WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell chp system

  1. An energetic-exergetic analysis of a residential CHP system based on PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → A zero-dimensional of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. → The electrochemical model has been validated with experimental data. → The performances of this CHP system have been evaluated through a series of simulations. → An energy/exergy analysis of the simulation results has allowed to define the PEMFC optimal operating conditions. → The PEMFC optimal operating conditions detected are: 1 atm, 353.15 K and 100% RH. -- Abstract: The use of fuel cell systems for distributed residential power generation represents an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants due to their high efficiency and the potential recovering of the heat generated by the internal electrochemical reactions. In this paper the study of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is reported. With the aim to evaluate the performance and then the feasibility of this non-conventional energy system, in consideration of thermal and electrical basic demand of a multifamily apartment blocks, a zero-dimensional PEMFC model in Aspen Plus environment has been developed. A simulations sequence has been carried out at different operating conditions of the fuel cell (varying temperature, pressure and relative humidity). Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, an energy/exergy analysis has been conducted to define the optimal operating conditions of the PEMFC that ensures the most efficient use of the energy and exergy inputs.

  2. CHP and CCHP Systems Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stojkov, Marinko; Hnatko, Emil; Kljajin, Milan; Živić, Marija; Hornung, Krunoslav

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the CCHP system (combined cooling, heating and power - combined cooling, heating and electricity generation) is described in this paper. The development of CCHP systems comes from the CHP system (combined heat and power generation), also known as cogeneration. CHP systems generate electricity from fuel combustion, heat as a by-product may contain even 60% to 80% of the total potential energy, and may be re-used for different applications. CHP is generally defined as the combine...

  3. Experimental study and modelling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modelling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing the...

  4. Experimental study and modeling of degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cell stacks for use in CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Rasmussen, Peder Lund;

    2009-01-01

    Degradation phenomena in HTPEM fuel cells for use in CHP systems were investigated experimentally and by modeling. It was found that the two main degradation mechanisms in HTPEM fuel cells are carbon corrosion and Pt agglomeration. On basis of this conclusion a mechanistic model, describing the...

  5. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  6. Modelling of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for a single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is...

  7. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  8. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and......One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the...

  9. Heat Pumps in CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt

    capacity constraints limit the efficient operation of the CHP plants. Heat pumps (HPs) can be used to decouple such constraints, but current state of the art are not competitive all things considered. Methods to improve the high energy efficiency are required to match the politically agreed carbon emission......In the current Danish energy system, the majority of electricity and heat is produced in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. With increasing shares of intermittent renewable power production, it becomes a challenging task to match power and heat production to its demand curves, as production...... goals. The presented study investigates the possible introduction of HPs from both a thermodynamic and a system/operation management perspective, in order to find optimal integration schemes in both current and future energy scenarios. Five generic configurations of HPs in district heating (DH) systems...

  10. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  11. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Houwing M.; Negenborn R.R.; De Schutter B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed generation technology is a microcombined heat and power system (micro-CHP). Micro-CHP is an energy-efficient technology that simultaneously provides heat and electricity to households. In this paper, we ...

  12. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  13. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  14. Modelling of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CHP System Coupled with a Hot Water Storage Tank for a Single Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Liso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. The use of a storage tank with thermal stratification allows one to increase the annual operating hours of CHP: heat can be produced when the request is low (for instance during the night, taking advantage of thermal stratification to increases the heat recovery performance. A model of the SOFC system is presented to estimate the energy required to meet the average electric energy demand of the residence. Two fuels are considered, namely syngas produced by gasification and natural gas. The tank model considers the temperature gradients over the tank height. The results of the numerical simulation are used to size the SOFC system and storage heat tank to provide energy for a small household using two different fuels. In particular it was shown that in the case of syngas, due to larger system heat output, a larger tank volume was required in order to accumulate unused heat over the night. The detailed description of the tank model will be useful to energy system modelers when sizing hot water tanks. Problem formulation is reported also using a Matlab script.

  15. CHP Fuel Cell Durability Demonstration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher J

    2014-07-21

    Plug Power has managed a demonstration project that has tested multiple units of its high-temperature, PEM fuel cell system in micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) applications in California. The specific objective of the demonstration project was to substantiate the durability of GenSys Blue, and, thereby, verify its technology and commercial readiness for the marketplace. In the demonstration project, Plug Power, in partnership with the National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and Sempra, will execute two major tasks: • Task 1: Internal durability/reliability fleet testing. Six GenSys Blue units will be built and will undergo an internal test regimen to estimate failure rates. This task was modified to include 3 GenSys Blue units installed in a lab at UCI. • Task 2: External customer testing. Combined heat and power units will be installed and tested in real-world residential and/or light commercial end user locations in California.

  16. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  17. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  18. Rho family GTPase Chp/RhoV induces PC12 apoptotic cell death via JNK activation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepelev, Mikhail V; Chernoff, Jonathan; Korobko, Igor V

    2011-01-01

    Rho GTPases regulate numerous cellular processes including apoptosis. Chp/RhoV is an atypical Rho GTPase which functions are poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of Chp in regulation of cell viability using PC12 cells with inducible expression of Chp as a model. We found that expression of Chp results in apoptosis in PC12 cells. Chp-induced apoptosis was accompanied by activation of JNK signaling and both death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways as justified by...

  19. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) suitable for domestic applications (1-10 kWe) driven by solar thermal, biomass-fired boilers and waste heat resources have been investigated. These ORC-based micro-CHP systems have lower operation pressures and temperatures compared to conventional steam-Rankine cycle CHP systems and hence safer for household applications. However, the lack of commercially available expanders applicable to ORC-based micro-CHP systems has hindered the development of these novel CHP systems. This paper summarizes the findings of the market research for the expanders and discusses the selection and choices of the expanders for ORC-based micro-CHP systems. The working principles and the characteristics of several kinds of expanders, including turbine expanders (i.e., turboexpander), screw expanders, scroll expanders and vane expanders, are introduced and evaluated. - Highlights: → Expanders are vital to ORC-based micro-CHP but not yet commercially available. → Selection and choices of the expanders for 1-10 kWe micro-CHP are discussed. → Vane expanders modified from vane-type air motors have been applied by the authors. → Scroll expanders and vane expanders are likely the good choices for 1-10 kWe micro-CHP.

  20. CFD simulation of Pd-based membrane reformer when thermally coupled within a fuel cell micro-CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roses, Leonardo; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Campanari, Stefano [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia, Via Lambruschini 4, 20156 Milano (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    In this work, a bi-dimensional CFD simulation investigates a fuel processor for hydrogen production from natural gas or biogas composed by a steam methane reformer coupled with a palladium-based hydrogen permeable membrane, the so-called ''membrane reformer'' (MREF). The heat required for the endothermic reforming reaction taking place on the MREF is supplied by a stream of hot gas coming from an external source, typically represented by a combustor burning the unconverted fuel and the unpermeated hydrogen. The resulting fuel processor arrangement, which has already been simulated by the point of view of energy and mass balances, may achieve a very high efficiency and is particularly suited for integration with fuel cells. The interest on this configuration relies on the possibility to implement this technology within a PEMFC-based micro-cogenerator (also micro-Combined Heat and Power, or m-CHP) with a net electrical power output in a range of 1-2 kW. In particular, the work focuses on the temperature profiles along the membrane, which should be kept as close as possible to 600 C to favourite permeation and avoid any damages, and examines the advantages of hot gas on co-current direction vs. counter-current with respect to the reformer flux direction. (author)

  1. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  2. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    Local combined heat and power (CHP) plants in Denmark constitute an important part of the national energy conversion capacity. In particular they supply a large share of the district heating networks with heat. At the same time they are important consumers as seen from the gas network system, and...... they contribute significantly to the electricity production. CHP is, together with the wind power, the almost exclusive distributed generation in Denmark. This paper deals with the CHP as intermediary between the natural gas system and the electricity system. In particular, the relationship between the...... variations in the load will be correlated between the systems, because both demands in part depend on the climate. The analysis in the paper is based on a numerical model which simulates the operation of a CHP plant with heat storage. The conditions for the operation of the plant are assumed to be consistent...

  3. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Guoquan; Liu, Hao; Riffat, Saffa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) suitable for domestic applications (1-10kWe) driven by solar thermal, bioma...

  4. Development of Next Generation micro-CHP System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    Novel proposals for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-andpower) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology are described and analyzed to investigate the technical feasibility of such systems. The proposed systems must...... provide electricity, hot water, and space heating for an average single-family household in Denmark. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The research project is divided into five main study...... topics: (a) Modeling, simulation and validation of the system in LabVIEW environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components, and thereby more realistic design in the future; (b) Modeling, parametric study, and sensitivity analysis of the system in EES (Engineering Equation Solver...

  5. Modeling work of a small scale gasifier/SOFC CHP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.; Aravind, P.V.; Qu, Z.; Woudstra, N.; Verkooijen, A.H.M. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: ming.liu@tudelft.nl, p.v.aravind@tudelft.nl, z.qu@tudelft.nl, n.woudstra@tudelft.nl, a. h. m. verkooijen@tudelft.nl; Cobas, V.R.M. [Federal University of Itajuba (UNIFEI), Pinheirinhos, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: vlad@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    For a highly efficient biomass gasification/Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation system, the gasifier, the accompanying gas cleaning technologies and the CHP unit must be carefully designed as an integrated unit. This paper describes such a system involving a two-stage fixed-bed down draft gasifier, a SOFC CHP unit and a gas cleaning system. A gas cleaning system with both low temperature and high temperature sections is proposed for coupling the gasifier and the SOFC. Thermodynamic modeling was carried out for the gasifier/SOFC system with the proposed gas cleaning system. The net AC electrical efficiency of this system is around 30% and the overall system efficiency is around 60%. This paper also describes various exergy losses in the system and the future plans for integrated gasifier-GCU-SOFC experiments from which the results will be used to validate the modeling results of this system. (author)

  6. Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Jiang, Wei

    2008-03-31

    This document provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification (CxV). It starts by presenting system-level and component-level performance metrics, followed by descriptions of algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, using the metric presented earlier. Verification of commissioning is accomplished essentially by comparing actual measured performance to benchmarks for performance provided by the system integrator and/or component manufacturers. The results of these comparisons are then automatically interpreted to provide conclusions regarding whether the CHP system and its components have been properly commissioned and where problems are found, guidance is provided for corrections. A discussion of uncertainty handling is then provided, which is followed by a description of how simulations models can be used to generate data for testing the algorithms. A model is described for simulating a CHP system consisting of a micro-turbine, an exhaust-gas heat recovery unit that produces hot water, a absorption chiller and a cooling tower. The process for using this model for generating data for testing the algorithms for a selected set of faults is described. The next section applies the algorithms developed to CHP laboratory and field data to illustrate their use. The report then concludes with a discussion of the need for laboratory testing of the algorithms on a physical CHP systems and identification of the recommended next steps.

  7. Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-CHP system based on HT-PEMFC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technology is a well known and proved method to produce simultaneously power and heat at high efficiencies. This can be further improved by the introduction of a novel micro-CHP residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT......-PEMFC). The HT-PEMFC (based on PBI-membrane technology) operates at temperatures near 200oC, and this can be an ideal match for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system provides electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical household (1-5 kWe, 5-10 kWth). The micro-CHP system is...

  8. Performance of a solid oxide fuel cell CHP system coupled with a hot water storage tank for single household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Yang, Wenyuan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system for cogeneration of heat and power integrated with a stratified heat storage tank is studied. Thermal stratification in the tank increases the heat recovery performance as it allows existence of a temperature gradient with the benefit of deliver...

  9. Dynamic analysis of PEMFC-based CHP systems for domestic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Dynamic model of a CHP energy system based on a PEM fuel cell was developed. ► The CHP system behavior at variable electrical and thermal load was investigated. ► The optimal RH value was assessed maximizing PEMFC performance through simulations. ► The system best operating conditions are characterized by a RH value equal to 50%. -- Abstract: Fuel cell-based CHP systems for distributed residential power generation represent an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants. This is mainly due to the high efficiency obtainable in the production of electricity and heat in a decentralised, quiet and environmental friendly way. The current paper focuses on the development, in Matlab®Simulink environment, of a complete dynamic model of a residential cogenerative (CHP) energy system consisting of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), fuel processor, heat exchangers, humidifier and auxiliary hot water boiler. The target of the study is the investigation through such a model of the behavior of CHP systems based on fuel cell (FC) at variable electrical and thermal load, in reference to typical load curves of residential users. With the aim to evaluate the system performance (efficiency, fuel consumption, hot water production, response time) and then to characterize its better operating conditions with particular attention to air relative humidity, suitable simulations were carried out. They are characterized by the following of a typical electrical load trend and in relation to two different thermal load profiles. The dynamic model presented in this paper has allowed to observe the fully functioning of the FC based system under variable loads and it has permitted to design appropriate control logics for this system.

  10. Developing a Model for a CHP System with Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abunku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A model for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP system developed using Matlab is presented in this project. The model developed includes sub-models of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE and generator, electrical and thermal storage systems, and power converters (rectifier and inverter. The model developed is able to simulate the performance of a CHP system when supplying user load. The battery electrical storage system is modelled and used as the electrical storage for this project, and the water storage tank is modelled and used as thermal storage. The project presents the model developed, and the results of the analysis done on the model. The model considered only heat from engine cooling, which is used to heat water to supply the DHW (District Hot Water needs of the user. The results show that by the addition of storage to the CHP system, the overall system efficiency is increased by 32% indicating that the model developed is reliable, and the project is a feasible one

  11. Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.

  12. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system...... when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such system is explained. A sensitivity analysis of several key factors, e.g. fuel price, heat to power ratio...... of the muCHP unit, which influence the export capability of muCHP system, is firstly carried out in the intraday case study, followed by the annual case study which explores the annual system performance. The results show that the electricity export capability of a muCHP system is closely related to...

  13. Designing and optimization of a micro CHP system based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with different fuel processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    partial oxidation (CPO) will be investigated for each configuration. The internal reforming will be also considered for its ability to reduce the stack temperature and decrease the need of cooling air. Finally, optimization criteria for SOFC systems applied to single-family detached dwellings will be...

  14. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  15. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated...... BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system is simulated in LabVIEW environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components and thereby more realistic design in the future. A part-load study has been conducted to...

  16. Demand Response With Micro-CHP Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing application of distributed energy resources and novel information technologies in the electricity infrastructure, innovative possibilities to incorporate the demand side more actively in power system operation are enabled. A promising, controllable, residential distributed genera

  17. Modeling and optimization of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP residential system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A high temperature-proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFC)-based micro-combined-heat-and-power (CHP) residential system is designed and optimized, using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization strategy. The proposed system consists of a fuel cell stack, steam methane reformer (SMR) reactor, water gas...... shift (WGS) reactor, heat exchangers, and other balance-of-plant (BOP) components. The objective function of the single-objective optimization strategy is the net electrical efficiency of the micro-CHP system. The implemented optimization procedure attempts to maximize the objective function by...

  18. CHP efficiency of a 2000 × CPV system with reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsignore, Gaetano; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Collura, Alfonso; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Milone, Sergio; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Paredes, Filippo; Cannas, Marco

    2015-09-01

    In this work we have developed a combined heat and power (CHP) prototype that operates at 2000 × concentration based on reflective optics. The receiver consists of a InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell in thermal contact with an aluminium heat sink driving a forced water flow. This CHP system was tested both indoor (DNI of 650 W/m2) and outdoor (DNI of 900 W/m2) under different conditions of fluid parameters as the flow rate (ranging from 0.2 liters/min to 1.2 liters/min) and temperature (ranging from 25 °C to 60 °C). Electrical and thermal power were determined by acquiring IV curves and by measuring the heat subtracted from the cell while it delivered the maximum electrical power, respectively. The obtained results demonstrate that this CHP system achieves a total efficiency of about 80%, shared between the electrical (30%) and the thermal one (50%).

  19. Optimization of a High Temperature PEMFC micro-CHP System by Formulation and Application of a Process Integration Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A 1 kWe micro combined heat and power (CHP) system based on high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology is modeled and optimized by formulation and application of a process integration methodology. The system can provide heat and electricity for a singlefamily household...

  20. SOFC/TEG hybrid mCHP system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-15

    The starting point for this project have been the challenge has been to develop a cost effective solution with long term stability. This is where a focused effort in a strong consortium covering material research, module development and manufacture as well as device design and optimization can make a real difference. In March 2010 the SOFTEG phase II project was initiated and a cooperation organization was established to implement the project as a development and demonstration project involving the staff from all project partners. The project is now completed with excellent and documented outcome. The final results by Alpcon have been demonstration as a TEG-based mCHP system calls CHP Dual Engine Power System, which will be applicable as both a standalone TEG-CHP hybrid system, but also as an auxiliary power unit and power booster for the SOFC system. However the SOFC system cannot cover the household's heat demand alone so it is necessary to combine a SOFC system together with a water heater/boiler system to cover the peak heat demand of a residential house or a complex building. The SOFTEG project partners achieved significant results that mainly can be outlined as following: 1) University of Aarhus has improved the thermal stability of ZnSb by optimizing the concentration of Nano composite material. 2) The grain size and its influence on the sintering process by spark plasma method are investigated by Aarhus University, but further work seems to be necessary. 3) The TE material is going to commercialization by Aarhus University. 4) Aalborg University has prepared simulation tools for complex thermoelectric simulation in non-steady state condition. 5) The new type DCDC interleaved converter using the MPPT system for optimal power tracing is designed, build and tested by Aalborg University in cooperation with Alpcon. This task is included overall system design, control system implementation and power electronic control design. 6) Full scale practical

  1. A study on electricity export capability of the μCHP system with spot price

    OpenAIRE

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    When a number of muCHP systems are aggregated as a virtual power plant (VPP), they will be able to participate in the electricity wholesale market with no discrimination compared to conventional large power plants. Hence, this paper investigates the electricity export capability of the muCHP system when the electricity buyback price is given at a value equalizing the dynamic spot price. A muCHP system is modeled with optimized generation, and the marginal price of electricity export for such ...

  2. Analysis of the location for peak heating in CHP based combined district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is the main technology for providing the base load of district heating in China. However, CHP is not efficient for providing the peak load; instead, a peak boiler with high efficiency could be used to compensate the peak load. This paper studies how the location of the peak boiler can affect the energy efficiency and economic performance of such CHP based combined district heating system. Firstly, the connection mode and the control strategy for different peak heating locations are analyzed. Then the effect of the peak boiler's location on the initial investment of the network and the cost for distributing heat is studied. The objective is to place the peak boiler in a location where the overall costs are the smallest. Following this rule, the results indicate that the peak boiler should be located at the CHP plant if that allows using cheaper ‘self-use electricity’ in CHP for distributing the heat. However, if the market electricity price is used everywhere, or if energy efficiency is more emphasized, the location of the peak boiler should be closer to the users with dense heat loads. - Highlights: • Location for peak heating in the CHP based combined DH system is studied. • Regulation or control strategies for combined DH are summarized. • The heat load duration curve for combined DH is demonstrated. • Network design for combined DH with peak boiler outside of the CHP is analyzed

  3. Development of a Packaged and Integrated Microturbine/ Chiller Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to define, develop, integrate, and validate at full scale the technology for a 1 MWe, microturbine-driven CHP packaged system for industrial or large commercial applications.

  4. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  5. Connection of small RES and CHP power generation units to the electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU member states have to ensure to the producers of 'green' electricity guaranteed access to the electrical grid including for small installations - Directive (2001/77/EC) of EC. For this reason the European Commission (EC) supports the project 'Production of Electricity with RES and CHP for Homeowners' - PERCH, in the framework of the program 'Intelligent Energy - Europe'. In the report the issues of connection (technical, contractual, tariff and metering) are investigated for small installations using RES and micro CHP, which are owned by individual family houses, small enterprises, etc. It is pointed out that small installations, mainly PV-systems, wind generators and small CHP, as well as combination of these technologies are rapidly applied on the European market. In Bulgaria the application of small PV-systems and wind generators, as well as CHP at present is limited. The elements for encouragement of such systems are defined, as well as the barriers for their wider application. (author)

  6. Optimal design of integrated CHP systems for housing complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An optimization formulation for designing domestic CHP systems is presented. • The operating scheme, prime mover and thermal storage system are optimized. • Weather conditions and behavior demands are considered. • Simultaneously economic and environmental objectives are considered. • Two case studies from Mexico are presented. - Abstract: This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach for designing residential cogeneration systems based on a new superstructure that allows satisfying the demands of hot water and electricity at the minimum cost and the minimum environmental impact. The optimization involves the selection of technologies, size of required units and operating modes of equipment. Two residential complexes in different cities of the State of Michoacán in Mexico were considered as case studies. One is located on the west coast and the other one is in the mountainous area. The results show that the implementation of the proposed optimization method yields significant economic and environmental benefits due to the simultaneous reduction in the total annual cost and overall greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  8. Modeling and parametric study of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based residential micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    for fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems, since it can operate at higher temperature than Nafion-based fuel cells, and therefore can reach higher cogeneration efficiencies. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single......A detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and geometric model of a micro-CHP (Combined-Heatand-Power) residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) technology is developed, implemented and validated. HT-PEMFC technology is investigated as a possible candidate......-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary balance-of-plant components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system’s synthesis/ design and operational pattern is analyzed by means of a parametric study. The parametric study is conducted to...

  9. Modeling and off-design performance of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC (high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell)-based residential micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) system for Danish single-family households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel proposal for the modeling and operation of a micro-CHP (combined-heat-and-power) residential system based on HT-PEMFC (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell) technology is described and analyzed to investigate its commercialization prospects. An HT-PEMFC operates at elevated temperatures, as compared to Nafion-based PEMFCs and therefore can be a significant candidate for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household. A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary BOP (balance-of-plant) components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system is simulated in LabVIEWTM environment to provide the ability of Data Acquisition of actual components and thereby more realistic design in the future. A part-load study has been conducted to indicate performance characteristics at off-design conditions. The system is sized to provide realistic dimensioning of the actual system. -- Research highlights: → An HT-PEMFC-based micro-CHP system is modeled in LabVIEW to provide a basis for future experimental calculations. → We examine operation in various loads to indicate performance characteristics at off-design conditions. → An electrical efficiency varying from 45.4% (25%-load) to 38.8% (full-load) was calculated. The corresponding total efficiency was around 95.2%.

  10. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo;

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation for...... approaches are formulated using binary and Special-Ordered-Set (SOS) variables. Both suggestions have been implemented into the optimization model DER–CAM to simulate investment decisions of CHP micro-turbines and CHP fuel cells with variable efficiencies. The approaches have further been applied...... promising method to model variable efficiencies in terms of computational costs and results. It should especially be considered for specific fuel cell technologies. Further investigation on the impacts of this approach on the prediction of fuel cell and micro-turbine performance is suggested....

  11. CHP-plant with PEM fuel cells; Kraftvarmeanlaeg med PEM braendselsceller - Fase 1. Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moth, K.; Damgaard Schmidt, J.

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this ambitious project was to design and construct a PEM fuel cell based CHP plant. The project succeeded. Furthermore, the project has contributed significantly to knowledge acquisition of data as regards design and construction of plants of this type, and the participants in the projects are placed in a good position in preparation for further activities within this area. (BA)

  12. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an updated analysis of CHP systems in Taiwan during the period from 1990 to 2010. The description in the paper is thus based on an analysis of electricity supply/consumption and its sources from CHP systems during the past two decades, and centered on two important regulations in compliance with CHP systems (i.e., Energy Management Law and Environmental Impact Assessment Act. Based on the total net power generation from CHP systems (i.e., 35,626 GWh in 2011, it was found that the carbon dioxide reduction benefits were estimated to be around 20,000 Gg.

  13. SOFC-based micro-CHP system as an example of efficient power generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupecki, Jakub; Badyda, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Microscale combined heat and power (CHP) unit based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for distributed generation was analyzed. Operation principle is provided, and the technology development in recent years is briefly discussed. System baseline for numerical analysis under steady-state operation is given. Grid-connected unit, fuelled by biogas corresponds to potential market demand in Europe, therefore has been selected for analysis. Fuel processing method for particular application is described. Results of modeling performed in ASPEN Plus engineering software with certain assumptions are presented and discussed. Due to high system electrical efficiency exceeding 40%, and overall efficiency over 80%, technology is an example of highly competitive and sustainable energy generation unit.

  14. Ecological assessment of new CHP systems and their combination; Oekologische Bewertung neuer WKK-Systeme und Systemkombinationen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primas, A.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on new developments in the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) generation area. The objective of this study is an ecological and technical evaluation of various CHP systems and system combinations. These also include suitable combinations with other technologies. Systems for five different temperature levels are quantified according to their environmental impact. Various possible applications are compared with a highly efficient reference system using separate heat and power generation - a combined-cycle plant and a heat pump. For chilled water production a combination of the CHP system with an absorption chiller is investigated. The results of the investigations are presented and commented on. Also, advantageous applications of CHP systems are noted.

  15. Development of a micro-cogeneration laboratory and testing of a natural gas CHP unit based on PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work discusses the design and the development of a Laboratory of Micro-Cogeneration (LMC) at Politecnico di Milano. The LMC laboratory is a unique structure devoted to small-scale power generation, with the main goals of testing and improving the performance of systems that produce or utilize electric and thermal (hot and/or cold) power in a very general sense, spanning from combined heat and power (CHP) units to heaters, from absorption chillers to heat pumps, but also able to perform tests on fuel processors and electrolyzers. The laboratory features a supply of natural gas as well as H2 and O2 from a high pressure electrolyzer and of CO, CO2 and N2 from bottles, permitting to carry out experiments with simulated synthesis fuels. The maximum allowable electrical power produced, exported to the grid or to an electronic loadbank, or consumed by the system under test is 100 kW; maximum allowable thermal power is roughly 200 kW with variable temperature water circuits (from chilled water up to a 150 °C at 8 bar superheated water loop). This work outlines also the instruments used for on-line recording of thermodynamic properties, emissions and power, aiming at monitoring and reconstructing mass and energy balances. One of the first experimental campaign has been carried out on a CHP system based on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM), a promising candidate for distributed CHP thanks to low pollutant emissions and good efficiency, rapid startup and flexibility, although affected by a rather complex fuel processing section to provide the appropriate fuel to the PEM. This work presents the experimental analysis of a 20 kW prototype PEM CHP system complete of natural gas processor. The prototype is operated at LMC to characterize the processing section and the thermodynamic performances of the overall system. Despite its non-optimized layout, the unit has shown encouraging total efficiency (76%) and primary energy saving index (6%). - Highlights:

  16. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo; BRANDON, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell based micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies for implementation in the residential sector. Since the design and operation of such CHP systems are greatly dependent upon the seasonal atmospheric conditions, it is important to evaluate their performance under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled...

  17. Structural insights into ChpT, an essential dimeric histidine phosphotransferase regulating the cell cycle in Caulobacter crescentus

    OpenAIRE

    Fioravanti, Antonella; Clantin, Bernard; Dewitte, Frédérique; Lens, Zoé; Verger, Alexis; Biondi, Emanuele G; Villeret, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Two-component and phosphorelay signal-transduction proteins are crucial for bacterial cell-cycle regulation in Caulobacter crescentus. ChpT is an essential histidine phosphotransferase that controls the activity of the master cell-cycle regulator CtrA by phosphorylation. Here, the 2.2 Å resolution crystal structure of ChpT is reported. ChpT is a homodimer and adopts the domain architecture of the intracellular part of class I histidine kinases. Each subunit consists of two distinct domains: a...

  18. Optimal Design and Operation of A Syngas-fuelled SOFC Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications in Different Climate Zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption in residential sector can be considerably reduced by enhancing the efficiency of energy supply. Fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems are expected to be one of the most promising technologies because of their high efficiency and low environmental impact. Since the design...... of a 70m2 single-family household with an average number of occupants of 3 is evaluated. Detailed model of the micro-CHP unit coupled with a hot water storage tank and an auxiliary boiler is developed. A transient model of the hot water storage tank is used to take into account the effect of peak...

  19. Adaptive Regulation of the Boiler-Turbine Unit of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H.

    1990-01-01

    A simplified nonlinear model of a CHP system is used to investigate the steady state errors, hunting phenomena and high interactions produced in the linear regulators currently employed in industry. A gain-scheduling regulator is designed to overcome these shortcomings.

  20. Small scale CHP: Alternative integration forms in the Danish energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Denmark, introduction of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants were part of the energy policy during the 1990's. Thus, the installed electricity capacity on this type of units multiplied approximately ten times during this decade, to constitute more than 2000 MW in 2000, or around 20% of total installed electricity capacity. The motivation for this development was mainly energy savings due to the relatively high thermal efficiency in combined production, and the associated reduction of emissions. The remuneration for the electricity delivered to the electrical network was in part based on a feed in tariff. The construction of the tariff reflected estimated benefits to the electrical system. With the liberalisation of the electricity markets this arrangement has been questioned, and it has been suggested that the differentiated payment to local CHP should be based on electricity market prising. For Denmark this would imply that the local CHP should trade the electricity on the Nordpool electricity spot market. This paper analyses parts of these two alternative ways of economic arrangements in relation to small scale CHP. First it describes the development and status till now. Then it analyses the production patterns and associated economic consequences of a change from the tariff based system to a market system. (BA)

  1. Designing and control of a SOFC micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo

    domestic micro-generation in Denmark and in Europe and to provide detailed model for the system simulation. The study connects system and component level analysis in order to achieve an effective thermal integration for the design of small solid oxide fuel cell systems. Computational models of each system...... component for steady-state operation were developed. System concepts and key performance parameters were identified. The models were used to evaluate optimal cell-stack power output, the impact of cell operating and design parameters, thermal energy recovery, system process design, and operating strategy on...... overall system energetic performance. In particular a one-dimensional, finite-difference model of a SOFC was generated and verified against other mathematical SOFC models in the literature and a detailed procedure for a supersonic ejector design was provided and validated through a comparison with testing...

  2. Evaluation of Combined Heat and Power (CHP Systems Using Fuzzy Shannon Entropy and Fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Cavallaro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Combined heat and power (CHP or cogeneration can play a strategic role in addressing environmental issues and climate change. CHP systems require less fuel than separate heat and power systems in order to produce the same amount of energy saving primary energy, improving the security of the supply. Because less fuel is combusted, greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants are reduced. If we are to consider the CHP system as “sustainable”, we must include in its assessment not only energetic performance but also environmental and economic aspects, presenting a multicriteria issue. The purpose of the paper is to apply a fuzzy multicriteria methodology to the assessment of five CHP commercial technologies. Specifically, the combination of the fuzzy Shannon’s entropy and the fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS approach will be tested for this purpose. Shannon’s entropy concept, using interval data such as the α-cut, is a particularly suitable technique for assigning weights to criteria—it does not require a decision-making (DM to assign a weight to the criteria. To rank the proposed alternatives, a fuzzy TOPSIS method has been applied. It is based on the principle that the chosen alternative should be as close as possible to the positive ideal solution and be as far as possible from the negative ideal solution. The proposed approach provides a useful technical–scientific decision-making tool that can effectively support, in a consistent and transparent way, the assessment of various CHP technologies from a sustainable point of view.

  3. Impact of carbon tax on internal combustion engine size selection in a medium scale CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We study sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers of a CHP system. → We study carbon tax impact on the economics of the system. → Diesel engine based systems is not economical regardless of the operational mode. → HDF is the only mode in which gas engine based systems is uneconomical. → Carbon price considerably affects the system payback period. -- Abstract: Combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to their high efficiency compared to the conventional power generation systems have received considerable attention as they have less harmful impact on the environment. Recently, the serious concern with reducing the greenhouse gas emissions has focussed the attention on the possibility of a carbon tax in some countries. Here, we address the impact of such tax on the sizing and economics of a CHP system. Optimum sizing of CHP systems is of great importance to maximize the benefits of these systems. To select the optimum prime mover of a CHP system, performance characteristics of engine as well as economic parameters should be taken into consideration. A general thermo-economic approach to optimum sizing of internal combustion engines as the prime movers (any type and size) of a medium scale CHP system (500-5000 kW) and planning their operational strategy is developed. Net Annual Cost (NAC) as the criterion for making decision is introduced and appropriate equations for estimating thermodynamic and economic parameters as well as greenhouse gas emissions are presented. We consider three modes of operation: one-way connection (OWC) mode, two-way connection (TWC) mode, and heat demand following (HDF) mode. The proposed method has been used for a case study where data is available in the literature and the optimum nominal powers using gas engines are 3.3 MW, 3.2 MW, and 1.2 MW and in the case of using diesel engines are 3.4 MW, 3.4 MW, and 1.4 MW for TWC, OWC, and HDF modes, respectively. To determine the sensitivity of results to

  4. A Simplified Nonlinear Model For A Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System

    OpenAIRE

    Karrari, M.; Nicholson, H

    1990-01-01

    Steady state errors, hunting and high interactions have been reported in the operation of combined heat and power (CHP) systems working with steam turbines. The design of currently employed regulators in industry is usually absed on a linear model of the system. An improved system regulation can only be achieved if a more accurate mathematical model is available. In this paper, a simplified nonlinear model is derived which can be used to investigate the present problems and evaluate new contr...

  5. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl Mayer

    2010-03-31

    ECR International and its joint venture company, Climate Energy, are at the forefront of the effort to deliver residential-scale combined heat and power (Micro-CHP) products to the USA market. Part of this substantial program is focused on the development of a new class of steam expanders that offers the potential for significantly lower costs for small-scale power generation technology. The heart of this technology is the scroll expander, a machine that has revolutionized the HVAC refrigerant compressor industry in the last 15 years. The liquid injected cogeneration (LIC) technology is at the core of the efforts described in this report, and remains an excellent option for low cost Micro-CHP systems. ECR has demonstrated in several prototype appliances that the concept for LIC can be made into a practical product. The continuing challenge is to identify economical scroll machine designs that will meet the performance and endurance requirements needed for a long life appliance application. This report describes the numerous advances made in this endeavor by ECR International. Several important advances are described in this report. Section 4 describes a marketing and economics study that integrates the technical performance of the LIC system with real-world climatic data and economic analysis to assess the practical impact that different factors have on the economic application of Micro-CHP in residential applications. Advances in the development of a working scroll steam expander are discussed in Section 5. A rigorous analytical assessment of the performance of scroll expanders, including the difficult to characterize impact of pocket to pocket flank leakage, is presented in Section 5.1. This is followed with an FEA study of the thermal and pressure induced deflections that would result from the normal operation of an advanced scroll expander. Section 6 describes the different scroll expanders and test fixtures developed during this effort. Another key technical

  6. Micro-CHP for self-supply in the housing industry. Profitability and system integration; Mikro-BHKW zur Eigenversorgung in der Wohnungswirtschaft. Wirtschaftlichkeit und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Raphael; Buettner, Markus; Erge, Thomas; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Wittwer, Christof [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The use of micro-CHP units in multifamily buildings is particularly profitable if the produced electricity - coupled with the thermal energy production - is used directly by the operator or sold locally. To maximize the share of own consumption the use of thermal storages to operate the CHP at times of high electrical demand is necessary. By conducting a field test it is shown that the share of own consumption can be increased by predictive control of CHP with thermal storages. The approach increases the profitability of the CHP operation under today's conditions as well as the system integration of the CHP electricity. (orig.)

  7. Genetic Analysis of the Regulation of Type IV Pilus Function by the Chp Chemosensory System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Jacob J.; West, Joyce T.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2009-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the coordinate expression of many virulence factors, including type IV pili, which are required for colonization of host tissues and for twitching motility. Type IV pilus function is controlled in part by the Chp chemosensory system, which includes a histidine kinase, ChpA, and two CheY-like response regulators, PilG and PilH. How the Chp components interface with the type IV pilus motor proteins PilB, PilT, and PilU ...

  8. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min; Lund, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2010-01-01

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency...... related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous...... configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic...

  9. A Comparative Technological Review of Hybrid CSP-Biomass CHP Systems in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, C. M. Iftekhar; Duffy, Aidan; Norton, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore different solar technologies and its suitability for hybridization with biomass for combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Europe. Although hybrid solar-biomass research and demonstration is in its infancy, it has the potential to provide dispatchable renewable energy at a significant scale over many areas in Europe. Therefore, this review examines the technical and economic reported performances on hybrid systems in order to assess the technical and economic v...

  10. Regulatory Compliance and Environmental Benefit Analysis of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2013-01-01

    The energy conservation achieved by utilizing waste heat in the energy and industrial sectors has became more and more important after the energy crisis in the 1970s because it plays a vital role in the potential energy-efficiency improvement. In this regard, cogeneration (combined heat and power, CHP) systems are thus becoming attractive due to the energy, economic, and environmental policies for pursuing stable electricity supply, sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigati...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Romaniuk; A. A. Bobich

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known ...

  12. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP100), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y−1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha−1 y−1. ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  13. Simulation of micro-CHP diffusion by means of System Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a simulation analysis with System Dynamics of the possible diffusion of micro-systems for combined heat-power generation (μ-CHP) as a substitute for centralised electricity generation and local boilers in the residential sector. Decentralised energy production is an important challenge in the 21st century to respond to the threats of exhaustion of non-renewable resources, and of global pollution. The purpose of the System Dynamics modelling is to show the difficulties μ-CHP faces, like most innovative technologies, mainly due to its high investment costs. Feedbacks are important in modelling the diffusion process of this technology and the fundamental aspect of learning effects on the cost decrease. The consumer model is based on the replacement of traditional boilers by μ-CHP installations using the Bass diffusion model. It is shown that natural economic forces are probably not sufficient to achieve a sustained growth. Several incentive schemes to be implemented by the regulatory authorities are investigated to promote this technology

  14. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alta Knizley; Pedro J. Mago; James Tobermann

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP) system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP) on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR), is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance...

  15. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D. [Ruhrgas AG, Dorsten (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  16. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of two micro CHP systems operating with geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Two micro CHP ORC plants using solar and low temperature geothermal are presented. ► Three different fluids (R134a, R236fa, R245fa) are investigated. ► R245fa shows the best cycle efficiency; R134a releases the highest heat. ► Solar collectors accounts for nearly 50% of the system exergy destruction. ► Preliminary analysis of CHP performance with R134a in heating season is carried out. -- Abstract: Micro combined heat and power (CHP) plants operating through an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using renewable energy are analyzed. The reference system is designed to produce 50 kWe. The heat sources of the system are geothermal energy at low temperature (80–100 °C) and solar energy. Two different system layouts, a single and a double stage arrangement, are presented. The first uses a solar field composed only by evacuated solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine. In the double-stage system, a field of evacuated solar collectors heats the working fluid up to an intermediate temperature. After this first stage, only a part of the working fluid flow rate is heated in a second solar field, composed of direct-steam parabolic through collectors (PTCs), up to the maximum temperature of the cycle. The mechanical work is then produced in two turbo-expanders arranged in series. For the investigations, different working fluids (e.g. R134a, R236fa, R245fa) are considered. The results of the simulation in terms of efficiencies, heat and electricity production and the main characteristics of the system (i.e. heat exchanger surface, solar collector area) are presented and discussed.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHP-THERMAL SCHEMES IN CONTEXTS OF THE CONSOLIDATED ENERGY SYSTEM OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structural specifics of the Belarus Consolidated Energy System capacities in view of their ongoing transfer to the combined-cycle technology, building the nuclear power plant and necessity for the generating capacity regulation in compliance with the load diagram. With the country’s economic complex energy utilization pattern being preserved, the generating capacities are subject to restructuring and the CHP characteristics undergo enhancement inter alia a well-known increase of the specific electricity production based on the heat consumption. Because of this the steam-turbine condensation units which are the traditional capacity regulators for the energy systems with heat power plants dominance are being pushed out of operation. In consequence of this complex of changes the issue of load diagram provision gains momentum which in evidence is relevant to the Consolidated Energy System of Belarus. One of the ways to alleviate acuteness of the problem could be the specific electric energy production cut on the CHP heat consumption with preserving the heat loads and without their handover to the heat generating capacities of direct combustion i.e. without fuel over-burning. The solution lies in integrating the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump units into the CHP thermal scheme. Through their agency low-temperature heat streams of the generator cooling, the lubrication and condensation heat-extraction of steam minimal passing to the condenser systems are utilized. As a case study the authors choose one of the CHPs in the conditions of which the corresponding employment of the said pumps leads to diminution of the fuel-equivalent specific flow-rate by 20−25 g for 1 kW⋅h production and conjoined electric energy generation capacity lowering. The latter will be handed over to other generating capacities, and the choice of them affects economic expediency of the absorption bromous-lithium heat pump-units installation

  19. A Study of a Diesel Engine Based Micro-CHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.; Andrews, J.; Tutu, N.; Butcher, T.

