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Sample records for cell carcinoma in-situ

  1. Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ Overlying Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Maria A; Helm, Matthew F; Tarbox, Michelle B

    2016-11-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive cutaneous neoplasm that has exhibited an exponential increase in incidence in the past 3 decades. Combined MCC and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC/MCC) is an uncommon variant of MCC that exhibits worse prognosis than pure MCC. To describe the clinical presentation, dermoscopy, and histology of an unusual subtype of combined SCC/MCC. A 73-year-old white woman presented with an ulcerated and violaceous 10-mm plaque on her right jawline that had been present for 2 to 3 months. On dermoscopy, the lesion was predominantly milky pink to red with peripheral crusting and large-caliber polymorphous vessels. Histology revealed SCC in situ above and adjacent to MCC. The tumor was excised with clear margins, and sentinel lymph node scintography was negative for nodal involvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Carcinoma in situ testis, the progenitor of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Daugaard, G

    2005-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT), including seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, teratomas and yolk sac tumours, have a common precursor, the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. Recent gene expression studies displaying close similarity of CIS cells to embryonic stem cells support the longstanding theory...

  3. Tenascin and beta 6 integrin are overexpressed in floor of mouth in situ carcinomas and invasive squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, Joseph A; Ramos, Daniel M; Pytela, Robert; Dekker, Nusi P; Jordan, Richard C K

    2002-06-01

    Floor of the mouth squamous cell carcinomas exhibit many characteristics that suggest they represent a distinct biological subset within head and neck tumors. The features of preinvasive lateral intraepithelial spread, high rate of conversion of intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma, and high incidence of occult metastases, suggest the importance of motility-associated proteins in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Two such proteins, tenascin and beta 6 integrin, are generally overexpressed in squamous carcinomas, and may play a central role in the invasive process of floor of the mouth lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinomas from the floor of the mouth for the expression of tenascin and beta 6 integrin. Twenty lesions each of floor of the mouth in situ carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 normal controls were stained for tenascin and beta 6 using a standard immunohistochemical protocol for formalin-fixed specimens. Sections were assessed for staining intensity, pattern, and co-localization. Tenascin was highly expressed at the keratinocyte-connective tissue interface of both in situ and invasive carcinomas. beta 6 was expressed in basal keratinocytes of all in situ and invasive lesions, but was not evident in any of the control epithelia. There was no significant difference in staining of in situ and invasive carcinomas, but there was a significant difference in staining between these lesions and controls. Staining was colocalized in serial sections, supporting a receptor-ligand relationship. Both tenascin and beta 6 were weakly expressed in dysplastic areas adjacent to carcinomas suggesting that changes in the expression of these proteins occurs prior to the invasive phenotype. We conclude that tenascin and beta 6 are overexpressed in in situ and invasive floor of the mouth carcinomas, but that transgression of the basement membrane by neoplastic epithelial cells requires additional

  4. The emerging phenotype of the testicular carcinoma in situ germ cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Bartkova, Jirina; Samson, Michel

    2003-01-01

    germ cells to pre-spermatogonia, and later during the pubertal switch from the mitotic to meiotic cell division. The persistent expression of embryonic traits in CIS cells, and the high expression of the cell cycle regulators that are typical of mitotic germ cells support our long-standing hypothesis......This review summarises the existing knowledge on the phenotype of the carcinoma in situ (CIS) cell. CIS is a common pre-invasive precursor of testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and young adults. These tumours display a variety of histological forms. Classical seminoma proliferates along...... the germ cell lineage, whereas embryonal carcinoma retains embryonic features and readily differentiates into teratomas that resemble various somatic cell lineages. A thorough review of the gene expression in CIS cells in comparison to normal testicular germ cells and overt tumours supports the view...

  5. Collision of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Anogenital Mammary-like Glands and Vulvar Sarcomatoid Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tien A N; Deavers, Michael T; Carlson, J Andrew; Malpica, Anais

    2015-09-01

    A spectrum of invasive adenocarcinomas presumably arising from the anogenital mammary-like glands of the vulva has been reported. Even rarer are the cases of pure ductal carcinoma in situ that originated from these unique glandular structures. Herein, we report an 81-yr-old woman presented with an invasive well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Unexpectedly, the underlying dermis demonstrated a cystically dilated structure that displayed a layer of malignant squamous cells in the periphery, and a second centrally located population of neoplastic cells exhibiting glandular differentiation. In addition, a spindle and pleomorphic malignant cell population consistent with a sarcomatoid carcinoma was identified around the cystic structure. Scattered benign anogenital mammary-like glands were present in the adjacent dermis. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with those of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone sarcomatoid transformation after spreading in a pagetoid fashion into an underlying focus of ductal carcinoma in situ of anogenital mammary-like gland origin.

  6. Nonkeratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract: An HPV-Related Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingxin; Lewis, James S; El-Mofty, Samir K; Gandhi, Manoj; Chernock, Rebecca D

    2017-06-01

    The clinical and pathologic characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related premalignant lesions in the upper aerodigestive tract have not been adequately studied. There are a few reports of oral cavity HPV-related severe dysplasia with unique morphology (prominent apoptosis/karyorrhexis imparting a 'bowenoid' appearance) and a single case report of HPV-related squamous cell carcinoma in situ with nonkeratinizing histology distinct from the 'bowenoid' pattern that extensively involved the upper aerodigestive tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphologic and clinical features of HPV-related severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. All cases of upper aerodigestive tract severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (111 cases from 98 patients) at Washington University from July 2012 to March 2015 were categorized into histologic types: keratinizing, nonkeratinizing, mixed or 'bowenoid'. There were 83 (85 %) patients with keratinizing, 3 (3 %) nonkeratinizing and 12 (12 %) mixed patterns. The previously reported 'bowenoid' morphology was not identified. All 3 (100 %) nonkeratinizing and 6 (50 %) mixed cases were p16 and HPV RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) positive (100 % concordance between p16 and RNA ISH). Only 2 of 73 keratinizing cases were p16 positive, 1 of which was also HPV RNA ISH positive (1.4 % of keratinizing cases HPV-related). Thus, nonkeratinizing morphology was a strong predictor of transcriptionally-active HPV in severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ. HPV-related cases most commonly occurred in the floor of mouth and were frequently extensive (≥4 cm) or unresectable.

  7. Carcinoma in situ of contralateral testis in patients with testicular germ cell cancer: study of 27 cases in 500 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H; Rørth, M; Walbom-Jørgensen, S

    1986-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis was diagnosed in 27 of 500 patients (5.4%) with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer. Eight of the 27 patients received intensive chemotherapy for spread of their initial testicular cancer. Follow up biopsy studies did not detect changes of carcinoma...... in situ in any of these patients, and none developed a contralateral testicular tumour (observation time 12-88 months). Of the remaining 19 patients with carcinoma in situ, seven developed contralateral testicular cancer. The estimated risk of developing invasive growth was 40% within three years and 50......% within five years. None of the 473 patients without carcinoma in situ detected by screening biopsy developed contralateral testicular cancer (observation time 12-96 months). No serious complications arose from the biopsy procedures. All patients with unilateral testicular germ cell cancer should...

  8. Immunohistochemical expression of embryonal marker TRA-1-60 in carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Alexander; Andrews, P W; Jørgensen, N

    1993-01-01

    Testicular cancer is preceded by the noninvasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). According to a recent hypothesis, testicular CIA cells are germ cells transformed in fetal life. The idea of an embryonal origin of testicular germ cell neoplasia would be strengthened by the finding of antigenic s...... similarity between fetal germ cells, CIS cells, and invasive testicular germ cell tumors....

  9. Expression of immunohistochemical markers for testicular carcinoma in situ by normal human fetal germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Graem, N

    1995-01-01

    study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Normal human germ cells from 10 first-trimester fetuses and 76 second- and third-trimester testes were investigated for the immunohistochemical expression of the markers of testicular carcinoma in situ. The panel of markers included in the study consisted of placental......-like alkaline phosphatase, the protooncogene c-kit protein product, and the antigens for the monoclonal antibodies TRA-1-60 and M2A. The relative numbers of fetal germ cells that demonstrated positive reaction with the markers were calculated. RESULTS: The vast majority of the germ cells (75-100%) in the first......-trimester gonads were positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase, TRA-1-60, and M2A. The c-kit protein was detected in three out of the ten first-trimester gonads. The relative number of germ cells positive for all the markers studied declined rapidly during the first part of the second trimester...

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of embryonal marker TRA-1-60 in carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giwercman, Alexander; Andrews, P W; Jørgensen, N

    1993-01-01

    Testicular cancer is preceded by the noninvasive stage of carcinoma in situ (CIS). According to a recent hypothesis, testicular CIA cells are germ cells transformed in fetal life. The idea of an embryonal origin of testicular germ cell neoplasia would be strengthened by the finding of antigenic...

  11. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ; Report of a rare disease

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    Sujata Jetley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  12. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is a developmentally regulated marker of testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Transcription factor activator protein-2gamma (TFAP2C, AP-2gamma) was reported previously in extraembryonic ectoderm and breast carcinomas but not in the testis. In our recent gene expression study we detected AP-2gamma in carcinoma in situ testis (CIS, or intratubular germ cell neoplasia......-2gamma in testicular CIS and in testicular germ cell tumors of young adults and confirmed differential expression of AP-2gamma in somatic tumors. We found that AP-2gamma expression was regulated by retinoic acid in an embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2). The investigation of ontogeny of AP-2gamma...

  13. Squamous-cell carcinoma in situ in a patient with oculocutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Emily; Hunt, Raegan; Tzu, Julia; Patel, Rishi; Sanchez, Miguel

    2011-10-15

    A 36-year-old African man from Guinea with a history of albinism presented with a many-year history of scaling and erythema of the face, neck, and arms. The patient had light eyes, hair, and skin. Physical examination showed extensive photodamage. A skin biopsy specimen from the posterior aspect of the lower leg showed a squamous-cell carcinoma in situ. The most common types of oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), OCA 1 and OCA 2, are autosomal recessive disorders of pigmentation that commonly affect the skin, hair, eyes, and ears. Photodamage and skin cancers plague patients with albinism. In Africa, where albinism is prevalent, albinos face a myriad of social and medical issues. Skin cancer surveillance is an important consideration for albinos, and sun protection is paramount.

  14. Sperm Concentration, Testicular Volume and Age Predict Risk of Carcinoma In Situ in Contralateral Testis of Men with Testicular Germ Cell Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, Camilla Nymann; Daugaard, Gedske; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether semen quality or some easily attainable clinical parameters might be used to estimate the risk of contralateral carcinoma in situ in patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumors.......We investigated whether semen quality or some easily attainable clinical parameters might be used to estimate the risk of contralateral carcinoma in situ in patients with unilateral testicular germ cell tumors....

  15. In situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva in Denmark 1978-2007-a nationwide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Varbo, A; Munk, C

    2011-01-01

    To determine the incidence of vulvar carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer of squamous cell (SC) origin in Denmark in the period 1978-2007.......To determine the incidence of vulvar carcinoma in situ (CIS) and cancer of squamous cell (SC) origin in Denmark in the period 1978-2007....

  16. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the common precursor of histologically heterogeneous testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), which in recent decades have markedly increased and now are the most common malignancy of young men. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we identified >200 genes highly ex...

  17. Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Almstrup, K; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: NANOG is a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency. Our recent genome-wide gene expression profiling study of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumours, carcinoma in situ testis (CIS), showed close similarity between ESC and CIS, including high NANOG...... earlier than for OCT-4. We detected no expression at the protein level in normal testis. CONCLUSIONS: NANOG is a new marker for testicular CIS and germ cell tumours and the high level of NANOG along with OCT-4 are determinants of the stem cell-like pluripotency of the preinvasive CIS cell. Timing of NANOG......; seminoma and embryonal carcinoma were strongly positive, differentiated somatic elements of teratoma were negative. We provide evidence for the fetal origin of testicular cancer as we detected strong expression of NANOG in fetal gonocytes up to gestational week 20, with subsequent down-regulation occurring...

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen’s disease) in situ in three cats Carcinoma espinocelular in situ (doença de Bowen) em três gatos

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Conceição; L.P. Camargo; P.R.S. Costa; D.A. Kuwabara; C.O. Fonterrada

    2007-01-01

    Três casos de carcinoma multicêntrico in situ de células escamosas (doença de Bowen) são descritos na espécie felina. As neoplasias ocorreram em gatos idosos e acometeram a região pré-auricular, cervical, abdominal e flancos. Um gato apresentou lesão única e os demais apresentaram lesões multifocais, que se caracterizaram por placas que variavam de hiperceratóticas a verruco-crostosas e eram hiperpigmentadas. Algumas eram ulceradas, com fissuras que sangravam facilmente. Histologicamente, as ...

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen’s disease in situ in three cats Carcinoma espinocelular in situ (doença de Bowen em três gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Conceição

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Três casos de carcinoma multicêntrico in situ de células escamosas (doença de Bowen são descritos na espécie felina. As neoplasias ocorreram em gatos idosos e acometeram a região pré-auricular, cervical, abdominal e flancos. Um gato apresentou lesão única e os demais apresentaram lesões multifocais, que se caracterizaram por placas que variavam de hiperceratóticas a verruco-crostosas e eram hiperpigmentadas. Algumas eram ulceradas, com fissuras que sangravam facilmente. Histologicamente, as células neoplásicas encontravam-se confinadas à epiderme e aos folículos pilosos, sem o envolvimento da membrana basal. Em um dos casos houve melhora significativa das lesões após terapia oral com acitretina.

  20. Selective in situ protein expression profiles correlate with distinct phenotypes of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkovics, E; Kiszner, G; Meggyeshazi, N; Korom, I; Varga, E; Nemeth, I; Molnar, J; Marczinovits, I; Krenacs, T

    2013-07-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy that shows increasing incidence due to our cumulative exposure to ultraviolet irradiation. Its major subtypes, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) differ in pathobiology, phenotype and clinical behavior, which must be reflected at the molecular level. In this study, protein expression profiles of BCC and SCC were tested in tissue microarrays and correlated with that of actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, seborrheic keratosis and normal epidermis by detecting 22 proteins involved in cell interactions, growth, cell cycle regulation or apoptosis. The significantly more reduced collagen XVII, CD44v6, pan-Desmoglein levels and more evident E-Cadherin delocalization in BCC compared to SCC correlated with the de novo dermal invasion of BCC against the progressive invasion from in situ lesions in SCC development. EGFR was also expressed at a significantly higher level in SCC than in BCC. The upregulated cell communication protein connexin43 in BCC could contribute to the protection of BCC from metastatic invasion. Elevated cell replication in BCC was underlined by the increased topoisomerase IIα and reduced p21(waf1) and p27(kip1) positive cells fractions compared to SCC. Compared to differentiated keratinocytes, caspase-8 and -9 were equally upregulated in skin carcinoma subtypes for either mediating apoptosis induction or immune escape of tumor cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped SCC and actinic keratosis cases exclusively together in support of their common origin and malignant phenotype. BCC cases were also clustered fully together. Differentially expressed proteins reflect the distinct pathobiology of skin carcinoma subtypes and can serve as surrogate markers in doubtful cases.

  1. In situ detection of estrogen receptor dimers in breast carcinoma cells in archival materials using proximity ligation assay (PLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Erina; Miki, Yasuhiro; Ono, Katsuhiko; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) is required for carcinoma cell proliferation in the great majority of breast cancer and also functions as a dimer. ER dimeric proteins have been largely identified by BRET/FRET analyses but their in situ visualization have not yet been reported. Recently, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) has been developed as the methods detecting protein interactions in situ. Therefore, in this study we firstly demonstrated the dimerization of ERα in breast carcinoma cell lines and tissues using PLA. The human breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 were used in this study. Cells were treated with ER agonist or antagonist and fixed in 4% PFA, and ER dimers were subsequently detected using PLA. The evaluation of ER dimers in breast carcinoma cell lines were quantified by measuring the area of dots localized in the nuclei using image analysis. We also firstly demonstrated the visualization of ER dimer patterns in 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer using PLA technique. Estradiol (E2) administration induced ERα homodimers in the nuclei of MCF-7 and T-47D but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-231. 4-OH tamoxifen also induced ERα homodimers but the subcellular localization of these ERα homodimers was predominant in cytoplasm instead of the nuclei induced by E2 treatment. ICI182,780 treatment did decrease the number of formation of ERα homodimers in MCF-7. In breast cancer patients, ERα PLA score was significantly correlated positively with ERα- or PgR (progesterone receptor) immunohistochemical scores and inversely with Ki-67-labeling index, respectively. We also demonstrated the ERα/β heterodimer as well as ERα homodimers in both breast carcinoma cell lines and surgical pathology specimens. In summary, we did firstly succeed in the visualization of ER dimeric proteins using PLA method. The evaluation of ER dimer patterns could provide pivotal information as to the prediction of response to endocrine therapy of

  2. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

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    Giuseppe Perrone

    Full Text Available Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23% of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001; in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively. No relationship was evident with tumour size (T and regional lymph node (N status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004. Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  3. In situ identification of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells in primary human breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giuseppe; Gaeta, Laura Maria; Zagami, Mariagiovanna; Nasorri, Francesca; Coppola, Roberto; Borzomati, Domenico; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele; Cavani, Andrea; Muda, Andrea Onetti

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer cells with the CD44+/CD24- phenotype have been reported to be tumourigenic due to their enhanced capacity for cancer development and their self-renewal potential. The identification of human tumourigenic breast cancer cells in surgical samples has recently received increased attention due to the implications for prognosis and treatment, although limitations exist in the interpretation of these studies. To better identify the CD44+/CD24- cells in routine surgical specimens, 56 primary breast carcinoma cases were analysed by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, and the results were compared using flow cytometry analysis to correlate the amount and distribution of the CD44+/CD24- population with clinicopathological features. Using these methods, we showed that the breast carcinoma cells displayed four distinct sub-populations based on the expression pattern of CD44 and CD24. The CD44+/CD24- cells were found in 91% of breast tumours and constituted an average of 6.12% (range, 0.11%-21.23%) of the tumour. A strong correlation was found between the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cells in primary tumours and distant metastasis development (p = 0.0001); in addition, there was an inverse significant association with ER and PGR status (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). No relationship was evident with tumour size (T) and regional lymph node (N) status, differentiation grade, proliferative index or HER2 status. In a multivariate analysis, the percentage of CD44+/CD24- cancer cells was an independent factor related to metastasis development (p = 0.004). Our results indicate that confocal analysis of fluorescence-labelled breast cancer samples obtained at surgery is a reliable method to identify the CD44+/CD24- tumourigenic cell population, allowing for the stratification of breast cancer patients into two groups with substantially different relapse rates on the basis of CD44+/CD24- cell percentage.

  4. Fluorescence (FISH) and chromogenic (CISH) in situ hybridisation in prostate carcinoma cell lines: comparison and use of virtual microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, K; Hamilton, P W; Maxwell, P

    2008-01-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) has become an attractive alternative to fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) due to its permanent stain which is more familiar to pathologists and because it can be viewed using light microscopy. The aim of the present study is to examine reproducibility in the assessment of abnormal chromosome number by CISH in comparison to FISH. Using three prostate cell lines--PNT1A (derived from normal epithelium), LNCAP and DU145 (derived from prostatic carcinoma), chromosomes 7 and 8 were counted in 40 nuclei in FISH preparations (x100 oil immersion) and 100 nuclei in CISH preparations (x40) by two independent observers. The CISH slides were examined using standard light microscopy and virtual microscopy. Reproducibility was examined using paired Student's t-test (PCISH. No significant differences in chromosome count were seen between the techniques. Chromosomes 7 and 8 showed disomic status for each cell line except LNCAP, which proved to be heterogeneous (disomic/aneusomic), particularly for chromosome 8. Virtual microscopy proved to be easy to use and gave no significant differences from standard light microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between FISH and CISH techniques.

  5. Comparison of topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy with cryotherapy or Fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ: Results of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morton, C.; Horn, M.; Leman, J.; Tack, B.; Bedane, C.; Tjioe, M.; Ibbotson, S.; Khemis, A.; Wolf, P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic outcome of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical methyl aminolevulinate with cryotherapy or topical fluorouracil for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in situ. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled study, with follow-up at 3 and

  6. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast

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    Richard J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast represents a complex, heterogeneous pathologic condition in which malignant epithelial cells are confined within the ducts of the breast without evidence of invasion. The increased use of screening mammography has led to a significant shift in the diagnosis of DCIS, accounting for approximately 27% of all newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer in 2011, with an overall increase in incidence. As the incidence of DCIS increases, the treatment options continue to evolve. Consistent pathologic evaluation is crucial in optimizing treatment recommendations. Surgical treatment options include breast-conserving surgery (BCS and mastectomy. Postoperative radiation therapy in combination with breast-conserving surgery is considered the standard of care with demonstrated decrease in local recurrence with the addition of radiation therapy. The role of endocrine therapy is currently being evaluated. The optimization of diagnostic imaging, treatment with regard to pathological risk assessment, and the role of partial breast irradiation continue to evolve.

  7. Carcinoma in situ of the larynx.

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    Doyle, P J; Flores, A; Douglas, G S

    1977-03-01

    A retrospective study of carcinoma in situ of the larynx at the British Columbia Cancer Institute indicates that radiotherapy, using a tumoricidal dose of Co 60, is the treatment of choice for this condition. Between 1940 and 1972, 43 patients with carcinoma in situ of the vocal cords were seen. A follow-up of five years or more was possible in 28 of these cases. Twenty-two were treated primarily with a tumoricidal dose of radiotherapy. Twenty-one of the 22 were free of disease for at least five years. This study, therefore, shows a five-year cure rate of almost 100 percent for patients treated with radiotherapy. It also brings out two further points regarding carcinoma in situ of the larynx; namely, an apparent increase in its incidence, and the presence of co-existing invasive carcinoma in some cases. We feel that since the incidence of laryngeal carcinoma has not increased, this apparent increase probably represents a greater awareness by both the pathologist and the clinician. We have also achieved more accurate diagnosis since the introduction of routine microlaryngoscopy. The single radiotherapy failure in our series was due to failure to diagnose co-existing invasive carcinoma. This would seem to be the most likely cause of similar failures reported in the literature.

  8. Chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) is a powerful method to detect ALK-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, F; Streubel, A; Roth, A; Stephan-Falkenau, S; Mairinger, T

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the potential of a chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) assay in comparison with quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR (qPCR) to detect anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) break apart-positive lung carcinomas. Dual-colour CISH using a break apart probe for the ALK gene on 2p23 was performed with 181 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and agar block sections from 175 cases of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). Stained slides were analysed with a standard bright-field microscope at 1000× magnification by counting signals from 60 non-overlapping nuclei from three different tumour areas. Samples with ≥15% of positive nuclei were judged as ALK break apart-positive. All samples were simultaneously analysed by qPCR for EML4-ALK to validate CISH results, and positive samples were subject to Sanger sequencing. CISH was successful with 173 of 181 hybridised samples (96%), and seven ALK break apart-positive cases were detected. CISH signals were specific and distinct for both colours. All positive cases were confirmed by qPCR and Sanger sequencing, and concordance between CISH and qPCR was 100%. Nearly all samples (9/10) which failed by qPCR were accessible to CISH analysis. CISH is a very reliable, convenient and inexpensive method to detect ALK-positive NSCLC. CISH success rate is comparably high as with qPCR, and it detects all ALK break apart events in a single assay. It is of special value when RNA quality is poor, or when small biopsies with a very limited amount of tumour cells have to be analysed.

  9. Contemporary management of ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.

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    Obeng-Gyasi, Samilia; Ong, Cecilia; Hwang, E Shelley

    2016-06-01

    The management of in situ lesions ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) continues to evolve. These diagnoses now comprise a large burden of mammographically diagnosed cancers, and with a global trend towards more population-based screening, the incidence of these lesions will continue to rise. Because outcomes following treatment for DCIS and LCIS are excellent, there is emerging controversy about what extent of treatment is optimal for both diseases. Here we review the current approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of both DCIS and LCIS. In addition, we will consider potential directions for future management of these lesions.

  10. Histomorfometria e índice proliferativo (Ki-67 no carcinoma escamocelular in situ de pregas vocais Histomorphometry and proliferative index in squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vocal cords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Barros Soares Mendonça

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: As displasias da laringe são precursoras do carcinoma escamocelular invasivo e constituem lesões pouco comuns, pois a maior parte dos casos é detectada como carcinoma invasor. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar as displasias acentuadas/carcinoma in situ da prega vocal quanto a área do epitélio, diâmetro dos núcleos e índice proliferativo, comparando esses dados com os obtidos no epitélio escamoso normal e de transição. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Entre as 1.400 biópsias e peças cirúrgicas de lesões intraepiteliais e carcinomas invasivos de laringe (1994-2006, foram selecionados cinco casos (0,35% pareados com dois controles de epitélio normal e com a idade; todos foram submetidos a análise morfométrica e imuno--histoquímica (Ki-67. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se o epitélio displásico com o normal e de transição observou-se maior área e diâmetro nuclear no epitélio displásico; não houve diferenças significativas no diâmetro dos núcleos por camada entre o epitélio displásico e de transição; e o índice proliferativo foi maior no epitélio displásico com núcleos corados em todas camadas e menor com núcleos limitados a camada basal e parabasal no epitélio normal e de transição. CONCLUSÃO: verifica-se maior área no epitélio displásico. O diâmetro dos núcleos do epitélio displásico e do de transição são semelhantes, mas este apresenta núcleos uniformes em toda extensão em contraste com o pleomorfismo do epitélio displásico. O índice proliferativo (Ki-67 contribui para o diagnóstico diferencial das lesões escamosas da prega vocal, pois no carcinoma in situ/displasia acentuada observa-se maior número de núcleos marcados, os quais são vistos em todas as camadas no epitélio.INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal dysplasias, precursors of squamous cell carcinomas, are uncommon lesions, inasmuch as most cases are diagnosed as invasive carcinomas. OBJECTIVE: To characterize severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma of the vocal

  11. Expression profiling of in vivo ductal carcinoma in situ progression models identified B cell lymphoma-9 as a molecular driver of breast cancer invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Elsarraj, Hanan S.; Hong, Yan; Valdez, Kelli E.; Michaels, Whitney; Hook, Marcus; Smith, William P.; Chien, Jeremy; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Troester, Melissa A.; Beck, Moriah; Inciardi, Marc; Gatewood, Jason; May, Lisa; Cusick, Therese; McGinness, Marilee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are an estimated 60,000 new cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) each year. A lack of understanding in DCIS pathobiology has led to overtreatment of more than half of patients. We profiled the temporal molecular changes during DCIS transition to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) using in vivo DCIS progression models. These studies identified B cell lymphoma-9 (BCL9) as a potential molecular driver of early invasion. BCL9 is a newly found co-activator of Wnt-stimulated β-...

  12. The emerging phenotype of the testicular carcinoma in situ germ cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Bartkova, Jirina; Samson, Michel

    2003-01-01

    of differentiation and pluripotency, CIS cells found in adult patients seem to be predestined for further malignant progression into one or the other of the two main types of overt tumours. A new concept of phenotypic continuity of differentiation of germ cells along germinal lineage with a gradual loss of embryonic...

  13. Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 16 and 18 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerovac, Z.; Sarcevic, B.; Kralj, Z.; Ban, J.

    1996-01-01

    Seventy seven squamous cell carcinomas (10 oral cavity, 15 tongue, 26 pharynx and larynx), with different grading were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by in situ hybridization. Positive signals were found on the nuclei of cancer cells in 25 (32.5%), in the epithelia adjacent to squamous cell carcinomas in 2 (8.7%), and in the resected margins in 1 (4.3%) case. HPV DNA positive signals were obtained in 42% of laryngeal, 34% of pharyngeal, in 20% of oral, and 20% of tongue carcinomas. Out of 25 HPV positive carcinomas a single HPV type was detected in at least 11 (44%), and double or multiple infection in 36% cases; altogether , HPV 6 DNA was determined in 15 (60%), and HPV 16 and/or 18 DNA in 17 (68%) head and neck tumors. The detection rate of HPV was lower than of HPV 16 and/or 18 for tumors in oral cavity, tongue and larynx. Out of 25 HPV DNA positive carcinomas 21% were graded as G1, 27% as G2, and and 44% were G3. The results indicate that HPV may be involved in the pathogenesis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. (author)

  14. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: The Whole Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ujas; Chhor, Chloe M; Mercado, Cecilia L

    2018-02-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive malignant breast disease traditionally described as a precursor lesion to invasive breast cancer. With screening mammography, DCIS now accounts for approximately 20% of newly diagnosed cancer cases. DCIS is not well understood because of its heterogeneous nature. Studies have aimed to assess prognostic factors to characterize its risk of invasive potential; however, there still remains a lack of uniformity in workup and treatment. We summarize current knowledge of DCIS and the ongoing controversies.

  15. Transition from Preinvasive Carcinoma In Situ to Seminoma Is Accompanied by a Reduction of Connexin 43 Expression in Sertoli Cells and Germ Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Brehm

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma in situ (CIS represents the preinvasive stage of human germ cell tumors, but the mechanism leading to pubertal proliferation and invasive malignancy remains unknown. Among testicular gap functional proteins, connexin 43 (Cx43 represents the predominant Cx, and, previously, an inverse correlation between synthesis of Cx43 protein and progression of tumor development was detected. In the present study, using cDNA microarray analysis, in situ hybridization, semi quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR from tissue homogenates, RT-PCR from microdissected tubules with normal spermatogenesis and CIS, and seminoma cells from invasive seminoma, we asked whether reduction of Cx43 protein is accompanied by a change of Cx43 transcripts. We detected a significant downregulation of Cx43 at mRNA level in Sertoli and germ cells starting in seminiferous tubules infiltrated with CIS and resulting in a complete loss in seminoma cells. It was demonstrated that downregulation of Cx43 expression in neoplastic human testis takes place at the transcriptional level and starts in CIS. This reduction of Cx43 expression further suggests that early intratubular derangement in Cx43 gene expression and disruption of intercellular communication between Sertoli cells and/or Sertoli and preinvasive tumor cells may play a role in the progression phase of human seminoma development.

  16. Regulation of in situ to invasive breast carcinoma transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyak, Kornelia; Hu, Min; Yao, Jun; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen, Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Violette, Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Bissell, Mina J.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2008-05-07

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  17. Regulation of In Situ to Invasive Breast CarcinomaTransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Min; Carroll, Danielle K.; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Chen,Haiyan; Carrasco, Daniel; Richardson, Andrea; Bissell, Mina; Violette,Shelia; Gelman, Rebecca S.; Schnitt, Stuart; Polyak, Kornelia

    2007-03-13

    The transition of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive carcinoma is a key event in breast tumor progression that is poorly understood. Comparative molecular analysis of tumor epithelial cells from in situ and invasive tumors has failed to identify consistent tumor stage-specific differences. However, the myoepithelial cell layer, present only in DCIS, is a key distinguishing and diagnostic feature. To determine the contribution of non-epithelial cells to tumor progression, we analyzed the role of myoepithelial cells and fibroblasts in the progression of in situ carcinomas using a xenograft model of human DCIS. Progression to invasion was promoted by fibroblasts, but inhibited by normal myoepithelial cells. The invasive tumor cells from these progressed lesions formed DCIS rather than invasive cancers when re-injected into naive mice. Molecular profiles of myoepithelial and epithelial cells isolated from primary normal and cancerous human breast tissue samples corroborated findings obtained in the xenograft model. These results provide the proof of principle that breast tumor progression could occur in the absence of additional genetic alterations and that tumor growth and progression could be controlled by replacement of normal myoepithelial inhibitory signals.

  18. Y-chromosome status identification suggests a recipient origin of posttransplant non-small cell lung carcinomas: chromogenic in situ hybridization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Brodsky, Sergey V; Zhao, Weiqiang; Otterson, Gregory A; Villalona-Calero, Miguel; Satoskar, Anjali A; Hasan, Ayesha; Pelletier, Ronald; Ivanov, Iouri; Ross, Patrick; Nadasdy, Tibor; Shilo, Konstantin

    2014-05-01

    Owing to the need of lifelong immunosuppression, solid-organ transplant recipients are known to have an increased risk of posttransplant malignancies including lung cancer. Posttransplant neoplastic transformation of donor-derived cells giving rise to hematopoietic malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, and basal cell carcinoma in nongraft tissues has been reported. The goal of this study was to assess the cell origin (donor versus recipient derived) of posttransplant non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) in kidney and heart transplant recipients. An institutional database search identified 2557 kidney and heart transplant recipients in 8 consecutive years. Among this cohort, 20 (0.8%) renal and 18 (0.7%) heart transplant recipients developed NSCLC. The study cohort comprised 6 of 38 NSCLCs arising in donor-recipient sex-mismatched transplant patients. The tumor cell origin was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization with Y-chromosome probe on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Y-chromosome was identified in 97% ± 1% (range from 92% to 99%) of all types of nucleated cells in male control tissues. In all 5 NSCLCs from male recipients of female donor organ, Y-chromosome was identified in 97% ± 2% (range from 92% to 100%) of tumor cells, statistically equivalent to normal control (P recipient of male kidney. These findings suggest a recipient derivation of NSCLC arising in kidney and heart transplant recipients. A combination of histologic evaluation and chromogenic in situ hybridization with Y-chromosome analysis allows reliable determination of tissue origin in sex-mismatched solid-organ transplant recipients and may aid in management of posttransplant malignancy in such cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability of chromogenic in situ hybridization for epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number detection in non-small-cell lung carcinomas: a comparison with fluorescence in situ hybridization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seol Bong; Lee, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Ok; Choe, Gheeyoung; Chung, Doo Hyun; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2010-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been known to be the most representative and standardized test for assessing gene amplification. However, FISH requires a fluorescence microscope, the signals are labile and rapidly fade over time. Recently, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) has emerged as a potential alternative to FISH. The aim of this study is to test the reliability of CISH technique for the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC), to compare CISH results with FISH. A total of 277 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded NSCLC tissue samples were retrieved from the surgical pathology archives at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. CISH and FISH examinations were performed to test EGFR gene amplification status. There was high concordance in the assessment of EGFR gene copy number between CISH and FISH tests (Kappa coefficient=0.83). Excellent concordance was shown between two observers on the interpretation of the CISH results (Kappa coefficient=0.90). In conclusion, CISH result is highly reproducible, accurate and practical method to determine EGFR gene amplification in NSCLC. In addition, CISH allows a concurrent analysis of histological features of the tumors and gene copy numbers.

  20. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a challenging disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevilay Altintas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS represents a heterogenous group of lesions with variable malignant potential. Although it is clearly pre-invasive, not all lesions progress to an invasive malignant disease. The significant increase in the frequency of diagnosis is the result of both widespread use of screening mammography and better recognition among pathologists. Treatment is controversial, but for several decades total mastectomy has been considered as the appropriate treatment. The tendency to be less aggressive in terms of surgery has followed the pattern of events observed in the treatment of invasive breast carcinomas. More recently, it has become clear that breastconserving procedures could be applied and selected on the basis of diagnostics and risk factors. When all patients with DCIS are considered, the overall mortality is extremely low, only about 1–2%. On the other hand, breast-conserving surgery is only curative in 75–85%; 50% of the local recurrences have proven to be invasive with a mortality rate of 12–15%. There is no place for axillary node dissection, adjuvant hormonal treatment or chemotherapy in the treatment. Important factors in predicting local recurrence are age, family history, nuclear grade, comedo-type necrosis, tumor size and margin width. With the addition of radiation therapy to excisional surgery, there is a 50% reduction in the overall local recurrence rate. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index (VNPI, recently updated, is a tool that quantifies measurable prognostic factors that can be used in the decision-making process of treatment. Recent data from large cohort studies and randomized trials have emerged to guide treatment. DCIS is now understood to have diverse malignant potential and it is unlikely that there will be a single treatment for this wide range of lesions. Advances in molecular biology and gene expression profiling of human breast tumors have been providing important insights into the relationship

  1. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: histological classification and genetic alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells within the ducts and lobules of the breast, without invasion through the basement membrane. It is believed that all invasive carcinomas are preceded by DCIS; however, it is not known what

  2. Upper Urinary Tract Carcinoma In Situ: Current Knowledge, Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redrow, Grant P; Guo, Charles C; Brausi, Maurizio A; Coleman, Jonathan A; Fernandez, Mario I; Kassouf, Wassim; Keeley, Francis X; Margulis, Vitaly; Raman, Jay D; Roupret, Morgan; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Spiess, Philippe E; Thalmann, George N; Matin, Surena F

    2017-02-01

    Carcinoma in situ of the urinary tract is a high grade form of nonmuscle invasive urothelial cancer. Our understanding of this entity in the upper tract is poor, and case management remains challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, treatment options and followup of the disease. We reviewed the available literature for similarities and differences between bladder and upper tract carcinoma in situ, and herein summarize the best available data. We reviewed PubMed® and MEDLINE™ databases from January 1976 through September 2014. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement was used to screen publications. All authors participated in the development of a consensus definition of disease. A total of 61 publications were found suitable for this review. All studies were retrospective. Compared to bladder carcinoma in situ, upper tract carcinoma in situ appears to have lower progression rates and improved survival. All available studies demonstrate topical therapy to be effective in treating upper tract carcinoma in situ, with decreased recurrence rates compared to bladder carcinoma in situ. Highlighted areas of current knowledge gaps include variable definitions of disease, methods of drug delivery and ideal treatment course. Improving methods for detection may allow easier diagnosis and more effective treatment. Based on the available data, organ preserving therapy with topical agents is an alternative to radical surgery in select patients with upper tract carcinoma in situ, although this method has not been evaluated in prospective trials. A paradigm shift regarding detection and treatment is needed to improve care and allow better renal preservation. A consensus definition of the disease is offered, and several areas of major knowledge gaps and opportunities for future research are identified. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Squamous cell carcinoma Overview Squamous cell carcinoma: This man's skin ... a squamous cell carcinoma on his face. Squamous cell carcinoma: Overview Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a ...

  4. Automated RNA In Situ Hybridization for 18 High Risk Human Papilloma Viruses in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Comparison With p16 Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumheller, Bradley; Cohen, Cynthia; Lawson, Diane; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2017-08-02

    Detection of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is important, as HPV-associated HNSCCs respond better to therapy. The RNAscope HPV-test is a novel RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) technique which strongly stains transcripts of E6 and E7 mRNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue, with the potential to replace the indirect immunohistochemical (IHC) marker for p16 protein. A direct clinical comparison between p16 IHC and an automated RNA ISH using 18 probes has not been established. Samples from 27 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HNSCC cases from the Emory University Hospital archives were stained using 18 individual RNA ISH probes for high-risk HPV (RNAscope 2.5 LS Probe ) on a Leica autostainer (Buffalo Grove, IL) and were compared with p16 IHC. Two pathologists reviewed and reached a consensus on all interpretations. The RNAscope technique was positive in 89% (24/27) and the p16 IHC was positive in 78% (21/27). The RNAscope was negative in 11.1% of samples (3/27) and the p16 IHC-negative in 22.2% (6/27). The RNA ISH detected 100% of the p16-positive IHC-stained slides and had a concordance of 88.9% (24/27). This easy to interpret automated staining method for 18 high-risk HPV genotypes is a feasible replacement for the indirect p16 IHC method.

  5. Optimizing Staining Protocols for Laser Microdissection of Specific Cell Types from the Testis Including Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Dalgaard, Marlene D; Nielsen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser microdis......Microarray and RT-PCR based methods are important tools for analysis of gene expression; however, in tissues containing many different cells types, such as the testis, characterization of gene expression in specific cell types can be severely hampered by noise from other cells. The laser......-containing cells, which is useful for isolation of the androgen-producing Leydig cells. Both protocols retain a morphology that is compatible with laser microdissection and yield RNA of a quality suitable for PCR and microarray analysis....

  6. CDH1 (E-cadherin) in testicular germ cell neoplasia: suppressed translation of mRNA in pre-invasive carcinoma in situ but increased protein levels in advanced tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si B; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Nielsen, John E

    2006-01-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in cellular adhesion. In our recent microarray studies of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) and the common precursor carcinoma in situ (CIS), CDH1 mRNA was highly expressed in CIS and embryonal carcinoma. It has previously been reported...... higher levels in patients with advanced disease (stage II/III) when compared to healthy individuals and patients with stage I TGCT. In conclusion, despite high mRNA levels, the CDH1 protein is not expressed in CIS, suggesting translational suppression of CDH1 protein expression. CDH1 serum levels may...

  7. Evidence that active demethylation mechanisms maintain the genome of carcinoma in situ cells hypomethylated in the adult testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, D G; Nielsen, J E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cells were assessed by quantitative measurements. The expression of TET1, TET2, APOBEC1, MBD4, APEX1, PARP1, DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and DNMT3L in adult testis specimens with CIS and in human fetal testis was investigated by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence.Results:DNA from micro-dissected CIS...... cells contained very low levels of 5hmC produced by ten eleven translocation (TET) enzymes. CIS cells and fetal germ cells expressed the suggested initiator of active demethylation, APOBEC1, and the base excision repair proteins MBD4, APEX1 and PARP1, whereas TETs - the alternative initiators were...

  8. Germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berney, Daniel M; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Idrees, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity and disagr......The pre-invasive lesion associated with post-pubertal malignant germ cell tumours of the testis was first recognized in the early 1970s and confirmed by a number of observational and follow-up studies. Until this year, this scientific story has been confused by resistance to the entity...... and disagreement on its name. Initially termed 'carcinoma in situ' (CIS), it has also been known as 'intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified' (IGCNU) and 'testicular intraepithelial neoplasia' (TIN). In this paper, we review the history of discovery and controversy concerning these names and introduce...... the reasoning for uniting behind a new name, endorsed unanimously at the World Health Organization (WHO) consensus classification 2016: germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS)....

  9. Increased risk of carcinoma in situ in patients with testicular germ cell cancer with ultrasonic microlithiasis in the contralateral testicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mette; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    We compared clinical and histological data regarding the contralateral testicle in a population of men diagnosed with testicular germ cell cancer to find features associated with an increased risk of bilateral neoplasia.......We compared clinical and histological data regarding the contralateral testicle in a population of men diagnosed with testicular germ cell cancer to find features associated with an increased risk of bilateral neoplasia....

  10. Heterogeneity of expression of immunohistochemical tumour markers in testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Kvist, Majbrit; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) is the precursor of germ cell tumours in adults, except for spermatocytic seminoma. The mechanism of the progression from premalignant CIS to invasive and overt tumours is largely unknown. There are currently two main hypotheses: one is that CIS can progress dir...

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  12. In situ carcinoma of the conjunctiva: surgical excision associated with cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crim N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicolás Crim, María Elena Forniés-Paz, Rodolfo Monti, Evangelina Espósito, Juan Pablo Maccio, Julio A Urrets-Zavalía Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic Reina Fabiola, Universidad Católica de Córdoba, Argentina Background: Although frequently underdiagnosed, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly observed malignancy of the conjunctiva. Multiple different treatments have been proposed to date. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the treatment of In situ carcinoma of the conjunctiva by surgical excision associated with cryotherapy. Methods: Four eyes in four consecutive patients (two men and two women of average age 53.2 (range 39–71 years at the time of diagnosis of ocular surface squamous neoplasia were treated by simple surgical excision and cryotherapy of the resulting surgical bed margins. In all cases, the diagnosis of in situ carcinoma was confirmed histopathologically. Results: On histopathology, the edges of the surgical specimens were free of malignant cells in three of four patients. All patients showed excellent evolution without recurrence. Mean follow-up was 6.5 (range 2–14 years. Conclusion: In situ carcinoma of the conjunctiva may be simply and successfully treated with surgical excision and cryotherapy. Keywords: conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, surgical excision, cryotherapy

  13. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Herlihy, Amy S; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Testicular germ-cell tumours of young adults are derived from a pre-invasive intratubular lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS). In a recent genome-wide gene expression screening using cDNA microarrays, we found PDPN over-expressed in CIS compared to normal adult testis. PDPN encodes podoplanin (Aggrus...... gonocytes and immature Sertoli cells, similar to the expression pattern of M2A antigen, a previously identified marker for CIS and seminoma. This reinforced our previous proposal that M2A (D2-40) antigen was identical to gp36 (podoplanin, Aggrus, T1A-2). Our findings also suggest that podoplanin has...

  14. Chromogenic in situ hybridization to detect EGFR gene copy number in cell blocks from fine-needle aspirates of non small cell lung carcinomas and lung metastases from colo-rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrenato Irene

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene copy number (GCN correlates to the response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC. In the presence of lung nodules, cytology is often the only possible diagnostic approach. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH is an alternative technique to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, but its feasibility in detecting EGFR GCN in cell blocks from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of lung nodules has not yet been established. Methods We evaluated the feasibility of CISH on 33 FNAC from 20 primary NSCLC (5 squamous carcinomas, 8 large cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas and 13 lung metastases from CRC. Results Of the 33 FNAC analyzed by CISH, 27 (82% presented a balanced increase in EGFR gene and chromosome 7 number: 10 cases (30% showed a low polysomy, 15 (45% a high polysomy and 2 (6% NSCLC were amplified. No significant differences between NSCLC and CRC lung metastases were found in relation to disomic or polysomic status. In addition, no correlation between EGFR GCN and EGFR immunohistochemical overexpression was found. Furthermore, we compared CISH results with those obtained by FISH on the same samples and we found 97% overall agreement between the two assays (k = 0.78, p Conclusions Our study shows that CISH is a valid method to detect EGFR GCN in cell blocks from FNAC of primary NSCLC or metastatic CRC to the lung.

  15. Synchronous lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular cancer: marker or precursor for invasive lobular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A S; Xiang, D; Hockman, L; Arya, M; Jeffress, J; Wang, Z; Dale, P S

    2014-10-01

    Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is a known risk factor for invasive breast carcinoma, but there is increasing data indicating a possible precursor relationship. This study investigates the incidence of lobular carcinoma in situ that occurs with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Women diagnosed with ILC or LCIS from 2000 to 2010 were retrospectively identified and reviewed after institutional review board approval. This group was divided into two cohorts: ILC alone, and LCIS and ILC (ILC/LCIS). Patient demographics, disease characteristics, and treatment modalities were captured. p invasive ductal carcinoma at ∼40%. The association of pre-invasive and invasive lobular lesions should be further studied in a large scale prospective study to assess for a precursor relationship. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current approaches for detection of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Olesen, Inge A; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    of carcinoma in situ (CIS). This review describes current possible approaches for the detection of CIS. At present, an open testicular biopsy is the only definitive way of establishing the presence of CIS. The tissue section should be of an adequate size, be properly fixed, and evaluation be supported...... complications, although rare. Therefore, a noninvasive and equally reliable method is needed. Testicular ultrasound is risk-free, painless and at present the only noninvasive method of aid for andrologists when CIS is suspected. The presence of testicular microlithiasis is, in some cases, indicative of pre...

  17. p53 protein expression in sequential biopsies of oral dysplasias and in situ carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Zarbo, R J; Regev, E; Pisanty, S; Silverman, S; Gazit, D

    1995-01-01

    Immunohistochemically detectable levels of p53 may be seen early in the malignant transformation of some neoplasms. To determine if p53 is immunocytochemically detectable, and therefore presumptively abnormal, in oral dysplasias and in situ carcinomas, and to explore the natural history of p53 protein expression in these lesions, sequential biopsies from patients with lesions occurring in the same anatomic site were examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 19 patients were evaluated immunohistochemically for p53 protein using antibody clones Pab1801 and BP53-12. With two exceptions, comparable results were observed with these antibodies. p53 protein was detected immunocytochemically in 6 of 13 patients with dysplasias; 3 of these progressed to p53-positive invasive carcinoma, one advanced to a more severe grade of p53-positive dysplasia, one developed into a p53-negative verrucous carcinoma, and one represented a p53-positive dysplasia developing five years after treatment of a p53-positive carcinoma. The p53-positive dysplasias, which were found in all subtypes (mild, moderate, severe), preceded histologic malignant change by months to years. p53 detection was evident in 4 of 6 patients with in situ lesions. Sequential biopsies of three of these lesions showed no change in lesion histology or p53 staining, and one lesion advanced to a p53-positive carcinoma. It is concluded that p53 protein may be detected early in the development of a subset of p53-positive oral squamous cell carcinomas. This phenomenon may be seen in dysplasias and in situ lesions, and it may have prognostic implications.

  18. Increased risk of second malignancies after in situ breast carcinoma in a population-based registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Soerjomataram (Isabelle); M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke); M.J.C. van der Sangen (Maurice); R.M.H. Roumen (Rudi); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAmong 1276 primary breast carcinoma in situ (BCIS) patients diagnosed in 1972-2002 in the Southern Netherlands, 11% developed a second cancer. Breast carcinoma in situ patients exhibited a two-fold increased risk of second cancer (standardised incidence ratios (SIR): 2.1, 95% confidence

  19. Quantitative histopathological variables in in situ and invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare quantitative histopathological estimates obtained in normal breast epithelium (N = 15), lobular carcinoma in situ (N = 29), ductal carcinoma in situ (N = 24), invasive lobular carcinoma (N = 39), and invasive ductal carcinoma (N = 71) of the female breast....... Using unbiased stereology, the three-dimensional mean nuclear size, v v(nuc), was estimated in routine histological sections, along with morphometric point-counting based estimates of the mean nuclear profile area, aH(nuc), and estimates of the nuclear density index, NI, the mitotic index, MI......) with those obtained in tumors of pure lobular carcinoma in situ (N = 7), only the difference in mean NI reached statistical significance (2p = 0.001). Several significant differences were found between means of quantitative histopathological estimates obtained in normal breast epithelium, pure in situ...

  20. Quantitative histopathological variables in in situ and invasive ductal and lobular carcinomas of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladekarl, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1993-01-01

    This study was carried out to compare quantitative histopathological estimates obtained in normal breast epithelium (N = 15), lobular carcinoma in situ (N = 29), ductal carcinoma in situ (N = 24), invasive lobular carcinoma (N = 39), and invasive ductal carcinoma (N = 71) of the female breast....... Using unbiased stereology, the three-dimensional mean nuclear size, v v(nuc), was estimated in routine histological sections, along with morphometric point-counting based estimates of the mean nuclear profile area, aH(nuc), and estimates of the nuclear density index, NI, the mitotic index, MI...... obtained in tumors of pure lobular carcinoma in situ (N = 7), only the difference in mean NI reached statistical significance (2p = 0.001). Several significant differences were found between means of quantitative histopathological estimates obtained in normal breast epithelium, pure in situ lesions...

