synapses very difficult. Most studies of the corticostriatal input have been done using electrical stimulation under conditions under which it is hard to identify the precise origin of the cortical input. We have employed an in vitro dissociated cell culture system that allows the identification of individual corticostriatal pairs and have been developing methods to study individual cortical neuron inputs to striatal neurons.In mixed corticostriatal cultures, neurons had resting activity similar to the system in vivo. Up/down states were obvious and seemed to encompass the entire culture. Mixed cultures of cortical neurons from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP with striatal neurons from wild-type mice of the same developmental stage allowed visual identification of individual candidate corticostriatal pairs. Recordings were performed between 12 and 37 days in vitro (DIV.To investigate synaptic connections we recorded from 69 corticostriatal pairs of which 44 were connected in one direction and 25 reciprocally. Of these connections 41 were corticostriatal (9 inhibitory and 53 striatocortical (all inhibitory. The observed excitatory responses were of variable amplitude (-10 to -370 pA, n=32. We found the connections very secure – with negligible failures on repeated (approx. 1Hz stimulation of the cortical neuron. Inhibitory corticostriatal responses were also observed (-13 to -314pA, n=9. Possibly due to the mixed type of culture we found an inhibitory striatocortical response (-14 to -598pA, n=53. We are now recording from neurons in separate compartments to more closely emulate neuroanatomical conditions but still with the possibility of the easier identification of the connectivity.

  17. Thermal Design for Extra-Terrestrial Regenerative Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, R.; Guzik, M.; Jakupca, I.; Bennett, W.; Smith, P.; Fincannon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 C versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 C. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  18. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  19. Cogeneration and Carbon bonds: clean development; Cogeneracion y bonos de carbono: desarrollo limpio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Perez, Nidia [Facultad de Contaduria y Administracion, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    The growing preoccupation for the environment in our country and its interest to ratify the Kyoto Protocol with respect to the contamination of the atmosphere, offers great opportunities for the cogeneration so that it fortifies the scientific and technological research and gives a good international image about the sustainable development and care of the environment, so that companies that invest in clean technology will be able to assign a monetary value to their environmental patrimony, this through the so called Green Bonds or Carbon Bonds, this opens a new dimension to finance projects by means of these bonds that can be negotiated at an international level; by means of the Clean of Energy Production the investment can be stimulated and revenues for projects that contribute to the sustainable development of the country and the power efficiency. At the moment the country has at least 13 projects in different analysis stages to enter the carbon bond market, which are presented as co-generation projects of energy, in addition to the formation of the Mexican Committee for Projects of Reduction and Capture of Gas Discharges of Greenhouse Effect. [Spanish] La creciente preocupacion por el medio ambiente en nuestro pais y su interes por ratificar el Protocolo de Kyoto en lo referente a la contaminacion de la atmosfera, ofrece grandes oportunidades para la cogeneracion de manera que fortalezca la investigacion cientifica y tecnologica y dar una buena imagen internacional en torno a temas de desarrollo sustentable y cuidado del medio ambiente, de manera que empresas que invierten en tecnologia limpia podran asignar un valor monetario a su patrimonio ambiental, esto a traves de los llamados Bonos Verdes o Bonos de Carbono, esto abre una dimension nueva para financiar proyectos por medio de estos bonos que pueden negociarse a nivel internacional; por medio de la Produccion Limpia de energia se puede estimular inversion y ganancias para proyectos que contribuyan al

  20. Multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas J.; Smith, William C.

    2000-01-01

    A high efficiency, multi-stage fuel cell system method and apparatus is provided. The fuel cell system is comprised of multiple fuel cell stages, whereby the temperatures of the fuel and oxidant gas streams and the percentage of fuel consumed in each stage are controlled to optimize fuel cell system efficiency. The stages are connected in a serial, flow-through arrangement such that the oxidant gas and fuel gas flowing through an upstream stage is conducted directly into the next adjacent downstream stage. The fuel cell stages are further arranged such that unspent fuel and oxidant laden gases too hot to continue within an upstream stage because of material constraints are conducted into a subsequent downstream stage which comprises a similar cell configuration, however, which is constructed from materials having a higher heat tolerance and designed to meet higher thermal demands. In addition, fuel is underutilized in each stage, resulting in a higher overall fuel cell system efficiency.