    2010-08-31

    This project, funded by New York State Energy Research and Development Agency (NYSERDA), investigated the potential for an oil-fired combined heat and power system (micro-CHP system) for potential use in residences that use oil to heat their homes. Obviously, this requires the power source to be one that uses heating oil (diesel). The work consisted of an experimental study using a diesel engine and an analytical study that examined potential energy savings and benefits of micro-CHP systems for 'typical' locations in New York State. A search for a small diesel engine disclosed that no such engines were manufactured in the U.S. A single cylinder engine manufactured in Germany driving an electric generator was purchased for the experimental work. The engine was tested using on-road diesel fuel (15 ppm sulfur), and biodiesel blends. One of the main objectives was to demonstrate the possibility of operation in the so-called HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) mode. The HCCI mode of operation of engines is being explored as a way to reduce the emission of smoke, and NOx significantly without exhaust treatment. This is being done primarily in the context of engines used in transportation applications. However, it is felt that in a micro-CHP application using a single cylinder engine, such an approach would confer those emission benefits and would be much easier to implement. This was demonstrated successfully by injecting the fuel into the engine air intake using a heated atomizer made by Econox Technologies LLC to promote significant vaporization before entering the cylinder. Efficiency and emission measurements were made under different electrical loads provided by two space heaters connected to the generator in normal and HCCI modes of operation. The goals of the analytical work were to characterize, from the published literature, the prime-movers for micro-CHP applications, quantify parametrically the expected energy savings of using micro-CHP

  20. Optimisation of the cooling systems in industry in CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahtila, P.; Hippinen, I.; Ruohonen, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Industrial Energy Engineering, Espoo (Finland)) (and others)

    2009-07-01

    By optimisating of cooling systems and their integrating them into heating systems we can achieve a significant reduction in total energy consumption and green house gas emissions. Integrating the production of cooling into the combined heat and power generation, i.e. trigeneration, improves the efficiency combined energy production. The aim of the study is to rationalise the production and the use of heat and cooling by integrating the systems in industry and between industry and local municipalities. (orig.)

  1. Thermal gain of CHP steam generator plants and heat supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshina, S. K.; Kudinov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    Heating calculation of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) installed behind the BKZ-420-140 NGM boiler resulting in determination of HRU heat output according to fire gas value parameters at the heat recovery unit inlet and its outlet, heated water quantity, combustion efficiency per boiler as a result of installation of HRU, and steam condensate discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point and HRU heat exchange area has been performed. Inspection results of Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM power boilers and field tests of the surface condensate heat recovery unit (HRU) made on the bimetal calorifier base КСк-4-11 (KSk-4-11) installed behind station no. 2 Ulyanovsk CHP-3 DE-10-14 GM boiler were the basis of calculation. Integration of the surface condensation heat recovery unit behind a steam boiler rendered it possible to increase combustion efficiency and simultaneously decrease nitrogen oxide content in exit gases. Influence of the blowing air moisture content, the excess-air coefficient in exit gases, and exit gases temperature at the HRU outlet on steam condensate amount discharge from combustion products at its cooling below condensing point has been analyzed. The steam condensate from HRU gases is offered as heat system make-up water after degasification. The cost-effectiveness analysis of HRU installation behind the Samara CHP BKZ-420-140 NGM steam boiler with consideration of heat energy and chemically purified water economy has been performed. Calculation data for boilers with different heat output has been generalized.

  2. Evaluation of the operational cost savings potential from a D-CHP system based on a monthly power-to-heat ratio analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta Knizley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR, is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance may be improved by limiting operation of the system to months in which the PHR is relatively low. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how the facility PHR parameter could be used to establish the potential of a D-CHP system to reduce operational cost with respect to traditional CHP systems and conventional systems with separate heating and power. This paper analyzes the relationship between the PHR and the operational cost savings of eight different benchmark buildings. Achieving operational cost savings through optimal operation based on monthly PHR for these building types can enhance the implementation potential of D-CHP and CHP systems. Results indicate that the PHR parameter can be used to predict the potential for a D-CHP system to reduce the operational cost.

  3. Research, Development and Demonstration of Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications - Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Zogg

    2011-03-14

    The objective of the Micro-CHP Phase I effort was to develop a conceptual design for a Micro-CHP system including: Defining market potential; Assessing proposed technology; Developing a proof-of-principle design; and Developing a commercialization strategy. TIAX LLC assembled a team to develop a Micro-CHP system that will provide electricity and heating. TIAX, the contractor and major cost-share provider, provided proven expertise in project management, prime-mover design and development, appliance development and commercialization, analysis of residential energy loads, technology assessment, and market analysis. Kohler Company, the manufacturing partner, is a highly regarded manufacturer of standby power systems and other residential products. Kohler provides a compellingly strong brand, along with the capabilities in product development, design, manufacture, distribution, sales, support, service, and marketing that only a manufacturer of Kohler's status can provide. GAMA, an association of appliance and equipment manufacturers, provided a critical understanding of appliance commercialization issues, including regulatory requirements, large-scale market acceptance issues, and commercialization strategies. The Propane Education & Research Council, a cost-share partner, provided cost share and aided in ensuring the fuel flexibility of the conceptual design. Micro-CHP systems being commercialized in Europe and Japan are generally designed to follow the household thermal load, and generate electricity opportunistically. In many cases, any excess electricity can be sold back to the grid (net metering). These products, however, are unlikely to meet the demands of the U.S. market. First, these products generally cannot provide emergency power when grid power is lost--a critical feature to market success in the U.S. Even those that can may have insufficient electric generation capacities to meet emergency needs for many U.S. homes. Second, the extent to which net

  4. Analysis of the impact of Heat-to-Power Ratio for a SOFC-based mCHP system for residential application under different climate regions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Zhao, Yingru; Brandon, Nigel;

    2011-01-01

    according to the summer energy demand. The winter energy demand shows a Heat-to-Power Ratio which cannot be covered by the mCHP unit alone. To ensure that the mCHP system meets both the thermal and electrical energy demand over the entire year, an auxiliary boiler and a hot water storage tank need to be...

  5. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  6. Energy efficiency analysis and impact evaluation of the application of thermoelectric power cycle to today's CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High efficiency thermoelectric generators (TEG) can recover waste heat from both industrial and private sectors. Thus, the development and deployment of TEG may represent one of the main drives for technological change and fuel substitution. This paper will present an analysis of system efficiency related to the integration of TEG into thermal energy systems, especially Combined Heat and Power production (CHP). Representative implementations of installing TEG in CHP plants to utilize waste heat, wherein electricity can be generated in situ as a by-product, will be described to show advantageous configurations for combustion systems. The feasible deployment of TEG in various CHP plants will be examined in terms of heat source temperature range, influences on CHP power specification and thermal environment, as well as potential benefits. The overall conversion efficiency improvements and economic benefits, together with the environmental impact of this deployment, will then be estimated. By using the Danish thermal energy system as a paradigm, this paper will consider the TEG application to district heating systems and power plants through the EnergyPLAN model, which has been created to design suitable energy strategies for the integration of electricity production into the overall energy system.

  7. Australian coal mine methane emissions mitigation potential using a Stirling engine-based CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane, a major contributor to global warming, is a greenhouse gas emitted from coal mines. Abundance of coal mines and consequently a considerable amount of methane emission requires drastic measures to mitigate harmful effects of coal mining on the environment. One of the commonly adopted methods is to use emitted methane to fuel power generation systems; however, instability of fuel sources hinders the development of systems using conventional prime movers. To address this, application of Stirling engines may be considered. Here, we develop a techno-economic methodology for conducting an optimisation-based feasibility study on the application of Stirling engines as the prime movers of coal mine CHP systems from an economic and an environmental point of view. To examine the impact of environmental policies on the economics of the system, the two commonly implemented ones (i.e. a carbon tax and emissions trading scheme) are considered. The methodology was applied to a local coal mine. The results indicate that incorporating the modelled system not only leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but also to improved economics. Further, due to the heavy economic burden, the carbon tax scheme creates great incentive for coal mine industry to address the methane emissions. -- Highlights: •We study the application of Stirling engines in coal mine CHP systems. •We develop a thermo-economic approach based on the net present worth analysis. •We examine the impact of a carbon tax and ETS on the economics of the system. •The modeled system leads to a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. •Carbon tax provides a greater incentive to address the methane emissions

  8. A biomass-fired micro-scale CHP system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) - Thermodynamic modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of thermodynamics modelling studies of a 2 kW (e) biomass-fired CHP system with organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Three environmentally friendly refrigerants, namely HFE7000, HFE7100 and n-pentane, have been selected as the ORC fluids. The thermodynamic properties of the selected ORC fluids which have been predicted by commercial software (EES) are used to predict the thermal efficiency of ORC. The results of modelling show that under the simulated conditions (1) the ORC thermal efficiency with any selected ORC fluid is well below (roughly about 60% of) the Carnot cycle efficiency; the ORC efficiency depends on not only the modelling conditions but also the ORC fluid - the highest predicted ORC efficiency is 16.6%; the predicted ORC efficiency follows the following order: n-pentane > HFE7000 > HFE7100 (2) both superheating and sub-cooling are detrimental to the ORC efficiency (3) the electrical efficiency of the CHP system with the selected ORC fluids is predicted to be within the range of 7.5%-13.5%, mainly depending on the hot water temperature of the biomass boiler and the ORC condenser cooling water temperature as well as the ORC fluid, and corresponding to about 1.5 kW and 2.71 kW electricity output (4) the overall CHP efficiency of the CHP system is in the order of 80% for all three ORC fluids although the amount and quality of heating supplied by the CHP system depend on the ORC fluid selected and the modelling conditions. -- Highlights: → Thermodynamics modelling of a 2 kW (e) biomass-fired CHP system with ORC is presented. → ORC fluids - HFE7000, HFE7100 and n-pentane. → ORC efficiency follows the order: n-pentane >HFE7000 > HFE7100 under the modelling conditions. → Electrical efficiency of 7.5%-13.5% depending on the ORC fluid and conditions. → Amount and quality of heating depending on the ORC fluid and conditions with CHP efficiency ∼80%.

  9. Current status of fuel cell based combined heat and power systems for residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamla, Harikishan R.; Staffell, Iain; Bujlo, Piotr; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-10-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy, usually electrical and thermal, in a single and integrated system. Implementing CHP systems in the current energy sector may solve energy shortages, climate change and energy conservation issues. This review paper is divided into six sections: the first part defines and classifies the types of fuel cell used in CHP systems; the second part discusses the current status of fuel cell CHP (FC-CHP) around the world and highlights the benefits and drawbacks of CHP systems; the third part focuses on techniques for modelling CHP systems. The fourth section gives a thorough comparison and discussion of the two main fuel cell technologies used in FC-CHP (PEMFC and SOFC), characterising their technical performance and recent developments from the major manufacturers. The fifth section describes all the main components of FC-CHP systems and explains the issues connected with their practical application. The last part summarises the above, and reflects on micro FC-CHP system technology and its future prospects.

  10. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described

  11. Experience of Implementing a Distributed Control System for Thermal and Mechanical and Electrical Equipment at the South-West CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babkin, K. V., E-mail: babkin@uztec.ru; Tsvetkov, M. S.; Kostyuk, R. I.; Chugin, A. V. [SC “South-West CHP” (Russian Federation); Bilenko, V. A.; Molchanov, K. A.; Fedunov, V. V. [JSC “Interautomatika” (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Results of implementing an SPPA-T3000-based unified distributed control system for thermal and mechanical and electrical equipment at the South-West CHP are discussed. Hardware solutions for integration with local control systems, control of electrical equipment in compliance with the standards IEC 61850, Modbus RTU, and communication between the plant control system and the System Operator of the Unified Power System are described.

  12. Design and Optimization of an Integrated Biomass Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian

    for biomass transportation. Traditional decentralized CHP plants suffer from low net electrical efficiencies compared to central power stations, though. Especially small-scale and dedicated biomass CHP plants have poor electrical power yield. Improving the electrical power yield from small-scale CHP...... plants based on biomass will improve the competitiveness of decentralized CHP production from biomass as well as move the development towards a more sustainable CHP production. The aim of this research is to contribute to enhanced electrical efficiencies and sustainability in future decentralized CHP...... plants. The work deals with the coupling of thermal biomass gasification and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), and specific focus is kept on exploring the potential performance of hybrid CHP systems based on the novel two-stage gasification concept and SOFCs. The two-stage gasification concept is developed...

  13. Optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro CHP system for residential applications in different climate zones in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Wenyuan; Zhao, Yingru; Liso, Vincenzo;

    2014-01-01

    under difference climate conditions to ensure that it is well matched with the local heat-to-power ratio. The aim of this study is to investigate the optimal design and operation of a syngas-fuelled SOFC micro-CHP system for small households located in five different climate zones in China. The ability...... to determine the optimal match between the energy demand of the household for different climates across China and the energy supply of the micro-CHP during the whole year. Moreover, criteria for sizing the system components of the micro-CHP are specifically addressed. The developed methodology can be...

  14. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  15. Testing and model-aided analysis of a 2 kW el PEMFC CHP-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, P.; Weber, A.; Lewald, N.; Aicher, T.; Jörissen, L.; Ivers-Tiffée, E.; Szolak, R.; Brendel, M.; Kaczerowski, J.

    A prototype PEMFC CHP-system (combined heat and power) for decentralised energy supply in domestic applications has been installed in the Fuel Cell Testing Laboratory at the Institut für Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE), Universität Karlsruhe (TH). The system, which was developed at the Zentrum für Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung ZSW, Ulm (FC-stack) and the Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (reformer) is operated and tested in close cooperation with the Stadtwerke Karlsruhe. The tests are carried out as part of the strategic project EDISon, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWA). The performance of the system is evaluated for different operating conditions. The tests include steady state measurements under different electrical and thermal loads as well as an analysis of the dynamic behaviour of the system during load changes. First results of these steady state and dynamic operation characteristics will be presented in this paper.

  16. Desiccant HVAC system driven by a micro-CHP: Experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio [Universita degli Studi del Sannio, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Piazza Roma 21, Benevento, 82100 (Italy); Minichiello, Francesco [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, DETEC, P.le Tecchio 80, Napoli, 80125 (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    In the Mediterranean area, there is increase in demand for summer cooling satisfied by electrically driven units in domestic and small commercial sectors; this involves electric peak loads and black-outs. Consequently, there is an increasing interest in small scale polygeneration systems fuelled by natural gas. In this paper, attention is paid to a test facility, located in Southern Italy, to carry out experimental analysis on a small scale polygeneration system based on a natural gas-fired Micro-CHP and a desiccant HVAC system. The MCHP provides thermal power, recovered from engine cooling and exhaust gas, for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel and electric power for the chiller, the auxiliaries and the external units (computers, lights, etc.). The HVAC system can also operate in traditional way, by interacting with electric grid and gas-fired boiler. An overview of the main experimental results is shown, considering both the desiccant wheel and the global polygeneration system. The experimental results confirm that the performances of the desiccant wheel are strongly influenced by outdoor thermal-hygrometric air properties and regeneration temperature. The polygeneration system guarantees primary energy savings up to 21.2% and greenhouse-gas emissions reductions up to 38.6% with respect to conventional HVAC systems based on separate energy ''production''. (author)

  17. Analyzing a self-managed CHP system for greenhouse cultivation as a profitable way to reduce CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To counter global warming, a transition to a low-carbon economy is needed. The greenhouse sector can contribute by installing Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems, known for their excellent energy efficiency. Due to the recent European liberalization of the energy market, glass horticulturists have the opportunity to sell excess electricity to the market and by tailored policy and support measures, regional governments can fill the lack of technical and economic knowledge, causing initial resistance. This research investigates the economic and environmental opportunities using two detailed cases applying a self managed cogeneration system. The Net Present Value is calculated to investigate the economic feasibility. The Primary Energy Saving, the CO2 Emission Reduction indicator and an Emission Balance are applied to quantify the environmental impact. The results demonstrate that a self-managed CHP system is economic viable and that CO2 emissions are reduced.

  18. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  19. Techno-economic analysis of CHP system supplied by waste forest biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A; Klonowicz, P; Król, D; Wiśniewski, S; Zwarycz-Makles, K

    2015-08-01

    Poland, as for Europe, is a country with an average forest cover of approximately 30%. In these forests, more than 37M m3 of wood, mostly coniferous (over 80%), is harvested per year. In 2012, 4.2M m3 of sawn timber was produced (sawn timber without factory lumber). At the same time, in Poland there are over 8000 sawmills, whereas only about 700 of them saw over 90% of the harvested timber. So much fragmentation is a major cause of low sawmills innovation, particularly of those small ones. However, in recent years, a trend of development in this sector is noticeable, and it is through rationalisation of material and energy economy. One of the methods to increase the technical and economic effectiveness of enterprises involved in woodworking is to build in the combined heat and power system (CHP) plant with the ORC system into the existing infrastructure, which will be matched to the needs of the company. This article presents an analysis of the profitability of the investment based on the example of a medium-sized company sawing approximately 50,000 m3 of timber per year, and the economic analysis was performed for prices and costs valid in Poland. The analysis made for the 1650 kW(el) organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system, has resulted in a profitability index PI = 1.3, on the assumptions that the ORC system operates for 6000 h y(-1), will be purchased at the price of 4500 € kW(el)(-1) and at the price of electricity sales of 130 € MWh(-1). PMID:26142426

  20. 250 kWe class atmospheric Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) power plant installation and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 250 kWe SOFC/CHP system was designed as the first pre-commercial demonstration of Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation's (SWPC) atmospheric-pressure SOFC technology. This integrated package combining fuel cell and heat recovery, was predicted to deliver electrical-generation efficiencies above 45% and total energy efficiency with heat recovery approaching 80%. SOFC technologies are widely heralded as the state-of-the art in stationary power generation. High electrical conversion efficiencies (up to a potential of 70% in pressurized hybrid units), very low emissions, virtually solid state (few moving parts), and high exhaust-heat recovery make SOFCs very desirable as distributed generation technologies. With their tubular technology, SWPC is recognized as the world leader in SOFC stationary systems designed for distributed generation applications. (author)

  1. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and $2.9x106 over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems.

  2. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and 2.9 x 106 over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems. (author)

  3. Examination of energy price policies in Iran for optimal configuration of CHP and CCHP systems based on particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichi, S.G.; Ardehali, M.M.; Nazari, M.E. [Energy Research Center, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 424 Hafez Ave., Tehran 15825-4413 (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    The current subsidized energy prices in Iran are proposed to be gradually eliminated over the next few years. The objective of this study is to examine the effects of current and future energy price policies on optimal configuration of combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems in Iran, under the conditions of selling and not-selling electricity to utility. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is used for minimizing the cost function for owning and operating various CHP and CCHP systems in an industrial dairy unit. The results show that with the estimated future unsubsidized utility prices, CHP and CCHP systems operating with reciprocating engine prime mover have total costs of 5.6 and 2.9 x 10{sup 6} over useful life of 20 years, respectively, while both systems have the same capital recovery periods of 1.3 years. However, for the same prime mover and with current subsidized prices, CHP and CCHP systems require 4.9 and 5.2 years for capital recovery, respectively. It is concluded that the current energy price policies hinder the promotion of installing CHP and CCHP systems and, the policy of selling electricity to utility as well as eliminating subsidies are prerequisites to successful widespread utilization of such systems. (author)

  4. Modelling of a CHP SOFC system fed with biogas from anaerobic digestion of municipal waste integrated with solar collectors and storage unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Borello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of the sustainable energy community is recognized as the future energy approach due to its economical, technical and environmental benefits. Future systems should integrate renewable energy systems applying a “community-scale” approach to maximize energy performances, while minimizing environmental impacts. Efforts have to be directed toward the promotion of integrated technical systems needed to expand the use of renewable energy resources, to build sustainable local and national energy networks, to guarantee distribution systems for urban facilities and to reduce pollution. In this framework poly-generation is a promising design perspective, for building and district scale applications, in particular where different types of energy demand are simultaneously present and when sufficient energy intensity justifies investments in smart grids and district heating networks. In situ anaerobic digestion of biomass and organic waste has the potential to provide sustainable distributed generation of electric power together with a viable solution for the disposal of municipal solid wastes. A thermal recovery system can provide the heat required for district-heating. The system analysed is a waste-to-energy combined heat and power (CHP generation plant that perfectly fits in the sustainable energy community paradigm. The power system is divided in the following sections: a a mesophilic - single phase anaerobic digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste for biogas production; b a fuel treatment section with desulphurizer and pre-reformer units; c a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC for CHP production; d a solar collector integrated system(integrated storage system - ISS. An integrated TRNSYS/ASPEN Plus model for simulating the power system behaviour during a typical reference period (day or year was developed and presented. The proposed ISS consists of a solar collector integrated with storage systems system designed to

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF l kW RESIDENTIAL SOFC-CHP SYSTEM%1kW家用SOFC-CHP系统建模及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晗; 党政; 白博峰

    2011-01-01

    A combined heating and power system (CHP) driven by natrual gas was established based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), relevant SOFC heat and mass transfer equations as well as electrochemical equations were deduced, and component models were built and solved by FORTRAN as a tool to predict the system performance of a 1 kW residential SOFC-CHP system. The results indicate that the system efficiency is much higher than the generating efficiency of SOFC under the design-point condition. A maximum value of electric power appears with the increase of the inlet fuel flow, fuel utilization and electric efficiency decrease, system cogeneration efficiency experiences a rising trend, and the cell temperature gradient distribution becomes growingly even. Reducing the excess air ratio could enhance the system performance.The above conclusions are very useful for the design and optimization of the residential SOFC-CHP system.%构建一个以天然气为燃料的SOFC-CHP系统,推导SOFC传热传质及电化学方程,建立各个组件的数学模型,编写计算程序,对发电功率为1kW的家用SOFC-CHP系统在设计工况下进行性能模拟并探讨不同系统参数对性能的影响.计算结果表明:在设计工况下,系统热电联供效率远高于电池单独发电的效率;此外,随着燃料入口流量的增大,系统发电功率存在一个最大值,燃料利用率与发电效率不断减小,系统热电联供效率不断增大,SOFC的温度梯度分布则越来越平缓;同时发现降低过量空气系数可以提高该CHP系统的性能.

  6. Energy Analysis and Multi-Objective Optimization of an Internal Combustion Engine-Based CHP System for Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolsaeid Ganjehkaviri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive thermodynamic study is conducted of a diesel based Combined Heat and Power (CHP system, based on a diesel engine and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. Present research covers both energy and exergy analyses along with a multi-objective optimization. In order to determine the irreversibilities in each component of the CHP system and assess the system performance, a complete parametric study is performed to investigate the effects of major design parameters and operating conditions on the system’s performance. The main contribution of the current research study is to conduct both exergy and multi-objective optimization of a system using different working fluid for low-grade heat recovery. In order to conduct the evolutionary based optimization, two objective functions are considered in the optimization; namely the system exergy efficiency, and the total cost rate of the system, which is a combination of the cost associated with environmental impact and the purchase cost of each component. Therefore, in the optimization approach, the overall cycle exergy efficiency is maximized satisfying several constraints while the total cost rate of the system is minimized. To provide a better understanding of the system under study, the Pareto frontier is shown for multi-objective optimization and also an equation is derived to fit the optimized point. In addition, a closed form relationship between exergy efficiency and total cost rate is derived.

  7. Mapping and disruption of the chpB locus in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Y; Ohtsubo, E

    1994-01-01

    The chpB locus is a chromosomal homolog of the pem locus, which is responsible for stable maintenance of plasmid R100 within the host cells. Like pem, chpB codes for two genes, chpBK and chpBI, encoding a growth inhibitor and a suppressor for the killing action of the ChpBK protein, respectively. Here, we determined the precise location of the chpB locus, which is linked to ileR and ppa in the order ileR-chpB-ppa, at 95.7 min on the map of Escherichia coli. We then constructed mutants with an...

  8. Development and test of a Stirling engine driven by waste gases for the micro-CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, micro-CHP systems are attracting world attention. As one kind of external heating engines, Stirling engines could be applied to the micro-CHP systems driven by solar, biogas, mid-high temperature waste gases and many other heat sources. The development of a Stirling engine driven by mid-high temperature waste gases is presented first. The thermodynamic design method, the key parameters of the designed Stirling engine and its combustion chamber adapted for waste gases are described in detail. Then the performance test of the Stirling engine is carried out. During the test, the temperature of the heater head is monitored by thermocouples, and the pressure of the working fluid helium in the Stirling engine is monitored by pressure sensors. The relationships among the output shaft power, torque and speed are studied, and the pressure losses of the working fluid in the heat exchanger system are also analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the output shaft power could reach 3476 W at 1248 RPM, which is in good agreement with the predicted value of 3901 W at 1500 RPM. The test results confirm the fact that Stirling engines driven by mid-high temperature waste gases are able to achieve a valuable output power for engineering application. - Highlights: ► A β-type Stirling engine whose output power could reach about 3.5 kW is developed by ourselves. ► Waste gases are used as the heat source to drive the Stirling engine. ► Test on the relationship among the power, torque, and speed are presented. ► The pressure changing process of the working fluid in the heat exchanger system during the test is recorded and analyzed.

  9. Energetic and exergetic efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in district heating systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in the district heating systems of China were analyzed with a thermodynamic model in the Hysys program. The influences of four parameters were evaluated by the Taguchi method. The results indicated that the extraction steam flow rate and extraction steam pressure are the most important parameters for energetic and exergetic efficiencies, respectively. The relations between extraction steam flow rate, extraction steam pressure and the energetic and exergetic efficiencies were investigated. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies were compared to the RPES (relative primary energy savings) and the RAI (relative avoided irreversibility). Compared to SHP (separate heat and power) generation, the CHP systems save fuel energy when extraction ratio is larger than 0.15. In the analysis of RAI, the minimum extraction ratio at which CHP system has advantages compared with SHP varies between 0.25 and 0.6. The higher extraction pressure corresponds to a higher value. Two of the examined plants had design conditions giving RPES close to zero and negative RAI. The third had both positive RPES and RAI at design conditions. The minimum extraction ratio can be used as an indicator to design or choose CHP plant for a given district heating system. - Highlights: • Extraction flow rate and extraction pressure are the most important parameters. • The exergetic efficiency depends on the energy to exergy ratio and system boundary. • The minimum extraction ratio is a key indicator for CHP plants. • Program Hysys and Taguchi method are used in this research

  10. Design and analysis of permanent magnet moving coil type generator used in a micro-CHP generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros Pop, Susana Teodora; Berinde, Ioan; Vadan, Ioan

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the design and analysis of a permanent magnet moving coil type generator driven by a free piston Stirling engine. This assemble free piston Stirling engine - permanent magnet moving coil type generator will be used in a combined heat and power (CHP) system for producing heat and power in residential area. The design procedure for moving coil type linear generator starts from the rated power imposed and finally uses the Faraday law of induction. The magneto-static magnetic field generated by permanent magnets is analyzed by means of Reluctance method and Finite Element Method in order to evaluate the magnetic flux density in the air gap, which is a design data imposed in the design stage, and the results are compared.

  11. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.

  12. Using Cost-Effectiveness Tests to Design CHP Incentive Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the structure of cost-effectiveness tests to illustrate how they can accurately reflect the costs and benefits of CHP systems. This paper begins with a general background discussion on cost-effectiveness analysis of DER and then describes how cost-effectiveness tests can be applied to CHP. Cost-effectiveness results are then calculated and analyzed for CHP projects in five states: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and North Carolina. Based on the results obtained for these five states, this paper offers four considerations to inform regulators in the application of cost-effectiveness tests in developing CHP programs.

  13. Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of a micro CHP system fueled by low-temperature geothermal and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Binary, ORC technology avoids CO2, but raises questions about environmental impact. • We proposed a micro-size system that combines geothermal energy with solar energy. • The small scale and the solar energy input edges the energy profitability. • The system’s performance is appreciable if applied to existing wells. • The feasibility of exploiting abandoned wells is preliminarily evaluated. - Abstract: In this paper we evaluate the environmental sustainability of a small combined heat and power (CHP) plant operating through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). The heat sources of the system are from geothermal energy at low temperature (90–95 °C) and solar energy. The designed system uses a solar field composed only of evacuated, non-concentrating solar collectors, and work is produced by a single turbine of 50 kW. The project addresses an area of Tuscany, but it could be reproduced in areas where geothermal energy is extensively developed. Therefore, the aim is to exploit existing wells that are either unfit for high-enthalpy technology, abandoned or never fully developed. Furthermore, this project aims to aid in downsizing the geothermal technology in order to reduce the environmental impact and better tailor the production system to the local demand of combined electric and thermal energy. The environmental impact assessment was performed through a Life Cycle Analysis and an Exergy Life Cycle Analysis. According to our findings the reservoir is suitable for a long-term exploitation of the designed system, however, the sustainability and the energy return of this latter is edged by the surface of the heat exchanger and the limited running hours due to the solar plant. Therefore, in order to be comparable to other renewable resources or geothermal systems, the system needs to develop existing wells, previously abandoned

  14. Development and evaluation of a biomass-fired micro-scale CHP with organic rankine cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Yingjuan

    2011-01-01

    Combined Heat and Power Generation (CHP) or cogeneration has been considered worldwide as the major alternative to traditional energy systems in terms of signi ticant energy saving and environmental conservation. A renewable energy resource-fuelled CHP would deliver even more environmental benefits than a fossil tuel-driven CHP. Biomass is one of the renewable energy resources that plays an important role to the world primary energy supplies and can be used to fuel CHP systems. Many medium- a...

  15. Biological Properties and Cell Tropism of Chp2, a Bacteriophage of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydophila abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, J. S.; Garner, S. A.; Fane, B.; Liu, B.-L.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2002-01-01

    A number of bacteriophages belonging to the Microviridae have been described infecting chlamydiae. Phylogenetic studies divide the Chlamydiaceae into two distinct genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, containing three and six different species, respectively. In this work we investigated the biological properties and host range of the recently described bacteriophage Chp2 that was originally discovered in Chlamydophila abortus. The obligate intracellular development cycle of chlamydiae has prec...

  16. A new waste heat district heating system with combined heat and power (CHP) based on ejector heat exchangers and absorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new waste heat district heating system with CHP based on ejector heat exchangers and absorption heat pumps (DH-EHE) is presented to decrease heating energy consumption of existing CHP systems by recovering waste heat of exhausted steam from a steam turbine, which could also increase heat transmission capacity of the primary heating network (PHN) by decreasing temperature of the return water of existing PHN. A new ejector heat exchanger based on ejector refrigeration cycle is invented to decrease temperature of the return water of PHN to 30 °C under the designed case. DH-EHE is analyzed in terms of laws of thermodynamics and economics. Compared to conventional district heating systems with CHP (CDH), DH-EHE can decrease consumption of steam extracted from a steam turbine by 41.4% and increase heat transmission capacity of the existing PHN by 66.7% without changing the flow rate of circulating water. The heating cost of DH-EHE is 8.62 ¥/GJ less than that of CDH. Compared to CDH, the recovery period of additional investment of DH-EHE is about two years. DH-EHE shows better economic and environmental benefits, which is promising for both district heating systems for long-distance heat transmission and waste heat district heating systems. - Highlights: • Heating capacity of this new heating system increases by 41% by waste heat recovery. • Temperature of return water of the primary heating network can be reduced to 30 °C. • Heating cost of new heating system is 8.62¥/GJ less than that of conventional one. • The recovery period of additional investment of new heating system is about 2 years. • This new heating system shows better economic and environmental benefits

  17. Sizing a solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system for residential application in diverse climatic conditions based on 3E analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 3E analysis was performed on solar CHP systems. • Significant primary energy saving and greenhouse gas reduction were obtained. • The engine was sized so that it had the best economic sound. • Various criteria at different weathers were used for sizing the engine. - Abstract: A solar dish Stirling cogeneration system is considered to provide energy demands of a residential building. As energy demands of the building and output power of the engine are functions of weather condition and solar irradiation flux, the benchmark building was considered to be located in five different cities in Iran with diverse climatic and solar irradiation conditions. The proposed solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system was analyzed based on 3E analysis. The 3E analysis evaluated primary energy saving analysis (energy analysis), carbon dioxide emission reduction (environmental analysis) and payback period for return of investment (economic analysis) and was compared to a reference building that utilized primary energy carriers for its demands. Three scenarios were considered for assessment and sizing the solar dish Stirling engine. In the first scenario, size of the solar dish Stirling engine was selected based on the lowest annual electric power demand while, in second, the highest annual electric power consumption was considered to specify size of the engine. In the third scenario, a solar dish Stirling engine with constant output capacity was considered for the five locations. It was shown that implementing the solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system had good potential in primary energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in all scenarios and acceptable payback period for return of the investment in some scenarios. Finally, the best scenario for selecting size of the engine in each city was introduced using the TOPSIS decision making method. It was demonstrated that, for dry weather, the first scenario was the best while, for hot and humid cities and

  18. Regional Energy Systems with Retrofitted Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Song

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion, economic development, urban expansion and climate change present tough challenges to municipal- and regional-scale energy systems. Regional energy system planning, including waste treatment, renewable energy supply, energy efficiency, and climate change, are considered essential to meet these challenges and move toward a sustainable society. This thesis includes studies on energy system from municipal waste, potential for a fossil fuel-independent regional energy system...

  19. Toxin-antitoxin loci as stress-response-elements: ChpAK/MazF and ChpBK cleave translated RNAs and are counteracted by tmRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.K.; Pedersen, K.; Hansen, Flemming G.;

    2003-01-01

    Prokaryotic chromosomes encode toxin-antitoxin loci, often in multiple copies. In most cases, the function of these genes is not known. The chpA (mazEF) locus of Escherichia coli has been described as a cell killing module that induces bacterial apoptosis during nutritional stress. However, we...... found recently that ChpAK (MazF) does not confer cell killing but rather, induces a bacteriostatic condition from which the cells could be resuscitated. Results presented here yield a mechanistic explanation for the detrimental effect on cell growth exerted by ChpAK and the homologous ChpBK protein of E....... coli. We show that both proteins inhibit translation by inducing cleavage of translated mRNAs. Consistently, the inhibitory effect of the proteins was counteracted by tmRNA. Amino acid starvation induced strong transcription of chpA that depended on Lon protease but not on ppGpp. Simultaneously, Chp...

  20. Modelling of energy systems with a high percentage of CHP and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the energy system analysis model EnergyPLAN, which has been used to analyse the integration of large scale wind power into the national Danish electricity system. The main purpose of the EnergyPLAN model is to design suitable national energy planning strategies by analysing the...

  1. Adapting CHP Software to suit the modelling of heat pump and refrigeration systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, M.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The role of heat pumps and refrigeration machines as integrated parts of energy supply systems is increasing as a result of the search for systems which supply the desired amounts and types of energy in an energy-efficient manner. Tools to support engineers in designing, analysing and optimising suc

  2. CHP2 gene expression and quantitation in Egyptian patients with acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Ahmed Hammam; Hisham Hasan Eissa; Mohamed Roshdy El Masry; Sarah Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Aim: CHP2 (calcineurin B homologous protein 2) is identified as a tumor-associated antigen highly expressed in different malignancies. It plays a critical role in cancer cell development, proliferation, motility and survival. It is suggested that the human tumor related gene CHP2 expression in leukemia primary cells and leukemia cell lines significantly increase, which may play an important role in growth process of leukemia cells. Methods: In this study, the expression of CHP2 gene was an...

  3. Potential of ORC Systems to Retrofit CHP Plants in Wastewater Treatment Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chacartegui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment stations take advantage of the biogas produced from sludge in anaerobic digesters to generate electricity (reciprocating gas engines and heat (cooling water and engine exhaust gases. A fraction of this electricity is used to operate the plant while the remaining is sold to the grid. Heat is almost entirely used to support the endothermic anaerobic digestion and a minimum fraction of it is rejected to the environment at a set of fan coolers. This generic description is applicable to on-design conditions. Nevertheless, the operating conditions of the plant present a large seasonal variation so it is commonly found that the fraction of heat rejected to the atmosphere increases significantly at certain times of the year. Moreover, the heat available in the exhaust gases of the reciprocating engine is at a very high temperature (around 650 oC, which is far from the temperature at which heat is needed for the digestion of sludge (around 40 oC in the digesters. This temperature difference offers an opportunity to introduce an intermediate system between the engines and the digesters that makes use of a fraction of the available heat to convert it into electricity. An Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC with an appropriate working fluid is an adequate candidate for these hot/cold temperature sources. In this paper, the techno-economic effect of adding an Organic Rankine Cycle as the intermediate system of an existing wastewater treatment station is analysed. On this purpose, different working fluids and system layouts have been studied for a reference wastewater treatment station giving rise to optimal systems configurations. The proposed systems yield very promising results with regard to global efficiency and electricity production (thermodynamically and economically.

  4. Specification of Selected Performance Monitoring and Commissioning Verification Algorithms for CHP Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2006-10-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is assisting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Energy (DE) Program by developing advanced control algorithms that would lead to development of tools to enhance performance and reliability, and reduce emissions of distributed energy technologies, including combined heat and power technologies. This report documents phase 2 of the program, providing a detailed functional specification for algorithms for performance monitoring and commissioning verification, scheduled for development in FY 2006. The report identifies the systems for which algorithms will be developed, the specific functions of each algorithm, metrics which the algorithms will output, and inputs required by each algorithm.

  5. Development of a Transient Model of a Stirling-Based CHP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón Cacabelos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the Stirling engine was invented in 1816, this heat engine still continues to be investigated due to the variety of energy sources that can be used to power it (e.g., solar energy, fossil fuels, biomass, and geothermal energy. To study the performance of these machines, it is necessary to develop and simulate models under different operating conditions. In this paper, we present a one-dimensional dynamic model based on components from Trnsys: principally, a lumped mass and a heat exchanger. The resulting model is calibrated using GenOpt. Furthermore, the obtained model can be used to simulate the machine both under steady-state operation and during a transient response. The results provided by the simulations are compared with data measured in a Stirling engine that has been subjected to different operating conditions. This comparison shows good agreement, indicating that the model is an appropriate method for transient thermal simulations. This new proposed model requires few configuration parameters and is therefore easily adaptable to a wide range of commercial models of Stirling engines. A detailed analysis of the system results reveals that the power is directly related to the difference of temperatures between the hot and cold sources during the transient and steady-state processes.

  6. Economic potentials of CHP connected to district heat systems in Germany. Implementation of the EU Efficiency Directive; Wirtschaftliche Potenziale der waermeleitungsgebundenen Siedlungs-KWK in Deutschland. Umsetzung der EU-Energieeffizienzrichtlinie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmeier, Bernd [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Fertigungstechnik und Angewandte Materialforschung IFAM, Bremen (Germany). Organisationseinheit Systemanalyse; Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The EU Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) is requiring all member states to carry out an evaluation of the potential for highly efficient CHP and the efficient use of district heating and cooling by December 2015. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy appointed this task to the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing and Advanced Materials, division for Energy Systems Analysis (formerly Bremer Energie Institut) in conjunction with other partners. The results for the sector district- and communal heating with CHP, sub-sectors private households, trade and services industry, are presented in this article.

  7. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative

  8. A new approach for near real-time micro-CHP management in the context of power system imbalances – A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An aggregator consisting of micro-CHPs was proposed. • A near-real time balance optimization was developed. • A case study that resembles the actual situation of the Belgian energy market is studied. • Using the near-real time balance optimization a cost decrease between 2.5% and 5% can be achieved. - Abstract: In order to ensure reliable operation of the electric grid, it is required to keep the balance between total generation and consumption of power in real-time. This task is performed by the transmission system operator. Nowadays, with the large penetration of intermittent generation on the electric grid there is a need to increase the flexibility of the system in order to ensure the balance. The present study develops a methodology to provide near real-time balancing services making use of an aggregation of micro-CHP devices. The controller of the aggregator bids electricity into the day-ahead market using the expected heat demand and spot market prices. The main focus of this work is on the near real-time optimization which is performed during the actual day. This optimization provides the opportunity to obtain extra profits by rescheduling the operation of the aggregator. The rescheduling is done in order to compensate the total system imbalance. To achieve this, every time step, the aggregator evaluates the system demand for up or down regulation and decides if it is profitable to adjust its position to provide balancing services to the power system. The methodology is applied to a case study that resembles the actual situation of the energy market and CHP installations in Belgium. The results show that using the near real-time balancing optimization a total cost decrease of 5% can be achieved depending on the season. This conclusion is valid even if there is an increase of the gas prices and if the actual governmental support on CHPs is not taken into account

  9. Optimal design of CHP-based microgrids: Multiobjective optimisation and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an alternative to current centralised energy generation systems, microgrids are adopted to provide local energy with lower energy expenses and gas emissions by utilising distributed energy resources (DER). Several micro combined heat and power technologies have been developed recently for applications at domestic scale. The optimal design of DERs within CHP-based microgrids plays an important role in promoting the penetration of microgrid systems. In this work, the optimal design of microgrids with CHP units is addressed by coupling environmental and economic sustainability in a multi-objective optimisation model which integrates the results of a life cycle assessment of the microgrids investigated. The results show that the installation of multiple CHP technologies has a lower cost with higher environmental saving compared with the case when only a single technology is installed in each site, meaning that the microgrid works in a more efficient way when multiple technologies are selected. In general, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are chosen as the basic CHP technology for most solutions, which offers lower environmental impacts at low cost. However, internal combustions engines (ICE) and Stirling engines (SE) are preferred if the heat demand is high. - Highlights: • Optimal design of microgrids is addressed by coupling environmental and economic aspects. • An MILP model is formulated based on the ε-constraint method. • The model selects a combination of CHP technologies with different technical characteristics for optimum scenarios. • The global warming potential (GWP) and the acidification potential (AP) are determined. • The output of LCA is used as an input for the optimisation model

  10. Energy efficiency of CHP using condensing steam turbine with extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an investigation of energy efficiency of two CHP techniques– using only condensing steam turbine with extraction (single cycle) and using gas turbine with condensing steam turbine with extraction (double cycle) . The energy efficiency is estimated on base of two energy efficiency coefficients – brutto and effective electrical and by the fuel saving in case of CHP system comparatively with the SHP. The investigations are done by modeling using GateCycle software

  11. Is micro-CHP price controllable under price signal controlled Virtual Power Plants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    As micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) systems move towards mass deployment together with other kinds of distributed energy resources (DER), an increasing emphasis has been placed on how to coordinate such a large diversified DER portfolio in an efficient way by the Virtual Power Plant (VPP...... three different micro-CHP systems to investigate the feasibility of being controlled by price. Such analysis is relevant for both controller designs for micro-CHP systems and VPP related operations. The results indicate that controlling the micro-CHP systems by price is feasible but could result in...