  1. Screening for carcinoma in situ of the contralateral testis in patients with germinal testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, J G; Skakkebaek, N E; von der Maase, H

    1982-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty biopsy specimens from the contralateral testis in patients with unilateral germinal testicular cancer were analysed by light microscopy for carcinoma-in-situ changes. Changes were found in 13 (5.2%) patients. One-third of patients with an atrophic contralateral testis (volume...... of cryptorchidism or both had been screened. Since the natural course of carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testis of patients with germinal testicular cancer has not been established, the patients are being re-evaluated frequently. To date two patients with carcinoma in situ have developed a second cancer....

  2. Penurunan Imunoekspresi P63 Pada Mioepitel Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS Payudara Sebagai Prediktor Infiltrasi Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Liliana Wargasetia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of breast carcinoma is common in women. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast is breast carcinoma with tumor cells which exist in the breast glandular duct and have not infiltrated into stroma. Retrospective study has been made on 23 paraffin blocks of morphological breast DCIS variants, namely kribriform, solid, and komedo. One way to find out DCIS aggressiveness is by detecting myoepithelial cells surrounding the breast duct indicating the integrity of the basal membrane. Detection of myoepithelial cells by means of immunohistochemical technique is done by using a selective marker for breast myoepithelial cells, namely p63. The aim of this research was predict tumor infiltration through decrease of immunoexpression of p63 in myoepithelial cells of morphological variants: cibriform, solid, and komedo of breast DCIS. This research was performed at Pathology Anatomy Laboratory of Medical Faculty of Padjadjaran University/RSUP Hasan Sadikin Bandung from Juli 2005 to September 2006. The result of the research indicated that immunoexpression of p63 in myoepithelial cells of morphological breast DCIS variants - cibriform, solid and komedo - did not show any significant difference (p<: 0,05. This indicated that tumor infiltration can occur in every breast DCIS morphological variant being studied, namely cribriform, solid, and comedo. The conclusion of this research is that decrease of immunoexpression of p63 in myoepithelial cells of morphological variants: cibriform, solid, and comedo of breast DCIS predict the presence of tumor infiltration.

  3. Correlation of nuclear morphometry with pathologic parameters in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P H; Goh, B B; Chiang, G; Bay, B H

    2001-10-01

    Morphometric features of nuclear perimeter, nuclear area, feret ratio, and feret circle were studied in a series of 64 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast in Singapore women. The results were compared with pathologic parameters of tumor size, nuclear grade, necrosis, cell polarization, and architectural pattern. There was statistically significant correlation between nuclear perimeter and area with all the pathologic parameters, with the strongest association observed for nuclear grade (P parameters and feret ratio or circle, indicating that nuclear roundness or lack of it did not factor as a significant component in the pathologic assessment.

  4. Oral dysplasia and in situ carcinoma: clinicopathologic correlations of eight patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, J R; Regezi, J A

    1977-09-01

    Eight patients with multiple oral dysplastic epithelial lesions were followed by clinical examinations and serial biopsies for periods varying from four to 22 years. The dysplasias and in situ carcinomas were characterized by persistence, recurrence, and eventual progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. It could not be determined whether dysplasia and in situ carcinoma were separate clinical-pathologic entities with similar end points or whether they were part of a continuum in a spectrum of epithelial neoplasia. The need for close clinical observation and local excision was emphasized because of the multiplicity of lesions and because of the protracted clinical course. Treatment of these patients was problematic because of similarities of the disease to lichen planus. It is possible that they had a premalignant disease process that mimicked lichen planus, or that they had an unusual form of lichen planus for which criteria have not been established. The progressive nature of the disease was exemplified by one death, one patient with cervical metastasis, and one with generalized remote metastatic disease.

  5. Investigation of Lobular Carcinoma In Situ, Using Molecular Genetic Techniques, for the Involvement of Novel Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastracci, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), i.e. lobular neoplasia, are lesions of significance in terms of implication of risk to the patient in the development of invasive carcinorna...

  6. Youngest case of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a benign phyllodes tumour: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Sharat; Muralikrishnan, Vummiti; Brotto, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumour (PT) is a rare tumour of the female breast. The tumour clinically and radiologically mimics the features of a fibroadenoma. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the epithelial component of PT is a very rare finding. We present youngest ever case of a 23-year-old nulliparous woman with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a benign phyllodes tumor. Macroscopically, it is a homogeneous tumour with solid components. Microscopically, it features typical leaf-like pattern with hypercellular stroma with high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ. To date, eight such rare cases of benign phyllodes tumour with ductal carcinoma in situ have been documented. We report the youngest case known in literature so far. As this is a very rare presentation, it poses several challenges in regard to both management and follow-up. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Telomere Attrition in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ of the Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2008-01-01

    We are using an innovative, quantitative assay for telomere DNA content (TC) developed and characterized by the PI, to test the hypothesis that TC predicts the likelihood of disease recurrence in women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS...

  8. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    components of TDS and that the geographical location of the mother during pregnancy can be a risk factor. This suggests that the dysgenesis has its origin in utero and that TDS is initiated by environmental factors, including possibly hormone-disrupting compounds that act on the mother and the developing...... foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...... primordial germ cells or gonocytes. CIS cells and germ cell-derived cancers of the human type have so far not been described in any animal model of TDS, which could be caused by species differences in the development of the male gonad. Regardless of this, it is plausible that the dysgenesis, and hence...

  9. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2015-01-01

    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor

  10. Multi-focal lobular carcinoma in situ arising in benign phylodes tumor: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taeg Ki; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Coexistent breast malignancy arising in phyllodes tumor is extremely rare, and most of them are incidental reports after surgical excision. Coexistent malignancy in phyllodes tumor can vary from in-situ to invasive carcinoma. Lobular neoplasia is separated into atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). LCIS is known to have a higher risk of developing invasive cancer. We reported imaging findings of multifocal LCIS arising in benign phyllodes tumor.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of the four tests (p16 immunochemistry, PCR, DNA and RNA In situ Hybridization) to evaluate a Human Papillomavirus infection in head and neck cancers: a cohort of 348 French squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jérémy; Outh-Gauer, Sophie; Mandavit, Marion; Gasne, Cassandre; Grard, Ophélie; Denize, Thomas; Nervo, Marine; Mirghani, Haïtham; Laccourreye, Ollivier; Bonfils, Pierre; Bruneval, Patrick; Veyer, David; Péré, Hélène; Tartour, Eric; Badoual, Cécile

    2018-04-20

    It is now established that HPV plays a role in the development of a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), notably oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). However, it is not clear which test one should use to detect HPV in oropharyngeal (OP) and non-OP SCCs. In this study, using 348 HNSCCs (126 OP SCCs and 222 non-OP SCCs), we evaluated diagnostic performances of different HPV tests in OP and non-OP SCCs: PCR, p16 immunostaining, in situ hybridization targeting DNA (DNA-CISH) and RNA (RNA-CISH), combined p16 + DNA-CISH, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH. HPV DNA (PCR) was detected in 26% of all tumors (44% of OP SCCs and 17% of non-OP SCCs). For OP SCCs, RNA-CISH was the most sensitive standalone test (88%), but p16 + RNA-CISH was even more sensitive (95%). Specificities were the same for RNA-CISH and DNA-CISH (97%) but it was better for p16 + RNA-CISH (100%). For non-OP SCCs, all tests had sensitivities below 50%, and RNA-CISH, DNA-CISH and p16 + DNA-CISH had respectively 100%, 97% and 99% specificities. As a standalone test, RNA-CISH is the most performant assay to detect HPV in OP SCCs, and combined p16 + RNA-CISH test slightly improves its performances. However, RNA-CISH has the advantage of being one single test. Like p16 and DNA-CISH, RNA-CISH performances are poor in non-OP SCCs to detect HPV, and combining tests does not improve performances. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization of CEN17q as a potent useful diagnostic marker for Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome-associated chromophobe renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ikuma; Iribe, Yasuhiro; Nagashima, Yoji; Kuroda, Naoto; Tanaka, Reiko; Nakatani, Yukio; Hasumi, Hisashi; Yao, Masahiro; Furuya, Mitsuko

    2016-06-01

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is a familial disorder associated with a germline mutation of FLCN that is a tumor suppressor gene. Patients with BHD have high risks for developing multiple renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The frequent histological types are hybrid oncocytic/chromophobe tumors (HOCTs) and chromophobe RCCs. The morphology of HOCTs could alert pathologists to the possibility of BHD. On the other hand, chromophobe RCCs occurring in BHD patients demonstrate positive immunostaining for cytokeratin-7, CD82, and Ksp-cadherin similar to their sporadic counterparts. Highly reliable markers for BHD-associated chromophobe RCCs have not been identified. In the present study, we analyzed the state of chromosome 17 in 18 renal tumors composed of 8 chromophobe RCCs, 7 HOCTs, and 3 papillary RCCs obtained from BHD patients using fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization probes for the centromeric region of chromosome 17 long arm. All chromophobe RCCs and HOCTs were disomic except for 1 chromophobe RCC that showed monosomy. On the other hand, 12 of 14 sporadic chromophobe RCCs were monosomic (P = .0008). The state of chromosomes 2 and 6 were also statistically different (P = .0074 and P = .0007, respectively). Three BHD-associated papillary RCCs demonstrated either trisomy (n = 2) or disomy (n = 1). Three of 5 sporadic papillary RCCs showed trisomy. The results indicate that fluorescent and chromogenic in situ hybridization of the centromeric region of chromosome 17 long arm should be a potent useful marker for chromophobe RCCs in patients who have not been diagnosed with BHD and thereby help to determine whether the cases should be considered for genetic testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic predisposition to ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N; Shah, Vandna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive form of breast cancer. It is often associated with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and is considered to be a non-obligate precursor of IDC. It is not clear to what extent these two forms of cancer share low-risk susceptibility loci, o...

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    de Faria, J

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Giwercman, A; Hansen, S W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the biologic association between germ cell neoplasia and testicular dysfunction, through investigation of Leydig cell function and semen quality in men with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined two groups of men, unilaterally orchidectomized...... cell dysfunction was higher in the group of patients with CIS (11 of 24) than in the group of patients without (two of 30) (P = .01). Sperm concentration and total sperm count were significantly lower (P ... in patients without (median, 9.1 x 10(6)/mL and 32 x 10(6), respectively), whereas the levels of FSH were significantly higher (P function is impaired in testes with CIS...

  16. LIHNCS - Lugol's iodine in head and neck cancer surgery: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of Lugol's iodine to assist excision of moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at mucosal resection margins of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, James A; Cymerman, James A; Hislop, Stuart; McConkey, Chris; McMahon, Jeremy; Mehanna, Hisham; Shaw, Richard; Sutton, David N; Dunn, Janet

    2013-09-24

    Oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are increasing in incidence worldwide but survival outcomes have not significantly improved over the last three decades. The presence of dysplasia or carcinoma in situ at surgical margins following resection of squamous carcinoma of the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck has been shown to be associated with a higher incidence of local recurrence and reduced survival. While invasive carcinoma in mucosal surfaces can usually be distinguished from adjacent normal mucous membrane, pre-malignant disease is much less readily distinguished at operation. We describe a protocol for a randomised, controlled trial in which we will assess the effectiveness of Lugol's iodine staining in allowing visualisation and excision of cancer margin dysplasia at time of primary surgery. We will recruit 300 patients diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma. All participants will be planned for primary surgery with curative intent. After completion of baseline assessment participants will be randomised into either a standard surgical treatment arm or surgical treatment including Lugol's iodine staining. This paper describes the rationale and design of a unique trial in head and neck surgical oncology. If margin dysplasia visualisation with Lugol's iodine allows complete excision of high-risk, pre-cancer mucosa at time of primary surgery, this may lead to a reduction in local recurrence and improved survival. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03712770.

  17. LIHNCS - Lugol’s iodine in head and neck cancer surgery: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of Lugol’s iodine to assist excision of moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ at mucosal resection margins of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral cavity and oropharynx cancer are increasing in incidence worldwide but survival outcomes have not significantly improved over the last three decades. The presence of dysplasia or carcinoma in situ at surgical margins following resection of squamous carcinoma of the mucosal surfaces of the head and neck has been shown to be associated with a higher incidence of local recurrence and reduced survival. While invasive carcinoma in mucosal surfaces can usually be distinguished from adjacent normal mucous membrane, pre-malignant disease is much less readily distinguished at operation. We describe a protocol for a randomised, controlled trial in which we will assess the effectiveness of Lugol’s iodine staining in allowing visualisation and excision of cancer margin dysplasia at time of primary surgery. Methods/Design We will recruit 300 patients diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma. All participants will be planned for primary surgery with curative intent. After completion of baseline assessment participants will be randomised into either a standard surgical treatment arm or surgical treatment including Lugol’s iodine staining. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of a unique trial in head and neck surgical oncology. If margin dysplasia visualisation with Lugol’s iodine allows complete excision of high-risk, pre-cancer mucosa at time of primary surgery, this may lead to a reduction in local recurrence and improved survival. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03712770. PMID:24063578

  18. Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morré, D James; Geilen, Christoph C; Welch, Anna M; Morré, Dorothy M

    2009-01-01

    A single case of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) was treated topically with a patch consisting of an aqueous paste of a commercially available mixture (50:1) of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) for approximately 14 days. The carcinoma responded by the formation of apoptotic blisters whereas surrounding normal tissue showed no response. A second untreated carcinoma 17 cm distant from the treated area also responded indicative of a systemic action of the substance.

  19. MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Linghui; Peng Weijun; Gu Yajia; Li Ruimin; Liu Xiaohang; Wang Xiaohong; Mao Jian; Tang Feng; Ding Jianhui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and recognize the dynamic and morphological MRI characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast and provide imaging information for the early detection and treatment planning. Methods: All MRI data in 71 patients with histologically proved DCIS were analyzed retrospectively. The 71 patients were divided into two groups, N1 (pure DCIS, 44 patients) and N2 (DCIS with microinvasion, 27 patients). According to the BI-RADS descriptors, all lesions were defined as a focus (smaller than 5 mm in diameter), mass and no-mass-like three enhancement types. The morphological features (M1 = focus, M2 =linear or linear-branched, M3 = branching-ductal, M4 = segmental, M5 = focal, M6 = regional, M7 = diffuse, M8 = mass) and the time-intensity curve (TIC) pattern [type Ⅰ (persistent enhancement curves), type Ⅱ (plateau), type Ⅲ (washout) and type Ⅳ (the same enhancement as glandular tissue)] were described. Chi-square test was used for the morphological characteristics of lesions. Results: The 73 DCIS lesions were found in 71 patients, and 5.5% (n=4) were stippled lesions, 87.7% (n=64) were no-mass like lesions, 6.8% (n=5) were mass-like lesions. In no-mass-like lesions (n= 64), M3 was found in 15 cases, M4 in 34 cases, M5 in 9 cases and M6 in 6 cases, respectively, M3 and M4 were the most common distribution patterns. In N1 group (n=45) and N2 group (n=28), M3, M4, M5, M6 were found in 7 and 8, 21 and 13, 7 and 2, 3 and 3 cases, respectively. There were no statistic differences between two groups (P>0.05). In 31 showed heterogeneous enhancement, both M3 and M4 were observed in 35.5% (11/31). In 26 clustered ring enhancement lesions, M4 was observed in 88.5% (23/26). Four lesions showed reticular enhancement, 2 lesions showed a clumped enhancement and 1 lesion showed homogeneous enhancement. In 5 mass-like lesions, N1 group had 3 cases, N2 group had 2 cases. Four lesions showed lobulated margin, 4 lesions showed speculated margin, 1

  20. Diagnosis and management of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amina; Newman, Lisa A

    2004-04-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer that has increased in incidence over the past 25 years, primarily as a result of mammographically detected microcalcifications. Inadequately treated DCIS carries a risk for evolving into the malignant phenotype; however, the magnitude and timeline for this risk are poorly defined. Treatment options include lumpectomy with or without breast irradiation and mastectomy. The overall survival rate is 96% to 98% with any of these strategies, but the risk of local recurrence (LR) is highest after lumpectomy alone. Breast irradiation can reduce this risk from levels in excess of 40% to 10% over a 10-year follow-up period. Approximately 50% of all LR from DCIS are invasive lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of a LR after breast-conserving therapy is a potentially greater threat to the patient with DCIS compared to the patient diagnosed with invasive cancer. In patients diagnosed with invasive cancer, the risk of micrometastatic disease is present from the time of initial diagnosis. In patients with DCIS, the expectation is that a potentially 100% cure rate should be achieved with local therapy alone. Although most DCIS cases complicated by LR will be successfully salvaged with prolonged overall survival, it is critically important to take every precaution that will minimize the risk of locally recurrent disease. Therefore, radiation therapy as an adjunct to lumpectomy is essential. A subset of patients with DCIS with low-volume low-grade disease who can be safely treated by lumpectomy alone has not yet been clearly defined. Prospective studies designed to identify this category are ongoing. Inadequate margin control is the most consistent risk factor for LR that has been reported thus far, but there is no universally accepted definition for what constitutes an optimal negative margin distance. Young age at diagnosis, high nuclear grade, and comedonecrosis are other factors that have been implicated as

  1. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, P M; Giwercman, A; Hansen, S W

    1999-01-01

    for testicular cancer. Biopsy of the contralateral testis had showed CIS in a group of 24 patients and no evidence of CIS in the other group of 30 patients. Semen quality and serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were compared in these two groups of men...... after orchidectomy but before further treatment for testicular cancer. RESULTS: Significantly higher LH levels (median, 8.1 IU/L v 4.8 IU/L; P ...PURPOSE: To elucidate the biologic association between germ cell neoplasia and testicular dysfunction, through investigation of Leydig cell function and semen quality in men with carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) of the testis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We examined two groups of men, unilaterally orchidectomized...

  2. Ductal carcinoma in situ of breast: detection and treatment pattern in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, T K; Chan, A; Cheung, P Sy

    2017-02-01

    The treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ has been widely reported in the western and other Asian countries, but the relevant data in Hong Kong are relatively limited. This study aimed to evaluate the latest detection and treatment pattern for ductal carcinoma in situ in Hong Kong so as to guide planning of future service provision. This was a retrospective case series study. A total of 573 patients who registered with the Hong Kong Breast Cancer Registry, and were diagnosed and treated in Hong Kong from January 2001 to December 2011 were reviewed. Compared with invasive breast cancer patients, patients with ductal carcinoma in situ were younger (median, 48.6 vs 50.3 years; Pincome (PHong Kong, ductal carcinoma in situ is more frequently found in the higher social classes and managed in the private sector. The clinical outcome of ductal carcinoma in situ is excellent and more than half of the patients can be successfully managed with breast-conserving surgery.

  3. Gene expression in the urinary bladder: a common carcinoma in situ gene expression signature exists disregarding histopathological classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Dyrskjøt; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær

    2004-01-01

    The presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesions in the urinary bladder is associated with a high risk of disease progression to a muscle invasive stage. In this study, we used microarray expression profiling to examine the gene expression patterns in superficial transitional cell carcinoma (s...... in mTCC samples. We used a supervised learning approach to build a 16-gene molecular CIS classifier. The classifier was able to classify sTCC samples according to the presence or absence of surrounding CIS with a high accuracy. This study demonstrates that a CIS gene expression signature is present...

  4. Applying Statistical Models to Mammographic Screening Data to Understand Growth and Progression of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gertig, Dorota M; Erbas, Bircan; Bymes, Gram; Dowty, James

    2005-01-01

    ... IS. Similar results were found for histological grade. We have developed a computer simulation for mammographic screening data which models progression and detection of Ductal carcinoma in situ...

  5. Investigation of the Lobular Carcinoma in Situ, Using Molecular Genetic Techniques, for the Involvement of Novel Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastracci, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), i.e. lobular neoplasia (LN), are lesions of significance in terms of implication to the patient in the development of invasive carcinoma...

  6. Investigation of the Lobular Carcinoma in Situ, Using Molecular Genetic Techniques, for the Involvement of Novel Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Andrulis, Irene L

    2005-01-01

    Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS), i.e. lobular neoplasia (LN), are lesions of significance in terms of risk to the patient in the development of invasive carcinoma...

  7. Screening for carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testicle in patients with testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kier, M G G; Lauritsen, Jakob; Almstrup, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening programmes for contralateral carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis in patients with unilateral germ-cell cancer (GCC) have never been evaluated. We investigated the effect of screening for contralateral CIS in a large nation-wide, population-based study. PATIENTS AND METHODS...... years was 1.9% in the screened cohort and 3.1% in the unscreened cohort (P = 0.097), hazard ratio (HR) for the unscreened cohort: 1.59 (P = 0.144). Expert revision with contemporary methodology of CIS-negative biopsy samples from patients with metachronous cancer revealed CIS in 17 out of 45 (38%) cases...... population-based screening programme for contralateral CIS in patients with testicular cancer showed no significant difference in the risk for metachronous GCC between a screened and an unscreened cohort. Single-site biopsy including modern immunohistochemistry does not identify all cases of CIS....

  8. Tumor Microenvironment and Progression to Invasion after a Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    contraceptive use and risk of breast carcinoma in situ. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16(11):2262–2268 16. Sprague BL, Trentham-Dietz A, Nichols HB...in situ (DCIS) makes up 18% of all new breast cancer diagnoses, and is considered a precursor to invasive breast cancer even though the majority of...breast to evaluate syndecan-1 expression and collagen alignment. These DCIS cases, diagnosed between 1995 and 1999, have been followed for breast cancer

  9. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahozo, Marie Colombe; Hammerl, Dora; Debets, Reno; Kok, Marleen; van Deurzen, Carolien H M

    2018-02-20

    In the past three decades, the detection rate of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast has dramatically increased due to breast screening programs. As a consequence, about 20% of all breast cancer cases are detected in this early in situ stage. Some ductal carcinoma in situ cases will progress to invasive breast cancer, while other cases are likely to have an indolent biological behavior. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes is seen as a promising prognostic and predictive marker in invasive breast cancer, mainly in HER2-positive and triple-negative subtypes. Here, we summarize the current understanding regarding immune infiltrates in invasive breast cancer and highlight recent observations regarding the presence and potential clinical significance of such immune infiltrates in patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, their numbers, composition, and potential relationship with genomic status will be discussed. Finally, we propose that a combination of genetic and immune markers may better stratify ductal carcinoma in situ subtypes with respect to tumor evolution.

  10. Pain, Sensory Disturbances, and Psychological Distress among Danish Women Treated for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Duriaud, Helle M; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ is a noninvasive precancer condition. The treatment resembles the treatment of invasive breast cancer. The aim of this exploratory study was to gain knowledge on the level of postoperative pain, sensory disturbances, and distress among a small group of Danish women...... on the impact of the diagnosis and life after treatment. We found no significant difference in reported sensory disturbances or pain after 12 months between the groups. More than one-third (39%) of ductal carcinoma in situ patients reported moderate to severe distress (≥ 7 on the Distress Thermometer) at time...... psychological morbidity and physical restraints related to the condition....

  11. Eliminating "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) terminology in clinical breast practice: The cognitive psychology point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravettoni, Gabriella; Yoder, Whitney R; Riva, Silvia; Mazzocco, Ketti; Arnaboldi, Paola; Galimberti, Viviana

    2016-02-01

    There is evidence from the literature that the terms "ductal carcinoma in situ" and "lobular carcinoma in situ" (DCIS and LCIS) should be eliminated in clinical breast cancer practice and replaced with the new "ductal intraepithelial neoplasia" (DIN) and "lobular intraepithelial neoplasia" (LIN) terminology. The main purpose of the present article is to expand on this argument from a cognitive psychology perspective and offer suggestions for further research, emphasizing how the elimination of the term "carcinoma" in "in situ" breast cancer diagnoses has the potential to reduce both patient and health care professional confusion and misperceptions that are often associated with the DCIS and LCIS diagnoses, as well as limit the adverse psychological effects of women receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis. We comment on the recent peer-reviewed literature on the clinical implications and psychological consequences for breast cancer patients receiving a DCIS or LCIS diagnosis and we use a cognitive perspective to offer new insight into the benefits of embracing the new DIN and LIN terminology. Using cognitive psychology and cognitive science in general, as a foundation, further research is advocated in order to yield data in support of changing the terminology and therefore, offer a chance to significantly improve the lives and psychological sequelae of women facing such a diagnosis. Typology: Controversies/Short Commentary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... H, Shuda M, Chang Y, et al . “Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma.” ... look at it under the microscope. This process continues until the surgeon no longer sees cancer cells. ...

  13. [Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and premalignant skin lesions--how to treat?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Sari; Jeskanen, Leila; Ylitalo, Leea

    2014-01-01

    Increasing exposure to UV radiation is considered the most important etiologic factor of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Consequently, exposed areas such as the scalp and face, are the primary areas for developing non-melanoma skin cancers. Once a patient has presented with one tumor, additional lesions are common. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical picture and biopsy or excision for histopathological analysis. Various non-surgical treatment options have been established. Superficial basal cell carcinoma, superficial carcinoma in situ and all actinic keratoses are preferentially treated non-surgically. Most other basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas should be surgically removed.

  14. Variation in detection of ductal carcinoma in situ during screening mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Ponti, Antonio; James, Ted

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is concern about detection of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in screening mammography. DCIS accounts for a substantial proportion of screen-detected lesions but its effect on breast cancer mortality is debated. The International Cancer Screening Network conducted a comparative...

  15. In-situ and invasive carcinoma within a phyllodes tumor associated with lymph node metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Joan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyllodes tumors (cystosarcoma phyllodes are uncommon lesions in the female breast. Rarely, the occurrence of carcinoma within a phyllodes tumor has been reported in the literature, but has never been associated with lymph node metastases. Case presentation A 26-year-old woman presented with a firm, mobile, non-tender mass in the left breast and palpable lymph nodes in the left axilla. The excised lesion appeared well circumscribed and lobulated, with variable fleshy and firm areas. Microscopic examination showed a circumscribed fibroepithelial lesion with a well developed leaf-like architecture, in keeping with a benign phyllodes tumor. The epithelial component showed extensive high grade ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS and invasive carcinoma of no special type, located entirely within the phyllodes tumor. Subsequent axillary lymph node dissection revealed metastatic carcinoma in four lymph nodes. Conclusions Although rare, phyllodes tumors may harbor DCIS and invasive carcinoma, with potential for lymph node metastasis.

  16. Modeling ductal carcinoma in situ: a HER2-Notch3 collaboration enables luminal filling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pradeep, C-R

    2012-02-16

    A large fraction of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-invasive precursor lesion of invasive breast cancer, overexpresses the HER2\\/neu oncogene. The ducts of DCIS are abnormally filled with cells that evade apoptosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We overexpressed HER2 in mammary epithelial cells and observed growth factor-independent proliferation. When grown in extracellular matrix as three-dimensional spheroids, control cells developed a hollow lumen, but HER2-overexpressing cells populated the lumen by evading apoptosis. We demonstrate that HER2 overexpression in this cellular model of DCIS drives transcriptional upregulation of multiple components of the Notch survival pathway. Importantly, luminal filling required upregulation of a signaling pathway comprising Notch3, its cleaved intracellular domain and the transcriptional regulator HES1, resulting in elevated levels of c-MYC and cyclin D1. In line with HER2-Notch3 collaboration, drugs intercepting either arm reverted the DCIS-like phenotype. In addition, we report upregulation of Notch3 in hyperplastic lesions of HER2 transgenic animals, as well as an association between HER2 levels and expression levels of components of the Notch pathway in tumor specimens of breast cancer patients. Therefore, it is conceivable that the integration of the Notch and HER2 signaling pathways contributes to the pathophysiology of DCIS.

  17. A subfertile patient diagnosed with testicular carcinoma in situ by immunocytological staining for AP-2gamma in semen samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoei-Hansen, C E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Carlsen, E

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer is rising. Despite a high cure rate, efforts should be made to obtain diagnosis at the pre-invasive intratubular carcinoma in situ (CIS) stage, as the disease is potentially lethal and treatment has severe side-effects, especially regarding reproductive function...... patients, including patients with testicular cancer and subfertility. Cells positive for AP-2gamma were found only in semen samples from patients diagnosed a priori with testicular neoplasms and, surprisingly, in a 23 year old control subject with oligozoospermia and no symptoms of a germ cell tumour...

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  19. Cyclin D1 gene amplification and overexpression are present in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C. B.; ter Haar, N. T.; Peterse, J. L.; Cornelisse, C. J.; van de Vijver, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (CCND1) amplification is found in 10-15 per cent of invasive breast carcinomas, but it is not well established whether this gene alteration also occurs in the precursor of invasive breast carcinoma, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). By Southern blot analysis, cyclin D1 gene amplification

  20. Screening of subfertile men for testicular carcinoma in situ by an automated image analysis-based cytological test of the ejaculate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Lippert, Marianne; Mogensen, Hanne O

    2011-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is usually diagnosed after manifestation of an overt tumour. Tumour formation is preceded by a pre-invasive and asymptomatic stage, carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis, except for very rare subtypes. The CIS cells are located within seminiferous tubules but can be exfoliated and...

  1. Lobular carcinoma in situ and invasive lobular breast cancer are characterized by enhanced expression of transcription factor AP-2β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raap, Mieke; Gronewold, Malte; Christgen, Henriette; Glage, Silke; Bentires-Alj, Mohammad; Koren, Shany; Derksen, Patrick W; Boelens, Mirjam; Jonkers, Jos; Lehmann, Ulrich; Feuerhake, Friedrich; Kuehnle, Elna; Gluz, Oleg; Kates, Ronald; Nitz, Ulrike; Harbeck, Nadia; Kreipe, Hans H; Christgen, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Transcription factor AP-2β (TFAP2B) regulates embryonic organ development and is overexpressed in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma, a rare childhood malignancy. Gene expression profiling has implicated AP-2β in breast cancer (BC). This study characterizes AP-2β expression in the mammary gland and in BC. AP-2β protein expression was assessed in the normal mammary gland epithelium, in various reactive, metaplastic and pre-invasive neoplastic lesions and in two clinical BC cohorts comprising >2000 patients. BCs from various genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models were also evaluated. Human BC cell lines served as functional models to study siRNA-mediated inhibition of AP-2β. The normal mammary gland epithelium showed scattered AP-2β-positive cells in the luminal cell layer. Various reactive and pre-invasive neoplastic lesions, including apocrine metaplasia, usual ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) showed enhanced AP-2β expression. Cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were more often AP-2β-negative (Pinvasive BC cohorts, AP-2β-positivity was associated with the lobular BC subtype (Plobular BC cell lines in vitro. In summary, AP-2β is a new mammary epithelial differentiation marker. Its expression is preferentially retained and enhanced in LCIS and invasive lobular BC and has prognostic implications. Our findings indicate that AP-2β controls tumor cell proliferation in this slow-growing BC subtype.

  2. In situ detection of Bartonella henselae cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hercík, Kamil; Melter, O.; Janeček, Jiří; Branny, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2002), s. 49-56 ISSN 0890-8508 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0417; GA ČR GA204/99/1534 Keywords : bartonella henselae * in situ detection * hydridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.269, year: 2002

  3. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) of the breast: is long-term outcome similar to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)? Analysis of 200 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutuli, Bruno; De Lafontan, Brigitte; Kirova, Youlia; Auvray, Hugues; Tallet, Agnes; Avigdor, Sandrine; Brunaud, Claire; Delva, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Lobular carcinomas in situ (LCIS) represent 1-2% of all breast cancers. Both significance and treatment remain widely debated, as well as the possible similarities with DCIS. Two hundred patients with pure LCIS were retrospectively analyzed in seven centres from 1990 to 2008. Median age was 52 years; 176 patients underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and 24 mastectomy. Seventeen patients received whole breast irradiation (WBRT) after BCS and 20 hormonal treatment (15 by tamoxifen). With a 144-month median follow-up (FU), there were no local recurrences (LR) among 24 patients treated by mastectomy. With the same FU, 3 late LR out of 17 (17%) occurred in patients treated by BCS and WBRT (with no LR at 10 years). Among 159 patients treated by BCS alone, 20 developed LR (13%), but with only a 72-month FU (17.5% at 10 years). No specific LR risk factors were identified. Three patients developed metastases, two after invasive LR; 22 patients (11%) developed contralateral BC (59% invasive) and another five had second cancer. LCIS is not always an indolent disease. The long-term outcome is quite similar to most ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS). The main problems are the accuracy of pathological definition and a clear identification of more aggressive subtypes, in order to avoid further invasive LR. BCS + WBRT should be discussed in some selected cases, and the long-term results seem comparable to DCIS

  4. A Molecular Portrait of High-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Martin C; Gong, Ting; Lu, Yue; Lee, Jaeho; Zhong, Yi; Lacunza, Ezequiel; Butti, Matias; Takata, Yoko; Gaddis, Sally; Shen, Jianjun; Estecio, Marcos R; Sahin, Aysegul A; Aldaz, C Marcelo

    2015-09-15

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a noninvasive precursor lesion to invasive breast carcinoma. We still have no understanding on why only some DCIS lesions evolve to invasive cancer whereas others appear not to do so during the life span of the patient. Here, we performed full exome (tumor vs. matching normal), transcriptome, and methylome analysis of 30 pure high-grade DCIS (HG-DCIS) and 10 normal breast epithelial samples. Sixty-two percent of HG-DCIS cases displayed mutations affecting cancer driver genes or potential drivers. Mutations were observed affecting PIK3CA (21% of cases), TP53 (17%), GATA3 (7%), MLL3 (7%) and single cases of mutations affecting CDH1, MAP2K4, TBX3, NF1, ATM, and ARID1A. Significantly, 83% of lesions displayed numerous large chromosomal copy number alterations, suggesting they might precede selection of cancer driver mutations. Integrated pathway-based modeling analysis of RNA-seq data allowed us to identify two DCIS subgroups (DCIS-C1 and DCIS-C2) based on their tumor-intrinsic subtypes, proliferative, immune scores, and in the activity of specific signaling pathways. The more aggressive DCIS-C1 (highly proliferative, basal-like, or ERBB2(+)) displayed signatures characteristic of activated Treg cells (CD4(+)/CD25(+)/FOXP3(+)) and CTLA4(+)/CD86(+) complexes indicative of a tumor-associated immunosuppressive phenotype. Strikingly, all lesions showed evidence of TP53 pathway inactivation. Similarly, ncRNA and methylation profiles reproduce changes observed postinvasion. Among the most significant findings, we observed upregulation of lncRNA HOTAIR in DCIS-C1 lesions and hypermethylation of HOXA5 and SOX genes. We conclude that most HG-DCIS lesions, in spite of representing a preinvasive stage of tumor progression, displayed molecular profiles indistinguishable from invasive breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Detected by Shear Wave Elastography within a Fibroadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Ustabaşıoğlu, Fethi Emre; Samancı, Cesur; Baş, Ahmet; Velidedeoglu, Mehmet; Kılıçaslan, Tülin; Aydogan, Fatih; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2014-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumor in women. Malignant transformation occurs rarely within fibroadenoma at older ages. Clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists need to be aware of malignant transformation within fibroadenomas. Radiologic studies play an important role in the diagnosis of fibroadenoma; however, radiologic findings are often nonspecific for malignancy and may appear completely benign. We detected an occult ductal carcinoma in situ that originated inside a fibroadeno...

  6. UBC®Rapid Test for detection of carcinoma in situ for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Weiß, Sarah; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Barski, Dimitri; Otto, Thomas; Gerullis, Holger

    2017-05-01

    UBC ® Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC ® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls. The cut-off value was defined at 10.0 µg/L. Urine samples were analysed by the UBC ® Rapid Test point-of-care system (concile Omega 100 POC reader). Pathological levels of UBC Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (p Rapid Test using the optimal threshold obtained by receiveroperated curve analysis was 0.75. Pathological values of UBC ® Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with high-grade bladder cancer in comparison to low-grade tumours and the healthy control group. UBC ® Rapid Test has potential to be more sensitive and specific urinary protein biomarker for accurate detection of high-grade patients and could be added especially in the diagnostics for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours of urinary bladder cancer.

  7. Identifying three different architectural subtypes of mammary ductal carcinoma in situ using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Lian, Yuane; Nie, Yuting; Zhuo, shuangmu; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-10-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is often considered as the precursor of invasive breast cancer, and the risk of DCIS progression to IBC has been estimated based on the evaluation of pathological features, among which the architectural subtype is the most common one. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is applied to identify three different architectural subtypes of DCIS (solid, cribriform and comedo). It is found that MPM has the capability to visualize the proliferating pattern of tumor cells, the presence of intraluminal necrosis and the morphology of basement membrane, which are all taken into account in subtyping DCIS. In addition, MPM also can be used to quantify the cellular metabolism, for quantitatively identifying tumor staging during tumor progression. This result highlights the potential of MPM as an advanced technique to assess the pathological characters of the breast tumor in real-time and reflect the degree of tumor progression in vivo, by integrating into the intra-fiberoptic ductoscopy or transdermal biopsy needle.

  8. Bilateral papillary renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossios, K.; Vazakas, P.; Argyropoulou, M.; Stefanaki, S.; Stavropoulos, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. We report the clinical and imaging findings of a case with multifocal and bilateral renal cell carcinoma which are nonspecific. (orig.)

  9. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Walvekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common epithelial malignancy affecting the oral cavity. The most common sites for the development are lateral surface of tongue and floor of mouth; the least common sites are soft palate, gingiva, and buccal mucosa. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can mimic a multitude of oral lesions and enlargements, especially those of inflammatory origin. In addition, predisposing and presenting factors are different from those of other OSCCs. Careful examination as well as routine biopsy are crucial for accurate diagnosis.

  10. Variable Appearances of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Calcifications on Digital Mammography, Synthesized Mammography, and Tomosynthesis: A Pictorial Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Esther; Szabo, Janet; Sonnenblick, Emily B; Margolies, Laurie R

    2018-02-01

    This pictorial essay demonstrates the variable appearances of ductal carcinoma in situ on full-field digital mammography, synthesized mammography, and digital breast tomosynthesis. The spectrum of intercase and intracase variability suggests further refinement of reconstruction algorithms for synthesized mammography may be necessary to maximize early detection of ductal carcinoma in situ. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ductal carcinoma in situ within fibroadenoma: Microcalcifications identified on mammography play a crucial role in diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Jai Kyung; Kim, Yee Jeong; Kim, Bo Mi [NHIS Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Fibroadenoma is a common, benign tumor of the breast, which is rarely associated with an increased risk of carcinoma. We report a case of ductal carcinoma in situ within a fibroadenoma in a 38-year-old woman. The lesion was a 1 cm, circumscribed, ovoid mass with internal calcifications evident on mammography and ultrasound, which is commonly found in fibroadenoma, but the calcifications were fine and linear, which is uncommon. This type of calcification is classified as suspicious by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting And Data System, and it is often correlated with comedo necrosis of ductal carcinoma, and, so, requires immediate pathologic confirmation. In our case, careful analysis of the unusual calcifications led to appropriate intervention and diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware that fibroadenomas can be malignant, and they should look for suspicious microcalcifications within a fibroadenoma.

  12. Ductal carcinoma in situ within fibroadenoma: Microcalcifications identified on mammography play a crucial role in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jai Kyung; Kim, Yee Jeong; Kim, Bo Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is a common, benign tumor of the breast, which is rarely associated with an increased risk of carcinoma. We report a case of ductal carcinoma in situ within a fibroadenoma in a 38-year-old woman. The lesion was a 1 cm, circumscribed, ovoid mass with internal calcifications evident on mammography and ultrasound, which is commonly found in fibroadenoma, but the calcifications were fine and linear, which is uncommon. This type of calcification is classified as suspicious by the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting And Data System, and it is often correlated with comedo necrosis of ductal carcinoma, and, so, requires immediate pathologic confirmation. In our case, careful analysis of the unusual calcifications led to appropriate intervention and diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware that fibroadenomas can be malignant, and they should look for suspicious microcalcifications within a fibroadenoma

  13. Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification - fluorescence in situ hybridization (in situ RCA-FISH) to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoshino, Tatsuhiko; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene...... as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells....

  14. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... provisional diagnosis of benign odontogenic tumor was given. Intraosseous acinic cell carcinoma. V Hiremath, N Mishra1, SG Patil2. Departments of Oral Pathology and 1Oral Medicine and Radiology, Mansarovar Dental College, Bhopal, 2 Department Of. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, H.K.E' S.N. Dental ...

  15. Prognosis of vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with special reference to histology and types of human papillomavirus (HPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Poulsen, H; Horn, T

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-one women with vulvar dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were treated with local laser excision of the initial lesion and of the recurrences, and followed at intervals of from 3 increasing to 12 months. Recurrences were observed in 16 (26%) patients. No case of invasive carcinoma was seen. Pati...

  16. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieber-Emmons Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Methods For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA. We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002 and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.

  17. Breast cancer risk associated with atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ initially diagnosed on core-needle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alana R; McCarthy, Caitlin; Goraya, Shazia; Pederson, Holly J; Sturgis, Charles D; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Calhoun, Benjamin C

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer risk estimates for atypical lesions are based primarily on case-control studies of patients with open biopsies. The authors report the cumulative breast cancer incidence after a core biopsy diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia (ductal or lobular) or lobular carcinoma in situ. A cohort study with central pathology review was conducted on 393 patients who had core biopsy diagnoses of atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ from 1995 through 2010. Follow-up was available for 255 of 264 patients (97%) at a median of 87 months (range, 3-236 months). There were 212 patients (54%) who were not upgraded on excision and had no personal history of breast cancer. Of these, 21 of 212 (9.9%) developed breast cancer, including 15 invasive carcinomas, 4 ductal carcinomas in situ, 1 pleomorphic lobular carcinoma in situ, and 1 unknown type. The prior core biopsy diagnoses were atypical ductal hyperplasia for 11 patients (52%) and atypical lobular hyperplasia/lobular carcinoma in situ in the remaining 10 patients (48%). The number of atypical foci in the core biopsy was not significantly associated with the subsequent development of breast cancer (P = .42). Of the 15 invasive carcinomas, 11 (73%) were ipsilateral, 11 (73%) were pathologic T1 tumors, 5 (33%) were pathologic N1 tumors, 13 (87%) were estrogen receptor-positive, and 1 (7%) was amplified for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. In patients who had an initial diagnosis of atypical hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ on core biopsy, the 7-year cumulative breast cancer incidence was 9.9%. Most tumors were ipsilateral, stage I, estrogen receptor-positive, invasive carcinomas. The current data support close clinical and radiologic follow-up for more than 5 years in this patient population. Cancer 2018;124:459-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Cell In Situ Zymography: Imaging Enzyme-Substrate Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Aastha; Rani, Vibha

    2017-01-01

    Zymography has long been used for the detection of substrate-specific enzyme activity. In situ zymography (ISZ), an adaptation from the conventional substrate zymography, is a widely employed technique useful for the detection, localization, and estimation of enzyme-substrate interactions in tissues. Here, we describe a protocol to detect 'in position' matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in cells utilizing H9c2 cardiomyoblasts as a model. This technique is primarily adopted from the method used for histological sections and is termed as 'Cell in situ Zymography'. It is a simple, sensitive, and quantifiable methodology to assess the functional activity of an enzyme 'on site/in position' in cell culture.

  19. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  20. Design, fabrication, and applications of in situ fluid cell TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Nielsen, Michael H; De Yoreo, James J

    2013-01-01

    In situ fluid cell TEM is a powerful new tool for understanding dynamic processes during liquid phase chemical reactions, including mineral formation. This technique, which operates in the high vacuum of a TEM chamber, provides information on crystal structure, phase, morphology, size, aggregation/segregation, and crystal growth mechanisms in real time. In situ TEM records both crystal structure and morphology at spatial resolutions down to the atomic level with high temporal resolution of up to 10(-6)s per image, giving it distinct advantages over other in situ techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, or X-ray scattering or diffraction. This chapter addresses the design, fabrication, and assembly of TEM fluid cells and applications of fluid cell TEM to understanding mechanisms of mineralization. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruah, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Seven cases of basal cell carcinoma are reported in this paper. The incidence of this disease is two percent of all malignancies seen at the Miraj Medical Centre, Miraj, Maharashtra. There were five male and two female patients in this series. The youngest patient was 40 years old and the oldest 70 years. The average age of the patients was 57.3 years. All the cases in the series had lesions confined to the head and neck region. Radiation therapy was given to all the seven cases which was the primary form of treatment in five cases. In two cases surgical excision had been done and the growth in both the cases had recurred. Radiation therapy is considered more ideal and suitable in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas. (auth.)

  2. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Petridis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast......(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P... for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs...

  3. A rare case of extensive ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with secretory features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Sugihara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a very rare case of extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast with secretory features in a 30-year old Japanese woman. The patient presented with a nodule in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast measuring approximately 2-3 cm, accompanied by an irregular tumor shadow with segmental microcalcification on mammography. These findings suggested malignancy, and excisional biopsy was performed following core needle biopsy. Pathological diagnosis was that of DCIS with secretory features. A treatment plan of simple mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy was chosen. Most previous reports have only described invasive secretory carcinoma of the breast. We have only been able to find 2 case reports of non-invasive secretory lesion in the English literature to date. Because the characteristics of this lesion are not widely known, we thought it important to share our findings.

  4. Clonal relatedness between lobular carcinoma in situ and synchronous malignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) has been accepted as a marker of risk for the development of invasive breast cancer, yet modern models of breast carcinogenesis include LCIS as a precursor of low-grade carcinomas. We provide evidence favoring a clonal origin for LCIS and synchronous estrogen receptor-positive malignant lesions of the ductal and lobular phenotype. Methods Patients with prior LCIS undergoing mastectomy were identified preoperatively from 2003 to 2008. Specimens were widely sampled, and frozen blocks were screened for LCIS and co-existing malignant lesions, and were subject to microdissection. Samples from 65 patients were hybridized to the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array platform. Cases with both an LCIS sample and an associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive tumor sample were evaluated for patterns of somatic copy number changes to assess evidence of clonal relatedness. Results LCIS was identified in 44 of the cases, and among these a DCIS and/or invasive lesion was also identified in 21 cases. A total of 17 tumor pairs had adequate DNA/array data for analysis, including nine pairs of LCIS/invasive lobular cancer, four pairs of LCIS/DCIS, and four pairs of LCIS/invasive ductal cancer. Overall, seven pairs (41%) were judged to be clonally related; in five (29%) evidence suggested clonality but was equivocal, and five (29%) were considered independent. Clonal pairs were observed with all matched lesion types and low and high histological grades. We also show anecdotal evidence of clonality between a patient-matched triplet of LCIS, DCIS, and invasive ductal cancer. Conclusion Our results support the role of LCIS as a precursor in the development of both high-grade and low-grade ductal and lobular cancers. PMID:22776144

  5. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in the prognostic evaluation of primary flat carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Jacobsen, F

    1991-01-01

    bladder biopsies from 22 patients with primary flat carcinoma in situ (Bergkvist grades III-IV). On average, nuclear vv was 77 microns 3 in nine biopsies with morphologically normal urothelium, 292 microns 3 in 56 isolated primary lesions and 266 microns 3 in lesions of luminal urothelium in 13 biopsies...... carcinoma in situ (nuclear vv = 261 microns 3), the survival was the same in patients with nuclear vv above and below the cut-off point (2P = 0.16). However, the survival curves showed a tendency to differ in the first 2-8 years of observation. Stereological estimates of nuclear vv provide objective...

  6. New in-situ neutron diffraction cell for electrode materials

    OpenAIRE

    Biendicho, Jordi Jacas; Roberts, Matthew; Offer, Colin; Noréus, Dag; Widenkvist, Erika; Smith, Ronald I.; Svensson, Gunnar; Edström, Kristina; Norberg, Stefan T.; Eriksson, Sten G.; Hull, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A novel neutron diffraction cell has been constructed to allow in-situ studies of the structural changes in materials of relevance to battery applications during charge/discharge cycling. The new design is based on the coin cell geometry, but has larger dimensions compared to typical commercial batteries in order to maximize the amount of electrode material and thus, collect diffraction data of good statistical quality within the shortest possible time. An important aspect of the design is it...

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seum Chung

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common form of skin cancer, predominantly affecting the head and neck, and can be diagnosed clinically in most cases. Metastasis of BCC is rare, but localised tissue invasion and destruction can lead to morbidity.Risk factors for BCC include tendency to freckle, degree of sun exposure, excessive sun-bed use, and smoking.Incidence of BCC increases markedly after the age of 40 years, but incidence in younger people is rising, possibly as a result of inc...

  8. Perianal Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Bulur

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer. Exposure to ultraviolet light is an important risk factor for BCC development and the disorder therefore develops commonly on body areas that are more exposed to sunlight, such as the face and neck. It is uncommon in the closed area of the body and quite rare in the perianal and genital regions. Herein, we report a 34-year-old patient with perianal BCC who had no additional risk factors.

  9. Penis squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Hernández Piñero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become a first order health problem worldwide, despite the great diagnostic and therapeutic programs achieved during the last years. This is a clinical case of an 81- year-old patient with personal and social history of promiscuous and unprotected sexual behavior that shows a vegetative lesion in his gland and numerous inguinal adenopathies. Biopsy confirms the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma infiltrating the penis, which is a relatively rare pathology which is generally diagnosed belatedly. Partial amputation of the penis was considered to be performed, but there was no consent on behalf of his family. The patient’s general condition was getting worse until he died.

  10. 63 Patients and cytokeratin 8/18 expression in breast, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive Duct Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamloula, M.M.; El-Shorbagy, S.H.; Saied, E.M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The pattern and distribution of 63 Patients expression as a myoepithelia/basal stem cell marker can be different between atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and may denote basal phenotype of breast ductal carcinoma. CK8/18 is a luminal marker and may indicate a luminal phenotype of IDC and its expression in ADH and DCIS may refer to a possible precursor lesion to IDC. This work was designed to study and compare the expression of 63 Patients and cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/l8) in some cases of ADH, DC IS and IDC. Materials and Methods: Histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical study of anti- 63 Patients and anti-CK8/l8 was performed on selected archival cases of 7 ADH, 12 DCIS, 30 IDC of known clinico pathological data and previous estrogen receptor status (ER) for IDe. Confirmatory anti-smooth muscle actin (ASMA) expression for positive 63 Patients cases was performed. Results: 63 Patients was expressed in the peripheral rim of the myoepithelial cell layer in ADH and DCIS with occasional gabs in DCrS. It was positive and stained occasional malignant cells in 3/30 (10%) of IDC cases. Confirmatory ASMA staining decorated the same peripheral rim of cells in ADH and DCIS, but was negative in 63 Patients positive IDC cases. CK8/l8 was positive in 100% of ADH, 8/12 (66.7%) of DC IS and 22/30 (73%) of IDC cases. Combined 63 Patients and CK8/ 18 expression was noticed in 3/30 (10%) of IDe. Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that 63 Patients is specific and valuable in differentiating myoepithelial cells and is more specific and valuable than other myoepithelial markers, as ASMA and can differentiate between ADH, DCIS, IDC as it stains peripheral myoepithelial cells in ADH and DCIS with gabs in the latter and does not stain any neoplastic cells. In IDC, it is positive in malignant cells in a minority of cases which may indicate basal/stem cell/myoepithelial cell origin

  11. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma, a distinctive morphologic variant of basal cell carcinoma that presents as a small red macule (dot) or papule, is described on a woman’s thigh. A high index of suspicion is necessary to consider the diagnosis since the tumor mimics a telangiectasia or an angioma. PMID:28670359

  12. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF EYELID MASQUERADING AS BASAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main malignant tumors affecting the eyelid are Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, Sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC, Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, and Malignant melanoma (MM in that order of frequency in Asia. SGC and BCC forms majority of tumors in India. SC C is rare in Indian population and generally occurs in predisposed individuals like in patients with Xeroderma pigmentosa. BCC may present as pigmented or non - pigmented, nodular or noduloulcerative lesion. Usually SGC and BCC are not confused because of va ried clinical appearance and morphology. However non pigmented noduloulcerative BCC can be confused with SCC. We report a case of histopathologically proven squamous cell carcinoma presenting as basal cell carcinoma in a 90 year old patient and its managem ent.