  12. Proliferation of Cultured Mouse Choroid Plexus Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Barkho, Basam Z.; Monuki, Edwin S.

    2015-01-01

    The choroid plexus (ChP) epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs) produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and inte...

  13. Modelling Danish local CHP on market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla;

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, the development of local combined heat and power (CHP) plants has been characterised by large growth throughout the nineties, based in part on government subsidies in the form of feed-in tariffs. Simultaneously, there has been a significant growth of wind power, particularly in the...... Western Danish system. As both the power produced by the local CHPs and the wind power are prioritised, the production of these types of power is occasionally sufficient to meet the total demand in the system, causing the market price to drop dramatically, sometimes even to zero-level. In line with the...... liberalisation process of the energy sectors of the EU countries, it is however anticipated that Danish local CHP are to begin operating on market conditions within the year 2005. This means that the income that the local CHPs previously gained from selling electricity at the feed-in tariff is replaced in part...

  14. Validation of a HT-PEMFC stack for CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasupathi, S.; Ulleberg, Oe. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Bujlo, P. [Western Cape Univ. (South Africa). HySA Systems, SAIAMC; Electrotechnical Institute Wroclaw Division (Poland); Scholta, J. [Centre for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW) (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel cell systems are very attractive for stationary co-generation applications as they can produce heat and electricity efficiently in a decentralized and environmentally friendly manner. PEMFC stacks operating at temperatures above 120 C, specifically in the range of 140-180 C, are ideal for co-generation purposes. In this study, preliminary results from a HTPEMFC stack designed for CHP applications is presented and discussed. A short, five-cell, HT-PEMFC stack was assembled with Celtec- P-2100 MEAs and validated in terms of electrical performance. The stack was operated with hydrogen and air at 160 C and the utilization curves for anode and cathode were recorded for a wide range of gas utilization at a current density of 0.52 A/cm{sup 2}. The current voltage characteristic was measured at optimal utilization values at 160 C. A 1kW stack is assembled and is currently being validated for its performance under various operating conditions for use in CHP applications. (orig.)

  15. Elimination of restraints on the propagation of combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems in Switzerland; Beseitigung von Hemmnissen bei der Verbreitung von Waermekraftkopplung (WKK) in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, S.; Landis, F. [Interface Politikstudien Forschung Beratung, Luzern (Switzerland); Lienhard, A.; Marti Locher, F. [Universitaet Bern, Kompetenzzentrum fuer Public Management (KPM), Bern (Switzerland); Krummenacher, S. [Enerprice Partners AG, Technopark Luzern, Root Laengenbold (Switzerland)

    2009-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of study initiated by the SFOE that was to investigate the reasons for the low level of proliferation of CHP technology in Switzerland. The two main questions asked - which factors inhibit the use of CHP in particular application areas and which energy-policy measures can remove such obstacles - are discussed. The use of CHP in various areas of application from waste incineration plants through to units used in residential buildings is analysed and commented on. Recommendations on measures that can be taken to enhance the use of CHP are discussed. Three strategy variants available to the public services area are presented and discussed. It is noted that a consensus between players in the technical and political areas is necessary

  16. Development of a CHP/DH system for the new town of Parand: An opportunity to mitigate global warming in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the worldwide concern about global warming, projects that target reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have gained a lot of interest. The idea of this paper is to recover exhaust hot gases of an existing gas turbine power plant to meet dynamic thermal energy requirements of a residential area (the new town of Parand) situated in the suburb of Tehran, and also use the rest of the heat source potential to feed a steam turbine cycle. In close proximity to this town, there are two GT plants: Parand (954 MWe) and Rudeshur (790 MWe). For handling the CHP/STC/DH plant, two methods are considered along with thermal load following operation strategy: maximum power generation (MPG) and minimum fuel consumption (MFC). Then, the alternatives are compared in terms of annual PES, CO2 abatement and NPV. For the best design from environmental viewpoint (Parand CHP-B), PES, CO2 abatement and NPV are calculated to be 27.31%, 2.56 million tons and 1491 million dollar, respectively. -- Highlights: • To propose a technical and financial methodology to evaluate CHP/DH projects. • To address environmental advantages of CHPs with conventional plants. • To present practical operation strategies to increase benefits of CHP/DH plants. • To report/compare benefits of various CHP/DH alternatives for a case study in Iran. • To conduct a comprehensive energy analysis of proposed CHP/DH design options

  17. CHP plant Legionowo Poland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    In 1997, a new Energy Law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy planning is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law of 1997, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for the Energy Supply Plans in these municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continues/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the Combined Cycle type should be investigated. The present report is the final Master Plan based on the following reports: Master Plan for Legionowo - Status Report; Master Plan for Legionowo - Hydraulic Analysis; CHP Plant Legionowo Poland - CHP Feasibility Analysis. The final Master Plan describes the status in the DH Company in Legionowo, possible improvements and an investment plan for the selected scenario. (BA)

  18. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  19. Implementation of a TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A TPV integrated boiler for micro-CHP application is designed, tested and demonstrated. • Thermal radiation was emitted by a porous emitter in the TPV unit. • The electric output of four TPV cell modules connected in series is measured and characterized under various conditions. • 246.4 Electricity is generated at the emitter temperature of 1265 °C. • This study shows that TPV generation in boilers/furnaces is feasible for micro-CHP application in residential buildings. - Abstract: There is a growing interest in direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion using solid state devices such as thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generators. TPV devices convert thermal radiation from heat sources into electricity without involving any moving parts. TPV opens up possibility for efficient and stand-alone power generation in boilers and furnaces. In this paper, a TPV integrated boiler was designed, built and investigated for micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) application in residential buildings. A full size gas fired residential boiler was used as a precursor for integration with TPV devices. Experiments were conducted with the prototype TPV boiler so as to evaluate various issues related to this new technology. The electric output of TPV modules installed in the boiler was characterized under different operating conditions. The TPV cell modules generated 246.4 W at an emitter temperature of 1265 °C, which would be enough to power the electrical components of the whole heating system. Moreover, such a TPV integrated boiler could be employed to form a micro-CHP system in residential homes, providing an effective means for primary energy savings, on-site power and energy security

  20. Decentralised CHP in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark.......The article agues that decentralised CHP plants is an important part of energy supply in Denmark....

  1. Techno-economic analysis of a coal-fired CHP based combined heating system with gas-fired boilers for peak load compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) plants dominate the heating market in China. With the ongoing energy structure reformation and increasing environmental concerns, we propose gas-fired boilers to be deployed in underperforming heating substations of heating networks for peak load compensation, in order to improve both energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. However, due to the relatively high price of gas, techno-economic analysis is required for evaluating different combined heating scenarios, characterized by basic heat load ratio (β). Therefore, we employ the dynamic economics and annual cost method to develop a techno-economic model for computing the net heating cost of the system, considering the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. The net heating cost is defined as the investment costs and operations costs of the system subtracted by revenues from power generation. We demonstrate the model in a real-life combined heating system of Daqing, China. The results show that the minimum net heating cost can be realized at β=0.75 with a cost reduction of 16.8% compared to coal heating alone. Since fuel cost is the dominating factor, sensitivity analyses on coal and gas prices are discussed subsequently. - Highlights: ► Combined heating systems comply with the energy structure reformation in China. ► We consider the current state of the art of cogeneration systems in China. ► Combined heating systems can be economically more feasible and sustainable. ► The net heating cost of a combined heating system is more sensitive to coal price. ► The optimal basic heat load ratio is more easily influenced by gas price.

  2. Energetic optimization of the performances of a hot air engine for micro-CHP systems working with a Joule or an Ericsson cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The micro combined heat and electrical power systems (micro-CHP) with hot air engines are well adapted for solid biomass upgrading, in particular, the Ericsson engines working with an open cycle and an external combustion. This paper presents a model of an Ericsson engine with a compression and an expansion cylinder which allows a thermodynamic optimization of the engine performances in a global approach. A sensitive analysis on the influent parameters is carried out in order to determine the optimal working conditions of the engine: temperature and pressure range, expansion cycle shape with a late intake valve closing or an early exhaust valve closing, heat transfers through the wall of the cylinders. This study, focused on thermodynamic aspects, is a first step in the design of an Ericsson engine. -- Highlights: ► A model of Ericsson engine working with a Joule or Ericsson cycle is presented. ► Influent factors on the engine performances are investigated. ► The heat exchanges in the cylinder wall must be avoided to improve the performances. ► Closing the intake valve late and the exhaust valve early enhances the performances. ► Efficiency, indicated mean pressure, specific work are thermodynamically optimized.

  3. ANALYSIS OF CHP POTENTIAL AT FEDERAL SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HADLEY, S.W.

    2002-03-11

    This document was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) under its Technical Guidance and Assistance and Project Financing Programs. The purpose was to provide an estimate of the national potential for combined heat and power (also known as CHP; cogeneration; or cooling, heating, and power) applications at federal facilities and the associated costs and benefits including energy and emission savings. The report provides a broad overview for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies on when and where CHP systems are most likely to serve the government's best interest. FEMP's mission is to reduce the cost to and environmental impact of the federal government by advancing energy efficiency and water conservation, promoting the use of renewable energy, and improving utility management decisions at federal sites. FEMP programs are driven by its customers: federal agency sites. FEMP monitors energy efficiency and renewable energy technology developments and mounts ''technology-specific'' programs to make technologies that are in strong demand by agencies more accessible. FEMP's role is often one of helping the federal government ''lead by example'' through the use of advanced energy efficiency/renewable energy (EERE) technologies in its own buildings and facilities. CHP was highlighted in the Bush Administration's National Energy Policy Report as a commercially available technology offering extraordinary benefits in terms of energy efficiencies and emission reductions. FEMP's criteria for emphasizing a technology are that it must be commercially available; be proven but underutilized; have a strong constituency and momentum; offer large energy savings and other benefits of interest to federal sites and FEMP mission; be in demand; and carry sufficient federal market potential. As discussed in the report, CHP meets all

  4. Study on CHP-induced cell apoptosis in hematopoietic malignancies%中药提取物诱导血液肿瘤细胞凋亡的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏迪; 贾培敏; 马瑜珊; 童建华

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察中药提取物(CHP)对急性髓系白血病细胞Kasumi-1和滤泡状淋巴瘤细胞Su-DHL-4的诱导凋亡效应.方法:将浓度为50 μg/mL的CHP分别作用于Kasumi-1和Su-DHL-4细胞,观察细胞的生长状况与形态变化;应用流式细胞术检测磷脂酰丝氨酸的外翻、线粒体跨膜电位及凋亡抑制蛋白Bcl-2的表达变化情况.结果:Kasumi-1和Su-DHL-4细胞经50 μg/mL CHP处理后,生长均受到抑制,48 h时的生长抑制率分别为(69.45±7.21)%和(82.44±5.86)%,并可观察到典型的凋亡细胞.与对照组相比,CHP处理24 h后,2种细胞的Annexin V阳性率分别从(10.58±1.22)%和(4.30±0.52)%上升到(53.53.±6.07)%和(59.87±5.56)%,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01);线粒体跨膜电位下降的细胞百分率从(6.67±0.64)%和(7.20±2.33)%上升到(31.13±1.80)%和(55.97±7.33)%,差异亦有统计学意义(P<0.01);此外,Su-DHL-4细胞中Bcl-2蛋白水平也有明显下降.结论:CHP能诱导急性髓系白血病细胞Kasumi-I和滤泡性淋巴瘤细胞Su-DHL-4发生凋亡.%Objective: To study the effect of CHP (a Chinese traditional medicine extract) on apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1 and follicular lymphoma cell line Su-DHL-4. Methods: Kasumi-1 cells and Su-DHL-4 cells were treated respectively with CHP at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. The effect of CHP was evaluated by cell growth, cell morphology and markers of cell apoptosis. The plasma membrane translocation of phosphatidylserine, the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were detected by flow cytometry. Results: CHP inhibited significantly the cell proliferation of Kasumi-1 cells and Su-DHL-4 cells. After 48 h treatment with CHP, the rates of growth inhibition of Kasumi-1 and Su-DHL-4 cells were (69.45 ±7.21)% and (82.44 ±5.86)% , respectively, and typical apoptotic cells could be observed. In addition, compared with the two control

  5. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mago, Pedro [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Newell, LeLe [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-01-31

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  6. Micro CHP as a new business model. Trianel distribution system decentralised production; Mikro-BHKW als neues Geschaeftsmodell. Trianel-Netzwerk Dezentrale Erzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolai, Michel [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-04-29

    About four years ago, an energy distribution company in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) reported on mini and micro CHP in the media. When it comes to a decentralized production of electricity and heat, however public utilities are the perfect partner: the decentralized power generation in flexible adjustable combined heat and power plants offers the opportunity to provide highly efficient heat and power directly at the place of consumption. In addition, regional and municipal utilities score with the theme mini and micro CHP for their customers due to the support on the way to more energy efficiency.

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHP110 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP110 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10711-1 | Contig-U13105-1 CHP1...10P (Link to Original site) CHP110F 130 CHP110Z 390 CHP110P 500 - - Show CHP110 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP1...11-1 | Contig-U13105-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHP1-A/CHP1...10Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHP110P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHP110 (CHP1...10Q) /CSM/CH/CHP1-A/CHP110Q.Seq.d/ TGTTGGCCTACTGGNACCTCCAACAAATAACAACCAACTTAGNATTTGTCAATTATATAT

  8. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO2-emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO2-advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO2-characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO2-advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the impact of the liberalisation of the European electricity market on the CHP, District heating and cooling sector; 'Save CHP/DHC'. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved energy efficiency will play a key role in meeting the EU Kyoto target economically. In addition to a significant positive environmental impact, improved energy efficiency will lead to a more sustainable energy policy and enhanced security of supply. The study: 1) Identifies and evaluates parameters and conditions which in relation to the liberalisation of the electricity market will have an impact on the CHP/DHC sector in EU15 and Poland. 2) Establishes an information base on CHP/DHC systems in EU15 and Poland. 3) Analyses the CHP/DHC sector and its ability to meet changing market conditions. 4) Assesses the effect of the liberalised electricity market on electricity production in relation to CHP/district heating and cooling. 5) Identifies threats for the viability of CHP/DHC in a liberalised market and evaluates means and measures to overcome such threats. The study brings forward the goals and commitments in respect of European energy and environmental policy and gives an overview of the present and expected future framework in which CHP/DHC is to operate. The study evaluates the viability of the sector at an overall level and for different groups/categories of CHP/DHC systems in different countries. The effects of existing or proposed national public measures are analysed. The analyses are essential to decision makers in the transition process towards a fully liberalised market. Recognised uncertainties in the market during the transition period may cause either a temporary or a permanent recession for the CHP/DHC sector. Improved understanding and recognition of threats and opportunities is important to all actors just now. The study can be considered a first step of a process to create a market situation, where the energy customers can make their choices under competition rules and where environmentally friendly and efficient CHP and DHC is considered an attractive business opportunity in competition with other energy supplies. (EHS)

  10. CHP plant Legionowo Poland. Description of the electricity market in Poland/CHP-feasibility analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    In 1997, a new energy law was passed in Poland. An important element of the law is that local energy is made obligatory. The law describes obligatory tasks and procedures for the Polish municipalities related to planning and organisation of the energy sector. With the objective of supporting the Polish municipalities in their obligations according to the energy law, the project 'Energy Planning in Poland at Municipal Level - Support to Decision Makers' was launched. As part of the project, Municipal Guideline Reports have been elaborated for three model municipalities. These guidelines present the basis for energy supply plans in the three municipalities. For the city of Legionowo, the following was recommended: 1. The planning processes initiated during the project should be continued/followed up, 2. Master Plan for the district heating system should be prepared, 3. The possibilities of establishment of a major natural gas-fired CHP plant of the combined cycle type should be investigated. The present report describes the electricity market in Poland, the market in which a CHP plant in Legionowo will have to operate. Furthermore the report presents the results of the feasibility analysis carried out for a new CHP plant in Legionowo. (BA)

  11. Energy Analysis of a Fuel Cell System for Commercial Greenhouse Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sardella, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable energy management becomes more important due to the ever more actual problems of environmental pollution and limited natural resources. The fuel cell technology is one of the most attractive solutions in this sense. During the past decades fuel cells have been investigated and demonstrated for several applications. One of the most attractive applications is using fuel cell system for stationary energy cogeneration (CHP), since they are capable of producing thermal energy and power...

  12. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  13. CHP plant can do a power of good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    With mounting pressure on hospitals and other healthcare facilities to reduce their energy bills, coupled with the need to reduce their carbon footprint, developer and supplier of combined heat and power systems Cogenco argues that adding CHP plant to existing energy generation equipment such as gas boilers has never made greater financial sense. Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:19911560

  14. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud; Elmegaard, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized...... CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and...

  15. Review of CHP projections tp 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, W.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study examining market conditions for combined heat and power since 2000 and assessing the commercial position of cogeneration (CHP) in order to provide advice on likely distributed generation in relation to technology, location and commissioning timetables. Details are given of the modelling of the development of 'good quality' CHP by Cambridge Econometrics (CE), and the work carried out by ILEX updating the CE study. Modelling assumptions, market conditions for CHP since the CE study, the effect of market conditions on CE modelling assumptions, justified changes in assumptions, and evaluation of likely CHP capacity to 2010 are discussed.

  16. Design and simulation of a prototype of a small-scale solar CHP system based on evacuated flat-plate solar collectors and Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel small scale solar power plant was designed and simulated. • The system is based on evacuated solar thermal collectors and an ORC system. • An average electric efficiency of 10% was found for the ORC. • The efficiency of solar collectors was found to be high in summer (>50%). • Pay-back periods lower than 5 years were estimated, in case of public funding. - Abstract: This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a novel prototype of a 6 kWe solar power plant. The system is based on the coupling of innovative solar thermal collectors with a small Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), simultaneously producing electric energy and low temperature heat. The novelty of the proposed system lies in the solar collector field, which is based on stationary evacuated flat-plate solar thermal collectors capable to achieve the operating temperatures typical of the concentrating solar thermal collectors. The solar field consists of about 73.5 m2 of flat-plate evacuated solar collectors, heating a diathermic oil up to a maximum temperature of 230 °C. A diathermic oil storage tank is employed in order to mitigate the fluctuations due to the variability of solar energy availability. The hot diathermic oil exiting from the tank passes through an auxiliary gas-fired burner which provides eventual additional thermal energy. The inlet temperature of the diathermic oil entering the ORC system varies as a function of the availability of solar energy, also determining an oscillating response of the ORC. The ORC was simulated in Engineering Equation Solver (EES), using zero-dimensional energy and mass balances. The ORC model was subsequently implemented in a more general TRNSYS model, including all the remaining components of the system. The model was used to evaluate the energy and economic performance of the solar CHP system under analysis, in different climatic conditions. The results show that the efficiency of the ORC does not significantly vary during the

  17. The role of fuel cells and electrolysers in future efficient energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vang Hendriksen, P.; Pedersen, Allan S.; Linderoth, S. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, Roskilde (Denmark); Vad Mathiesen, B. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Development and Planning, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Fuel cells possess a number of other characteristics which make them relevant to many different applications in the future energy system. They are by nature modular and may thus be used at a wide variety of scales: from battery replacements (0.1-1 kW), through combined heat and power (CHP) for single houses (1-10 kW) and decentralised units (100 kW-5 MW), to large centralised power and CHP plants (100-500 MW). Fuel cells may also be operated in reverse mode, as electrolysers, to convert electrical energy to chemical energy. An example is the reduction of steam to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} to CO; using well-known catalytic routes the resulting gases can be further converted to a range of hydrocarbons which may be used as transport fuels, such as methanol, DME and even synthetic diesel. Several different types of fuel cells exist. They can be classified by the type of electrolyte used. All have their advantages and disadvantages, but none has to date matured to a level where fuel cells are in widespread commercial use or play a significant role in the energy system. Alkaline fuel cells have been used for space and military applications but are expensive and challenging to use in other applications. Phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and alkaline (AFC) fuel cells have historically attracted a lot of R and D, but still face a number of challenges for commercial use. Low- and high-temperature PEM and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells are currently attracting the largest development efforts for CHP and transport applications. Domestic CHP units based on both PEMFCs and SOFCs have recently been launched by industrial suppliers as have larger units for distributed generation. Fuel cells and electrolysis cells are still to enter a wide spread use, but the technologies have great potential in a future more efficient and more sustainable energy system. (LN)

  18. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  19. Energy System and Thermoeconomic Analysis of Combined Heat and Power High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems for Light Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Whitney G.; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2015-06-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE)’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is spearheading a program with industry to deploy and independently monitor five kilowatt-electric (kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) in light commercial buildings. This publication discusses results from PNNL’s research efforts to independently evaluate manufacturer-stated engineering, economic, and environmental performance of these CHP FCSs at installation sites. The analysis was done by developing parameters for economic comparison of CHP installations. Key thermodynamic terms are first defined, followed by an economic analysis using both a standard accounting approach and a management accounting approach. Key economic and environmental performance parameters are evaluated, including (1) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of power, (2) the average per unit cost of the CHP FCSs per unit of energy, (3) the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollution emissions with a switch from conventional power plants and furnaces to CHP FCSs; (4) the change in GHG mitigation costs from the switch; and (5) the change in human health costs related to air pollution. From the power perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical power is estimated to span a range from $15–19,000/ kilowatt-electric (kWe) (depending on site-specific changes in installation, fuel, and other costs), while the average per unit cost of electrical and heat recovery power varies between $7,000 and $9,000/kW. From the energy perspective, the average per unit cost per unit of electrical energy ranges from $0.38 to $0.46/kilowatt-hour-electric (kWhe), while the average per unit cost per unit of electrical and heat recovery energy varies from $0.18 to $0.23/kWh. These values are calculated from engineering and economic performance data provided by the manufacturer (not independently measured data). The GHG emissions were estimated to decrease by

  20. Mini-Central heating and Power Plant (CHP): the choice of the optimal structure and modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Konahina, I. A.; Kashapov, N. F.; Fahreev, N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The paper provides an overview of the different types of organizations of mini-CHP, the results of a comparative evaluation of their performance in terms of the variable load. The recommendations to improve power facilities of the mini-CHP on the basis of system analysis methods and the technical and economic optimization are defined.

  1. 天然气CHP、CCHP系统在工业企业的应用%Application of Natural Gas CHP and CCHP Systems to Industrial Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振兴; 乔艳丽

    2011-01-01

    介绍了天然气热电联供(CHP)系统、天然气冷热电联供(CCHP)系统在我国的发展现状,提出在工业企业应用天然气CHP、CCHP系统,改变采用一次能源直接供应热风、热水的现状,实现能源的梯级利用,提高能源利用效率.

  2. Omakotitalokokoluokan mikro-CHP-laitokset

    OpenAIRE

    Kyllönen, Matias

    2015-01-01

    Työ tehtiin Oulun yliopiston Oulun Eteläisen instituutin Tulevaisuuden tuotantoteknologiat (FMT) -tutkimusryhmälle. Työn aiheena on tulevaisuuden energiaratkaisu omakotitalokokoluokassa. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä on miettiä konsepti mikro-CHP-laitokselle, jossa höyrykone on lämpövoimakoneena pyörittämässä generaattoriin liitettyä akselia. Tavoitteena on tehdä mahdollisimman kompakti hyvin eristetty laitos tulevaisuuden omakotitalon energiatarpeen tyydyttämiseksi. Työn on tehty tiedonha...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the human calcineurin homologous protein CHP2 bound to the cytoplasmic region of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of the human CHP2–NHE1 binding domain complex. Calcineurin homologous protein (CHP) is a Ca2+-binding protein that directly interacts with and regulates the activity of all plasma-membrane Na+/H+-exchanger (NHE) family members. In contrast to the ubiquitous isoform CHP1, CHP2 is highly expressed in cancer cells. To understand the regulatory mechanism of NHE1 by CHP2, the complex CHP2–NHE1 (amino acids 503–545) has been crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as precipitant. The crystals diffract to 2.7 Å and belong to a tetragonal space group, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 49.96, c = 103.20 Å

  4. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive. (author)

  5. Alternative depreciation policies for promoting combined heat and power (CHP) development in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assessed the economic impact of alternative depreciation methods on the development of combined heat-and-power (CHP) systems in the Brazilian industrial sector. Alternative depreciation methods were proposed and the case study of a Brazilian chemical plant showed that the most effective depreciation method for the promotion of CHP plants in Brazil was the Matheson method with an accelerated depreciation schedule of 7 years. This alternative method was then applied to the Brazilian chemical industry as a whole, increasing its installed capacity in CHP systems by 24%. Therefore, fiscal incentives can be an interesting tool for promoting energy efficiency in the Brazilian industrial sector, promoting the expansion of CHP plants. It reduces government fiscal revenues, but it also induces the technological reposition and improves the feasibility of ventures that are not installed without this kind of incentive

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHP159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP159 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15743-1 CHP159P (Link... to Original site) CHP159F 653 CHP159Z 743 CHP159P 1376 - - Show CHP159 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP159 (Link to dict...yBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U15743-1 Original site URL http://dict...TSTKXLSLDQVSLIVSIVFHHHVESSKRLQNQXKVNQAGSLVKKENLLALIKILH FDQSINRQQLNSILVQICTFSDNREELLCYILQILTGYQSIVSQQPQRKTAE...HHHVESSKRLQNQXKVNQAGSLVKKENLLALIKILH FDQSINRQQLNSILVQICTFSDNREELLCYILQILTGYQSIVSQ

  7. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from the......In this project the potential for ancillary services provision by distributed energy resources is investigated. Specifically, the provision of reactive power control by combined heat and power plants is examined, and the application of the new standard for DER communication systems, IEC 61850...... lines to underground cables has changed the reactive power balance, and third, the TSO has introduced restrictions in the allowed exchange of reactive power between the transmission system and distribution grids (known as the Mvar-arrangement). The demonstration includes a CHP plant with an electric...

  8. The energetic feasibility of CHP compared to the separate production of heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, promotion of combined production of heat and power (CHP) plays a significant role in most national energy strategies, aiming at primary energy savings and CO2-reduction. However, it is not correct to state that rational use of energy and reduction of CO2-emission are intrinsic to CHP. The amount of energy savings and CO290%)] are strongly improving, the required performances of CHP plants being preferable to separate systems for the production of heat and power, have to be tightened. In this paper, a calculation methodology for evaluating the primary energy consumption and CO2-emission for both options (CHP and separate production of heat and power) is presented. Based on calculations with this methodology and with practical figures of performances of CHP plants and separate systems for production of heat and power, the boundary conditions that have to be met by CHP systems for being less energy consuming and less CO2-producing are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled ''Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP'' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying rate at RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital. (author)

  10. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled 'Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital

  11. Integrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Characteristics Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to deduce the specific characteristics of the CHP 100kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC Power System from the steady state experimental data. From the experimental data, the authors have been developed and validated the steady state mathematical model. From the control room the steady state experimental data of the SOFC power conditioning are available and using the developed steady state mathematical model, the authors have been obtained the characteristic curves of the system performed by Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation. As a methodology the backward and forward power flow analysis has been employed. The backward power flow makes possible to obtain the SOFC power system operating point at different load levels, resulting as the load characteristic. By knowing the fuel cell output characteristic, the forward power flow analysis is used to predict the power system efficiency in different operating points, to choose the adequate control decision in order to obtain the high efficiency operation of the SOFC power system at different load levels. The CHP 100kWe power system is located at Gas Turbine Technologies Company (a Siemens Subsidiary, TurboCare brand in Turin, Italy. The work was carried out through the Energia da Ossidi Solidi (EOS Project. The SOFC stack delivers constant power permanently in order to supply the electric and thermal power both to the TurboCare Company and to the national grid.

  12. Micro CHP: implications for energy companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Jeremy [EA Technology (United Kingdom); Kolin, Simon; Hestevik, Svein [Sigma Elektroteknisk A/S (Norway)

    2000-08-01

    This article explains how micro combined heat and power (CHP) technology may help UK energy businesses to maintain their customer base in the current climate of liberalisation and competition in the energy market The need for energy companies to adopt new technologies and adapt to changes in the current aggressive environment, the impact of privatisation, and the switching of energy suppliers by customers are discussed. Three potential routes to success for energy companies are identified, namely, price reductions, branding and affinity marketing, and added value services. Details are given of the implementation of schemes to encourage energy efficiency, the impact of the emissions targets set at Kyoto, the advantages of micro CHP generation, business opportunities for CHP, business threats from existing energy companies and others entering the field, and the commercial viability of micro CHP.

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHP418 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available genome. 32 0.013 27 CJ482405 |CJ482405.1 Macaca fascicularis mRNA, clone: QtrA-18375, 5' end, expressed in brain tem...HRP ESIEVDKGLQTVNRLMDLTDAVFRMHNSIVSATPYNDCKTSAFI--- ---wmhwlnkltlkelkprrni*rmvliwmmllnvnywlplkplkmlqthywpqnqrelq rrrvihqmllrqslrll...d pieces. 40 0.86 5 dna update 2005. 9.28 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant ali...1( AB023655 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum talB mRNA... 152 4e-35 ( P54633 ) RecName: Full=Talin-A; AltName: Full=Filopo...brane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for CHP418 is nuc 5' end seq. ID CHP41

  14. CHP调节NHE1活性影响细胞生长和死亡%CHP Regulated NHE1 Activity Affects Cell Growth and Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆华; 庞天翔; 韩忠朝

    2005-01-01

    钠氢离子交换蛋白(NHE)定位于细胞膜,它的重要功能是调节细胞内pH值.钙调磷酸酶B同源蛋白(CHP)是NHE必要的活性调节亚单位.研究了NHE1结合CHP与否对细胞生长和死亡的影响.结果显示,CHP结合于NHE1细胞质调节区域之中靠近细胞膜部位,二者以疏水键结合而形成蛋白Ⅳ级结构.在细胞内pH5.4的非生理条件下,表达没有CHP结合能力的突变体NHE1-4R细胞只有表达野生型NHE细胞7.6%的最大摄取钠活性;在细胞内pH7.2的生理条件下,这个比例降至1.2%的摄取钠活性.与野生型NHE1比较,有血清时表达突变体NHE1-4R的细胞生长速度减慢;在血清饥饿时这些细胞因自身的胞浆酸性化而死亡数增加.实验结果证明,CHP是NHE1生理活性的必要调节因子,它能影响细胞生长和死亡.

  15. Nuclear-localized Calcineurin Homologous Protein CHP1 Interacts with Upstream Binding Factor and Inhibits Ribosomal RNA Synthesis*

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Vidal, Maite; Srivastava, Jyoti; Putney, Luanna K; Barber, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Calcineurin homologous protein 1 (CHP1) is a widely expressed, 22-kDa myristoylated EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein that shares a high degree of similarity with the regulatory B subunit of calcineurin (65%) and with calmodulin (59%). CHP1 localizes to the plasma membrane, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus and functions to regulate trafficking of early secretory vesicles, activation of T cells, and expression and transport of the Na-H exchanger NHE1. Although CHP1 contains nuclear export signa...

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHP695 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 267 |AC117267.2 Dictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 5836255-5862024 strain AX4, complete seq...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHP6-D/CHP695Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Represe...ntative DNA sequence >CHP695 (CHP695Q) /CSM/CH/CHP6-D/CHP695Q.Seq.d/ CTGTTGGCCTACTGGNA...GGTGGTACATCAGGTAGTTCATCAAGTGGTAGTTCATCAGGTGGXXXXXXXXXX sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequ...SGGTSGGSSSGGTSGGSSSGGTSGSSSSGSSSG--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: llaywxfyf*siqikkkt

  17. Quasi static optimized management of a multinode CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants are increasingly used, when feasible, as a mean to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. The thermal and electrical production must be adapted to load requirements and must lead to the fulfilment of all the constraints imposed by energy saving regulations. As one of such requirements [a minimum 'fuel energy savings ratio' (FESR)] is an integral constraint that can be evaluated only at the end of each year of production, during the design phase of the plant it is of the utmost importance to have a fast algorithm able to simulate and optimize the operating conditions of all the candidate CHPs configurations, as the non-compliance with FESR regulations may lead to loose significant tax discounts, and therefore make the investment less profitable. The paper describes a suitable algorithm and its application to the optimization of a real CHP site located in Italy; besides, this work has led, as a further step toward the optimized control of larger systems, to the introduction of an additional degree of freedom ('on-off' state of some machines) extending in principle the optimization procedure to multinode CHP plants.

  18. Comparison of district heating CHP and distributed generation CHP with energy, environmental and economic criteria for Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • District heating CHP and distributed generation CHP are compared. • Energy, environmental and economic aspects are considered. • Analysed prime movers: internal combustion engines, microturbines, fuel cells. • Two scenario are discussed: maximum energy saving and maximum present value saving. • The trend of all the savings versus the CHP-size is also analysed. - Abstract: District heating CHP (combined heat and power) and distributed generation CHP have been compared in this paper on the basis of energy, environmental and economic criteria, and a deviation index has been proposed to establish, in aggregate form, what the improvement margins are for a given design choice. Three technologies that are suitable for both district heating and distributed generation have been chosen: a mature market technology, internal combustion engines, and recent entry market technologies, that is, microturbines, and fuel cells. The calculations have been based on the real heating load curve of a town in Northern Italy at the current market conditions: power and fuel prices, tax exemptions relative to cogeneration, white certificates, etc. Two scenarios have been considered: maximum energy saving and maximum present value saving. In the first scenario, district heating obtained better energy and CO2 savings than distributed generation, but critical values have been observed for local nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions, when internal combustion engines are adopted. In the second scenario, all the options offer positive energy, environmental and economic savings, and the payback times are significantly reduced compared to the previous scenario. The district heating options show the best present value savings and payback times, while distributed generation is only economically viable when internal combustion engines are adopted. Microturbines leads to the best NOx savings. Finally, the comparison with an alternative separate production of heat

  19. Preclinical Safety Pharmacology Study of a Novel Protein-Based Cancer Vaccine CHP-NY-ESO-1

    OpenAIRE

    Harada, Naozumi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Takahashi, Yoshiyasu; Sakaguchi, Yasue; Kuno, Takayoshi; Hishida, Tadashi; Shiku, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    CHP-NY-ESO-1 is a novel therapeutic cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinantprotein of cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 and a polysaccharide-based delivery system,cholesteryl pullulan. A pilot clinical study of CHP-NY-ESO-1 in cancer patients waspreviously conducted, and the adverse events related to this drug were observed to belimited to skin reactions at injection sites. To further establish the safety ofCHP-NY-ESO-1, we studied the effects of its subcutaneous injection on vital functionssuch as ...

  20. Small-Scale CHP Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Volkova, A.; Latosev, E; Siirde, A

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat l...

  1. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Marnay, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHP463 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP463 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHP463P (Link to Original site) CHP463F ... sk*nvyryccnynifsinflcy*ntg*kiy*reksqksi*is**sts*ts*etc ... c*nr*tlfiwl*krsktk*klfl*frkeii*tpth*mlfqrty*lntisk ...

  3. Methodology for evaluation of industrial CHP production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the end of the century industry switched from exclusive power consumer into power consumer-producer which is one of the players on the deregulated power market. Consequently, goals of industrial plant optimization have to be changed, making new challenges that industrial management has to be faced with. In the paper is reviewed own methodology for evaluation of industrial power production on deregulated power market. The methodology recognizes economic efficiency of industrial CHP facilities as a main criterion for evaluation. Energy and ecological efficiency are used as additional criteria, in which implicit could be found social goals. Also, methodology recognizes key and limit factors for CHP production in industry. It could be successful applied, by use of available commercial software for energy simulation in CHP plants and economic evaluation. (Authors)

  4. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matysko Robert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  5. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysko, Robert; Mikielewicz, Jarosław; Ihnatowicz, Eugeniusz

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipped with the safety control systems allowing for the immediate turn off of the ORC cycle in case of any failure. In case of emergency, the control system should take over the safety tasks and protect the micro-CHP system from damaging. Although, the control systems are able to respond quickly to the CHP system equipped with the inertial systems, the negative effects of failure are unavoidable and always remain for some time. Moreover, the paper presents the results of calculations determining the inertia for the micro-CHP system of the circulating ORC pump, heat removal pump (cooling condenser) and the heat supply pump in failure conditions.

  6. Network Capacity Assessment of CHP-based Distributed Generation on Urban Energy Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianjun

    The combined heat and power (CHP)-based distributed generation (DG) or dis-tributed energy resources (DERs) are mature options available in the present energy market, considered to be an effective solution to promote energy efficiency. In the urban environment, the electricity, water and natural gas distribution networks are becoming increasingly interconnected with the growing penetration of the CHP-based DG. Subsequently, this emerging interdependence leads to new topics meriting serious consideration: how much of the CHP-based DG can be accommodated and where to locate these DERs, and given preexisting constraints, how to quantify the mutual impacts on operation performances between these urban energy distribution networks and the CHP-based DG. The early research work was conducted to investigate the feasibility and design methods for one residential microgrid system based on existing electricity, water and gas infrastructures of a residential community, mainly focusing on the economic planning. However, this proposed design method cannot determine the optimal DG sizing and siting for a larger test bed with the given information of energy infrastructures. In this context, a more systematic as well as generalized approach should be developed to solve these problems. In the later study, the model architecture that integrates urban electricity, water and gas distribution networks, and the CHP-based DG system was developed. The proposed approach addressed the challenge of identifying the optimal sizing and siting of the CHP-based DG on these urban energy networks and the mutual impacts on operation performances were also quantified. For this study, the overall objective is to maximize the electrical output and recovered thermal output of the CHP-based DG units. The electricity, gas, and water system models were developed individually and coupled by the developed CHP-based DG system model. The resultant integrated system model is used to constrain the DG's electrical

  7. Nanogel antigenic protein-delivery system for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Takahashi, Haruko; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Mejima, Mio; Kohda, Tomoko; Harada, Norihiro; Kong, Il Gyu; Sato, Ayuko; Kataoka, Nobuhiro; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kurokawa, Shiho; Takahashi, Yuko; Tsukada, Hideo; Kozaki, Shunji; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an innovative method of freely controlling nanometre-sized materials. Recent outbreaks of mucosal infectious diseases have increased the demands for development of mucosal vaccines because they induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. Here we developed an intranasal vaccine-delivery system with a nanometre-sized hydrogel ('nanogel') consisting of a cationic type of cholesteryl-group-bearing pullulan (cCHP). A non-toxic subunit fragment of Clostridium botulinum type-A neurotoxin BoHc/A administered intranasally with cCHP nanogel (cCHP-BoHc/A) continuously adhered to the nasal epithelium and was effectively taken up by mucosal dendritic cells after its release from the cCHP nanogel. Vigorous botulinum-neurotoxin-A-neutralizing serum IgG and secretory IgA antibody responses were induced without co-administration of mucosal adjuvant. Importantly, intranasally administered cCHP-BoHc/A did not accumulate in the olfactory bulbs or brain. Moreover, intranasally immunized tetanus toxoid with cCHP nanogel induced strong tetanus-toxoid-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. These results indicate that cCHP nanogel can be used as a universal protein-based antigen-delivery vehicle for adjuvant-free intranasal vaccination. PMID:20562880

  8. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, G. K. H.; van Foreest, N. D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP) systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  9. A price mechanism for supply demand matching in local grid of households with micro-CHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpen J. M. A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a dynamic price mechanism to coordinate eletric power generation from micro Combined Heat and Power (micro-CHP systems in a network of households. It is assumed that the households are prosumers, i.e. both producers and consumers of electricity. The control is done on household level in a completely distributed manner. Avoiding a centralized controller both eases computation complexity and preserves communication structure in the network. Local information is used to decide to turn on or off the micro-CHP, but through price signals between the prosumers the network as a whole operates in a cooperative way.

  10. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    Samples of particles collected at CHP plants in the project 'Survey of emissions from CHP Plants' have been analysed in this project to give information on the morphology and chemical composition of individual particle size classes. The objective of this project was to characterize ultrafine and fine particles emitted to the atmosphere from Danish CHP plants. Nine CHP plants were selected in the Emission Survey Project as being representative for the different types of CHP plants operating in Denmark: 1) Three Waste-to Energy (WTE) plants. 2) Three biomass fired (BM) plants (two straw fired, one wood/saw dust fired). 3) Two gas fired (GF) plants (one natural gas, one landfill gas fired). 4) One gasoil (GO) fired plant. At the WTE and BM plants, various types of emission control systems implemented. The results from these plants represent the composition and size distribution of combustion particles that are emitted from the plants emission control systems. The measured emissions of particles from the waste-to-energy plants WTE1-3 are generally very low. The number and mass concentrations of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}) were particularly low in the flue gas from WTE2 and WTE3, where bag filters are used for the reduction of particle emissions. The EDX analysis of particles from the WTE plants indicates that the PM{sub 0.1} that penetrates the ECS at WTE can contain high fractions of metals such as Fe, Mn and Cu. The SEM analysis of particles from WTE1-3 showed that the particles were generally porous and irregular in shape. The concentrations of particles in the flue gas from the biomass plants were generally higher than found for the WTE plants. The time series results showed that periodical, high concentration peaks of PM emissions occur from BM1 and BM2. The chemical composition of the particles emitted from the three biomass plants is generally dominated by C, O and S, and to some extend also Fe and Si. A high amount of Cu was found in selected

  11. The influence of the size of the CHP (combined heat and power) system integrated with a biomass fueled gas generator and piston engine on the thermodynamic and economic effectiveness of electricity and heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the possibility and the cost of using gas from biomass gasification in the production of electricity and generation of heat using a piston engine in which the power in the supplied biomass is no more than 50 MW. A mathematical model that allows for thermodynamic and economic analysis was designed. The input data regarding the gas generator and the process gas were collected in real experiments on the research installation. Electricity and heat production efficiencies and the electric and heat power of the system were primarily used as indicators of the thermodynamic effectiveness. For the economic analysis, discount methods were adopted that consider the legal and economic environment of such investments. Given the assumptions, the analysis shows that positive economic indicators can characterize the considered systems. The work also included sensitivity analysis of change of the selected characteristic quantities on the evaluation indices. The economic viability of such systems is strongly influenced by many factors, mainly price of fuel and green certificates. When the price of fuel is higher than 9.62 €/GJ or the price of certificates lower than 26.75 €/MWh the NPV (net present value) and NPVR (net present value ratio) indices do not reach positive values for any size of installation. - Highlights: • CHP systems integrated with biomass gasification and piston engine(s) were examined. • An experiment with a biomass-fed gasifier was conducted and the data were used for calculations. • The conditions for economic profitability were determined. • Sensitivity analyses of the influence of the selected quantities were performed. • Price of green certificates and price of fuel are the most important for economic viability

  12. A thermodynamic criterion for selection of working fluid for subcritical and supercritical domestic micro CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Mikielewicz, Dariusz; Mikielewicz, Jarosław

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A thermodynamic criterion for selection of a fluid both for subcritical and supercritical organic Rankine cycle has been proposed. Theoretical performances of few fluids have been comparatively assessed for use in low-temperature domestic organic Rankine cycle micro systems. Of 20 fluids investigated, ethanol, R123 and R141b appear as the most suitable for small scale domestic CHP applications.

  13. A thermodynamic criterion for selection of working fluid for subcritical and supercritical domestic micro CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic criterion for selection of a fluid both for subcritical and supercritical organic Rankine cycle has been proposed. Theoretical performances of few fluids have been comparatively assessed for use in low-temperature domestic organic Rankine cycle micro systems. Of the 20 fluids investigated, ethanol, R123 and R141b appear as the most suitable for small scale domestic CHP applications.

  14. Modelling of a Biomass Gasification Plant Feeding a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and the other in a combined SOFC and micro gas turbine (MGT) arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory. The modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The MGT utilizes the unconverted...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHP195 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP195 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11819-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) CHP195F 138 - - - - - - Show CHP195 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHP195 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11819-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...qilkvstnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICTYKKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllvfsnt*gink*...iin*kllck*sl*nnnynkymyi*kk--- Frame B: llaywffqilkvstnk**IKNYYVNRVYEIIIIINICTYKKK--- Frame C: cwptgffkylryqq

  16. Gasification for power, CHP and polygeneration Biomass Gasification for Combined Heat Power (CHP) Applications: the GAMECO Project

    OpenAIRE

    Authier, O; Khalfi, Az-Eddine; Sanchez, L.; Aleman, Y; Delebarre, A; Mauviel, G; Dufour, A; Rogaume, Y; Poirier, J.; Kerhoas, J

    2014-01-01

    International audience Air-blown fluidised bed biomass gasification is a well adapted technology for Combined Heat Power (CHP) applications with syngas valorisation in a gas engine. However, it is not mature yet. Despite promising prototypes, CHP gasification needs further improvements to become the reference technology in the medium-size CHP market. This is the purpose of the GAMECO project, which aims at improving an existing technology by optimising its operation, increasing its feedsto...

  17. Application of an improved operational strategy for a high temperature-proton exchange membrane fuel cell-based micro-combined heat and power system for Danish single-family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    A proposed residential energy system based on the PBI (Polybenzimidazole) fuel cell technology is analyzed in terms of operational performance. Conventional operational strategies, such as heat-led and electricity-led, are applied to the simulated system to investigate their performance...... characteristics. Based on these findings, an improved operational strategy is formulated and applied in an attempt to minimize the shortcomings of conventional strategies. System parameters, such as electrical and thermal efficiencies, heat dumping, and import/export of electricity, are analyzed. The applied load...... be justified as compared to other micro-CHP system technologies. The most important findings of this research study indicate that in comparison to non-fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems, such as Stirling Engine-based systems, the proposed system has significantly higher efficiencies. Moreover, the lower heat...

  18. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  19. CHP expansion strategy in North Rhine-Westphalia. A blueprint for other regions; KWK-Ausbaustrategie in NRW. Eine Blaupause fuer andere Regionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, Dominik [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schneider, Sabine [EnergieAgentur.NRW, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    The North Rhine-Westphalian state government intends to increase the share of combined heat and power (CHP) generation to at least 25 % by 2020. Since 2013, the campaign ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'' (''KWK.NRW - Strom trifft Waerme'') of the EnergyAgency.NRW, is has been running on behalf of the NRW Climate Protection Ministry, to publicise this technology and to promote its expansion. The campaign accompanies the State Government's CHP Stimulus Programme. The EnergyAgency.NRW has organised companies and research institutions, associations and interest groups under the umbrella of ''CHP.NRW - Power Meets Heat'', aiming at co-ordinated and intensified activities in the field of combined heat and power generation. The target of the initial-project ''roadmap/CHP.NRW'' of the ''Virtual Institute / CHP.NRW'' is to develop a guideline for the application and optimisation of CHP-systems.

  20. Calorimetric studies and lessons on fires and explosions of a chemical plant producing CHP and DCPO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We analyzed fire and explosion incidents in a plant producing CHP and DCPO. ► Data from calorimeters reveal causes and phenomena associated with the incidents. ► The credible worst scenario was thermal explosion. ► Incidents may be avoided by implementing DIERS methodology. - Abstract: Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been used in producing phenol, dicumyl peroxide (DCPO) and as an initiator for synthesizing acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin by copolymerization in Taiwan. Four incidents of fire and explosion induced by thermal runaway reactions were occurred in a same plant producing CHP, DCPO and bis-(tert-butylperoxy isopropyl) benzene peroxide (BIBP). The fourth fire and explosion occurred in the CHP reactor that resulted in a catastrophic damage in reaction region and even spread throughout storage area. Descriptions on the occurrences of these incidents were assessed by the features of processes, reaction schemes and unexpected side reactions. Calorimetric data on thermokinetics and pressure were used for explaining the practical consequences or which the worst cases encountered in this kind of plant. Acceptable risk associated with emergency relief system design is vital for a plant producing organic peroxide. These basic data for designing an inherently safer plant can be conducted from adiabatic calorimetry. An encouraging deduction has been drawn here, these incidents may be avoided by the implementation of API RP 520, API RP 521, DIERS technology, OSHA 1910.119 and AIChE's CCPS recommended PSM elements.

  1. Modelling of a CHP SOFC system fed with biogas from anaerobic digestion of municipal waste integrated with solar collectors and storage unit

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Borello; Sara Evangelisti; Eileen Tortora

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm of the sustainable energy community is recognized as the future energy approach due to its economical, technical and environmental benefits. Future systems should integrate renewable energy systems applying a “community-scale” approach to maximize energy performances, while minimizing environmental impacts. Efforts have to be directed toward the promotion of integrated technical systems needed to expand the use of renewable energy resources, to build sustainable local and nationa...

  2. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system

  3. Changes of the thermodynamic parameters in failure conditions of the micro-CHP cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Matysko Robert; Mikielewicz Jarosław; Ihnatowicz Eugeniusz

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the calculations for the failure conditions of the ORC (organic Rankine cycle) cycle in the electrical power system. It analyses the possible reasons of breakdown, such as the electrical power loss or the automatic safety valve failure. The micro-CHP (combined heat and power) system should have maintenance-free configuration, which means that the user does not have to be acquainted with all the details of the ORC system operation. However, the system should always be equipp...

  4. Thermodynamic indices assessing the integration of coal-fired CHP plants with post-combustion CO2 processing units (CPU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Although, CHP plants are pro-ecological, they also need CO2 capture units. • CHP integrated with CO2 capture needs a modification of thermodynamic indices. • Indices of the relative internal load of heat and electricity have been elaborated. • Formulae of the net Energy Utilization Factor have been calculated. • Partial energy efficiencies of heat and electricity production have been determined. - Abstract: Although cogeneration is an effective way of reducing the CO2 emission in CHP plants, installations permitting the removal of CO2 ought to be applied. Installations based on chemical absorption using amine solvents is justified in the case of power plants and CHP plants. The CO2 processing unit (CPU) is characterized by a large amount of stream for solvent regeneration and the consumption of electricity mainly in compressors of CO2 product. Additional internal consumption of heat and electricity produces waste heat due to the condensation of H2O in the mixture of CO2 and H2O resulting from the desorption of CO2 and interstage cooling of the CO2 compressors. The waste heat recovery system can be connected with the preheating of network water in the district heating systems cooperating with CHP plants. In this way the integration of the CHP plants with the post-combustion CO2 processing unit is realized. This integration requires some supplements in algorithms describing the thermodynamic indices in comparison with traditional cogeneration systems. Firstly, the indices of the internal load of heat and electricity was changed. This influences the net Energy Utilization Factor, secondly the analyzed thermodynamic index, and thirdly the partial energy efficiencies of the production of heat and electricity in a CHP unit. In this last case the principle of avoided fuel expenditure and the exergy method in coupled processes have been applied. The new algorithms for calculations mentioned above thermodynamic indices and the results of their

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHP149 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP149 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15648-1 CHP149P (Link to Original ... udogene (FLJ12598), the gene for a novel Mov34/MPN/PAD -1 family domain containing protein (KIAA1373 FLJ35 ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHP817 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP817 (Link to dictyBase) - G20462 DDB0229964 Contig-U15900-1 CHP817P (Lin ... ces. 44 1.9 1 CX075784 |CX075784.1 UCRCS08_46H11_b Parent ... Washington Navel Orange Callus cDNA Library UCRCS0 ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHP330 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP330 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11900-1 CHP330P (Link to Original ... 1844.1 Clostridium magnum acoR gene, complete cds; TPP -dependent acetoin dehydrogenase alpha and beta sub ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHP245 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP245 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16361-1 CHP245P (Link to Original ... 1-47.b_041.ab1 Whole-genome shotgun library of the elephant ... shark (aka elephant ... fish) Callorhinchus milii geno ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHP317 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP317 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11087-1 CHP317P (Link to Original ... 2-28.g_054.ab1 Whole-genome shotgun library of the elephant ... shark (aka elephant ... fish) Callorhinchus milii geno ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHP127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP127 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHP127P (Link to Original ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHP837 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP837 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16405-1 CHP837P (Link to Original ... ikyc*glyi*cfgfsilsksiqfei**ktkniw*ry shywlifkiiwws*fpy *fh*ck*tf--- ---emkvervhsllqhslefvqdqvqh*pi*nq*fqkf ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHP314 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP314 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11143-1 | Contig-U16256-1 CHP314P ... ession in good prognostic human neuroblastoma upon comparison ... between good prognostic human neuroblastoma and po ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHP579 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP579 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16298-1 | Contig-U16523-1 CHP579P ... Translated Amino Acid sequence tvgllx*qykffkylfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQS PLKQRTNNNNYQ ... sequence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllx*qykffkylfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQS PLKQRTNNNNYQ ...

  14. CHP or biofuel production in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Leduc, S; Wetterlund, E.; Dotzauer, E.; Kindermann, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitu...

  15. Development of a LPP CGR combustion system with ultra-low emissions for a SOLO 161 Stirling engine based micro-CHP unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2001-07-01

    During the last decade extensive research has been made at Lund University, Sweden, on a lean premix (prevaporize) combustion concept with burnt gas recirculation and a metallic flame holder. From this concept a new lean premixed natural gas combustion chamber with internal combustion gas recirculation (CGR) has been developed for the V160/SOLO 161 Stirling engines. This combustor has ultra-low emission levels, comparable to those of catalytic combustion. At the start of the current project the combustor was ready to be adapted for production, with expected market introduction in 2001. The Lund combustion chamber was modified to investigate the impact of air-fuel ratio and combustion gas recirculation rate on emissions and controllability of the combustion system, and on pressure losses in the combustion chamber. Different start-up strategies as well as different fuel-gas control valves were tried in order to find well-working control routines/parameters. The combustion chamber was redesigned using the gained knowledge, making it easy to manufacture while giving it maximum life expectancy and durability. The SOLO 161 Stirling engine's control system was adapted to the new combustion system. Emissions of the final combustion system were measured and found to be close to the design goal values. Combustor function and reliability has proved to be very good.

  16. Trnsys simulation results of an existing monitored small scale CHCP system and mathematical model adaptations of the air-cooled ammonia chiller and CHP prototypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, J. Farinha; Coelho, Ricardo; Cardoso, João P.; Costa, João P.; Fernández, David; Silva, António; Morgado, Miguel; Adão, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This work is a TRNSYS simulation of solar thermal system working together with an existing small sized CHCP (Combinet Heat Cooling and Power) demonstration project, included in the workpackage 5 (simulation) of the PolySMART project. The first objective of this work is to fine tune simulation parameters of the simulation Units (or Types), based on monitoring data collected during the first semester of 2010. The second objective is to further develop the mathematical models of type 107 (Hot Wa...

  17. Biomass CHP plant Guessing: reliable solution for fossil free municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start up of the biomass gasification CHP plant in 2002 marked the last step of the small Austrian town of Guessing towards the supply with 100 % biomass based renewable energy. Furthermore a sustainable process of regional development has been set into force, which turned this former poor region into a prospering European centre of renewable energy. Reaching an electric efficiency of 25 % and a total efficiency of 80 %, the process of steam blown gasification and gas utilisation in an engine enables economic operation even in small plants. For more than 11,000 operating hours the system could prove its reliability. Due to the favourable characteristics of the product gas research projects beyond electricity production were already started. (authors)

  18. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    -horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market.......In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity....... We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present a...

  19. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model a heat pump-assisted PEMFC micro-CHP system for single-family households. • We optimize the system net electrical efficiency at a range of varying loads. • The proposed system performs at an average net electrical efficiency of 0.38. • The proposed system performs at an average total system efficiency of 0.815. • Cost analysis shows the potential of the proposed system for different unit costs. - Abstract: In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive for application, since both fuel cell technology and electric heat pumps are found to be two of the most efficient technologies for generation/conversion of useful energy. The micro-CHP system is fueled with natural gas and includes a fuel cell stack, a fuel processor and other auxiliary components. The micro-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of the system. The variational loads are considered from full to quarter load, and the micro-CHP system is optimized in terms of operating thermophysical parameters for every different load. The results clearly indicate the capability of the proposed system to perform efficiently throughout all necessary load changes to fulfill the residential load profile. The average net electrical efficiency and average total system efficiency are 0.380 and 0.815, respectively. However cost analysis shows that certain synergies are necessary to allow the proposed system to make an entry to the energy market as a possible candidate to replace heat pump

  20. Biomass combustion gas turbine CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to develop a small scale biomass combustor generating system using a biomass combustor and a micro-gas turbine indirectly fired via a high temperature heat exchanger. Details are given of the specification of commercially available micro-turbines, the manufacture of a biomass converter, the development of a mathematical model to predict the compatibility of the combustor and the heat exchanger with various compressors and turbines, and the utilisation of waste heat for the turbine exhaust.

  1. Energy-optimisation of biogas-fuelled CHP units; Energetische Optimierung von Biogas-BHKW's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltic, P.; Edenhauser, D.; Winkler, A.

    2008-07-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the energy-related optimisation of combined heat and power (CHP) units that are fuelled with non-processed biogas. Ways of increasing the efficiency of these units as far as the production of electricity is concerned are examined and commented on. Also, ways of using the heat generated by the CHP units to produce electricity using other, exergetic means are also described. Systems such as Stirling engines and existing and new thermo-electrical elements are discussed. The economic viability of the systems is also discussed.

  2. Sewage Sludge Gasification for CHP Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCahey, S.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.

    2003-07-01

    Many routes previously available for sewage sludge disposal within the European Union are now prohibited or constrained by environmental legislation. Meanwhile, sewage sludge production increases annually as more rigorous treatment processes are used. This paper introduces an ongoing project, supported by the European Commission FP5 Programme, which seeks to examine the key technical environmental and economic issues relating to the gasification of sewage sludge for utilisation in CHP applications and ultimately to establish the commercial viability of the process. Sewage sludge treatment data has been collected by country and region and a database compiled. Laboratory and pilot plant scale gasification trials are underway and two small engines and a generator have been installed and commissioned. This paper discusses the concurrent development of ECLIPSE process simulation models for the three selected gasification processes, namely fluidised bed, spouted bed and fixed bed. These models have been validated and are being used to predict the behaviour of appropriately sized commercial scale plant, enabling informed decisions regarding technical suitability. The next step in this project is to determine capital costs and economic performance. Process routes will be identified that offer the most cost effective routes to reducing environmental burdens by using sewage sludge in CHP applications. (author)

  3. Proliferation of cultured mouse choroid plexus epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basam Z Barkho

    Full Text Available The choroid plexus (ChP epithelium is a multifunctional tissue found in the ventricles of the brain. The major function of the ChP epithelium is to produce cerebrospinal fluid (CSF that bathes and nourishes the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to the CSF, ChP epithelial cells (CPECs produce and secrete numerous neurotrophic factors that support brain homeostasis, such as adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Accordingly, damage and dysfunction to CPECs are thought to accelerate and intensify multiple disease phenotypes, and CPEC regeneration would represent a potential therapeutic approach for these diseases. However, previous reports suggest that CPECs rarely divide, although this has not been extensively studied in response to extrinsic factors. Utilizing a cell-cycle reporter mouse line and live cell imaging, we identified scratch injury and the growth factors insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and epidermal growth factor (EGF as extrinsic cues that promote increased CPEC expansion in vitro. Furthermore, we found that IGF-1 and EGF treatment enhances scratch injury-induced proliferation. Finally, we established whole tissue explant cultures and observed that IGF-1 and EGF promote CPEC division within the intact ChP epithelium. We conclude that although CPECs normally have a slow turnover rate, they expand in response to external stimuli such as injury and/or growth factors, which provides a potential avenue for enhancing ChP function after brain injury or neurodegeneration.

  4. Utilisation of biofuels in CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with possibilities of utilisation of biogas for energy purposes by combined production of electric power and heat. As a example of like this cogeneration units the urban waste water treatment Lucenec is given. (authors)

  5. The Impact of Modified EU ETS Allocation Principles on the Economics of CHP-based District Heating Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Westner, Günther; Madlener, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The economics of large-scale combined heat and power (CHP) generation for district heating (DH) applications are strongly affected by the costs and allocation mechanism of CO2 emission allowances. In the next period of the European emission trading system (EU ETS), from 2013 onwards, the allocation rules for CHP generation will be modified according to the principles announced in EU Directive 2009/29/EC. By means of a discounted cash-flow model we first show that the implementation of the mod...

  6. Putney Basketville Site Biomass CHP Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsberger, Randolph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mosey, Gail [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Center for Program Analysis developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to reuse contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The Putney, Vermont, Basketville site, formerly the location of a basket-making facility and a paper mill andwoolen mill, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Biomass was chosen as the renewable energy resource based on abundant woody-biomass resources available in the area. Biomass combined heat and power (CHP) was selected as the technology due to nearby loads, including Putney Paper and Landmark College.

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHP254 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP254 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15541-1 - (Link to Original site) ... qvlf*rivftlkiakemkf*lnnghqlnqmletslkilfykv*dhqnmkh vtl *ll*fhvlvllkfhtqcgkn*sqhylktlkvvqkvlnnllfkhlvifvkkl ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHP249 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP249 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U14444-1 - (Link to Original site) ... XXXXKIFFLKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: KKXKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKXKKKKXXXXX ...

  9. Flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants; Roeggaskondensation i halmfyrede kraftvarmeanlaeg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-15

    The high price of straw and a general demand for increased use of straw in power and heat production are expected to result in an increased need for efficient fuel utilization. The use of flue gas condensation in straw fired CHP plants can contribute to a higher exploitation of energy, and at the same time open of the possibility of utilization of wet (cheaper) fuels without energy loss. Furthermore flue gas condensation can contribute to the flue gas cleaning process through removal of HCl and SO{sub 2} as well as in particle cleaning in wet cleaning processes. With starting point in a straw fired CHP plant the technical and economic consequences of installation of a flue gas condensation system are investigated. Fuel exploitation and power/heat production distribution is included in the investigation. (BA)

  10. Energy consumption indicators and CHP technical potential in the Brazilian hospital sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity demands in hospitals are characterized by their need for high quality, guaranteed supplies. The existence of captive electricity uses and the size and regularity of the electrical and heat loads required by hospitals are aspects that could well buttress the possibility of installing cogeneration plants fired by natural gas (CHP). The purpose of this paper is to estimate the CHP technical potential in Brazilian hospitals. Based on a classification of Brazilian hospitals by specific energy consumption indicators, this potential is assessed, taking into consideration gas fueled engines associated with absorption cooling systems. A potential figure of approximately 500 MWe was obtained, whose effective implementation runs up against the obstacles inherent to Brazil's hospital sector, listed at the end of this paper. Consequently, some actions are proposed for surmounting these barriers

  11. Micro CHP module with Stirling engine: tests and market introduction; Mikro-KWK-Modul mit Stirlingmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumueller, A.

    2002-07-01

    This article describes a small combined heat and power (CHP) module based on a stationary Stirling engine with a 2 - 9 kW electrical and a 8 - 24 kW thermal rating. Its associated gas burner is also described. The article reviews the history of the development of this CHP module and describes how the Stirling engine works. The advantages offered by the Stirling engine in comparison with conventional engines in terms of low maintenance requirements and low emissions of pollutants are discussed. The design of the module and its integration into heating systems are examined. Tests with 30 units providing a total of 150,000 hours of operation are discussed. Production facilities and market introduction activities are briefly described.

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHP682 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP682 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 | Contig-U16344-1 CHP682P ... 28 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 6.9 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.0 protein update 2008.11. 7 PSO ...

  13. Optimization of Gas Supply of CHP Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Odiņeca, T; Zēbergs, V

    2008-01-01

    The article contains reviews the method of optimization of gas supply of CHP sources of energy - the method of calculation of permissible IRR. It is effective for analyzing the projects of CHP plants’ gasification (also in reconstruction of existing boiler houses). IRR is an effective criterion of profitability of gasification, if the forecast of the consumption of gas is precise. Using the method of calculation of permissible IRR it is possible to find the load limits in which CH...

  14. A Stochastic Unit Commitment Model for a Local CHP Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Hans V.; Riisom, Jannik; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    presents a stochastic unit commitment model for a single local CHP plant (consisting of CHP unit, boiler, and heat storage facility) which takes into account varying spot prices. Further, additional technology is implemented in the model in the form of an immersion heater. Simulations are conducted using...... the spot prices of the years 2001-2003, both with and without the immersion heater included in the model, and the results are compared to the full information case....

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHP873 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP873 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10720-1 CHP873P (Link to Original ... X*iiskvwfrcya*cc*tstk*rye**fe*nysmvr*kssfpt*y*krfc sip *fh*s*ts*rikts*riki*nnnnynyhhyy*rs*tirrs*tirrs*tirr ... X*iiskvwfrcya*cc*tstk*rye**fe*nysmvr*kssfpt*y*krfc sip *fh*s*ts*rikts*riki*nnnnynyhhyy*rs*tirrs*tirrs*tirr ...

  16. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas......Wh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214$/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity...

  17. Development and Demonstration of a New Generation High Efficiency 10kW Stationary Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Thomas Russell

    2013-04-30

    The overall project objective is to develop and demonstrate a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell combined heat and power (PEMFC CHP) system that provides the foundation for commercial, mass produced units which achieve over 40% electrical efficiency (fuel to electric conversion) from 50-100% load, greater than 70% overall efficiency (fuel to electric energy + usable waste heat energy conversion), have the potential to achieve 40,000 hours durability on all major process components, and can be produced in high volumes at under $400/kW (revised to $750/kW per 2011 DOE estimates) capital cost.

  18. Large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO2 emission in the system, and the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system......, in which 50% of the electricity demand is produced in CHP, a number of future energy systems with CO2 reduction potentials are analysed, i.e. systems with more CHP, systems using electricity for transportation (battery or hydrogen vehicles) and systems with fuel-cell technologies. For the present and......The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power. The ability is expressed by the following three factors: the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) heat demands, the...

  19. Exergy diagnosis of coal fired CHP plant with application of neural and regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanek Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models of the processes, that proceed in energetic machines and devices, in many cases are very complicated. In such cases, the exact analytical models should be equipped with the auxiliary empirical models that describe those parameters which are difficult to model in a theoretical way. Regression or neural models identified basing on measurements are rather simple and are characterized by relatively short computation time. For this reason they can be effectively applied for simulation and optimization of steering and regulation processes, as well as, for control and thermal diagnosis of operation (eq. power plants or CHP plants. In the paper regression and neural models of thermal processes developed for systems of operation control of thermal plants are presented. Theoretical-empirical model of processes proceeding in coal fired CHP plant have been applied. Simulative calculations basing on these models have been carried out. Results of simulative calculations have been used for the exergetic evaluation of considered power plant. The diagnosis procedure let to investigate the formation of exergy costs in interconnected components of the system of CHP, as well as, investigate the influence of defects in operation of components on exergy losses and on the exergetic cost in other components. [Acknowledgment. The paper has been prepared within the RECENT project (REsearch Center for Energy and New Technologies supported by 7th Framework Programme, Theme 4, Capacities.

  20. Renewables and CHP with District Energy in Support of Sustainable Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Chris

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the powerful idea of connecting many energy users to environmentally optimum energy sources through integrated community energy systems. Such systems require piping networks for distributing thermal energy, i.e., district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. The possibilities and advantages of the application of integrated energy concepts are discussed, including the economic and environmental benefits of integrating localized electrical generating systems (CHP), transportation systems, industrial processes and other thermal energy requirements. Examples of a number of operating systems are provided. Some of the R and D carried out by the IEA Implementing Agreement on District Heating and Cooling is also described.

  1. Solar cell concentrating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reviews fabrication techniques and testing facilities for different solar cells under concentration which have been developed and tested. It is also aimed to examine solar energy concentrators which are prospective candidates for photovoltaic concentrator systems. This may provide an impetus to the scientists working in the area of solar cell technology

  2. Network design optimization of fuel cell systems and distributed energy devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-07-01

    This research explores the thermodynamics, economics, and environmental impacts of innovative, stationary, polygenerative fuel cell systems (FCSs). Each main report section is split into four subsections. The first subsection, 'Potential Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Impact of Stationary FCSs,' quantifies the degree to which GHG emissions can be reduced at a U.S. regional level with the implementation of different FCS designs. The second subsection, 'Optimizing the Design of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) FCSs,' discusses energy network optimization models that evaluate novel strategies for operating CHP FCSs so as to minimize (1) electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) emissions of the primary GHG - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The third subsection, 'Optimizing the Design of Combined Cooling, Heating, and Electric Power (CCHP) FCSs,' is similar to the second subsection but is expanded to include capturing FCS heat with absorptive cooling cycles to produce cooling energy. The fourth subsection, - Thermodynamic and Chemical Engineering Models of CCHP FCSs,' discusses the physics and thermodynamic limits of CCHP FCSs.

  3. Optimization of operation for combined heat and power plants - CHP plants - with heat accumulators using a MILP formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grue, Jeppe; Bach, Inger [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology]. E-mails: jeg@iet.auc.dk; ib@iet.auc.dk

    2000-07-01

    The power generation system in Denmark is extensively based on small combined heat and power plants (CHP plants), producing both electricity and district heating. This project deals with smaller plants spread throughout the country. Often a heat accumulator is used to enable electricity production, even when the heat demand is low. This system forms a very complex problem, both for sizing, designing and operation of CHP plants. The objective of the work is the development of a tool for optimisation of the operation of CHP plants, and to even considering the design of the plant. The problem is formulated as a MILP-problem. An actual case is being tested, involving CHP producing units to cover the demand. The results from this project show that it is of major importance to consider the operation of the plant in detail already in the design phase. It is of major importance to consider the optimisation of the plant operation, even at the design stage, as it may cause the contribution margin to rise significantly, if the plant is designed on the basis of a de-tailed knowledge of the expected operation. (author)

  4. Cell Maintenance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Living human cells require attachment to a suitable surface and special culture conditions in order to grow. These requirements are modified and amplified when cells are taken into a weightless environment. Special handling and maintenance systems are required for routine laboratory procedures conducted in the Orbiter and in the Spacelab. Methods were developed to maintain cells in special incubators designed for the Orbiter middeck, however, electrophoresis and other experiments require cells to be harvested off of the culture substrate before they can be processed or used. The cell transport assembly (CTA) was flown on STS-8, and results show that improvements are required to maintain adequate numbers of cells in this device longer than 48 hours. The life sciences middeck centrifuge probably can be used, but modifications will be required to transfer cells from the CTA and keep the cells sterile. Automated systems such as the Skylab SO-15 flight hardware and crew operated systems are being evaluated for use on the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station research modules.

  5. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  6. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  7. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.;

    2015-01-01

    in the fuel cell (SOFC), in the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the reversible SOFC/SOEC mode are addressed. This covers the wide field of power generation systems, e.g. stationary SOFC µ-CHP, mobile SOFC APU and SOFC/SOEC power-to-gas systems. The paper presents the results which have been achieved so far...

  8. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.;

    2015-01-01

    /stack assembly in the fuel cell (SOFC), in the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the combined SOFC/SOEC mode are addressed. This covers the wide field of power generation systems, e.g. stationary SOFC µ-CHP, mobile SOFC APU and SOFC/SOEC power-to-gas systems. This paper presents the results which have been achieved so...

  9. Solid Oxide Cell and Stack Testing, Safety and Quality Assurance (SOCTESQA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, C.; Lang, M.; Couturier, K.;

    2015-01-01

    the fuel cell (SOFC), in the electrolysis (SOEC) and in the reversible SOFC/SOEC mode are addressed. This covers the wide field of power generation systems, e.g. stationary SOFC µ-CHP, mobile SOFC APU and SOFC/SOEC power-to-gas systems. The paper presents the results which have been achieved so far in...

  10. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric

  11. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882. Project report 5 - Emission factors and emission inventory for decentralised CHP production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, M.

    2010-06-15

    Updated emission factors for decentralised combined heat and power (CHP) plants with a capacity < 25MWe have been estimated based on project emission measurements as well as emission measurements performed in recent years that were collected. The emission factors valid for 2006/2007 have been estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines have been reduced since year 2000 as a result of technical improvements that have been carried out due to lower emission limit values in Danish legislation. The NO{sub x} emission factor for natural gas fuelled gas turbines has decreased 62 % since year 2000. This is a result of installation of low-NO{sub x} burners in almost all gas turbines that has been necessary to meet new emission limits in Danish legislation. The emission measurements programme included screening of the emissions of HCB, PCB, PCDD/-F and PBDD/-F. Compared to the Danish national emission decentralized CHP plants are major emission sources for CH{sub 4}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, heavy metals and HCB. (author)

  12. Fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are an entirely different approach to the production of electricity than traditional technologies. They are similar to the batteries in that both produce direct current through electrochemical process. There are six types of fuel cells each with a different type of electrolyte, but they all share certain important characteristics: high electrical efficiency, low environmental impact and fuel flexibility. Fuel cells serve a variety of applications: stationary power plants, transport vehicles and portable power. That is why world wide efforts are addressed to improvement of this technology. (Original)

  13. CHP and District Cooling: An Assessment of Market and Policy Potential in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report contains an assessment of India's CHP/DC status and recommendations for addressing barriers to allow India to meet its energy efficiency targets. Such barriers include a lack of governmental emphasis on CHP, the absence of a clear methodology for calculating CO2 emission reductions from CHP/DHC, and a tax and duty structure for CHP capital equipment that is not as attractive as for other renewable energy technologies.

  14. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by the Fraunhofer

  15. Energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: The consistency of European CHP, renewables and energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohnheit, P.E.

    1999-09-01

    This report is Volume 14 of individual reports of the Shared Analysis Project prepared for the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy. The three major objectives of the project were: to design a common framework of energy analysis that aimed to involve all Member States and the experts of industrial research groups (the shared approach to energy analysis); To analyse generic EU-wide issues important for energy policy and for future energy demand and production, putting particular emphasis on world energy market trends, strategic energy policy responses to the Kyoto process, and evaluation of response strategies to increasing energy import dependence and to climate change activities; to carry out quantitative analyses of energy trends and scenarios as an input for discussion. The present volume considers three main issues concerning energy policy responses to the climate change challenge: the penetration of CHP and renewables according to official objectives, focusing on infrastructure and institutions rather than technology; the consistency of promotion of CHP, renewables and energy savings at the same time; consumers' choices and priorities in a liberalised market. The volume describes examples of policies in several Member States for these technologies with emphasis on CHP for both large-scale and small-scale district heating systems. The penetration of CHP technologies is analysed quantitatively using a traditional optimisation model approach for stylised regions with heat markets suitable for CHP and facing a competitive European market for electricity. The Joint Final Report of the project, titled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy' is published as a Special Issue of Energy in Europe, December 1999. All reports are available on the Internet, www.shared-analysis.fhg.de/ The project started in January 1998, involving about 100 months of scientific labour. The project consortium consisted of nine member institutes co-ordinated by

  16. Optimal power flow based TU/CHP/PV/WPP coordination in view of wind speed, solar irradiance and load correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Formulate probabilistic OPF with VPE, multi-fuel options, POZs, FOR of CHP units. • Propose a new powerful optimization method based on enhanced black hole algorithm. • Coordinate of TUs, WPPs, PVs and CHP units together in the proposed problem. • Evaluate the impacts of inputs’ uncertainties and their correlations on the POPF. • Use the 2m + 1 point estimated method. - Abstract: This paper addresses a novel probabilistic optimisation framework for handling power system uncertainties in the optimal power flow (OPF) problem that considers all the essential factors of great impact in the OPF problem. The object is to study and model the correlation and fluctuation of load demands, photovoltaic (PV) and wind power plants (WPPs) which have an important influence on transmission lines and bus voltages. Moreover, as an important tool of saving waste heat energy in the thermoelectric power plant, the power networks share of combined heat and power (CHP) has increased dramatically in the past decade. So, the probabilistic OPF (POPF) problem considering valve point effects, multi-fuel options and prohibited zones of thermal units (TUs) is firstly formulated. The PV, WPP and CHP units are also modeled. Then, a new method utilizing enhanced binary black hole (EBBH) algorithm and 2m + 1 point estimated method is proposed to solve this problem and to handle the random nature of solar irradiance, wind speed and load of consumers. The correlation between input random variables is considered using a correlation matrix. Finally, numerical results are presented and considered regarding the IEEE 118-busses, including PV, WPP, CHP and TU at several busses. The simulation and comparison results obtained demonstrate the broad advantages and feasibility of the suggested framework in the presence of dependent non-Gaussian distribution of random variables

  17. Molecular Characterization of a Bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, B. L.; Everson, J. S.; Fane, B.; Giannikopoulou, P.; Vretou, E.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no...

  18. Integrated HT-PEMFC and multi-fuel reformer for micro CHP. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    reformed both methane and biogas although the efficiency was low, on the order of 15% due to excessive slip and heat losses. The construction and test of an integrated micro CHP system revealed several problems with the core technology. Therefore, rather than working with the integrated system, individual system components were tested separately. In spite of the problems with the reformer and the fuel cell stack the system was successfully operated and an electric efficiency of 18%{sub LHV} was demonstrated. (Author)

  19. Modelling biomass-fuelled small-scale CHP plants for process synthesis optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Savola, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    In this work possible process improvements for biomass-fuelled small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants are evaluated and a new mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for process synthesis optimisation of these processes is presented. Small-scale (1-20 MWe) CHP plants are of interest, as in Finland the potential to increase the CHP production is in converting small heating units to CHP production. However, the profitability of these small-scale CHP investments should be hig...

  20. 3D-animaation käyttö CHP-voimalan visualisoinnissa : esimerkkinä GASEK CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Muilu, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli suunnitella ja toteuttaa GASEK Oy:lle animaatio kolmiulotteisella grafiikalla. Animaation tarkoitus oli esitellä GASEK Oy:n CHP-voimalaitosta, jossa sekapuuhakkeesta tuotetaan lämpöä ja sähköä. Työn pääpainona oli visualisoida CHP-voimalassa tapahtuva kaasutusprosessi ja puukaasun virtaus laitteistossa. Opinnäytetyön käytännön osuuksiin kuuluivat animaation suunnittelu, toteutus ja videon luominen. The aim of the thesis was to plan and produce an animatio...

  1. Exergy analysis and optimization of a biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid plant producing combined heat and power (CHP) from biomass by use of a two-stage gasification concept, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and a micro gas turbine was considered for optimization. The hybrid plant represents a sustainable and efficient alternative to conventional decentralized CHP plants. A clean product gas was produced by the demonstrated two-stage gasifier, thus only simple gas conditioning was necessary prior to the SOFC stack. The plant was investigated by thermodynamic modeling combining zero-dimensional component models into complete system-level models. Energy and exergy analyses were applied. Focus in this optimization study was heat management, and the optimization efforts resulted in a substantial gain of approximately 6% in the electrical efficiency of the plant. The optimized hybrid plant produced approximately 290 kWe at an electrical efficiency of 58.2% based on lower heating value (LHV). -- Highlights: → Combined two-stage gasification, solid oxide fuel cells and gas turbine technology. → Hybrid plant for efficient decentralized power and heat production from biomass. → Through modeling, energy and exergy analyses reveal inefficiencies. → Optimization efforts for increased plant efficiency. → Electrical efficiency reached 58% (LHV) producing 290 kW electricity.

  2. Sustainable energy supply to very low-energy buildings by means of Micro-CHP technologies and solar thermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sicre, Benoit Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Description and assessment of technology-related concepts aiming at improving the energy conservation in residential buildings. Explanation of the method and discussion of the whole-year simulation results for SOFC micro-CHP systems and Stirling engines in relation with single-family houses of different thermal insulation standards. Benchmark with conventional energy supply systems. Computation of allowable investment costs Beschreibung und Beurteilung unter technischen, ökonom...

  3. Demonstration Stirling Engine based Micro-CHP with ultra-low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeberg, Rolf; Olsson, Fredrik [Carl Bro Energikonsult AB (Sweden); Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Inst. of Technology (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    This project has been initiated in order to develop a new type of natural gas fired low emission combustion system for a Stirling engine CHP-unit, and to demonstrate and evaluate the unit with the newly developed combustion system in a CHP application. The Stirling engine technology is well developed, but mostly used in special applications and CHP-applications are scarce. The very low exhaust emissions with the new combustion system would make the Stirling engine very suitable for installation in as a CHP-unit in domestic areas. The Stirling engine used in the project has been a V161 engine produced by Solo Kleinmotoren GmbH in Sindelfingen. The unit has a nominal output of 7,5 kW{sub el} and 20 kW{sub heat} (Hot water). The new combustion system was developed at Lund University and the very strict emission targets that were set up could be achieved, both in the laboratory tests and during the site-testing period. Typical performance and emission figures measured at the site installation are: Generator output (kW): 7,3; Hot water output (kW): 15; El. efficiency (%): 25,4; Total efficiency (%): 77,8; NO{sub x} (ppm): 14; CO (ppm): 112; HC (ppm): < 1; O{sub 2} (%): 8,0; Noise level 1 m from the unit (dBA): 83. The NO{sub x} emissions were reduced with almost 97 % as compared to a standard Stirling combustion system. The emission figures are considerably lower than what could be achieved in an internal combustion engine of similar size with an oxidation catalyst (report SGC 106), while the performance figures are similar for the two technologies. The site testing was carried out during a period of 1,5 year at a site owned by Goeteborg Energi. The site comprises a building structure with workshops, offices etc. covering a ground area of 2,500 m{sup 2}. A gas fired boiler with an output of 250 kW supplies hot water to a local grid for heating and tap water. The annual heat demand is typically 285 MWh and the hot water temperatures are normally 60-80 deg C. The site

  4. Policy schemes, operational strategies and system integration of residential co-generation fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Münster, Marie;

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a holistic approach for the commercialisation of fuel cells for stationary applications. We focus our analyses on microCHP based on SOFC units fired with natural gas. We analyse the interaction of operational strategies under different ownership arrangements, required support...... levels and system integration aspects. The operational strategies, support mechanisms and ownership arrangements have been identified through actor analysis involving experts from Denmark, France and Portugal. With regard to operational strategies, the actor analyses led us to distinguishing between a...... heat-driven strategy, with and without time-differentiated tariffs, and an electricity price driven strategy for the operation as a virtual power plant. The corresponding support schemes identified cover feed-in tariffs, net metering and feed-in premiums. Additionally, the interplay of the micro...