  13. Pain, sensory disturbances and psychological distress are common sequelae after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Birgitte Goldschmidt; Duriaud, Helle Molter; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    , psychological aspects and rehabilitation needs 1–3 years after surgery. Results: Median age was 60 years. A total of 33% of patients reported any pain and 12% reported moderate to severe pain in the area of surgery. Younger age (aged 50 to 65 years OR 2.8 (95% CI......Sequelae such as pain, sensory disturbances and psychological distress are well known after treatment for invasive breast cancer (IBC). Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) receive a similar treatment as low-risk IBC. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe prevalence...... of postoperative pain, sensory disturbances, psychological distress and rehabilitation needs among Danish women with DCIS. Methods: A total of 574 women treated for DCIS in Denmark in 2013 and 2014 were enrolled and 473 (82%) completed a detailed questionnaire on demographic factors, pain, sensory disturbances...

  14. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  15. Outpatient photodynamic-guided diagnosis of carcinoma in situ with flexible cystoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Karin; Glenthøj, Anders; Toft, Birgitte Grønkær

    2017-01-01

    ), without compromising the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ (CIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients were included. After BCG instillation for CIS, bladder biopsies were obtained using photodynamic-guided flexible cystoscopy. Two weeks later, patients underwent the conventional inpatient procedure....... An external pathologist reviewed the biopsy samples. Pain and quality of life (QoL) symptom score were recorded. RESULTS: Post-BCG biopsies showed only CIS in 10 patients; high-grade Ta or T1 tumour in three patients, who were referred for cystectomy; and normal or low-grade tumour tissue in 18 patients...... patients. Quality of biopsies did not differ between the two procedures. Pain scores for outpatients were low, and median QoL symptom score was significantly lower than for inpatients (24 vs 33, p = 0.02). Hospital length of stay was significantly longer for inpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient photodynamic...

  16. Molecular profile of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.; van Diest, P. J.; Menko, F. H.; Bart, J.; de Vries, E. G. E.; van der Wall, E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an established late precursor of sporadic invasive breast cancer and to a large extent parallels its invasive counterpart with respect to molecular changes and immunophenotype. Invasive breast cancers in germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a

  17. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  18. Hyperspectral Imaging and K-Means Classification for Histologic Evaluation of Ductal CarcinomaIn Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouj, Yasser; Dawson, Jeremy; Coad, James; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that shows the potential to aid pathologists in breast cancer diagnoses cases. In this study, breast cancer tissues from different patients were imaged by a hyperspectral system to detect spectral differences between normal and breast cancer tissues. Tissue samples mounted on slides were identified from 10 different patients. Samples from each patient included both normal and ductal carcinoma tissue, both stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and unstained. Slides were imaged using a snapshot HSI system, and the spectral reflectance differences were evaluated. Analysis of the spectral reflectance values indicated that wavelengths near 550 nm showed the best differentiation between tissue types. This information was used to train image processing algorithms using supervised and unsupervised data. The K-means method was applied to the hyperspectral data cubes, and successfully detected spectral tissue differences with sensitivity of 85.45%, and specificity of 94.64% with true negative rate of 95.8%, and false positive rate of 4.2%. These results were verified by ground-truth marking of the tissue samples by a pathologist. In the hyperspectral image analysis, the image processing algorithm, K-means, shows the greatest potential for building a semi-automated system that could identify and sort between normal and ductal carcinoma in situ tissues.

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ arising within a mammary fibroadenoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Asako; Takahara, Sachiko; Sumiyoshi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Shiba, Eiichi; Kawai, Jun

    2011-07-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common form of benign breast tumor and the most common breast tumor in women under 30 years of age. However, carcinoma arising within a fibroadenoma is unusual, with over 100 cases reported in the literature. Histological diagnosis is typically unexpected. A 46-year-old female with no family history of breast malignancies was admitted for an elastic hard lump in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. At a clinic that she visited previously, her condition was diagnosed by core needle biopsy with four specimens showing fibroadenoma with borderline atypical ductal hyperplasia at pathology. Excisional biopsy was recommended for pathological diagnosis. The patient requested a definitive diagnosis and alternative treatment to tumorectomy. More biopsy specimens were needed for pathological diagnosis; therefore, ultrasonography-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsies were obtained, confirming ductal carcinoma in situ with questionable microinvasion of intracanalicular- and pericanalicular-type fibroadenoma. Right breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy were immediately performed for radical therapy. We present this case to increase awareness of this entity and stress the need for histological evaluation of some breast masses.

  20. Mammary Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Fresh Look at Architectural Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Scripcaru

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS, a malignant appearing lesion on cytological and histological grounds, is in fact a non-obligate precancer. DCIS is difficult to manage and is sometimes treated more aggressively than invasive carcinoma. Although most DCIS classifications take into account the architectural growth pattern, when it comes to architecture, the literature is full of contradictory information. We examined 289 breast cancers and found DCIS in 265 of the cases. The majority of the DCIS cases were seen in the setting of invasive cancer and only 9% of the cases represented pure DCIS with no invasive cancer. The DCIS commonly displayed a mixed pattern with micropapillary, cribriform and solid components with the micropapillary type being the rarest, occurring seldom on its own. A continuum of growth with a micropapillary pattern evolving into a cribriform type could be seen in some of the cases. This may explain some of the conflicting information, in the literature, regarding the different architectural types of DCIS. The comedo-pattern of necrosis could be seen in all types of DCIS. We therefore conclude that the study of the determinants of growth pattern in DCIS would be the key to unravelling the diverse, often non-concordant evidence one encounters in the literature.

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging and K-Means Classification for Histologic Evaluation of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Khouj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging (HSI is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that shows the potential to aid pathologists in breast cancer diagnoses cases. In this study, breast cancer tissues from different patients were imaged by a hyperspectral system to detect spectral differences between normal and breast cancer tissues. Tissue samples mounted on slides were identified from 10 different patients. Samples from each patient included both normal and ductal carcinoma tissue, both stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain and unstained. Slides were imaged using a snapshot HSI system, and the spectral reflectance differences were evaluated. Analysis of the spectral reflectance values indicated that wavelengths near 550 nm showed the best differentiation between tissue types. This information was used to train image processing algorithms using supervised and unsupervised data. The K-means method was applied to the hyperspectral data cubes, and successfully detected spectral tissue differences with sensitivity of 85.45%, and specificity of 94.64% with true negative rate of 95.8%, and false positive rate of 4.2%. These results were verified by ground-truth marking of the tissue samples by a pathologist. In the hyperspectral image analysis, the image processing algorithm, K-means, shows the greatest potential for building a semi-automated system that could identify and sort between normal and ductal carcinoma in situ tissues.

  2. Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Elinor; Roylance, Rebecca; Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N; Nowinski, Salpie; Papouli, Efterpi; Fletcher, Olivia; Pinder, Sarah; Hanby, Andrew; Kohut, Kelly; Gorman, Patricia; Caneppele, Michele; Peto, Julian; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Katherine-Anne; Gillett, Cheryl; Houlston, Richard; Ross, Gillian; De Ieso, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C; Hopper, John L; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Wesseling, Jelle; Cornelissen, Sten; Keeman, Renske; Fasching, Peter A; Jud, Sebastian M; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Kerin, Michael J; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benitez, Javier; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K; Lochmann, Magdalena; Brauch, Hiltrud; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, Kconfab; Lambrechts, Diether; Weltens, Caroline; Van Limbergen, Erik; Hatse, Sigrid; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Sherman, Mark E; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Shah, Mitul; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Couch, Fergus J; Hallberg, Emily; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dunning, Alison M; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug; Pharoah, Paul; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Tomlinson, Ian; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2014-04-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0 × 10(-10); P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at Plobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.

  3. Genetic Predisposition to In Situ and Invasive Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Christos; Brook, Mark N.; Nowinski, Salpie; Papouli, Efterpi; Fletcher, Olivia; Pinder, Sarah; Hanby, Andrew; Kohut, Kelly; Gorman, Patricia; Caneppele, Michele; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Swann, Ruth; Dwek, Miriam; Perkins, Katherine-Anne; Gillett, Cheryl; Houlston, Richard; Ross, Gillian; De Ieso, Paolo; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Wesseling, Jelle; Cornelissen, Sten; Keeman, Renske; Fasching, Peter A.; Jud, Sebastian M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Kerin, Michael J.; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Therese; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Kerbrat, Pierre; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Benitez, Javier; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Lichtner, Peter; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Lochmann, Magdalena; Brauch, Hiltrud; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Investigators, kConFab; Lambrechts, Diether; Weltens, Caroline; Van Limbergen, Erik; Hatse, Sigrid; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Mclean, Catriona A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Devillee, Peter; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Kriege, Mieke; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Sherman, Mark E.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Shah, Mitul; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nicholas; Schoemaker, Minouk; Couch, Fergus J.; Hallberg, Emily; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dunning, Alison M.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug; Pharoah, Paul; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Tomlinson, Ian; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10–15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09–1.18), P = 6.0×10−10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8×10−4). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at Pbreast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes. PMID:24743323

  4. Renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Jayaprakash; Chandrika; Laxman, Prabhu

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has been steadily increasing. There are several morphological types of renal cell carcinoma. Recognizing histologic patterns of renal cell carcinoma is important for correct diagnosis and subsequent medical care for the patient. Melanotic tumors in the kidney are very rare. Here, we present an unusual case of renal cell carcinoma with melanin pigment. PMID:20877613

  5. In SITU Transmission Electron Microscopy on Operating Electrochemical CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2016-01-01

    Solid oxide cells (SOC) have the potential of playing a significant role in the future efficient energy system scenario. In order to become widely commercially available, an improved performance and durability of the cells has to be achieved [1]. Conventional scanning and transmission SEM and TEM...... have been often used for ex-situ post mortem characterization of SOFCs and SOECs [2,3]. However, in order to get fundamental insight of the microstructural development of SOFC/SOEC during operation conditions in situ studies are necessary [4]....

  6. Synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Seo [Chonnam National Univ. School of Dentistry, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Thyroid carcinoma occurring as a second primary associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is unusual. This report presents a synchronous thyroid carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the anterior palate region of a 41-year-old man. The clinical, radiologic, and histologic features are described. At 10-month follow-up after operation, no evidence of recurrence ana metastasis was present.

  7. CLINICAL RELEVANCE OF COEXISTENCE OF DUCTAL CA IN SITU AND INVASIVE DUCTAL CARCINOMA OF BREAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirithiga Ramalingam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There are many studies reported in the literature with respect to the Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS progressing into Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC of the breast. However, there is hardly any study on the coexistence of both and its clinical significance. The aim of the study is to analyse the clinical and pathological parameters of synchronous DCIS and IDC to predict the prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS 42 patients with a final pathological diagnosis of synchronous DCIS and IDC diagnosed in 2009-11 were included in the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software utilising the appropriate analytical methods. RESULTS Majority of the patients in this study group presented with early breast cancer (64.3%. Forty eight percent were Her2 subtype (ER, PR negative and HER2/neu-positive and 31% were triple negative. Eighty one percent of the IDC associated histology was Not Otherwise Specified (NOS type. Grade 3 lesions were more common (57%. Recurrence of the disease occurred in 66% of patients during a mean duration of follow up of 3.6 years with predominance of visceral metastasis (51.5%. Recurrence was more common in node positive disease (59.5%, those with lymphovascular emboli (59.5% and perinodal spread (76% on histopathological examination. CONCLUSION Synchronous DCIS and IDC disease entity appears to have an aggressive nature compared to the course of IDC alone entity. Prognostic factors relating to IDC appears to correlate well with recurrence than that of the prognostic factors of DCIS component in such synchronous setting.

  8. Breast MRI of ductal carcinoma in situ. Is there MRI role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francescutti, G.E.; Londero, V.; Berra, I.; Del Frate, C.; Zuiani, C.; Bazzocchi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study is to report our personal experience of 22 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods. From September 1995 to December 2001, 22 women diagnosed with DCIS lesions underwent contrast enhanced MRI within 7 days after mammographic examination. Dynamic MRI was performed with a 1 T system, using a three dimensional fast low angle shot (FLASH) pulse sequence before and after contrast media administration. We evaluated the morphologic features of the enhancement, the enhancement rate and the signal time intensity curve. Pathology was obtained in all cases. Results. The results of histopatological examination included: 15 DCIS and 7 DCIS with associated microinvasive component or microfoci of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). On MRI, 21 of 22 (95%) DCIS lesions showed contrast enhancement. Fourteen out of 15 pure DCIS lesions demonstrated respectively a low (3), undeterminate (5), and strong (6) enhancement. Morphologically, the enhancing lesion was focal in 7, segmental in 4, and with linear branching in 3 cases. Wash out was found in 4 cases, plateau curve in 8 and Type I curve in 2 cases. Multifocality was present in 5 cases. All DCIS with associated microinvasion demonstrated contrast enhancement: 1/7 cases showed a low enhancement, 2/7 showed an indeterminate enhancement and 4/7 showed a strong enhancement. Morphologically, the enhancing lesion was focal in 3/9, segmental in 5 and with linear branching in 1 case. The wash out was demonstrated in 3/7 cases, plateau curve in 3 and Type 1 curve in 1 case. Multifocality was present in 3 cases. Conclusions. In conclusion, the sensitivity of MRI for DCIS detection is lower than that achieved for invasive breast cancer; however, contrast-enhanced MRI can depict foci of DCIS that are mammographically occult. The MRI technique is of complementary value for a better description of tumor size and detection of additional

  9. Lobular carcinoma in situ on core biopsy - What is the clinical significance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Driscoll, D.; Britton, P.; Bobrow, L.; Wishart, G.C.; Sinnatamby, R.; Warren, R

    2001-03-01

    AIM: To retrospectively review the surgical histological findings in all cases where lobular carcinomain situ (LCIS) was identified on percutaneous core biopsy (CB) performed as part of the Cambridge and Huntingdon breast screening programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all the core biopsies performed in our department for screen detected abnormalities over a 5-year period between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 1999. All patients where LCIS was identified on CB were reviewed. As the significance of LCIS on CB was unclear all went on to surgical excision. We reviewed the clinical and imaging findings, biopsy technique and subsequent surgical histology of each patient. RESULTS: During the study period 60 769 women were invited for screening, of whom 47 975 attended (attendance rate 79%). Of these, 2330 (4.9%) were recalled for assessment and 749 (1.6%) underwent CB. A malignant diagnosis was obtained in 311 (42%), 211 invasive and 100 in situ lesions. LCIS was identified on CB in 13 (2%). LCIS was the only lesion identified in seven cases. All seven cases subsequently underwent surgical excision. Surgical histology revealed a single case of LCIS and invasive lobular carcinoma. There were two cases of LCIS and DCIS one with a probable focus of invasive ductal carcinoma. In one case LCIS was identified in association with a radial scar. In three of the seven cases LCIS was the only abnormality on both CB and surgical biopsy. CONCLUSION: Our series shows that isolated LCIS on CB following mammographic screening is an infrequent finding, and it may be associated with either an invasive cancer or DCIS. It is therefore advisable that when LCIS is identified on CB, surgical excision of the mammographic abnormality should be performed. Decisions on management should be undertaken in a multidisciplinary setting taking into account clinical and imaging findings. O'Driscoll, D. et al. (2001)

  10. Lobular carcinoma in situ on core biopsy - What is the clinical significance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Driscoll, D.; Britton, P.; Bobrow, L.; Wishart, G.C.; Sinnatamby, R.; Warren, R.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively review the surgical histological findings in all cases where lobular carcinomain situ (LCIS) was identified on percutaneous core biopsy (CB) performed as part of the Cambridge and Huntingdon breast screening programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all the core biopsies performed in our department for screen detected abnormalities over a 5-year period between 1 April 1994 and 31 March 1999. All patients where LCIS was identified on CB were reviewed. As the significance of LCIS on CB was unclear all went on to surgical excision. We reviewed the clinical and imaging findings, biopsy technique and subsequent surgical histology of each patient. RESULTS: During the study period 60 769 women were invited for screening, of whom 47 975 attended (attendance rate 79%). Of these, 2330 (4.9%) were recalled for assessment and 749 (1.6%) underwent CB. A malignant diagnosis was obtained in 311 (42%), 211 invasive and 100 in situ lesions. LCIS was identified on CB in 13 (2%). LCIS was the only lesion identified in seven cases. All seven cases subsequently underwent surgical excision. Surgical histology revealed a single case of LCIS and invasive lobular carcinoma. There were two cases of LCIS and DCIS one with a probable focus of invasive ductal carcinoma. In one case LCIS was identified in association with a radial scar. In three of the seven cases LCIS was the only abnormality on both CB and surgical biopsy. CONCLUSION: Our series shows that isolated LCIS on CB following mammographic screening is an infrequent finding, and it may be associated with either an invasive cancer or DCIS. It is therefore advisable that when LCIS is identified on CB, surgical excision of the mammographic abnormality should be performed. Decisions on management should be undertaken in a multidisciplinary setting taking into account clinical and imaging findings. O'Driscoll, D. et al. (2001)

  11. Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity predicts invasive components in breast ductal carcinoma in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study investigated whether texture-based imaging parameters could identify invasive components of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We enrolled 65 biopsy-confirmed DCIS patients (62 unilateral, 3 bilateral) who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), or breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). We measured SUV{sub max} and intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity by the area under the curve (AUC) of cumulative SUV histograms (CSH) on PET, tumour-to-normal ratio (TNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) as an index of heterogeneity on BSGI, minimum ADC (ADC{sub min}) and ADC difference (ADC{sub diff}) as an index of heterogeneity on DWI. After surgery, final pathology was categorized as pure-DCIS (DCIS-P), DCIS with microinvasion (DCIS-MI), or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Clinicopathologic features of DCIS were correlated with final classification. Final pathology confirmed 44 DCIS-P, 14 DCIS-MI, and 10 IDC. The invasive component of DCIS was significantly correlated with higher SUV{sub max} (p = 0.017) and lower AUC-CSH (p < 0.001) on PET, higher TNR (p = 0.008) and COV (p = 0.035) on BSGI, lower ADC{sub min} (p = 0.016) and higher ADC{sub diff} (p = 0.009) on DWI, and larger pathologic size (p = 0.018). On multiple regression analysis, AUC-CSH was the only significant predictor of invasive components (p = 0.044). The intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET was the most important predictor of invasive components of DCIS. (orig.)

  12. Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity predicts invasive components in breast ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Yemi; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether texture-based imaging parameters could identify invasive components of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We enrolled 65 biopsy-confirmed DCIS patients (62 unilateral, 3 bilateral) who underwent 18 F-FDG PET, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), or breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). We measured SUV max and intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity by the area under the curve (AUC) of cumulative SUV histograms (CSH) on PET, tumour-to-normal ratio (TNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) as an index of heterogeneity on BSGI, minimum ADC (ADC min ) and ADC difference (ADC diff ) as an index of heterogeneity on DWI. After surgery, final pathology was categorized as pure-DCIS (DCIS-P), DCIS with microinvasion (DCIS-MI), or invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Clinicopathologic features of DCIS were correlated with final classification. Final pathology confirmed 44 DCIS-P, 14 DCIS-MI, and 10 IDC. The invasive component of DCIS was significantly correlated with higher SUV max (p = 0.017) and lower AUC-CSH (p < 0.001) on PET, higher TNR (p = 0.008) and COV (p = 0.035) on BSGI, lower ADC min (p = 0.016) and higher ADC diff (p = 0.009) on DWI, and larger pathologic size (p = 0.018). On multiple regression analysis, AUC-CSH was the only significant predictor of invasive components (p = 0.044). The intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of 18 F-FDG PET was the most important predictor of invasive components of DCIS. (orig.)

  13. of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sobjanek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Polymorphic variants of MCP-1 and RANTES genes and their protein serum levels have been implicated in the increased risk and severity of several malignancies. However, the subject has not been explored in basal cell carcinoma (BCC patients so far. Aim : To investigate the association between monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 (–2518 A/G and RANTES (–403 G/A polymorphism and risk and clinical course of BCC. Material and methods : The study group consisted of 150 unrelated patients with BCC and 140 healthy, unrelated, age- and sex-matched volunteers. The polymorphisms were analysed using the amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction method (ARMS-PCR and single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR. Serum cytokine levels were measured with ELISA. Results : The presence of the MCP-1 –2518 GG genotype was statistically more frequent in BCC patients and it increased the risk of BCC (OR = 2.63, p = 0.003. Genotype –330 GG was statistically more common in patients with less advanced tumours (OR = 2.8, p = 0.017. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 serum level was statistically higher with GG genotype. In the BCC group MCP-1 serum levels were decreased. Neither polymorphic variants of RANTES nor the chemokine serum concentration differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusions : These findings suggest that –2518 A/G MCP-1 polymorphism may be involved in BCC pathogenesis.

  14. Comparison of Chromogenic In Situ Hybridisation with Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation and Immunohistochemistry for the Assessment of Her-2/neu Oncogene in Archival Material of Breast Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothos, Alexios; Plastira, Konstantina; Plastiras, Aris; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Goutas, Nikolaos; Angelopoulou, Roxani

    2008-01-01

    The successful treatment of breast cancer is dependent upon a number of complex factors. Her-2/neu gene amplification is known to be one of the most common genetic alterations associated with breast cancer and its accurate determination has become necessary for the selection of patients for trastuzumab therapy. The aim of this study was to prove the consistency of chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) technique after analyzing the overexpression of the Her-2/neu proto-oncogene in 100 invasive breast carcinomas and by comparing CISH results with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Moreover, it was done to evaluate the possible correlation of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone receptors (PRs), the proliferation marker Ki67 and the tumour suppressor gene p53 with HER-2/neu status of these breast carcinomas. Of the 100 breast carcinomas that were analysed, 22 cases showed HER-2/neu amplification, 66 cases showed no amplification, whereas 12 cases were non-interpretable in both assays (FISH and CISH). Consequently, the overall concordance between FISH and CISH was 100%. Additionally, it was observed that when HER-2/neu gene was overexpressed, there was an association with negative PRs and ERs status, negative p53 protein expression and high Ki67 labelling index. It is concluded that patients with tumours scoring 2+ with the CBE356 antibody (borderline immunohistochemistry-tested cases) would also benefit from CISH as it is shown to be highly accurate, practical and can be easily integrated into routine testing in any histopathology laboratory. Finally, CISH represents an important addition to the HER2 testing algorithm

  15. Use of Lugol's iodine in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jeremy; Devine, John C; McCaul, James A; McLellan, Douglas R; Farrow, Adrian

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the use of Lugol's iodine in achieving surgical margins free from dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma by an observational study of two series of 50 consecutive patients having resection of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) between November 2004 and March 2007. The standard group had resection of the primary tumour with a macroscopic 1cm margin and removal of adjacent visibly abnormal mucosa. The Lugol's iodine group had identical treatment with resection of any adjacent mucosa that did not stain after the application of Lugol's iodine (where this was feasible). In the standard group 16 patients (32%) had dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, or invasive SCC at a surgical margin. In the Lugol's iodine group two patients (4%) had dysplasia or carcinoma in situ; none had invasive SCC. Lugol's iodine is a simple, inexpensive, and apparently effective means of reducing the likelihood of unsatisfactory surgical margins in the resection of oral and oropharyngeal SCC.

  16. Identification of molecular pathways facilitating glioma cell invasion in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Nevo

    Full Text Available Gliomas are mostly incurable secondary to their diffuse infiltrative nature. Thus, specific therapeutic targeting of invasive glioma cells is an attractive concept. As cells exit the tumor mass and infiltrate brain parenchyma, they closely interact with a changing micro-environmental landscape that sustains tumor cell invasion. In this study, we used a unique microarray profiling approach on a human glioma stem cell (GSC xenograft model to explore gene expression changes in situ in Invading Glioma Cells (IGCs compared to tumor core, as well as changes in host cells residing within the infiltrated microenvironment relative to the unaffected cortex. IGCs were found to have reduced expression of genes within the extracellular matrix compartment, and genes involved in cell adhesion, cell polarity and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT processes. The infiltrated microenvironment showed activation of wound repair and tissue remodeling networks. We confirmed by protein analysis the downregulation of EMT and polarity related genes such as CD44 and PARD3 in IGCs, and EFNB3, a tissue-remodeling agent enriched at the infiltrated microenvironment. OLIG2, a proliferation regulator and glioma progenitor cell marker upregulated in IGCs was found to function in enhancing migration and stemness of GSCs. Overall, our results unveiled a more comprehensive picture of the complex and dynamic cell autonomous and tumor-host interactive pathways of glioma invasion than has been previously demonstrated. This suggests targeting of multiple pathways at the junction of invading tumor and microenvironment as a viable option for glioma therapy.

  17. Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue. Merkel cells are in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis and are connected to nerves. Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow quickly and to metastasize (spread) at an early stage . It usually spreads first to nearby lymph nodes and then may spread to lymph nodes or ...

  18. Correlation between imaging and pathology in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Jaap

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is helpful in planning treatment for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS if the size and grade could be reliably predicted from the mammography. The aims of this study were to determine if the type of calcification can be best used to predict histopathological grade from the mammograms, to examine the association of mammographic appearance of DCIS with grade and to assess the correlation between mammographic size and pathological size. Methods Mammographic films and pathological slides of 115 patients treated for DCIS between 1986 and 2000 were reviewed and reclassified by a single radiologist and a single pathologist respectively. Prediction models for the European Pathologist Working Group (EPWG and Van Nuys classifications were generated by ordinal regression. The association between mammographic appearance and grade was tested with the χ2-test. Relation of mammographic size with pathological size was established using linear regression. The relation was expressed by the correlation coefficient (r. Results The EPWG classification was correctly predicted in 68%, and the Van Nuys classification in 70% if DCIS was presented as microcalcifications. High grade was associated with presence of linear calcifications (p Conclusions Prediction of histopathological grade of DCIS presenting as microcalcifications is comparable using the Van Nuys and EPWG classification. There is no strict association of mammographic appearance with histopathological grade. There is a better linear relation between mammographic- and pathological size of DCIS presented as microcalcifications than as a density, although both relations are statistically significant.

  19. Paradigm Shift toward Reducing Overtreatment of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Sagara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast has increased substantially after the introduction of breast cancer screening programs, although the clinical effects of early DCIS detection and treatment remain unclear. The standard treatment for DCIS has involved local breast-conserving surgery (BCS followed by radiotherapy (RT or total mastectomy with/without endocrine therapy, and the choice of local treatment is not usually based on clinicopathologic or biological factors. However, we have investigated the effectiveness of local treatment using breast surgery and RT using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, and found that the effectiveness of breast surgery was modified by the nuclear grade. Furthermore, breast cancer-specific survival was identical between patients with low-grade DCIS who did and did not undergo surgery. Moreover, we found that RT after BCS for DCIS was only associated with a survival benefit among patients with risk factors for local recurrence, such as nuclear grade, age, and tumor size. Ongoing clinical trials and translational research have attempted to develop a treatment strategy that prevents the overdiagnosis and overtreatment of low-risk DCIS, as well as a biology-based treatment strategy for using targeted therapy. Therefore, to develop a tailored treatment strategy for DCIS, we need to identify molecular and biological classifications based on the results from translational research, national databases, and clinical trials.

  20. [Oncoplastic breast surgery for the management of ductal carcinoma in situ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, J; Azaïs, H; Devouge, P; Phalippou, J; Boulanger, L; Collinet, P

    2015-11-01

    DCIS (Ductal carcinoma in situ) constitutes 15,2% of breast cancers. Conservative surgery coupled with adjuvant radiotherapy is often recommended. The rate of revision surgery is high, from 30 to 60%. The concern is a high quality resection within clear margins with a satisfactory aesthetic result. The objective of this review is to precise the place of oncoplastic surgery in DCIS care. Among risk factors of recurrence, tumoral invasion of surgical margins is capital. In histology, clear margins usually adopted for DCIS are 2mm, even though there is no international consensus. Recent studies show that a 10mm limit would be better. Aesthetic damage caused by surgery, often increased by radiotherapy, has a negative impact on women quality of life: oncoplastic surgery may minimize it. Techniques of plastic surgery, arranged into level 1 and 2, allow pushing back conservative treatment limits by removing a larger tumor with clear margins. Often used in invasive cancers, few data exist regarding oncoplastic surgery and DCIS. It allows to increase the dimensions of surgical resection by 20% and to decrease positive margins significantly therefore the rate of revision surgeries. Patients are satisfied with it. Specific indications need to be clarified according to age, size and "comedonecrosis" presence. Oncoplastic surgery should be developed in DCIS specific care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Ductal carcinoma in situ: a brief review of treatment variation and impacts on patients and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatovec, Christine; Erten, Mujde Z; Kolodinsky, Jane; Brown, Phil; Wood, Marie; James, Ted; Sprague, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 20% of all breast cancer cases are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), with over 60,000 cases diagnosed each year. Many of these cases would never cause clinical symptoms or threaten the life of the woman; however, it is currently impossible to distinguish which lesions will progress to invasive disease from those that will not. DCIS is generally associated with an excellent prognosis regardless of the treatment pathway, but there is variation in treatment aggressiveness that seems to exceed the medical uncertainty associated with DCIS management. Therefore, it would seem that a significant proportion of women with DCIS receive more extensive treatment than is needed. This overtreatment of DCIS is a growing concern among the breast cancer community and has implications for both the patient (via adverse treatment-related effects, as well as out-of-pocket costs) and society (via economic costs and the public health and environmental harm resulting from health care delivery). This article discusses DCIS treatment pathways and their implications for patients and society and calls for further research to examine the factors that are leading to such wide variation in treatment decisions.

  2. Mammographic extent of microcalcifications and oestrogen receptor expression affect preoperative breast carcinoma in situ size estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Mojal, Sergi; Gamero, Rocío; Nicolau, Pau; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Plancarte, Francisco; Corominas, Josep M; Serrano-Munne, Laia; Carreras, Ramon; Sabadell, Dolors

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to establish which clinical, radiologic and pathologic factors could predict the risk of under- and overestimation of the breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) size when preoperatively measuring the maximum mammographic extent of microcalcifications (MEM). We made a retrospective review of patients with a DCIS treated in our Breast Unit between May 2005 and May 2012. Clinical, pathologic and radiologic data were evaluated as possible predictive factors for over- or underestimation of DCIS size when measuring MEM. We obtained precise measurements of MEM in 82 patients (84 DCIS lesions). Maximum MEM measurement correctly estimated maximum pathology size in 57 lesions (68.7 %). Patients with a correctly estimated DCIS, with an underestimated DCIS and with an overestimated DCIS significantly differed in DCIS ER expression (p = 0.022) and in maximum MEM measurement (p = 0.000). Constructing two ROC curves, we found that a maximum MEM measurement ≥25 mm and ER expression ≥90 % were both discrimination points for overestimation and ER ≤ 45 % was a discrimination point for underestimation. Using these cutoff points, we defined four groups of patients with different risks of over- and underestimation. Risk of over- or underestimation of DCIS size through MEM measurement depends on DCIS ER expression and MEM itself. Identifying which patients are at a significant risk of over- or underestimation could help the breast surgeon when discussing the surgical options with the patient.

  3. Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Sawyer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+ and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18, P = 6.0 × 10(-10; P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4. Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03; and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04. In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365 and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7. In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity

  4. Concomitant carcinoma in situ is a feature of aggressive disease in patients with organ-confined TCC at radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Shahrokh F; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Rogers, Craig G; Vazina, Amnon; Bastian, Patrick J; Schoenberg, Mark P; Lerner, Seth P; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is a nonpapillary, high-grade, potentially aggressive, and unpredictable manifestation of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder. The aim of this study was to assess whether presence of concomitant CIS has a detrimental effect on cancer control after radical cystectomy. The records of 812 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for bladder TCC at three US academic centres were reviewed. Ninety-nine of 812 (12%) patients had CIS only at radical cystectomy and were excluded from the analyses. Three hundred thirty of the 713 (46.3%) patients had concomitant CIS at radical cystectomy. Patients with TCC involvement of the urethra were more likely to have concomitant CIS than not (61% vs. 40%, p=0.018). Concomitant CIS was significantly more common in patients with lower cystectomy stages and higher tumour grades. In univariate, but not multivariate, analysis, patients with concomitant CIS versus those without were at increased risk of disease recurrence (p=0.0371). In patients with organ-confined disease, concomitant CIS was an independent predictor of disease recurrence (p=0.048 and p=0.012, respectively) but not bladder cancer-specific mortality (p=0.160 and p=0.408, respectively) after adjusting for the effects of standard postoperative features. Concomitant CIS in the cystectomy specimen is common, and patients with concomitant CIS are at increased risk of urethral TCC involvement. The presence of concomitant CIS appears to confer a worse prognosis in patients with non-muscle-invasive TCC treated with radical cystectomy.

  5. The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: Pathology of atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Peter T; Gale, Theodora; Fulford, Laura G; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Lakhani, Sunil R

    2003-01-01

    The term lobular neoplasia refers to a spectrum of lesions featuring atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). The histopathological characteristics of these lesions are well documented. What is less well understood is the management implications of a patient diagnosed with LCIS; treatment regimes vary and are somewhat controversial. LCIS is now considered a risk factor and a non-obligate precursor for the subsequent development of invasive cancer

  6. In-Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy on Operating Electrochemical Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    have been often used for ex-situpost mortem characterization of SOFCs and SOECs [2,3]. However, in order to get fundamental insight of themicrostructural development of SOFC/SOEC during operation conditions in-situ studies are necessary [4]. Thedevelopment of advanced TEM chips and holders makes...... it possible to undertake analysis during exposure to theSOFC/SOEC sample of reactive gas flow, elevated temperatures and electrical biasing in combination. Thisallows the study of nanostructure development under temperature and electrode polarisation conditions similarto operation conditions.In this work, we...... with animage corrector and a differential pumping system.A symmetric cell was prepared by depositing a cell consisting of three thin films on a strontium titanate (STO)single crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Lanthanum strontium cobaltite La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ (LSC)was chosen as electrode...

  7. Improved Outcomes of Breast-Conserving Therapy for Patients With Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halasz, Lia M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Sreedhara, Meera [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Yu-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Wong, Julia S.; Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Brock, Jane E., E-mail: jebrock@partners.org [Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Patients treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and radiation therapy (RT) at our center from 1976 to 1990 had a 15% actuarial 10-year local recurrence (LR) rate. Since then, improved mammographic and pathologic evaluation and greater attention to achieving negative margins may have resulted in a lower risk of LR. In addition, clinical implications of hormone receptor and HER-2 status in DCIS remain unclear. We sought to determine the following: LR rates with this more modern approach; the relation between LR and HER-2 status; and clinical and pathologic factors associated with HER-2{sup +} DCIS. Methods and Materials: We studied 246 consecutive patients who underwent BCS and RT for DCIS from 2001 to 2007. Of the patients, 96 (39%) were Grade III and the median number of involved tissue blocks was 3. Half underwent re-excision and 222 (90%) had negative margins (>2 mm). All received whole-breast RT (40-52 Gy) and 99% (244) received a tumor bed boost (8-18 Gy). Routine estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER-2 immunohistochemistry was instituted in 2003. Results: With median follow-up of 58 months, there were no LRs. Seven patients (3%) developed contralateral breast cancer (4 invasive and 3 in situ). Among 163 patients with immunohistochemistry, 124 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup -}, 27 were ER/PR{sup +}HER-2{sup +}, 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup +}, and 6 were ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}HER-2{sup -}. On univariable analysis, HER-2{sup +}was significantly associated with Grade III, ER{sup -}/PR{sup -}, central necrosis, comedo subtype, more extensive DCIS, and postmenopausal status. On multivariable analysis, Grade III and postmenopausal status remained significantly associated with HER-2{sup +}. Conclusions: In an era of mammographically identified DCIS, larger excisions, widely negative margins and the use of a tumor bed boost, we observed no LR regardless of ER/PR/HER-2 status. Factors associated

  8. Radiologic Findings of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising Within a Juvenile Fibroadenoma: Mammographic, Sonographic and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Features

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon histologic variant of fibroadenoma that frequently shows a remarkable and rapid growth. The development of a carcinoma within a fibroadenoma, either in situ or invasive, is a rare condition. We encountered a 36-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The radiologic findings were indicative of a fibroadenoma in the breast. Sonographic guided biopsy using a 14G core needle revealed the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the j...

  9. Five year outcome of 145 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after accelerated breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciervide, Raquel; Dhage, Shubhada; Guth, Amber; Shapiro, Richard L; Axelrod, Deborah M; Roses, Daniel F; Formenti, Silvia C

    2012-06-01

    Accelerated whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) with tumor bed boost in the treatment of early invasive breast cancer has demonstrated equivalent local control and cosmesis when compared with standard RT. Its efficacy in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains unknown. Patients treated for DCIS with lumpectomy and negative margins were eligible for 2 consecutive hypofractionated whole-breast RT clinical trials. The first trial (New York University [NYU] 01-51) prescribed to the whole breast 42 Gy (2.8 Gy in 15 fractions) and the second trial (NYU 05-181) 40.5 Gy (2.7 Gy in 15 fractions) with an additional daily boost of 0.5 Gy to the surgical cavity. Between 2002 and 2009, 145 DCIS patients accrued, 59 to the first protocol and 86 to the second trial. Median age was 56 years and 65% were postmenopausal at the time of treatment. Based on optimal sparing of normal tissue, 79% of the patients were planned and treated prone and 21% supine. At 5 years' median follow-up (60 months; range 2.6-105.5 months), 6 patients (4.1%) experienced an ipsilateral breast recurrence in all cases of DCIS histology. In 3/6 patients, recurrence occurred at the original site of DCIS and in the remaining 3 cases outside the original tumor bed. New contralateral breast cancers arose in 3 cases (1 DCIS and 2 invasive carcinomas). Cosmetic self-assessment at least 2 years after treatment is available in 125 patients: 91% reported good-to-excellent and 9% reported fair-to-poor outcomes. With a median follow-up of 5 years, the ipsilateral local recurrence rate is 4.1%, comparable to that reported from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) trials that employed 50 Gy in 25 fractions of radiotherapy for DCIS. There were no invasive recurrences. These results provide preliminary evidence that accelerated hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy is a viable option for DCIS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Five Year Outcome of 145 Patients With Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) After Accelerated Breast Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciervide, Raquel [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Dhage, Shubhada; Guth, Amber; Shapiro, Richard L.; Axelrod, Deborah M.; Roses, Daniel F. [Department of Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Formenti, Silvia C., E-mail: silvia.formenti@nyumc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Background: Accelerated whole-breast radiotherapy (RT) with tumor bed boost in the treatment of early invasive breast cancer has demonstrated equivalent local control and cosmesis when compared with standard RT. Its efficacy in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains unknown. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for DCIS with lumpectomy and negative margins were eligible for 2 consecutive hypofractionated whole-breast RT clinical trials. The first trial (New York University [NYU] 01-51) prescribed to the whole breast 42 Gy (2.8 Gy in 15 fractions) and the second trial (NYU 05-181) 40.5 Gy (2.7 Gy in 15 fractions) with an additional daily boost of 0.5 Gy to the surgical cavity. Results: Between 2002 and 2009, 145 DCIS patients accrued, 59 to the first protocol and 86 to the second trial. Median age was 56 years and 65% were postmenopausal at the time of treatment. Based on optimal sparing of normal tissue, 79% of the patients were planned and treated prone and 21% supine. At 5 years' median follow-up (60 months; range 2.6-105.5 months), 6 patients (4.1%) experienced an ipsilateral breast recurrence in all cases of DCIS histology. In 3/6 patients, recurrence occurred at the original site of DCIS and in the remaining 3 cases outside the original tumor bed. New contralateral breast cancers arose in 3 cases (1 DCIS and 2 invasive carcinomas). Cosmetic self-assessment at least 2 years after treatment is available in 125 patients: 91% reported good-to-excellent and 9% reported fair-to-poor outcomes. Conclusions: With a median follow-up of 5 years, the ipsilateral local recurrence rate is 4.1%, comparable to that reported from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project) trials that employed 50 Gy in 25 fractions of radiotherapy for DCIS. There were no invasive recurrences. These results provide preliminary evidence that accelerated hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy is a viable option for DCIS.

  11. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    KAUST Repository

    De Vitis, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be used to study the interaction between cell membrane and biomolecules. Moreover they allow to perform analysis with high processing speed, small quantity of reagents and samples, short reaction times and low production costs. In this work the developed protocols were used in microfluidic devices for the isolation of cancer cells in heterogeneous blood samples by exploiting the binding of specific antibody to an adhesion protein (EpCAM), overexpressed on the tumor cell membranes. The presented biofunctionalization protocols can be performed right before running the experiment: this allows to have a flexible platform where biomolecules of interest can be linked on the device surface according to the user\\'s needs. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of C-MYC amplification with progression from the in situ to the invasive stage in C-MYC-amplified breast carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robanus-Maandag, Els C.; Bosch, Cathy A. J.; Kristel, Petra M.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Faneyte, Ian F.; Nederlof, Petra M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2003-01-01

    Human carcinoma in situ of the breast already demonstrates genomic changes found in invasive lesions. However, no specific genetic alterations have previously been identified that are associated with progression from the in situ to the invasive stage. By comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and

  13. The Pathologic Finding of Combined Lobular Carcinoma In Situ and Invasive Lobular Cancer May Indicate more than Just a High-Risk Marker Role of Lobular Carcinoma In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Louis, Christopher J; Masdon, Joshua; Smith, Betsy; Battles, Oscar; Dale, Paul

    2017-05-01

    For years, lobular carcinoma In Situ (LCIS) has been considered a high-risk marker for developing breast cancer. It is well known that ductal carcinoma In Situ is a precursor for the development of invasive ductal carcinoma, and ductal carcinoma In Situ is reported to be present in invasive ductal carcinoma in at least 40 per cent of cases. A similar relationship between LCIS and invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) remains in question. This study evaluates the incidence of synchronous LCIS and ILC at our institution. This is a retrospective review of our tumor registry database of women diagnosed with LCIS or ILC from 2000 to 2014. Pathology reports were evaluated to determine the incidence of pure ILC and mixed ILC/LCIS. Those with both LCIS/ILC (mixed group) and those with pure ILC (pure group) were compared for age, surgical intervention, lymph node involvement, tumor size, nuclear grade, and margins between these two groups. A total of 182 women were identified with LCIS, ILC, or mixed LCIS and ILC. There were 76 subjects with pure ILC and 90 with mixed LCIS and ILC. The median and age range for each group were 63.6 (range: 40-97) for the mixed and 64.1 (range: 40-86) for pure groups. Tumor size was evaluated for each group and the median tumor size was 2.5 cm (range: 0.1-7.0cm) for the mixed group and 3.0 cm (range: 0.5-12.5 cm) for the pure group. Nodal involvement was present in 35.23 per cent of the mixed group and 46.3 per cent in the pure group. Surgical treatment for each group was similar, with mastectomy being the preferred surgical option over breast conservation therapy in the mixed and pure groups, 67.07 and 64.71 per cent, respectively. Presently, LCIS is considered a marker, or risk factor, for development of future breast cancer. This retrospective study does identify a strong relationship, 54 per cent, between LCIS and ILC at diagnosis. This high percentage of concurrent LCIS and ILC in surgical/pathological specimens supports the notion that LCIS

  14. PDT-induced apoptosis in bladder carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachor, Ruediger; Reich, Ella D.; Kleinschmidt, Klaus; Repassy, Denes; Hautmann, Richard E.

    1999-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly efficient inducer of apoptosis in EY-28 bladder carcinoma cells, resulting in extensive DNA fragmentation. Bladder carcinoma cells EY-28 (Tumorbank Heidelberg, Germany) were incubated for 1 h with 1 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml or 2 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml. After incubation cells were refed with complete medium and irradiated with 0.75 J/cm2. To identify apoptotic cells, a in situ cell death detection kit POD (Boehringer Mannheim, Germany) was used. The chromatin condensation characteristic to apoptotic cells was detected by transmission electron microscopy. Using 1 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml and 2 (mu) g AamTPPn/ml (9-Acetamido-2,7,12,17- tetra-n-Porpylporphycene), respectively, and irradiation at 0.75 J/cm2, a percentage of 36.9% and 54.7%, respectively, of apoptotic cells was detected.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  16. Risk factors for the development of invasive cancer in unresected ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Anthony J; Clements, Karen; Hilton, Bridget; Dodwell, David J; Evans, Andrew; Kearins, Olive; Pinder, Sarah E; Thomas, Jeremy; Wallis, Matthew G; Thompson, Alastair M

    2018-04-01

    The natural history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) remains uncertain. The risk factors for the development of invasive cancer in unresected DCIS are unclear. Women diagnosed with DCIS on needle biopsy after 1997 who did not undergo surgical resection for ≥1 year after diagnosis were identified by breast centres and the cancer registry and outcomes were reviewed. Eighty-nine women with DCIS diagnosed 1998-2010 were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 75 (range 44-94) years with median follow-up (diagnosis to death, invasive disease or last review) of 59 (12-180) months. Twenty-nine women (33%) developed invasive breast cancer after a median interval of 45 (12-144) months. 14/29 (48%) with high grade, 10/31 (32%) with intermediate grade and 3/17 (18%) with low grade DCIS developed invasive cancer after median intervals of 38, 60 and 51 months. The cumulative incidence of invasion was significantly higher in high grade DCIS than other grades (p = .0016, log-rank test). Invasion was more frequent in lesions with calcification as the predominant feature (23/50 v. 5/25; p = .042) and in younger women (p = .0002). Endocrine therapy was associated with a lower rate of invasive breast cancer (p = .048). High cytonuclear grade, mammographic microcalcification, young age and lack of endocrine therapy were risk factors for DCIS progression to invasive cancer. Surgical excision of high grade DCIS remains the treatment of choice. Given the uncertain long-term natural history of non-high grade DCIS, the option of active surveillance of women with this condition should be offered within a clinical trial. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of second breast cancers after lobular carcinoma in situ according to hormone receptor status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Mao

    Full Text Available Although subsequent breast cancer risk after primary lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS has been studied intensively, whether the risk of second breast cancer after first LCIS varies with hormone receptor (HR status of primary tumor remains unclear.We identified 10,304 women with primary pure unilateral LCIS between 1998 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER 18 Registries. Kaplan-Meier estimates of 5 or 10-year probabilities of second ipsilateral breast cancers (IBCs and contralateral breast cancers (CBCs were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional model was performed to identify impact of HR status of primary LCIS, and other demographic, clinicopathologic or treatment characteristics on risk of second IBCs or CBCs.Of the 10,304 women with primary LCIS included in this study, 9949 (96.5% patients had HR+ tumors, and 355 (3.5% had HR- tumors. Multivariable-adjusted analyses showed that although there was no difference in risk of total second IBCs between women with HR+ and HR- LCIS (P = 0.152, patients with HR+ LCIS had a statistically lower risk of second invasive IBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (hazard ratio 0.356, 95% CI 0.141-0.899, P = 0.029. Women with primary HR+ LCIS had lower risks of both second total and invasive CBCs compared to those with HR- LCIS (total CBCs: hazard ratio 0.340, 95% CI 0.228-0.509, P<0.001; invasive CBCs: hazard ratio 0.172, 95% CI 0.108-0.274, P<0.001. Additionally, black women had a 2-fold risk of developing subsequent total IBCs than white women (P = 0.028.This population-based study demonstrated that the risk of second breast cancers was significantly increased in women with HR- first LCIS compared to those with HR+ LCIS. These findings warrant intensive surveillance for second breast cancers in HR- LCIS survivors.

  18. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  19. Detection of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ by Ultrasound and Mammography: Size-dependent Inaccuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Christian; Abrar, Sharareh; Puppe, Julian; Arndt, Mariam; Ohlinger, Ralf; Hahn, Markus; Warm, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Retrospective analysis of breast cancer imaging methods is a common tool for evaluating the effectiveness of ultrasound and mammography regarding ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). No large number subpopulation of pure DCIS has been reported. It is however known that mammography and ultrasound underestimate tumor dimension with increasing tumor size. We aimed to quantify this discrepancy. This retrospective analysis reviewed the ultrasound and mammography data from 173 patients with DCIS at the University of Cologne - Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics between the years 2007 and 2010. Of these 173 patients, 34 fulfilled the DCIS analysis requirements and were evaluated in this study. Overall, ultrasound underestimated tumor size 79.4% of the time, while overestimating only 20.6% of the time. Mammography underestimated tumor size in 50%, overestimated in 38.2%, correctly estimating in 11.8%. Over and underestimation distributions differed drastically above and a cut-off point of ≤2 cm actual tumor size, with a significant shift toward severe underestimation by both methods above a tumor size of 2 cm. DCIS misestimation was defined as the absolute value of the difference between actual tumor size and pre-surgical measurement by an imaging method. Mean DCIS size misestimation (actual tumor size ≤2 cm) was 3 mm for ultrasound and 6.2 mm for mammography. We support previous findings that ultrasound and mammography lose accuracy with increasing tumor size. Nonetheless, ultrasound may be more useful in estimation of DCIS size for tumors ≤2 cm than previously expected. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Outcomes in Patients Treated With Mastectomy for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Dawn [Radiation Therapy Program, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Tyldesley, Scott, E-mail: styldesl@bccancer.bc.ca [Radiation Therapy Program, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Alexander, Cheryl; Speers, Caroline [Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Truong, Pauline; Nichol, Alan; Wai, Elaine S. [Radiation Therapy Program, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada); Breast Cancer Outcomes Unit of the British Columbia Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To examine, in a large, population-based cohort of women, the risk factors for recurrence after mastectomy for pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to identify which patients may benefit from postmastectomy radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed for 637 subjects with pure DCIS, diagnosed between January 1990 and December 1999, treated initially with mastectomy. Locoregional relapse (LRR), breast cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were described using the Kaplan-Meier method. Reported risk factors for LRR (age, margins, size, Van Nuys Prognostic Index, grade, necrosis, and histologic subtype) were analyzed by univariate (log-rank) and multivariate (Cox modeling) methods. Results: Median follow-up was 12.0 years. Characteristics of the cohort were median age 55 years, 8.6% aged ≤40 years, 30.5% tumors >4 cm, 42.5% grade 3 histology, 37.7% multifocal disease, and 4.9% positive margins. At 10 years, LRR was 1.0%, breast cancer-specific survival was 98.0%, and overall survival was 90.3%. All recurrences (n=12) involved ipsilateral chest wall disease, with the majority being invasive disease (11 of 12). None of the 12 patients with recurrence died of breast cancer; all were successfully salvaged (median follow-up of 4.4 years). Ten-year LRR was higher with age ≤40 years (7.5% vs 1.5%; P=.003). Conclusion: Mastectomy provides excellent locoregional control for DCIS. Routine use of postmastectomy radiation therapy is not justified. Young age (≤40 years) predicts slightly higher LRR, but possibly owing to the small number of cases with multiple risk factors for relapse, a subgroup with a high risk of LRR (ie, approximately 15%) was not identified.