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHP859 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP859 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16586-1 - (Link to Original site) ... ete sequence. 46 0.13 1 DD062477 |DD062477.1 HUMAN SCHIZOPHRENIA ... GENE. 46 0.13 1 DD021122 |DD021122.1 HUMAN SCHIZOP ...

  6. IVO`s CHP know-how: experience, inventions, patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeijaelae, M.; Ohtonen, V. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    IVO can justly claim mastery in the co-generation of district heat and electricity - CHP. As well as looking at the issue from the viewpoint of planners, builders and operators, IVO`s engineers also view power plants through the eyes of the product developer and inventor. This approach has resulted in successful power plant configurations, inventions and patents and visions

  7. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analysis of a system with biomass gasification, solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic investigations of a small-scale integrated gasification solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power (CHP) with a net electric capacity of 120 kWe have been performed. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas, which is then utilized to feed the anode side of the SOFC stacks. A thermal efficiency of 0.424 LHV (lower heating value) for the plant is found to use 89.4 kg/h of feedstock to produce the above mentioned electricity. Thermoeconomic analysis shows that the production price of electricity is 0.1204 $/kWh. Furthermore, hot water is considered as a by-product, and the cost of hot water is found to be 0.0214 $/kWh. When compared to other renewable systems of similar scales, this result shows that if both SOFC and Stirling engine technology enter the commercialization phase, then they can deliver electricity at a cost that is competitive with the corresponding renewable systems of the same size. - Highlights: • A 120 kWe integrated gasification SOFC–Stirling CHP is presented. • Effect of important parameters on plant characteristic and economy are studied. • A modest thermal efficiency of 0.41 is found after thermoeconomic optimization. • Reducing stack numbers cuts cost of electricity at expense of thermal efficiency. • The plant cost is estimated to be about 3433 $/kW when disposal costs are neglected

  8. A gas utility approach to fuel cell commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most attractive application for fuel cells seems to be in decentralised combined heat and power generation (CHP). The market for energy efficient CHP is growing, partly as a result of the wish to decrease CO2 emissions. Gas utilities are facing this development and can react in different ways. One of these is to operate natural gas powered CHPs themselves. The attractiveness of fuel cell powered CHPs for gas utilities depends firstly on the economy and reliability of CHP in general in the markets considered and secondly on the competitiveness of fuel cells versus, for example, the gas engine and gas turbine based CHP. Important possible activities for a gas utility in relation to fuel cell commercialisation are helping develop the market for CHP, defining the requirements for fuel cells in CHP and helping the fuel cell manufacturers to build up practical experience by participating in demonstration projects. The situation in the Netherlands will be used for examples. (orig.)

  9. Technical, environmental and economic analysis of co-firing of gasified biofuel in a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) combined heat and power (CHP) plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marbe, Asa; Harvey, Simon; Berntsson, Thore [Heat and Power Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-08-15

    The goal of this study is to evaluate co-firing of gasified CO{sub 2} neutral biofuel in a retrofitted natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) combined heat and power (CHP) unit designed for natural gas operation. This type of situation may be particularly relevant if future CO{sub 2} abatement policies require that owners of natural gas fired CHP units reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The study investigates the technical, economic and environmental performance of the CHP unit for different fractions of gasified biofuel in the unit's fuel mix. The power plant simulation program GateCycle was used for plant performance evaluation. The calculations are based on a large size (about 300MW{sub e}) NGCC CHP plant that is planned to be built on the West coast of Sweden, producing electricity and district heating for the local energy utility company. The results from this study show that it is possible to co-fire up to 40% (energy basis) biofuel product gas in the CHP unit. At this level of product gas co-firing, the unit's electrical and total efficiencies decrease by approximately 2%-points, compared to operation on natural gas only. Global CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by approximately 400,000 tonnes/year. The total costs for the local utility company depend on the prevailing CO{sub 2} taxation rules, and on the assumed premium value of the renewable power produced. For the base case conditions assumed in the study, the cost of electricity (COE) for a natural gas fired NGCC CHP unit is 253SEK/MWh, increasing to 306SEK/MWh when a biofuel gasifier is integrated to the unit. A premium value for renewable electricity of 285SEK/MWh is required for equal COE values to be achieved by the two systems. (author)

  10. Technical, environmental and economic analysis of co-firing of gasified biofuel in a natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) combined heat and power (CHP) plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to evaluate co-firing of gasified CO2 neutral biofuel in a retrofitted natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) combined heat and power (CHP) unit designed for natural gas operation. This type of situation may be particularly relevant if future CO2 abatement policies require that owners of natural gas fired CHP units reduce CO2 emissions. The study investigates the technical, economic and environmental performance of the CHP unit for different fractions of gasified biofuel in the unit's fuel mix. The power plant simulation program GateCycle was used for plant performance evaluation. The calculations are based on a large size (about 300MWe) NGCC CHP plant that is planned to be built on the West coast of Sweden, producing electricity and district heating for the local energy utility company. The results from this study show that it is possible to co-fire up to 40% (energy basis) biofuel product gas in the CHP unit. At this level of product gas co-firing, the unit's electrical and total efficiencies decrease by approximately 2%-points, compared to operation on natural gas only. Global CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately 400,000 tonnes/year. The total costs for the local utility company depend on the prevailing CO2 taxation rules, and on the assumed premium value of the renewable power produced. For the base case conditions assumed in the study, the cost of electricity (COE) for a natural gas fired NGCC CHP unit is 253SEK/MWh, increasing to 306SEK/MWh when a biofuel gasifier is integrated to the unit. A premium value for renewable electricity of 285SEK/MWh is required for equal COE values to be achieved by the two systems. (author)

  11. Retrofitting micro gas turbines for wet operation. A way to increase operational flexibility in distributed CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of wet micro gas turbines. • Technoeconomic analysis of mGTs retrofits for wet operation. • Demonstration of the operational flexibility increase due to wet operation. • In depth case study analysis of a CHP system in 15-min time-intervals. • Sensitivity analysis on all major economic parameters of wet operation. - Abstract: It is generally accepted that only flexible CHP plants could be a viable option in an electrical system with high penetration of variable renewables. Variable power-to-heat-ratios and decoupled power and heat generation will be basic requirements. Currently, the most common way to fulfill these specifications is the use of heat storage devices, whereas wet operation of gas turbines is an alternative way to achieve both goals. The current work is an analysis of a micro gas turbine adapted to operate with steam injection. A thermodynamic model is developed and a typical apartments building in Berlin, Germany is chosen as a case study. The study presumes the existence of a micro gas turbine and analyzes the results of its adaptation for wet operation. The environmental and economic performance of the new system is compared to that of its commercial counterpart. It is shown that the retrofitted turbine has longer annual operation time and higher electrical energy generation. The retrofit also proves to be an attractive investment for the German CHP market with internal rates of return reaching almost 20%

  12. Development of a Wood Powder Fuelled 35 kW Stirling CHP Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pålsson, M.; Carlsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    For biomass fuelled CHP in sizes below 100 kW, Stirling engines are the only feasible alternative today. Using wood powder as fuel, the Stirling engine can be heated directly by the flame like when using a gaseous or liquid fuel burner. However, the combustion chamber will have to be much larger...... recirculation (CGR) a smaller air preheater can be used, while system efficiency will increase compared with using excess air for flame cooling. In a three-year project, a wood powder fuelled Stirling engine CHP unit will be developed and run in field test. The project will use the double-acting four......-cylinder Stirling engine SM3D with an electric output of 35 kW. This engine is a further development of the engine SM3B that has been developed at the Technical University of Denmark. The engine heater is being adapted for use with wood powder as fuel. During a two-year period a combustion system for this engine...

  13. Investigation of the prospect of energy self-sufficiency and technical performance of an integrated PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell), dairy farm and biogas plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A PEMFC stack with a 40% of electrical efficiency will make the integrated PEMFC-CHP, biogas plant and dairy farm self-sufficient. • The quality of the reformate gas is good enough to support normal operation of the PEMFC-CHP. • The methane conversion rate and the content of the CH4 in the biogas need to be balanced in order to obtain the best system performance. • Compared with a coal-fired CHP plant, the integrated system can avoid coal consumption and CO2 emissions. - Abstract: A PEMFC fuelled with hydrogen is known for its high efficiency and low local emissions. However, the generation of hydrogen is always a controversial issue for the application of the PEMFC due to the use of fossil fuel and the possible carbon dioxide emissions. Presently, the PEMFC-CHP fed with renewable fuels, such as biogas, appears to be the most attractive energy converter–fuel combination. In this paper, an integrated PEMFC-CHP, a dairy farm and a biogas plant are studied. A PEMFC-CHP fed with reformate gas from the biogas plant generates electricity and heat to a dairy farm and a biogas plant, while the dairy farm delivers wet manure to the biogas plant as the feedstock for biogas production. This integrated system has been modelled for steady-state conditions by using Aspen Plus®. The results indicate that the wet manure production of a dairy farm with 300 milked cows can support a biogas plant to give 1280 MW h of biogas annually. Based on the biogas production, a PEMFC-CHP with a stack having an electrical efficiency of 40% generates 360 MW h electricity and 680 MW h heat per year, which is enough to cover the energy demand of the whole system while the total efficiency of the PEMFC-CHP system is 82%. The integrated PEMFC-CHP, dairy farm and biogas plant could make the dairy farm and the biogas plant self-sufficient in a sustainable way provided the PEMFC-CHP has the electrical efficiency stated above. The effect of the methane conversion rate and the

  14. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM "PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, Zack

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant, "premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of "premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firs...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHP584 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP584 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15547-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Value BC047807_1( BC047807 |pid:none) Danio rerio hypoxia ... up-regulated 1... 105 9e-22 BC071372_1( BC071372 | ... pid:none) Danio rerio hypoxia ... up-regulated 1... 105 9e-22 BC043837_1( BC043837 | ...

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHP635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP635 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16371-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-178O04.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.003 1 DE078411 |DE078411.1 Oryzias ... latipes DNA, clone: ola1-200D13.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.003 1 DE067405 |DE067405.1 Oryzias ...

  17. Multiple Sequence Elements Facilitate Chp Rho GTPase Subcellular Location, Membrane Association, and Transforming Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chenette, Emily J.; Mitin, Natalia Y.; Der, Channing J.

    2006-01-01

    Cdc42 homologous protein (Chp) is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases and shares significant sequence and functional similarity with Cdc42. However, unlike classical Rho GTPases, we recently found that Chp depends on palmitoylation, rather than prenylation, for association with cellular membranes. Because palmitoylation alone is typically not sufficient to promote membrane association, we evaluated the possibility that other carboxy-terminal residues facilitate Chp subcellular associa...

  18. Translating Hardware Process Algebras into Standard Process Algebras : Illustration with CHP and LOTOS

    OpenAIRE

    Salaün, Gwen; Serwe, Wendelin

    2005-01-01

    A natural approach for the description of asynchronous hardware designs are hardware process algebras, such as Martin's CHP (Communicating Hardware Processes), Tangram, or BALSA, which are extensions of standard process algebras with particular operators exploiting the implementation of synchronisation using handshake protocols. In this research report, we give a structural operational semantics for value-passing CHP. Compared to existing semantics of CHP defined by translation into Petri net...

  19. Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Condensing Economizer Installation at Riga CHP Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Zigurs, Aris; Kunickis, Maris; Balodis, Maris; Linkevics, Olegs; Stuklis, Ilmars; Ivanova, Polina

    2015-01-01

    In this study, passive exhaust gas condensing economizer installation is evaluated at Riga CHP plants No. 1 and No. 2 to increase efficiency of heat only boilers (HOBs). Five options are investigated: two options for Riga CHP plant No. 1 and three options for Riga CHP plant No. 2. The study provides the analysis of HOBs operation statistics, determination of HOBs operation trends, development of production programmes, as well as economic and sensitivity analysis of the considered options. Bas...

  20. A chromodomain protein, Chp1, is required for the establishment of heterochromatin in fission yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaie, Mahito; Iida, Tetsushi; URANO, TAKESHI; Nakayama, Jun-ichi

    2004-01-01

    The chromodomain is a conserved motif that functions in the epigenetic control of gene expression. Here, we report the functional characterization of a chromodomain protein, Chp1, in the heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast. We show that Chp1 is a structural component of three heterochromatic regions—centromeres, the mating-type region, and telomeres—and that its localization in these regions is dependent on the histone methyltransferase Clr4. Although deletion of the chp1+ gene causes c...

  1. Preparation of Yeast Hydrolysate Enriched in Cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) by Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Evaluation of Its Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Son, Heung Soo; Park, Chung; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to enrich cyclo-His-Pro (CHP) using enzymatic hydrolysis of yeast and to evaluate the functionality of yeast hydrolysate (YH)-enriched CHP. Flavourzyme offered a better performance in enhancing CHP content than other proteases. The CHP enrichment conditions were optimized as follows: addition of 1% Flavourzyme, 48-h incubation at 60°C, and pH 6.0. The CHP content significantly increased by 20-fold after ultra-filtration (UF). Maximal CHP translation was obtained af...

  2. Fuel cell based hybrid systems

    OpenAIRE

    Davat, B.; Astier, S.; Bethoux, O.; CANDUSSO,D; Coquery, G.; DE-BERNARDINIS, A; DRUART, F; Francois, M; GARCIA ARREGUI, F; Harel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different works which are currently developed in the field of fuel cell hybrid systems indifferent public laboratories in France. These works are presented in three sections corresponding to: 1. Hybrid fuel cell/battery or supercapacitor power sources; 2. Fuel cell multistack power sources; 3. Fuel cell in hybrid power systems for distributed generation. The presented works combine simulation and experimental results.

  3. Systems biomechanics of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Maly, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    Systems Biomechanics of the Cell attempts to outline systems biomechanics of the cell as an emergent and promising discipline. The new field owes conceptually to cell mechanics, organism-level systems biomechanics, and biology of biochemical systems. Its distinct methodology is to elucidate the structure and behavior of the cell by analyzing the unintuitive collective effects of elementary physical forces that interact within the heritable cellular framework. The problematics amenable to this approach includes the variety of cellular activities that involve the form and movement of the cell body and boundary (nucleus, centrosome, microtubules, cortex, and membrane). Among the elementary system effects in the biomechanics of the cell, instability of symmetry, emergent irreversibility, and multiperiodic dissipative motion can be noted. Research results from recent journal articles are placed in this unifying framework. It is suggested that the emergent discipline has the potential to expand the spectrum of ques...

  4. Advanced CHP Control Algorithms: Scope Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2006-04-28

    The primary objective of this multiyear project is to develop algorithms for combined heat and power systems to ensure optimal performance, increase reliability, and lead to the goal of clean, efficient, reliable and affordable next generation energy systems.

  5. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG and amp;E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  6. A Pilot Evaluation of Small Group Challenging Horizons Program (CHP): A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Smith, Bradley H.; Bogle, Kristin E.; Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Cole, Wesley R.; Pender, Carolyn A. S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of an after-school program, the Challenging Horizons Program (CHP), that met four days a week and focused on improving organization, academic skills, and classroom behavior. The CHP was compared with a community control that included involvement in a district-run after-school program that met one to three days a…

  7. Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Šiupšinskas, G.; Martinaitis, V.

    2005-01-01

    The article analyses the conditions for the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP) in Lithuania.......The article analyses the conditions for the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP) in Lithuania....

  8. A closed-form expression for the optimal capacity of CHP

    OpenAIRE

    Arie ten Cate

    2009-01-01

    In this memorandum the optimal capacity of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is derived, using a simple model with an analytical solution. The solution is expressed as the fraction of the time during which the heat demand exceeds the optimal CHP heat production capacity.

  9. Experimental development, 1D CFD simulation and energetic analysis of a 15 kw micro-CHP unit based on reciprocating internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogeneration is commonly recognized as one of the most effective solutions to achieve the increasingly stringent reduction in primary energy consumption and greenhouse emissions. This characteristic led to the adoption of specific directives promoting this technique. In addition, a strategic role in power reliability is recognized to distributed generation. The study and prototyping of cogeneration plants, therefore, has involved many research centres. This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant based on a LPG reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. The plant consists of a heat recovery system characterized by a single water circuit recovering heat from exhaust gases, from engine coolant and from the energy radiated by the engine within the shell hosting the plant. Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. However it was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. As the heat actually recovered depends on the user's thermal load, particularly from the required temperature's level, a comparison of the results for six types of users were performed: residential, hospital, office, commercial, sports, hotel. Both Italian legislative indexes IRE and LT were evaluated, as defined by A.E.E.G resolution n. 42/02 and subsequent updates, as well as the plant's total Primary Energy Saving. - Highlights: • This paper deals with energetic aspects of CHP referring to the study of a 15 kW micro-CHP plant. • The 15 kW micro-CHP plant is based on a GPL reciprocating engine designed, built and grid connected. • Some tests were carried out at whole open throttle and the experimental data were collected. • It was needed to perform a 1D thermo-fluid dynamics simulation of the engine to completely characterize the micro-CHP. • The analysed solution is particularly suited for

  10. More performance by means of enhancement of the efficiency of CHP plants. CHP operation of an ORC plant; Mehr Leistung durch Effizienzsteigerung von KWK-Anlagen. KWK-Betrieb einer ORC-Anlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greschner, Timm; Fink, Jochen; Stadelmaier, Fabian [Duerr Cyplan Ltd., Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In November 2012, the biogas plant of Stadtwerke Gross-Gerau-Versorgungs-GmbH (GGV) was supplemented with an energy-efficient organic Rankine cycle system (ORC) from Duerr Cyplan Ltd. (Bietigheim-Bissingen, Federal Republic of Germany). The ORC technology enables the utilization of the exhaust heat from the combustion of the gas for the power generation. Hereby, the efficiency in the power generation is increased by about 8 % in Gross-Gerau. Furthermore, the existing energy recovery concept is improved by the CHP operation of the ORC system. With the experience from Gross-Gerau new business segments can be accessed by means of the ORC technology.

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHP896 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence; segment 4/5. 38 6e-04 16 DD041861 |DD041861.1 Light-driven energy generation using proteorhodopsin...lnln*yhvhfqlhhllhhfqlvvvaavvvfhlkvv*lkniknhldhqdmeiikil lkdf*nalie*lkfikni...AM270196 |pid:none) Aspergillus niger contig An09c007... 35 7.5 AE010299_2657( AE010299 |pid:none) Methanosa...D CHP896 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16351-1 Original site URL ht...equence (All Frames) Frame A: tvgllxftlkcrttityhli**l*ivviisl*elhylqfinkkikk*iikkiknnqkdfy fsyrvinky*yr***sil*ggeahlcdf*qqinni

  12. Savukaasujen hiilidioksidin talteenottoprosessin vaikutukset olemassa olevaan monipolttoaine-CHP-voimalaitokseen

    OpenAIRE

    Keskitalo, E. (Esa)

    2013-01-01

    Kasvihuonepäästöjen rajoittaminen on yksi tämän hetken suurista haasteista. Suomi on EU:n jäsenmaana sitoutunut vähentämään kasvihuonepäästöjä 20 % vuoteen 2020 mennessä. Tästä osuudesta on tavoitteena saada talteen 10 % hiilen talteenotto- ja varastointimenetelmien (CCS) avulla. Diplomityön tarkoituksena oli tutkia, mitä teknisiä ratkaisuja on olemassa hiilidioksidin talteenotolle monipolttoaine-CHP-voimalaitoksen savukaasuista. Teoriaosiossa käytiin ensin läpi yleisellä tasolla CO2:n ta...

  13. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik;

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling...... engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been developed. In this engine the combustion system and the geometry of the hot heat exchanger...... of the Stirling engine has been adapted to the use of a gas with a low specific energy content and a high content of tar and particles. In the spring of 2001 a demonstration plant has been built in the western part of Denmark where this Stirling engine is combined with an updraft gasifier. A mathematical...

  14. CHP from Updraft Gasifier and Stirling Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, N; Werling, J.; Carlsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2002-01-01

    The combination of thermal gasification with a Stirling engine is an interesting concept for use in small combined heat and power plants based on biomass. By combining the two technologies a synergism can potentially be achieved. Technical problems, e.g. gas cleaning and fouling of the Stirling engine heat exchanger, can be eliminated and the overall electric efficiency of the system can be improved. At the Technical University of Denmark a Stirling engine fueled by gasification gas has been ...

  15. Emissions from decentralised CHP plants 2007 - Energinet.dk Environmental project no. 07/1882

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Thomsen, Marianne

    values in Danish legislation since 2006 that has lead to installation of new and improved flue gas cleaning systems in most MSW incineration plants. For CHP plants combusting wood or straw no major technical improvements have been implemented. The emission factors for natural gas fuelled reciprocating...... estimated for the plant technologies: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants, plants combusting straw or wood, natural gas fuelled reciprocating engines, biogas fuelled engines, natural gas fuelled gas turbines, gas oil fuelled reciprocating engines, gas oil fuelled gas turbines, steam turbines...... combusting residual oil and reciprocating engines combusting biomass producer gas based on wood. The emission factors for MSW incineration plants are much lower than the emission factors that were estimated for year 2000. The considerable reduction in the emission factors is a result of lower emission limit...

  16. Fuel cell system with interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhien; Goettler, Richard; Delaforce, Philip Mark

    2016-03-08

    The present invention includes a fuel cell system having an interconnect that reduces or eliminates diffusion (leakage) of fuel and oxidant by providing an increased densification, by forming the interconnect as a ceramic/metal composite.

  17. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  18. Load scheduling for decentralized CHP plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg, orlov 31.07.2008; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Torben Skov

    This report considers load scheduling for decentralized combined heat and power plants where the revenue from selling power to the transmission company and the fuel cost may be time-varying. These plants produce both heat and power with a fixed ratio between these outputs. A heat storage facility...... is used to be able to deviate from this restriction. The load scheduling must be performed with only approximate knowledge about the future. At present in Denmark this uncertainty is only associated with the heat demand, but in the future revenues of produced energy and the fuel costs might also be...... uncertain and dependent on time. It is suggested to use a combination of background knowledge of the operator and computer tools to solve the scheduling problem. More specificly it is suggested that the plant is equipped with (i) an automatic on-line system for forecasting the heat demand, (ii) an...

  19. Should a small combined heat and power plant (CHP) open to its regional power and heat networks? Integrated economic, energy, and emergy evaluation of optimization plans for Jiufa CHP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of industrial ecology has led company managers to increasingly consider their company's niche in the regional system, and to develop optimization plans. We used emergy-based, ecological-economic synthesis to evaluate two optimization plans for the Jiufa Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plant, Shandong China. In addition, we performed economic input-output analysis and energy analysis on the system. The results showed that appropriately incorporating a firm with temporary extra productivity into its regional system will help maximize the total productivity and improve ecological-economic efficiency and benefits to society, even without technical optimization of the firm itself. In addition, developing a closer relationship between a company and its regional system will facilitate the development of new optimization opportunities. Small coal-based CHP plants have lower-energy efficiency, higher environmental loading, and lower sustainability than large fossil fuel and renewable energy-based systems. The emergy exchange ratio (EER) proved to be an important index for evaluating the vitality of highly developed ecological-economic systems

  20. A microeconomic analysis of decentralized small scale biomass based CHP plants—The case of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative energy sources, such as biomass CHP plants, have recently gained significantly in importance and action is due both on the large scale corporate level and on the small scale. Hence, making the scope and economic outline of such projects easily intelligible without losing relevant details seems a key factor to further promote the necessary developments. The model setup presented in this paper may therefore serve as a starting point for generating numerical results based on real life cases or scenarios. Its focus lies on the economic analysis of decentralized biomass CHP plants. It presents a new approach to analyzing the economic aspects of biomass CHP plants implementing a formal microeconomic approach. As Germany claims a leading role in the market for renewable energy production, the paper also takes a closer look on the effects of German energy policy with respect to biomass CHP plants. - Highlights: • A formal microeconomic model is used to analyse a decentralized biomass CHP plant. • Model setup is used to generate numerical results based on real life scenarios. • Nested CES production function is a new approach to model economics of biomass CHP. • Analysis presents insight into microeconomics and cost drivers of biomass CHP. • Evaluation of energy policy design with respect to environmental policy goals

  1. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  2. Modeling and optimization of a heat-pump-assisted high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell micro-combined-heat-and-power system for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2015-01-01

    In this study a micro-combined-heat-and-power (micro-CHP) system is coupled to a vapor-compression heat pump to fulfill the residential needs for heating (space heating and water heating) and electricity in detached single-family households in Denmark. Such a combination is assumed to be attractive....... The micro-CHP system assumes heat-led operation, to avoid dumping of heat and the use of complicated thermal energy storage. The overall system is grid-interconnected to allow importing and exporting of electricity as necessary. In this study emphasis is given on the operational characterization of...... the system. The variational loads are considered from full to quarter load, and the micro-CHP system is optimized in terms of operating thermophysical parameters for every different load. The results clearly indicate the capability of the proposed system to perform efficiently throughout all necessary...

  3. The Chp1-Tas3 core is a multifunctional platform critical for gene silencing by RITS

    OpenAIRE

    Schalch, Thomas; Job, Godwin; Shanker, Sreenath; Partridge, Janet F.; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is critical for the assembly of heterochromatin at fission yeast centromeres. Central to this process is the RNA-induced Initiation of Transcriptional gene Silencing (RITS) complex, which physically anchors small non-coding RNAs to chromatin. RITS includes Ago1, the chromodomain protein Chp1, and Tas3, which bridges between Chp1 and Ago1. Chp1 is a large protein with, apart from its chromodomain, no recognizable domains. Here we describe how the structured C-terminal h...

  4. ''bw-cell'': development of a natural gas powered PEM fuel cell system in the 4-kW{sub e} class; ''bw-cell'': Entwicklung eines Erdgasbetriebenen PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems in der 4-kW{sub e}-Klasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, M.S.; Baumgart, F.; Specht, M. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Lehnert, W. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung (ZSW), Ulm (Germany); Schmid, H.P. [WS Reformer GmbH, Renningen (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Funded by the Environment Ministry of the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg, ZSW has developed a {mu}-CHP PEM fuel cell system for domestic energy supply in the 4-kW{sub e} class (''bw-cell''). The net electric efficiency is above 30% at loads from 50 to 100%. Without principal design modifications, up to 35% efficiency can be realised by optimisation of the auxiliary components and the inverter. The ''bw-cell'' weight of 200 kg with a refrigerator volume reveals the potential for future series production. Next development steps comprise the refitting to fossile/regenerative energy carriers like LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), ethanol, methanol and DME (dimethyl ether). (orig.)

  5. Numerical optimization and economic analysis in the design of a micro-CHP systemwith a Stirling engine and a solar collector

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Ana C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento do Programa Doutoral em Engenharia Industrial e de Sistemas The micro-CHP systems are a promising technology for improving the energy efficiency of small energy conversion units, located near the end user. The combined heat and power production allows the optimal use of the primary energy sources and significant reductions in carbon emissions. Its use, still incipient, has a great potential for applications in the residential sector. This study aims to develop a method...

  6. Support schemes and ownership structures - The policy context for fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S.; Thorsten Schroeder, S.; Costa, A.; Obe, E.

    2010-05-15

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of the ongoing fuel cell based micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio-economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large-scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market-based operational support. The choice of support scheme simultaneously affects risk and technological development, which is the focus of Section 4. Subsequent to this conceptual overview, Section 5 takes a glance at the national application of support schemes for mCHP in practice, notably in the three country cases of the FC4Home project, Denmark, France and Portugal. Another crucial aspect for the diffusion of the mCHP technology is possible ownership structures. These may range from full consumer ownership to ownership by utilities and energy service companies, which is discussed in Section 6. Finally, a conclusion (Section 7) wraps up previous findings and provides a short 'preview' of the quantitative analyses in subsequent Work Packages by giving some food for thought on the way. (author)

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHP795 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP795 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 - (Link to Original site) ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... Influenza A virus (swine/Ille et Vilaine/1455/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1488/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  8. Exergetic comparison of efficiency indicators for combined heat and power (CHP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legislative regulations in favor of combined heat and power (CHP) production have been implemented in many countries. Although these regulations put different emphasis on power production vs. process heat production, they are based on energy quantities and not on exergy. In order to analyze and compare the exergetic consequences of the various legislations, a relative avoided irreversibility (RAI) is defined. This can be regarded as the exergy loss that is avoided when reference plants with separate production are replaced by an actual CHP plant. Some series of industrial and district heating CHP plants, under varying operational conditions, are used as test cases. It is seen that some, but not all, CHP cases are exergetically beneficial to separate generation. Comparison with the RAI allows a quantitative assessment of the various performance indicators. It is seen that exergetic improvements were only captured to a limited degree by the various energy-based efficiency indicators. Some legislatively defined indicators even appear to discourage thermodynamic improvements

  9. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  10. Hashoj has a CHP-plant and biogas-plant that are adjusting to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Denmark many small combined heat and power (CHP) plants struggles for survival in a time with a very low price on electricity and therefore a high price on heat, to maintain the credibility of the plant. But that gives the CHP-plants some special problems to deal with. A visit to Hashoj CHP -plant shows what their situation are, and how some of these new perspectives, are to be solved. The CHP-plant operates together with a biogas- plant. The biogas plant has also made some investments to meet the problems that a liberalised market for electricity will make for a supplier of the basic energy for producing green electricity. (authors)

  11. Energy-Exergy, Environmental and Economic Criteria in Combined Heat and Power (CHP Plants: Indexes for the Evaluation of the Cogeneration Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F. Torchio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, combined heat and power (CHP criteria pertaining to energy, exergy, environmental (pollutant emission and economic aspects, have been investigated and compared. Although the constraints in legislation usually refer to energy efficiency, primary energy savings and greenhouse gas savings, other criteria should also be taken into account in order to obtain a better evaluation of a cogeneration plant. Here particular attention has been paid to saving indexes for both an individual CHP-unit and for a CHP-system, that is the complete system with all the cogeneration units and the auxiliary plants necessary to cover the users’ demand. Five indexes, named potential indexes, have been introduced to evaluate the cogeneration potential: one for energy saving, one for exergy, two for environmental aspects (global and local scale and one for economic aspects. Finally, some indexes analysed in the paper have been applied to a case study concerning a district heating cogeneration system, and the different behaviour of the energy-exergy, environmental and economic aspects has been discussed.

  12. Wood-fired fuel cells in selected buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen-Wright, D. R.; McMullan, J. T.; Guiney, D. J.

    The positive attributes of fuel cells for high efficiency power generation at any scale and of biomass as a renewable energy source which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store, suggest that a combined heat and power (CHP) system consisting of a fuel cell integrated with a wood gasifier (FCIWG) may offer a combination for delivering heat and electricity cleanly and efficiently. Phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) systems, fuelled by natural gas, have already been used in a range of CHP applications in urban settings. Some of these applications are examined here using integrated biomass gasification/fuel cell systems in CHP configurations. Five building systems, which have different energy demand profiles, are assessed. These are a hospital, a hotel, a leisure centre, a multi-residential community and a university hall of residence. Heat and electricity use profiles for typical examples of these buildings were obtained and the FCIWG system was scaled to the power demand. The FCIWG system was modelled for two different types of fuel cell, the molten carbonate and the phosphoric acid. In each case an oxygen-fired gasification system is proposed, in order to eliminate the need for a methane reformer. Technical, environmental and economic analyses of each version were made, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Since fuel cell lifetimes are not yet precisely known, economics for a range of fuel cell lifetimes have been produced. The wood-fired PAFC system was found to have low electrical efficiency (13-16%), but much of the heat could be recovered, so that the overall efficiency was 64-67%, suitable where high heat/electricity values are required. The wood-fired molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system was found to be quite efficient for electricity generation (24-27%), with an overall energy efficiency of 60-63%. The expected capital costs of both systems would currently make them uncompetitive for general use, but the specific features

  13. Optimal designs of small CHP plants in a market with fluctuating electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff.......The paper presents the Danish experince with methodologies and software tools, which have been used to design investment and operation strategies for almost all small CHP plants in Denmark during the decade of the triple tariff....

  14. CHP Gorzow - first Polish gas-steam CHP with GT8C turbine; EC Gorzow SA - pierwsza w Polsce elektrocieplownia gazowo-parowa z turbina GT8C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloncewicz, Z. [Elektrocieplownia Gorzow S.A., Gorzow Wielkopolski, (Poland); Rudny, S. [Energoprojekt Gliwice S.A., Gliwice (Poland); Wronkowski, H.; Dzierzgowski, J. [ABB Zamech Ltd., Elblag, (Poland)

    1996-06-01

    Combined-cycle power plant Gorzow generates heat and electric power for the needs of Gorzow Wielkopolski town and local industry. Old part of the plant with 4 coal-fired units will be replaced by gas-steam CHP in 1998. The basic technical data of CHP are given and GT8C turbine is described. The consequences for environment such as elimination of dust as well as substantial abatement of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission are stressed. A way of noise abatement is also presented. 7 figs.

  15. Screening of CHP Potential at Federal Sites in Select Regions of the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Nexus Group, . .

    2002-02-25

    Combined Cooling Heat and Power (CHP) is a master term for onsite power generation technologies that sequentially produce electrical or mechanical energy and useful thermal energy. Some form of CHP has existed for more than 100 years and it is now achieving a greater level of acceptance due to an increasing need for reliable power service and energy cost management. Capturing and using the heat produced as a byproduct of generating electricity from fuel sources increases the usable energy that can be obtained from the original fuel source. CHP technologies have the potential to reduce energy consumption through increased efficiency--decreasing energy bills as well as pollution. The EPA recognizes CHP as a potent climate change mitigation measure. The U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is assisting Federal agencies to realize their energy efficiency goals. CHP is an efficiency measure that is receiving growing attention because of its sizable potential to provide efficiency, environmental, and reliability benefits. CHP therefore benefits the host facility, the electric infrastructure, and the U.S. society as a whole. This report and study seeks to make a preliminary inquiry into near term CHP opportunities for federal facilities in selected U.S. regions. It offers to help focus the attention of policy makers and energy facility managers on good candidate facilities for CHP. First, a ranked list of high potential individual sites is identified. Then, several classes of federal facilities are identified for the multiple opportunities they offer as a class. Recommendations are then offered for appropriate next steps for the evaluation and cost effective implementation of CHP. This study was designed to ultimately rank federal facilities in terms of their potential to take advantage of CHP economic and external savings in the near term. In order to best serve the purposes of this study, projections have been expressed in terms of

  16. High density cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  17. Air CHP, a new concept in small-scale space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, P.

    1996-10-01

    A new type of combined heat and power (CHP) system claimed to be capable of providing electrical and thermal power with efficiencies in the region of 95% is being marketed by Aircogen Ltd, a company launched by turbine and compressor manufacturer Peter Brotherhood. Power generation capabilities range from 50 to 1500 kW. VarityPerkins has played a large part in supplying spark-ignited gas engines for the first installations of this new system from the group`s plants in Stafford and Shrewsbury, U.K. Aircogen has developed a system in which the air for heating the building is heated direct from the gen-set. This provides a further source of extracted heat and contributes to the extremely high thermal efficiencies. The system lends itself particularly to swimming pools, supermarkets, leisure centers, or any building where large spaces need to be heated for prolonged periods and where normally low-pressure hot water heating would be used. This paper describes briefly the design, specifications and typical applications.

  18. Conceptual design of nuclear CHP using absorption cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at providing a conceptual idea on the combined heat and power (CHP) using the absorption cycle to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat, which is applicable to the conventional nuclear power plants (NPPs). The originality of the scheme is 1) it does not change the operation strategy of the NSSS, 2) the thermal energy of waste heat can be transferred to a long distance, and 3) the thermal energy can be used for cooling as well. As it is expected that the number and the share of NPPs increases soon, the necessity of a partial load operation was raised in argument in case of South Korea. This means the surplus of nuclear energy. In order to make the best of nuclear fuels loaded once, we proposed a combined cycle instead of cutting back reactor power to meet a partial load demand. Figure 1 shows the schematic drawing of the proposal. Since a steam demand in the turbine cycle is equivalent even though an electricity demand is different, the operation strategy of the NSSS does not need to be changed. When a partial load demand is triggered off, turbine power is cut back and a bypass path is open. The bypass path is used for transferring waste heat to an absorption cycle. The CHP using absorption principles was initially developed over 100 years ago. The absorption cycle is a process by which heating and/or cooling effect is produced through the use of two fluids and some quantity of heat input. The absorption cycles accomplish heat transferring through the evaporation of a refrigerant at a low pressure and the rejection of heat through the condensation of the refrigerant at a higher pressure. In the absorption cycles, a secondary fluid or absorbent is used to circulate the refrigerant. Absorption cycles are commercially available today in two basic configurations; lithium bromide/water and water/ammonia (respectively absorbent/ refrigerant). We can have several advantages in this idea. This principle can design a heat transfer mechanism

  19. Crystal structure of CHP2 complexed with NHE1-cytosolic region and an implication for pH regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar, Youssef Ben; Takeda, Soichi; Hisamitsu, Takashi; Mori, Hidezo; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2006-01-01

    The plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE) require calcineurin B homologous protein (CHP) as an obligatory binding partner for ion transport. Here, we report the first crystal structure of CHP (CHP2 isoform) in complex with its binding domain in NHE1. We show that the cytoplasmic α-helix of NHE1 is inserted into the hydrophobic cleft formed by N- and C-lobes of CHP2 and that the size and shape of this crevice together with hydrogen bond formation at multiple positions assure a high degree of...

  20. First cell magnet system tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISABELLE refrigeration system utilizes compressed liquid helium to supply refrigeration to nearly 1100 superconducting bending and focusing magnets. These magnets steer the proton orbits of the accelerator and are arranged into two interlocking rings. The total heat load that the refrigerator must provide is made up of the heat load of the magnets, magnet leads and vessels and the interconnecting piping to the refrigerator. The design and test results of the magnet system during various operating conditions in use on the ISABELLE prototype, the First Cell, are described

  1. Thermodynamic, ecological and economic aspects of the use of the gas turbine for heat supply to the stripping process in a supercritical CHP plant integrated with a carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Variants of integration of CHP plant with CCS and gas turbine unit were analyzed. • The simulations of operation of plants under changing load were realized. • Conditions of competitiveness for all solutions were identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach values >60 €/MgCO2. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermodynamic and economic analyses for eight variants of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant fuelled with coal working under supercritical steam parameters and integrated with a CO2 capture installation and a gas turbine system. The motivation behind using a gas turbine in the system was to generate steam to supply heat for the stripping process that occurs in the separation installation to regenerate the sorbent. Additional analyses were conducted for the reference case, a CHP unit in which the CO2 separation process was not conducted, to enable an economic evaluation of the integration of a CHP unit with a CO2 separation installation according to the variants proposed. The break-even price of electricity and avoided emission costs were used to evaluate the respective solutions. In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation indicators in terms of the change in the annual operation time, price of emission allowance and heat demand rate for the realization of the stripping process for all cases are presented

  2. Parametric analysis of an irreversible proton exchange membrane fuel cell/absorption refrigerator hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid system mainly consisting of a PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) and an absorption refrigerator is proposed, where the PEMFC directly converts the chemical energy contained in the hydrogen into electrical and thermal energies, and the thermal energy is transferred to drive the bottoming absorption refrigerator for cooling purpose. By considering the existing irreversible losses in the hybrid system, the operating current density region of the PEMFC permits the absorption refrigerator to exert its function is determined and the analytical expressions for the equivalent power output and efficiency of the hybrid system under different operating conditions are specified. Numerical calculations show that the equivalent maximum power density and the corresponding efficiency of the hybrid system can be respectively increased by 5.3% and 6.8% compared to that of the stand-alone PEMFC. Comprehensive parametric analyses are conducted to reveal the effects of the internal irreversibility of the absorption refrigerator, operating current density, operating temperature and operating pressure of the PEMFC, and some integrated parameters related to the thermodynamic losses on the performance of the hybrid system. The model presented in the paper is more general than previous study, and the results for some special cases can be directly derived from this paper. - Highlights: • A CHP system composed of a PEMFC and an absorption refrigerator is proposed. • Current density region enables the absorption refrigerator to work is determined. • Multiple irreversible losses in the system are analytically characterized. • Maximum power density and corresponding efficiency can be increased by 5.3% and 6.8%. • Effects of some designing and operating parameters on the performance are discussed

  3. Stochastic Placement and Sizing of Combined Heat and Power Systems Considering Cost/Benefit Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mehrdad Hosseini; Gholamreza Koohsari; M. Mahdi Zarif; D.B. Hossein Javidi

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a cost/worth analysis approach for optimal Placement and sizing of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as a powerful optimization technique is employed for optimization. Different benefits brought up by CHP systems are taken into account as a multi-objective decision making. Economical factors such as power and heat selling, reliability improvement, loss reduction, deferred upgrading investment and CHP costs are considered in this study...

  4. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kalam Adil; King Abigail; Moret Ellen; Weerasinghe Upekha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our unde...

  5. Fuel-cell engine stream conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur

    2002-01-01

    A stream conditioning system for a fuel cell gas management system or fuel cell engine. The stream conditioning system manages species potential in at least one fuel cell reactant stream. A species transfer device is located in the path of at least one reactant stream of a fuel cell's inlet or outlet, which transfer device conditions that stream to improve the efficiency of the fuel cell. The species transfer device incorporates an exchange media and a sorbent. The fuel cell gas management system can include a cathode loop with the stream conditioning system transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell related to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  6. Process simulation of biomass gasification integrated with a solid oxide fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Wayne; Reynolds, Anthony; Kennedy, David

    2015-03-01

    Biomass gasification-solid oxide fuel cell (BG-SOFC) combined heat and power (CHP) systems are of major interest in the context of climate change mitigation, energy security and increasing energy efficiency. Aspen Plus is employed to simulate various BG-SOFC CHP systems. The aim of the research work is to investigate the technical feasibility of these systems and to study the influence of important operating parameters and examine integration options. Systems based on dual fluidised bed steam gasification and tubular SOFC technologies are modelled. The cathode recycle and electric heater integration options are not attractive in comparison to the base case anode recycle system. Thermal integration, i.e. using SOFC flue gas as gasifier oxidant, is desirable. Lowering the syngas preheat temperature (prior to SOFC anodes) is highly recommended and is more practical than lowering the cathode air preheat temperature. Results of the parametric study indicate that: steam to carbon ratio and biomass moisture content should be as low as possible; fuel utilisation factor can change the mode of operation of the plant (focus on electricity or heat); high temperature syngas cleaning is very attractive; gasification air preheating is more attractive than gasification steam superheating. High efficiencies are predicted, proving the technical feasibility of BG-SOFC CHP systems.

  7. Energy System Analysis of Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the results of two research projects conducted by Aalborg University and financed by the Danish Energy Research Programme. Both projects include the development of models and system analysis with focus on large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems. Market reactions and ability to exploit exchange on the international market for electricity by locating exports in hours of high prices are included in the analyses. This paper focuses on results which are valid for energy systems in general. The paper presents the ability of different energy systems and regulation strategies to integrate wind power, The ability is expressed by three factors: One factor is the degree of electricity excess production caused by fluctuations in wind and CHP heat demands. The other factor is the ability to utilise wind power to reduce CO2 emission in the system. And the third factor is the ability to benefit from exchange of electricity on the market. Energy systems and regulation strategies are analysed in the range of a wind power input from 0 to 100% of the electricity demand. Based on the Danish energy system, in which 50 per cent of the electricity demand is produced in CHP, a number of future energy systems with CO2 reduction potentials are analysed, i.e. systems with more CHP, systems using electricity for transportation (battery or hydrogen vehicles) and systems with fuel-cell technologies. For the present and such potential future energy systems different regulation strategies have been analysed, i.e. the inclusion of small CHP plants into the regulation task of electricity balancing and grid stability and investments in electric heating, heat pumps and heat storage capacity. Also the potential of energy management has been analysed. The results of the analyses make it possible to compare short-term and long-term potentials of different strategies of large-scale integration of wind power

  8. Balmorel: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the motivations behind the development of the Balmorel model as well as the model itself. The purpose of the Balmorel project is to develop a model for analyses of the power and CHP sectors in the Baltic Sea Region. The model is directed towards the analysis of relevant policy questions to the extent that they contain substantial international aspects. The model is developed in response to the trend towards internationalisation in the electricity sector. This trend is seen in increased international trade of electricity, in investment strategies among producers and otherwise. Also environmental considerations and policies are to an increasing extent gaining an international perspective in relation to the greenhouse gasses. Further, the ongoing process of deregulation of the energy sector highlights this and contributes to the need for overview and analysis. A guiding principle behind the construction of the model has been that it may serve as a means of communication in relation to the policy issues that already are or that may become important for the region. Therefore, emphasis has been put on documentation, transparency and flexibility of the model. This is achieved in part by formulating the model in a high level modelling language, and by making the model, including data, available at the internet. Potential users of the Balmorel model include research institutions, consulting companies, energy authorities, transmission system operators and energy companies. (au)

  9. On-line experimental validation of a model-based diagnostic algorithm dedicated to a solid oxide fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polverino, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Angelo; Pianese, Cesare; Ludwig, Bastian; Iwanschitz, Boris; Mai, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    In the current energetic scenario, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) exhibit appealing features which make them suitable for environmental-friendly power production, especially for stationary applications. An example is represented by micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) generation units based on SOFC stacks, which are able to produce electric and thermal power with high efficiency and low pollutant and greenhouse gases emissions. However, the main limitations to their diffusion into the mass market consist in high maintenance and production costs and short lifetime. To improve these aspects, the current research activity focuses on the development of robust and generalizable diagnostic techniques, aimed at detecting and isolating faults within the entire system (i.e. SOFC stack and balance of plant). Coupled with appropriate recovery strategies, diagnosis can prevent undesired system shutdowns during faulty conditions, with consequent lifetime increase and maintenance costs reduction. This paper deals with the on-line experimental validation of a model-based diagnostic algorithm applied to a pre-commercial SOFC system. The proposed algorithm exploits a Fault Signature Matrix based on a Fault Tree Analysis and improved through fault simulations. The algorithm is characterized on the considered system and it is validated by means of experimental induction of faulty states in controlled conditions.

  10. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  11. Modular PEM Fuel Cell SCADA & Simulator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Segura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a Supervision, Control, Data Acquisition and Simulation (SCADA & Simulator system that allows for real-time training in the actual operation of a modular PEM fuel cell system. This SCADA & Simulator system consists of a free software tool that operates in real time and simulates real situations like failures and breakdowns in the system. This developed SCADA & Simulator system allows us to properly operate a fuel cell and helps us to understand how fuel cells operate and what devices are needed to configure and run the fuel cells, from the individual stack up to the whole fuel cell system. The SCADA & Simulator system governs a modular system integrated by three PEM fuel cells achieving power rates higher than tens of kilowatts.

  12. Integrated Combined Heat and Power System Dispatch Considering Electrical and Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rongxiang Yuan; Jun Ye; Jiazhi Lei; Timing Li

    2016-01-01

    Wind power has achieved great development in Northern China, but abundant wind power is dissipated, rather than utilized, due to inflexible electricity production of combined heat and power (CHP) units. In this paper, an integrated CHP system consisting of CHP units, wind power plants, and condensing power plants is investigated to decouple the power and heat production on both the power supply side and heat supply side, by incorporating electrical energy storage (EES) and thermal energy stor...

  13. Operating Experiences with a Small-scale CHP Pilot Plant based on a 35 kWel Hermetic Four Cylinder Stirling Engine for Biomass Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biedermann, F.; Carlsen, Henrik; Schoech, M.;

    2003-01-01

    Within the scope of the RD&D project presented a small-scale CHP plant with a hermetic four cylinder Stirling engine for biomass fuels was developed and optimised in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark, MAWERA Holzfeuerungsanlagen GesmbH, an Austrian biomass furnace and boiler...... exchanger of the Stirling engine, of the air preheater and of the entire combustion system. Furthermore, the optimisation of the pneumatic cleaning system to reduce ash deposition in the hot heat exchanger is of great relevance....

  14. Simulation analysis of a repowered double fuel CHP plant including a non-evaporative heat recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcin Liszka; Jan Szargut [Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland). Inst. of Thermal Technology

    2004-06-25

    Repowering analysis of a conventional, coal-fired industrial combined heat and power (CHP) plant by means of a gas turbine (GT) and heat recovery boiler (HRB) has been considered. The existing system, operating in one of the Polish chemical factories consists of coal-fired boilers, back-pressure extraction turbines, condensing turbines and steam-fed district heat exchangers. Two variants of modernization have been proposed and examined from the thermodynamic, environmental protection and economical points of view. The first one includes HRB for preheating the boiler feed water, condensate, and district water, while the steam turbine (ST) system and coal boilers work without any structural changes. The other advanced variant introduces live steam superheaters to HRB. The coal-fired boilers, in this light, supply only saturated steam (which is introduced into HRB), so they have to be readjusted by replacing the existing superheaters with convective vaporizers for proper flue gas cooling. Such a scheme ensures a considerable reduction of exergy losses in HRB and therefore leads to deeper flue gas cooling and a decrease of coal consumption for the assumed process steam and district heat demands. Heat and process steam demand duration curves for a typical year of operation of the plant have been adapted as input data. The mathematical model of the whole CHP plant has been built on GateCycle and Visual Basic software. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that repowering of a coal-fired plant by means of a GT and HRB is a very effective way to improve the thermodynamic and environmental protection aspects of power and heat generation. The introduction of the live steam superheater into HRB provides additional advantages in these fields. The economic results indicate discounted pay back periods from 3 to 11 years, depending on the situation at the electricity and fuel markets. 7 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Timo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  16. Effects of CHP,H2O2 and Antioxidants on Contents of NO, Carbonyl and malondialdehyde of Cultured Hepatoma Cells in Different Phases of Cell Cycle%过氧基异丙苯和H2O2及抗氧化剂对不同时相肝癌细胞的NO、羰基和丙二醛的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁欣; 海春旭

    2007-01-01

    背景与目的:研究有机氧化剂过氧基异丙苯(CHP)和无机氧化剂过氧化氢(H2O2)及抗氧化剂单独和联合作用对不同细胞周期时相肝癌细胞的一氧化氮(NO)、羰基和丙二醛(MDA)的影响.材料与方法:同步化原发性肝癌细胞系H299细胞(1×106/ml),分别设对照组(DMSO)、CHP组(50μmol/ml)、H2O2组(50 μmol/ml)、CHP+H2O2组(H2O2和CHP各50μmol/ml)、Vit A组(10μmol/ml)、Vit E组(10μmol/ml)、Na2SeO3组(50 nmol/ml Na2SeO3)、AO组(Vit A+Vit E+Na2SeO3,其中Vit A、Vit E各5 μmol/ml,Na2SeO325 nmol/ml).分别于细胞周期G1、S、G2和M期加入上述试剂,观察NO、总羰基和MDA含量.结果:细胞同步于G1期者为86%,S期为78%、G2/M期为61%.与对照组相比,复合氧化剂(CHP+H2O2组)对G1期肝癌细胞的NO含量有刺激作用(P<0.05),单独Vit A组有显著的抑制作用(P<0.05).复合氧化剂(CHP+H2O2组)对G1~M期肝癌细胞的总羰基含量均有显著的刺激作用(P<0.05),而单独应用Vit A、Vit E、Na2SeO3时对整个细胞周期的总羰基含量也有显著的抑制作用(P<0.05).H2O2使G2/M期细胞的MDA含量增加(P<0.05),而AO组MDA含量减少(P<0.05).结论:细胞经同步化处理后,CHP和H2O2以及Vit A、Vit E、Na2SeO3对肿瘤细胞的影响存在一定的敏感点和敏感时相,复合氧化剂(CHP+H2O2)和Vit A对DNA合成前期(G1期)肿瘤细胞内的氧化损伤信号分子NO作用显著;H2O2与复合抗氧化剂(Vit A+Vit E+Na2SeO3)作用于DNA合成后期(G2期)的肿瘤细胞后,细胞氧化损伤的终产物MDA明显改变.

  17. EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF HEAT PUMPS ON THE CHP PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juravleov A.A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to the calculus of the efficiency of the use of heat pumps on the CHP plants. There are presented the interdependences between the pay-back period and NPV of heat pump and the price of 1 kWt of thermal power of heat pump and of the tariff of electricity.

  18. A Compound Herbal Preparation (CHP) in the Treatment of Children with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M.; Adar Levine, A.; Kol-Degani, H.; Kav-Venaki, L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the efficacy of a patented, compound herbal preparation (CHP) in improving attention, cognition, and impulse control in children with ADHD. Method: Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: University-affiliated tertiary medical center. Participants: 120 children newly diagnosed with ADHD,…

  19. A comparison between the two different combustion methods of Grate-firing and Fluidized bed, applied to a CHP-plant with MSW as fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Belkiz; Ahsant, Aidin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the two most frequently used incineration systems, fluidized bed and grate-firing have been compared and analyzed. The performance of Mälarenergi’s combined heat and power (CHP) plant in Västerås, which consists of a fluidized bed incinerator, has been used as benchmark to elaborate the different calculations made in this study. It extracts electricity and heat amounting to 50 and 100 MW respectively.   On average, 75-85% of the weight of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is converte...

  20. Energetic and environmental performance of three biomass upgrading processes integrated with a CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We simulate CHP-integrated production of wood pellets, torrefied wood pellets and pyrolysis slurry. ► Integration increases operation hours and district heat output by up to 38% and 22%. ► Additionally installed equipment reduces yearly power generation by up to 7%. ► Wood pellet production performs best energetically and environmentally. ► Integrated concepts substantially reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. - Abstract: In order to react on future expected increased competition on restricted biomass resources, communal combined heat and power (CHP) plants can be integrated with biomass upgrading processes that add valuable products to the portfolio. In this paper, outgoing from a base case, the retrofit integration of production of wood pellets (WPs), torrefied wood pellets (TWPs) and wood fast pyrolysis slurry (PS) with an existing wood-fired CHP plant was simulated. Within the integration concept, free boiler capacity during times of low district heat demands is used to provide energy for the upgrading processes. By detailed part-load modelling, critical process parameters are discussed. With help of a multiperiod model of the heat duration curve, the work further shows the influence of the integration on plant operating hours, electricity production and biomass throughput. Environmental and energetic performance is assessed according to European standard EN 15603 and compared to the base case as well as to stand-alone production in two separate units. The work shows that all three integration options are well possible within the operational limits of the CHP plant. Summarising, this work shows that integration of WP, TWP and PS production from biomass with a CHP plant by increasing the yearly boiler workload leads to improved primary energy efficiency, reduced CO2 emissions, and, when compared to stand-alone production, also to substantial fuel savings

  1. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam Adil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives

  2. Investigations on an advanced power system based on a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell and an organic Rankine cycle for heating and power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy systems based on fuel cells technology can have a strategic role in the range of small-size power generation for the sustainable energy development. In order to enhance their performance, it is possible to recover the “waste heat” from the fuel cells, for producing or thermal power (cogeneration systems) or further electric power by means of a bottoming power cycle (combined systems). In this work an advanced system based on the integration between a HT-PEMFC (high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) power unit and an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) plant, has been proposed and analysed as suitable energy power plant for supplying electric and thermal energies to a stand-alone residential utility. The system can operate both as cogeneration system, in which the electric and thermal loads are satisfied by the HT-PEMFC power unit and as electric generation system, in which the low temperature heat recovered from the fuel cells is used as energy source in the ORC plant for increasing the electric power production. A numerical model, able to characterize the behavior and to predict the performance of the HT-PEMFC/ORC system under different working conditions, has been developed by using the AspenPlus™ code. - Highlights: • The advanced plant can operate both as CHP system and as electric generation system. • The performance prediction of the integrated system is carried out by numerical modeling. • ORC thermodynamic optimization is carried out by a sensitivity analysis. • Thermal coupling between the HT-PEMC system and the ORC plant is analyzed. • Results are very promising in the field of the distributed generation

  3. Steam electrolysis cell system and electrolyzing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a method effective to the electrolysis of tritium water in a tritium recovering system of a thermonuclear fuel system. Namely, in a steam electrolysis cell system including integrally constituted multistage type cells and independently disposed single stage type cell, steams are supplied from upstream to the multistage type cell. A voltage is applied at such a level that the concentration of the steams in the vicinity of the single stage type cell situated at the downmost stream among the cells is not decreased to 0 to electrolyze steams. Then, not yet decomposed steams are introduced to the single stage cell to complete the electrolysis. The device can be simplified and steams can be electrolyzed efficiently. (N.H.)

  4. Opportunity and potential for fuel cell systems for energy in buildings; Moejlighet och potential foer braenslecellsystem foer energifoersoerjning i byggnader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin (Catator AB (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    While planning for new sustainable and environmentally friendly communities in Sweden, discussions on using fuel cells for small-scale power and heat production (mCHP) are today on-going. Examples of such communities are Sege Park in Malmoe and Norra Djurgardsstaden in Stockholm, where several members of the Swedish Construction Industry's Organisation for Research and Development (SBUF) are participating in the development. The status and the potential of using fuel cell based mCHP compared to conventional heat and power production technology and other mCHP-technologies (Internal combustion engine (ICE), Stirling) is today therefore a very interesting question for both the energy and the building sector, who also ask for more knowledge within the field. This work focuses on this purpose. The main goals of this report are: 1. To give an overall description of different existing fuel cell technologies and necessary belonging system components. The fuel cell systems are discussed and evaluated based on parameters such as efficiencies, fuel flexibility, life-time, complexity, maturity and cost. The systems are compared to mCHPs based on small heat engines (Internal combustion, Stirling). 2. To give a state-of-the-art report on fuel cell based mCHPs and to describe possibilities and risks related to different technologies. 3. To guideline for future choices of system solutions suitable for different building constructions and different geographical placements. The work is limited to systems suitable for small houses (< 5 kWe) and larger residential buildings (< 50 kWe) situated in population centres/cities where infra-structures for natural gas/biogas and the national grid are available. The project has been performed by Catator AB on the request of SBUF with support from the Swedish Gas Centre (SGC AB), Skanska and Catator. The study is based on the open literature, the information given by leading fuel cell system suppliers and Catator's own knowledge and

  5. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai

    2003-01-01

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in th

  6. Are US utility standby rates inhibiting diffusion of customer-owned generating systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, small-scale electric generation technologies permit utility customers to generate some of their own electric power and to utilize waste heat for space heating and other applications at the building site. This combined heat and power (CHP) characteristic can provide significant energy-cost savings. However, most current US utility regulations leave CHP standby rate specification largely to utility discretion resulting in claims by CHP advocates that excessive standby rates are significantly reducing CHP-related savings and inhibiting CHP diffusion. The impacts of standby rates on the adoption of CHP are difficult to determine; however, because of the characteristically slow nature of new technology diffusion. This study develops an agent-based microsimulation model of CHP technology choice using cellular automata to represent new technology information dispersion and knowledge acquisition. Applying the model as an n-factorial experiment quantifies the impacts of standby rates on CHP technologies under alternative diffusion paths. Analysis of a sample utility indicates that, regardless of the likely diffusion process, reducing standby rates to reflect the cost of serving a large number of small, spatially clustered CHP systems significantly increases the adoption of these technologies

  7. Microfluidic systems for cell lysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Ivona; Grym, Jakub; Klepárník, Karel; Foret, František

    2006. [Annual European Conference on Micro&Nanoscale Technologies for the Biosciences /10./. 14.11.2006-16.11.2006, Montreux] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400310506; GA AV ČR KAN400310651; GA MŠk LC06023; GA ČR GA203/06/1685 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : cell lysis * yeast cells * microfluidic device Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Life cycle assessment of micro production technologies - solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors; Livscyklusvurdering af mikroproduktionsteknologier - solceller, husstandsvindmoeller og mikromotorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faeborg Poulsen, A.; Kruse, H.; Hvid Ipsen, K.

    2000-07-15

    This report contains a life cycle based estimation of environmental effects of CHP based on the micro production technologies: solar cells, household wind turbines and micro motors. The technologies cover CHP production on very small plants which are characterised by being located by the individual consumer. (BA)

  9. Ecological-technical assessment of decentralized energy supply scenarios with combined heat and power systems; Oekologisch-technische Auswirkungen dezentraler Energieversorgungsszenarien mit Blockheizkraftwerken in elektrischen Verteilungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolka, Thomas Markus

    2009-07-01

    populated areas shows a higher CO2- reduction potential compared to an optimization of present large power plants on the system level. Decentralized generation units with a high electrical efficiency are necessary if assessing a significant reduction in heat demand in future scenarios. Assuming a CHP unit dimension-ing on the local heat demand - as today's customary - leads to an installed capacity which is much higher than the maximum electrical load. Here, feed in power in the overlaying system is likely to occur during light load times. This variation requires dimensioning of the CHP units according to the local power demand. Additional integration of electric consumer loads such as heat pumps, electrical air-conditioning or electric vehicles can be an opportunity to reduce generation into the overlaying system. Fuel cells do not have any ecological advantage compared to CHP units equipped with inter-nal combustion using standardized natural gas. Only using Hydrogen as one of all renewable sources that cannot be integrated into the energy supply system (e.g. surplus funds of wind energy) leads to ecological advantages. The integration of dispersed generation with CHP units is a local implemented method reducing green house gases and increasing energy efficiency in distribution networks. In addition to the promotion of CHP integration in distribution networks a national strategy has to be implemented in order to achieve the targets of the formulated environmental production by reducing the consumers' energy demand and improving the electrical energy mix of the overlaying system. (orig.)

  10. Chip based electroanalytical systems for cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spegel, C.; Heiskanen, A.; Skjolding, L.H.D.;

    2008-01-01

    ' measurements of processes related to living cells, i.e., systems without lysing the cells. The focus is on chip based amperometric and impedimetric cell analysis systems where measurements utilizing solely carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFME) and other nonchip electrode formats, such as CFME for exocytosis......This review with 239 references has as its aim to give the reader an introduction to the kinds of methods used for developing microchip based electrode systems as well as to cover the existing literature on electroanalytical systems where microchips play a crucial role for 'nondestructive...... studies and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) studies of living cells have been omitted. Included is also a discussion about some future and emerging nano tools and considerations that might have an impact on the future of "nondestructive" chip based electroanalysis of living cells....

  11. Lensless imaging system to quantify cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinjimore Kesavan, S.; Allier, C. P.; Navarro, F.; Mittler, F.; Chalmond, B.; Dinten, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Owing to its simplicity, lensless imaging system is adept at continuous monitoring of adherent cells inside the incubator. The setup consists of a CMOS sensor with pixel pitch of 2.2 μm and field of view of 24 mm2, LED with a dominating wavelength of 525 nm, along with a pinhole of 150 μm as the source of illumination. The in-line hologram obtained from cells depends on the degree of cell-substrate adhesion. Drastic difference is observed between the holographic patterns of floating and adherent cells. In addition, the well-established fact of reduction of cell-substrate contact during cell division is observed with our system based on corresponding spontaneous transition in the holographic pattern. Here, we demonstrate that by recognizing this specific holographic pattern, number of cells undergoing mitosis in a cell culture with a population of approximately 5000 cells, can be estimated in real-time. The method is assessed on comparison with Edu-based proliferation assay. The approach is straightforward and it eliminates the use of markers to estimate the proliferation rate of a given cell culture. Unlike most proliferation assays, the cells are not harvested enabling continuous monitoring of cell culture.

  12. ASSESSMENT OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM"PREMIUM POWER" APPLICATIONS IN CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Timothy; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-06-01

    The effectiveness of combined heat and power (CHP) systems for power interruption intolerant,"premium power," facilities is the focus of this study. Through three real-world case studies and economic cost minimization modeling, the economic and environmental performance of"premium power" CHP is analyzed. The results of the analysis for a brewery, data center, and hospital lead to some interesting conclusions about CHP limited to the specific CHP technologies installed at those sites. Firstly, facilities with high heating loads prove to be the most appropriate for CHP installations from a purely economic standpoint. Secondly, waste heat driven thermal cooling systems are only economically attractive if the technology for these chillers can increase above the current best system efficiency. Thirdly, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be as high as diesel generators they could replace these generators at little or no additional cost if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Lastly, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions, estimated at approximately 10percent for the hospital, the application with the highest relative thermal load in this case

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) effects on energy performances of a condensing micro-CHP (combined heat and power) for residential applications: An expeditious assessment of water condensation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to accomplish significant primary energy saving and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction, CHP (combined heat and power) technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances (i.e. Fuel Cell) wide deployment, ICEs (internal combustion engines) fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy. This paper deals with the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Single Cylinder ICE, fuelled with NG (natural gas) and H2NG @ 15% vol. In detail, energy performances were assessed at rated and partial loads. From data analysis, it emerged that the electrical efficiency increased up to 2.28%, at the expense of the heat recovery one, having added hydrogen. Additionally, due to the higher water content in exhaust gas when H2NG is burned, it was investigated on how heat recovery efficiency has been affected by condensing operating conditions. Finally, to estimate this benefit, an expeditious procedure was developed building three maps for H2NG blends condensing properties from 0% up to 30% vol. of H2. Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture. - Highlights: • H2NG mixture effects on a commercial technology μCHP for residential applications. • Experimental analysis and methodology for H2NG condensing properties assessment. • CO2 specific emissions calculation accounting for electrical and thermal outputs. • Uncertainty analysis on the μCHP energy performances and methodology validation. • H2 addition coupling a condensing heat exchanger enhance CHP First Law efficiency

  15. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Sudhagar [University of Georgia; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Togore, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Driftmier Engineering Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States); Sokhansanj, S.; Turhollow, A.F. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Tagore, S. [Office of Biomass Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam{sup 3}). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery. (author)

  17. Techno-economic analysis of using corn stover to supply heat and power to a corn ethanol plant - Part 2: Cost of heat and power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of corn stover fired process heating (PH) and the combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems for a typical corn ethanol plant (ethanol production capacity of 170 dam3). Discounted cash flow method was used to estimate both the capital and operating costs of each system and compared with the existing natural gas fired heating system. Environmental impact assessment of using corn stover, coal and natural gas in the heat and/or power generation systems was also evaluated. Coal fired process heating (PH) system had the lowest annual operating cost due to the low fuel cost, but had the highest environmental and human toxicity impacts. The proposed combined heat and power (CHP) generation system required about 137 Gg of corn stover to generate 9.5 MW of electricity and 52.3 MW of process heat with an overall CHP efficiency of 83.3%. Stover fired CHP system would generate an annual savings of 3.6 M$ with an payback period of 6 y. Economics of the coal fired CHP system was very attractive compared to the stover fired CHP system due to lower fuel cost. But the greenhouse gas emissions per Mg of fuel for the coal fired CHP system was 32 times higher than that of stover fired CHP system. Corn stover fired heat and power generation system for a corn ethanol plant can improve the net energy balance and add environmental benefits to the corn to ethanol biorefinery.

  18. Water balance in fuel cells systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cell systems are attractive for their high efficiency (i.e., electric power generated per weight/volume of fuel,) and lower emissions. These systems are being developed for applications that include transportation (propulsion and auxiliary), remote stationary, and portable. Where these systems use on-board fuel processing of available fuels, the fuel processor requires high-purity water. For utility applications, this water may be available on-site, but for most applications, the process water must be recovered from the fuel cell system exhaust gas. For such applications, it is critically important that the fuel cell system be a net water-producing device. A variety of environmental conditions (e.g., ambient temperature, pressure), fuel cell system design, and operating conditions determine whether the fuel cell system is water-producing or water-consuming. This paper will review and discuss the conditions that determine the net-water balance of a generic fuel cell system and identify some options that will help meet the water needs of the fuel processor

  19. Development of HT-PEMFC components and stack for CHP unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Q. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Chemistry, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Terkelsen, C.; Rudbech, H.C.; Steenberg, T. (Danish Power System Aps, Charlottenlund (Denmark)); Thibault de Rycke (IRD Fuel Cell A/S, Svendborg (Denmark))

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project has been to further develop components for an all Danish high temperature PEM fuel cells stack for application in combined heat and power units (CHP units). The final product aimed at was a 1.5-2 kW stack for operation at 150-200 deg. C. The project follows the previous PSO project 4760, 'High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell'. The project has addressed the HT-PEM fuel cells form a components point of view and the materials here for. The main areas were polymer and membrane development, electrode and MEA development (MEA = membrane electrode assembly, i.e. the cells.) and stack development. The membrane development begins with the polymer. The polymerization technique was improved significantly in two ways. Better understanding of the process and the critical issues has led to more reproducible results with repeated high molecular weights. The molecular weight is decisive for the membrane strength and durability. The process was also scaled up to 100-200 g polymer pr. batch in a new polymerization facility build during the project. It is dimensioned for larger batches too, but this was not verified during the project. The polymer cannot be purchased in the right quality for fuel cell membranes and it is important that it manufacture is not a limiting factor at the present state. Experiments with other membrane casting techniques were also made. The traditional PBI doped with phosphoric acid is still the state of art membrane for the HT-PEM fuel cells, but progress was also made with modified membranes. Different variants of PBI were synthesized and tested. Electrodes have been manufactured by a spray technique in contrast to the previously applied tape casting. The hand held spray gun previously led to an improvement of the electrodes, but the reproducibility was limited. Subsequently the construction of a semi automated spray machine was started and results like of the best hand sprayed electrodes were obtained. A viable way of MEA rim

  20. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kuan Chan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an automatic inspection system for ANA testing. This paper focuses on the cell detection and segmentation; an efficient method is proposed for automatically detecting the cells with fluorescence pattern in an IIF image. Cell culture is a process in which cells grow under control. Cell counting technology plays an important role in measuring the cell density in a culture tank. Moreover, assessing medium suitability, determining population doubling times, and monitoring cell growth in cultures all require a means of quantifying cell population. The proposed method also can be used to count the cells from an image taken under a fluorescence microscope.

  1. Robust Management of Combined Heat and Power Systems via Linear Decision Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Madsen, Henrik

    The heat and power outputs of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units are jointly constrained. Hence, the optimal management of systems including CHP units is a multicommodity optimization problem. Problems of this type are stochastic, owing to the uncertainty inherent both in the demand for heat and...

  2. Modelling a Combined Heat and Power Plant based on Gasification, Micro Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a micro gas turbine (MGT) and the other in a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and MGT arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... more efficient than the MGT reflected in the electrical efficiency of the gasifier and MGT system in opposition to the gasifier and SOFC-MGT configuration - η_el=28.1% versus η_el=50.3%....

  3. Development and analysis of micro-polygeneration systems and adsorption chillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle

    About a fifth of all primary energy in the US is consumed by residential buildings, mostly for cooling, heating and to provide electricity. Furthermore, retrofits are essential to reducing this consumption, since the buildings that exist today will comprise over half of those in use in 2050. Residential combined heat and power (or micro CHP, defined by trigeneration system) to additionally provide savings during the cooling season, and enhance heating season savings. Scenarios are identified in which adding thermally-driven equipment to a micro CHP system reduces primary energy consumption, through analytical and experimental investigations. The experimental focus is on adsorption heat pump systems, which are capable of being used with the CHP engines (prime movers) that are already widely deployed. The analytical analysis identifies energy saving potential off-grid for today's prime movers, with potential on-grid for various fuel cell technologies. A novel dynamic test facility was developed to measure real-world residential trigeneration system performance using a prototype adsorption chiller. The chiller was designed and constructed for this thesis and was driven by waste heat from a commercially available natural gas-fueled 4 kW (electric) CHP engine. A control strategy for the chiller was developed, enabling a 5-day experiment to be run using a thermal load profile based on moderate Maryland summer air conditioning loads and typical single-family domestic hot water demand, with experimental results in agreement with models. In this summer mode, depending on electrical loads, the trigeneration system used up to 36% less fuel than off-grid separate generation and up to 29% less fuel than off-grid CHP without thermally driven cooling. However, compared to on-grid separate generation, the experimental facility used 16% more primary energy. Despite high chiller performance relative to its thermodynamic limit, this result is primarily due to the electrical

  4. Simulation analysis of a repowered double fuel CHP plant including a non-evaporative heat recovery boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszka, M.; Szargut, J. [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Gliwice (Poland). Inst. of Thermal Technology

    2004-07-01

    A repowering analysis of a conventional, coal-fired industrial combined heat and power (CHP) plant by means of a gas turbine (GT) and heat recovery boiler (HRB) has been taken into consideration. The existing system, operating in one of the Polish chemical factories consists of coal-fired boilers, back-pressure extraction turbines, condensing turbines and steam-fed district heat exchangers. Two variants of modernization have been proposed and examined from the thermodynamic, environmental protection and economical points of view. The first one includes HRB for preheating the boiler feed water, condensate, and district water, while the steam turbine (ST) system and coal boilers work without any structural changes. The other advanced variant introduces live steam superheaters to HRB. The coal-fired boilers, in this light, supply only saturated steam (which is introduced into HRB), so they have to be readjusted by replacing the existing superheaters with convective vaporizers for proper flue gas cooling. Such a scheme ensures a considerable reduction of exergy losses in HRB and therefore leads to deeper flue gas cooling and a decrease of coal consumption for the assumed process steam and district heat demands. Heat and process steam demand duration curves for a typical year of operation of the plant have been adapted as input data. The mathematical model of the whole CHP plant has been built on GateCycle and Visual Basic software. The model includes design and off design analyses of boilers, steam and gas turbines and also takes into account shut-down necessities, concerning machines during their operation outside the acceptable area of their key parameters (e.g. the minimum steam flow in the condensing section of the turbines from the point of view of rotor cooling). The computation was run many times for different sets of input data, read from the demand duration curves. Finally, the yearly values of solid and gaseous fuel consumption, as well as electricity

  5. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  6. Regenerative fuel cell systems R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitlitsky, F.; Myers, B.; Weisberg, A.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems produce power and electrolytically regenerate their reactants using stacks of electrochemical cells. Energy storage systems with extremely high specific energy (> 400 Wh/kg) have been designed that use lightweight pressure vessels to contain the gases generated by reversible (unitized) regenerative fuel cells (URFCs). Progress is reported on the development, integration, and operation of rechargeable energy storage systems with such high specific energy. Lightweight pressure vessels that enable high specific energies have been designed with performance factors (burst pressure/internal volume/tank weight) > 50 km (2.0 million inches), and a vessel with performance factor of 40 km (1.6 million inches) was fabricated. New generations of both advanced and industry-supplied hydrogen tankage are under development. A primary fuel cell test rig with a single cell (46 cm{sup 2} active area) has been modified and operated reversibly as a URFC (for up to 2010 cycles on a single cell). This URFC uses bifunctional electrodes (oxidation and reduction electrodes reverse roles when switching from charge to discharge, as with a rechargeable battery) and cathode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the hydrogen side of the cell). Recent modifications also enable anode feed electrolysis (water is fed from the oxygen side of the cell). Hydrogen/halogen URFCs, capable of higher round-trip efficiency than hydrogen/oxygen URFCs, have been considered, and will be significantly heavier. Progress is reported on higher performance hydrogen/oxygen URFC operation with reduced catalyst loading.

  7. Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Jimmy A.; Xu, Qingping; Childers, W. Seth; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Kern, Justin W.; Eckart, Michael; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Vital to bacterial survival is the faithful propagation of cellular signals, and in Caulobacter crescentus ChpT is an essential mediator within the cell cycle circuit. ChpT functions as a histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (HPt) that shuttles a phosphoryl group from the receiver domain of CckA, the upstream hybrid histidine kinase (HK), to one of two downstream response regulators (RRs)—CtrA or CpdR—that controls cell cycle progression. To understand how ChpT interacts with multiple...

  8. Mammalian Cell-Based Sensor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Franz, Briana; Bhunia, Arun K.

    Use of living cells or cellular components in biosensors is receiving increased attention and opens a whole new area of functional diagnostics. The term "mammalian cell-based biosensor" is designated to biosensors utilizing mammalian cells as the biorecognition element. Cell-based assays, such as high-throughput screening (HTS) or cytotoxicity testing, have already emerged as dependable and promising approaches to measure the functionality or toxicity of a compound (in case of HTS); or to probe the presence of pathogenic or toxigenic entities in clinical, environmental, or food samples. External stimuli or changes in cellular microenvironment sometimes perturb the "normal" physiological activities of mammalian cells, thus allowing CBBs to screen, monitor, and measure the analyte-induced changes. The advantage of CBBs is that they can report the presence or absence of active components, such as live pathogens or active toxins. In some cases, mammalian cells or plasma membranes are used as electrical capacitors and cell-cell and cell-substrate contact is measured via conductivity or electrical impedance. In addition, cytopathogenicity or cytotoxicity induced by pathogens or toxins resulting in apoptosis or necrosis could be measured via optical devices using fluorescence or luminescence. This chapter focuses mainly on the type and applications of different mammalian cell-based sensor systems.

  9. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  10. The use of cationic nanogels to deliver proteins to myeloma cells and primary T lymphocytes that poorly express heparan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kozo; Tsuchiya, Yumiko; Kawaguchi, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Ayame, Hirohito; Akiyoshi, Kazunari; Tsubata, Takeshi

    2011-09-01

    Fusion proteins containing protein transduction domain (PTD) are widely used for intracellular delivery of exogenous proteins. PTD-mediated delivery requires expression of heparan sulfate on the surface of the target cells. However, some of metastatic tumor cells and primary lymphocytes poorly express heparan sulfate. Here we demonstrate that proteins complexed with nanosize hydrogels formed by cationic cholesteryl group-bearing pullulans (cCHP) are efficiently delivered to myeloma cells and primary CD4(+) T lymphocytes probably by induction of macropinocytosis, although these cells are resistant to PTD-mediated protein delivery as a consequence of poor heparan sulfate expression. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL delivered by cCHP nanogels efficiently blocked apoptosis of these cells, establishing functional regulation of cells by proteins delivered by cCHP nanogels. Thus, cCHP nanogel is a useful tool to deliver proteins for development of new cancer therapy and immune regulation. PMID:21605901

  11. Cis-hydroxyproline-induced inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christoph Mueller; Joerg Emmrich; Robert Jaster; Dagmar Braun; Stefan Liebe; Gisela Sparmann

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological effects of cishydroxyproline (CHP) on the rat pancreatic carcinoma cell line DSL6A, and to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms.METHODS: The effect of CHP on DSL6A cell proliferation was assessed by using BrdU incorporation. The expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was characterized by Western blotting and immunofluorescence.Induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was investigated by using RT-PCR and Western blotting for the glucose-related protein-78 (GRP78) and growth arrest and DNA inducible gene (GADD153). Cell viability was determined through measuring the metabolic activity based on the reduction potential of DSL6A cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by detection of caspase-3 activation and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) as well as DNA laddering.RESULTS: In addition to inhibition of proliferation,incubation with CHP induced proteolytic cleavage of FAK and a delocalisation of the enzyme from focal adhesions,followed by a loss of cell adherence. Simultaneously,we could show an increased expression of GRP78 and GADD153, indicating a CHP-mediated activation of the ER stress cascade in the DSL6A cell line. Prolonged incubation of DSL6A cells with CHP finally resulted in apoptotic cell death. Beside L-proline, the inhibition of intracellular proteolysis by addition of a broad spectrum protease inhibitor could abolish the effects of CHP on cellular functions and the molecular processes. In contrast, impeding the activity of apoptosis-executing caspases had no influence on CHP-mediated cell damage.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the initiation of ER stress machinery by CHP leads to an activation of intracellular proteolytic processes, including caspaseindependent FAK degradation, resulting in damaging pancreatic carcinoma cells.

  12. Fuel cell using a hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-10-19

    A system is described for storing and generating hydrogen and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  13. Control and optimization in fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical energy converters. They convert the chemical energy contained in the fuel into electricity while producing water and heat. Compared to the traditional energy converters, such as batteries and internal combustion engines, fuel cells are marked by high conversion efficiency and very low emissions.This work contains a computer study of optimization and control of fuel cells systems. An analytical study of the fuel (Hydrogen and air) supply system was performed taking into account compressor, cooling and humidification subsystems. In addition, the stack system, which consists of a lot of cells, was analyzed using the experimental equations of Nafion 117 membrane. The model of the whole system was then implemented in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The effect of the cathode pressure and the membrane water content on the polarization curves of the cell was examined. To validate the model, the responses of the model to step changes in the compressor voltage and the current drawn from the stack, were used. More attention was given to the net power which can be provided by the system, taking into account the power wasted by the compressor. (author)

  14. 含热电联供系统的微网经济运行%Economic operation of microgrid with combined heat and power system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雄; 王秀丽; 别朝红; 王建学

    2013-01-01

    为了分析热电联供系统和储能技术的经济节能作用,在分时电价以及微网并网运行的环境下,建立包含光伏、风电、热电联供系统、燃料电池以及储能系统的微网经济优化模型.采用方程线性化的方法将优化问题转化为混合整数线性规划(MILP)问题.算例分析验证了模型与算法的准确性,并比较了微网采用与不采用热电联供系统以及采用储能单元的经济效益,结果表明热电联供系统具有显著的经济效益,电储能带来的经济效益比热储能高.%For analyzing the economic and energy-saving effect of CHP(Combined Heat and Power) and energy storage,an economic optimal model including photovoltaic,wind power,CHP system,fuel cell and energy storage system is built for grid-connected microgrid with time-dependent electricity price.Equation linearization is used to convert the optimization problem into the MILP(Mixed-Integer Linear Programming) problem.Case analysis verifies the correctness of the proposed model and algorithm.The economic benefits are compared between the microgrids with and without the CHP system and energy storage unit,which shows that,CHP system has significant economic effect and the economic benefit brought by electric energy storage is higher than that by heat energy storage.