  1. Prospective Multicenter Trial Evaluating Balloon-Catheter Partial-Breast Irradiation for Ductal Carcinoma in Situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Andrea M.; Portschy, Pamela R. [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Lee, Chung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Le, Chap T. [Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Han, Linda K. [Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Washington, Tara [Vantage Oncology, Redhawk and Wildomar Centers California, Wildomar, California (United States); Kinney, Michael [Center for Advanced Breast Care, Arlington Heights, Illinois (United States); Bretzke, Margit [Surgical Specialists of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Tuttle, Todd M., E-mail: tuttl006@umn.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To determine outcomes of accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with MammoSite in the treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: We conducted a prospective, multicenter trial between 2003 and 2009. Inclusion criteria included age >18 years, core needle biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, and no prior breast cancer history. Patients underwent breast-conserving surgery plus MammoSite placement. Radiation was given twice daily for 5 days for a total of 34 Gy. Patients were evaluated for development of toxicities, cosmetic outcome, and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). Results: A total of 41 patients (42 breasts) completed treatment in the study, with a median follow up of 5.3 years. Overall, 28 patients (68.3%) experienced an adverse event. Skin changes and pain were the most common adverse events. Cosmetic outcome at 6 months was judged excellent/good by 100% of physicians and by 96.8% of patients. At 12 months, 86.7% of physicians and 92.3% of patients rated the cosmetic outcome as excellent/good. Overall, 4 patients (9.8%) developed an IBTR (all DCIS), with a 5-year actuarial rate of 11.3%. All IBTRs were outside the treatment field. Among patients with IBTRs, the mean time to recurrence was 3.2 years. Conclusions: Accelerated partial-breast irradiation using MammoSite seems to provide a safe and cosmetically acceptable outcome; however, the 9.8% IBTR rate with median follow-up of 5.3 years is concerning. Prospective randomized trials are necessary before routine use of APBI for DCIS can be recommended.

  2. Prediction of Occult Invasive Disease in Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Using Deep Learning Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bibo; Grimm, Lars J; Mazurowski, Maciej A; Baker, Jay A; Marks, Jeffrey R; King, Lorraine M; Maley, Carlo C; Hwang, E Shelley; Lo, Joseph Y

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether deep features extracted from digital mammograms using a pretrained deep convolutional neural network are prognostic of occult invasive disease for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on core needle biopsy. In this retrospective study, digital mammographic magnification views were collected for 99 subjects with DCIS at biopsy, 25 of which were subsequently upstaged to invasive cancer. A deep convolutional neural network model that was pretrained on nonmedical images (eg, animals, plants, instruments) was used as the feature extractor. Through a statistical pooling strategy, deep features were extracted at different levels of convolutional layers from the lesion areas, without sacrificing the original resolution or distorting the underlying topology. A multivariate classifier was then trained to predict which tumors contain occult invasive disease. This was compared with the performance of traditional "handcrafted" computer vision (CV) features previously developed specifically to assess mammographic calcifications. The generalization performance was assessed using Monte Carlo cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Deep features were able to distinguish DCIS with occult invasion from pure DCIS, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.73). This performance was comparable with the handcrafted CV features (area under the curve = 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-0.71) that were designed with prior domain knowledge. Despite being pretrained on only nonmedical images, the deep features extracted from digital mammograms demonstrated comparable performance with handcrafted CV features for the challenging task of predicting DCIS upstaging. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammographic bi-dimensional product: a powerful predictor of successful excision of ductal carcinoma in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A. [Breast Institute, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.evans@nuh.nhs.uk; Clements, K. [West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Maxwell, A. [Bolton Breast Unit, Bolton (United Kingdom); Dobson, H. [West of Scotland Breast Screening Unit, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Wallis, M. [Warwickshire, Solihull and Coventry Breast Screening Service, Coventry (United Kingdom); Lawrence, G. [West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bishop, H. [Bolton Breast Unit, Bolton (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    Background: The aim of this analysis was to ascertain whether uni-dimensional measurement of mammographic microcalcification, the product of bi-dimensional measurement, calcification morphology, and pathological grade are helpful in predicting successful single therapeutic wide local excision (WLE) of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Methods: The study group comprised 505 patients whose mammograms showed the DCIS as calcification, and in whom a non-operative diagnosis had been obtained and WLE attempted. The extents of mammographic calcifications was measured in two planes at 90{sup o} on the oblique view, the appearances classified as comedo, granular, or punctate. DCIS was graded using cyto-nuclear characteristics. Results: Three hundred and forty-two patients had a successful first WLE and 163 patients had further surgery. A uni-dimensional measurement of <35 mm and a bi-dimensional product of <800 mm{sup 2} were associated with successful excision (69 versus 54%, p = 0.02 and 70 versus 27%, p = 0.0001, respectively). Mammographic calcification morphology and histological grade did not influence the likelihood of a successful first WLE. For high-grade DCIS, the upper limit of the bi-dimensional product associated with successful WLE was 800 mm{sup 2} (69 versus 24%, p = 0.0003). In contrast, for non-high-grade DCIS, the cut-off was 400 mm{sup 2} (73 versus 33%, p = 0.01). Analyses based on mammographic calcification morphology gave similar findings. Conclusion: The mammographic bi-dimensional product is a powerful predictor of successful WLE of DCIS when combined with histological grade and/or calcification morphology.

  4. Hypofractionated versus conventionally fractionated radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oar, Andrew; Papadatos, George; Boxer, Miriam M.; Delaney, Geoff P.; Phan, Penny; Descallar, Joseph; Duggan, Kirsten; Tran, Kelvin; Tap, Mei Ling

    2016-01-01

    Hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) in the setting of early invasive breast cancer has been shown to have similar local control rates and cosmetic outcomes as conventionally fractionated RT. This study compares ipsilateral recurrence rates between hypofractionated and conventional RT, with and without a boost. The effect of hypofractionated RT and chest wall separation (CWS) on cosmetic outcome was also assessed. All patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated between 1998 and 2012 across two sites of a single cancer institution were retrospectively studied. Patients were analysed according to those receiving conventional RT (≤2 Gy per fraction) and those receiving hypofractionated RT (>2 Gy per fraction), as well as the presence or absence of a tumour bed boost. Data were collected through electronic medical records and local cancer registry. Cosmetic outcome was scored by physicians on a four-point scale during clinical follow-up appointments. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were treated for DCIS during the study period. One hundred and forty-one were treated with conventional RT, and 56 with hypofractionated RT. After a median follow up of 4.4 years, there were 12 ipsilateral recurrences, of which seven were invasive disease and five DCIS. Ten recurrences occurred in patients who received conventional RT (7.1% recurrence rate) and two in those who received hypofractionated RT (3.6% recurrence rate) (P = 0.48). Cosmetic outcomes were not significantly different between conventional and hypofractionated RT (P = 0.06). Hypofractionation represents a suitable alternative for treating DCIS in the absence of randomised data.

  5. Can upstaging of ductal carcinoma in situ be predicted at biopsy by histologic and mammographic features?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bibo; Grimm, Lars J.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; King, Lorraine M.; Maley, Carlo C.; Hwang, E. Shelley; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2017-03-01

    Reducing the overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) requires accurate prediction of the invasive potential at cancer screening. In this work, we investigated the utility of pre-operative histologic and mammographic features to predict upstaging of DCIS. The goal was to provide intentionally conservative baseline performance using readily available data from radiologists and pathologists and only linear models. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 99 patients with DCIS. Of those 25 were upstaged to invasive cancer at the time of definitive surgery. Pre-operative factors including both the histologic features extracted from stereotactic core needle biopsy (SCNB) reports and the mammographic features annotated by an expert breast radiologist were investigated with statistical analysis. Furthermore, we built classification models based on those features in an attempt to predict the presence of an occult invasive component in DCIS, with generalization performance assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Histologic features including nuclear grade and DCIS subtype did not show statistically significant differences between cases with pure DCIS and with DCIS plus invasive disease. However, three mammographic features, i.e., the major axis length of DCIS lesion, the BI-RADS level of suspicion, and radiologist's assessment did achieve the statistical significance. Using those three statistically significant features as input, a linear discriminant model was able to distinguish patients with DCIS plus invasive disease from those with pure DCIS, with AUC-ROC equal to 0.62. Overall, mammograms used for breast screening contain useful information that can be perceived by radiologists and help predict occult invasive components in DCIS.

  6. Re-resection rates and risk characteristics following breast conserving surgery for breast cancer and carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryh, C G; Pietersen, C A; Rahr, Hans

    2014-01-01

    .1]). Invasive lobular carcinoma (ilc) had an RR of re-resection of 2.5 [1.7; 3.8], compared with invasive ductal carcinoma (idc). CONCLUSION: Overall 11.2% of the BCS patients needed a re-resection. For isolated CIS (28.6%), RR of re-resection was almost three times as high compared to invasive carcinoma (10......OBJECTIVES: To examine the frequency of re-resections and describe risk characteristics: invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ (CIS), palpability of the lesion, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. RESULTS: 1703 breast conserving surgeries were performed: 1575 primary breast conserving surgeries (BCS......), and 128 diagnostic excisions (DE). 176 BCS (11.2% [9.6; 12.7]) and 100 DE had inadequate margins indicating re-resection. The overall re-resection rate was 16.2% [14.5; 18.0]. 10.3% of invasive carcinoma BCS patients, and 28.6% CIS patients underwent re-resection (relative risk (RR) 2.8 [1.9; 4...

  7. Usefulness and limitations of E-cadherin and β-catenin in the classification of breast carcinomas in situ with mixed pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Douglas S; Porto, Simone S; Rocha, Rafael M; Gobbi, Helenice

    2013-07-09

    The distinction between lobular neoplasia of the breast and ductal carcinoma in situ has important therapeutic implications. In some cases, it is very difficult to determine whether the morphology of the lesion is ductal or lobular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression through the immunophenotypical characterization of carcinoma in situ with mixed pattern (CISM). A total of 25 cases of CISM were analyzed considering cytology/mixed architecture (ductal and lobular), nuclear pleomorphism, loss of cell cohesion, and presence of comedonecrosis. The immunophenotype pattern was considered E-cadherin positive and β-catenin positive, or negative. Nineteen (76%) cases presented a mixed cytology and / or architectural pattern, two (8%) presented nuclear pleomorphism, two (8%) presented mixed cytology and nuclear pleomorphism, and two (8%) presented comedonecrosis and nuclear pleomorphism. A complete positivity for E-cadherin and β-catenin was observed in 11 cases (44%). In one case, the lesion was negative for both markers and showed nuclear pleomorphis. Thirteen lesions showed negative staining in areas of lobular cytology and positive staining in cells presenting the ductal pattern. The expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin, combined with cytological and architectural analysis, may highlight different immunophenotypes and improve classification of CISM. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/ 1693384202970681

  8. Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Campos Arbulú

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis

  9. Mast cells dysregulate apoptotic and cell cycle genes in mucosal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Paul

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mucosal squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck is a disease of high mortality and morbidity. Interactions between the squamous cell carcinoma and the host's local immunity, and how the latter contributes to the biological behavior of the tumor are unclear. In vivo studies have demonstrated sequential mast cell infiltration and degranulation during squamous cell carcinogenesis. The degree of mast cell activation correlates closely with distinct phases of hyperkeratosis, dysplasia, carcinoma in-situ and invasive carcinoma. However, the role of mast cells in carcinogenesis is unclear. Aim This study explores the effects of mast cells on the proliferation and gene expression profile of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma using human mast cell line (HMC-1 and human glossal squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25. Methods HMC-1 and SCC25 were co-cultured in a two-compartment chamber, separated by a polycarbonate membrane. HMC-1 was stimulated to degranulate with calcium ionophore A23187. The experiments were done in quadruplicate. Negative controls were established where SCC25 were cultured alone without HMC-1. At 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours, proliferation and viability of SCC25 were assessed with MTT colorimetric assay. cDNA microarray was employed to study differential gene expression between co-cultured and control SCC25. Results HMC-1/SCC25 co-culture resulted in suppression of growth rate for SCC-25 (34% compared with 110% for the control by 72 hours, p Conclusion We show that mast cells have a direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma in vitro by dysregulating key genes in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

  10. Cardiac Metastasis in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... following: pleural mesothelioma (48.4%), melanoma (27.8%), lung adenocarcinoma (21%), undifferentiated carcinomas (19.5%), lung squamous cell carcinoma (18.2%) and breast carcinoma (15.5%). High rates of heart metastatisation have also been observed in patients affected by ovarian carcinoma ...

  11. In situ tissue regeneration: chemoattractants for endogenous stem cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.

  12. In Situ Immunofluorescent Staining of Autophagy in Muscle Stem Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Castagnetti, Francesco

    2017-06-13

    Increasing evidence points to autophagy as a crucial regulatory process to preserve tissue homeostasis. It is known that autophagy is involved in skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and the autophagic process has been described in several muscular pathologies and agerelated muscle disorders. A recently described block of the autophagic process that correlates with the functional exhaustion of satellite cells during muscle repair supports the notion that active autophagy is coupled with productive muscle regeneration. These data uncover the crucial role of autophagy in satellite cell activation during muscle regeneration in both normal and pathological conditions, such as muscular dystrophies. Here, we provide a protocol to monitor the autophagic process in the adult Muscle Stem Cell (MuSC) compartment during muscle regenerative conditions. This protocol describes the setup methodology to perform in situ immunofluorescence imaging of LC3, an autophagy marker, and MyoD, a myogenic lineage marker, in muscle tissue sections from control and injured mice. The methodology reported allows for monitoring the autophagic process in one specific cell compartment, the MuSC compartment, which plays a central role in orchestrating muscle regeneration.

  13. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda Plovmand

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  14. Integrating evolutionary game theory into an agent-based model of ductal carcinoma in situ: Role of gap junctions in cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Negin; Habibi, Jafar; Zangooei, Mohammad Hossein; Aghakhani, Hojjat

    2016-11-01

    There are many cells with various phenotypic behaviors in cancer interacting with each other. For example, an apoptotic cell may induce apoptosis in adjacent cells. A living cell can also protect cells from undergoing apoptosis and necrosis. These survival and death signals are propagated through interaction pathways between adjacent cells called gap junctions. The function of these signals depends on the cellular context of the cell receiving them. For instance, a receiver cell experiencing a low level of oxygen may interpret a received survival signal as an apoptosis signal. In this study, we examine the effect of these signals on tumor growth. We make an evolutionary game theory component in order to model the signal propagation through gap junctions. The game payoffs are defined as a function of cellular context. Then, the game theory component is integrated into an agent-based model of tumor growth. After that, the integrated model is applied to ductal carcinoma in situ, a type of early stage breast cancer. Different scenarios are explored to observe the impact of the gap junction communication and parameters of the game theory component on cancer progression. We compare these scenarios by using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test succeeds in proving a significant difference between the tumor growth of the model before and after considering the gap junction communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test also proves that the tumor growth significantly depends on the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis. In this study, the gap junction communication is modeled by using evolutionary game theory to illustrate its role at early stage cancers such as ductal carcinoma in situ. This work indicates that the gap junction communication and the oxygen threshold of turning survival signals into apoptosis can notably affect cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  16. Determination of HER2 gene amplification by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in archival breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxin; Wu, Rina; Au, Alfred; Marquez, Abbey; Yu, Yibing; Shi, Zuorong

    2002-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH(TM)) with fluorescence in situ (FISH) hybridization and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in determination of the HER2 status in human breast cancer. HER2 gene amplification was determined on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of 62 invasive breast cancers by FISH and followed by CISH using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled HER2 DNA probe generated by Subtraction Probe Technology (SPT(TM)), and a biotin-labeled chromosome 17 centromeric (chr.17cen) probe. The sections were heat treated and enzyme digested. After in situ hybridization, the HER2 probe was detected with fluorescein (FITC)-anti-DIG for FISH, followed by peroxidase-anti-FITC and diaminobenzidine (DAB) for CISH. The chr.17cen probe was detected with peroxidase-streptavidin and DAB. For CISH application, HER2 gene copies or chromosome 17 centromeres and morphology of cells were easily visualized simultaneously with a 40x objective under bright-field microscope in hematoxylin-counterstained sections. IHC study of HER2 overexpression was performed on adjacent sections using a panel of three HER2 antibodies (TAB 250, CB11, A0485), and staining was scored according to the criteria specified in the HercepTest. HER2 gene amplification detected by CISH was visualized typically as large DAB-stained clusters or by many dots in the nucleus. FISH and CISH identified HER2 gene amplification in 19% of the tumors. Chromosome 17 polysomy was detected in 31% of the tumors. HER2 overexpression was demonstrated in 19% (TAB 250), 23% (CB11), and 36% (A0485) of the tumors. Complete concordance between the results of CISH with FISH, TAB 250, CB11, and A0485 was seen in 100%, 97%, 94%, and 84% of the cases, respectively. By permitting observation of morphology using a bright-field microscope, CISH is an accurate, practical, and economical approach to screen HER2 status in breast cancers. It is a useful methodology for confirming ambiguous IHC results.

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with a needle core biopsy diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: is it justified?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, B

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has increased markedly with the introduction of population-based mammographic screening. DCIS is usually diagnosed non-operatively. Although sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) has become the standard of care for patients with invasive breast carcinoma, its use in patients with DCIS is controversial. AIM: To examine the justification for offering SNB at the time of primary surgery to patients with a needle core biopsy (NCB) diagnosis of DCIS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 145 patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS who had SNB performed at the time of primary surgery. The study focused on rates of SNB positivity and underestimation of invasive carcinoma by NCB, and sought to identify factors that might predict the presence of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. RESULTS: 7\\/145 patients (4.8%) had a positive sentinel lymph node, four macrometastases and three micrometastases. 6\\/7 patients had invasive carcinoma in the final excision specimen. 55\\/145 patients (37.9%) with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS had invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. The median invasive tumour size was 6 mm. A radiological mass and areas of invasion <1 mm, amounting to "at least microinvasion" on NCB were predictive of invasive carcinoma in the excision specimen. CONCLUSIONS: SNB positivity in pure DCIS is rare. In view of the high rate of underestimation of invasive carcinoma in patients with an NCB diagnosis of DCIS in this study, SNB appears justified in this group of patients.

  18. Salvage treatment for local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for ductal carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solin, Lawrence J.; Fourquet, Alain; Vicini, Frank A.; Taylor, Marie; Haffty, Bruce; Strom, Eric A.; Wai, Elaine; Pierce, Lori J.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Bartelink, Harry; Campana, Francois; McNeese, Marsha D.; Jhingran, Anuja; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Bijker, Nina; Hwang, Wei-Ting

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the outcome of salvage treatment for women with local or local-regional recurrence after initial breast conservation treatment with radiation for mammographically detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; intraductal carcinoma) of the breast. The study cohort consisted of

  19. Squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramberg, Ingvild; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    %) had epithelial dysplasia, 19 (13%) had carcinoma in situ, and 29 (20%) had squamous cell carcinoma. A significantly higher proportion of men were found. The median age at diagnosis was 65 years. The risk of recurrence was 10.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0–15.0] after 1 year and 17.2% (95% CI......Purpose To investigate the epidemiology of squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Denmark. Methods Review of the histopathological case reports at the Eye Pathology Institute (EPI), University of Copenhagen, and the National Danish Pathology Bank from 1980 to 2011. Information...... regarding distribution of age and sex, localization, earlier pathology, comorbidity and recurrence of the condition was registered. The Cause of Death Registry at Statens Serum Institut was used to obtain information regarding cause of death. Results A total of 143 cases were identified. Ninety-five (61...

  20. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  1. Comparison of nuclear grade and immunohistochemical features in situ and invasive components of ductal carcinoma of breast Comparação do grau nuclear e perfil imunoistoquímico nos componentes in situ e invasivo de carcinoma mamário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Nalesso Aguiar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To compare the prognostic and predictive features between in situ and invasive components of ductal breast carcinomas. METHODS:We selected 146 consecutive breast samples with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS associated with adjacent invasive breast carcinoma (IBC. We evaluated nuclear grade and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR in both components, in situ and invasive, and the Ki-67 percentage of cells in the invasive part. The DCIS and IBC were classified in molecular surrogate types determined by the immunohistochemical profile as luminal (RE/PR-positive/ HER2-negative, triple-positive (RE/RP/HER2-positive, HER2-enriched (ER/PR-negative/HER2-positive, and triple-negative (RE/RP/HER2-negative. Discrimination between luminal A and luminal B was not performed due to statistical purposes. Correlations between the categories in the two groups were made using the Spearman correlation method. RESULTS:There was a significant correlation between nuclear grade (pOBJETIVO: Comparar características prognósticas e preditivas entre os componentes in situ e invasivo de carcinomas ductais da mama. MÉTODOS: Selecionamos 146 amostras mamárias consecutivas com carcinoma ductal in situ (CDIS associado com carcinoma invasivo (CI adjacente. Avaliamos grau nuclear e a expressão imunoistoquímica de receptor de estrogênio (RE, receptor de progesterona (RP, receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico humano 2 (HER2, citoqueratina 5/6 (CK5/6 e o receptor do fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGFR em ambos componentes, in situ e invasor, e a porcentagem de células marcadas pelo Ki-67 no componente invasivo. CDIS e CI foram classificados nos tipos moleculares, determinados pelo perfil imunoistoquímico, como luminal (RE/RP-positivo/HER2-negativo, triplo-positivo (RE/RP/HER2-positivo, HER2-puro

  2. A mini-microscope for in situ monitoring of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Koo, Kyo-in; Bae, Hojae; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Bahinski, Anthony; Kim, Sun Min; Ingber, Donald E; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-10-21

    A mini-microscope was developed for in situ monitoring of cells by modifying off-the-shelf components of a commercial webcam. The mini-microscope consists of a CMOS imaging module, a small plastic lens and a white LED illumination source. The CMOS imaging module was connected to a laptop computer through a USB port for image acquisition and analysis. Due to its compact size, 8 × 10 × 9 cm, the present microscope is portable and can easily fit inside a conventional incubator, and enables real-time monitoring of cellular behaviour. Moreover, the mini-microscope can be used for imaging cells in conventional cell culture flasks, such as Petri dishes and multi-well plates. To demonstrate the operation of the mini-microscope, we monitored the cellular migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in a scratch assay in medium containing three different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (5, 10, and 20%) and demonstrated differential responses depending on serum levels. In addition, we seeded embryonic stem cells inside poly(ethylene glycol) microwells and monitored the formation of stem cell aggregates in real time using the mini-microscope. Furthermore, we also combined a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device for microdroplet generation and analysis with the mini-microscope and observed the formation of droplets under different flow conditions. Given its cost effectiveness, robust imaging and portability, the presented platform may be useful for a range of applications for real-time cellular imaging using lab-on-a-chip devices at low cost.

  3. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the current treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, focusing on medical treatment options. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The most important recent publications have been selected after a literature search employing PubMed using the search terms: advanced and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, anti-angiogenesis drugs and systemic therapy; also significant meeting abstracts were consulted. RESULTS: Progress in understanding the molecular basis of renal cell carcinoma, especially related to genetics and angiogenesis, has been achieved mainly through of the study of von Hippel-Lindau disease. A great variety of active agents have been developed and tested in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC patients. New specific molecular therapies in metastatic disease are discussed. Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Bevacizumab increase the progression-free survival when compared to therapy with cytokines. Temsirolimus increases overall survival in high-risk patients. Growth factors and regulatory enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase IX may be targets for future therapies. CONCLUSIONS: A broader knowledge of clear cell carcinoma molecular biology has permitted the beginning of a new era in mRCC therapy. Benefits of these novel agents in terms of progression-free and overall survival have been observed in patients with mRCC, and, in many cases, have become the standard of care. Sunitinib is now considered the new reference first-line treatment for mRCC. Despite all the progress in recent years, complete responses are still very rare. Currently, many important issues regarding the use of these agents in the management of metastatic renal cancer still need to be properly addressed.

  4. A PEM fuel cell for in situ XAS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, Richard J.K.; King, Colin R.; Rose, Abigail; Wells, Peter P.; Hogarth, Martin P.; Thompsett, David; Russell, Andrea E.

    2005-01-01

    A miniature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been designed to enable in situ XAS investigations of the anode catalyst using fluorescence detection. The development of the cell is described, in particular the modifications required for elevated temperature operation and humidification of the feed gasses. The impact of the operating conditions is observed as an increase in the catalyst utilisation, which is evident in the EXAFS collected at the Pt L III and Ru K edges for a PtRu/C catalyst. The Pt component of the catalyst was found to be readily reduced by hydrogen in the fuel, while the Ru was only fully reduced under conditions of good gas flow and electrochemical contact. Under such conditions no evidence of O neighbours were found at the Ru edge. The results are interpreted in relation to the lack of surface sensitivity of the EXAFS method and indicate that the equilibrium coverage of O species on the Ru surface sites is too low to be observed using EXAFS

  5. The value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of carcinoma in situ (CIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsson, Sigurdur; Bläckberg, Mats; Chebil, Gunilla; Jahnson, Staffan; Olsson, Hans; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Månsson, Wiking; Liedberg, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that CIS is a major risk factor for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and that this entity can be difficult to diagnose. Taking cold-cup mapping biopsies from different areas of the bladder (BMAP) is commonly used in patients at risk of harbouring CIS. The diagnostic accuracy of this approach has not been assessed until now. By using the CIS found in the cystoprostatectomy specimen as an indicator of the true occurrence of CIS and comparing that with the findings of BMAP, it is clear that the sensitivity of BMAP to detect CIS when present is low and that negative findings should be considered unreliable. To assess the value of bladder mapping and prostatic urethra biopsies for detection of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS). CIS of the urinary bladder is a flat high-grade lesion of the mucosa associated with a significant risk of progression to muscle-invasive disease. CIS is difficult to identify on cystoscopy, and definite diagnosis requires histopathology. Traditionally, if CIS is suspected, multiple cold-cup biopsies are taken from the bladder mucosa, and resection biopsies are obtained from the prostatic urethra in males. This approach is often called bladder mapping (BMAP). The accuracy of BMAP as a diagnostic tool is not known. Male patients with bladder cancer scheduled for cystectomy underwent cold-cup bladder biopsies (sidewalls, posterior wall, dome, trigone), and resection biopsies were taken from the prostatic urethra. After cystectomy, the surgical specimen was investigated in a standardised manner and subsequently compared with the BMAP biopsies for the presence of CIS. The histopathology reports of 162 patients were analysed. CIS was detected in 46% of the cystoprostatectomy specimens, and multiple (≥2) CIS lesions were found in 30%. BMAP (cold-cup bladder biopsies + resection biopsies from the prostatic urethra) provided sensitivity of 51% for any CIS, and 55% for multiple CIS lesions. The cold-cup biopsies for CIS in the bladder

  6. A Rare Case of Primary Insitu Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Endometrium with Extensive Icthyosis Uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pailoor K

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium is exceedingly rare. We report a case of 52 years old postmenopausal woman who presented with pelvic pain of four months duration. Gynecologic examination revealed a normal cervix. A possibility of pyometra was considered through pelvic ultrasound. Total abdominal hysterectomy was performed and histopathologically, it was diagnosed as a case of primary in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the endometrium.

  7. Screening for carcinoma in situ in the contralateral testicle in patients with testicular cancer: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, M G G; Lauritsen, J; Almstrup, K; Mortensen, M S; Toft, B G; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E; Rørth, M; von der Maase, H; Agerbaek, M; Holm, N V; Andersen, K K; Dalton, S O; Johansen, C; Daugaard, G

    2015-04-01

    Screening programmes for contralateral carcinoma in situ (CIS) testis in patients with unilateral germ-cell cancer (GCC) have never been evaluated. We investigated the effect of screening for contralateral CIS in a large nation-wide, population-based study. A contralateral single-site biopsy was offered to 4130 patients in whom GCC had been diagnosed in 1984-2007 (screened cohort); 462 patients in whom GCC was diagnosed in 1984-1988 comprised the unscreened cohort. Cases with CIS were offered radiotherapy. Initially CIS-negative biopsies in patients with metachronous GCC were revised according to today's standards. Risk for metachronous GCC was estimated using cumulative incidence and the Cox proportional hazards model. In the screened cohort, contralateral CIS was found in 181 (4.4%) patients. The cumulative incidence of metachronous GCC after 20 years was 1.9% in the screened cohort and 3.1% in the unscreened cohort (P = 0.097), hazard ratio (HR) for the unscreened cohort: 1.59 (P = 0.144). Expert revision with contemporary methodology of CIS-negative biopsy samples from patients with metachronous cancer revealed CIS in 17 out of 45 (38%) cases. Decreased risks for metachronous GCC were related to older age at diagnosis (HR 0.52 per 10 years, P cancer showed no significant difference in the risk for metachronous GCC between a screened and an unscreened cohort. Single-site biopsy including modern immunohistochemistry does not identify all cases of CIS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. In situ quantification of genomic instability in breast cancer progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Chin, Koei; Gray, Joe W.; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2003-05-15

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast and other solid cancers. Presumably caused by critical telomere reduction, GI is responsible for providing the genetic diversity required in the multi-step progression of the disease. We have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and 3D image analysis to quantify genomic instability cell-by-cell in thick, intact tissue sections of normal breast epithelium, preneoplastic lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia), ductal carcinona is situ or invasive carcinoma of the breast. Our in situ-cell by cell-analysis of genomic instability shows an important increase of genomic instability in the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma, followed by a reduction of instability in invasive carcinoma. This pattern suggests that the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma corresponds to telomere crisis and invasive carcinoma is a consequence of telomerase reactivation afertelomere crisis.

  9. In Situ Ductal Carcinoma Arising in Benign Phyllodes Tumor in 19-Year Old Patient: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolakoğlu, Muhammet Kadri; Yenidoğan, Erdinç; Akgül, Gökhan Giray; Irkkan, Sultan Çiğdem; Özdemir, Yılmaz; Gülçelik, Mehmet Ali; Çamlıbel, Mithat

    2014-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are fibroepithelial lesions and malign forms are rare neoplasms with lower than 1% of all primary breast tumors. Malign forms are usually behaves like sarcomas because they occur in the stroma of the breast. Also proliferation of epithelium occurs and even it is less often, the epithelial component of phyllodes tumors can transform into malignancy too. This epithelial malignancies are usually in the form of infiltrative carcinomas and non-invasive tumors arising in benign phyllodes tumors are much rarer but can be seen. Literature include very few cases about this situation and cases are usually old woman. We report a 19-year old patient who was diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ arising in benign phyllodes tumor of the breast. PMID:28331678

  10. Bi-module sensing device to in situ quantitatively detect hydrogen peroxide released from migrating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yu

    Full Text Available Cell migration is one of the key cell functions in physiological and pathological processes, especially in tumor metastasis. However, it is not feasible to monitor the important biochemical molecules produced during cell migrations in situ by conventional cell migration assays. Herein, for the first time a device containing both electrochemical sensing and trans-well cell migration modules was fabricated to sensitively quantify biochemical molecules released from the cell migration process in situ. The fully assembled device with a multi-wall carbon nanotube/graphene/MnO2 nanocomposite functionalized electrode was able to successfully characterize hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production from melanoma A375 cells, larynx carcinoma HEp-2 cells and liver cancer Hep G2 under serum established chemotaxis. The maximum concentration of H2O2 produced from A375, HEp-2 and Hep G2 in chemotaxis was 130 ± 1.3 nM, 70 ± 0.7 nM and 63 ± 0.7 nM, respectively. While the time required reaching the summit of H2O2 production was 3.0, 4.0 and 1.5 h for A375, HEp-2 and Hep G2, respectively. By staining the polycarbonate micropore membrane disassembled from the device, we found that the average migration rate of the A375, HEp-2 and Hep G2 cells were 98 ± 6%, 38 ± 4% and 32 ± 3%, respectively. The novel bi-module cell migration platform enables in situ investigation of cell secretion and cell function simultaneously, highlighting its potential for characterizing cell motility through monitoring H2O2 production on rare samples and for identifying underlying mechanisms of cell migration.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma Metastatic to Parotid Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the...

  12. Basal cell carcinoma does metastasize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgediz, Doruk; Smith, E B; Zheng, Jie; Otero, Jose; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Corvera, Carlos U

    2008-08-15

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) rarely metastasizes. However, this unfortunate outcome can occur, usually in neglected tumors. We report a 52-year-old man with a BCC on the left chest that enlarged and then ulcerated over a 6-year period. Metastasis of the tumor to lymph nodes in the left axilla resulted, but the patient remains free of disease 24 months after wide excision, lymph node dissection, and local radiation therapy to the axilla.

  13. Renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lining of very small tubes (tubules) in the kidney. ... Kidney cancer; Hypernephroma; Adenocarcinoma of renal cells; Cancer - kidney ... Follow your provider's recommendations in the treatment of kidney disorders, especially those that may require dialysis.

  14. Mitomycin C Intravesical Chemotherapy in Conjunction With Synergo® Radiofrequency-Induced Hyperthermia for Treatment of Carcinoma in Situ Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer Patients Unresponsive to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, With or Without Papillary Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Bladder Cancer; Bladder Neoplasm; Bladder Tumors; Cancer of Bladder; Cancer of the Bladder; Malignant Tumor of Urinary Bladder; Neoplasms, Bladder; Urinary Bladder Cancer; Carcinoma in Situ of Bladder; Papillary Carcinoma of Bladder (Diagnosis); BCG-Unresponsive Bladder Cancer

  15. Small cell glioblastoma or small cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbrandt, Christine; Sathyadas, Sathya; Dahlrot, Rikke H

    2013-01-01

    was admitted to the hospital with left-sided loss of motor function. A MRI revealed a 6 cm tumor in the right temporoparietal area. The histology was consistent with both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) but IHC was suggestive of a SCLC metastasis. PET-CT revealed...

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  17. Paclitaxel-hyaluronic acid for intravesical therapy of bacillus Calmette-Guérin refractory carcinoma in situ of the bladder: results of a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, P F; Volpe, A; D'Agostino, D; Palermo, G; Renier, D; Franchini, S; Rosato, A; Racioppi, M

    2011-02-01

    Carcinoma in situ represents high grade anaplasia of the bladder mucosa. Intravesical immunotherapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin is the gold standard treatment for patients with carcinoma in situ. Patients with carcinoma in situ refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin are candidates for major surgery such as radical cystectomy. We identified the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose, and evaluated the safety profile of paclitaxel-hyaluronic acid bioconjugate given by intravesical instillation to patients with carcinoma in situ refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin. A total of 16 patients with carcinoma in situ refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin were enrolled in a phase I, open label, single institution study. A minimum of 3 eligible patients were included per dose level. Paclitaxel-hyaluronic acid solution (ONCOFID-P-B™) was administered for 6 consecutive weeks. The primary objective was to identify the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose. As secondary objectives the safety profile of ONCOFID-P-B, the pharmacokinetic profile after each instillation and the tumor response were also evaluated. No dose limiting toxicity occurred at any drug level evaluated. The plasma levels of the study drug were always below the lower limit of quantification at all tested doses after each instillation. A total of 11 adverse events were reported by 7 patients and 9 (60%) showed complete treatment response. Intravesical instillation of ONCOFID-P-B for carcinoma in situ refractory to bacillus Calmette-Guérin showed minimal toxicity and no systemic absorption in the first human intravesical clinical trial to our knowledge. Finally, satisfactory response rates were observed. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  19. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  20. Radiologic Findings of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising Within a Juvenile Fibroadenoma: Mammographic, Sonographic and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Breast MRI Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Song, Sung Eun; Bae, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma is an uncommon histologic variant of fibroadenoma that frequently shows a remarkable and rapid growth. The development of a carcinoma within a fibroadenoma, either in situ or invasive, is a rare condition. We encountered a 36-year-old woman with a palpable mass in the right breast. The radiologic findings were indicative of a fibroadenoma in the breast. Sonographic guided biopsy using a 14G core needle revealed the presence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) within the juvenile fibroadenoma. Focal excision was performed and the patient underwent radiation therapy in the right breast after surgery

  1. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Zitelli, J.A. (Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  2. Coin-Cell-Based In Situ Characterization Techniques for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ characterization techniques have made a significant progress in recent years, especially in the electrochemical field. For Li-ion batteries, in situ characterization techniques refer to using analytical equipment to directly characterize electrode materials during electrochemical measurements. At present, most in situ batteries are developed from commercial simulated batteries, of which the cost is very high and the cycle life is quite short. In this work, two kinds of coin-cell-based in situ batteries were designed as in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD and Raman coin cells which exhibit many admirable advantages, such as low cost, long cycle life, easy to carry, and so on. In the designing process, in situ XRD and Raman coin cell have been tested with two electrode materials of Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4, and we solved many technical problems of assembling and measuring these two kinds of cells. Finally, in situ coin cells could be improved to investigate a variety of electrode materials, and this technique would arouse wide interests in the electrochemical field.

  3. Immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Stenzl, Arnulf; Stevanović, Stefan; Rammensee, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Carcinomas of the kidney generally have a poor prognosis and respond minimally to classical radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Immunotherapy constitutes an interesting alternative to these established forms of treatment, and indeed, cytokine-based therapies have been used for many years, leading to favorable clinical responses in a small subset of patients. During the past few years, immunotherapeutical trials targeting renal cell tumor-associated antigens have also been reported, with diverse passive or active approaches using antibodies or aimed at activating tumor-directed T lymphocytes. The following review presents the results and the progress made in the field, including classical cytokine treatments, non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation and antigen specific-based trials, with special focus on T-cell studies. In consideration of the few specific molecular targets described so far for this tumor entity, current strategies which can lead to the identification of new relevant antigens will be discussed. Hopefully these will very soon contribute to an improvement in renal cell carcinoma specific immunotherapy and its evaluation.

  4. Urinary bladder carcinoma with divergent differentiation featuring small cell carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, and liposarcomatous component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Mariko; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Miyakawa, Jimpei; Maeda, Daichi; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-09-01

    Both small cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma of the urinary bladder are highly aggressive tumors, and a concurrence of these tumors is extremely rare. We report a case of urinary bladder cancer with small cell carcinoma as a predominant component, accompanied by sarcomatoid carcinoma and conventional urothelial carcinoma (UC). Although the small cell carcinoma component had resolved on receiving chemoradiotherapy, rapid growth of the residual tumor led to a fatal outcome. A 47-year-old man presented with occasional bladder irritation and had a 2-year history of asymptomatic hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a huge mass in the urinary bladder, and transurethral resection was performed. Microscopically, small cell carcinoma was detected as the major tumor component. Spindle-shaped sarcomatoid cells were also observed that were intermingled with small cell carcinoma and conventional UC. In addition, a sheet-like growth of the lipoblast-like neoplastic cells was observed focally. Initially, by providing chemoradiotherapy, we achieved a marked tumor regression; however, the tumor rapidly regrew after the completion of chemoradiotherapy, and the patient underwent radical cystectomy. Only conventional UC and sarcomatoid carcinoma were identified in the cystectomy specimen. The patient died of the disease 4 months after cystectomy. Urinary bladder cancer may include a combination of multiple aggressive histologies as in the present case. Because the variation in the tumor components may affect the efficacy of therapy, a correct diagnosis of every tumor component is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  6. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  7. Carcinoma in situ dentro de un fibroadenoma de mama: Tres casos clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    TAPIA N,GRACE; CARRASCO A,GONZALO; CAMUS A,MAURICIO; ODDÓ B,DAVID

    2008-01-01

    El fibroadenoma (FA) es un tumor frecuente de la mama que se presenta usualmente en la segunda y tercera década de la vida. Los carcinomas de la mama raramente se desarrollan dentro de un FA, existiendo alrededor de 200 casos descritos en la literatura. Nosotros reportamos la presencia de carcinoma ductal in s/fu(CDIS) al interior de un FAen tres pacientes mujeres de 31, 45 y 47 años. La presencia de microcalcificaciones en dos pacientes y la sospecha de un papiloma intraductal en la tercera,...

  8. Reoperation Rates in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ vs Invasive Breast Cancer After Wire-Guided Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Talman, Maj-Lis M

    2017-01-01

    to be established for comparison, as previous studies on this procedure include a variety of malignant and benign breast lesions. Objectives: To determine the reoperation rate after wire-guided BCS in patients with histologically verified nonpalpable invasive breast cancer (IBC) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS......Importance: New techniques for preoperative localization of nonpalpable breast lesions may decrease the reoperation rate in breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with rates after surgery with the standard wire-guided localization. However, a valid reoperation rate for this procedure needs.......9 [8.7] years). A total of 725 patients (17.6%) underwent a reoperation: 593 were reexcisions (14.4%) and 132 were mastectomies (3.2%). Significantly more patients with DCIS (271 of 727 [37.3%]) than with IBC (454 of 3391 [13.4%]) underwent a reoperation (adjusted odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 3.19-4.58; P...

  9. A Phase I Study of Light Dose for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Using 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2 devinyl Pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) for Treatment of Non-small Cell Carcinoma in situ or Non-small Cell Microinvasive Bronchogenic Carcinoma. A Dose Ranging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Samjot Singh; Demmy, Todd L.; Yendamuri, Sai; Loewen, Gregory; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Cooper, Michele; Henderson, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report a phase I trial of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of carcinoma-insitu (CIS) and microinvasive cancer (MIC) of the central airways with the photosensitizer (PS) 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). HPPH has the advantage of minimal general phototoxicity over the commonly used PS porfimer sodium (Photofrin®). Methods The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the maximally tolerated light dose at a fixed PS dose and 2) to gain initial insight into the effectiveness of this treatment approach. Seventeen patients with 21 CIS/MIC lesions were treated with HPPH with light dose escalation starting from 75 J/cm2 to 85, 95,125, and 150 J/cm2 respectively. Follow-up bronchoscopy for response assessment was done at one and six months, respectively. Results The rate of pathological complete response (CR) was 82.4% (14/17 evaluable lesions; 14 patients) at one-month and 72.7% (8/11 lesions; 8 patients) at 6 months. Only 4 patients developed mild skin erythema. One of the three patients in 150 J/cm2 light dose group experienced a serious adverse event. This patient had respiratory distress due to mucus plugging, which precipitated cardiac ischemia. Two additional patients treated subsequently at this light dose had no adverse events. The third sixth patient in this dose group was not recruited and the study was terminated because of delays in HPPH supply. However, given the observed serious adverse event, it is recommended that the light dose not exceed 125J/cm2. Conclusions PDT with HPPH can be safely used for the treatment of CIS/MIC of the airways, with potential effectiveness comparable to that reported for porfimer sodium in earlier studies. PMID:26718878

  10. Incidental unilateral and bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ encountered in the surgical management of young male gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirah, Bader Hamza; Shirah, Hamza Assad

    2016-07-28

    The increased risk for malignant tumors associated with male gynecomastia has been well established and many authors have reported cases of concurrent gynecomastia and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in the same breast. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in association with gynecomastia is exceptionally rare. We aim to report and evaluate the management outcome of 5 cases of gynecomastia associated with DCIS (1 bilateral and 4 unilateral). A retrospective database analysis of the surgical treatment outcome of 74 male patients who had gynecomastia was done. A bilateral subcutaneous nipple-preserving mastectomy approach was done to all. Histopathology reports were reviewed. 74 patients diagnosed and treated for gynecomastia were included. The incidence rate of gynecomastia in our hospital male patients was 0.17%. The mean age was 22 years, range 17-29 years. Five (6.76%) patients were found in histopathology specimens to have DCIS, 1 patient (23 years old) had bilateral DCIS of low grade, 4 patients had unilateral positive involvement, 3 had right breast DCIS, and 1 had left breast DCIS, and all were of low-grade papillary subtype. The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ among our series gynecomastia patients was 6.76%. We conclude that gynecomastia is a benign breast disease but recent reports had described malignant variants, mostly DCIS, including 5 young males in our series. Therefore, regardless of the age group, histopathological examination of the resected gynecomastia tissue should be carefully done in all patients. Further evidence-based studies are needed to investigate the optimum management of incidental DCIS in gynecomastia specimens.

  11. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers

  12. Neglected basal cell carcinoma on scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very rare entity. Usually, they occur due to the negligence of the patient. Local or distant metastasis is present in most cases. Here, we present a case of giant BCC that clinically resembled squamous cell carcinoma and demonstrated no metastasis at presentation.

  13. In situ mechanical characterization of the cell nucleus by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijiao; Wen, Jun; Xiao, Yun; Liu, Jun; Hopyan, Sevan; Radisic, Milica; Simmons, Craig A; Sun, Yu

    2014-04-22

    The study of nuclear mechanical properties can provide insights into nuclear dynamics and its role in cellular mechanotransduction. While several methods have been developed to characterize nuclear mechanical properties, direct intracellular probing of the nucleus in situ is challenging. Here, a modified AFM (atomic force microscopy) needle penetration technique is demonstrated to mechanically characterize cell nuclei in situ. Cytoplasmic and nuclear stiffness were determined based on two different segments on the AFM indentation curves and were correlated with simultaneous confocal Z-stack microscopy reconstructions. On the basis of direct intracellular measurement, we show that the isolated nuclei from fibroblast-like cells exhibited significantly lower Young's moduli than intact nuclei in situ. We also show that there is in situ nucleus softening in the highly metastatic bladder cancer cell line T24 when compared to its less metastatic counterpart RT4. This technique has potential to become a reliable quantitative measurement tool for intracellular mechanics studies.

  14. Round cell anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Yang, Moon Ho [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    Ultrasonography of the upper abdomen disclosed an oval well defined mass in the pancreas. Round cell anaplastic carcinoma is one of sarcomatoid pancreatic carcinoma, microscopically characterized by monotonous sheaths of small round plump cells with rare giant cells and thus more or less reminiscent of malignant lymphoma. Whether this tumor is of ductal or acinar cell origin remains to be determined. Clinically, this tumor does not differ significantly from ordinary adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a cases of round cell anaplastic carcinoma and describe the CT and sonographic findings, and discuss the differential points from other solid pancreatic tumors.

  15. Visualization of specific gene expression in individual Salmonella typhimurium cells by in situ PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrøm, Kim; Molin, Søren

    1997-01-01

    lac mRNA in suboptimally isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside-induced cells was investigated. By use of a single-cell beta-galactosidase assay, it was confirmed that homogeneous suboptimally induced cultures of S. typhimurium F' lacY cells could be established, and the number of functional lac m......RNAs in individual cells was estimated from standard population level beta-galactosidase assays, Cells estimated to contain a single lac mRNA were detected as containing lac mRNA by the in situ PCR method. Conclusively, we demonstrate the potential of in situ PCR for detection of even poorly expressed m...

  16. Repeated surgeries in invasive lobular breast cancer with preoperative MRI: Role of additional carcinoma in situ and background parenchymal enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibsch, H; Richter, V; Bahrs, S D; Hattermann, V; Wietek, B M; Bier, G; Kloth, C; Blumenstock, G; Hahn, M; Staebler, A; Nikolaou, K; Wiesinger, B

    2017-05-01

    Analysing the influence of additional carcinoma in situ (CIS) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) in preoperative MRI on repeated surgeries in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast. Retrospective analysis of 106 patients (mean age 58.6±9.9years) with 108 ILC. Preoperative tumour size as assessed by MRI, mammography and sonography was recorded and compared to histopathology. In contrast-enhanced MRI, the degree of BPE was categorised by two readers. The influence of additionally detected CIS and BPE on the rate of repeated surgeries was analysed. Additional CIS was present in 45.4% of the cases (49/108). The degree of BPE was minimal or mild in 80% of the cases and moderate or marked in 20% of the cases. In 17 cases (15.7%) at least one repeated surgery was performed. In n=15 of these cases, repeated surgery was performed after BCT (n=9 re-excisions, n=6 conversions to mastectomy), in n=2 cases after initial mastectomy. The initial surgical procedure (p=0.008) and additional CIS (p=0.046) significantly influenced the rate of repeated surgeries, while tumour size, patient age and BPE did not (p=ns). Additional CIS was associated with a higher rate of repeated surgeries, whereas BPE had no influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunohistochemical her-2/ neu expression with gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization for assessment in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moatter, T.; Zahida, Z.U.D.; Kayani, N.; Pervez, S.

    2007-01-01

    To compare gene amplification of HER-2/neu gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate to strong immunohistochemically (IHS) positive HER-2/neu cases of invasive breast carcinomas. Forty one (41) diagnosed cases of invasive breast carcinomas were included in this study in which already determined immunohistochemical HER-2/neu expression was scored as either 2+ or 3+, based on the intensity of membranous staining. These cases were further evaluated for gene amplification by FISH. For gene amplification, a ratio of HER-2/CEP z 2 was accepted as positive gene amplification. Out of a total 41 cases, which were scored as 2+ and 3+ by IHC, 14 cases (34.1%, 95% confidence interval: 19% - 49.3% ) showed gene amplification by FISH. Proportion of FISH positivity in IHC 2+ cases alone was found to be 25% (95% confidence interval: 10.5% - 41%). In contrast, a majority of IHC 3+ cases (5 of 6) were positive by FISH studies. IHC is appropriate for initial HER-2/neu assessment and patients with tumors scored as 3+ may be treated alone based on this information provided strict quality control and 95% concordance with FISH assays; however, patients with tumors interpreted as 2+, would benefit from gene amplification by FISH studies for more accurate assessment to avoid inaccurate prognostication and treatment. (author)

  18. Prognostic Significance of Telomere Attrition in Ductal Carcinoma in situ of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Acta Oncol 27:679-82, 1988. 8. Betsill WL Jr, Rosen PP, Lieberman PH , Robbins GF. Intraductal carcinoma: longterm follow-up after treatment by...Medicine, 915 Camino de Salud , Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA K. B. Baumgartner The New Mexico Tumor Registry, University of New Mexico School of Medicine...915 Camino de Salud , Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA R. N. Baumgartner Department of Internal Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 915

  19. Acinous cell carcinoma: a histogenetic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsakis, J G; Wozniak, K J; Regezi, J A

    1977-11-01

    A proposed origin of acinous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland from serous cells of the acinar part of the salivary unit has been challenged. To date, the alternative histogenetic concept of origin from the reserve cell of the intercalated duct has been largely conjectural and based on light microscopic and only isolated electron microscopic evidence. Light and electron microscopic findings now support a terminal duct origin for at least some acinous cell carcinomas.

  20. A Structural Study of Escherichia coli Cells Using an In Situ Liquid Chamber TEM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studying cell microstructures and their behaviors under living conditions has been a challenging subject in microbiology. In this work, in situ liquid chamber TEM was used to study structures of Escherichia coli cells in aqueous solutions at a nanometer-scale resolution. Most of the cells remained intact under electron beam irradiation, and nanoscale structures were observed during the TEM imaging. The analysis revealed structures of pili surrounding the E. coli cells; the movements of the pili in the liquid were also observed during the in situ tests. This technology also allowed the observation of features of the nucleoid in the E. coli cells. Overall, in situ TEM can be applied as a valuable tool to study real-time microscopic structures and processes in microbial cells residing in native aqueous solutions.

  1. Bioinformatic identification of FGF, p38-MAPK, and calcium signalling pathways associated with carcinoma in situ in the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbsleb, Malene; Christensen, Ole F; Thykjaer, Thomas; Wiuf, Carsten; Borre, Michael; Ørntoft, Torben F; Dyrskjøt, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is believed to be a precursor of invasive bladder cancer. Identification of CIS is a valuable prognostic factor since radical treatment strategies can be offered these patients before the disease becomes invasive. We developed a pathway based classifier approach to predict presence or absence of CIS in patients suffering from non muscle invasive bladder cancer. From Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we considered four canonical signalling pathways (p38 MAPK, FGF, Calcium, and cAMP pathways) with most coherent expression of transcription factors (TFs) across samples in a set of twenty-eight non muscle invasive bladder carcinomas. These pathways contained twelve TFs in total. We used the expression of the TFs to predict presence or absence of CIS in a Leave-One-Out Cross Validation classification. We showed that TF expression levels in three pathways (FGF, p38 MAPK, and calcium signalling) or the expression of the twelve TFs together could be used to predict presence or absence of concomitant CIS. A cluster analysis based on expression of the twelve TFs separated the samples in two main clusters: one branch contained 11 of the 15 patients without concomitant CIS and with the majority of the genes being down regulated; the other branch contained 10 of 13 patients with concomitant CIS, and here genes were mostly up regulated. The expression in the CIS group was comparable to the expression of twenty-three patients suffering from muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma. Finally, we validated our results in an independent test set and found that prediction of CIS status was possible using TF expression of the p38 MAPK pathway. We conclude that it is possible to use pathway analysis for molecular classification of bladder tumors

  2. Oat cell carcinoma of esophagus: a report of six British patients with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.A.; McIntyre, M.; Arnott, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents 6 British patients with a diagnosis of oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Sixty-six patients have previously been reported in the literature, the majority (30) being British. Approximately two-thirds of these tumors have been reported as pure oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Four other histological patterns have been described: oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma in situ; oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma; oat cell carcinoma with adenocarcinoma; and oat cell carcinoma with carcinoid differentiation. A preponderance of males has also been noted, although this series shows a 2:1 female:male ratio. The tumor arises most commonly in the mid or lower esophagus. The cell of origin of these tumors is considered to be the Kulchitsky or APUD cell of neuroectodermal derivation. They may show neurosecretory granules on electron microsopy. Polypeptides have been identified within the tumor cells. One previous report describes a patient with primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus and hypercalcemia. A patient with the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion is described in this paper. Survival is poor following radiotherapy, with a median survival of 3 months in this series. On reviewing the records of the Radiation Oncology Unit in Edinburgh, no patient with oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus was reported before 1972. This suggests that awareness of this tumor is increasing and, although rare, its incidence is greater than previously reported

  3. Morphoproteomics, E6/E7 in-situ hybridization, and biomedical analytics define the etiopathogenesis of HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma and provide targeted therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert E; Naqvi, Syed; McGuire, Mary F; Buryanek, Jamie; Karni, Ron J

    2017-08-17

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an etiopathogenetic factor in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes are instrumental in promoting proliferation and blocking differentiation leading to tumorigenesis. Although surgical intervention can remove such tumors, the potential for an etiologic field effect with recurrent disease is real. A downstream effector of E7 oncoprotein, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), is known to promote proliferation and to pose a block in differentiation and in turn, could lead to HPV-induced malignant transformation. However, the EZH2 pathway is amenable to low toxicity therapies designed to promote differentiation to a more benign state and prevent recurrent disease by inhibiting the incorporation of HPV into the genome. This is the first study using clinical specimens to demonstrate EZH2 protein expression in oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC). The study included eight patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma, confirmed p16INK4a- positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The tissue expression of E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured by RNAscope® in-situ hybridization technology. Expression of EZH2, Ki-67, and mitotic indices were assessed by morphoproteomic analysis. Biomedical analytics expanded the results with data from Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and KEGG databases to construct a molecular network pathway for further insights. Expression of E6 and E7 oncogenes in p16INK4a- positive oropharyngeal carcinoma was confirmed. EZH2 and its correlates, including elevated proliferation index (Ki-67) and mitotic progression were also present. Biomedical analytics validated the relationship between HPV- E6 and E7 and the expression of the EZH2 pathway. There is morphoproteomic and mRNA evidence of the association of p16INK4a-HPV infection with the E6 and E7 oncogenes and the expression of EZH2, Ki-67 and mitotic progression in oropharyngeal carcinoma. The molecular network biology was confirmed by

  4. Lobomycosis and squamous cell carcinoma Lobomicose e carcinoma espinocelular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Nogueira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurence of squamous cell carcinoma on long-lasting ulcers is classic. Malignant transformation may occur on burn scars and chronic ulcers of varying etiology, including infectious agents. Transformation of old lobomycosis lesion scars into squamous cell carcinoma has been rarely reported. Careful and long-term follow-up of such patients is important to avoid carcinomatous transformation.A ocorrência de carcinoma espinocelular sobre lesões cutâneas de longa evolução é clássica em cicatrizes de queimadura e úlceras crônicas de etiologia variada, inclusive infecciosa. Na literatura, são raros os casos de pacientes com lobomicose de longa evolução que desenvolveram CEC. O seguimento cuidadoso desses pacientes é importante, pois, nas áreas de traumas, ulcerações e cicatrizes crônicas pode ocorrer degeneração carcinomatosa.

  5. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  6. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  7. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  8. Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the head and face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Kramer, B; Altini, M; Lemmer, J

    2016-02-05

    Ultraviolet light (UV) is an important risk factor for cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin. These cancers most commonly affect persons with fair skin and blue eyes who sunburn rather than suntan. However, each of these cancers appears to be associated with a different pattern of UV exposure and to be mediated by different intracellular molecular pathways.Some melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene variants play a direct role in the pathogenesis of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma apart from their role in determining a cancer-prone pigmentory phenotype (fair skin, red hair, blue eyes) through their interactions with other genes regulating immuno-inflammatory responses, DNA repair or apoptosis.In this short review we focus on the aetiological role of UV in cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and cutaneous melanoma of the skin, and on some associated biopathological events.

  9. Comparison of three thermotherapy modalities for the ablation of mamma carcinoma in situ using thermal imaging and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van Esser, Stijn; Shmatukha, Andriy; de Boorder, Tjeerd; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2007-02-01

    A larger percentage of small tumors in the breast are being detected due to effective screening programs and improved radiological diagnostic methods. For treatment, less invasive methods are preferred which are still radical but also provide a better aesthetic result. Recently, several ablation techniques have become available to locally ablate tumors in situ. In this study, the effectiveness of three ablation techniques was compared by imaging the thermal distribution and temperature mapping in vitro. The first system (KLS Martin, Trumpf, Germany) uses Nd:YAG laser light delivered through a single diffusing fiber tip which is positioned direct into the tissue or in a water-cooled needle. The second system (Olympus-Celon, Germany) uses bipolar Radio Frequency currents between electrodes in a water-cooled needle. The RF system has a temperature feedback based on tissue impedance to prevent tissue charring. The third system is a focused ultrasound system developed in the Hospital. For all three the techniques, the dynamics of temperature gradients around the probe or focus point are visualized using color Schlieren techniques in a transparent tissue model and recorded using thermocouples. The effective lesion size and tissue temperatures were determined in in vitro bovine mamma tissue. All systems were capable to heat tissue volumes up to 3 cm in diameter. The lesion growth dependent on the power input, temperature gradient around the initial power source and treatment time. Although the three systems are capable to ablate small mamma carcinoma in situ, they differ in precision, MR compatibility, invasiveness, practical use and treatment time. The real clinical effectiveness has to be proven in large patient studies with long term follow up.

  10. Relationship of family history and outcome after breast conservation therapy in women with ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Eleanor E.R.; Schultz, Delray J.; Peters, Christopher A.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a family history of breast or ovarian cancer and outcome after breast-conserving surgery and radiation in women presenting with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Methods and Materials: A total of 146 consecutive women with a pathologic diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ as their first diagnosis of any breast cancer were identified; 28 (19%) had a positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative, 27 (19%) had a positive family history in a second-degree relative, and 91 (62%) had no family history. Pathologic, clinical, and treatment factors, and clinical outcomes for each family history group were compared. Cosmesis and complications were recorded at each follow-up. Patients were treated between 1978 and 1995, and the median follow-up was 7.1 years. Results: Patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative each had an 8% incidence of local failure at 10 years, while the negative family history group demonstrated a 16% local failure rate (p = 0.33). Overall survival at 10 years for patients with a positive family history in a first- or second-degree relative was 100% and for those with a negative family history was 91% (p = 0.08). The negative family history group had a higher median age that may account for the difference in overall survival. Cause-specific survival (CSS) was 97%, 100%, and 99%, respectively, at 10 years (p = 0.25). There were no differences in the cosmetic results or complication rates between women with a positive or negative family history. Conclusion: We have shown that a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer is not associated with an adverse outcome for women treated with breast conservation therapy for DCIS. Local recurrence, cause-specific survival, overall survival, cosmesis, and complication rates were comparable to that of similarly treated women with

  11. Development and evaluation of a prediction model for underestimated invasive breast cancer in women with ductal carcinoma in situ at stereotactic large core needle biopsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne C E Diepstraten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop a multivariable model for prediction of underestimated invasiveness in women with ductal carcinoma in situ at stereotactic large core needle biopsy, that can be used to select patients for sentinel node biopsy at primary surgery. METHODS: From the literature, we selected potential preoperative predictors of underestimated invasive breast cancer. Data of patients with nonpalpable breast lesions who were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at stereotactic large core needle biopsy, drawn from the prospective COBRA (Core Biopsy after RAdiological localization and COBRA2000 cohort studies, were used to fit the multivariable model and assess its overall performance, discrimination, and calibration. RESULTS: 348 women with large core needle biopsy-proven ductal carcinoma in situ were available for analysis. In 100 (28.7% patients invasive carcinoma was found at subsequent surgery. Nine predictors were included in the model. In the multivariable analysis, the predictors with the strongest association were lesion size (OR 1.12 per cm, 95% CI 0.98-1.28, number of cores retrieved at biopsy (OR per core 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-1.01, presence of lobular cancerization (OR 5.29, 95% CI 1.25-26.77, and microinvasion (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.42-9.87. The overall performance of the multivariable model was poor with an explained variation of 9% (Nagelkerke's R(2, mediocre discrimination with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.58-0.73, and fairly good calibration. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of our multivariable prediction model in a large, clinically representative study population proves that routine clinical and pathological variables are not suitable to select patients with large core needle biopsy-proven ductal carcinoma in situ for sentinel node biopsy during primary surgery.

  12. EGFR status in oral squamous cell carcinoma: comparing immunohistochemistry, FISH and CISH detection in a case series study

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Vanessa F?tima; Gleber-Netto, Frederico Omar; de Sousa, S?lvia Ferreira; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; de Aguiar, Maria C?ssia Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) with the gene amplification evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) and their association with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, we tested the sensibility and specificity of CISH in comparison with FISH. Design Case series study Setting Oral surgery and pathology department in ...

  13. Detection of colony-stimulating factor messenger RNA in single T cells by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, D J; Owens, T; Pearse, M

    1989-01-01

    In situ hybridization has been used to study the accumulation of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) mRNA in single cells of a T lymphocyte clone (E9.D4) following antibody-mediated (F23.1) activation via the Ti-T3 complex in filler-independent bulk cultures. The specificity of hybridization for cell...

  14. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    -driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis...

  15. Pityriasis rosea (Gibert): abnormal distribution pattern of antigen presenting cells in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. D.; Huisman, P. M.; Krieg, S. R.; Faber, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pityriasis rosea is a skin disease which is obscure in its etiology and pathogenesis. We studied its immunopathology by immunophenotyping the inflammatory cells in situ using monoclonal antibodies that define leukocyte subsets. Findings as to T-cells and their major subsets did not reveal

  16. Quantification of in situ temperature measurements on a PBI-based high temperature PEMFC unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebæk, Jesper; Ali, Syed Talat; Møller, Per

    2010-01-01

    The temperature is a very important operating parameter for all types of fuel cells. In the present work distributed in situ temperature measurements are presented on a polybenzimidazole based high temperature PEM fuel cell (HT-PEM). A total of 16 T-type thermocouples were embedded on both the an...

  17. In situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy of electrochemical cells: batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédéric; Leskes, Michal; Grey, Clare P

    2013-09-17

    Electrochemical cells, in the form of batteries (or supercapacitors) and fuel cells, are efficient devices for energy storage and conversion. These devices show considerable promise for use in portable and static devices to power electronics and various modes of transport and to produce and store electricity both locally and on the grid. For example, high power and energy density lithium-ion batteries are being developed for use in hybrid electric vehicles where they improve the efficiency of fuel use and help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To gain insight into the chemical reactions involving the multiple components (electrodes, electrolytes, interfaces) in the electrochemical cells and to determine how cells operate and how they fail, researchers ideally should employ techniques that allow real-time characterization of the behavior of the cells under operating conditions. This Account reviews the recent use of in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a technique that probes local structure and dynamics, to study these devices. In situ NMR studies of lithium-ion batteries are performed on the entire battery, by using a coin cell design, a flat sealed plastic bag, or a cylindrical cell. The battery is placed inside the NMR coil, leads are connected to a potentiostat, and the NMR spectra are recorded as a function of state of charge. (7)Li is used for many of these experiments because of its high sensitivity, straightforward spectral interpretation, and relevance to these devices. For example, (7)Li spectroscopy was used to detect intermediates formed during electrochemical cycling such as LixC and LiySiz species in batteries with carbon and silicon anodes, respectively. It was also used to observe and quantify the formation and growth of metallic lithium microstructures, which can cause short circuits and battery failure. This approach can be utilized to identify conditions that promote dendrite formation and whether different electrolytes and additives can help

  18. Sonic hedgehog signaling in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya-Grosjean, Leela; Couvé-Privat, Sophie

    2005-07-28

    The development of basal cell carcinoma, the commonest human cancer in fair skinned populations, is clearly associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. Insight into the genesis of BCC came from the identification of germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, PATCHED, a key regulatory component of hedgehog signaling in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Analysis of sporadic basal cell carcinomas and those from repair deficient xeroderma pigmentosum patients has revealed mutational inactivation of PATCHED and gain of function mutations of the proto-oncogenes, SMOOTHENED and SONIC HEDGEHOG associated with solar UV exposure. The molecular mechanisms involved in alterations of the hedgehog signaling pathway that lead to the formation of basal cell carcinomas are being unraveled and has already allowed the investigation of future therapeutic strategies for treating these skin cancers.

  19. Targeting influenza virosomes to ovarian carcinoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastrobattista, E; Schoen, P; Wilschut, J; Crommelin, DJA; Storm, G

    2001-01-01

    Reconstituted influenza virus envelopes (virosomes) containing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) have attracted attention as delivery vesicles for cytosolic drug delivery as they possess membrane fusion activity. Here, we show that influenza virosomes can be targeted towards ovarian carcinoma cells

  20. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors. PMID:28954101

  1. Molecular basis of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Erik; Lopes, Otávio Sérgio

    2017-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer, presenting low mortality but high morbidity, and it has as risk factor exposure to sunlight, especially UVB spectrum. The most important constitutional risk factors for basal cell carcinoma development are clear phototypes (I and II, Fitzpatrick classification), family history of basal cell carcinoma (30-60%), freckles in childhood, eyes and light hair. The environmental risk factor better established is exposure to ultraviolet radiation. However, different solar exposure scenarios probably are independent risk factors for certain clinical and histological types, topographies and prognosis of this tumor, and focus of controversy among researchers. Studies confirm that changes in cellular genes Hedgehog signaling pathway are associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma. The cellular Hedgehog signaling pathway is activated in organogenesis, but is altered in various types of tumors.

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Mohammed; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to present the results from a retrospective study of 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. We treated seven cases of chronic osteomyelitis related squamous cell carcinoma between 1993 and 2005. The patients had an average age of 54.5 (range: 38-71) years, with a male predominance (6 men, 1 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, the localization and histopathological type of the carcinoma, and the type and result of the treatment. The mean time between the occurrence of the skin lesions and the diagnosis of malignant degeneration was 24.5 (range: 9 to 40) years. The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in 4 cases, femur osteomyelitis in 2 cases and humerus osteomyelitis in one. The pathological examination showed five cases of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion, and two cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment consisted of amputation in all but one patient, who refused the amputation. The six amputee patients did not show local recurrence or metastatic dissemination over a period of five years. Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis.

  3. Eyelid Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-hyun Song1§, Sae-kwang Ku2§, Hwan-soo Jang3, Eun-young Kye, Sung-ho Yun, Kwang-ho Jang and Young-sam Kwon*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old, female, Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a left lower eyelid mass. No other abnormality was detected on affected eye in a general eye examination. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. The advancement flap used in this case may be an appropriate therapeutic choice for eyelid squamous cell carcinoma in dogs.

  4. Microfabricated Nanofluidic cells for in situ liquid TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone

    of this PhD project is to improve the technologies behind liquid cell TEM by developing a novel and robust liquid cell device able to increase the control over the liquid layer thickness, essential for good imaging conditions. A new type of nanofluidic cell has been created with an architecture based...... on wafer bonding of Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 on Si3N4 membranes. With the improved liquid layer thickness control, we use the devices to measure the electron mean free path in water which is a fundamental aspect of TEM studies, and present the high-resolution TEM capabilities of the nanofluidic...... cell. Furthermore, the first findings on nanoparticle (NP) growth in this particular nanochannel system are presented that also opens up for new types of liquid cell studies with laminar flow. These results demonstrate the capability of the novel nanofluidic cell to provide ultra-thin liquid layers...

  5. Immunoreactive neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is expressed in testicular carcinoma-in-situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, J L; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    -seminomas, and a mixed germ cell tumour. As the co-existence of high NSE production and gene amplification of N-myc has been reported in some tumours, including germ cell tumours, the expression of the protein product of N-myc was also examined in this study, but only sporadic cases showed N-myc staining. These results...... are evidence against a relationship between NSE and N-myc in testicular germ cell tumours. The high expression of NSE in CIS and overt germ cell tumours may be due to the increased gene dosage effect associated with the overrepresentation of isochromosome 12p....

  6. Surgical management of penile carcinoma in situ: results from an international collaborative study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipollini, Juan; Yan, Sylvia; Ottenhof, Sarah R; Zhu, Yao; Draeger, Désirée; Baumgarten, Adam S; Tang, Dominic H; Protzel, Chris; Ye, Ding-Wei; Hakenberg, Oliver W; Horenblas, Simon; Watkin, Nicholas A; Spiess, Philippe E

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate recurrence after penile-sparing surgery (PSS) in the management of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the penis in a large multicentre cohort of patients. We identified consecutive patients from five major academic centres, treated between June 1986 and November 2014, who underwent PSS for pathologically proven penile CIS. The primary outcome was local recurrence-free survival (RFS), which was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 205 patients were identified. Treatment methods included circumcision, glansectomy, wide local excision, laser therapy and total glans resurfacing. Over a median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up of 40 (26-65.6) months, there were 48 local recurrences, with 45.8% occurring in the first year and 81.3% occurring by year 5. The majority of recurrences were observed in the laser group (58.3%). The median (IQR) time to local recurrence was 15.9 (5.66-26.14) months. The 1- 2- and 5-year RFS rates were 88.4, 85.6 and 75%, respectively, and the median (IQR) RFS time was 106.5 (80.2-132.2) months. Among patients with penile CIS selected for surgical management, durable responses at intermediate- to long-term follow-up were noted. For those with glandular CIS, glans resurfacing offered the best outcomes. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of mammography, ultrasound, and MRI in size assessment of ductal carcinoma in situ with histopathologic correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Soo Heui; Choi, Woo Jung; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Chae, Eun Young

    2017-12-01

    Background The ability to accurately assess tumor size in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an important clinical issue when selecting the appropriate treatment plan. Purpose To compare the accuracy of using mammography, ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess DCIS tumor size based on imaging and histopathological findings. Material and Methods Fifty-six patients with DCIS were included. Mammography, US, and MRI were reviewed, and the accuracy of the measured tumor sizes were compared with the imaging and histopathological parameters. Results If visible, tumor measurements demonstrated high reliability with the pathologically determined size, with the best results obtained using US ( k = 0.851) followed by mammography ( k = 0.815) and MRI ( k = 0.738). Tumor size assessment was significantly more accurate when the lesion was shown as a mass on US ( P = 0.003) or MRI ( P mammography was used to assess tumor size, the tumors with positive estrogen receptor status and luminal A subtype demonstrated a significantly more accurate tumor size. Conclusion The combination of US and MRI, in addition to mammography, has an important role in assessing the exact tumor extent of DCIS.

  8. Knowledge, satisfaction with information, decisional conflict and psychological morbidity amongst women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Morgan, Simone; Redman, Sally; D'Este, Catherine; Rogers, Kris

    2011-07-01

    To assess knowledge, satisfaction with information, decisional conflict and psychological morbidity amongst women diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to explore the factors associated with less knowledge and greater confusion about DCIS. A cross-sectional survey of women diagnosed with DCIS in Australia (N=144). This study found misunderstanding and confusion amongst women diagnosed with DCIS and a desire for more information about their breast disease. Approximately half of participants worried about their breast disease metastasizing; approximately half expressed high decisional conflict; 12% were anxious and 2% were depressed. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that worry about dying from the breast disease was significantly associated with not knowing that DCIS could not metastasize (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.03-14.25); and confusion about whether DCIS could metastasize was significantly associated with dissatisfaction with information (OR 12.5; 95% CI 3.8-40.2). Good communication about how DCIS differs from invasive breast cancer is essential to alleviating the confusion and worry amongst women with DCIS. Recommendations about how best to communicate a diagnosis of DCIS, including the uncertainties, are needed to guide health professionals to promote better understanding about DCIS and increase the well-being of women with DCIS. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Concordance of DNA methylation profiles between breast core biopsy and surgical excision specimens containing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youdinghuan; Marotti, Jonathan D; Jenson, Erik G; Onega, Tracy L; Johnson, Kevin C; Christensen, Brock C

    2017-08-01

    The utility and reliability of assessing molecular biomarkers for translational applications on pre-operative core biopsy specimens assume consistency of molecular profiles with larger surgical specimens. Whether DNA methylation in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), measured in core biopsy and surgical specimens are similar, remains unclear. Here, we compared genome-scale DNA methylation measured in matched core biopsy and surgical specimens from DCIS, including specific DNA methylation biomarkers of subsequent invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from guided 2mm cores of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) specimens, bisulfite-modified, and measured on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. DNA methylation profiles of core biopsies exhibited high concordance with matched surgical specimens. Within-subject variability in DNA methylation was significantly lower than between-subject variability (all Pcore biopsy and surgical specimens, 15%, and a pathway analysis of these CpGs indicated enrichment for genes related with wound healing. Our results indicate that DNA methylation measured in core biopsies are representative of the matched surgical specimens and suggest that DCIS biomarkers measured in core biopsies can inform clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growing Use of Mastectomy for Ductal Carcinoma-In Situ of the Breast Among Young Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Charles E; Park, Henry S; Killelea, Brigid K; Evans, Suzanne B

    2015-07-01

    Ductal carcinoma-in situ (DCIS) is a preinvasive form of breast cancer associated with excellent outcomes after either mastectomy or breast conservation therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated declining rates of mastectomy. However, it is unclear how this pattern has changed in recent years. Women with DCIS were identified within the National Cancer Data Base. Patients treated with lumpectomy with or without radiotherapy were compared to women treated with mastectomy on the basis of demographic, clinicopathologic, and reporting facility details using χ (2) tests and multivariable logistic regression modeling to identify factors that may influence surgical choice. Changes in the proportion of women receiving contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) were assessed in a similar fashion. We identified 212,936 women diagnosed with DCIS between 1998 and 2011. Lumpectomy was performed in 68 % (144,681) of patients. Mastectomy rates initially declined from 1998 (36 %) through 2004 (28 %), before increasing again through 2011 (33 %). Younger patient age, greater medical comorbidity, more extensive disease, higher tumor grade, treatment at an academic facility, and greater distance from the reporting facility were associated with heightened use of mastectomy (all p time, particularly among younger patients, on multivariate analysis (p fashion. Further research is needed to understand the drivers of this change.

  11. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of testicular carcinoma in situ progression into overt tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    into CIS occurs early during foetal life. Progression into an overt tumour, however, typically first happens after puberty, where CIS cells transform into either a seminoma (SEM) or a nonseminoma (N-SEM). Here, we have compared the genome-wide gene expression of CIS cells to that of testicular SEM...

  12. Dysregulation of the mitosis-meiosis switch in testicular carcinoma in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne; Nielsen, John E; Almstrup, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    , except in spermatocytic seminoma (not derived from CIS). In conclusion, this study indicates that meiosis signalling is dysregulated in CIS cells and that a key regulator of the mitosis-meiosis switch, DMRT1, is expressed in 'early-stage' CIS cells but is down-regulated with further invasive...

  13. In situ depletion of CD4(+) T cells in human skin by Zanolimumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, L.S.; Skov, L.; Dam, T.N.

    2007-01-01

    CD4(+) T cells, in activated or malignant form, are involved in a number of diseases including inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis, and T cell lymphomas such as the majority of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL). Targeting CD4 with an antibody that inhibits and/or eliminates disease......-driving T cells in situ may therefore be a useful approach in the treatment of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases. Depletion of CD4(+) T cells in intact inflamed human skin tissue by Zanolimumab, a fully human therapeutic monoclonal antibody (IgG1, kappa) against CD4, was studied in a human psoriasis...... xenograft mouse model. Zanolimumab treatment was shown to induce a significant reduction in the numbers of inflammatory mononuclear cells in upper dermis. This reduction in inflammatory mononuclear cells in situ was primarily due to a significant reduction in the numbers of skin-infiltrating CD4...

  14. Expression of C4.4A in precursor lesions of pulmonary adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Benedikte; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Illemann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    in precursor lesions of lung squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was investigated by stainings with a specific anti-C4.4A antibody. In the transformation from normal bronchial epithelium to squamous cell carcinoma, C4.4A was weakly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia but dramatically increased...... in squamous metaplasia. This was confined to the cell membrane and sustained in dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and the invasive carcinoma. The induction of C4.4A already at the stage of hyperplasia could indicate that it is a marker of very early squamous differentiation, which aligns well with our earlier...... finding that C4.4A expression levels do not provide prognostic information on the survival of squamous cell carcinoma patients. In the progression from normal alveolar epithelium to peripheral adenocarcinoma, we observed an unexpected, distinct cytoplasmic staining for C4.4A in a fraction of atypical...

  15. Familial Follicular-Cell Derived Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ju eSon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancer, papillary (PTC and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC compose 95% of all thyroid malignancies. Familial follicular cell-derived well-differentiated thyroid cancers contribute to 5% of those cases. These familial follicular cell derived carcinomas or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas (NMTC divide into two clinical-pathological groups. One group, syndromic-associated, composed by predominately non-thyroidal tumors, is comprised of Pendred syndrome, Warner syndrome, Carney complex type 1, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome (Cowden disease; PHTS, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP/Gardner syndrome. Additionally other less established links correlated to the development of follicular cell-derived tumors have also included Ataxia-teleangiectasia syndrome, McCune Albright syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. The subsequent group encompasses syndromes typified by non-medullary thyroid carcinomas or NMTC, as well as, pure familial (f PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with multinodular goiter and fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma. This heterogeneous group of diseases has not a established genotype-phenotype correlation as the well-known genetic events identified in the familial C-cell-derived tumors or medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC. Clinicians should be have the knowledge to identify the likelihood of a patient presenting with thyroid cancer having an additional underlying familial syndrome stemming from characteristics through morphological findings that would alert the pathologist to have the patient undergo subsequent molecular genetics evaluations. This review will discuss the clinical and pathological findings of the patients with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, Carney complex, Werner syndrome, and Pendred syndrome and the heterogeneous group of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Investigating Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Using Noninvasive Imaging of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PJ, Gupta PB, Klebba I, Jones AD, et al. (2011) Genetic predisposition directs breast cancer phenotype by dictating progenitor cell fate. Cell Stem...Albertson DG, Simin K. Cooperativity of Rb, Brca1, and p53 in malignant breast cancer evolution. PLoS Genet . 2012;8(11). 16. Behbod F, Kittrell FS...Cre lines for genetic recombination, specifically WAP-Cre and K14Cre, which are widely utilized in mouse models of breast cancer (Liu et al. PNAS

  17. Co-Expression of p16, Ki67 and COX-2 Is Associated with Basal Phenotype in High-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Amanda Arantes; Balabram, Débora; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; da Silva Souza, Átila; Gobbi, Helenice

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the co-expression of cell cycle-related biomarkers in a series of 121 consecutive cases of high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), pure or associated with invasive carcinoma, and their associations with the different immunoprofiles of DCIS. Cases were identified from the histopathology files of the Breast Pathology Laboratory, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2003 to 2008. The expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 overexpression, cytokeratin 5, epidermal growth factor receptor 1, cyclooxygenase-2, p16 and Ki67 were assessed. Tumors were placed into five subgroups according to their immunohistochemical profile: luminal A, luminal B, HER2, basal-like and "not classified". We found that the basal phenotype was associated with a higher frequency of p16-positive cases (83%) and the luminal A phenotype showed a higher frequency of p16-negative cases (93%; p=0.000). The association of biomarkers p16(+)/Ki67(+)/COX2(+) was expressed in 02/06 cases (33.3%) of the basal phenotype but in only 01/70 cases (1.4%) of the luminal A phenotype (p=0.01). The co-expression of p16(+)/Ki67(+)/COX2(-) was associated with a basal phenotype (p=0.004). P16 expression, p16(+)/Ki67(+)/COX2(+) and p16(+)/Ki67(+)/COX2(-) co-expression showed significant associations with the basal phenotype and these profiles could be used to guide more aggressive treatment strategies in patients with high-grade DCIS. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue. Merkel cells are in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis and are connected to nerves. Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow quickly and to metastasize (spread) at an early stage . It usually spreads first to nearby lymph nodes and then may spread to lymph nodes or ...

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue. Merkel cells are in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis and are connected to nerves. Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow quickly and to metastasize (spread) at an early stage . It usually spreads first to nearby lymph nodes and then may spread to lymph nodes or ...

  20. General Information about Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tissue. Merkel cells are in the layer of basal cells at the deepest part of the epidermis and are connected to nerves. Merkel cell carcinoma tends to grow quickly and to metastasize (spread) at an early stage . It usually spreads first to nearby lymph nodes and then may spread to lymph nodes or ...

  1. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  2. Topical treatment of Basal cell carcinomas in nevoid Basal cell carcinoma syndrome with a smoothened inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skvara, Hans; Kalthoff, Frank; Meingassner, Josef G.; Wolff-Winiski, Barbara; Aschauer, Heinrich; Kelleher, Joseph F.; Wu, Xu; Pan, Shifeng; Mickel, Lesanka; Schuster, Christopher; Stary, Georg; Jalili, Ahmad; David, Olivier J.; Emotte, Corinne; Antunes, Ana Monica Costa; Rose, Kristine; Decker, Jeremy; Carlson, Ilene; Gardner, Humphrey; Stuetz, Anton; Bertolino, Arthur P.; Stingl, Georg; de Rie, Menno A.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a distinctive manifestation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients. Both inherited and acquired mutations of patched 1 (PTCH1), a tumor-suppressor gene controlling the activity of Smoothened (SMO), are the primary cause of the constitutive activation

  3. Acute pancreatitis-onset carcinoma in situ of the pancreas with focal fat replacement diagnosed using serial pancreatic-juice aspiration cytologic examination (SPACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tatsunori; Kikuyama, Masataka; Kawaguchi, Shinya; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Muro, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    A 59-year-old woman was admitted for acute pancreatitis. Abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a swollen pancreatic parenchyma with dilatation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) of the pancreas tail, which was separated from the normal pancreas body side by a locally atrophic part of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed MPD stricture in the pancreas tail with dilatation of the upstream MPD. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed that the MPD stricture of the pancreas tail was surrounded by a blurred and hypoechoic area. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed for serial pancreatic-juice aspiration cytologic examination (SPACE). The result indicated adenocarcinoma. Distal pancreatectomy was performed, and the histopathological examination showed high-grade PanIN (carcinoma in situ of the pancreatic duct) of the pancreas tail with atrophy and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma, and local fat replacement adjacent to the lesion. The final histopathological diagnosis was carcinoma in situ of the pancreatic duct of the pancreas tail. Acute pancreatitis and local fatty change of the pancreatic parenchyma with MPD stricture are important clinical manifestations of pancreatic carcinoma in situ (PCIS) and performing SPACE in cases of MPD stricture without a recognizable mass is preferable for a diagnosis of PCIS.

  4. CD207+/langerin positive dendritic cells in invasive and in situ cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dyduch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Dendritic cells are crucial for cutaneous immune response. Their role in melanoma progression is however a matter of controversy. Material and methods : The number of dendritic cells within epidermis and in peri- and intratumoral location was analyzed using CD207 immunostain in 17 cases of in situ and 25 case of invasive melanoma. Results : Average peritumoral CD207+ cells count was 22.88 for all cases, 17.94 for in situ lesions and 26.24 for invasive cases. Average epidermal CD207+ cells count was 164.47 for all cases, 183.00 for in situ lesions and 150.78 – for invasive cases. In case of invasive melanomas, peritumoral CD207+ cells count was positively correlated with Breslow stage (R = 0.59 mitotic activity within the tumor (R = 0.62. Invasive cases with regression showed higher intratumoral and epidermal CD207+ cells count than the ones without (275.00 vs. 95.32 and 173.20 vs. 148.35 but lower peritumoral CD207+ cells count (17.60 vs. 27.26. Invasive cases with ulceration showed higher intratumoral and peritumoral CD207+ cells count than the ones without ulceration (220.08 vs. 55.67 and 44.17 vs. 9.69. Conclusions : CD207+ cells play a role in both progression and regression of melanoma but their exact role needs further studies.

  5. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    . By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r...

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of peripheral blood cells in Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, I; Inui, K; Yanagihara, K; Park, Y D; Tanaka, J; Ozono, K; Okada, S; Kurahashi, H

    2001-09-01

    We used a dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization technique to estimate deleted mitochondrial DNA at a single-cell level and determine any correlation with the disease progression in lymphocytes from patients with Pearson marrow-pancreas syndrome. The method demonstrated a shift in heteroplasmy, paralleling the hematologic improvement.

  7. Electrochemical cell for in situ x-ray diffraction under ultrapure conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, T.; Schindler, W.; Kazimirov, A.

    1998-01-01

    of the crystal using a Luggin capillary and a standard reference electrode. We demonstrate the performance of our cell by in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements on ultrathin Co layers electrodeposited on Cu(001) in an aqueous H(2)SO(4)/CoSO(4) solution. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Comparative genomic and in situ hybridization of germ cell tumors of the infantile testis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, M; Rosenberg, C; Stoop, H; Schuyer, M; Timmer, A; Oosterhuis, W; Looijenga, L

    Chromosomal information on germ cell tumors of the infantile testis, ie, teratomas and yolk sac tumors, is limited and controversial. We studied two teratomas and four yolk sac tumors using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and in situ hybridization. No chromosomal anomalies were found in the

  9. Aberrant activation of NF-κB signaling in mammary epithelium leads to abnormal growth and ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, Whitney; Chen, Lianyi; Tikhomirov, Oleg; Onishko, Halina; Gleaves, Linda; Stricker, Thomas P.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Yull, Fiona E.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 5 women diagnosed with breast cancer are considered to have in situ disease, most often termed ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Though recognized as a risk factor for the development of more invasive cancer, it remains unclear what factors contribute to DCIS development. It has been shown that inflammation contributes to the progression of a variety of tumor types, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is recognized as a master-regulator of inflammatory signaling. However, the contributions of NF-κB signaling to tumor initiation are less well understood. Aberrant up-regulation of NF-κB activity, either systemically or locally within the breast, could occur due to a variety of commonly experienced stimuli such as acute infection, obesity, or psychological stress. In this study, we seek to determine if activation of NF-κB in mammary epithelium could play a role in the formation of hyperplastic ductal lesions. Our studies utilize a doxycycline-inducible transgenic mouse model in which constitutively active IKKβ is expressed specifically in mammary epithelium. All previously published models of NF-κB modulation in the virgin mammary gland have been constitutive models, with transgene or knock-out present throughout the life and development of the animal. For the first time, we will induce activation at later time points after normal ducts have formed, thus being able to determine if NF-κB activation can promote pre-malignant changes in previously normal mammary epithelium. We found that even a short pulse of NF-κB activation could induce profound remodeling of mammary ductal structures. Short-term activation created hyperproliferative, enlarged ducts with filled lumens. Increased expression of inflammatory markers was concurrent with the down-regulation of hormone receptors and markers of epithelial differentiation. Furthermore, the oncoprotein mucin 1, known to be up-regulated in human and mouse DCIS, was over-expressed and mislocalized in the

  10. In situ synthesis of nanocomposite membranes: comprehensive improvement strategy for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Siyuan; Xiu, Ruijie; Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Yang, Meng; Xiang, Yan

    2014-03-01

    In situ synthesis is a powerful approach to control nanoparticle formation and consequently confers extraordinary properties upon composite membranes relative to conventional doping methods. Herein, uniform nanoparticles of cesium hydrogen salts of phosphotungstic acid (CsPW) are controllably synthesized in situ in Nafion to form CsPW–Nafion nanocomposite membranes with both improved proton conductivity and methanol-crossover suppression. A 101.3% increase of maximum power density has been achieved relative to pristine Nafion in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), indicating a potential pathway for large-scale fabrication of DMFC alternative membranes.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Rinsey Rose; Di Palma, Silvana; Barrett, A W

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis from basal cell carcinoma of the skin is very rare with cases being documented in the lymph nodes, lung, bone and parotid gland. The main histopathological differential diagnosis is the locally arising basal cell adenocarcinoma from which it is difficult to distinguish by morphology and routine immunohistochemistry. Approximately 85 % of all reported metastatic basal cell carcinomas arise in the head and neck region. Here we present a case of basal cell carcinoma of the skin of the left lateral canthus of the eye which metastasized to the intraparotid lymph nodes with infiltration of the adjacent parotid parenchyma. More awareness and vigilance is required on the part of the reporting pathologist to consider metastasis in the presence of a parotid tumour. Features favouring metastasis include history of primary cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, histological similarity to the primary lesion and absence of any demonstrable direct extension from the skin lesion. We also review the literature on metastatic basal cell carcinoma and discuss the need for adequate follow up in high risk patients.

  12. [Basal cell carcinoma of unusual site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlika, Rym Benmously; Kerkeni, Nadia; Jebali, Amel; Zghal, Mohamed; Debbiche, Achraf; Ayed, Mohamed Ben; Mokhtar, Insaf; Fenniche, Samy

    2011-02-01

    Labial mucosa is an atypical site of basal cell carcinoma. The involvement of the vermilion lip, devoid of hair follicles and sweat glands, contrasts with the concept of its origin from pilar structures. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developed on the vermilion upper lip. A 49-year-old woman, presented with an asymptomatic, 1-cm-diameter, erythematous, telangiectatic and crusted nodule on the upper lip evolving for 9 months and having once interested the vermilion border. There were no cervical lymph nodes. Diagnosis of infiltrative basal cell carcinoma was made by histological study, which showed a tumoral proliferation of epithelial basal cells infiltrating the dermis with perineural and muscular infiltration. Our report illustrates a rare but not exceptional site of basal cell carcinoma. The nodule, initially confined to the vermilion border, has then developed onto the mucosal and the cutaneous areas. Histopathological study revealed, as previously reported, infiltarative features. Basal cell carcinoma of the lip should be rapidly managed since its invasion to deeper structures occurs early. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell in situ zymography: an in vitro cytotechnology for localization of enzyme activity in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Aastha; Jaiswal, Astha; Malhotra, Umang; Kohli, Shrey; Rani, Vibha

    2012-09-01

    In situ zymography is a unique technique for detection and localization of enzyme-substrate interactions majorly in histological sections. Substrate with quenched fluorogenic molecule is incorporated in gel over which tissue sections are mounted and then incubated in buffer. The enzymatic activity is observed in the form of fluorescent signal. With the advancements in the field of biological research, use of in vitro cell culture has become very popular and holds great significance in multiple fields including inflammation, cancer, stem cell biology and the still emerging 3-D cell cultures. The information on analysis of enzymatic activity in cell lines is inadequate presently. We propose a single-step methodology that is simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and functional to perform and study the 'in position' activity of enzyme on substrate for in vitro cell cultures. Quantification of enzymatic activity to carry out comparative studies on cells has also been illustrated. This technique can be applied to a variety of enzyme classes including proteases, amylases, xylanases, and cellulases in cell cultures.

  14. Rotating cell for in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical studies of photosensitive redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavan, Ladislav; Janda, Pavel; Krause, Matthias; Ziegs, Frank; Dunsch, Lothar

    2009-03-01

    A recently developed rotating spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ Raman spectroscopic studies of photoreactive compounds without marked decomposition of the sample is presented. Photochemically and thermally sensitive redox systems are difficult to be studied under stationary conditions by in situ spectroelectrochemistry using laser excitation as in Raman spectroscopy. A rotating spectroelectrochemical cell can circumvent these difficulties. It can be used for any type of a planar electrode and for all electrode materials in contact with aqueous or nonaqueous solutions as well as with ionic liquids. The innovative technical solution consists of the precession movement of the spectroelectrochemical cell using an eccentric drive. This precession movement allows a fixed electrical connection to be applied for interfacing the electrochemical cell to a potentiostat. Hence, any electrical imperfections and noise, which would be produced by sliding contacts, are removed. A further advantage of the rotating cell is a dramatic decrease of the thermal load of the electrochemical system. The size of the spectroelectrochemical cell is variable and dependent on the thickness of the cuvettes used ranging up to approximately 10 mm. The larger measuring area causes a higher sensitivity in the spectroscopic studies. The as constructed spectroelectrochemical cell is easy to handle. The performance of the cell is demonstrated for ordered fullerene C(60) layers and the spectroelectrochemical behavior of nanostructured fullerenes. Here the charge transfer at highly ordered fullerene C(60) films was studied by in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry under appropriate laser power and accumulation time without marked photodecomposition of the sample.

  15. Resectable pancreatic small cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K. Andersen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary pancreatic small cell carcinoma (SCC is rare, with just over 30 cases reported in the literature. Only 7 of these patients underwent surgical resection with a median survival of 6 months. Prognosis of SCC is therefore considered to be poor, and the role of adjuvant therapy is uncertain. Here we report two institutions’ experience with resectable pancreatic SCC. Six patients with pancreatic SCC treated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (4 patients and the Mayo Clinic (2 patients were identified from prospectively collected pancreatic cancer databases and re-reviewed by pathology. All six patients underwent a pancreaticoduodenectomy. Clinicopathologic data were analyzed, and the literature on pancreatic SCC was reviewed. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 27-60. All six tumors arose in the head of the pancreas. Median tumor size was 3 cm, and all cases had positive lymph nodes except for one patient who only had five nodes sampled. There were no perioperative deaths and three patients had at least one postoperative complication. All six patients received adjuvant therapy, five of whom were given combined modality treatment with radiation, cisplatin, and etoposide. Median survival was 20 months with a range of 9-173 months. The patient who lived for 9 months received chemotherapy only, while the patient who lived for 173 months was given chemoradiation with cisplatin and etoposide and represents the longest reported survival time from pancreatic SCC to date. Pancreatic SCC is an extremely rare form of cancer with a poor prognosis. Patients in this surgical series showed favorable survival rates when compared to prior reports of both resected and unresectable SCC. Cisplatin and etoposide appears to be the preferred chemotherapy regimen, although its efficacy remains uncertain, as does the role of combined modality treatment with radiation.

  16. Endocrine function in patients treated for carcinoma in situ in the testis with irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Daugaard, Gedske; Rørth, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    CIS is found in the contralateral testis in 5% of the patients with testicular germ cell cancer. The management of CIS in the contralateral testis is important because the majority - if not all - cases of CIS will progress to invasive disease without treatment. It is well documented that testicular...... are sparse. One study has indicated that more radiotherapy with lower doses per fraction could be useful, but more data are needed to confirm this. Endocrine testicular function has been shown to be impaired already before treatment in patients with CIS and is further impaired after testicular irradiation...

  17. Ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast (DCIS) with heterogeneity of nuclear grade: prognostic effects of quantitative nuclear assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Miller, Naomi A; Lickley, H Lavina A; Qian, Jin; Christens-Barry, William A; Fu, Yuejiao; Yuan, Yan; Axelrod, David E

    2007-01-01

    Previously, 50% of patients with breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) had more than one nuclear grade, and neither worst nor predominant nuclear grade was significantly associated with development of invasive carcinoma. Here, we used image analysis in addition to histologic evaluation to determine if quantification of nuclear features could provide additional prognostic information and hence impact prognostic assessments. Nuclear image features were extracted from about 200 nuclei of each of 80 patients with DCIS who underwent lumpectomy alone, and received no adjuvant systemic therapy. Nuclear images were obtained from 20 representative nuclei per duct, from each of a group of 5 ducts, in two separate fields, for 10 ducts. Reproducibility of image analysis features was determined, as was the ability of features to discriminate between nuclear grades. Patient information was available about clinical factors (age and method of DCIS detection), pathologic factors (DCIS size, nuclear grade, margin size, and amount of parenchymal involvement), and 39 image features (morphology, densitometry, and texture). The prognostic effects of these factors and features on the development of invasive breast cancer were examined with Cox step-wise multivariate regression. Duplicate measurements were similar for 89.7% to 97.4% of assessed image features. For the pooled assessment with ~200 nuclei per patient, a discriminant function with one densitometric and two texture features was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with nuclear grading, and provided 78.8% correct jackknifed classification of a patient's nuclear grade. In multivariate assessments, image analysis nuclear features had significant prognostic associations (p ≤ 0.05) with the development of invasive breast cancer. Texture (difference entropy, p < 0.001; contrast, p < 0.001; peak transition probability, p = 0.01), densitometry (range density, p = 0.004), and measured margin (p = 0.05) were associated with

  18. Sebaceous cell carcinoma of the ocular adnexa: clinical presentations, histopathology, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Alice; Carter, Keith D; Syed, Nasreen A; Song, Julia; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the clinical features, time to diagnosis, histopathology, treatment, and mortality rates of patients with sebaceous cell carcinoma. This was a retrospective, consecutive series of patients with sebaceous cell carcinoma at a tertiary referral medical center. Between January 1984 and January 2006, 31 patients with sebaceous cell carcinoma were evaluated at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. The main outcome measures were clinical presentations, treatments, reconstructive procedures, and outcomes. Thirty-one patients were diagnosed with sebaceous cell carcinoma of the ocular adnexa on histopathology. Twenty (65%) of the patients were women and 11 were men. The upper eyelid was involved in 18 patients, lower eyelid in 10, both upper and lower eyelids in 1, and caruncle in 2. Twenty-three patients had in situ disease, pagetoid disease, or both. Eight patients reported symptoms for Exenteration was the initial surgery performed in 4 patients. Two patients died from metastatic sebaceous cell carcinoma. Sebaceous cell carcinoma has varied presentations and is commonly misdiagnosed. Tumor-related deaths occurred in only 2 patients (6.7%), which is lower than previous reports and may be related to earlier detection or improved surgical excision techniques.

  19. Characterization of the Merkel Cell Carcinoma miRNome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Ning

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs have been implicated in various skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma; however, the expression of microRNAs and their role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC have yet to be explored in depth. To identify microRNAs specific to MCC (MCC-miRs, next-generation sequencing (NGS of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin. Comparison of the profiles identified several microRNAs upregulated and downregulated in MCC. For validation, their expression was measured via qRT-PCR in a larger group of MCC and in a comparison group of non-MCC cutaneous tumors and normal skin. Eight microRNAs were upregulated in MCC: miR-502-3p, miR-9, miR-7, miR-340, miR-182, miR-190b, miR-873, and miR-183. Three microRNAs were downregulated: miR-3170, miR-125b, and miR-374c. Many of these MCC-miRs, the miR-183/182/96a cistron in particular, have connections to tumorigenic pathways implicated in MCC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization confirmed that the highly expressed MCC-miR, miR-182, is localized within tumor cells. Furthermore, NGS and qRT-PCR reveal that several of these MCC-miRs are highly expressed in the patient-derived MCC cell line, MS-1. These data indicate that we have identified a set of MCC-miRs with important implications for MCC research.