  15. Development and field test of a SOLO 161 Stirling engine based micro-CHP unit with ultra-low emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paalsson, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering

    2001-07-01

    For the last decade, work has been made at Lund University, Sweden, on developing a new sort of natural gas combustion chamber for the V160/SOLO 161 Stirling. It is a lean premix combustion chamber with internal combustion gas recirculation and a metallic flame holder for flame stabilisation, and it has produced extremely low emissions that are comparable to the emissions of catalytic combustion. The combustion chamber is considered ready for market introduction by the end of 2001. To combine the task of adapting this combustor for the market with the need to demonstrate small-scale Stirling engine CHP technology, a project has been started with the purpose to demonstrate and evaluate the operation of a Stirling engine unit based on the SOLO 161 Stirling engine equipped with the Lund combustion chamber. The evaluation program should give information regarding operation costs, efficiencies, emissions and running characteristics. In November 2000 the engine was transferred from the Lund University laboratory to its final location in Gothenburg. The engine is now installed and all necessary adaptation of engine, gas system and water heating system is made. The unit is running unattended in normal everyday operation. Current operating time is approx. 1200 hours, and delivered electric output is approx. 6000 kWh (July 2001)

  16. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  17. Design and test of a single effect thermal desalination plant using waste heat from m-CHP units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work refers to an innovative integrated system for the simultaneous production of fresh water and electricity. In particular, a 1 kWe Stirling engine coupled with a thermal desalination plant has been considered for the purpose. The prototype, which refers to the distributed micro cogeneration field, has the final aim of building and testing a single effect distillation plant with a fresh water production of about 150 L/d. Firstly, thermodynamic theories and numerical analysis have been carried out to define the final prototype configuration. Then, an experimental test phase has been carried out to evaluate the actual plant performance. The experimental analysis has been in good agreement with the predicted results. In particular, at nominal operating conditions (@50 °C) the maximum heat transfer rate was higher than the evaporator heat exchanger designed condition (5.5 kWt). Despite the non-ideal plant thermal insulation, fresh water production reached a maximum of about 7 L/h at best operating conditions, proving a good process efficiency. According to the behavior predicted by the model, fresh water production is strongly dependent on the temperature difference between the heating fluid and the salt water in the evaporator tank while it is weakly influenced by the salt content of the treated water. Moreover, the apparatus exhibited a very good response to varying thermal power input thus confirming the opportunity to feed the desalination plant also with different forms of waste heat. More precisely, the plant average efficiency was about 1.3 L/kWh of energy input with minimum and maximum values equal to 1.16 and 1.42 L/kWh. Definitely the proposed solution, studied for a coupling with a 1 kWe Stirling engine, can be easily applied also to the other micro-CHP technologies. - Highlights: • A single effect thermal desalination plant has been designed and tested. • Waste heat from different m-CHP units can be used as energy input for the plant.

  18. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  19. An Automatic Indirect Immunofluorescence Cell Segmentation System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with HEp-2 cells has been used for the detection of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in systemic autoimmune diseases. The ANA testing allows us to scan a broad range of autoantibody entities and to describe them by distinct fluorescence patterns. Automatic inspection for fluorescence patterns in an IIF image can assist physicians, without relevant experience, in making correct diagnosis. How to segment the cells from an IIF image is essential in developing an...

  20. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  1. Solid oxide fuel cell power system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, Rick [Delphi Automotive Systems, LLC., Troy, MI (United States); Wall, Mark [Independent Energy Partners Technology, LLC., Parker, CO (United States); Sullivan, Neal [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-26

    This report summarizes the progress made during this contractual period in achieving the goal of developing the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cell and stack technology to be suitable for use in highly-efficient, economically-competitive, commercially deployed electrical power systems. Progress was made in further understanding cell and stack degradation mechanisms in order to increase stack reliability toward achieving a 4+ year lifetime, in cost reduction developments to meet the SECA stack cost target of $175/kW (in 2007 dollars), and in operating the SOFC technology in a multi-stack system in a real-world environment to understand the requirements for reliably designing and operating a large, stationary power system.

  2. Investment in new power generation under uncertainty: Benefits of CHP vs. condensing plants in a copula-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we apply a spread-based real options approach to analyze the decision-making problem of an investor who has the choice between an irreversible investment in a condensing power plant without heat utilization and a plant with combined heat-and-power (CHP) generation. Our investigation focuses on large-scale fossil-fueled generation technologies and is based on a stochastic model that uses copula functions to provide the input parameters of the real options model. We define the aggregated annual spread as assessment criteria for our investigation since it contains all relevant volatile input parameters that have an impact on the evaluation of investment decisions. We show that the specific characteristics of CHP plants, such as additional revenues from heat sales, promotion schemes, specific operational features, and a beneficial allocation of CO2 allowances, have a significant impact on the option value and therefore on the optimal timing for investment. For the two fossil-fueled CHP technologies investigated (combined-cycle gas turbine and steam turbine), we conclude from our analysis that a high share of CHP generation reduces the risk exposure for the investor. The maximal possible CHP generation depends significantly on the local heat demand in the surroundings of the power plant. Considering this, the size of the heat sink available could gain more relevance in the future selection process of sites for new large-scale fossil power plants.

  3. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) as a Compliance Option under the Clean Power Plan: A Template and Policy Options for State Regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-30

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an important option for states to consider in developing strategies to meet their emission targets under the US Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan. This Template is designed to highlight key issues that states should consider when evaluating whether CHP could be a meaningful component of their compliance plans. It demonstrates that CHP can be a valuable approach for reducing emissions and helping states achieve their targets. While the report does not endorse any particular approach for any state, and actual plans will vary dependent upon state-specific factors and determinations, it provides tools and resources that states can use to begin the process, and underscores the opportunity CHP represents for many states. . By producing both heat and electricity from a single fuel source, CHP offers significant energy savings and carbon emissions benefits over the separate generation of heat and power, with a typical unit producing electricity with half the emissions of conventional generation. These efficiency gains translate to economic savings and enhanced competitiveness for CHP hosts, and emissions reductions for the state, along with helping to lower electric bills; and creating jobs in the design, construction, installation and maintenance of equipment. In 2015, CHP represents 8 percent of electric capacity in the United States and provides 12 percent of total power generation. Projects already exist in all 50 states, but significant technical and economic potential remains. CHP offers a tested way for states to achieve their emission limits while advancing a host of ancillary benefits.

  4. Balmorel: A model for analyses of the electricity and CHP markets in the Baltic Sea Region. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the motivations behind the development of the Balmorel model as well as the model itself. The purpose of the Balmorel project is to develop a model for analyses of the power and CHP sectors in the Baltic Sea Region. The model is directed towards the analysis of relevant policy questions to the extent that they contain substantial international aspects. The model is developed in response to the trend towards internationalisation in the electricity sector. This trend is seen in increased international trade of electricity, in investment strategies among producers and otherwise. Also environmental considerations and policies are to an increasing extent gaining an international perspective in relation to the greenhouse gasses. Further, the ongoing process of deregulation of the energy sector highlights this and contributes to the need for overview and analysis. A guiding principle behind the construction of the model has been that it may serve as a means of communication in relation to the policy issues that already are or that may become important for the region. Therefore, emphasis has been put on documentation, transparency and flexibility of the model. This is achieved in part by formulating the model in a high level modelling language, and by making the model, including data, available at the internet. Potential users of the Balmorel model include research institutions, consulting companies, energy authorities, transmission system operators and energy companies. (au)

  5. Economic Potential of CHP in Detroit Edison Service Area: the Customer Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, J.

    2003-10-10

    can realistically be expected, based on consumer investment in combined heat and power systems (CHP) and the effect of utility applied demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate and quantify the impact on the distribution utility feeder from the perspective of customer ownership of the DE equipment. (3) Determine the distribution feeder limits and the impact DE may have on future growth. For the case study, the Gas Technology Institute analyzed a single 16-megawatt grid feeder circuit in Ann Arbor, Michigan to determine whether there are economic incentives to use small distributed power generation systems that would offset the need to increase grid circuit capacity. Increasing circuit capacity would enable the circuit to meet consumer's energy demands at all times, but it would not improve the circuit's utilization factor. The analysis spans 12 years, to a planning horizon of 2015. By 2015, the demand for power is expected to exceed the grid circuit capacity for a significant portion of the year. The analysis was to determine whether economically acceptable implementation of customer-owned DE systems would reduce the peak power demands enough to forestall the need to upgrade the capacity of the grid circuit. The analysis was based on economics and gave no financial credit for improved power reliability or mitigation of environmental impacts. Before this study was completed, the utility expanded the capacity of the circuit to 22 MW. Although this expansion will enable the circuit to meet foreseeable increases in peak demand, it also will significantly decrease the circuit's overall utilization factor. The study revealed that DE penetration on the selected feeder is not expected to forestall the need to upgrade the grid circuit capacity unless interconnection barriers are removed. Currently, a variety of technical, business practice, and regulatory barriers discourage DE interconnection in the US market.

  6. A Study Regarding the Performances of Trigeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoitescu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a tri-generation system will be evaluated which is based on a cogeneration subsystem for the production of heat and power (CHP, and a Salt-Water Energy Accumulation & Transformation subsystem (SWEAT for the production of cold. The system will be designed to produce 220V AC electricity, heat for space heating and hot tap water (about 70 o C and cold at about 10 o C for air conditioning. The paper presents the modelling and simulation study of the CHP subsystem to obtain an indication of the amount and quality of heat generated by the CHP subsystem.

  7. Fuel cell technology for prototype logistic fuel cell mobile systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederquist, R.A.; Garow, J.

    1995-08-01

    Under the aegis of the Advanced Research Project Agency`s family of programs to develop advanced technology for dual use applications, International Fuel Cells Corporation (IFC) is conducting a 39 month program to develop an innovative system concept for DoD Mobile Electric Power (MEP) applications. The concept is to integrate two technologies, the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) with an auto-thermal reformer (ATR), into an efficient fuel cell power plant of nominally 100-kilowatt rating which operates on logistic fuels (JP-8). The ATR fuel processor is the key to meeting requirements for MEP (including weight, volume, reliability, maintainability, efficiency, and especially operation on logistic fuels); most of the effort is devoted to ATR development. An integrated demonstration test unit culminates the program and displays the benefits of the fuel cell system, relative to the standard 100-kilowatt MEP diesel engine generator set. A successful test provides the basis for proceeding toward deployment. This paper describes the results of the first twelve months of activity during which specific program aims have remained firm.

  8. Cell-based bioassays in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itle, Laura J.; Zguris, Jeanna C.; Pishko, Michael V.

    2004-12-01

    The development of cell-based bioassays for high throughput drug screening or the sensing of biotoxins is contingent on the development of whole cell sensors for specific changes in intracellular conditions and the integration of those systems into sample delivery devices. Here we show the feasibility of using a 5-(and-6)-carboxy SNARF-1, acetoxymethyl ester, acetate, a fluorescent dye capable of responding to changes in intracellular pH, as a detection method for the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide. We used photolithography to entrap cells with this dye within poly(ethylene) glyocol diacrylate hydrogels in microfluidic channels. After 18 hours of exposure to lipopolysaccharide, we were able to see visible changes in the fluorescent pattern. This work shows the feasibility of using whole cell based biosensors within microfluidic networks to detect cellular changes in response to exogenous agents.

  9. SOSYAL POLİTİKA AÇISINDAN CHP İLE AKP’NİN KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    OpenAIRE

    YURDAKUL, Nilay BAŞOK; DİNÇER, Müjde Ker; BAT, Mikail

    2012-01-01

    Bu çalışmada siyasal yelpazedeki yerini sosyal demokrat olarak tanımlayan CHP ile muhafazakâr sağ olarak tanımlayan AKP’nin, tarihsel ve betimsel araştırma yöntemleri ışığında benimsediği ekonomi anlayışının ortaya konularak, izledikleri sosyal politikaların bu çerçevede irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu bağlamda, CHP ile AKP’nin ekonomi politikası ortaya konduktan sonra, her iki partinin ekonomi politikaları benzerlik ve farklılık bakımından karşılaştırılmıştır. Daha sonra da CHP ile AKP’nin iz...

  10. CHP-II: The Carnegie Hubble Program to Measure Ho to 3% Using Population II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Jeffrey; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andy; Scowcroft, Victoria; Beaton, Rachael; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Seibert, Mark; Bono, Giuseppe; Clementini, Gisella; Yang, Soung-Chul; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung

    2015-01-01

    There has been great progress in the measurement of cosmological parameters in recent years, but controversy has arisen over the Planck/WMAP versus the direct measurement of the Hubble constant. The goal of our Carnegie Hubble Program (CHP) is to obtain a direct measure of Ho to 3%. In CHP I, we used Cepheid variables to calibrate the extragalactic distance scale. In the second phase, CHP II, we are establishing a completely independent route to Ho using RR Lyrae variables, the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) and Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Not only is the RR Lyrae route independent of the Cepheids, but its PL relation has a scatter that is a factor of 2 smaller. Unlike the Cepheids, the RR Lyrae / TRGB distance scale can be applied to both elliptical and spiral galaxies. This is a great systematic advantage, given the small number of galaxies (9 in total) close enough to have measured Cepheid calibrators within the SNIa hosts. By providing a new calibration using a Pop II distance scale, we will immediately double the number of SN Ia distances based on geometry, linking to over 200 SNe in the pure Hubble flow out to z = 0.7. Four calibrators containing both Cepheids and TRGB stars provide an important cross-check on systematics. Initially, the accuracy of our value of Ho will be set by four galactic RR Lyrae calibrators with HST/FGS parallaxes. With Gaia, both the RR Lyrae zero point and TRGB method will be independently calibrated with at least an order of magnitude more calibrators, each having precisions of 1% or better. This will allow the highest accuracy measurement of Ho to date using the "Distance Ladder" method.

  11. Modelling the Italian household sector at the municipal scale: Micro-CHP, renewables and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the potential of energy efficiency, renewables, and micro-cogeneration to reduce household consumption in a medium Italian town and analyses the scope for municipal local policies. The study also investigates the effects of tourist flows on town's energy consumption by modelling energy scenarios for permanent and summer homes. Two long-term energy scenarios (to 2030) were modelled using the MarkAL-TIMES generator model: BAU (business as usual), which is the reference scenario, and EHS (exemplary household sector), which involves targets of penetration for renewables and micro-cogeneration. The analysis demonstrated the critical role of end-use energy efficiency in curbing residential consumption. Cogeneration and renewables (PV (photovoltaic) and solar thermal panels) were proven to be valuable solutions to reduce the energetic and environmental burden of the household sector (−20% in 2030). Because most of household energy demand is ascribable to space-heating or hot water production, this study finds that micro-CHP technologies with lower power-to-heat ratios (mainly, Stirling engines and microturbines) show a higher diffusion, as do solar thermal devices. The spread of micro-cogeneration implies a global reduction of primary energy but involves the internalisation of the primary energy, and consequently CO2 emissions, previously consumed in a centralised power plant within the municipality boundaries. - Highlights: • Energy consumption in permanent homes can be reduced by 20% in 2030. • High efficiency appliances have different effect according to their market penetration. • Use of electrical heat pumps shift consumption from natural gas to electricity. • Micro-CHP entails a global reduction of energy consumption but greater local emissions. • The main CHP technologies entering the residential market are Stirling and μ-turbines

  12. Anuário Investigação CHP 2008

    OpenAIRE

    DEFI

    2011-01-01

    Documenta-se a produção científica do Centro Hospitalar do Porto (CHP) apresentando os artigos da autoria ou co-autoria dos profissionais das três instituições nele integradas (Hospital de Santo António, HSA; Hospital Maria Pia, HMP; Maternidade Júlio Dinis, MJD) publicados em revistas científicas, durante o ano 2008.1 A listagem foi elaborada pelo Departamento de Ensino, Formação e Investigação (DEFI), com base em pesquisas em bases de dados bibliográficos. Consideram-se se...

  13. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars;

    the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions.......Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses on...

  14. Techno-Economic Study of Adsorption Processes for Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture at a Biomass CHP Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Oreggioni, Gabriel David; Friedrich, Daniel; Brandani, Stefano; Ahn, Hyungwoong

    2014-01-01

    An exemplary 10 MWth biomass CHP plant with a FICFB (Fast Internally Circulating Fluidised Bed) gasifier and Jenbacher type 6 gas engine was simulated to estimate the power and thermal outputs. The biomass-fuelled CHP plant was modified for carbon capture using either adsorption or amine process. It was found that a two-stage, two-bed PVSA (Pressure Vacuum Swing Adsorption) unit applied to syngas stream for pre-combustion capture spent less specific energy per captured CO2 than a conventional...

  15. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  16. Constructing a High Density Cell Culture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An annular culture vessel for growing mammalian cells is constructed in a one piece integral and annular configuration with an open end which is closed by an endcap. The culture vessel is rotatable about a horizontal axis by use of conventional roller systems commonly used in culture laboratories. The end wall of the endcap has tapered access ports to frictionally and sealingly receive the ends of hypodermic syringes. The syringes permit the introduction of fresh nutrient and withdrawal of spent nutrients. The walls are made of conventional polymeric cell culture material and are subjected to neutron bombardment to form minute gas permeable perforations in the walls.

  17. Increasing the flexibility of operational scheduling for a large-scale CHP plant used for generating district heat and electricity in order to meet the varying market demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The substantial changes in the structure of German power supply plants pose high demands on the flexibility of the operational scheduling of conventional thermal power plants. Grosskraftwerk Mannheim AG is a power plant company that is operating a plant for combined power and district heat generation. The paper describes some measures which have been taken to improve the plant's operational flexibility. In addition, the associated technical systems and their functions, as well as the state of ongoing projects are outlined. Special focus is placed on topics related to issues such as ''district-heat storage unit of the new unit 9, flexibility of operational scheduling, and efficient CHP plant operation''.

  18. Combined heat and power generation with a HCPV system at 2000 suns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work shows the development of an innovative solar CHP system for the combined production of heat and power based upon HCPV modules working at the high concentration level of 2000 suns. The solar radiation is concentrated on commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells designed for intensive work. The primary optics is a rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror while a secondary optic at the focus of the parabolic mirror is glued in optical contact with the cell. Each module consist of 2 axis tracker (Alt-Alt type) with 20 multijunction cells each one integrated with an active heat sink. The cell is connected to an active heat transfer system that allows to keep the cell at a high level of electrical efficiency (ηel > 30 %), bringing the heat transfer fluid (water and glycol) up to an output temperature of 90°C. Accordingly with the experimental data collected from the first 1 kWe prototype, the total amount of extracted thermal energy is above the 50% of the harvested solar radiation. That, in addition the electrical efficiency of the system contributes to reach an overall CHP efficiency of more than the 80%

  19. Combined heat and power generation with a HCPV system at 2000 suns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Filippo; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Salinari, Piero; Bonsignore, Gaetano; Milone, Sergio; Agnello, Simonpietro; Barbera, Marco; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Collura, Alfonso; Lo Cicero, Ugo; Cannas, Marco

    2015-09-01

    This work shows the development of an innovative solar CHP system for the combined production of heat and power based upon HCPV modules working at the high concentration level of 2000 suns. The solar radiation is concentrated on commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells designed for intensive work. The primary optics is a rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror while a secondary optic at the focus of the parabolic mirror is glued in optical contact with the cell. Each module consist of 2 axis tracker (Alt-Alt type) with 20 multijunction cells each one integrated with an active heat sink. The cell is connected to an active heat transfer system that allows to keep the cell at a high level of electrical efficiency (ηel > 30 %), bringing the heat transfer fluid (water and glycol) up to an output temperature of 90°C. Accordingly with the experimental data collected from the first 1 kWe prototype, the total amount of extracted thermal energy is above the 50% of the harvested solar radiation. That, in addition the electrical efficiency of the system contributes to reach an overall CHP efficiency of more than the 80%.

  20. Combined heat and power generation with a HCPV system at 2000 suns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Filippo; Montagnino, Fabio M.; Milone, Sergio [IDEA s.r.l., C.da Molara Z.I. III Fase, 90018 Termini Imerese (Italy); Salinari, Piero; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M.; Sciortino, Luisa; Cannas, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); Bonsignore, Gaetano; Barbera, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, 90123 Palermo (Italy); INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Collura, Alfonso; Lo Cicero, Ugo [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    This work shows the development of an innovative solar CHP system for the combined production of heat and power based upon HCPV modules working at the high concentration level of 2000 suns. The solar radiation is concentrated on commercial InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells designed for intensive work. The primary optics is a rectangular off-axis parabolic mirror while a secondary optic at the focus of the parabolic mirror is glued in optical contact with the cell. Each module consist of 2 axis tracker (Alt-Alt type) with 20 multijunction cells each one integrated with an active heat sink. The cell is connected to an active heat transfer system that allows to keep the cell at a high level of electrical efficiency (ηel > 30 %), bringing the heat transfer fluid (water and glycol) up to an output temperature of 90°C. Accordingly with the experimental data collected from the first 1 kWe prototype, the total amount of extracted thermal energy is above the 50% of the harvested solar radiation. That, in addition the electrical efficiency of the system contributes to reach an overall CHP efficiency of more than the 80%.

  1. Monitoring of the energy performance of a district heating CHP plant based on biomass boiler and ORC generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than seventy district heating (DH) plants based on biomass are operating in South Tyrol (Italy) and most of them supply heat to residential districts. Almost 20% of them are cogenerative systems, thus enabling primary energy savings with respect to the separate production of heat and power. However, the actual performance of these systems in real operation can considerably differ from the nominal one. The main objectives of this work are the assessment of the energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled with an Organic Rankine Cycle (i.e. ORC) generator under real operating conditions and the identification of its potential improvements. The fluxes of energy and mass of the plant have been measured onsite. This experimental evaluation has been supplemented with a thermodynamic model of the ORC generator, calibrated with the experimental data, which is capable to predict the system performance under different management strategies of the system. The results have highlighted that a decrease of the DH network temperature of 10 °C can improve the electric efficiency of the ORC generator of one percentage point. Moreover, a DH temperature reduction could decrease the main losses of the boiler, namely the exhaust latent thermal loss and the exhaust sensible thermal loss, which account for 9% and 16% of the boiler input power, respectively. The analysis of the plant has pointed out that the ORC pump, the flue gases extractor, the thermal oil pump and the condensation section fan are the main responsible of the electric self-consumption. Finally, the negative effect of the subsidisation on the performance of the plant has been discussed. - Highlights: • Energy performance of a biomass boiler coupled to an ORC turbine in real operation. • Potential improvements of a CHP plant connected to a DH network. • Performance prediction by means of a calibrated ORC thermodynamic model. • Influence of the DH temperature on the electric efficiency. • Impact of the

  2. Energetic-environmental-economic assessment of the biogas system with three utilization pathways: Combined heat and power, biomethane and fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Xiangping; Shang, Dawei; Bao, Di; Zhang, Suojiang; Zheng, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A typical biogas system with three utilization pathways, i.e., biogas upgrading, biogas combined heat and power (CHP), biogas solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were designed. It was assessed from the viewpoint of energy, environment and economy by using energy efficiency, green degree and net present value index respectively. The assessment considered the trade-off relationships among these indexes, which is more comprehensive than previous systematic evaluation work only included single or two of the pathway(s) by using one or two of the index(es). Assessment results indicated that biogas upgrading pathway has the highest systematic energy efficiency (46.5%) and shortest payback period (8.9year) with the green degree production is the lowest (9.29gd/day). While for biogas SOFC pathway, although the green degree production is the highest (21.77gd/day), the payback period is longer (14.5year) and the energy efficiency is 13.6% lower than the biogas upgrading pathway. PMID:27209454

  3. The financial viability of an SOFC cogeneration system in single-family dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Kari; Saari, Arto; Ugursal, V. Ismet; Good, Joel

    In the near future, fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems will compete with traditional methods of energy supply. A micro-CHP system may be considered viable if its incremental capital cost compared to its competitors equals to cumulated savings during a given period of time. A simplified model is developed in this study to estimate the operation of a residential solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. A comparative assessment of the SOFC system vis-à-vis heating systems based on gas, oil and electricity is conducted using the simplified model for a single-family house located in Ottawa and Vancouver. The energy consumption of the house is estimated using the HOT2000 building simulation program. A financial analysis is carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the maximum allowable capital cost with respect to system sizing, acceptable payback period, energy price and the electricity buyback strategy of an energy utility. Based on the financial analysis, small (1-2 kW e) SOFC systems seem to be feasible in the considered case. The present study shows also that an SOFC system is especially an alternative to heating systems based on oil and electrical furnaces.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability

  5. Survey of controllability in decentralized CHP plants. Optimal operation of priority production units; Kortlaegning af decentrale kraftvarmevaerkers regulerbarhed. Optimal drift af prioriterede anlaeg - Teknologisk grundlag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    'Danske Fjernvarmevaerkers Forening' (DFF) and 'Energistyrelsens energiproducenttaelling' (EEPT) are used. In the part project 'Teknologisk grundlag', project 4712, the technical information on decentralized CHP plants has been arranged in such a way that it is suitable for being used in a bid model, developed in project 4712, for selling electricity production on the Nordic spot market, NORDPOOL. A number of typical technical and operational parameters have been mapped and their distributions in subgroups of plant types. It concerns primarily, capacity on electricity and heat production, the connected heat storage capacity, the demand of heat in the connected district heating system, efficiencies at full and part load, start and stop times and maximum load gradients. Options and restrictions regarding the SCR system concerning the possibility of remote operation, likelihood of error, manning, wear, costs associated with start/stop and cost of operation and maintenance are investigated. Investment costs are estimated on possible modifications of plant equipment either for more flexible production and thereby improved economics or for improved controllability. It includes cost estimation of additional equipment for removing surplus of heat in order to eliminate the locked-up electricity production to the heat demand in the district heating system. Thereby making it possible to generate electricity when electricity price is very high no matter the demand of heat. Opposite, in case electricity price is very low, the possibility of using electricity for heat generation (electric cartridge or heat pump) is considered. Finally, the environmental impact of a new operational strategy of the CHP plants possibly with more start/stop and part load operation is discussed.

  6. Phase Space Cell in Nonextensive Classical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Quarati, F

    2003-01-01

    We calculate the phase space volume $Omega$ occupied by a nonextensive system of $N$ classical particles described by an equilibrium (or steady-state, or long-term stationary state of a nonequilibrium system) distribution function, which slightly deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) distribution in the high energy tail. We explicitly require that the number of accessible microstates does not change respect to the extensive MB case. We also derive, within a classical scheme, an analytical expression of the elementary cell that can be seen as a macrocell, different from the third power of Planck constant. Thermodynamic quantities like entropy, chemical potential and free energy of a classical ideal gas, depending on elementary cell, are evaluated. Considering the fractional deviation from MB distribution we can deduce a physical meaning of the nonextensive parameter $q$ of the Tsallis nonextensive thermostatistics in terms of particle correlation functions (valid at least in the case, discussed in this work, of...

  7. 75 FR 13090 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ...,'' dated February 8, 1996 (February 20, 1996; 61 FR 6427). ] Dated: March 15, 2010. Mitchell S. Bryman... of the system: 5 U.S.C. 301, Departmental Regulation; 10 U.S.C. Chp. 8, Defense Agencies...

  8. Transient Stability Improvement for Combined Heat and Power System Using Load Shedding

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze and improve the transient stability of an industrial combined heat and power (CHP) system in a high-tech science park in Taiwan. The CHP system installed two 161 kV/161 kV high-impendence transformers to connect with Taipower System (TPS) for both decreasing the short-circuit fault current and increasing the fault critical clearing time. The transient stabilities of three types of operation modes in CHP units, 3G1S, 2G1S, and 1G1S, are analyzed. Under th...

  9. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiano Buti; Melissa Bersanelli; Maddalena Donini; Andrea Ardizzoni

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to d...

  10. Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Magee; Richard Gehman

    2005-07-12

    This document reports on the work done by Honeywell Sensing and Control to investigate the feasibility of modifying low cost Commercial Sensors for use inside a PEM Fuel Cell environment. Both stationary and automotive systems were considered. The target environment is hotter (100 C) than the typical commercial sensor maximum of 70 C. It is also far more humid (100% RH condensing) than the more typical 95% RH non-condensing at 40 C (4% RH maximum at 100 C). The work focused on four types of sensors, Temperature, Pressure, Air Flow and Relative Humidity. Initial design goals were established using a market research technique called Market Driven Product Definition (MDPD). A series of interviews were conducted with various users and system designers in their facilities. The interviewing team was trained in data taking and analysis per the MDPD process. The final result was a prioritized and weighted list of both requirements and desires for each sensor. Work proceeded on concept development for the 4 types of sensors. At the same time, users were developing the actual fuel cell systems and gaining knowledge and experience in the use of sensors and controls systems. This resulted in changes to requirements and desires that were not anticipated during the MDPD process. The concepts developed met all the predicted requirements. At the completion of concept development for the Pressure Sensor, it was determined that the Fuel Cell developers were happy with off-the-shelf automotive pressure sensors. Thus, there was no incentive to bring a new Fuel Cell Specific Pressure Sensor into production. Work was therefore suspended. After the experience with the Pressure Sensor, the requirements for a Temperature Sensor were reviewed and a similar situation applied. Commercially available temperature sensors were adequate and cost effective and so the program was not continued from the Concept into the Design Phase.

  11. System for adding sulfur to a fuel cell stack system for improved fuel cell stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl J; Weissman, Jeffrey G

    2013-08-13

    A system for adding sulfur to a reformate stream feeding a fuel cell stack, having a sulfur source for providing sulfur to the reformate stream and a metering device in fluid connection with the sulfur source and the reformate stream. The metering device injects sulfur from the sulfur source to the reformate stream at a predetermined rate, thereby providing a conditioned reformate stream to the fuel cell stack. The system provides a conditioned reformate stream having a predetermined sulfur concentration that gives an acceptable balance of minimal drop in initial power with the desired maximum stability of operation over prolonged periods for the fuel cell stack.

  12. In-situ corrosion investigation at Masnedø CHP plant - a straw-fired power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Karlsson, Asger

    1999-01-01

    Various austenitic and ferritic steels were exposed on a water-cooled probe in the superheater area of a straw-fired CHP plant. The temperature of the probe ranged from 450-600°C and the period of exposure was 1400 hours. The rate of corrosion was assessed based on unattacked metal remaining. The...

  13. Generation technologies of the future for Polish power system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolesław Zaporowski

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of electricity generation technologies, as well as heat and electricity cogeneration technologies of the future for Polish power system. The analysis focuses on technologies used in three types of power plants: system large power plants, large and medium power CHP plants and small power CHP plants (distributed sources). Individual solutions are characterised by their specifi c CO2 emissions (kg CO2/kWh) and specifi c electricity generation cost discounted for 20...

  14. Translation in cell-free systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. Messenger RNA protein product identification is important in the isolation of a particular mRNA species for cDNA cloning and in the identification of positive cDNA clones. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ. Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated, the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently. However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination

  15. Single-cell twitching chemotaxis in developing biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Nuno M; Foster, Kevin R; Durham, William M

    2016-06-01

    Bacteria form surface-attached communities, known as biofilms, which are central to bacterial biology and how they affect us. Although surface-attached bacteria often experience strong chemical gradients, it remains unclear whether single cells can effectively perform chemotaxis on surfaces. Here we use microfluidic chemical gradients and massively parallel automated tracking to study the behavior of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa during early biofilm development. We show that individual cells can efficiently move toward chemoattractants using pili-based "twitching" motility and the Chp chemosensory system. Moreover, we discovered the behavioral mechanism underlying this surface chemotaxis: Cells reverse direction more frequently when moving away from chemoattractant sources. These corrective maneuvers are triggered rapidly, typically before a wayward cell has ventured a fraction of a micron. Our work shows that single bacteria can direct their motion with submicron precision and reveals the hidden potential for chemotaxis within bacterial biofilms. PMID:27222583

  16. Molten carbonate fuel cells: A high temperature fuel cell on the edge to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Manfred

    The Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) technology has been developed in USA, Japan, Korea and Europe for many years. What has started about 30 years ago as an interesting laboratory object has now matured to a potential alternative to conventional power generation systems. Especially the combined heat and power (CHP) generation is an area, where MCFC power plants can be applied with great advantage, due to the high efficiencies which can be achieved. It was demonstrated by several manufacturers that in the sub-MW region MCFC power plants can reach electrical efficiencies of 47%. By making use of the heat generated by the system, total efficiencies of more than 80% can be achieved. The present paper will discuss some aspects of the development work going on with a focus on the role of the molten carbonate contained in the cells. An outlook will be given for the future prospects of this young technology in a changing energy market.

  17. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO2. • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  18. Comparison and Research of Standards for CHP Energy Efifciency%我国热电联产能效标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐为; 马娜

    2013-01-01

    Based on China’s standards on Combined Heating&Power (CHP) energy efifciency, this paper compares and researches the local energy efifciency standards on CHP, analyzes the local policies and industrial characters of CHP, as well as summarizes the conclusions of the comparison.%在梳理我国热电联产能效标准现状的基础上,对比研究我国地方热电联产能效标准,分析地方热电联产制度环境和产业特点,总结相应对比结论。

  19. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  20. Optimization of Fuel Cell System Operating Conditions for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) technology for use in fuel cell vehicles and other applications has been intensively developed in recent decades. Besides the fuel cell stack, air and fuel control and thermal and water management are major challenges in the development of the fuel cell for vehicle applications. The air supply system can have a major impact on overall system efficiency. In this paper a fuel cell system model for optimizing system operating conditions was developed wh...

  1. Dynamic cell culture system (7-IML-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    This experiment is one of the Biorack experiments being flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (MIL-1) mission as part of an investigation studying cell proliferation and performance in space. One of the objectives of this investigation is to assess the potential benefits of bioprocessing in space with the ultimate goal of developing a bioreactor for continuous cell cultures in space. This experiment will test the operation of an automated culture chamber that was designed for use in a Bioreactor in space. The device to be tested is called the Dynamic Cell Culture System (DCCS). It is a simple device in which media are renewed or chemicals are injected automatically, by means of osmotic pumps. This experiment uses four Type I/O experiment containers. One DCCS unit, which contains a culture chamber with renewal of medium and a second chamber without a medium supply fits in each container. Two DCCS units are maintained under zero gravity conditions during the on-orbit period. The other two units are maintained under 1 gh conditions in a 1 g centrifuge. The schedule for incubator transfer is given.

  2. 1kW SOFC-CHP系统用催化燃烧耦合蒸汽重整反应器的实验研究%Experimental study on reactor integrating catalytic combustion and steam reforming for 1 kW SOFC-CHP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 邢耀华; 钟杰; 徐宏; 曹军

    2016-01-01

    针对1 kW固体氧化物燃料电池热电联供(SOFC-CHP)系统开发了集成催化燃烧、换热及蒸汽重整的反应器,搭建了性能评价系统,系统研究了燃烧侧气体组分及工艺参数对该反应器性能的影响规律。实验结果表明:在反应器燃烧侧气体入口温度为300℃、空燃比为10:1、电堆燃料利用率为65%、水碳比为3的条件下,重整侧转化率达到73.6%,重整尾气中H2含量为67.5%。电堆燃料利用率对重整反应转化效率影响较大,其值大于80%时,采用尾气燃烧的余热回收方式无法有效为蒸汽重整提供所需热量。在150~350℃范围内,降低燃烧侧气体入口温度对重整反应效率影响较小,建议采用尾气先换热再进行催化燃烧的流程设计,保证重整效率的前提下可有效提升系统热效率。空燃比的降低可小幅度提升重整效率,在保证电堆反应温度稳定的前提下,适当降低空燃比可减少空气压缩机的功耗,从而提升整个系统的效率。研究成果对SOFC-CHP系统的优化和整体效率提升具有指导意义。%A reactor integrating catalytic combustion, heat exchange and steam reforming was developed for a 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell-combined heating and power system (SOFC-CHP). Experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of combustion gas components and process parameters on properties of the reactor. The results showed that methane conversion rate was 73.6%and hydrogen concentration in the exhaust gas was 67.5%under operating conditions at the inlet temperature of combustion gas of 300℃, air-fuel ratio of 10:1, fuel utilization of stacks of 65% and water-carbon ratio of 3:1. Fuel utilization of the SOFC stacks had significant effect on methane conversion. Waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas combustion cannot provide enough heat for methane steam reforming when the fuel utilization was greater than 80%. Reduction of the inlet temperature

  3. COMPARISON OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS OF UNCONVENTIONAL CHP UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An unconventional CHP unit with a hot air engine is designed as the primary energy source with fuel in the form of biomass. The heat source is a furnace designed for combustion of biomass, whether in the form of wood logs or pellets. The transport of energy generated by the biomass combustion to the working medium of a hot-air engine is ensured by a special heat exchanger connected to this resource. The correct operation of the hot-air engine is largely dependent on an appropriate design of the exchanger. The paper deals with the calculation of the heat exchanger for the applicationsmentioned, using criterion equations, and based on CFD simulations.

  4. Implications of the modelling of stratified hot water storage tanks in the simulation of CHP plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Celador, A., E-mail: alvaro.campos@ehu.es [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Odriozola, M.; Sala, J.M. [ENEDI Research Group-University of the Basque Country, Departamento de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Three different modelling approaches for simulation of hot water tanks are presented. {yields} The three models are simulated within a residential cogeneration plant. {yields} Small differences in the results are found by an energy and exergy analysis. {yields} Big differences between the results are found by an advanced exergy analysis. {yields} Results on the feasibility study are explained by the advanced exergy analysis. - Abstract: This paper considers the effect that different hot water storage tank modelling approaches have on the global simulation of residential CHP plants as well as their impact on their economic feasibility. While a simplified assessment of the heat storage is usually considered in the feasibility studies of CHP plants in buildings, this paper deals with three different levels of modelling of the hot water tank: actual stratified model, ideal stratified model and fully mixed model. These three approaches are presented and comparatively evaluated under the same case of study, a cogeneration plant with thermal storage meeting the loads of an urbanisation located in the Bilbao metropolitan area (Spain). The case of study is simulated by TRNSYS for each one of the three modelling cases and the so obtained annual results are analysed from both a First and Second-Law-based viewpoint. While the global energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant for the three modelling cases agree quite well, important differences are found between the economic results of the feasibility study. These results can be predicted by means of an advanced exergy analysis of the storage tank considering the endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction terms caused by the hot water storage tank.

  5. Phase Space Cell in Nonextensive Classical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Quarati

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We calculate the phase space volume Ω occupied by a nonextensive system of N classical particles described by an equilibrium (or steady-state, or long-term stationary state of a nonequilibrium system distribution function, which slightly deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB distribution in the high energy tail. We explicitly require that the number of accessible microstates does not change respect to the extensive MB case. We also derive, within a classical scheme, an analytical expression of the elementary cell that can be seen as a macrocell, different from the third power of Planck constant. Thermodynamic quantities like entropy, chemical potential and free energy of a classical ideal gas, depending on elementary cell, are evaluated. Considering the fractional deviation from MB distribution we can deduce a physical meaning of the nonextensive parameter q of the Tsallis nonextensive thermostatistics in terms of particle correlation functions (valid at least in the case, discussed in this work, of small deviations from MB standard case.

  6. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  7. Status of commercial fuel cell powerplant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, Marvin

    The primary focus is on the development of commercial Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) powerplant systems because the PAFC, which has undergone extensive development, is currently the closest fuel cell system to commercialization. Shorter discussions are included on the high temperature fuel cell systems which are not as mature in their development, such as the Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) and the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). The alkaline and the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE) fuel cell systems, are also included, but their discussions are limited to their prospects for commercial development. Currently, although the alkaline fuel cell continues to be used for important space applications there are no commercial development programs of significant size in the USA and only small efforts outside. The market place for fuel cells and the status of fuel cell programs in the USA receive extensive treatment. The fuel cell efforts outside the USA, especially the large Japanese programs, are also discussed.

  8. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  9. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan;

    2010-01-01

    -defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed as a...

  10. Technology watch of polymer fuel cells (PEMFC) 2012; Teknikbevakning av polymera braensleceller (PEMFC) 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wreland Lindstroem, Rakel; Lindbergh, Goeran

    2013-03-15

    The commercial development of the PEMFC has made strong progress in recent years. Between 2010 and 2011, the number of units shipped increased by 87%. The forecast for 2012 is a further tripling of the number of units delivered to about 71000 during the year. Sales of stationary units are increasing, and they account for a third of the number of units and almost half of the rated power with a total of over 20 MW. The increase consists of a few large units and a continued growth in small combined heat and power plant for residential use (micro-CHP). The increase is also reflected by the Japanese catalyst manufacturer Tanaka which increased its sales of catalysts for fuel cells by 67% in 2011. The number of units for transport is still small but is believed to take over the market when fuel cell vehicles enter the market around the 2015. Combined heat and power plant for residential, micro-CHP, has gained ground in Japan. The systems under the name ENE-FARM is based on natural gas reformed and used in a PEMFC. The demand increased even further after the tsunami and nuclear disaster in 2011. The global market for micro-CHP, which is dominated by the Japanese market, grew by 38%. Since 2010, the Japanese system has improved and obtained higher electrical efficiency and become 20% cheaper. The interest in micro-CHP increase also in other countries. A Germany program had in June 2012 260 systems installed, and projected 550 systems at the end of 2013. A European program called ene.field brings together European producers and users in 12 member states to test various fuel cell technologies in around 1000 installations in buildings. In Korea, 350 micro-CHP systems have been produced in 2012. The large amount of hydrogen produced as a by-product in the chemical industry has recently been highlighted. The hydrogen is today typically burned to provide heat, but calculations show that if the gas instead is used in fuel cells the industry's electricity costs could be

  11. Technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment of small scale biomass CHP plant in an existing Brazilian's industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.L.M.; Arrieta, F.R.P. [Papal Catholic University of Minas Gerais (PUC-Minas), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: mlmroduol.com.br, feliperp_arrieta@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    A technical, economic and exergoeconomic assessment was developed in order to verify the economic feasibility of the implementation of a CHP (Combined Heat and Power) plant in an existing Brazilian industry as a technological solution to assure the energy demands of its productive process. The assessment began with the attainment of the values of heat and electricity demands of the process. In a second stage, considering the current biomass availability and the existing boiler upgrade for the superheat steam generation, a small scale Rankine cycle was defined for the CHP plant. A thermodynamic model of the thermal cycle of CHP plant was crated in the EES (Engineering Equation Solver) and was used to simulating the interaction and integration with the production process and external interfaces. The simulation for the steady state operation considered the process values of heat and electricity demands considering two hypotheses: selling or not selling of electricity to the grid and burning wood chips or vegetal carbon residue as fuel. For the feasibility assessment, a cash flow was elaborated in a Microsoft Excel sheet and it was used for computing the conventional financial indicators of the CHP plant implementation: Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Pay Back. For the exergoeconomic assessment was applied the Thermo economic Structural Theory. The results show the mass, energy and entropy balances, as well as the characteristic parameters for the different equipment and the CCHP plant. The main conclusions are: there are not feasibility of the CHP plant implementation at the current electricity tariff and fuel price, but in a most favorable scenario the hypothesis of selling electricity to the grid was the most interesting among the assessed ones; the vegetal carbon residue is the fuel option with greater economic viability; the values of electricity cost calculated in the exergoeconomic analysis are coherent with the economic analysis ones and are

  12. Economic, energy and GHG emissions performance evaluation of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit in a domestic dwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The performance of a Stirling engine MK IV micro-CHP unit was evaluated in a domestic dwelling in Ireland. • The performance of the micro-CHP was compare to that of a condensing gas boiler. • The micro-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 compared to the condensing gas boiler. • Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. • The micro-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler during one year of operation. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the energy, economic and greenhouse gas emissions performances of a WhisperGen Mk IV Stirling engine μ-CHP unit for use in a conventional house in the Republic of Ireland. The energy performance data used in this study was obtained from a field trial carried out in Belfast, Northern Ireland during the period June 2004–July 2005 by Northern Ireland Electricity and Phoenix Gas working in collaboration with Whispertech UK. A comparative performance analysis between the μ-CHP unit and a condensing gas boiler revealed that the μ-CHP unit resulted in an annual cost saving of €180 with an incremental simple payback period of 13.8 years when compared to a condensing gas boiler. Electricity imported from the grid decreased by 20.8% while CO2 emissions decreased by 16.1%. The μ-CHP unit used 2889 kW h of gas more than the condensing gas boiler

  13. The capsid-coding region hairpin element (cHP) is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, Karen; Barrera, Julio; Harris, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Flavivirus genus of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA sequences and structures, primarily in the untranslated regions, have been shown to modulate flaviviral gene expression and genome replication. Previously, we demonstrated that a structure in the DENV coding region (cHP) enhances translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication. Here we further characterize the role of the cHP in the DENV life cycle. We ...