  20. Development and validation of algorithms to differentiate ductal carcinoma in situ from invasive breast cancer within administrative claims data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Jacqueline M; Hatch, Sandra S; Lin, Yu-Li; Giordano, Sharon H; Silva, H Colleen; Kuo, Yong-Fang

    2018-04-18

    Overtreatment is a common concern for patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but this entity is difficult to distinguish from invasive breast cancers in administrative claims data sets because DCIS often is coded as invasive breast cancer. Therefore, the authors developed and validated algorithms to select DCIS cases from administrative claims data to enable outcomes research in this type of data. This retrospective cohort using invasive breast cancer and DCIS cases included women aged 66 to 70 years in the 2004 through 2011 Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) data linked to Medicare administrative claims data. TCR records were used as "gold" standards to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of 2 algorithms. Women with a biopsy enrolled in Medicare parts A and B at 12 months before and 6 months after their first biopsy without a second incident diagnosis of DCIS or invasive breast cancer within 12 months in the TCR were included. Women in 2010 Medicare data were selected to test the algorithms in a general sample. In the TCR data set, a total of 6907 cases met inclusion criteria, with 1244 DCIS cases. The first algorithm had a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 89%, and a PPV of 62%. The second algorithm had a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 97%. and a PPV of 77%. Among women in the general sample, the specificity was high and the sensitivity was similar for both algorithms. However, the PPV was approximately 6% to 7% lower. DCIS frequently is miscoded as invasive breast cancer, and thus the proposed algorithms are useful to examine DCIS outcomes using data sets not linked to cancer registries. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  1. Nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction in ductal carcinoma in situ: a critical assessment with 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Panet-Spallina, Juliette; Kolb, Frédéric; Garbay, Jean-Rémi; Mazouni, Chafika; Leduey, Alexandre; Leymarie, Nicolas; Rimareix, Françoise

    2014-04-01

    Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) is increasingly popular for the treatment of select breast cancers and prophylactic mastectomy. This study aimed to analyze the authors' 11-year experience with NSM and breast reconstruction in cases of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with an emphasis on indications, complications, and cancer recurrence rate. Between January 2000 and December 2010, 41 NSMs were performed in 41 women for DCIS. The mean age of the women was 49.7±8.7 years (range, 33-66 years). The indications for NSM were tumor size greater than 3 cm (18 cases), multifocal tumor (16 cases), and tumor recurrence (7 cases). In all cases, the tumor was located more than 2 cm from the nipple-areola complex (NAC), as shown by preoperative radiologic imaging. Histologic results, secondary NAC resection, complications, and cancer recurrence rates were recorded. The NAC was lost in seven cases (17%) due to postoperative necrosis. In another 10 patients (25%), the NAC was secondarily removed due to proximity of the tumor to the resection margin. Five patients were lost to follow-up evaluation (12%). The authors report the long-term follow-up data for the remaining 19 patients (46%). In this group, they observed one local recurrence (5.3%) and one case of ovarian cancer. Despite the low locoregional recurrence rate for DCIS, NSM remains controversial because of the nipple necrosis observed and the irradical tumor excisions. Given the ethical impossibility of conducting randomized controlled studies to compare NSM with conventional or skin-sparing mastectomy in DCIS, only long-term follow-up evaluations can demonstrate the safety of NSM. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  2. Prediction of invasive breast cancer using shear-wave elastography in patients with biopsy-confirmed ductal carcinoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Seok; Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Su Hyun; Shin, Sung Ui; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether mass stiffness measured by shear-wave elastography (SWE) can predict the histological upgrade of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) confirmed through ultrasound (US)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB). The institutional review board approved this study and informed consent was waived. A database search revealed 120 biopsy-confirmed DCIS in patients who underwent B-mode US and SWE prior to surgery. Clinicopathologic results, B-mode findings, size on US, and mean and maximum elasticity values on SWE were recorded. Associations between upgrade to invasive cancer and B-mode US findings, SWE information, and clinical variables were assessed using univariate, multivariate logistic regression, and multiple linear regression analysis. The overall upgrade rate was 41.7 % (50/120). Mean stiffness value (P = .014) and mass size (P = .001) were significantly correlated with histological upgrade. The optimal cut-off value of mean stiffness value, yielding the maximal sum of sensitivity and specificity, was 70.7 kPa showing sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 65.7 % for detecting invasiveness. Qualitative elasticity colour scores were significantly correlated with the histological upgrade, mammographic density, and B-mode category (P < .04). Mean stiffness values evaluated through SWE can be utilized as a preoperative predictor of histological upgrade to invasive cancer in DCIS confirmed at US-guided needle biopsy. • Higher stiffness values were noted in invasive cancer than DCIS. • Qualitative SWE colour scores significantly correlated with the histological upgrade. • Qualitative SWE colour scores had excellent interobserver agreement.

  3. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Fuh Yong; Wang, Fuqiang; Chen, John Ju; Tan, Chiew Har; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation

  4. What quality-of-life issues do women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) consider important when making treatment decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine T; Boxer, Miriam M; Spillane, Andrew; Winters, Zoë E; Butow, Phyllis N; McPherson, Joan; Rutherford, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    To explore quality-of-life (QOL) issues considered important when deciding on treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Breast Cancer Network of Australia members diagnosed with DCIS in the past 5 years (self-identified) participated in an online survey (Sep-Nov 2015). From a list of 74 QOL issues, participants selected all issues they experienced during DCIS diagnosis, treatment or recovery, then the issues they felt important to making a DCIS treatment decision, and completed the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Associations between QOL issues and self-reported treatment received were assessed with χ 2 tests. The primary analysis included 38 participants treated with breast-conserving surgery (n = 15), mastectomy (n = 23), and/or radiotherapy (n = 14). Fatigue-related symptoms (82%) and "fear of progression" (50%) were the most frequently-experienced issues. When deciding on DCIS treatment, the most important consideration was "fear of progression" (50%). A higher proportion of mastectomy (compared to non-mastectomy) patients considered "difficultly looking at yourself naked" (p = 0.03). Radiotherapy (compared to non-radiotherapy) patients were more likely to consider "feeling unwell" important (p = 0.006). Results were similar in a sensitivity analysis involving all 101 respondents (i.e., including 63 respondents who reported receiving chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and/or Herceptin, suggesting that they may have been treated for invasive breast cancer). Health literacy was high across all nine HLQ scales. Fear of progression is a key consideration in DCIS treatment decision making for women with high health literacy. QOL treatment considerations differed by treatments received. Women diagnosed with DCIS may benefit from evidence about QOL to inform treatment decision making.

  5. Outcomes of Low-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ in Southeast Asian Women Treated With Breast Conservation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fuh Yong, E-mail: fuhyong@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Wang, Fuqiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Chen, John Ju [Department of Cancer Informatics, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Chiew Har [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Puay Hoon [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To examine the outcomes of Southeast Asian (SEA) women with low-risk ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective chart reviews of patients treated with BCS for DCIS from 1995 to 2011 were performed. Patients meeting the selection criteria from Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 5194 were included. Most patients received adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) consisting of whole-breast RT delivered to 50 Gy followed by a 10-Gy boost to the tumor bed. Results: Of 744 patients with pathologic diagnosis of pure DCIS identified, 273 met the selection criteria: low-intermediate grade (LIG), n=219; high grade (HG), n=54. Median follow-up for these patients was 60 months. There were 8 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences (IBTRs) in total, 7 of which were DCIS. The estimated actuarial IBTR rates at 5 and 10 years for the entire cohort are 1.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Of the 219 patients with LIG DCIS, 210 received RT and 9 did not. There were 7 IBTRs in LIG DCIS, 2 among the 9 patients who did not receive RT. The IBTR rates in LIG DCIS at 5 and 10 years are 2.3% and 4.2%, respectively. All patients with HG DCIS received RT. There was only 1 IBTR occurring beyond 5 years, giving an estimated IBTR rate of 4.5% at 10 years. Conclusions: SEA women with screen-detected DCIS have exceedingly low rates of IBTR after BCS, comparable to that observed in reports of similar patients with low-risk DCIS treated with adjuvant radiation.

  6. COX-2 and PPARγ expression are potential markers of recurrence risk in mammary duct carcinoma in-situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiley Elizabeth L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In women with duct carcinoma in-situ (DCIS receiving breast conservation therapy (BCT, in-breast recurrences are seen in approximately 10%, but cannot be accurately predicted using clinical and histological criteria. We performed a case-control study to identify protein markers of local recurrence risk in DCIS. Methods Women treated for DCIS with BCT, who later developed in-breast recurrence (cases were matched by age and year of treatment to women who remained free of recurrence (controls. Results A total of 69 women were included in the study, 31 cases and 38 controls. Immunohistochemical evaluation of DCIS tissue arrays was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER-2/neu, cyclin D1, p53, p21, cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ. Two markers were significantly different between cases and controls on univariate analysis: strong COX-2 expression was associated with increased risk of recurrence, with 67% vs. 24% positivity in cases and controls p = 0.006; and nuclear expression of PPARγ was associated with protection from recurrence with 4% vs. 27% positivity in cases and controls, p = 0.024. In a multivariate model which included size, grade, COX-2 and PPARγ positivity, we found COX-2 positivity to be a strong independent risk factor for recurrence (OR 7.90, 95% CI 1.72–36.23., whereas size and grade were of borderline significance. PPARγ expression continued to demonstrate a protective trend, (OR 0.14, 95% CI 0.06–1.84. Conclusion Our findings suggest that COX-2 and PPARγ should be investigated further as biologic markers to predict DCIS recurrence, particularly since they are also potential therapeutic targets.

  7. The natural history of bladder carcinoma in situ after initial response to bacillus Calmette-Gúerin immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofrit, Ofer N; Pode, Dov; Pizov, Galina; Zorn, Kevin C; Katz, Ran; Duvdevani, Mordechi; Shapiro, Amos

    2009-01-01

    To explore patterns of recurrence, muscle invasion, and disease specific mortality in patients with bladder carcinoma in situ (CIS) who responded to an induction course with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Gúerin (BCG) immunotherapy. Between June 1985 and December 2003, 104 patients (mean age 67 years) were diagnosed with either pure (38 patients) or concomitant (66 patients) CIS. Patients who responded to one (92 patients) or two (12 patients) induction courses of intravesical BCG instillation were included in the study. Response was determined and monitored by routine periodic bladder biopsies. Outcome of patients and the effect of various prognostic parameters were assessed after a median follow-up of 75 months. The 5- and 10-year recurrence-free survival rates were 63% and 54%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year muscle-invasive-free survival rates were 79% and 77%, and the 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 90.5 and 85.8%, respectively. Median time to recurrence, muscle invasion, and disease-specific mortality was 18, 19, and 40 months, respectively. Pure and concomitant CIS were associated with a similar outcome. The recurrence of nonmuscle-invasive tumor did not increase the risk for muscle invasion or mortality. Pure and concomitant bladder CIS share similar biologic behavior. Muscle-invasive disease is expected in about 25% of the BCG responders followed for long time periods and disease-specific mortality in 15%. Tumor recurrence, whether nonmuscle-invasive or muscle-invasive, follows a similar time table suggesting that these are not sequential but parallel and independent processes.

  8. Perilipin and adipophilin expression in sebaceous carcinoma and mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussahmain, Chakib; Mochel, Mark C; Hoang, Mai P

    2013-09-01

    Although adipophilin has been reported to be a sensitive marker for sebaceous carcinoma, others have noted its expression in squamous cell carcinoma and a variety of noncutaneous tumors, suggesting that lipid droplet accumulation is a frequent feature of neoplastic cells. We investigated the expression of adipophilin and perilipin in 101 cutaneous carcinomas. They included 30 cases of sebaceous carcinoma, 28 squamous cell carcinoma with clear cell change (18 invasive and 10 in situ tumors), 8 hidradenocarcinomas, 1 spiradenocarcinoma, 10 porocarcinomas, 4 malignant chondroid syringomas, 1 malignant cylindroma, 7 apocrine carcinomas, 6 eccrine carcinomas, 5 aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinomas, and 1 pilomatrical carcinoma. Adipophilin stained the rim of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in various tumor types, including sebaceous carcinomas (30/30, 100%), squamous cell carcinoma with clear cell change (21/28, 75%), and eccrine-apocrine carcinomas (25/43, 58%). On the other hand, perilipin expression was seen in 13 (43%) of 30 sebaceous carcinoma and only 1 hidradenocarcinoma. The remaining 28 squamous cell carcinomas with clear cell change and 42 eccrine-apocrine carcinomas were negative. Although specific for invasive sebaceous carcinoma, perilipin expression was not helpful in distinguishing sebaceous carcinoma in situ from squamous cell carcinoma in situ with clear cell change. The expression of adipophilin seen in variety of cutaneous tumors suggests that the biosynthesis of lipid is altered in these neoplasms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adhesion molecule expression in basal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegh, M.; Beljaards, R.; Veraart, J.; Hoekzema, R.; Neumann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are frequently associated with a peritumoral mononuclear infiltrate. Until now, the function of this inflammatory infiltrate and its possible role in the control of tumor growth is unclear. Mechanisms controlling endothelial and target cell adhesiveness for leukocytes

  10. Thermosensitive injectable in-situ forming carboxymethyl chitin hydrogel for three-dimensional cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Jia; Qi, Chao; Fang, Yapeng; Zhang, Lina; Zhuo, Renxi; Jiang, Xulin

    2016-04-15

    Injectable hydrogels have gained great attentions for cell therapy and tissue regeneration as a result of the applications in minimally invasive surgical procedures with the ease of handling and complete filling of the defect area. Here, a novel biodegradable, thermosensitive and injectable carboxymethyl chitin (CMCH) hydrogel was developed for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. The obtained CMCH solution remained transparent liquid flowing easily at low temperatures and gelled rapidly at 37°C. The gelation time of CMCH hydrogels could be easily tuned by varying temperature and the degree of carboxymethylation, which facilitates the cell encapsulation process at room temperature and in-situ forming hydrogel at body temperature. Moreover, the CMCH-14 hydrogels in PBS buffer remained stable and continuous porous structure and could be degraded in the presence of lysozyme or hyaluronidase. HeLa cells proliferated sustainably and self-assembled to form 3D multicellular spheroids with high cell activity on the surface of CMCH-14 hydrogel. Encapsulation of COS-7 cells within the in-situ forming CMCH hydrogel demonstrated that CMCH hydrogels promoted cell survival and proliferation. In vivo mouse study of the CMCH hydrogels showed good in-situ gel formation and tissue biocompatibility. Thus, the biodegradable thermosensitive injectable CMCH hydrogels hold potential for 3D cell culture and biomedical applications. Biodegradable hydrogels have been widely studied for cell therapy and tissue regeneration. Herein, we report a novel thermosensitive injectable carboxymethyl chitin (CMCH) hydrogel for 3D cell culture, which was synthesized homogeneously from the bioactive natural chitin through the "green" process avoiding using organic solvent. The CMCH solutions exhibited rapid thermoresponsive sol-to-gel phase transition behavior at 37°C with controllable gelation times, which facilitates the cell encapsulation process at room temperature and in-situ forming hydrogel at

  11. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  12. Ovarian Basaloid Carcinoma with Shadow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Zamecnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available So-called shadow cell differentiation (SCD is typical for pilomatrixoma and other skin lesions with follicular differentiation, but it was rarely described also in some visceral carcinomas. We report a case of ovarian basaloid carcinoma with SCD. The tumor presented as a 14 cm ovarian mass in a 45-year-old woman, and therefore the adnexectomy and hysterectomy were performed. The tumor was of high stage. Multiple metastases were found in the liver, retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes, and the lung. Histologically, the tumor showed a pattern of high-grade basaloid carcinoma with numerous shadow cells. Extensive histologic examination did not reveal any glandular or preexisting teratoma component. Immunohistochemically, the tumor expressed markers of squamous cell differentiation, such as p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and high-molecular-weight keratin. Cytokeratin 7 and CA125 were positive in scattered cells of the lesion. Estrogen and progesterone receptor, vimentin, and p53 were negative. Beta-catenin showed nuclear and cytoplasmic positivity, indicating possible tumor proliferation/differentiation via Wnt signaling pathway. To our knowledge, SCD in basaloid carcinoma of the ovary was not described before. In addition to the description of the case, we review the literature on SCD in visceral carcinomas.

  13. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  14. In-situ short circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2000-01-01

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  15. In-situ short-circuit protection system and method for high-energy electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Michel; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Rouillard, Jean; Rouillard, Roger; Shiota, Toshimi; Trice, Jennifer L.

    2003-04-15

    An in-situ thermal management system for an energy storage device. The energy storage device includes a plurality of energy storage cells each being coupled in parallel to common positive and negative connections. Each of the energy storage cells, in accordance with the cell's technology, dimensions, and thermal/electrical properties, is configured to have a ratio of energy content-to-contact surface area such that thermal energy produced by a short-circuit in a particular cell is conducted to a cell adjacent the particular cell so as to prevent the temperature of the particular cell from exceeding a breakdown temperature. In one embodiment, a fuse is coupled in series with each of a number of energy storage cells. The fuses are activated by a current spike capacitively produced by a cell upon occurrence of a short-circuit in the cell, thereby electrically isolating the short-circuited cell from the common positive and negative connections.

  16. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark...

  17. p53 signature and serous tubal in-situ carcinoma in cases of primary tubal and peritoneal carcinomas and serous borderline tumors of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Karoline; Einenkel, Jens; Sohr, Sindy; Engeland, Kurt; Horn, Lars-Christian

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the fimbriated end and nonfimbriated epithelium of fallopian tubes with regard to p53 signature, tubal intraepithelial lesions in transition (TILT), and serous tubal in-situ carcinoma (STIC) in cases of different kinds of serous pelvic cancer. This study immunohistochemically evaluated (by Ki-67 and p53 staining) the presence of p53 signature, TILT lesions, and STIC in 14 consecutive cases of prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy in women with BRCA-1/2 mutation (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy), 11 cases of macroscopically inconspicuous adnexae of patients with primary contralateral tubal cancer (TC), 9 cases of primary peritoneal cancer (PPC), and 10 cases of serous ovarian borderline tumors, evaluating the fallopian tubes (using the Sectioning and Extensively Examining the FIMbria protocol), ovarian surface epithelium, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts. The frequencies of p53 signature, TILT, and STIC were 35.7%, 7.1%, and 0% in cases of prophylactic surgery, 18.2%, 9.1%, and 18.2% in TC, and 11.1%, 0%, and 33.3% in PPC. These precursor lesions were missed during the initial routine screening and were found in the fimbriated end of the fallopian tubes in 94%. In 1 case of PPC, staining for p53 was negative in STIC. The studied adnexal tissue of serous ovarian borderline tumor and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts of all cases showed no alterations according to p53 signature, TILT, or STIC. STIC and p53 signature as precursor lesions of pelvic serous cancer were seen in macroscopically inconspicuous contralateral fallopian tubes in unilateral TC, in patients with elective bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and in patients affected by PPC. Therefore, we propose the complete processing of adnexal tissue and the use of step sectioning to establish the correct diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and ki-67 may aid in the diagnosis, but is not necessary for routine investigation.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Distal Common Bile Duct

    OpenAIRE

    Jain A; Juneja M; Naik S; Sharma S; Kapoor S; Sewkani A; Varshney S

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Squamous cell carcinoma of the biliary tree is rare. Although few cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile-duct and gallbladder have been reported, until today, only four cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile duct have been reported in the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the distal common bile duct presenting with obstructive jaundice in a 60-year-old male which was successfully managed by a Whipple's pancr...

  19. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  20. Histologic Mimics of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanoszek, Lauren M; Wang, Grace Y; Harms, Paul W

    2017-11-01

    - Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignant neoplasm and is a frequently encountered diagnosis in dermatopathology. Although BCC may be locally destructive, it rarely metastasizes. Many diagnostic entities display morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with BCC, including nonneoplastic processes, such as follicular induction over dermatofibroma; benign follicular tumors, such as trichoblastoma, trichoepithelioma, or basaloid follicular hamartoma; and malignant tumors, such as sebaceous carcinoma or Merkel cell carcinoma. Thus, misdiagnosis has significant potential to result in overtreatment or undertreatment. - To review key features distinguishing BCC from histologic mimics, including current evidence regarding immunohistochemical markers useful for that distinction. - Review of pertinent literature on BCC immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. - In most cases, BCC can be reliably diagnosed by histopathologic features. Immunohistochemistry may provide useful ancillary data in certain cases. Awareness of potential mimics is critical to avoid misdiagnosis and resulting inappropriate management.

  1. Eddy current sensor for in-situ monitoring of swelling of Li-ion prismatic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Karp, Jason; Knobloch, Aaron; Kapusta, Chris; Lin, David

    2015-03-01

    In-situ monitoring an on-board rechargeable battery in hybrid cars can be used to ensure a long operating life of the battery and safe operation of the vehicle. Intercalations of ions in the electrode material during charge and discharge of a Lithium Ion battery cause periodic stress and strain of the electrode materials that can ultimately lead to fatigue resulting in capacity loss and potential battery failure. Currently this process is not monitored directly on the cells. This work is focused on development technologies that would quantify battery swelling and provide in-situ monitoring for onboard vehicle applications. Several rounds of tests have been performed to spatially characterize cell expansion of a 5 Ah cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode (Sanyo, Japan) used by Ford in their Fusion HEV battery pack. A collaborative team of researchers from GE and the University of Michigan has characterized the free expansion of these cells to be in the range of 100×125 microns (1% of total cell thickness) at the center point of the cell. GE proposed to use a thin eddy current (EC) coil to monitor these expansions on the cells while inside the package. The photolithography manufacturing process previously developed for EC arrays for detecting cracks in aircraft engine components was used to build test coils for gap monitoring. These sensors are thin enough to be placed safely between neighboring cells and capable of monitoring small variations in the gap between the cells. Preliminary investigations showed that these coils can be less than 100 micron thick and have sufficient sensitivity in a range from 0 to 2 mm. Laboratory tests revealed good correlation between EC and optical gap measurements in the desired range. Further technology development could lead to establishing a sensor network for a low cost solution for the in-situ monitoring of cell swelling during battery operation.

  2. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO2, O2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  3. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Wang, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO 2 , O 2 concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia

  4. An integrated on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Weikang; Liu, Yu; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen, E-mail: gen.yang@pku.edu.cn; Wang, Yugang

    2015-09-01

    Ionizing radiation poses a threat to genome integrity by introducing DNA damages, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in cells. Understanding how cells react to DSB and maintain genome integrity is of major importance, since increasing evidences indicate the links of DSB with genome instability and cancer predispositions. However, tracking the dynamics of DNA damages and repair response to ionizing radiation in individual cell is difficult. Here we describe the development of an on-line irradiation and in situ live cell imaging system based on isotopic sources at Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system was designed to irradiate cells and in situ observe the cellular responses to ionizing radiation in real time. On-line irradiation was achieved by mounting a metal framework that hold an isotopic γ source above the cell culture dish for γ irradiation; or by integrating an isotopic α source to an objective lens under the specialized cell culture dish for α irradiation. Live cell imaging was performed on a confocal microscope with an environmental chamber installed on the microscope stage. Culture conditions in the environment chamber such as CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} concentration as well as temperature are adjustable, which further extends the capacity of the system and allows more flexible experimental design. We demonstrate the use of this system by tracking the DSB foci formation and disappearance in individual cells after exposure to irradiation. On-line irradiation together with in situ live cell imaging in adjustable culture conditions, the system overall provides a powerful tool for investigation of cellular and subcellular response to ionizing radiation under different physiological conditions such as hyperthermia or hypoxia.

  5. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, Brian; Tenailleau, Christophe; Nogthai, Yung; Studer, Andrew; Brugger, Joel; Pring, Allan

    2006-01-01

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni) 9 S 8 to violarite (Fe,Ni) 3 S 4 under mild conditions (pH∼4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented

  6. Conservative treatment of breast ductal carcinoma in situ: results of an Italian multi-institutional retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidali Cristiana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS has increased markedly in recent decades. In the past, mastectomy was the primary treatment for patients with DCIS, but as with invasive cancer, breast-conserving surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT has become the standard approach. We present the final results of a multi-institutional retrospective study of an Italian Radiation Oncology Group for the study of conservative treatment of DCIS, characterized by a very long period of accrual, from February 1985 to March 2000, and a median follow-up longer than 11 years. Methods A collaborative multi-institutional study was conducted in Italy in 10 Radiation Oncology Departments. A consecutive series of 586 women with DCIS histologically confirmed, treated between February 1985 and March 2000, was retrospectively evaluated. Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (range: 29–84; 32 patients were 40 years old or younger. All women underwent conservative surgery followed by whole breast RT. Irradiation was delivered to the entire breast, for a median total dose of 50 Gy; the tumour bed was boosted in 295 cases (50% at a median dose of 10 Gy. Results After a median follow-up of 136 months (range: 16–292 months, 59/586 patients (10% experienced a local recurrence: invasive in 37 cases, intraductal in 20 and not specified in two. Salvage mastectomy was the treatment of choice in 46 recurrent patients; conservative surgery in 10 and it was unknown in three patients. The incidence of local recurrence was significantly higher in women younger than 40 years (31.3% (p= 0.0009. Five patients developed distant metastases. Furthermore 40 patients developed a contralateral breast cancer and 31 a second primary tumour in a different site. The 10-year actuarial overall survival (OS was 95.5% and the 10-year actuarial disease-specific survival (DSS was 99%. Conclusions Our results are consistent with those reported in the literature. In

  7. Preservation of cosmesis with low complication risk after conservative surgery and radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Janete M.; Schultz, Delray J.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Although the clinical outcome after treatment of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) using breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy has been well documented, little data has been reported on cosmetic outcome or treatment complications. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate cosmesis and complications after breast-conservation treatment for DCIS and to analyze various factors that might affect cosmesis and predispose to complications. Methods and Materials: The records of 90 patients who were alive without evidence of disease with a 3-year minimum follow-up were evaluated for cosmetic results and treatment complications following breast-conservation surgery and radiation therapy for DCIS. Complete gross excision of the primary tumor had been performed in all patients. Additionally, 24 patients had undergone an axillary lymph node dissection in the earlier years of the study. The majority of the patients had received 50-50.4 Gy to the whole breast followed by an electron boost for a total dose of 60-66 Gy. Results: The cosmetic results of 90 evaluable patients at 3 years were: excellent in 69 (77%), good in 19 (21%), and fair in 2 (2%). The cosmetic results of 64 evaluable patients at 5 years were: excellent in 46 (72%), good in 16 (25%), and fair in 2 (3%). Factors associated with worse cosmetic results were an increased volume of tissue excised (>70 cm 3 ) and a negative ipsilateral breast biopsy after radiotherapy. Complications in the 24 patients with an axillary dissection were: arm edema (n = 6), cellulitis of the arm (n = 5), and axillary vein thrombosis (n = 1). Complications in the 66 patients without an axillary dissection were: cellulitis of the arm (n = 1) and cellulitis of the breast (n = 1). Discussion: Breast-conservation surgery followed by radiation therapy achieved excellent or good cosmetic results in 98 and 97% of patients at 3 years and 5 years, respectively. Complications were associated primarily with axillary

  8. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ With Microinvasion: Prognostic Implications, Long-Term Outcomes, and Role of Axillary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, Rahul R.; Haffty, Bruce G. [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry, New Jersey-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Lannin, Donald [Department of Surgical Oncology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Moran, Meena S., E-mail: meena.moran@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the clinical-pathologic features and long-term outcomes for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) vs. DCIS with microinvasion (DCISM) treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT), to assess the impact of microinvasion. Patients and Methods: A total of 393 patients with DCIS/DCISM from our database were analyzed to assess differences in clinical-pathologic features and outcomes for the two cohorts. Results: The median follow-up was 8.94 years, and the mean age was 55.8 years for the entire group. The DCISM cohort was comprised of 72 of 393 patients (18.3%). Surgical evaluation of the axilla was performed in 58.3% (n = 42) of DCISM vs. 18.1% (n = 58) of DCIS, with only 1 of 42 DCISM (2.3%) vs. 0 of 58 DCIS with axillary metastasis. Surgical axillary evaluation was not an independent predictor of local-regional relapse (LRR), distant relapse-free survival (DRFS), or overall survival (OS) in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p > 0.05). For the DCIS vs. DCISM groups, respectively, the 10-year breast relapse-free survival was 89.0% vs. 90.7% (p = 0.36), DRFS was 98.5% vs. 97.9% (p = 0.78), and OS was 93.2% vs. 95.7% (p = 0.95). The presence of microinvasion did not correlate with LRR, age, presentation, race, family history, margin status, and use of adjuvant hormonal therapy (all p > 0.05). In univariate analysis, pathology (DCIS vs. DCISM) was not an independent predictor of LRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-4.30; p = 0.36), DRFS (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.07-6.95; p = 0.77), or OS (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.28-3.82; p = 0.95). Conclusions: Our data imply that the natural history of DCISM closely resembles that of DCIS, with a low incidence of local-regional and distant failures. On the basis of our large dataset, the incidence of axillary metastasis in DCISM appears to be small and not appear to correlate to outcomes, and thus, microinvasion alone should not be the sole criterion for more aggressive treatment.

  9. Cathepsin B trafficking in thyroid carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedelind Sofia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in prohormone processing initiated in the follicle lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin B has also been localized to the extrafollicular space in thyroid cancer tissue, and is therefore suggested to promote invasiveness and metastasis in thyroid carcinomas through e.g. extracellular matrix degradation. Methods Transport of cathepsin B in normal thyroid epithelial and carcinoma cells was investigated through immunolocalization of endogenous cathepsin B in combination with probing protease activity. Transport analyses of cathepsin B-eGFP and its active-site mutant counterpart cathepsin B-C29A-eGFP were used to test whether intrinsic sequences of a protease influence its trafficking. Results Our approach employing activity based probes, which distinguish between active and inactive cysteine proteases, demonstrated that both eGFP-tagged normal and active-site mutated cathepsin B chimeras reached the endo-lysosomal compartments of thyroid epithelial cells, thereby ruling out alterations of sorting signals by mutagenesis of the active-site cysteine. Analysis of chimeric protein trafficking further showed that GFP-tagged cathepsin B was transported to the expected compartments, i.e. endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and endo-lysosomes of normal and thyroid carcinoma cell lines. However, the active-site mutated cathepsin B chimera was mostly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi of KTC-1 and HTh7 cells. Hence the latter, as the least polarized of the three carcinoma cell lines analyzed, exhibited severe transport defects in that it retained chimeras in pre-endolysosomal compartments. Furthermore, secretion of endogenous cathepsin B and of other cysteine peptidases, which occurs at the apical pole of normal thyroid epithelial cells, was most prominent and occurred in a non-directed fashion in thyroid

  10. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA FOOT WITH ILIOINGUINAL LYMPHADENOPATHY : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot is rare. This carcinoma of the foot may arise from a precursor lesion or may be secondary. Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot may resemble verrucous carcinoma or there can be distinct verrucous carcinoma of the foot or epithelioma cuniculatum. We reporting a case of 45 years old male patient developed squamous cell carcinoma over marjolins ulcer and develop ilio - inguinal lymphadenopathy after 1 month of malignancy. We have done below knee amputation and ilioinguinal block dissection

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Profile of genetic and environmental factors in oncogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinomas (NBCCs) are a prototype of a genetic form of basal cell carcinoma. These basal cell cancers, rather than being caused by genetic factors alone, are most likely the product of genetic and environmental factors. The NBCC syndrome provides a model for studying tumors induced by ionizing radiation and for viewing carcinogenesis as a multistage process explainable by a minimum of two steps. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors in producing tumors to which an individual is predisposed can be studied in patients with the NBCC syndrome and childhood medulloblastoma that was treated by radiation therapy. Individuals with the NBCC syndrome represent a special subgroup with a hereditary predisposition to basal cell carcinoma in whom ionizing radiation may supply the subsequent mutation necessary for tumor development. The genetically altered epidermis underlying the palm and sole pits found in patients with the syndrome represents basal cell carcinoma in situ from which basal cell carcinomas develop, albeit infrequently. The restrained biologic behavior of most of these tumors contrasts with the usual destructive behavior of the NBCCs of the head and neck in the same patient

  12. Treatment of localised renal cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Hein; Becker, Frank; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A.; Gill, Inderbir S.; Janetschek, Gunther; Jewett, Michael A. S.; Laguna, M. Pilar; Marberger, Michael; Montorsi, Francesco; Polascik, Thomas J.; Ukimura, Osamu; Zhu, Gang

    2011-01-01

    The increasing incidence of localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC) over the last 3 decades and controversy over mortality rates have prompted reassessment of current treatment. To critically review the recent data on the management of localised RCC to arrive at a general consensus. A Medline search

  13. Granuloma Inguinale Simulating Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Z Mani

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive granuloma inguinale simulating squamous cell carcinoma is described. There was past history of urethritis leading to a urethral fistula. The ulcer healed almost completely within 19 days of receiving streptomycin injections. The patient had associated scabies and presumably also had latent syphillis (His VDRL was reactive in 1:8 dilution. The patient belonged to Madhya Pradesh.

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma masquerading as a chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Nigel G; Brownstein, Seymour; Jordan, David R

    2007-06-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with a large rapidly growing violaceous mass initially diagnosed as a chalazion. Histopathologic examination disclosed Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Radiotherapy was not tolerated. Despite chemotherapy, she succumbed to widespread metastases 13 months later. MCC must be included in the differential diagnosis of solitary eyelid nodules, requiring early and aggressive treatment.

  15. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma in bladder extrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral-Ribeiro, J; Silva, C; Sousa, L; Pérez García, D; Ribeiro dos Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    Bladder extrophy is a rare congenital malformation that nowadays is surgically corrected in neonatal period. We present a case report of a 71-year-old male with a verrucous squamous cell carcinoma arising in a classical uncorrected form of bladder extrophy.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  18. Primary peri-implant oral intra-epithelial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ: a case report considering risk factors for carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Makoto; Tsuno, Hiroaki; Ishizaka, Risa; Fujiwara, Kumiko; Imaue, Shuichi; Tomihara, Kei; Minamisaka, Takashi

    2017-11-16

    Major risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are tobacco smoking, a betel quid chewing habit, and heavy alcohol consumption. However, around 15% of oral SCCs cannot be explained by these risk factors. Although oral SCC associated with dental implants is quite rare, there has been a recent gradual accumulation of reports about it. Here, we report a case of primary peri-implant oral intra-epithelial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (OIN/CIS) in a woman without the major risk factors for oral SCC. A 65-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a tumor in the right lower gingiva. She had no history of tobacco smoking and only drank socially. Ten years previously, mandibular right posterior teeth had been replaced with an implant-supported porcelain-fused-to-metal restoration in a dental clinic. About 7 years later, she noticed swelling on the lingual side of the gingiva around the implant-supported restoration, and was eventually referred to our clinic with the suspicion of a neoplasia around the dental implant. The upper part of the implant body was exposed on the implant corresponding to the first molar of the right side of the mandible; this was associated with painless, elastic soft, and relatively well circumscribed gingival swelling on the lingual site. A panoramic radiograph showed slight vertical bone resorption around the implants. An incisional biopsy was conducted under the suspicion of neoplasia. Pathological microscopic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed thickened squamous epithelia with slight nuclear atypism and disorders of the epithelial rete pegs. Immunohistochemical findings showed positive staining for keratin 17 and a negative staining mosaic pattern for keratin 13. High p53, p63, and Ki-67 reactivity was also observed. From these findings, OIN/CIS of the gingiva was pathologically diagnosed, and a wide local excision with rim resection of the mandible, including the implants, was performed. The pathological findings for the

  19. Bioinformatic identification of FGF, p38-MAKP, and calcium signalling pathways associated with carcinoma in situ in the urinary bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbsleb, Malene; Christensen, Ole F; Thykjaer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is believed to be a precursor of invasive bladder cancer. Identification of CIS is a valuable prognostic factor since radical treatment strategies can be offered these patients before the disease becomes invasive. Methods We developed a pathway based classifier...... approach to predict presence or absence of CIS in patients suffering from non muscle invasive bladder cancer. From Ingenuity Pathway Analysis we considered four canonical signalling pathways (p38 MAPK, FGF, Calcium, and cAMP pathways) with most coherent expression of transcription factors (TFs) across...

  20. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...... by immunohistochemistry followed by automated image analysis in facial BCC, peritumoural skin and normal, buttock skin. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for FOXP3 and cytokines involved in T-reg attraction and T-cell activation. T-regs comprised 45% of CD4-cells surrounding BCC. FOXP3 was highly...

  1. squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in benin city, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    excision varies from 15% to 52%1. In this present study, surgical excision of the tumour with about 2mm of clinically free border was done by the ophthalmologist in three patients. Cryotherapy , was applied to the margins in the two patients with carcinoma in situ. MicrOscopically controlled excision of the tumour in which.

  2. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  3. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune E.; Younesi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In situ studies give an opportunity to explore systems with a minimum of external interference. As Li-air batteries hold the promise for a future battery technology the investigation of the discharge and charge components of the cathode and anode is of importance, as these components may hold...... the key to making a large capacity rechargeable battery[1]. Different design for in situ XRD studies of Li-O2 batteries has been published, based on coin cell like configuration[2] [3] or Swagelok designs [4]. Capillary batteries have been investigated for the Li-ion system since its development[5......], but no capillary batteries of Li-air has yet been designed. Some of the advantage of the capillary battery design lies in its ability to separate the cathode and anode and avoid the use of glass fiber or separators, which may enable ex situ analysis of battery components. The battery design consist...

  4. Solution spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ X-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, M.R.; Soderholm, L.

    1995-01-01

    A purpose-built spectroelectrochemical cell for in situ fluorescence XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) measurements of bulk solution species during constant-potential electrolysis is described. The cell performance was demonstrated by the collection of europium L 3 -edge XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) throughout the course of electrolysis of an aqueous solution of EuCl 3 ·6H 2 O in 1 M H 2 SO 4 . The europium L 3 -edge resonances reported here for the Eu III and Eu II ions demonstrate that their 2p 3/2 → 5d electronic transition probabilities are not the same

  5. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  6. Selection and evolution in the genomic landscape of copy number alterations in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and its progression to invasive carcinoma of ductal/no special type: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Swapnil Ulhas; Mirza, Hasan; Grigoriadis, Anita; Pinder, Sarah E

    2015-08-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive malignancy detected with an increasing frequency through screening mammography. One of the primary aims of therapy is to prevent local recurrence, as in situ or as invasive carcinoma, the latter arising in half of the recurrent cases. Reliable biomarkers predictive of its association with recurrence, particularly as invasive disease, are however lacking. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis of 26 studies which report somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) in 288 cases of 'pure' DCIS and 328 of DCIS associated with invasive carcinoma, along with additional unmatched cases of 145 invasive carcinoma of ductal/no special type (IDC) and 50 of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH). SCNA frequencies across the genome were calculated at cytoband resolution (UCSC genome build 19) to maximally utilize the available information in published literature. Fisher's exact test was used to identify significant differences in the gain-loss distribution in each cytoband in different group comparisons. We found synchronous DCIS to be at a more advanced stage of genetic aberrations than pure DCIS and was very similar to IDC. Differences in gains and losses in each disease process (i.e. invasive or in situ) at each cytoband were used to infer evidence of selection and conservation for each cytoband and to define an evolutionary conservation scale (ECS) as a tool to identify and distinguish driver SCNA from the passenger SCNA. Using ECS, we have identified aberrations that show evidence of selection from the early stages of neoplasia (i.e. in ADH and pure DCIS) and persist in IDC; we postulate these to be driver aberrations and that their presence may predict progression to invasive disease.

  7. Real time, in situ observation of the photocatalytic inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingtao [School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wang, Xiaoxin [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Qi, E-mail: qili@imr.ac.cn [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian Ku [Environment Functional Materials Division, Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    An in situ microscopy technique was developed to observe in real time the photocatalytic inactivation process of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) cells by palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxide (TiON/PdO) under visible light illumination. The technique was based on building a photocatalytic micro-reactor on the sample stage of a fluorescence/phase contrast microscopy capable of simultaneously providing the optical excitation to activate the photocatalyst in the micro-reactor and the illumination to acquire phase contrast images of the cells undergoing the photocatalytic inactivation process. Using TiON/PdO as an example, the technique revealed for the first time the vacuolar activities inside S. cerevisiae cells subjected to a visible light photocatalytic inactivation. The vacuoles responded to the photocatalytic attack by the first expansion of the vacuolar volume and then contraction, before the vacuole disappeared and the cell structure collapsed. Consistent with the aggregate behavior observed from the cell culture experiments, the transition in the vacuolar volume provided clear evidence that photocatalytic disinfection of S. cerevisiae cells started with an initiation period in which cells struggled to offset the photocatalytic damage and moved rapidly after the photocatalytic damage overwhelmed the defense mechanisms of the cells against oxidative attack. - Highlights: • Palladium-modified nitrogen-doped titanium oxidephotocatalyst (TiON/PdO) • Effective visible-light photocatalytic disinfection of yeast cells by TiON/PdO • Real time, in situ observation technique was developed for photocatalytic disinfection. • The fluorescence/phase contrast microscope with a photocatalytic micro-reactor • Yeast cell disinfection happened before the cell structure collapsed.

  8. Chromosomal instability detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization and its relation to p3 alteration in prostate carcinoma in Saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A.

    2005-01-01

    Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a feature of human neoplasm. The p53 mutation has been shown to be associated with CIN in many human dysplastic and neoplastic lesions. The objective of this study was to examine CIN and p53 mutations in prostate carcinoma (Pca) resected from Saudi patients. Testing of p53 alterations using immunohistochemistry was performed on 28 archived prostatic carcinoma specimens containing Pca foci from Saudi patients seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chrosomal instability was evaluated in the same tissues by interphase in situ hybridization (IFISH) using centromere probes for chromosomes 7 and 8. Immunochemistry and IFISH were performed at Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada in 2001. The p53 immunoreactivity was found in 29% in Pca and 0% in benign epithelium. Interphase in situ hybridization revealed numerical chromosomal alterations in keeping with CIN in 63% of p53 positive and 20% p53 negative Pca. No evidence of CIN was seen in non-neoplastic epithelium. We concluded that CIN as determined by IFISH is present in Pca from Saudi patients similarly to those reported in western countries. The p53 mutation occurs relatively infrequently in Pca and associated with the presence of CIN at least in a subset of Pca. (author)

  9. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the presence of the EWSR1 rearrangement in a variety of clear cell salivary gland carcinomas with myoepithelial differentiation. A total of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with a prominent clear cell component included 51 cases of clear cell myoepithelial carcinomas de novo (CCMC), 21 cases of CCMCs ex pleomorphic adenoma (CCMCexPA), 11 cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC), 6 cases of EMC with solid clear cell overgrowth, and 5 cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of minor salivary glands. In addition, 10 cases of myoepithelial carcinomas devoid of clear cell change and 12 cases of benign myoepithelioma were included as well. All the tumors in this spectrum were reviewed, reclassified, and tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for the EWSR1 rearrangement using the Probe Vysis EWSR1 Break Apart FISH Probe Kit. The EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in 20 of 51 (39%) cases of CCMC, in 5 of 21 (24%) cases of CCMCexPA, in 1 of 11 (9%) cases of EMC, and in 4 of 5 (80%) cases of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The 25 EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs and CCMCexPAs shared similar histomorphology. They were arranged in nodules composed of compact nests of large polyhedral cells with abundant clear cytoplasm. Necrosis, areas of squamous metaplasia, and hyalinization were frequent features. Immunohistochemically, the tumors expressed p63 (96%), cytokeratin CK14 (96%), and S100 protein (88%). MIB1 index varied from 10% to 100%, with most cases in the 20% to 40% range. Clinical follow-up information was available in 21 cases (84%) and ranged from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5.2 y); 4 patients were lost to follow-up. Ten patients are alive with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease in the follow-up period from 3 months to 15 years (mean 5 y), 3 patients are alive with recurrent and metastatic disease, and 8 died of disseminated cancer 9 months to 16 years after diagnosis (mean 6 y). Lymph node metastasis appeared in 5 patients

  10. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A; Haut, M J; Warhol, M J

    1997-04-01

    To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient centrifugation and dual antibody labeling methods. The protocol was designed to compare the efficacy of antitransferrin receptor (CD71)/antiglycophorin A (GPA) antibodies with antithrom-bospondin receptor (CD36)/anti-GPA antibodies in identifying nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood. Cytospin preparations of the isolated cells were subjected to in situ hybridization with specific DNA probes for the Y chromosome and chromosome 21 to confirm the fetal origin. After MiniMACS the enrichment factors for the CD71/GPA- and CD36/GPA-positive cells from maternal blood were similar, and the percentages of fetal cells recovered did not differ. Seven of seven male pregnancies were correctly identified. One case of trisomy 21 was detected. The in situ hybridization analysis of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated from maternal blood using single density gradient centrifugation, anti-CD71/anti-GPA immunostaining and MiniMACS could be an accurate, sensitive and noninvasive method for prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Solid-oxide fuel cell operated on in situ catalytic decomposition products of liquid hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Ahn, Jeongmin

    Hydrazine was examined as a fuel for a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that employed a typical nickel-based anode. An in situ catalytic decomposition of hydrazine at liquid state under room temperature and ambient pressure before introducing to the fuel cell was developed by applying a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) oxide catalyst. Catalytic testing demonstrated that liquid N 2H 4 can be decomposed to gaseous NH 3 and H 2 at a favorable rate and at a temperature as low as 20 °C and H 2 selectivity reaching values as high as 10% at 60 °C. Comparable fuel cell performance was observed using either the in situ decomposition products of hydrazine or pure hydrogen as fuel. A peak power density of ∼850 mW cm -2 at 900 °C was obtained with a typical fuel cell composed of scandia-stabilized zirconia and La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 cathode. The high energy and power density, easy storage and simplicity in fuel delivery make it highly attractive for portable applications.

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...

  13. RENAL MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS: RENAL CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Giachini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of malignant kidney tumors, to contribute to identifying factors which the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas. Through this study, we understand that kidney disease over the years had higher incidence rates, especially in adults in the sixth decade of life. The renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the third most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract, affecting 2% to 3% of the population. There are numerous ways of diagnosis; however, the most important are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In general most of the patients affected by the CCR, have a good prognosis when diagnosed early and subjected to an effective treatment. This study conducted a literature review about the CCR, through this it was possible to understand the development needs of the imaging methods used for precise diagnosis and classification of RCC through the TNM system.

  14. Elucidating the Burden of HIV in Tissues Using Multiplexed Immunofluorescence and In Situ Hybridization: Methods for the Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Cells Harboring HIV In Situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Joshua J; Hussien, Rajaa; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Brandon; Junger, Henrik; Dobi, Dejan; Henrich, Timothy J; Thanh, Cassandra; Gibson, Erica; Hogan, Louise E; McCune, Joseph; Hunt, Peter W; Stoddart, Cheryl A; Laszik, Zoltan G

    2018-02-01

    Persistent tissue reservoirs of HIV present a major barrier to cure. Defining subsets of infected cells in tissues is a major focus of HIV cure research. Herein, we describe a novel multiplexed in situ hybridization (ISH) (RNAscope) protocol to detect HIV-DNA (vDNA) and HIV-RNA (vRNA) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues in combination with immunofluorescence (IF) phenotyping of the infected cells. We show that multiplexed IF and ISH (mIFISH) is suitable for quantitative assessment of HIV vRNA and vDNA and that multiparameter IF phenotyping allows precise identification of the cellular source of the ISH signal. We also provide semi-quantitative data on the impact of various tissue fixatives on the detectability of vDNA and vRNA with RNAscope technology. Finally, we describe methods to quantitate the ISH signal on whole-slide digital images and validation of the quantitative ISH data with quantitative real-time PCR for vRNA. It is our hope that this approach will provide insight into the biology of HIV tissue reservoirs and to inform strategies aimed at curing HIV.

  15. Axitinib in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Buraczewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Due to the emergence of new therapeutic opportunities in the second-line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, the choice of the appropriate medication requires consideration. Making the selection one should take into account the likelihood of response, the probability of toxicity, properties of the drug and the clinical characteristics of the patient. Aim of the work was to confirm antitumor efficacy of axitinib in patients with metastatic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma in the second line treatment remaining under the care of our institution. The primary objective was to determine antitumor activity, secondary – to evaluate progression free survival, safety of the treatment and to analyse clinical characteristics of treated population. Results: Treatment records of 27 patients (9 females, 18 males treated from October 2014 to the present (July 2016 were reviewed. The median duration of treatment which corresponds to the time to disease progression in observed population was 6 months (range: under 1 month – 16 months. 1 patient (3.7% had got objective response (PR, partial remission. Clinical benefit rate (PR + SD (stable disease was 66%. 9 patients (33.33% experienced treatment toxicity only in the first degree of CTCAE (common toxicity criteria for adverse events, 11 patients (40.74% presented the second degree toxicity and 5 patients (18.5% – third degree. The most commonly reported treatment related adverse events were diarrhea (47%, fatigue (26%, hand-foot syndrome (26%, deterioration of blood pressure control (22.2%, abnormal liver function tests (18.5%, mucositis (11.1%.We observed 3 cases of unacceptable toxicity. Conclusions : Axitinib confirms its effectiveness also in situ ation outside clinical trials, however, it is characterized by significant toxicity. Therefore, qualification for treatment should take into account the clinical patient characteristics. Effective diagnosis and treatment of side

  16. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Povarian epithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (Povarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  17. Reduced satellite cell number in situ in muscular contractures from children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Dykstra, Peter B; Lyubasyuk, Vera; McKay, Bryon R; Chambers, Henry G; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-07-01

    Satellite cells (SC) are quiescent adult muscle stem cells critical for postnatal development. Children with cerebral palsy have impaired muscular growth and develop contractures. While flow cytometry previously demonstrated a reduced SC population, extracellular matrix abnormalities may influence the cell isolation methods used, systematically isolating fewer cells from CP muscle and creating a biased result. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to use immunohistochemistry on serial muscle sections to quantify SC in situ. Serial cross-sections from human gracilis muscle biopsies (n = 11) were labeled with fluorescent antibodies for Pax7 (SC transcriptional marker), laminin (basal lamina), and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (nuclei). Fluorescence microscopy under high magnification was used to identify SC based on labeling and location. Mean SC/100 myofibers was reduced by ∼70% (p muscle growth and apparent decreased responsiveness of CP muscle to exercise. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Ichinokawa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118–1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124–125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  19. Papillary renal cell carcinoma in allograft kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine; El Ghali, Sofiane; Buy, Xavier; Gangi, Afshin; Lindner, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma is a subgroup of malignant renal epithelial neoplasms. Its occurrence in allograft transplanted kidney has not been debated in the literature. We report two pathologically proven cases and discuss the clinical hypothesis for such neoplasms and the aspect on MR images. The paramagnetic effect of the iron associated with an absence of signal coming from calcifications is a plausible explanation for this unusual hypointense appearance on T2-weighted sequence. (orig.)

  20. Papillocystic Variant of Acinar Cell Pancreatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinar cell pancreatic carcinoma is a rare solid malignant neoplasm. Recent review of the literature showed occasional cases with papillary or papillocystic growth patterns, ranging from 2 to 5 cm in diameter. We report a large 10 cm pancreatic tumor with papillocystic pathology features involving the pancreatic head. The growth pattern of these tumors could be mistaken for intraductal papillary mucinous tumors or other pancreatic cystic neoplasms.

  1. Imaging and histologic prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer and carcinoma in situ as a prognostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Sebastián, C; García Mur, C; Cruz Ciria, S; Rosero Cuesta, D S; Gros Bañeres, B

    2016-01-01

    To analyze what factors in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological study of triple-negative breast cancers are related to tumor recurrence and to shorter disease-free survival. To analyze survival and recurrence in function of the presence of an in situ component. This was a retrospective study of MRI staging examinations in 122 women with triple-negative breast cancer done from 2007 through 2014. In the MRI, we evaluated morphological variables (size, margins, morphology, internal signal in T2-weighted sequences) and dynamic variables (perfusion and diffusion). In the histological study, we evaluated Ki67, p53, CK5/6, nuclear grade, and Scarff-Bloom grade, as well as the presence of an in situ component and tumor grade (high grade or not high grade). We compared the variables between patients with tumor recurrence and those without, and we conducted a survival analysis. Non-nodular enhancement was more common in patients with tumor recurrence (p=0.038) and was associated with shorter disease-free survival (p=0.023). Neither diffusion restriction (p=0.079) nor ki67 (p=0.052) was associated with a worse prognosis. An in situ component was detected in 44% of triple-negative tumors, and a greater proportion of patients in the group with tumor recurrence had an in situ component; however, the presence of an in situ component was not associated with shorter survival (p = 0.185). Non-nodular enhancement was associated with a worse prognosis. Diffusion restriction, ki67, and the presence of an in situ component were not associated with shorter disease-free survival. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive Cytomorphologic Analysis of Pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: Comparison to Small Cell Carcinoma and Non-pulmonary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhwi Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is frequently challenging and differential diagnosis with small cell carcinoma is often difficult. Methods: Eleven cytologically diagnosed cases of pulmonary AdCC were collected and reviewed according to fifteen cytomorphologic characteristics: small cell size, cellular uniformity, coarse chromatin, hyperchromasia, distinct nucleolus, frequent nuclear molding, granular cytoplasm, organoid cluster, sheet formation, irregular border of cluster, hyaline globule, hyaline basement membrane material, individual cell necrosis or apoptotic body, and necrotic background. Twenty cases of small cell carcinoma and fifteen cases of non-pulmonary AdCC were also reviewed for the comparison. Results: Statistically significant differences were identified between pulmonary AdCC and small cell carcinoma in fourteen of the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria (differences in sheet formation were not statistically significant. Cellular uniformity, distinct nucleolus, granular cytoplasm, distinct cell border, organoid cluster, hyaline globule, and hyaline basement membrane material were characteristic features of AdCC. Frequent nuclear molding, individual cell necrosis, and necrotic background were almost exclusively identified in small cell carcinoma. Although coarse chromatin and irregular cluster border were observed in both, they favored the diagnosis of small cell carcinoma. Hyaline globules were more frequently seen in non-pulmonary AdCC cases. Conclusions: Using the fifteen cytomorphologic criteria described by this study, pulmonary AdCC could be successfully distinguished from small cell carcinoma. Such a comprehensive approach to an individual case is recommended for the cytologic diagnosis of pulmonary AdCC.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of Basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Jonathon M

    2012-07-15

    Family physicians are regularly faced with identifying, treating, and counseling patients with skin cancers. Nonmelanoma skin cancer, which encompasses basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma, is the most common cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet B exposure is a significant factor in the development of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. The use of tanning beds is associated with a 1.5-fold increase in the risk of basal cell carcinoma and a 2.5-fold increase in the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Routine screening for skin cancer is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend for or against routine whole-body skin examination to screen for skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a pearly white, dome-shaped papule with prominent telangiectatic surface vessels. Squamous cell carcinoma most commonly appears as a firm, smooth, or hyperkeratotic papule or plaque, often with central ulceration. Initial tissue sampling for diagnosis involves a shave technique if the lesion is raised, or a 2- to 4-mm punch biopsy of the most abnormal-appearing area of skin. Mohs micrographic surgery has the lowest recurrence rate among treatments, but is best considered for large, high-risk tumors. Smaller, lower-risk tumors may be treated with surgical excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, or cryotherapy. Topical imiquimod and fluorouracil are also potential, but less supported, treatments. Although there are no clear guidelines for follow-up after an index nonmelanoma skin cancer, monitoring for recurrence is prudent because the risk of subsequent skin cancer is 35 percent at three years and 50 percent at five years.

  4. In situ XANES cell used for the study of lanthanum strontium cuprate deNOx catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    The potential NOx-reduction electro catalyst lanthanum strontium cuprate has been characterized with an in situ X-ray spectrochemical gas reaction cell. In a series of samples with increasing substitution of trivalent lanthanum by divalent strontium ions, the oxidation state of copper increased......, maintaining charge neutrality, with the concentration of oxygen vacancies likely increasing at substitution ratios larger than Sr/La>0.08. During heating in air, the valence of copper ions in the structure increased. Upon exposure to NO at 500 °C the valence of copper ions in a lanthanum strontium cuprate...

  5. Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma--a case report with unusual in situ malignant changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Irhayim, B

    1984-05-01

    Clear cell hidradenocarcinoma is a rare tumour, the histogenesis of which has been much debated in the past. However, it is now considered a tumour of sweat gland origin. Presented herewith is a report of a case with unusual histological features of in situ malignant changes within sweat glands. These changes very closely simulate lobular cancerisation of the breast. On reviewing the English literature on the histopathology of sweat gland tumours, we have not found similar histological findings. These histological findings provide supportive evidence of the sweat gland origin of these tumours.

  6. Chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of immunologically classified mitotic cells in hematologic malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Tiainen, Marianne; Knuutila, Sakari; Popp, Susanne; Emmerich, Patricia; Cremer, Thomas; Parlier, Valerie; Jotterand Bellomo, Martine; Ruutu, Tapani

    1992-01-01

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization was performed with library DNA from sorted human chromosomes 8, 9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 on immunologically stained bone marrow cells of four patients with a hematologic neoplasm, including two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8, one patient with promyelocytic leukemia bearing the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q11-12), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In all patients, the resu...

  7. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    centrifugation and dual antibody labeling methods. The protocol was designed to compare the efficacy of antitransferrin receptor (CD71)/antiglycophorin A (GPA) antibodies with antithrom-bospondin receptor (CD36)/anti-GPA antibodies in identifying nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood. Cytospin preparations...... cells recovered did not differ. Seven of seven male pregnancies were correctly identified. One case of trisomy 21 was detected. CONCLUSION: The in situ hybridization analysis of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated from maternal blood using single density gradient centrifugation, anti-CD71/anti...

  8. CT features of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eelkema, E.A.; Stephens, D.H.; Ward, E.M.; Sheedy, P.F. II

    1984-11-01

    To determine the computed tomographic (CT) characteristics of nonfunctioning islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, the CT scans of 27 patients with that disease were reviewed. The pancreatic tumor was identified as a mass in 26 patients (96%) Of the 25 tumors evaluated with contrast enhancement, 20 became partially diffusely hyperdense relative to nearby normal pancreatic tissue. Hepatic metastases were identified in 15 patients (56%), regional lymphadenopathy in 10 (37%), atrophy of the gland proximal to the tumor in six (22%), dilatation of the biliary ducts in five (19%), and dilatation of the pancreatic duct in four (15%). The CT appearances of the nonfunctioning islet cell tumors were compared with those of 100 ordinary (ductal) pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Although the two types of tumors were sometimes indistinguishable, features found to be more characteristic of islet cell carcinoma included a pancreatic mass of unusually large size, calcification within the tumor, and contrast enhancement of either the primary tumor or hepatic metastases. Involvement of the celiac axis or proximal superior mesenteric artery was limited to ductal carcinoma.

  9. Intradural squamous cell carcinoma in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujisawa Kozo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in patients with cancer at the rate of approximately 5%; it develops particularly in patients with breast cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, leukemia, or malignant lymphoma. We describe a rare case of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in which spinal intradural squamous cell carcinoma with no lesions in the cerebral meninges and leptomeninx, was the primary lesion. Methods A 64-year-old man complained of sacral pain. Although the patient was treated with analgesics, epidural block and nerve root block, sacral pain persisted. Since acute urinary retention occurred, he was operated on. The patient was diagnosed as having an intradural squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin. Results Since the patient presented with a slightly decreased level of consciousness 2 months after surgery, he was subjected to MRI scanning of the brain and spinal cord, which revealed disseminated lesions in the medulla oblongata. The patient died of pneumonia and sepsis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 5 months after surgery. Conclusion We report the first case of a patient with intradural squamous cell carcinoma with unknown origin that developed independently in the sacrum.

  10. Immunohistochemical expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in invasive breast cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ: implications for clinicopathology and patient outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestey, Sarah B; Perks, Claire M; Sen, Chandan; Calder, Caroline J; Holly, Jeff MP; Winters, Zoe E

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) differentially modulates breast epithelial cell growth through insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent and IGF-independent pathways and is a direct (IGF-independent) growth inhibitor as well as a mitogen that potentiates EGF (epidermal growth factor) and interacts with HER-2. Previously, high IGFBP-3 levels in breast cancers have been determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoradiometric assay methods. In vitro, IGFBP-3's mechanisms of action may involve cell membrane binding and nuclear translocation. To evaluate tumour-specific IGFBP-3 expression and its subcellular localisation, this study examined immunohistochemical IGFBP-3 expression in a series of invasive ductal breast cancers (IDCs) with synchronous ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS) in relation to clinicopathological variables and patient outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of IGFBP-3 was evaluated with the sheep polyclonal antiserum (developed in house) with staining performed as described previously. IGFBP-3 was evaluable in 101 patients with a variable pattern of cytoplasmic expression (positivity of 1+/2+ score) in 85% of invasive and 90% of DCIS components. Strong (2+) IGFBP-3 expression was evident in 32 IDCs and 40 cases of DCIS. A minority of invasive tumours (15%) and DCIS (10%) lacked IGFBP-3 expression. Nuclear IGFBP-3 expression was not detectable in either invasive cancers or DCIS, with a consistent similarity in IGFBP-3 immunoreactivity in IDCs and DCIS. Positive IGFBP-3 expression showed a possible trend in association with increased proliferation (P = 0.096), oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity (P = 0.06) and HER-2 overexpression (P = 0.065) in invasive tumours and a strong association with ER negativity (P = 0.037) in DCIS. Although IGFBP-3 expression was not an independent prognosticator, IGFBP-3-positive breast cancers may have shorter disease-free and overall survivals, although these did not reach

  11. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  12. Investigation of the Lobular Carcinoma in Situ, Using Molecular Genetic Techniques, for the Involvement of Novel Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Andrulis, Irene L

    2005-01-01

    .... Our study proposes to investigate LN lesions, lacking any adjacent invasive carcinoma, for alterations in and expression of known and novel genes/proteins with the goal of characterizing a molecular genetic profile...

  13. Investigation of the Lobular Carcinoma in Situ, Using Molecular Genetic Techniques, for the Involvement of Novel Genes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mastracci, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    .... Our study proposes to investigate LN lesions, lacking any adjacent invasive carcinoma, for alterations in and expression of known and novel genes/proteins in order to characterize a profile for lobular neoplasia...

  14. In Situ Fixation Redefines Quiescence and Early Activation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo Machado

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: State of the art techniques have been developed to isolate and analyze cells from various tissues, aiming to capture their in vivo state. However, the majority of cell isolation protocols involve lengthy mechanical and enzymatic dissociation steps followed by flow cytometry, exposing cells to stress and disrupting their physiological niche. Focusing on adult skeletal muscle stem cells, we have developed a protocol that circumvents the impact of isolation procedures and captures cells in their native quiescent state. We show that current isolation protocols induce major transcriptional changes accompanied by specific histone modifications while having negligible effects on DNA methylation. In addition to proposing a protocol to avoid isolation-induced artifacts, our study reveals previously undetected quiescence and early activation genes of potential biological interest. : Machado et al. demonstrate that muscle stem cells undergo changes in transcripts and histone modifications during isolation. The authors develop an in situ fixation-based methodology, which allows capture of cells in their native state. In light of these findings, some high-throughput analyses of tissue extracted cells may need to be revisited. Keywords: muscle stem cells, quiescence, early response genes, RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, methylation, satellite cells

  15. CD4 + T cells promote renal cell carcinoma proliferation via modulating YBX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Yiting; Xu, Liang; Lu, Xianqi; Fu, Donghe; Su, Jing; Geng, Hua; Qin, Guoxuan; Chen, Ruibing; Quan, Changyi; Niu, Yuanjie; Yue, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common urologic tumor and the third leading cause of death among urological tumors. Recent studies demonstrate that RCC tumors are more heavily infiltrated by lymphocytes than other cancers. However, the exact roles played by CD4 + T cells in RCC proliferation remain unknown. In this study, we cocultured RCC cells with CD4 + T cells. Stable knockdown of YBX1 in RCC cells was constructed. The effects of CD4 + T cells, TGFβ1 and YBX1 on RCC cells were investigated using cell viability assays. In situ RCC nude mouse model was used to observe the tumor growth. The potential mechanisms of CD4 + T cells and YBX1 in RCC cells proliferation were explored by qRT-PCR and western blot. Expression of CD4, Foxp3 and TGFβ1 in RCC were quantified by immunohistochemical staining. The results indicated that CD4, Foxp3 and TGFβ1 were significantly up-regulated in RCC tissues. Human clinical sample and in vitro cell lines studies showed that RCC cells had better capacity than its surrounding normal kidney epithelial cells to recruit the CD4 + T cells. In vivo mouse model studies were consistent with the results by in vitro cell lines studies showing infiltrating T cells enhanced RCC cell proliferation. qRT-PCR and western blot exhibited that CD4 + T cells could enhance RCC cell proliferation via activating YBX1/HIF2α signaling pathway. Furthermore, CD4 + T cells functioned through inducing TGFβ1 expression. In a word, infiltrating CD4 + T cells promoted TGFβ1 expression in both RCC and T cells and regulated RCC cells proliferation via modulating TGFβ1/YBX1/ HIF2α signals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Programmable oligonucleotide probes design and applications for in situ and in vivo RNA imaging in cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheglakov, Zoya

    Unequal spreading of mRNA is a frequent experience observed in varied cell lines. The study of cellular processes dynamics and precise localization of mRNAs offers a vital toolbox to target specific proteins in precise cytoplasmic areas and provides a convenient instrument to uncover their mechanisms and functions. Latest methodological innovations have allowed imaging of a single mRNA molecule in situ and in vivo. Today, Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) methods allow the studying of mRNA expression and offer a vital toolbox for accurate biological models. Studies enable analysis of the dynamics of an individual mRNA, have uncovered the multiplex RNA transport systems. With all current approaches, a single mRNA tracking in the mammalian cells is still challenging. This thesis describes mRNA detection methods based on programmable fluorophore-labeled DNA structures complimentary to native targets providing an accurate mRNA imaging in mammalian cells. First method represents beta-actin (ACTB) transcripts in situ detection in human cells, the technique strategy is based on programmable DNA probes, amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA). The method reports precise localization of molecule of interest with an accuracy of a single-cell. Visualization and localization of specific endogenous mRNA molecules in real-time in vivo has the promising to innovate cellular biology studies, medical analysis and to provide a vital toolbox in drugs invention area. Second method described in this thesis represents miR-21 miRNA detection within a single live-cell resolution. The method using fluorophore-labeled short synthetic DNAs probes forming a stem-loop shape and generating Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) as a result of target-probes hybridization. Catalytic nucleic acid (DNAzymes) probes are cooperative tool for precise detection of different mRNA targets. With assistance of a complementary fluorophore-quencher labeled substrate, the DNAzymes provide

  17. Laser capture microdissection of bacterial cells targeted by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Mølbak, Lars; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2005-01-01

    Direct cultivation-independent sequence retrieval of unidentified bacteria from histological tissue sections has been limited by the difficulty of selectively isolating specific bacteria from a complex environment. Here, a new DNA isolation approach is presented for prokaryotic cells....... By this method, a potentially pathogenic strain of the genus Brachyspira from formalin-fixed human colonic biopsies were visualized by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a 16S rRNA-targeting oligonucleotide probe, followed by laser capture microdissection (LCM) of the targeted cells. Direct 16S r......RNA gene PCR was performed from the dissected microcolonies, and the subsequent DNA sequence analysis identified the dissected bacterial cells as belonging to the Brachyspira aalborgi cluster 1. The advantage of this technique is the ability to combine the histological recognition of the specific bacteria...

  18. In-Situ Observation of Membrane Protein Folding during Cell-Free Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Baumann

    Full Text Available Proper insertion, folding and assembly of functional proteins in biological membranes are key processes to warrant activity of a living cell. Here, we present a novel approach to trace folding and insertion of a nascent membrane protein leaving the ribosome and penetrating the bilayer. Surface Enhanced IR Absorption Spectroscopy selectively monitored insertion and folding of membrane proteins during cell-free expression in a label-free and non-invasive manner. Protein synthesis was performed in an optical cell containing a prism covered with a thin gold film with nanodiscs on top, providing an artificial lipid bilayer for folding. In a pilot experiment, the folding pathway of bacteriorhodopsin via various secondary and tertiary structures was visualized. Thus, a methodology is established with which the folding reaction of other more complex membrane proteins can be observed during protein biosynthesis (in situ and in operando at molecular resolution.

  19. In situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around seeded stem cells at the subcellular length scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Song

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A major hurdle to understanding and exploiting interactions between the stem cell and its environment is the lack of a tool for precise delivery of mechanical cues concomitant to observing sub-cellular adaptation of structure. These studies demonstrate the use of microscale particle image velocimetry (μ-PIV for in situ spatiotemporal mapping of flow fields around mesenchymal stem cells, i.e. murine embryonic multipotent cell line C3H10T1/2, at the subcellular length scale, providing a tool for real time observation and analysis of stem cell adaptation to the prevailing mechanical milieu. In the absence of cells, computational fluid dynamics (CFD predicts flow regimes within 12% of μ-PIV measures, achieving the technical specifications of the chamber and the flow rates necessary to deliver target shear stresses at a particular height from the base of the flow chamber. However, our μ-PIV studies show that the presence of cells per se as well as the density at which cells are seeded significantly influences local flow fields. Furthermore, for any given cell or cell seeding density, flow regimes vary significantly along the vertical profile of the cell. Hence, the mechanical milieu of the stem cell exposed to shape changing shear stresses, induced by fluid drag, varies with respect to proximity of surrounding cells as well as with respect to apical height. The current study addresses a previously unmet need to predict and observe both flow regimes as well as mechanoadaptation of cells in flow chambers designed to deliver precisely controlled mechanical signals to live cells. An understanding of interactions and adaptation in response to forces at the interface between the surface of the cell and its immediate local environment may be key for de novo engineering of functional tissues from stem cell templates as well as for unraveling the mechanisms underlying multiscale development, growth and adaptation of organisms.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S.; Copenhagen Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.)

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, F T

    2012-01-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma ofthe anal canal represents 1.5% of all malignancies affectingthe gastrointestinal tract. Over the past 20 years dramatic changes have been seen in both the epidemiological distribution of the disease and in the therapeutic modalities utilised to manage it. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT: Historically abdominoperineal resection had been the treatment of choice with local resection reserved for early stage disease. Work by Nigro et al. has revolutionised how we currently manage carcinoma of the anal canal, demonstrating combined modality chemoradiotherapy as an appropriate alternative to surgical resection with the benefit of preserving sphincter function. Surgery is then reserved for recurrent disease with salvage abdominoperineal resection. This article reviews current literature and highlights the changing therapeutic modalities with selected clinical cases

  2. A flow-through hydrothermal cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of phase transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Brian [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tenailleau, Christophe [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia); Nogthai, Yung [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Studer, Andrew [Bragg Institute, ANSTO, PMB 1 Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Brugger, Joel [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Pring, Allan [Department of Mineralogy, South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000 (Australia): Department of Geology and Geophysics, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)]. E-mail: pring.allan@saugov.sa.gov.au

    2006-11-15

    A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in situ neutron diffraction study of crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. It is specifically designed for use on the medium-resolution powder diffractometer (MRPD) at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the Polaris beamline at ISIS and the new high-intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The cell will operate in a flow-through mode over the temperature range from 25-300 deg. C and up to pressures of 100 bar. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite (Fe,Ni){sub 9}S{sub 8} to violarite (Fe,Ni){sub 3}S{sub 4} under mild conditions (pH{approx}4) at 120 deg. C and 3 bar using in situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented.

  3. Observation of Nanoscale Morphological and Structural Degradation in Perovskite Solar Cells by in Situ TEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Dyck, Ondrej; Ming, Wenmei; Du, Mao-Hua; Das, Sanjib; Rouleau, Christopher M; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2016-11-30

    High-resolution in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy were applied to systematically investigate morphological and structural degradation behaviors in perovskite films during different environmental exposure treatments. In situ TEM experiment indicates that vacuum itself is not likely to cause degradation in perovskites. In addition, these materials were found to degrade significantly when they were heated to ∼50-60 °C (i.e., a solar cell's field operating temperature) under illumination. This observation thus conveys a critically important message that the instability of perovskite solar cells at such a low temperature may limit their real field commercial applications. It was further unveiled that oxygen most likely attacks the CH 3 NH 3 + organic moiety rather than the PbI 6 component of perovskites during ambient air exposure at room temperature. This finding grants a deeper understanding of the perovskite degradation mechanism and suggests a way to prevent degradation of perovskites by tailoring the organic moiety component.

  4. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120degC are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120degC and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  5. The Design and Construction of Flow-through Hydrothermal Cells for in situ Neutron Diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pring, A.; Tenailleau, C.; Wang, H.; Brugger, J.; Ngothai, Yung; ONeill, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A flow-through hydrothermal cell for the in-situ neutron diffraction study of hydrothermal crystallisation and phase transitions has been developed. It can be used for kinetic studies on materials that exhibit structural transformations under hydrothermal conditions. New fundamental knowledge on the mechanisms of phase transitions can thus be determined. It is specifically designed for the use on the Medium Resolution Powder Diffractometer at ANSTO, Lucas Heights, Sydney. But it is planned to adapt the design for the new High intensity powder diffractometer (Wombat) at the new Australian reactor Opal. The equipment has been initially created for the low temperature transformation study of Fe-Ni sulfide minerals. The design and use of the flow-through hydrothermal cell from 25 to 120 deg C are described. The first results of a successful transformation of pentlandite to violarite under mild conditions (pH 4) at 120 deg C and 3 bars using in-situ neutron diffraction measurements are presented. (authors)

  6. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a report of two cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinelli C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. Neuroendocrine tumors mainly occur in the broncopolmonary system and gastrointestinal tract. The diagnosis of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. We are going to describe two cases and to discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Introduction: Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and slow-growing neoplasias derived from neuroendocrine cells. We describe two cases of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast and discuss their clinical, radiological and pathological manifestations. Case report: Our patients are two Italian females (38 and 36 year-old with no family history of breast disease. In both cases the diagnosis was confirmed after surgery, when immunohistochemistry revealed a neuroendocrine differentiation of the tumor. The patients are alive and disease free after more than ten years of follow-up. Conclusion: Primary neuroendocrine carcinomas of the breast are extremely rare. The diagnosis of SCNC of the breast can only be made if a non mammary site is excluded or if an in situ component can be found. After surgery, a strict follow-up including octreotide scan should be performed and this doesn’t differ from the one of the usual breast carcinoma.

  7. A case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma to thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Geun; Yang, Youngro; Kim, Kwang Sik; Hyun, Chang Lim; Lee, Ji Shin; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Daeho

    2011-08-01

    Metastasis to the thyroid gland from distant cancer is rare, and, in some cases, is a diagnostic challenge. Here, we report a case of metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. A 77-year-old man presented with a neck mass detected about 1 month previously. He had undergone a right nephrectomy owing to renal cell carcinoma 14 years previously. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed a few atypical follicular cells with nuclear atypia. Under a tentative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, a total thyroidectomy was performed. The histologic and immunohistochemical studies of the surgical specimens indicated that the thyroid masses were metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid.

  8. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma mimicking a superficial spreading melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Acuña, Paula; Cullen Aravena, Roberto; Maturana Donaire, César; Ares Mora, Raúl; Porras Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-20

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer, especially in elderly people. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a rare subtype and has been described in the literature as a nodular and hyperpigmented lesion; rarely, it can appear as an extensive pigmented plate, which may be clinically indistinguishable from superficial spreading melanoma and Bowen disease. Dermatoscopy has a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. When Menzies criteria are used; however, the final diagnosis is made by histopathology. The objective of the present report is to analyze the case of a patient with pigmented basal cell carcinoma simulating a superficial spreading melanoma.

  9. Incidence of Adjacent Synchronous Invasive Carcinoma and/or Ductal Carcinoma In-situ in Patients with Lobular Neoplasia on Core Biopsy: Results from a Prospective Multi-Institutional Registry (TBCRC 020).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhlis, Faina; Gilmore, Lauren; Gelman, Rebecca; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Ludwig, Kandice; Hwang, E Shelley; Willey, Shawna; Hudis, Clifford; Iglehart, J Dirk; Lawler, Elizabeth; Ryabin, Nicole Y; Golshan, Mehra; Schnitt, Stuart J; King, Tari A

    2016-03-01

    Lobular neoplasia (LN) represents a spectrum of atypical proliferative lesions, including atypical lobular hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma-in-situ. The need for excision for LN found on core biopsy (CB) is controversial. We conducted a prospective multi-institutional trial (TBCRC 20) to determine the rate of upgrade to cancer after excision for pure LN on CB. Patients with a CB diagnosis of pure LN were prospectively identified and consented to excision. Cases with discordant imaging and those with additional lesions requiring excision were excluded. Upgrade rates to cancer were quantified on the basis of local and central pathology review. Confidence intervals and sample size were based on exact binomial calculations. A total of 77 of 79 registered patients underwent excision (median age 51 years, range 27-82 years). Two cases (3%; 95% confidence interval 0.3-9) were upgraded to cancer (one tubular carcinoma, one ductal carcinoma-in-situ) at excision per local pathology. Central pathology review of 76 cases confirmed pure LN in the CB in all but two cases. In one case, the tubular carcinoma identified at excision was also found in the CB specimen, and in the other, LN was not identified, yielding an upgrade rate of one case (1%; 95% CI 0.01-7) by central pathology review. In this prospective study of 77 patients with pure LN on CB, the upgrade rate was 3% by local pathology and 1% by central pathology review, demonstrating that routine excision is not indicated for patients with pure LN on CB and concordant imaging findings.

  10. Self-assembling Fmoc dipeptide hydrogel for in situ 3D cell culturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpe Victor

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional cell culture studies have been performed on 2D surfaces, resulting in flat, extended cell growth. More relevant studies are desired to better mimic 3D in vivo tissue growth. Such realistic environments should be the aim of any cell growth study, requiring new methods for culturing cells in vitro. Cell biology is also tending toward miniaturization for increased efficiency and specificity. This paper discusses the application of a self-assembling peptide-derived hydrogel for use as a 3D cell culture scaffold at the microscale. Results Phenylalanine derivative hydrogel formation was seen to occur in multiple dispersion media. Cells were immobilized in situ within microchambers designed for cell analysis. Use of the highly biocompatible hydrogel components and simplistic procedures significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects seen with alternate 3D culture materials and microstructure loading methods. Cells were easily immobilized, sustained and removed from microchambers. Differences in growth morphology were seen in the cultured cells, owing to the 3-dimentional character of the gel structure. Degradation improved the removal of hydrogel from the microstructures, permitting reuse of the analysis platforms. Conclusion Self-assembling diphenylalanine derivative hydrogel provided a method to dramatically reduce the typical difficulties of microculture formation. Effective generation of patterned 3D cultures will lead to improved cell study results by better modeling in vivo growth environments and increasing efficiency and specificity of cell studies. Use of simplified growth scaffolds such as peptide-derived hydrogel should be seen as highly advantageous and will likely become more commonplace in cell culture methodology.

  11. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. Use of density gradient centrifugation, magnetically activated cell sorting and in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campagnoli, C; Multhaupt, H A; Ludomirski, A

    1997-01-01

    centrifugation and dual antibody labeling methods. The protocol was designed to compare the efficacy of antitransferrin receptor (CD71)/antiglycophorin A (GPA) antibodies with antithrom-bospondin receptor (CD36)/anti-GPA antibodies in identifying nucleated erythrocytes in maternal blood. Cytospin preparations...... cells recovered did not differ. Seven of seven male pregnancies were correctly identified. One case of trisomy 21 was detected. CONCLUSION: The in situ hybridization analysis of fetal nucleated erythrocytes isolated from maternal blood using single density gradient centrifugation, anti-CD71/anti......OBJECTIVE: To develop a noninvasive method suitable for clinical prenatal diagnosis. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal nucleated erythrocytes were separated from peripheral blood of 17 healthy pregnant women using small magnetically activated cell sorting columns (MiniMACS) following density gradient...

  12. In situ laser heating and radial synchrotron X-ray diffraction ina diamond anvil cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Martin; Caldwell, Wendel A.; Miyagi, Lowell; Wenk,Hans-Rudolf

    2007-06-29

    We report a first combination of diamond anvil cell radialx-ray diffraction with in situ laser heating. The laser-heating setup ofALS beamline 12.2.2 was modified to allow one-sided heating of a samplein a diamond anvil cell with an 80 W yttrium lithium fluoride laser whileprobing the sample with radial x-ray diffraction. The diamond anvil cellis placed with its compressional axis vertical, and perpendicular to thebeam. The laser beam is focused onto the sample from the top while thesample is probed with hard x-rays through an x-ray transparentboron-epoxy gasket. The temperature response of preferred orientation of(Fe,Mg)O is probed as a test experiment. Recrystallization was observedabove 1500 K, accompanied by a decrease in stress.

  13. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J. Paul; Kamenev, Konstantin V.

    2014-04-01

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO3 have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  14. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K; Ridley, Christopher J; Bocian, Artur; Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry; Azuma, Masaki; Attfield, J Paul; Kamenev, Konstantin V

    2014-04-01

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO3 have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  15. High-pressure cell for neutron diffraction with in situ pressure control at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Matthew K.; Ridley, Christopher J.; Bocian, Artur; Kamenev, Konstantin V., E-mail: k.kamenev@ed.ac.uk [School of Engineering and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kirichek, Oleg; Manuel, Pascal; Khalyavin, Dmitry [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford (United Kingdom); Azuma, Masaki [Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Attfield, J. Paul [School of Chemistry and CSEC, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Pressure generation at cryogenic temperatures presents a problem for a wide array of experimental techniques, particularly neutron studies due to the volume of sample required. We present a novel, compact pressure cell with a large sample volume in which load is generated by a bellow. Using a supply of helium gas up to a pressure of 350 bar, a load of up to 78 kN is generated with leak-free operation. In addition, special fiber ports added to the cryogenic center stick allow for in situ pressure determination using the ruby pressure standard. Mechanical stability was assessed using finite element analysis and the dimensions of the cell have been optimized for use with standard cryogenic equipment. Load testing and on-line experiments using NaCl and BiNiO{sub 3} have been done at the WISH instrument of the ISIS pulsed neutron source to verify performance.

  16. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M. [Departamento de Patologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Rogatto, S.R. [Departamento de Urologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Hospital A.C. Camargo, CIPE, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingues, M.A.C. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-19

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  17. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M.; Rogatto, S.R.; Domingues, M.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer. PMID:23558859

  18. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Rosa

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC. HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+ cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  19. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC. HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+ cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer.

  20. Chromogenic in situ hybridization compared with other approaches to evaluate HER2/neu status in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, F.E.; Santos, R.M.; Rogatto, S.R.; Domingues, M.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has been evaluated in breast cancer patients to identify those most likely to benefit from herceptin-targeted therapy. HER2 amplification, detected in 20-30% of invasive breast tumors, is associated with reduced survival and metastasis. The most frequently used technique for evaluating HER2 protein status as a routine procedure is immunohistochemistry (IHC). HER2 copy number alterations have also been evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in moderate immunoexpression (IHC 2+) cases. An alternative procedure to evaluate gene amplification is chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), which has some advantages over FISH, including the correlation between HER2 status and morphological features. Other methodologies have also been used, such as silver-enhanced in situ hybridization (SISH) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, to determine the number of HER2 gene copies and expression, respectively. Here we will present a short and comprehensive review of the current advances concerning HER2 evaluation in human breast cancer

  1. In situ probing the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyin; Hemayet Uddin, Md; Ng, Tuck Wah; Paterson, David L.; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2014-10-01

    We report a novel approach to probe the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometre resolution by combining focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After removing layers of pre-defined thickness in the order of 100 nm on the target bacterial cells with FIB milling, AFM of different modes can be employed to probe the cellular interior under both ambient and aqueous environments. Our initial investigations focused on the surface topology induced by FIB milling and the hydration effects on AFM measurements, followed by assessment of the sample protocols. With fine-tuning of the process parameters, in situ AFM probing beneath the bacterial cell wall was achieved for the first time. We further demonstrate the proposed method by performing a spatial mapping of intracellular elasticity and chemistry of the multi-drug resistant strain Klebsiella pneumoniae cells prior to and after it was exposed to the ‘last-line’ antibiotic polymyxin B. Our results revealed increased stiffness occurring in both surface and interior regions of the treated cells, suggesting loss of integrity of the outer membrane from polymyxin treatments. In addition, the hydrophobicity measurement using a functionalized AFM tip was able to highlight the evident hydrophobic portion of the cell such as the regions containing cell membrane. We expect that the proposed FIB-AFM platform will help in gaining deeper insights of bacteria-drug interactions to develop potential strategies for combating multi-drug resistance.

  2. Hybrid photopatterned enzymatic reaction (HyPER) for in situ cell manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Donald R; Borrajo, Jacob; Soon, Allyson; Acosta-Vélez, Giovanny F; Oshita, Victor; Darling, Nicole; Mack, Julia; Barker, Thomas; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Segura, Tatiana

    2014-01-24

    The ability to design artificial extracellular matrices as cell-instructive scaffolds has opened the door to technologies capable of studying the fate of cells in vitro and to guiding tissue repair in vivo. One main component of the design of artificial extracellular matrices is the incorporation of biochemical cues to guide cell phenotype and multicellular organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of proteins that present a variety of spatially discrete signals to residing cell populations. In contrast, most engineered ECMs do not mimic this heterogeneity. In recent years, photo-deprotection has been used to spatially immobilize signals. However, this approach has been limited mostly to small peptides. Here we combine photo-deprotection with enzymatic reaction to achieve spatially controlled immobilization of active bioactive signals that range from small molecules to large proteins. A peptide substrate for transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIIIa) was caged with a photo-deprotectable group, which was then immobilized to the bulk of a cell-compatible hydrogel. With focused light, the substrate can be deprotected and used to immobilize patterned bioactive signals. This approach offers an innovative strategy to immobilize delicate bioactive signals, such as growth factors, without loss of activity and enables in situ cell manipulation of encapsulated cells. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  4. Focus on Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venura Samarasinghe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs, which include basal and squamous cell cancers are the most common human cancers. BCCs have a relatively low metastatic rate and slow growth and are frequently underreported. Whilst there is a definite role of sunexposure in the pathogenesis of BCC, several additional complex genotypic, phenotypic and environmental factors are contributory. The high prevalence and the frequent occurrence of multiple primary BCC in affected individuals make them an important public health problem. This has led to a substantial increase in search for newer noninvasive treatments for BCC. Surgical excision with predetermined margins remains the mainstay treatment for most BCC. Of the newer non-invasive treatments only photodynamic therapy and topical imiquimod have become established in the treatment of certain BCC subtypes, while the search for other more effective and tissue salvaging therapies continues. This paper focuses on the pathogenesis and management of BCC.

  5. The current role of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy within the continuum of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, K.P.; Peppelman, M.; Hoogedoorn, L.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Gerritsen, M.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, and invasive SCC and its variants may be difficult. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive technique for in vivo skin imaging. OBJECTIVES: To explicate the diagnostic and

  6. [Value of HPV (hybrid capture 2) testing for assessing the effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment in CIN2-3/carcinoma in situ and microinvasive cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolenkova, L I

    2011-01-01

    The prospective study in 525 patients with CIN2-3/CIS and microinvasive cervical cancer showed the association of epithelial lesions with HPV HR in almost all cases. This allowed using HPV-testing for conservative surgical treatment (ablation, LEEP/ LLETZ, conization) efficacy assessment and patient follow-up. The value of HPV-testing for residual disease and recurrence detection was higher that of cytology and colposcopy. HPV-testing showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value. Hybrid Capture 2 test was more useful for residual disease and recurrence detection than PCR, showed higher specificity (96% vs. 79,2%) and positive predictive value (44.8% vs. 13.4%). After conservative surgical treatment of CIN2-3/carcinoma in situ and microinvasive cervical cancer Hybride Capture 2 is to become negative thus confirming the adequacy of neoplastic tissue excision.

  7. Role of chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) in the evaluation of HER2 status in breast carcinoma: comparison with immunohistochemistry and FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ning-T, Elsa; Ronchetti, Ruben; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Merino, Maria J

    2005-10-01

    We report our experience with Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization (CISH) for the evaluation of HER2 amplification on 55 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinomas of different histology. All the results were corrected for chromosome 17 aneusomy and compared with immunohistochemistry (IHC); a subset of cases was compared to FISH. Thirty-one of 32 cases in which FISH and CISH were performed yielded the same results. CISH and IHC showed a good concordance in the 0/1+ and 3+ category, while a poor agreement with weakly protein overexpression was confirmed. Chromosome 17 analysis was necessary in cases with a low number of HER2 gene copies. CISH is a useful tool to evaluate breast cancer HER2 status that can be easily implemented in a laboratory of surgical pathology.

  8. [Expression of promyelocytic leukaemia protein in Bowen's disease, skin squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongyu; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Shijie; Ma, Yunyun; Zou, Xingwei; Li, Ruilian

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the expression of promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein of PML protein in Bowen's disease (BD), skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and explore the role of PML in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PML protein in normal skin tissues and lesions of Bowen's disease, SCC and BCC were detected with immunohistochemistry. Normal skin tissues did not express PML protein. In BCC, PML showed rather low expressions in the skin lesions (8.69% in cell nuclei and 4.35% in cytoplasm). The lesions in BD and SCC (grade I and II) showed obvious overexpression of PML protein in the cell nuclei and cytoplasm, and its expression in the cell nuclei of these lesions was significantly higher than that in grade III-IV SCC. PML protein may play an important role in the early stage of SCC, and its overexpression may contribute to the carcinogenesis and metastasis of SCC.

  9. Chemotherapy for pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas : Does the regimen matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Jules L.; van Suylen, Robert Jan; Thunnissen, Erik; den Bakker, Michael A.; Groen, Harry J.; Smit, Egbert F.; Damhuis, Ronald A.; van den Broek, Esther C.; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.

    Pulmonary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is rare. Chemotherapy for metastatic LCNEC ranges from small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) regimens to nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) chemotherapy regimens. We analysed outcomes of chemotherapy treatments for LCNEC. The Netherlands Cancer

  10. Printing Fabrication of Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and In Situ Morphology Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Ferdous, Sunzida; Wan, Xianjian; Zhu, Chenhui; Schaible, Eric; Hexemer, Alexander; Wang, Cheng; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-01-29

    Polymer-based materials hold promise as low-cost, flexible efficient photovoltaic devices. Most laboratory efforts to achieve high performance devices have used devices prepared by spin coating, a process that is not amenable to large-scale fabrication. This mismatch in device fabrication makes it difficult to translate quantitative results obtained in the laboratory to the commercial level, making optimization difficult. Using a mini-slot die coater, this mismatch can be resolved by translating the commercial process to the laboratory and characterizing the structure formation in the active layer of the device in real time and in situ as films are coated onto a substrate. The evolution of the morphology was characterized under different conditions, allowing us to propose a mechanism by which the structures form and grow. This mini-slot die coater offers a simple, convenient, material efficient route by which the morphology in the active layer can be optimized under industrially relevant conditions. The goal of this protocol is to show experimental details of how a solar cell device is fabricated using a mini-slot die coater and technical details of running in situ structure characterization using the mini-slot die coater.

  11. A (S)TEM Gas Cell Holder with Localized Laser Heating for In Situ Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehraeen, Shareghe [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology; McKeown, Joseph T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Condensed Matter and Materials Division; Deshmukh, Pushkarraj V. [E.A. Fischione Instruments, Inc., Export, PA (United States); Evans, James E. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Materials Science Division; Abellan, Patricia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Materials Science Division; Xu, Pinghong [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Reed, Bryan W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Condensed Matter and Materials Division; Taheri, Mitra L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Fischione, Paul E. [E.A. Fischione Instruments, Inc., Export, PA (United States); Browning, Nigel D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Materials Science Division; Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

    2013-03-04

    We report that the advent of aberration correction for transmission electron microscopy has transformed atomic resolution imaging into a nearly routine technique for structural analysis. Now an emerging frontier in electron microscopy is the development of in situ capabilities to observe reactions at atomic resolution in real time and within realistic environments. Here we present a new in situ gas cell holder that is designed for compatibility with a wide variety of sample type (i.e., dimpled 3-mm discs, standard mesh grids, various types of focused ion beam lamellae attached to half grids). Its capabilities include localized heating and precise control of the gas pressure and composition while simultaneously allowing atomic resolution imaging at ambient pressure. The results show that 0.25-nm lattice fringes are directly visible for nanoparticles imaged at ambient pressure with gas path lengths up to 20 μm. Additionally, we quantitatively demonstrate that while the attainable contrast and resolution decrease with increasing pressure and gas path length, resolutions better than 0.2 nm should be accessible at ambient pressure with gas path lengths less than the 15 μm utilized for these experiments.

  12. Lugol's iodine identifies synchronous invasive carcinoma--time for a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatas, A N; Jenkins, G W; Sutton, D; McCaul, J A

    2011-07-01

    Lugol's iodine is currently under investigation as a technique to detect dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma at resection margins, plus further afield. Lugol's iodine is inexpensive and easy to use. We present two cases where the technique revealed abnormal mucosa (one carcinoma, one squamous cell carcinoma in situ) at distant sites from the tumour being treated within oral cavity and oropharynx. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synchronous cecal adenocarcinoma and multiple colonic in situ carcinomas in hamartomatous polyps in a case of isolated Peutz–Jeghers syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahia Z Gad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Yahia Z Gad1, Doaa H Bakr1, Mohammad G El-Ebeidy21Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Mansoura Specialized Medical Hospital, Mansoura University, Mansoura, EgyptBackground: Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation and hamartomatous polyps of the entire gastrointestinal tract. A Peutz–Jeghers polyp (PJP in a patient without pigmentation or a family history of the disease is called an isolated or solitary PJP. Individuals with PJS carry a very high risk of developing gastrointestinal (GI as well as extra-GI malignancies. This case report documents lesion multiplicity and their malignant potential in a young patient with PJS presenting in a serious condition for the first time.Case report: An 18-year-old female Egyptian patient was admitted with hematochezia and remarkable anemia. After appropriate resuscitation and consent, colonoscopic evaluation revealed seven pedunculated colonic polyps at the ascending and the transverse colon, and numerous variable-sized sessile polyps were scattered all over the colon. To establish hemostasis, endoscopic polypectomy for pedunculated polyps and argon plasma photocoagulation for the bleeding sessile polyps were performed. Histopathological examination revealed cecal adenocarcinoma in one specimen and two simultaneous in situ carcinoma at the transverse and the sigmoid colon in the mucosae of the excised histologically proven hamartomatous polyps. Additionally, one focal in situ carcinoma in the resected colon was detected.Conclusions: When considering the family history, serious GI neoplastic lesions may be unmasked in young patients with PJS who present with hematochezia, even in the absence of its characteristic mucocutaneous pigmented lesions. GI endoscopic surveillance programs should be adopted for diagnosed cases of PJS and their families. Genetic prenatal screening for early detection is the best option for

  14. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia GT; Bérgamo, Nádia A; Neto, Francisco A Moraes; Domingues, Maria AC; Soares, Fernando A; Caldeira, José RF; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2009-01-01

    HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4%) and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%). Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50%) by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5%) by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350). Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene

  15. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. Methods To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. Results The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4% and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%. Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50% by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5% by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350. Conclusion Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene.

  16. The role of breast MR imaging in pre-operative determination of invasive disease for ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed by needle biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Mariko; Yuen, Sachiko; Akazawa, Kentaro; Nishida, Kaori; Yamada, Kei [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Konishi, Eiichi [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Kajihara, Mariko [Kyoto Breast Center Sawai Memorial Clinic, Departments of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Shinkura, Nobuhiko [Kyoto Breast Center Sawai Memorial Clinic, Departments of Surgery, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    To evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features can predict the presence of occult invasion in cases of biopsy-proven pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We retrospectively reviewed 92 biopsy-proven pure DCIS in 92 women who underwent MR imaging. The following MR imaging findings were compared between confirmed DCIS and invasive breast cancer (IBC): lesion size, type, morphological and kinetic assessments by ACR BI-RADS MRI, and findings of fat-suppressed T2-weighted (FS-T2W) imaging. Sixty-eight of 92 (74%) were non-mass-like enhancements (NMLE) and 24 were mass lesions on MR imaging. Twenty-one of 68 (31%) NMLE and 13 of 24 (54%) mass lesions were confirmed as IBC. In NMLE lesions, large lesions (P = 0.007) and higher signal intensities (SI) on FS-T2W images (P = 0.032) were significantly associated with IBC. Lesion size remained a significant independent predictor of invasion in multivariate analysis (P = 0.032), and combined with FS-T2W SIs showed slightly higher observer performances (area under the curve, AUC, 0.71) than lesion size alone (AUC 0.68). There were no useful findings that enabled the differentiation of mass-type lesions. Breast MR imaging is potentially useful to predict the presence of occult invasion in biopsy-proven DCIS with NMLE. MR mammography permits more precise lesion assessment including ductal carcinoma in situ A correct diagnosis of occult invasion before treatment is important for clinicians This study showed the potential of MR mammography to diagnose occult invasion Treatment and/or aggressive biopsy can be given with greater confidence MR mammography can lead to more appropriate management of patients. (orig.)

  17. Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma or Not? Metastases to Fallopian Tube Mucosa Can Masquerade as In Situ Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reena; Cho, Kathleen R

    2017-10-01

    - Nonuterine high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) are believed to arise most often from precursors in the fallopian tube referred to as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs). A designation of tubal origin has been suggested for all cases of nonuterine HGSC if a STIC is identified. - To highlight that many different types of nongynecologic and gynecologic carcinomas, including HGSC, can metastasize to the tubal mucosa and mimic de novo STIC. - A mini-review of several recently published studies that collectively examine STIC-like lesions of the fallopian tube. - The fallopian tube mucosa can be a site of metastasis from carcinomas arising elsewhere, and pathologists should exercise caution in diagnosing STIC without first considering the possibility of metastasis. Routinely used immunohistochemical stains can often be used to determine if a STIC-like lesion is tubal or nongynecologic in origin. In the context of uterine and nonuterine HGSC, STIC may represent a metastasis rather than the site of origin, particularly when widespread disease is present.

  18. Simultaneous loss of E-cadherin and catenins in invasive lobular breast cancer and lobular carcinoma in situ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, W. J.; Berx, G.; Vos, C. B.; Peterse, J. L.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Litvinov, S.; van Roy, F.; Cornelisse, C. J.; Cleton-Jansen, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Loss of expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule E-cadherin frequently occurs in invasive lobular breast carcinomas as a result of mutational inactivation. Expression patterns of E-cadherin and the molecules comprising the cytoplasmic complex of adherens junctions, alpha-, beta- and

  19. [Descriptive study on basal cell eyelid carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, M J; Pfeiffer, N; Valor, C

    2015-09-01

    To describe a series of cases of basal cell carcinomas of the eyelid. A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted by reviewing the medical outcome, histopathological history, and photographic images of 200 patients with basal cell eyelid carcinomas. All were treated in the Herzog Carl Theodor Eye Hospital in Munich, Germany, between 2000 and 2013. In the present study, it was found that females are more affected than males. The mean age of presentation of the tumor occurred at the age of 70 years. In 50% of the cases the tumor was found on the lower lid, especially medially from the center of the lid. The lid margin was involved in 47% of all tumors. The mean diameter was 9.2mm. The recurrence rate after surgery with histologically clear resection margins was 5%. There was a significant relationship between tumor diameter and age. As tumors where located farther away from medial and closer to the lid margin, they became larger. There is a predominance of women affected by this tumor. This may be related to the fact that the sample was taken from those attending an oculoplastic surgery clinic, where there are generally more women than men attending. The formation of basal cell carcinomas increases with age. The infrequent involvement of the upper lid could be explained by the protection of the the eyebrow. The frequent involvement of the lower lid may be due to the light reflection (total reflection) by the cornea on the lower lid margin. Also chemical and physical effects of the tears may be more harmful on the lower lid. Patients tend to ask for medical help when they are females, younger, when the tumor is closer to the medial canthus or when the tumor is away from the lid margin. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ generated D-peptidic nanofibrils as multifaceted apoptotic inducers to target cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xuewen; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Huainin; Shi, Junfeng; Kuang, Yi; Zeng, Wu; Yang, Zhimou; Xu, Bing

    2017-02-16

    Nanofibrils of small molecules, as a new class of biofunctional entities, exhibit emergent properties for controlling cell fates, but the relevant mechanism remains to be elucidated and the in vivo effect has yet to be examined. Here, we show that D-peptide nanofibrils, generated by enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA), pleiotropically activate extrinsic death signaling for selectively killing cancer cells. Catalyzed by alkaline phosphatases and formed in situ on cancer cells, D-peptide nanofibrils present autocrine proapoptotic ligands to their cognate receptors in a juxtacrine manner, as well as directly cluster the death receptors. As multifaceted initiators, D-peptide nanofibrils induce apoptosis of cancer cells without harming normal cells in a co-culture, kill multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells, boost the activities of anticancer drugs, and inhibit tumor growth in a murine model. Such a supramolecular cellular biochemical process (consisting of reaction, assembly, and binding) for multi-targeting or modulating protein-protein interaction networks ultimately may lead to new ways for combating cancer drug resistance.