  14. Degradation of H3PO4/PBI High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell under Stressed Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Fan

    HT-PEM fuel cell based micro-CHP units for households, the daily startup/shutdown operation is necessary. Moreover, the faults in the H2 supply system or in controlling the reformer can cause the H2 starvation of the HT-PEM fuel cell. The effects of these operating conditions to the degradation of......The Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are promising fuel cell technology which can convert the chemical energy in for example hydrogen into electricity efficiently and environmentally friendly. In this work, some degradation issues of the HT-PEM fuel cell are experimentally investigated...... the HT-PEM fuel cell are studied in the current work. Both in-situ and ex-situ characterization techniques are conducted to gain insight into the degradation mechanisms of the HT-PEM fuel cell under these operating conditions. The experimental results in this work suggest that the presence of methanol...

  15. Drug delivery system and breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colone, Marisa; Kaliappan, Subramanian; Calcabrini, Annarica; Tortora, Mariarosaria; Cavalieri, Francesca; Stringaro, Annarita

    2016-06-01

    Recently, nanomedicine has received increasing attention for its ability to improve the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. Nanosized polymer therapeutic agents offer the advantage of prolonged circulation in the blood stream, targeting to specific sites, improved efficacy and reduced side effects. In this way, local, controlled delivery of the drug will be achieved with the advantage of a high concentration of drug release at the target site while keeping the systemic concentration of the drug low, thus reducing side effects due to bioaccumulation. Various drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microparticles and implants have been demonstrated to significantly enhance the preventive/therapeutic efficacy of many drugs by increasing their bioavailability and targetability. As these carriers significantly increase the therapeutic effect of drugs, their administration would become less cost effective in the near future. The purpose of our research work is to develop a delivery system for breast cancer cells using a microvector of drugs. These results highlight the potential uses of these responsive platforms suited for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. At the request of all authors of the paper an updated version was published on 12 July 2016. The manuscript was prepared and submitted without Dr. Francesca Cavalieri's contribution and her name was added without her consent. Her name has been removed in the updated and re-published article.

  16. Waveform control of fuel-cell inverter systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, GR; Wang, KW; Tse, CK; Tan, SC

    2012-01-01

    Fuel-cell power systems comprising single-phase DC/AC inverters draw low-frequency AC ripple currents at twice the output frequency from the fuel cell. Such a 100/120 Hz ripple current may create instability in the fuel cell system, lowers its efficiency, and shortens the lifetime of fuel cell stack. This paper1 presents a waveform control method that can mitigate such a low-frequency ripple current from being drawn from the fuel cell while the fuel-cell system delivers AC power to the load t...

  17. Simplified Load-Following Control for a Fuel Cell System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified load-following control scheme has been proposed for a fuel cell power system. The scheme could be used to control devices that are important parts of a fuel cell system but are sometimes characterized as parasitic because they consume some of the power generated by the fuel cells.

  18. Expanding Photovoltaic Penetration with Residential Distributed Generation from Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic. Combined Heat and Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV CHP hybrid systems in order increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly sh...

  19. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buti, Sebastiano; Bersanelli, Melissa; Donini, Maddalena; Ardizzoni, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC. PMID:25992216

  20. Systemic adjuvant therapies in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Buti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is one of the ten most frequent solid tumors worldwide. Recent innovations in the treatment of metastatic disease have led to new therapeutic approaches being investigated in the adjuvant setting. Observation is the only current standard of care after radical nephrectomy, although there is evidence of efficacy of adjuvant use of vaccine among all the strategies used. This article aims to collect published experiences with systemic adjuvant approaches in RCC and to describe the results of past and ongoing phase III clinical trials in this field. We explored all the systemic treatments, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted drugs while alternative approaches have also been described. Appropriate selection of patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapies remains a crucial dilemma. Although the international guidelines do not actually recommend any adjuvant treatment after radical surgery for RCC, no conclusions have yet been drawn pending the results of the promising ongoing clinical trials with the target therapies. The significant changes that these new drugs have made on advanced disease outcome could represent the key to innovation in terms of preventing recurrence, delaying relapse and prolonging survival after radical surgery for RCC.

  1. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  2. Comparison of defined culture systems for feeder cell free propagation of human embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Akopian, Veronika; Andrews, Peter W.; Beil, Stephen; Benvenisty, Nissim; Brehm, Jennifer; Christie, Megan; Ford, Angela; Fox, Victoria; Gokhale, Paul J; Healy, Lyn; Holm, Frida; Hovatta, Outi; Knowles, Barbara B; Ludwig, Tenneille E; Ronald D G McKay

    2010-01-01

    There are many reports of defined culture systems for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder cell support, but no previous study has undertaken a multi-laboratory comparison of these diverse methodologies. In this study, five separate laboratories, each with experience in human embryonic stem cell culture, used a panel of ten embryonic stem cell lines (including WA09 as an index cell line common to all laboratories) to assess eight cell culture methods, with pr...

  3. Physics of cell adhesion: some lessons from cell-mimetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sackmann, Erich; Smith, Ana-Sunčana

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a paradigm of the ubiquitous interplay of cell signalling, modulation of material properties and biological functions of cells. It is controlled by competition of short range attractive forces, medium range repellant forces and the elastic stresses associated with local and global deformation of the composite cell envelopes. We review the basic physical rules governing the physics of cell adhesion learned by studying cell-mimetic systems and demonstrate the importance of thes...

  4. Aging and the Dendritic Cell System: Implications for Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shurin, Michael R.; Shurin, Galina V.; Chatta, Gurkamal S.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system shows a decline in responsiveness to antigens both with aging, as well as in the presence of tumors. The malfunction of the immune system with age can be attributed to developmental and functional alterations in several cell populations. Previous studies have shown defects in humoral responses and abnormalities in T cell function in aged individuals, but have not distinguished between abnormalities in antigen presentation and intrinsic T cell or B cell defects in aged indivi...

  5. System-level design of bacterial cell cycle control

    OpenAIRE

    McAdams, Harley H.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the cell cycle control logic in Caulobacter has progressed to the point where we now have an integrated view of the operation of an entire bacterial cell cycle system functioning as a state machine. Oscillating levels of a few temporally-controlled master regulator proteins in a cyclical circuit drive cell cycle progression. To a striking degree, the cell cycle regulation is a whole cell phenomenon. Phospho-signaling proteins and proteases dynamically deployed to specific loc...

  6. T cells and the humoral immune system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Muiswinkel (Willem)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractLymphoid cells and macrophages play an important role in the development and rnaintance of humoral and cellular immunity in mammals. The lymphoid cells in the peripheral lymphoid organs are divided into two major classes: (1) thymus-derived lymphocytes or T cells and (2) bursa-equivalent

  7. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals

  8. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  9. Woking Park PAFC CHP monitoring. Phase 1: Planning, installation and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, P.S.; Fry, M.R.

    2003-07-01

    This report covers the planning, installation and commissioning of the first commercially operated fuel cell cogeneration system in the UK. The involvement of Woking Borough Council, its approach to energy efficiency, and the Woking Park site are discussed, and details are given of the PC25/C 200kW fuel cell which is manufactured in the US by UTC Fuel Cells. A description of the Woking Park fuel cell combined heat and power application is presented, and the project economics, specification and tendering are examined. The route taken to planning approval is traced, and installation procedures are outlined. The testing of the phosphoric type PC25 fuel cell cogeneration unit is described, and expected cost and project timescales are noted.

  10. Advanced Fuel Cell System Thermal Management for NASA Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing advanced passive thermal management technology to reduce the mass and improve the reliability of space fuel cell systems for the NASA exploration program. An analysis of a state-of-the-art fuel cell cooling systems was done to benchmark the portion of a fuel cell system s mass that is dedicated to thermal management. Additional analysis was done to determine the key performance targets of the advanced passive thermal management technology that would substantially reduce fuel cell system mass.

  11. Cell viability and repair systems in mammal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronized cell cultures of mice are irradiated with 4,0J/m2 ultraviolet light at different times. The possible mechanisms involved in the recuperation of the cellular survival observed, are discussed. (M.A.)

  12. Cost Analysis of Fuel Cell Systems for Transportation Compressed Hydrogen and PEM Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric J. Carlson

    2004-10-20

    PEMFC technology for transportation must be competitive with internal combustion engine powertrains in a number of key metrics, including performance, life, reliability, and cost. Demonstration of PEMFC cost competitiveness has its own challenges because the technology has not been applied to high volume automotive markets. The key stack materials including membranes, electrodes, bipolar plates, and gas diffusion layers have not been produced in automotive volumes to the exacting quality requirements that will be needed for high stack yields and to the evolving property specifications of high performance automotive stacks. Additionally, balance-of-plant components for air, water, and thermal management are being developed to meet the unique requirements of fuel cell systems. To address the question of whether fuel cells will be cost competitive in automotive markets, the DOE has funded this project to assess the high volume production cost of PEM fuel cell systems. In this report a historical perspective of our efforts in assessment of PEMFC cost for DOE is provided along with a more in-depth assessment of the cost of compressed hydrogen storage is provided. Additionally, the hydrogen storage costs were incorporated into a system cost update for 2004. Assessment of cost involves understanding not only material and production costs, but also critical performance metrics, i.e., stack power density and associated catalyst loadings that scale the system components. We will discuss the factors influencing the selection of the system specification (i.e., efficiency, reformate versus direct hydrogen, and power output) and how these have evolved over time. The reported costs reflect internal estimates and feedback from component developers and the car companies. Uncertainty in the cost projection was addressed through sensitivity analyses.

  13. Economics of Direct Hydrogen Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Kathyayani

    2011-10-04

    Battelle's Economic Analysis of PEM Fuel Cell Systems project was initiated in 2003 to evaluate the technology and markets that are near-term and potentially could support the transition to fuel cells in automotive markets. The objective of Battelle?s project was to assist the DOE in developing fuel cell systems for pre-automotive applications by analyzing the technical, economic, and market drivers of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cell adoption. The project was executed over a 6-year period (2003 to 2010) and a variety of analyses were completed in that period. The analyses presented in the final report include: Commercialization scenarios for stationary generation through 2015 (2004); Stakeholder feedback on technology status and performance status of fuel cell systems (2004); Development of manufacturing costs of stationary PEM fuel cell systems for backup power markets (2004); Identification of near-term and mid-term markets for PEM fuel cells (2006); Development of the value proposition and market opportunity of PEM fuel cells in near-term markets by assessing the lifecycle cost of PEM fuel cells as compared to conventional alternatives used in the marketplace and modeling market penetration (2006); Development of the value proposition of PEM fuel cells in government markets (2007); Development of the value proposition and opportunity for large fuel cell system application at data centers and wastewater treatment plants (2008); Update of the manufacturing costs of PEM fuel cells for backup power applications (2009).

  14. Small scale combined heat and power (CHP) from bio-crude oil fuelled to a sterling engine (Bio-stir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyftopoulou, M.; Papamichael, I.; Boukis, I. [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece)

    2002-02-01

    De-coupling of biomass conversion and combined heat and power (CHP) production may be best achieved by a liquid fuel, namely Bio-Crude-Oil (BCO), derived by fast pyrolysis of biomass. BCO can be fuelled in a modified Stirling engine, which is able to provide a high electrical efficiency (approximately 30%) and a favourable overall efficiency (approximately 80% on CHP), which is extremely important for economic viability in small-scale (< 100 kW{sub e}). The external combustion employed in the Stirling engine enables the utilisation of relatively 'dirty' fuels such as BCO. On the aforementioned grounds, a project was drawn, aiming to accomplish the following objectives: Development of feedstock logistics for BCO production via fast pyrolysis technology; Testing of different feedstocks for BCO production and feedstock characterisation, fast pyrolysis reactor extensive operation - process optimisation, as well as BCO characterisation; Evaluation of the scale-up potential of the biomass fast pyrolysis technology; Development of a suitable burner for BCO combustion and adaptation of a Stirling engine to be fuelled with BCO; Techno-economic assessment of the proposed, entire biomass-to-energy route, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Investigation for the industrial exploitation of the technology including scale-up and small-scale CHP deployment. The project has resulted in the following industrial benefits: Assessment for the production and logistics of the selected feedstocks (i.e. pine and miscanthus) for BCO production; Adoption of measures to deal with major technical risks associated with industrial scale-up (in particular char and particulates removal and vapour quenching); Assessment of the scale-up potential of the fast pyrolysis technology (in the range of 5 to 25 MW{sub th}). Demonstration of BCO combustion in a modified Stirling engine; Evaluation of the Stirling engine performance in terms of efficiency and emissions; Assessment of the

  15. Single cell deposition and patterning with a robotic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Lu

    Full Text Available Integrating single-cell manipulation techniques in traditional and emerging biological culture systems is challenging. Microfabricated devices for single cell studies in particular often require cells to be spatially positioned at specific culture sites on the device surface. This paper presents a robotic micromanipulation system for pick-and-place positioning of single cells. By integrating computer vision and motion control algorithms, the system visually tracks a cell in real time and controls multiple positioning devices simultaneously to accurately pick up a single cell, transfer it to a desired substrate, and deposit it at a specified location. A traditional glass micropipette is used, and whole- and partial-cell aspiration techniques are investigated to manipulate single cells. Partially aspirating cells resulted in an operation speed of 15 seconds per cell and a 95% success rate. In contrast, the whole-cell aspiration method required 30 seconds per cell and achieved a success rate of 80%. The broad applicability of this robotic manipulation technique is demonstrated using multiple cell types on traditional substrates and on open-top microfabricated devices, without requiring modifications to device designs. Furthermore, we used this serial deposition process in conjunction with an established parallel cell manipulation technique to improve the efficiency of single cell capture from ∼80% to 100%. Using a robotic micromanipulation system to position single cells on a substrate is demonstrated as an effective stand-alone or bolstering technology for single-cell studies, eliminating some of the drawbacks associated with standard single-cell handling and manipulation techniques.

  16. Energy Saving and GHG Emission Reduction in a Micro-CCHP System by Use of Solar Energy

    OpenAIRE

    ION, I.; Ciocea, G; Popescu, F

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and the energy saving by integrating solar collectors and photovoltaic panels in a Stirling engine based microcombined cooling, heating and power (mCCHP) system are studied. The mCCHP system consists of a natural gas Stirling CHP and an adsorber chiller. When the thermal outputs of the Stirling CHP and solar collectors are not sufficient to cover the heat demand for domestic hot water (DHW), heating/cooling, an au...

  17. Structure and function of stem cell pools in mammalian cell renewal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stem cells play a key-role in the maintenance of the equilibrium between cell loss and cell production in cell renewal systems as well as in the understanding of the radiation pathophysiology of mammalian organisms. The integrity of mammalian organisms with the need to maintain a constant ''millieu interior'' is depending on the normal functioning of cell renewal systems, especially those of epithelial surfaces and blood cell forming organs. All cell renewal systems of bodies have a very similar functional structure consisting of functional, proliferative - amplifying and stem cell compartments. They differ in transit and cell cycle times and in the number of amplification division - aside from the difference in their functional and biochemical make-up. The stem cell pools are providing the cells capable of differentiation without depleting their own kind. This can be achieved by symmetrical or assymmetrical stem cell division. In normal steady state, 50% of the stem cell division remain in the stem cell pool, while the other 50% leave it to differentiate, proliferate and mature, hemopoietic system is distributed throughout bodies. This is an important factor in the radiation biology of mammalian organisms since the loss of function in one area can be compensated for by more production in other areas, and locally depleted sites can be reseeded with the stem cells migrating in from blood. (Yamashita, S.)

  18. Cell death in the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Murray; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Cell death is important for both development and tissue homeostasis in the adult. As such, it is tightly controlled and deregulation is associated with diverse pathologies; for example, regulated cell death is involved in vessel remodelling during development or following injury, but deregulated death is implicated in pathologies such as atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathies and infarction. We describe the mechanisms of cell death and its role in the norm...

  19. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty me...

  20. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  1. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  2. Implementation strategy for small CHP-plants in a competitive market: the case of Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H. [Aalborg Univ., Dept. of Development and Planning, Aalborg (Denmark); Siupsinskas, G.; Martinaitis, V. [Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univ., Dept. of Heating and Ventilation, Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2005-11-01

    Within five years from now, Lithuania is going to close down Ignalina, the only nuclear-power plant in the country. Since Ignalina generates more than 75% of the Lithuanian electricity production, new generation capacities are needed. Traditional steam-turbines, fuelled with fossil fuels, would mean further imports of fuel as well as a rise in CO{sub 2} emissions. At the same time, several small district-heating companies one suffering from high heating-prices. Typically, the price in small towns is 20-50% higher than the price in large urban areas. Consequently, alternative strategies should be considered. This article analyses the conditions for one such strategy, namely the replacement of boilers in the existing district-heating supplies with combined heat-and-power production (CHP). Compared with new power stations, fuel can be saved and CO{sub 2}-emissions reduced. Also this strategy can be used to level the difference between low heating prices in the large urban areas and high prices in small towns and villages. (Author)

  3. Operation reliability analysis of independent power plants of gas-transmission system distant production facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Piskunov Maksim V.; Voytkov Ivan S.; Vysokomornaya Olga V.; Vysokomorny Vladimir S.

    2015-01-01

    The new approach was developed to analyze the failure causes in operation of linear facilities independent power supply sources (mini-CHP-plants) of gas-transmission system in Eastern part of Russia. Triggering conditions of ceiling operation substance temperature at condenser output were determined with mathematical simulation use of unsteady heat and mass transfer processes in condenser of mini-CHP-plants. Under these conditions the failure probability in operation of independent power supp...

  4. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  5. Comparative analysis of eukaryotic cell-free expression systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsough, Emily M; Shah, Pankti; Larsen, Andrew C; Chaput, John C

    2015-09-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) allows researchers to rapidly generate functional proteins independent of cell culture. Although advances in eukaryotic lysates have increased the amount of protein that can be produced, the nuances of different translation systems lead to variability in protein production. To help overcome this problem, we have compared the relative yield and template requirements for three commonly used commercial cell-free translation systems: wheat germ extract (WGE), rabbit reticulocyte lysate (RRL), and HeLa cell lysate (HCL). Our results provide a general guide for researchers interested in using cell-free translation to generate recombinant protein for biomedical applications. PMID:26345507

  6. Cell-to-cell variability in cell death: can systems biology help us make sense of it all?

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, X; Owen, M. S.; Lee, R E C; Gaudet, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common observations in cell death assays is that not all cells die at the same time, or at the same treatment dose. Here, using the perspective of the systems biology of apoptosis and the context of cancer treatment, we discuss possible sources of this cell-to-cell variability as well as its implications for quantitative measurements and computational models of cell death. Many different factors, both within and outside of the apoptosis signaling networks, have been correlated...

  7. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  8. Microfluidics-based laser cell-micropatterning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability to place individual cells into an engineered microenvironment in a cell-culture model is critical for the study of in vivo relevant cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Microfluidics provides a high-throughput modality to inject various cell types into a microenvironment. Laser guided systems provide the high spatial and temporal resolution necessary for single-cell micropatterning. Combining these two techniques, the authors designed, constructed, tested and evaluated (1) a novel removable microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip and (2) a combined system that uses the novel biochip coupled with a laser guided cell-micropatterning system to place individual cells into both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) arrays. Cell-suspensions of chick forebrain neurons and glial cells were loaded into their respective inlet reservoirs and traversed the microfluidic channels until reaching the outlet ports. Individual cells were trapped and guided from the outlet of a microfluidic channel to a target site on the cell-culture substrate. At the target site, 2D and 3D pattern arrays were constructed with micron-level accuracy. Single-cell manipulation was accomplished at a rate of 150 μm s−1 in the radial plane and 50 μm s−1 in the axial direction of the laser beam. Results demonstrated that a single-cell can typically be patterned in 20–30 s, and that highly accurate and reproducible cellular arrays and systems can be achieved through coupling the microfluidics-based cell-delivery biochip with the laser guided system. (paper)

  9. Modeling Of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    The objective of this doctoral thesis was to develop reliable steady-state and transient component models suitable to asses-, develop- and optimize proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems. Several components in PEM fuel cell systems were characterized and modeled. The developed component...

  10. Air intake and exhaust systems in fuel cell engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuesser, R.; Weber, O. [Mann and Hummel (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the air intake and exhaust system of a fuel cell powered road vehicle. In this instance the automotive supplier designed both the air intake and the exhaust system. The fuel cell engine gives a cold combustion effect making it possible to manufacture the exhaust from plastic materials. (UK)

  11. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    often during a normal driving cycle. The combination of batteries and super capacitors together with fuel cells can improve the system performance, lifetime and cost. Simple systems can be designed where the fuel cells and batteries are directly connected, but the introduction of power electronics can...

  12. Overview of Production of Protein Using Cell-free Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Fei Philip

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in protein research is production of the target protein. Cell based systems are mature tools that have long been used to express recombinant proteins by manipulation of the expression organisms. However, it is often challenging to find suitable cell systems that allow for rapid screening of conditions and constructs to produce properly folded, functional proteins in a cost effective manner. As a result, cell-free protein production emerged as an attractive alte...

  13. Fuel Cells: Power System Option for Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneeth, M.; Mohanty, Surajeet

    2012-07-01

    Fuel Cells are direct energy conversion devices and, thereby, they deliver electrical energy at very high efficiency levels. Hydrogen and Oxygen gases are electrochemically processed, producing clean electric power with water as the only by product. A typical, Fuel Cell based power system involve a Electrochemical power converter, gas storage and management systems, thermal management systems and relevant control units. While there exists different types of Fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are considered as the most suitable one for portable applications. Generally, Fuel Cells are considered as the primary power system option in space missions requiring high power ( > 5kW) and long durations and also where water is a consumable, such as manned missions. This is primarily due to the advantage that fuel cell based power systems offer, in terms of specific energy. Fuel cells have the potential to attain specific energy > 500Wh/kg, specific power >500W/kg, energy density > 400Whr/L and also power density > 200 W/L. This apart, a fuel cell system operate totally independent of sun light, whereas as battery based system is fully dependent on the same. This uniqueness provides added flexibility and capabilities to the missions and modularity for power system. High power requiring missions involving reusable launch vehicles, manned missions etc are expected to be richly benefited from this. Another potential application of Fuel Cell would be interplanetary exploration. Unpredictable and dusty atmospheres of heavenly bodies limits sun light significantly and there fuel cells of different types, eg, Bio-Fuel Cells, PEMFC, DMFCs would be able to work effectively. Manned or unmanned lunar out post would require continuous power even during extra long lunar nights and high power levels are expected. Regenerative Fuel Cells, a combination of Fuel Cells and Electrolysers, are identified as strong candidate. While application of Fuel Cells in high power

  14. Alkaline fuel cells for the regenerative fuel cell energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the alkaline Regenerative Fuel Cell System, whose fuel cell module would be a derivative of the 12-kW fuel cell power plant currently being produced for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, is reviewed. Long-term endurance testing of full-size fuel cell modules has demonstrated: (1) the extended endurance capability of potassium titanate matrix cells, (2) the long-term performance stability of the anode catalyst, and (3) the suitability of a lightweight graphite structure for use at the anode. These approaches, developed in the NASA-sponsored fuel cell technology advancement program, would also reduce cell weight by nearly one half.

  15. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  16. Neutrophils and macrophages: The main partners of phagocyte cell systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel T. Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological cellular systems are groups of cells sharing a set of characteristics, mainly key function and origin. Phagocytes are crucial in the host defense against microbial infection. The previously proposed phagocyte cell systems including the most recent and presently prevailing one, the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS, grouped mononuclear cells but excluded neutrophils, creating an unacceptable situation. As neutrophils are archetypical phagocytes that must be members of comprehensive phagocyte systems, M. T. Silva recently proposed the creation of a Myeloid Phagocyte System (MYPS that adds neutrophils to the MPS. The phagocytes grouped in the MYPS include the leukocytes neutrophils, inflammatory monocytes, macrophages and immature myeloid DCs. Here the justifications behind the inclusion of neutrophils in a phagocyte system is expanded and the MYPS are further characterized as a group of dedicated phagocytic cells that function in an interacting and cooperative way in the host defense against microbial infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are considered the main arms of this system.

  17. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs

  18. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlatky, L.

    1985-11-01

    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  19. A fully automated system for adherent cells microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Gabriele; Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automated robotic system to perform cell microinjections to relieve human operators from this highly difficult and tedious manual procedure. The system, which uses commercial equipment currently found on most biomanipulation laboratories, consists of a multitask software framework combining computer vision and robotic control elements. The vision part features an injection pipette tracker and an automatic cell targeting system that is responsible for defining injection points within the contours of adherent cells in culture. The main challenge is the use of bright-field microscopy only, without the need for chemical markers normally employed to highlight the cells. Here, cells are identified and segmented using a threshold-based image processing technique working on defocused images. Fast and precise microinjection pipette positioning over the automatically defined targets is performed by a two-stage robotic system which achieves an average injection rate of 7.6 cells/min with a pipette positioning precision of 0.23 μm. The consistency of these microinjections and the performance of the visual targeting framework were experimentally evaluated using two cell lines (CHO-K1 and HEK) and over 500 cells. In these trials, the cells were automatically targeted and injected with a fluorescent marker, resulting in a correct cell detection rate of 87% and a successful marker delivery rate of 67.5%. These results demonstrate that the new system is capable of better performances than expert operators, highlighting its benefits and potential for large-scale application. PMID:24403406

  20. An assessment of the present and future opportunities for combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As global fuel reserves are depleted, alternative and more efficient forms of energy generation and delivery will be required. Combined heat and power with district heating (CHP-DH) provides an alternative energy production and delivery mechanism that is less resource intensive, more efficient and provides greater energy security than many popular alternatives. It will be shown that the economic viability of CHP-DH networks depends on several principles, namely (1) the optimisation of engineering and design principles; (2) organisational and regulatory frameworks; (3) financial and economic factors. It was found that in the long term DH is competitive with other energy supply and distribution technologies such as electricity and gas. However, in the short to medium term it is shown that economic risk, regulatory uncertainty and lock-in of existing technology are the most significant barriers to CHP-DH development. This research suggests that under the present regulatory and economic paradigm, the infrastructure required for DH networks remains financially prohibitive; the implementation of government policies are complicated and impose high transaction costs, while engineering solutions are frequently not implemented or economically optimised. If CHP-DH is going to play any part in meeting climate change targets then collaboration between public and private organisations will be required. It is clear from this analysis that strong local government involvement is therefore necessary for the co-ordination, leadership and infrastructural deployment of CHP-DH.

  1. Red cell transfusion and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, S; Cserti-Gazdewich, C M; McCluskey, S A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex immunological consequences of red cell transfusion is essential if we are to use this valuable resource wisely and safely. The decision to transfuse red cells should be made after serious considerations of the associated risks and benefits. Immunological risks of transfusion include major incompatibility reactions and transfusion-related acute lung injury, while other immunological insults such as transfusion-related immunomodulation are relatively underappreciated. Red cell transfusions should be acknowledged as immunological exposures, with consequences weighed against expected benefits. This article reviews immunological consequences and the emerging evidence that may inform risk-benefit considerations in clinical practice. PMID:25440393

  2. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyou Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and somatic cells (SCs. Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  3. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells. PMID:24578634

  4. Towards systems thinking in cell biology education

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeff, Roald Pieter

    2003-01-01

    Students are taught a large variety of life structures and processes at the cellular level. The concepts used to describe them are mainly drawn from the sub-cellular level, but this knowledge seems to be fragmentary if its integration at the cellular and organismic level remains undone. As a consequence, many students fail to acquire coherent conceptual understanding of the cell as a basic and functional unit of the organism. To enhance the coherence in students’ cell biological knowledge we ...

  5. Alkaline regenerative fuel cell systems for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Reid, M. A.; Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of the results of a preliminary design study of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for application to future low-earth orbit space missions. The high energy density storage system is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte cell technology and incorporates dedicated fuel cell and electrolysis cell modules. In addition to providing energy storage, the system can provide hydrogen and oxygen for attitude control of the satellite and for life support. During the daylight portion of the orbit the electrolysis module uses power provided by the solar array to generate H2 and O2 from the product water produced by the fuel cell module. The fuel cell module supplies electrical power during the dark period of the orbit.

  6. 小规模热电联供(CHP)技术的特点及发展前景%Features of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) technology and its development prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖颖; 曹广益; 朱新坚

    2005-01-01

    介绍了几种小规模热电联供(combined heat and power,简称CHP)技术(往复式发动机、微型涡轮机、史特林发动机、燃料电池)的特点.分析了影响小规模CHP技术发展的有利和不利因素.对目前世界范围内的小规模CHP技术的发展前景进行了展望,并就我国开展小规模CHP技术研究提出了建议.

  7. Investigation of the photovoltaic cell/ thermoelectric element hybrid system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotfas, D. T.; Cotfas, P. A.; Machidon, O. M.; Ciobanu, D.

    2016-06-01

    The PV/TEG hybrid system, consisting of the photovoltaic cells and thermoelectric element, is presented in the paper. The dependence of the PV/TEG hybrid system parameters on the illumination levels and the temperature is analysed. The maxim power values of the photovoltaic cell, of the thermoelectric element and of the PV/TEG system are calculated and a comparison between them is presented and analysed. An economic analysis is also presented.

  8. Usability and Applicability of Microfluidic Cell Culture Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette

    devices still lack general implementation into biological research laboratories. In this project, the usability and applicability of microfluidic cell culture systems have been investigated. The tested systems display good properties regarding optics and compatibility with standard laboratory equipment...... possibilities for, for example, precise control of the chemical environment, 3D cultures, controlled co-culture of different cell types or automated, individual control of up to 96 cell culture chambers in one integrated system. Despite the great new opportunities to perform novel experimental designs, these...... shown to be needed. This is possibly one of the reasons for the lack of implementation of microfluidic cell culture systems into biological research laboratories. Procedures to perform long-term microfluidic perfusion cell culture experiments have been established. Furthermore, successful application of...

  9. Biona-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedericks, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing a system to demonstrate the ability to perform accurate, real-time measurements of pH and CO2 in a cell culture media in Space. The BIONA-C Cell Culture pH Monitoring System consists of S2K! developed ion selective sensors and control electronics integrated with the fluidics of a cell culture system. The integrated system comprises a "rail" in the Cell Culture Module (CCM) of WRAIR (Space Biosciences of Walter Read Army Institute of Research). The CCM is a Space Shuttle mid-deck locker experiment payload. The BIONA-C is displayed along with associated graphics and text explanations. The presentation will stimulate interest in development of sensor technology for real-time cell culture measurements. The transfer of this technology to other applications will also be of interest. Additional information is contained in the original document.

  10. Laser grooved buried contact cells optimised for linear concentration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivar, M.; Anton, I.; Sala, G. [Instituto de Energia Solar, UPM, Ciudad Universitaria S/N, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Morilla, C.; Fernandez, J.M. [BP Solar Espana, Pol. Ind. Tres Cantos, s/n Zona Oeste, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Laser grooved buried contact silicon solar cells can be optimised for use in linear concentration systems at low cost. Optimising the groove depth, the copper thickness and the finger pitch by using the Design of Experiments (DOE) experimental methodology can lead to a dramatic reduction of the cell series resistance. This type of cell can be optimised for each application in an industrial line with few changes. For the EUCLIDES III linear concentrator system, optimised cell efficiency metrics for 51 x 116 mm units are in the range of 18-19% at the 40 x concentration level. (author)

  11. [Gas cooled fuel cell systems technology development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    Objective is the development of a gas-cooled phosphoric acid fuel cell for electric utility power plant application. Primary objectives are to: demonstrate performance endurance in 10-cell stacks at 70 psia, 190 C, and 267 mA/cm[sup 2]; improve cell degradation rate to less than 8 mV/1000 hours; develop cost effective criteria, processes, and design configurations for stack components; design multiple stack unit and a single 100 kW fuel cell stack; design a 375 kW fuel cell module and demonstrate average cell beginning-of-use performance; manufacture four 375-kW fuel cell modules and establish characteristics of 1.5 MW pilot power plant. The work is broken into program management, systems engineering, fuel cell development and test, facilities development.

  12. Novel Fuel Cells for Coal Based Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Tao

    2011-12-31

    The goal of this project was to acquire experimental data required to assess the feasibility of a Direct Coal power plant based upon an Electrochemical Looping (ECL) of Liquid Tin Anode Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (LTA-SOFC). The objective of Phase 1 was to experimentally characterize the interaction between the tin anode, coal fuel and cell component electrolyte, the fate of coal contaminants in a molten tin reactor (via chemistry) and their impact upon the YSZ electrolyte (via electrochemistry). The results of this work will provided the basis for further study in Phase 2. The objective of Phase 2 was to extend the study of coal impurities impact on fuel cell components other than electrolyte, more specifically to the anode current collector which is made of an electrically conducting ceramic jacket and broad based coal tin reduction. This work provided a basic proof-of-concept feasibility demonstration of the direct coal concept.

  13. Performance comparison between partial oxidation and methane steam for SOFC micro-CHP systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liso, Vincenzo; Olesen, Anders Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh;

    2011-01-01

    Partial Oxidation and recirculation of anode and cathode gas. The comparative analysis among the different configurations will lead us to conclude that maximum efficiency is achieved when cathode and anode gas recirculation are used along with steam methane reforming. Further Steam Methane Reforming...

  14. Computer-assisted planning of CHP systems; Rechnergestuetzte Planung von Blockheizkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, B.

    1991-12-19

    In the scope of the work, an objective function in the design ranges of dual-purpose power plants (module number and module nominal capacity) is presented reflecting the efficiency of the plant. It is based on representative load bearing processes regarding heat demand as well as electricity demand. Since the costs of all essential components for example building parts, in which the dual-purpose plant and/or the peak boiler should be integrated, go explicitly into the objective function, the special investment situation, in addition to the special daily consumption of the potential dual-purpose power plant consumer, also his special investment situation (possibly existing buildings, necessary emergency power operation, existing gas supply, the contracts of the electric utilities concerning power suppy etc.) can be considered when designing the plant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Arbeit wird eine Zielfunktion in den BHKW-Auslegungsgroessen (Modulzahl und Modul-Nennleisung) vorgestellt, die die Wirtschaftlichkeit der Anlage widerspiegelt. Sie basiert auf repraesentativen Tageslastgaengen sowohl des Waermebedarfs als auch des Strombedarfs. Da die Kosten aller wesentlicher Komponenten z.B. die Gebaeudeanteile, in dem jeweils das BHKW und/oder der Spitzenkessel untergebracht werden sollte, explizit in die Zielfunktion eingehen, kann bei der Projektierung der Anlage neben der speziellen taeglichen Verbrauchsstruktur des potentiellen BHKW- Betreibers auch seine spezielle Investitions-Situation (evtl. vorhandene Gebaeude, evtl. erforderlicher Notstrombetrieb, evtl. vorhandener Gasanschluss, die vom EVU angebotenen Strombezugsvertraege u.s.w.) beruecksichtigt werden. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of a novel heat pipe solar collector/CHP system

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xudong

    2003-01-01

    The European Union has an ongoing commitment to reducing CO2 emission as highlighted by its agreement at the Kyoto Summit. One approach to achieving these reductions would be to develop alternative energy sources for major energy demanding sectors. In the EU, about 40% of all energy consumed is associated with buildings and of this, about 60% is utilised in the housing sector. A major part of the energy demand of buildings could be met by utilising renewable energy sources, e.g. solar energy....

  16. Microfluidic systems and methods for transport and lysis of cells and analysis of cell lysate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Christopher T [Oak Ridge, TN; Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; McClain, Maxine A [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-02

    Microfluidic systems and methods are disclosed which are adapted to transport and lyse cellular components of a test sample for analysis. The disclosed microfluidic systems and methods, which employ an electric field to rupture the cell membrane, cause unusually rapid lysis, thereby minimizing continued cellular activity and resulting in greater accuracy of analysis of cell processes.

  17. T cells fail to develop in the human skin-cell explants system; an inconvenient truth

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderlocht Joris; Lumeij Stijn BJ; Tonnaer Siebe; van der Stegen Sjoukje JC; Huijskens Mirelle JAJ; Van Elssen Catharina HMJ; Meek Bob; Kirkland Mark A; Hesselink Reinout; Germeraad Wilfred TV; Bos Gerard MJ

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Haplo-identical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is very successful in eradicating haematological tumours, but the long post-transplant T-lymphopenic phase is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Clark et al. have described a skin-explant system capable of producing host-tolerant donor-HSC derived T-cells. Because this T-cell production platform has the potential to replenish the T-cell levels following transplantation, we set out to validate th...

  18. Fuel cells and electrolysers in future energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    energy sys‐ tems, the direction in which these systems develop must be considered. In this dissertation, fuel cells are analysed in the context of energy systems that are gradually changing from the current design, with large amounts of fossil fuel combustion technologies, to a future design based on 100......Efficient fuel cells and electrolysers are still at the development stage. In this dissertation, future developed fuel cells and electrolysers are analysed in future renewable energy sys‐ tems. Today, most electricity, heat and transport demands are met by combustion tech‐ nologies. Compared to...... these conventional technologies, fuel cells have the ability to signifi‐ cantly increase the efficiency of the system while meeting such demands. However, energy system designs can be identified in which the fuel savings achieved are lost in technologies elsewhere in the system. This dissertation is...

  19. Visual Servoed Three-Dimensional Cell Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zenan; Latt, Win Tun; Tan, Steven Yih Min; Ang, Wei Tech

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) positioning and orientation of embryos/oocytes is necessary to facilitate micromanipulation tasks such as cell injection and cellular structural biopsy commonly performed under a microscope. Conventional cell orientation is performed manually by using a vacuum equipped micropipette to aspirate and release the cell, which is a trial-and-error approach. The conventional method relies heavily on the skill of the operator; it also suffers from low precision, low success rate and low controllability. These drawbacks illustrate the need for a systematic 3-D cell rotational system to automate the cell orientation process. In this paper, we present a noninvasive single cell rotation system that can automatically orientate a zebrafish embryo to a desired position when both the cytoplasm and the yolk are in the focal plane. A three-point-contact model for cell rotation that involves a custom-designed rotational stage is introduced to provide precise rotational position control. A vision recognition algorithm is also proposed to enable the visual servoing function of the system. Experimental results show that the proposed system can achieve high success rates of 92.5% (x-axis rotation with 40 trails) and 97.5% (about the z-axis with 80 trails). The system can also successfully complete 3-D cell orientation at an average speed of 31 s/cell with a high in-plane rotation accuracy of 0.3 (°) . As a high precise, high controllable and deterministic cell manipulating system, it provides a starting point for automated cell manipulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:25993702

  20. The CHP, The U.S., and Ulus: the portrayal of the United States in Ulus Gazetesi during WWII

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Connel, Adam Bennett

    2008-01-01

    Traditional accounts of Turkish-American relations point to the 1945-1947 period as the point at which political ties between the two countries became "important." However, when one looks at the information about the United States published by Ulus Gazetesi, the semi-official newspaper of the CHP, during that period, one sees a fully-developed pro-U.S. perspective, complete with many articles directly translated from U.S. sources. From this situation, we can infer that the Turkish-American ...