  1. Design of a new lithium ion battery test cell for in-situ neutron diffraction measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew; Biendicho, Jordi Jacas; Hull, Stephen; Beran, Premysl; Gustafsson, Torbjörn; Svensson, Gunnar; Edström, Kristina

    2013-03-01

    This paper introduces a new cell design for the construction of lithium ion batteries with conventional electrochemical performance whilst allowing in situ neutron diffraction measurement. A cell comprising of a wound cathode, electrolyte and anode stack has been prepared. The conventional hydrogen-containing components of the cell have been replaced by hydrogen-free equivalents. The electrodes are fabricated using a PTFE binder, the electrolyte consists of deuterated solvents which are supported in a quartz glass fibre separator. Typical battery performance is reported using the hydrogen-free components with a specific capacity of 140 mA h g-1 being observed for LiFePO4 at a rate of 0.2 C. Neutron diffraction patterns of full cells were recorded with phase change reactions monitored. When aluminium packaging was used a better signal to noise ratio was obtained. The obtained atomic positions and lattice parameters for all cells investigated were found to be consistent with parameters refined from the diffraction pattern of a powder of the pure electrode material. This paper highlights the pertinent points in designing cells for these measurements and addresses some of the problems.

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-RAS status in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Damme, Nancy; Pauwels, Patrick; Peeters, Marc; Deron, Philippe; Van Roy, Nadine; Demetter, Pieter; Bols, Alain; Dorpe, Jo Van; Baert, Filip; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Speleman, Franki

    2010-01-01

    With the availability of effective anti-EGFR therapies for various solid malignancies, such as non-cell small lung cancer, colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, the knowledge of EGFR and K-RAS status becomes clinically important. The aim of this study was to analyse EGFR expression, EGFR gene copy number and EGFR and K-RAS mutations in two cohorts of squamous cell carcinomas, specifically anal canal and tonsil carcinomas. Formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from anal and tonsil carcinoma were used. EGFR protein expression and EGFR gene copy number were analysed by means of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The somatic status of the EGFR gene was investigated by PCR using primers specific for exons 18 through 21. For the K-RAS gene, PCR was performed using exon 2 specific primers. EGFR immunoreactivity was present in 36/43 (83.7%) of anal canal and in 20/24 (83.3%) of tonsil squamous cell carcinomas. EGFR amplification was absent in anal canal tumours (0/23), but could be identified in 4 of 24 tonsil tumours. From 38 anal canal specimens, 26 specimens were successfully analysed for exon 18, 30 for exon 19, 34 for exon 20 and 30 for exon 21. No EGFR mutations were found in the investigated samples. Thirty samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and no mutation was identified. From 24 tonsil specimens, 22 were successfully analysed for exon 18 and all 24 specimens for exon 19, 20 and 21. No EGFR mutations were found. Twenty-two samples were sequenced for K-RAS exon 2 and one mutation c.53C > A was identified. EGFR mutations were absent from squamous cell carcinoma of the anus and tonsils, but EGFR protein expression was detected in the majority of the cases. EGFR amplification was seen in tonsil but not in anal canal carcinomas. In our investigated panel, only one mutation in the K-RAS gene of a tonsil squamous cell carcinoma was identified. This indicates that EGFR and K-RAS mutation analysis is not

  3. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Coal Tar Creosote Exposure in a Railroad Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Chris; Hunt, Stephen Carl; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2005-01-01

    A 50-year-old male railroad worker presented to his primary care physician with an erythematous, tender skin lesion on the right knee; a biopsy of this lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The site of the lesion was sun-protected but had been associated with 30 years of creosote-soaked clothing. In this article, we review dermal and other malignancies associated with creosote, along with creosote occupational exposures and exposure limits. This is a unique case, given the lack of other, potentially confounding, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the sun-protected location of the lesion. PMID:15626654

  4. Basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Gillian; Cheng, Jed-Sian; Shapiro, Oleg; Nsouli, Imad

    2012-06-01

    A 69-year-old man presented with gross hematuria and irritative urinary symptoms. He underwent transurethral resection of his prostate. The prostate chips revealed 70% poorly differentiated carcinoma with neuroendocrine features, initially read as small cell carcinoma, later as basal cell carcinoma. PSA at this time was 0.3. He received 4 cycles of etoposide and cisplatin. After which, rebiopsy of the prostate showed tumor consistent with poorly differentiated basal cell carcinoma. Given progression on chemotherapy, decision was made to proceed with radical prostatectomy. Metastatic workup was negative. Gross extraprostatic invasion was noted but lymph nodes were free of metastatic disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  6. Fanconi anemia and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Paula Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi Anemia (FA is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by chromosome instability, cellular hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, and increased predisposition to malignancies. We describe here a 28 year-old female with FA and vaginal squamous cell carcinoma treated by radiation therapy alone. The patient developed arm phlebitis, pulmonary fungal infection, and severe rectal bleeding, followed by hypocalcaemia, hypokalemia, vaginal bacterial and fungal infection, with subsequent leg and arm phlebitis, perineal abscess, and sepsis. The patient died 12 weeks later.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Keisuke; Terashi, Hiroto; Ishida, Yasuhisa; Tahara, Shinya; Osaki, Takeo; Nomura, Tadashi; Ejiri, Hirotaka

    2008-01-01

    We reported two cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) that developed after radiation therapy. A 50-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy for the treatment of intracranial germinoma at the age of 22, presented with several tumors around the radiation ulcer. All tumors showed BCC. A 33-year-old woman, who had received an unknown amount of radiation therapy on the head for the treatment of leukemia at the age of 2, presented with a black nodule within the area of irradiation. The tumor showed BCC. We discuss the occurrence of BCC after radiation therapy. (author)

  8. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, M. H.; Sondak, V. K.; Sondak, V. K.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) remains the most common form of non melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT), will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  9. Overview of Hurthle cell carcinoma of thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A Korzeniowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical behaviour of Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC of the thyroid is variable and there are many controversies in the literature. Here, we summarize an up-to-date review of the literature on genetics, diagnosis (ultrasound scan, fine needle aspiration, frozen section, etc., and management. At presentation, treatment decision should be made by a multidisciplinary board. Recurrent HCCs are seldom curable despite salvage treatments, which include radioactive iodine ablation, radiofrequency ablation, ethanol ablation, external radiotherapy, and systemic therapy. Further research is needed to develop more efficacious systemic treatments. Currently, lenvatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib are available. The completed and ongoing clinical trials for HCC are summarized

  10. Soft tissue metastasis in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Rajeev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common of the cutaneous malignancies, accounting for 65-75% of all skin cancers. The natural history of this disease is one of chronic local invasion. Metastatic BCC Is a rare clinical entity, with a reported incidence of only 0.0028-0.5%. Approximately 85% of all metastatic BCCs arise in the head and neck region. We present a case of BCC that spread to the muscles of the cheek and nodes (intraparotid and internal jugular, in a man who had a lesion near the inner canthus of his right eye and adjoining nasal bridge.

  11. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beggs, Rachel E

    2012-09-01

    Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater are rare and confer a very poor prognosis despite aggressive therapy. There are few case reports of large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater in the literature and to date no studies have been done to establish optimal management. We describe a pooled case series from published reports of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater including a case which presented to our institution.

  12. Hürthle cell carcinoma: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sara Ahmadi,1 Michael Stang,2 Xiaoyin “Sara” Jiang,3 Julie Ann Sosa2,4,5 1Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, 2Section of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, 3Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, 4Duke Cancer Institute, 5Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC can present either as a minimally invasive or as a widely invasive tumor. HCC generally has a more aggressive clinical behavior compared with the other differentiated thyroid cancers, and it is associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Minimally invasive HCC demonstrates much less aggressive behavior; lesions <4 cm can be treated with thyroid lobectomy alone, and without radioactive iodine (RAI. HCC has been observed to be less iodine-avid compared with other differentiated thyroid cancers; however, recent data have demonstrated improved survival with RAI use in patients with HCC >2 cm and those with nodal and distant metastases. Patients with localized iodine-resistant disease who are not candidates for a wait-and-watch approach can be treated with localized therapies. Systemic therapy is reserved for patients with progressive, widely metastatic HCC. Keywords: thyroid cancer, thyroid nodule, follicular cell carcinoma, Hurthle cell lesion, minimally invasive HCC

  13. Bacillus calmette-guerin versus chemotherapy for the intravesical treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylvester, R.J.; Meijden, A.P. van der; Witjes, J.A.; Kurth, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: We determined the short-term and long-term efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed on published results of randomized clinical trials comparing intravesical

  14. Bacillus calmette-guerin versus chemotherapy for the intravesical treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder: a meta-analysis of the published results of randomized clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sylvester, Richard J.; van der Meijden, Adrian P. M.; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kurth, Karlheinz

    2005-01-01

    We determined the short-term and long-term efficacy of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS). A meta-analysis was performed on published results of randomized clinical trials comparing intravesical BCG to intravesical chemotherapy.

  15. ITSC08: IN SITU QUANTITATIVE IMMUNOPROFILING OF REGULATORY T CELLS USING LASER SCANNING CYTOMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Ruiz, Phillip; Ricordi, Camillo; Miki, Atsushi; Mita, Atsuyoshi; Barker, Scott; Tzakis, Andreas; Ichii, Hirohito

    2013-01-01

    Laser scanning cytometry (iCys; CompuCyte) is recently developed methodology that utilizes fluorescence-based quantitative measurements on tissue sections or other cellular preparations at a single-cell level. The purpose of this study was to develop objective quantitative immunoprofiling of regulatory T cells (T regs) on formalin-fixed/paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsy sample from transplanted allograft using iCys. We analyzed the population of CD4 (+) Foxp3 (+) T regs among the entire CD4 (+) T cells and the entire T cells (the total of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+)) in human intestinal allograft biopsy samples to evaluate the usefulness of iCys. Primary antibodies (Foxp3 and CD4) were incubated on one section. Foxp3 and CD4 were labeled by Alexa Fluoro 488 (Alexa488) and 647 (Alexa647) using polymer HRP and catalyzed signal amplification. On the other section, CD8 and CD4 were labeled by Alexa488 and Alexa647 using the same protocol. Data acquisition was performed using iCys. The signal intensity of Alexa488 and Alexa647 was sufficient to analyze by iCys. Distribution of the integrals of Alexa488 and Alexa647 visualize each cell population and enable to calculate the population of T reg among CD4 (+) T cell, CD4 (+) T cell among the total T cells and T reg among the entire T cells. iCys and signal amplified immunofluorescent staining allowed objective quantitative immunoprofiling of in situ T reg populations, with precise quantitative analysis at a single-cell level on FFPE section. This objective method can be applied on the biopsy sample from various transplant organs. PMID:19249524

  16. Systemic Delivery of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells for In Situ Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catarina R.; Almeida, Maria Inês; Silva, Andreia M.; Molinos, Maria; Lamas, Sofia; Pereira, Catarina L.; Teixeira, Graciosa Q.; Monteiro, António T.; Santos, Susana G.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Barbosa, Mário A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cell therapies for intervertebral disc (IVD) regeneration presently rely on transplantation of IVD cells or stem cells directly to the lesion site. Still, the harsh IVD environment, with low irrigation and high mechanical stress, challenges cell administration and survival. In this study, we addressed systemic transplantation of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) intravenously into a rat IVD lesion model, exploring tissue regeneration via cell signaling to the lesion site. MSC transplantation was performed 24 hours after injury, in parallel with dermal fibroblasts as a control; 2 weeks after transplantation, animals were killed. Disc height index and histological grading score indicated less degeneration for the MSC‐transplanted group, with no significant changes in extracellular matrix composition. Remarkably, MSC transplantation resulted in local downregulation of the hypoxia responsive GLUT‐1 and in significantly less herniation, with higher amounts of Pax5+ B lymphocytes and no alterations in CD68+ macrophages within the hernia. The systemic immune response was analyzed in the blood, draining lymph nodes, and spleen by flow cytometry and in the plasma by cytokine array. Results suggest an immunoregulatory effect in the MSC‐transplanted animals compared with control groups, with an increase in MHC class II+ and CD4+ cells, and also upregulation of the cytokines IL‐2, IL‐4, IL‐6, and IL‐10, and downregulation of the cytokines IL‐13 and TNF‐α. Overall, our results indicate a beneficial effect of systemically transplanted MSCs on in situ IVD regeneration and highlight the complex interplay between stromal cells and cells of the immune system in achieving successful tissue regeneration. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1029–1039 PMID:28297581

  17. Papilloma viruses, warts, carcinoma and Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viac, J; Chardonnet, Y; Chignol, M C; Schmitt, D

    1993-01-01

    In human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, Langerhans cells (LC) are essential in the control of viral infection. The evolution of HPV-derived lesions in the normal population and in graft patients is drastically different, since a high proportion of papillomas progress towards malignancy in transplant recipients. We analyzed the distribution of markers of LC and T lymphocytes, the level of keratinocyte activation and the prevalence of HPV in a series of epithelial lesions obtained from the normal population and from graft patients. The local immune response of warts, condyloma acuminata, Bowen, basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) showed a moderate to intense inflammatory reaction of HLA-DR positive cells, the intensity of the immune reaction being correlated with the degree of malignancy. In the normal population, CD4-positive cells were mainly overexpressed in the dermal infiltrate of condyloma and malignant lesions, whereas in grafted patients such infiltrates were CD4- and CD8-positive without significant predominance of a single T cell subset. The epidermis of most lesions was characterized by a reduced number of CD1a-positive LC with an altered morphology. This was concomitant with the decrease or loss of beta 2-microglobulin by epithelial cells. HLA-DR antigen was sometimes expressed by keratinocytes in genital lesions and SCC from the normal population but has not been detected in immunosuppressed patients. Whereas in the normal population HPV infection was only detected in benign papillomas, both benign and oncogenic HPV DNA may be present in carcinomas from graft patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Versatile in situ powder X-ray diffraction cells for solid-gas investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Torben R.; Nielsen, Thomas K.; Joergensen, Jens-Erik [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Center for Energy Materials, Center for Materials Crystallography; Filinchuk, Yaroslav [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France). Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines; Cerenius, Yngve [Lund Univ. (Sweden). MAX-lab; Gray, Evan MacA.; Webb, Colin J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane (Australia). Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes new sample cells and techniques for in situ powder X-ray diffraction specifically designed for gas absorption studies up to ca 300 bar (1 bar = 100 000 Pa) gas pressure. The cells are for multipurpose use, in particular the study of solid-gas reactions in dosing or flow mode, but can also handle samples involved in solid-liquid-gas studies. The sample can be loaded into a single-crystal sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) capillary, or a quartz (SiO{sub 2}) capillary closed at one end. The advantages of a sapphire single-crystal cell with regard to rapid pressure cycling are discussed, and burst pressures are calculated and measured to be {proportional_to}300 bar. An alternative and simpler cell based on a thin-walled silicate or quartz glass capillary, connected to a gas source via a VCR fitting, enables studies up to {proportional_to}100 bar. Advantages of the two cell types are compared and their applications are illustrated by case studies. (orig.)

  19. Versatile in situ powder X-ray diffraction cells for solid-gas investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Torben R.; Nielsen, Thomas K.; Joergensen, Jens-Erik; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Cerenius, Yngve; Gray, Evan MacA.; Webb, Colin J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes new sample cells and techniques for in situ powder X-ray diffraction specifically designed for gas absorption studies up to ca 300 bar (1 bar = 100 000 Pa) gas pressure. The cells are for multipurpose use, in particular the study of solid-gas reactions in dosing or flow mode, but can also handle samples involved in solid-liquid-gas studies. The sample can be loaded into a single-crystal sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) capillary, or a quartz (SiO 2 ) capillary closed at one end. The advantages of a sapphire single-crystal cell with regard to rapid pressure cycling are discussed, and burst pressures are calculated and measured to be ∝300 bar. An alternative and simpler cell based on a thin-walled silicate or quartz glass capillary, connected to a gas source via a VCR fitting, enables studies up to ∝100 bar. Advantages of the two cell types are compared and their applications are illustrated by case studies. (orig.)

  20. Aging behavior of lithium iron phosphate based 18650-type cells studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Neelima; Wandt, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Schebesta, Sebastian; Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    The aging behavior of commercially produced 18650-type Li-ion cells consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) based cathode and a graphite anode based on either mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) or needle coke (NC) is studied by in situ neutron diffraction and standard electrochemical techniques. While the MCMB cells showed an excellent cycle life with only 8% relative capacity loss (i.e., referenced to the capacity after formation) after 4750 cycles and showed no capacity loss on storage for two years, the needle coke cells suffered a 23% relative capacity loss after cycling and a 11% loss after storage. Based on a combination of neutron diffraction and electrochemical characterization, it is shown that the entire capacity loss for both cell types is dominated by the loss of active lithium; no other aging mechanisms like structural degradation of anode or cathode active materials or deactivation of active material could be found, highlighting the high structural stability of the active material and the excellent quality of the investigated cells.

  1. Novel in situ method (vacuum assisted electroless plating) modified porous cathode for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Ren; Lue, Zhe; Chen, Kongfa; Ai, Na; Li, Shuyan; Wei, Bo [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Su, Wenhui [Center for the Condensed Matter Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Academia Sinica, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2008-06-15

    A novel in situ method - vacuum assisted electroless plating (VA-EP) is developed to modify the porous structure of various materials. The advantage of this method is that it can form a metal network based on the already-given structure. We utilize this method to deposit silver (VA-EPA) in porous perovskite cathode Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BSCF) for an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) in the present research. The results of investigation show the performance of the modified cathode (VA-EPA-BSCF) enhances greatly, for example, the polarization resistance of VA-EPA-BSCF decreases by 60% at 600 C compared to BSCF. (author)

  2. Limitations of Ber-EP4 for distinction of Bowen disease from basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Marta; Toberer, Ferdinand; Enk, Alexander H; Hassel, Jessica C

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic differentiation between Bowen disease a variant of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SCCIS) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can be difficult on the basis of hematoxylin and eosin (routine) staining in small or fragmented biopsy samples. Ber-EP4 staining is diagnostically reliable for differentiation between BCC and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma [Dasgeb et al. Biomark Cancer, 5: 7, (2013); Tellechea et al. Am J Dermatopathol, 15: 452 (1993)]. The objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of Ber-EP4 staining for differentiation of SCCIS from BCC. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry with a Ber-EP4 antibody in 76 cases of Bowen type of SCCIS. As positive controls we selected 16 cases of BCC. A positive reaction was obtained for Ber-EP4 in the secretory portion of eccrine and apocrine glands and in follicular germinative cells at the lower end of catagen hairs of normal skin tissue. All BCC samples tested were positive. Of the Bowen type SCCIS samples, 26.3% reacted positively (at least 5% positive staining of neoplastic cells). In 3/76 cases (3.9%) more than 50% of the tumor cells expressed Ber-EP4. We conclude that Ber-EP4 expression is not always helpful to distinguish between Bowen type of SCCIS and BCC, as Ber-EP4 expression in Bowen type SCCIS is not infrequent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma versus ovarian carcinoma versus malignant transformation of endometriosis: a vexing issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insabato, Luigi; Natella, Valentina; Somma, Anna; Persico, Marcello; Camera, Luigi; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Masone, Stefania

    2015-05-01

    Peritoneum is a site for both primary and secondary tumors. Primary peritoneal tumors are fairly rare. The most common primary tumors of the peritoneum are malignant mesothelioma and serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Clear cell carcinoma of the peritoneum is extremely rare and often misdiagnosed as mesothelioma, serous carcinoma, or metastatic adenocarcinoma, so it represents a diagnostic challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Up to date, to the best of our knowledge, only 11 cases of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma have been reported in the English literature. Distinguishing this tumor of the peritoneum versus ovarian carcinoma can be problematic. Herein, we report a rare case of primary peritoneal clear cell carcinoma occurring in a 49-year-old woman, along with a review of the literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Calabar | Asuquo | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in Calabar. Maurice Asuquo, Gabriel Ugare, Bartholomew Odio, Godwin Ebughe. Abstract. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common malignancy of the skin. Risk factors advanced include ...

  5. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in Ilorin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to determine the incidence of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma at UITH over an 11 – year period. Nineteen patients (11males and 8 females) had histological confirmation of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma out of 21 conjunctival specimens, representing 22.9% of all orbito-ocular tumours reviewed ...

  6. Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Cornea in a Child with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposed areas of the skin and eyes. Chronic sun exposure causes marked alterations in the skin leading to keratosis, telangiectasia, atrophy, and development of malignant tumors such as squamous cell carcinomas, (SCCs) basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, fibrosarcoma, etc.,. The pathogenesis in a majority of ...

  7. Suprahyoid approach to base-of-tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue has a poor prognosis.1,2 This is a result of late presentation and diagnostic difficulties. Apart from the fact that there are few early symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue, the symptoms are often nonspecific and physical examination of this area is ...

  8. induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular basis of arsenite (As +3 )-induced acute cytotoxicity in human cervical epithelial carcinoma cells. ... Libyan Journal of Medicine ... Methods: After performing cytotoxic assays on a human epithelial carcinoma cell line, expression analysis was done by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and ...

  9. In situ-targeting of dendritic cells with donor-derived apoptotic cells restrains indirect allorecognition and ameliorates allograft vasculopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV is an atheromatous-like lesion that affects vessels of transplanted organs. It is a component of chronic rejection that conventional immuno-suppression fails to prevent, and is a major cause of graft loss. Indirect allo-recognition through T cells and allo-Abs are critical during CAV pathogenesis. We tested whether the indirect allo-response and its impact on CAV is down-regulated by in situ-delivery of donor Ags to recipient's dendritic cells (DCs in lymphoid organs in a pro-tolerogenic fashion, through administration of donor splenocytes undergoing early apoptosis. Following systemic injection, donor apoptotic cells were internalized by splenic CD11c(hi CD8alpha(+ and CD8(- DCs, but not by CD11c(int plasmacytoid DCs. Those DCs that phagocytosed apoptotic cells in vivo remained quiescent, resisted ex vivo-maturation, and presented allo-Ag for up to 3 days. Administration of donor apoptotic splenocytes, unlike cells alive, (i promoted deletion, FoxP3 expression and IL-10 secretion, and decreased IFN-gamma-release in indirect pathway CD4 T cells; and (ii reduced cross-priming of anti-donor CD8 T cells in vivo. Targeting recipient's DCs with donor apoptotic cells reduced significantly CAV in a fully-mismatched aortic allograft model. The effect was donor specific, dependent on the physical characteristics of the apoptotic cells, and was associated to down-regulation of the indirect type-1 T cell allo-response and secretion of allo-Abs, when compared to recipients treated with donor cells alive or necrotic. Down-regulation of indirect allo-recognition through in situ-delivery of donor-Ag to recipient's quiescent DCs constitutes a promising strategy to prevent/ameliorate indirect allorecognition and CAV.

  10. Method and Circuit for In-Situ Health Monitoring of Solar Cells in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation represents a method and circuit realization of a system designed to make in-situ measurements of test solar-cell operational parameters on orbit using readily available high-temperature and high-ionizing-radiation- tolerant electronic components. This innovation enables on-orbit in-situ solar-array health monitoring and is in response to a need recognized by the U.S. Air Force for future solar arrays for unmanned spacecraft. This system can also be constructed out of commercial-grade electronics and can be embedded into terrestrial solar power system as a diagnostics instrument. This innovation represents a novel approach to I-V curve measurement that is radiation and temperature hard, consumes very few system resources, is economical, and utilizes commercially available components. The circuit will also operate at temperatures as low as 55 C and up to +225 C, allowing it to reside close to the array in direct sunlight. It uses a swept mode transistor functioning as a resistive load while utilizing the solar cells themselves as the biasing device, so the size of the instrument is small and there is no danger of over-driving the cells. Further, this innovation utilizes nearly universal spacecraft bus resources and therefore can be readily adapted to any spacecraft bus allowing for ease of retrofit, or designed into new systems without requiring the addition of infrastructure. One unique characteristic of this innovation is that it effects the measurement of I-V curves without the use of large resistor arrays or active current sources normally used to characterize cells. A single transistor is used as a variable resistive load across the cell. This multi-measurement instrument was constructed using operational amplifiers, analog switches, voltage regulators, MOSFETs, resistors, and capacitors. The operational amplifiers, analog switches, and voltage regulators are silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology known for its hardness to the effects of ionizing

  11. Intraventricular metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, I; Sava, Anca; Şapte, Elena; Mihailov, Claudia; Dumitrescu, Gabriela; Poeată, I; Sava, Florina; Haba, Danisia

    2013-01-01

    Intraventricular tumors represent a diagnostic problem, due to a wide range of differential diagnosis, with an important variability of tumoral histological types in adult and pediatric population. Patient, Our case is represented by a patient, aged 48 years, without any history of significant personal pathology, accusing nausea, vomiting, and intensive headache. In the morning, he became confused, having hallucinations for a short period of time, and has accused drowsiness for several weeks. Imaging (CT and MRI) shows a neoformation in the third ventricle, accompanied by bilateral lateral ventricles dilatation, with predominantly annular enhancement. During surgery, through the middle third transcallosal interhemispheric approach, it was revealed a reddish, well-demarcated intraventricular mass, well vascularized and with a firm consistency. Final pathologic diagnosis was metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma. Initial postoperative evolution was good, and then neurological and respiratory condition worsened as a bronchopneumonia lead to patient's death in 12 days after surgery. Clear cell carcinoma metastasis located in the third ventricle should be taken into consideration for patients presenting a single intraventricular lesion even they have no documented primary malignancy.

  12. In situ TEM analysis of a symmetric solid oxide cell in oxygen and vacuum–cation diffusion observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish the use of solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells (SOFC/SOEC) in the energy market, a deeper understanding of degradation effects during operation is necessary. This study apply in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a symmetric model cell composed by two oxygen...... between LSC and STN. Strontium depletion is observed in both electrodes. Finally, a faster grain growth occurs in LSC for the cell exposed to oxygen in comparison with the cell in vacuum....

  13. A double labeling technique for performing immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in virus infected cell cultures and tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendelman, H.E.; Moench, T.R.; Narayan, O.; Griffin, D.E.; Clements, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a combined immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization procedure which allows visualization of cellular or viral antigens and viral RNA in the same cell. Cultures infected with visna or measles virus were fixed in periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde, stained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique using antibodies to viral or cellular proteins and then incubated with radiolabeled specific DNA probes (in situ hybridization). This technique provides a new approach to the study of viral pathogenesis by: (1) identifying the types of cells which are infected in the host and (2) identifying points of blockade in the virus life cycle during persistent infections. (Auth.)

  14. A large volume cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Brugger, Joël; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott; Pring, Allan

    2010-10-01

    A hydrothermal cell with 320 ml internal volume has been designed and constructed for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations. The cell design adopts a dumbbell configuration assembled with standard commercial stainless steel components and a zero-scattering Ti-Zr alloy sample compartment. The fluid movement and heat transfer are simply driven by natural convection due to the natural temperature gradient along the fluid path, so that the temperature at the sample compartment can be stably sustained by heating the fluid in the bottom fluid reservoir. The cell can operate at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 90 bars and is suitable for studying reactions requiring a large volume of hydrothermal fluid to damp out the negative effect from the change of fluid composition during the course of the reactions. The capability of the cell was demonstrated by a hydrothermal phase transformation investigation from leucite (KAlSi2O6) to analcime (NaAlSi2O6ṡH2O) at 210 °C on the high intensity powder diffractometer Wombat in ANSTO. The kinetics of the transformation has been resolved by collecting diffraction patterns every 10 min followed by Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. The classical Avrami/Arrhenius analysis gives an activation energy of 82.3±1.1 kJ mol-1. Estimations of the reaction rate under natural environments by extrapolations agree well with petrological observations.

  15. A large volume cell for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qian, Gujie; Brugger, Joël; Studer, Andrew; Olsen, Scott; Pring, Allan

    2010-10-01

    A hydrothermal cell with 320 ml internal volume has been designed and constructed for in situ neutron diffraction studies of hydrothermal crystallizations. The cell design adopts a dumbbell configuration assembled with standard commercial stainless steel components and a zero-scattering Ti-Zr alloy sample compartment. The fluid movement and heat transfer are simply driven by natural convection due to the natural temperature gradient along the fluid path, so that the temperature at the sample compartment can be stably sustained by heating the fluid in the bottom fluid reservoir. The cell can operate at temperatures up to 300 °C and pressures up to 90 bars and is suitable for studying reactions requiring a large volume of hydrothermal fluid to damp out the negative effect from the change of fluid composition during the course of the reactions. The capability of the cell was demonstrated by a hydrothermal phase transformation investigation from leucite (KAlSi(2)O(6)) to analcime (NaAlSi(2)O(6)⋅H(2)O) at 210 °C on the high intensity powder diffractometer Wombat in ANSTO. The kinetics of the transformation has been resolved by collecting diffraction patterns every 10 min followed by Rietveld quantitative phase analysis. The classical Avrami/Arrhenius analysis gives an activation energy of 82.3±1.1 kJ  mol(-1). Estimations of the reaction rate under natural environments by extrapolations agree well with petrological observations.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi (Kitagata National Sanatorium, Fukui (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author).

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma following radiation therapy for the infiltrative thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Shinji; Kitao, Takeshi

    1992-01-01

    This report represents one case of infiltrative thymoma followed by squamous cell carcinoma of the lungs. A 69-year-old man suffered from infiltrative thymoma which reduced by the radiation therapy. Seven years later its replase and the onset of squamous cell carcinoma were found simultaneously. Infiltrative thymoma metastasized not only to the mediastinum but also to the liver and bronchus. Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the right upper lobe. In spite of chemotherapy against them, the patient died. There are many cases in which infiltrative thymoma is accompanied by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung simultaneously; however, secondary onset of squamous cell carcinoma after the radiation therapy of infiltrative thymoma is rare. Secondary carcinogenesis of this case was considered to be closely related with immunological abnormalities caused by thymoma, effects of radiation, smoking and so on. (author)

  18. Synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Boruban

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of synchronous presentation of nasopharyngeal and renal cell carcinomas in a-50-year old male patient with long standing smoking history. The patient was initially presented with a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. During staging process, the abdominal computed tomography detected a right renal solid mass, 6.5 cm in diameter, originating from posterior portion of the right renal cortex. Right radical nephrectomy was performed and pathological examination revealed renal cell carcinoma. Smoking was thought to be a risk factor for both cancers. Systemic evaluation of kidney should not be discarded in patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma living in western countries with a smoking history.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes and lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, J Scott; Flam, Marshall S; Tashjian, David N; Tschang, Tai-Po

    2006-10-31

    Metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) of the skin is rare in occurrence and may initially elude proper diagnosis and management. We describe a case of MBCC to cervical lymph nodes, originally evaluated and treated surgically as metastatic thyroid carcinoma. After definitive diagnosis of MBCC was made, chemotherapy and concomitant radiation treatment were initiated; however, despite these measures, the patient then developed MBCC to the lung. Risk factors and current therapeutic modalities for MBCC are also discussed. In addition to the more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma primary tumor should be considered when evaluating cervical lymph node metastases of an uncertain head and neck primary.

  20. Merkel cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man presented with a lump at the right side of chest wall of 4 months duration which started bleeding suddenly from an ulcer at its center. Examination revealed a globular ulcerated mass 2 cm in diameter, on the anterior axillary fold, with adherent clot at its center. No regional lymphadenopathy was noted. Wide local excision with 2 cm margin was done. Biopsy report revealed malignant small round-cell tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed it to be cytokeratin-20-positive and S100-negative, suggesting the diagnosis of Merkel cell carcinoma. The patient did not receive any other adjuvant therapy. He is being followed-up for the last 4 years and has shown no features of recurrence so far.

  1. Mutational profiles of Brenner tumors show distinctive features uncoupling urothelial carcinomas and ovarian carcinoma with transitional cell histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Nicole; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Leichsenring, Jonas; Taube, Eliane; Boxberg, Melanie; Braicu, Ioana; Jesinghaus, Moritz; Penzel, Roland; Endris, Volker; Noske, Aurelia; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter; Denkert, Carsten; Stenzinger, Albrecht

    2017-10-01

    Brenner tumors (BT) are rare ovarian tumors encompassing benign, borderline, and malignant variants. While the histopathology of BTs and their clinical course is well described, little is known about the underlying genetic defects. We employed targeted next generation sequencing to analyze the mutational landscape in a cohort of 23 BT cases (17 benign, 2 borderline, and 4 malignant) and 3 ovarian carcinomas with transitional cell histology (TCC). Copy number variations (CNV) were validated by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR-based copy number assays. Additionally, we analyzed the TERT promotor region by conventional Sanger sequencing. We identified 25 different point mutations in 23 of the analyzed genes in BTs and 10 mutations in 8 genes in TCCs. About 57% percent of mutations occurred in genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and epigenetic regulation processes. All TCC cases harbored TP53 mutations whereas all BTs were negative and none of the mutations observed in BTs were present in TCCs. CNV analysis revealed recurrent MDM2 amplifications in 3 out of 4 of the malignant BT cases with one case harboring a concomitant amplification of CCND1. No mutations were observed in the TERT promoter region in BTs and TCCs, which is mutated in about 50%-75% of urothelial carcinoma and in 16% of ovarian clear-cell carcinomas. In conclusion, our study highlights distinct genetic features of BTs, and detection of the triplet phenotype MDM2 amplification/TP53 wt/TERT wt may aid diagnosis of malignant BT in difficult cases. Moreover, selected genetic lesions may be clinically exploitable in a metastatic setting. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Distribution analysis of the putative cancer marker S100A4 across invasive squamous cell carcinoma penile tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Flatley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MS-based proteomic methods were utilised for the first time in the discovery of novel penile cancer biomarkers. MALDI MS imaging was used to obtain the in situ biomolecular MS profile of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis which was then compared to benign epithelial MS profiles. Spectra from cancerous and benign tissue areas were examined to identify MS peaks that best distinguished normal epithelial cells from invasive squamous epithelial cells, providing crucial evidence to suggest S100A4 to be differentially expressed. Verification by immunohistochemistry resulted in positive staining for S100A4 in a sub-population of invasive but not benign epithelial cells.

  3. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguy, Amanda [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than adenine

  4. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  5. Gastric Collision Tumor Consisting of Mucinous Carcinoma and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Su Min; Lee, Ye Ri; Han, Eun Mee; Yeon, Jae Woo; Yoo, Jin Young; Choi, Jong Mun; Sim, Ji Ye [Bundang Jesaeng General Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The concurrence of two different pathological tumors of the stomach is infrequent. Even rarer is a gastric collision tumor of both tumor types. Although there have been a few reported cases of gastric collision tumors that consisted of an adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma, to the best of our knowledge, there is no documented case report of a gastric collision tumor consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. We report a case of gastric collision tumor, consisting of a mucinous carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma that presented as abdominal discomfort in a 64-year-old man. This finding draws attention to the related findings from previous studies on gastric collision tumors

  6. Snail heterogeneity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldumbide, Laura; Erramuzpe, Asier; Guarch, Rosa; Pulido, Rafael; Cortés, Jesús M; López, José I

    2016-03-08

    Intratumor heterogeneity may be responsible of the unpredictable aggressive clinical behavior that some clear cell renal cell carcinomas display. This clinical uncertainty may be caused by insufficient sampling, leaving out of histological analysis foci of high grade tumor areas. Although molecular approaches are providing important information on renal intratumor heterogeneity, a focus on this topic from the practicing pathologist' perspective is still pending. Four distant tumor areas of 40 organ-confined clear cell renal cell carcinomas were selected for histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Tumor size, cell type (clear/granular), Fuhrman's grade, Staging, as well as immunostaining with Snail, ZEB1, Twist, Vimentin, E-cadherin, β-catenin, PTEN, p-Akt, p110α, and SETD2, were analyzed for intratumor heterogeneity using a classification and regression tree algorithm. Cell type and Fuhrman's grade were heterogeneous in 12.5 and 60 % of the tumors, respectively. If cell type was homogeneous (clear cell) then the tumors were low-grade in 88.57 % of cases. Immunostaining heterogeneity was significant in the series and oscillated between 15 % for p110α and 80 % for Snail. When Snail immunostaining was homogeneous the tumor was histologically homogeneous in 100 % of cases. If Snail was heterogeneous, the tumor was heterogeneous in 75 % of the cases. Average tumor diameter was 4.3 cm. Tumors larger than 3.7 cm were heterogeneous for Vimentin immunostaining in 72.5 % of cases. Tumors displaying negative immunostaining for both ZEB1 and Twist were low grade in 100 % of the cases. Intratumor heterogeneity is a common event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which can be monitored by immunohistochemistry in routine practice. Snail seems to be particularly useful in the identification of intratumor heterogeneity. The suitability of current sampling protocols in renal cancer is discussed.

  7. Technical considerations and precautions in in situ bronchoalveolar lavage and alveolar infiltrating cells isolation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Wajhul

    2015-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is an important tool in experimental toxicology and pharmacology. A number of researchers have utilized BAL in studies involving rodents. However, the detailed procedure of performing BAL in rodents has rarely been reported. In the present article, in situ BAL in rats has been described with technical points that ensure the quality and validity of BALF samples. BAL was performed in rats of Wistar strain. Flow cytometry and microscopy were utilized to analyze the BAL cells. The collected volume of BALF was 84.32 ± 2.7% of instilled volume. Alveolar macrophages were found to be prevalent in normal lungs when analyzed under microscope and by flow cytometry. The main problem that one may face is the accidental contamination of BALF samples with blood of the animal itself. Presence of blood in BALF certainly adds a significant number of cells and other biochemical variables. No blood contamination was detected in BALF. Here, a simple procedure for BAL and collection of alveolar cells (macrophages in the present study) is explained with an emphasis on technical steps and precautions, which ensures the quality of the BALF samples. Data exhibit that there is no blood contamination in the BALF and provide evidence that the technical points considered in the procedure here are successful in maintaining the quality and validity of BALF samples.

  8. Understanding structural changes in NMC Li-ion cells by in situ neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolotko, O.; Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Nikolowski, K.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2014-06-01

    Commercial NMC cells of 18650-type based on a Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode and a graphitic anode were studied in situ using a combination of high-resolution monochromatic neutron powder diffraction and electrochemical analysis. The structural changes of the electrode materials during cell charge/discharge have been determined using Rietveld refinement and single profile decomposition techniques. A transformation of the graphitic anode to LiC12 and LiC6 through the formation of higher ordered lithium intercalated carbons was observed. A different behavior of electrochemically-driven lattice distortion was observed for NMC material in comparison to LixCoO2 and its influence on the overall cell performance has been discussed in brief. Detailed analysis of the structural changes in the Lix(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 cathode material revealed reversible Li/Ni cation mixing (5.6(8)%), which is state-of-charge independent below 1600 mAh and vanishing above 1800 mAh (∼0.8Qmax).

  9. Fluorescent in situ folding control for rapid optimization of cell-free membrane protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Müller-Lucks

    Full Text Available Cell-free synthesis is an open and powerful tool for high-yield protein production in small reaction volumes predestined for high-throughput structural and functional analysis. Membrane proteins require addition of detergents for solubilization, liposomes, or nanodiscs. Hence, the number of parameters to be tested is significantly higher than with soluble proteins. Optimization is commonly done with respect to protein yield, yet without knowledge of the protein folding status. This approach contains a large inherent risk of ending up with non-functional protein. We show that fluorophore formation in C-terminal fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP indicates the folding state of a membrane protein in situ, i.e. within the cell-free reaction mixture, as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD, proteoliposome reconstitution and functional assays. Quantification of protein yield and in-gel fluorescence intensity imply suitability of the method for membrane proteins of bacterial, protozoan, plant, and mammalian origin, representing vacuolar and plasma membrane localization, as well as intra- and extracellular positioning of the C-terminus. We conclude that GFP-fusions provide an extension to cell-free protein synthesis systems eliminating the need for experimental folding control and, thus, enabling rapid optimization towards membrane protein quality.

  10. In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Duba, A.G.; Durham, W.B.; Hanna, M.L.; Jackson, K.J.; Jovanovich, M.C.; Knapp, R.B.; Knezovich, J.P.; Shah, N.N.; Shonnard, D.R.; Wijesinghe, A.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of ∼ 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site

  11. In situ X-ray studies of film cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuoss, Paul, E-mail: fuoss@anl.gov; Chang, Kee-Chul; You, Hoydoo, E-mail: hyou@anl.gov

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Synchrotron X-rays are used to study in operando the structural and chemical changes of LSM and LSCF film cathodes during half-cell operations. •A-site and B-site cations actively segregate or desegregate on the changes of temperature, pO{sub 2}, and electrochemical potential. •Chemical lattice expansions show that oxygen-cathode interface is the primary source of rate-limiting processes. •The surface and subsurface of the LSM and LSCF films have different oxidation-states due to vacancy concentration changes. •Liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening processes of cathode materials into porous YSZ electrolyte backbone were monitored by USAXS. -- Abstract: Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques have been used to study in situ the structural and chemical changes of film cathodes during half-cell operations. The X-ray techniques used include X-ray reflectivity (XR), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), high-resolution diffraction (HRD), ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS). The epitaxial thin film model cathodes for XR, TXRF, and HRD measurements are made by pulse laser deposition and porous film cathodes for USAX measurements are made by screen printing technique. The experimental results reviewed here include A-site and B-site segregations, lattice expansion, oxidation-state changes during cell operations and liquid-phase infiltration and coarsening of cathode to electrolyte backbone.

  12. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  13. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Rachel [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Roberts, Claudia [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Waterboer, Tim [Infection and Cancer Program, DKFZ (German Cancer Research Centre), 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Steele, Jane [Human Biomaterials Resource Centre, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Marsden, Jerry [University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Steven, Neil M., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [School of Cancer Sciences and CR UK Centre for Cancer Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, New Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Blackbourn, David J., E-mail: n.m.steven@bham.ac.uk [Department of Microbial and Cellular Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-06

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus.

  14. Inflammatory Cell Distribution in Primary Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat, Rachel; Roberts, Claudia; Waterboer, Tim; Steele, Jane; Marsden, Jerry; Steven, Neil M.; Blackbourn, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive poorly differentiated neuroendocrine cutaneous carcinoma associated with older age, immunodeficiency and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) integrated within malignant cells. The presence of intra-tumoural CD8+ lymphocytes reportedly predicts better MCC-specific survival. In this study, the distribution of inflammatory cells and properties of CD8+ T lymphocytes within 20 primary MCC specimens were characterised using immunohistochemistry and multicolour immunofluorescent staining coupled to confocal microscopy. CD8+ cells and CD68+ macrophages were identified in 19/20 primary MCC. CD20+ B cells were present in 5/10, CD4+ cells in 10/10 and FoxP3+ cells in 7/10 specimens. Only two specimens had almost no inflammatory cells. Within specimens, inflammatory cells followed the same patchy distribution, focused at the edge of sheets and nodules and, in some cases, more intense in trabecular areas. CD8+ cells were outside vessels on the edge of tumour. Those few within malignant sheets typically lined up in fine septa not contacting MCC cells expressing MCPyV large T antigen. The homeostatic chemokine CXCL12 was expressed outside malignant nodules whereas its receptor CXCR4 was identified within tumour but not on CD8+ cells. CD8+ cells lacked CXCR3 and granzyme B expression irrespective of location within stroma versus malignant nodules or of the intensity of the intra-tumoural infiltrate. In summary, diverse inflammatory cells were organised around the margin of malignant deposits suggesting response to aberrant signaling, but were unable to penetrate the tumour microenvironment itself to enable an immune response against malignant cells or their polyomavirus

  15. T Cell Therapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Basso, M Zecca, P Merli, A Gurrado, S Secondino, G Quartuccio, I Guido, P Guerini, G Ottonello, N Zavras, R Maccario, P Pedrazzoli, P Comoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the novel biologic therapeutics that will increase our ability to cure human cancer in the years to come, T cell therapy is one of the most promising approaches. However, with the possible exception of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes therapy for melanoma, clinical trials of adoptive T-cell therapy for solid tumors have so far provided only clear proofs-of-principle to build on with further development. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated malignancies offer a unique model to develop T cell-based immune therapies, targeting viral antigens expressed on tumor cells. In the last two decades, EBV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL have been successfully employed for the prophylaxis and treatment of EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised hosts. More recently, this therapeutic approach has been applied to the setting of EBV-related solid tumors, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The results are encouraging, although further improvements to the clinical protocols are clearly necessary to increase anti-tumor activity. Promising implementations are underway, including harnessing the therapeutic potential of CTLs specific for subdominant EBV latent cycle epitopes, and delineating strategies aimed at targeting immune evasion mechanisms exerted by tumor cells.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis in patient with incipient neurosyphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (SSCC is one of the most common malignant skin tumors. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum, with human beings as the only host. The combination of syphilis and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is not uncommon, particularly if the lesions are located on different parts of the body. However, simultaneous development of the chancre and squamous cell carcinoma of the glans penis seems exceptional. Considering rarity of the manifestation observed we feel the rare case of combined syphilis and squamous cell skin cancer is of interest.

  17. A flow cell for in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of scale formation under Bayer processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Madsen, Ian C.; Loan, Melissa J.; Scarlett, Nicola V. Y.; Wallwork, Kia S.

    2009-08-01

    The design, construction, and commissioning of a stainless steel flow cell for in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of scale formation under Bayer processing conditions is described. The use of the cell is demonstrated by a study of Al(OH)3 scale formation on a mild steel substrate from synthetic Bayer liquor at 70 °C. The cell design allows for interchangeable parts and substrates and would be suitable for the study of scale formation in other industrial processes.

  18. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Neal Murari; Horattas, Mark C

    2008-11-01

    To examine the presentation, diagnosis, and appropriate management of renal clear cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland. We describe a clinical case of solitary thyroid metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma and present a comprehensive review of the related English-language literature. Common patterns of presentation and generalized overall management recommendations are evaluated and summarized. Eight years after nephrectomy for renal carcinoma at age 61 years, a man presented with a thyroid mass. Cytology and histopathologic surgical findings were consistent with a solitary metastasis most compatible with metastatic clear cell carcinoma from his previous renal carcinoma. After left thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy, the patient remains disease-free 5 years later. Although uncommon, nearly 150 cases of clinically recognized metastatic renal cell carcinoma to the thyroid have been reported in the English-language literature. Metastatic disease from the kidney to the thyroid gland can occur more than 20 years after nephrectomy with the average time interval being 7.5 years. Obtaining a full clinical history in any patient who presents with a thyroid nodule is essential to allow consideration of possible metastatic disease from previous primary tumor. Metastatic disease to the thyroid gland can be correctly diagnosed preoperatively. If metastatic renal cancer is limited to the thyroid gland only, prompt, appropriate surgical intervention can be curative. Metastatic renal carcinoma to the thyroid should be considered in any patient presenting with a thyroid mass and a medical history of renal cell carcinoma.

  19. Two Canine Papillomaviruses Associated With Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Two Related Basenji Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, J; Rowland, P; Mader, M; Orr, C; Yuan, H

    2016-11-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are associated with benign mucosal and cutaneous epithelial proliferations. In dogs, PV-associated pigmented plaques and papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, but this is rare, and most cases of canine squamous cell carcinoma do not arise from PV-induced precursor lesions. We describe herein the progression of pigmented plaques to invasive and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma associated with 2 canine papillomaviruses (CPV) in 2 related Basenji dogs. Immunohistochemistry for PV antigen revealed strong nuclear immunoreactivity within keratinocytes from pigmented plaques from both dogs, consistent with a productive viral infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the L1 gene revealed PV DNA sequences from 2 different CPVs. In situ hybridization for CPV revealed strong hybridization signals within the pigmented plaques and neoplastic squamous epithelial cells from both dogs. We report here progression of PV-associated pigmented plaques to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma within 2 Basenji dogs associated with 2 different CPVs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Oncolytic vaccinia therapy of squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yong A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel therapies are necessary to improve outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC of the head and neck. Historically, vaccinia virus was administered widely to humans as a vaccine and led to the eradication of smallpox. We examined the therapeutic effects of an attenuated, replication-competent vaccinia virus (GLV-1h68 as an oncolytic agent against a panel of six human head and neck SCC cell lines. Results All six cell lines supported viral transgene expression (β-galactosidase, green fluorescent protein, and luciferase as early as 6 hours after viral exposure. Efficient transgene expression and viral replication (>150-fold titer increase over 72 hrs were observed in four of the cell lines. At a multiplicity of infection (MOI of 1, GLV-1h68 was highly cytotoxic to the four cell lines, resulting in ≥ 90% cytotoxicity over 6 days, and the remaining two cell lines exhibited >45% cytotoxicity. Even at a very low MOI of 0.01, three cell lines still demonstrated >60% cell death over 6 days. A single injection of GLV-1h68 (5 × 106 pfu intratumorally into MSKQLL2 xenografts in mice exhibited localized intratumoral luciferase activity peaking at days 2–4, with gradual resolution over 10 days and no evidence of spread to normal organs. Treated animals exhibited near-complete tumor regression over a 24-day period without any observed toxicity, while control animals demonstrated rapid tumor progression. Conclusion These results demonstrate significant oncolytic efficacy by an attenuated vaccinia virus for infecting and lysing head and neck SCC both in vitro and in vivo, and support its continued investigation in future clinical trials.

  1. In situ reverse transcription-PCR for monitoring gene expression in individual Methanosarcina mazei S-6 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Marianne; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Molin, Søren

    2000-01-01

    An in situ reverse transcription-PCR protocol for detecting specific mRNA in Methanosarcina mazei S-6 is described. This method allowed us to detect heat shock-induced increases in the intracellular levels of the transcript of the universal stress gene dnaK. The cell walls of paraformaldehyde...

  2. Specific detection of neuronal cell bodies: in situ hybridization with a biotin-labelled neurofilament cDNA probe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Liesi; J-P. Julien (Jean-Pierre); P. Vilja; F.G. Grosveld (Frank); L. Rechardt

    1986-01-01

    textabstractWe have used a biotinylated, 300-nucleotide cDNA probe which encodes the 68,000 MW neurofilament protein to detect neurofilament-specific mRNA in situ. The neurofilament message specifically demonstrates the neuronal cell bodies, in contrast to the usual antibody staining which detects

  3. A new method for in situ nitrate removal from groundwater using submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    A considerable increase in nitrate concentration in groundwater has become a serious concern worldwide. We developed a novel submerged microbial desalination-denitrification cell (SMDDC) to in situ remove nitrate from groundwater, produce electric energy, and potentially treat wastewater. The SMDDC...

  4. Clinicopathological study of surgical margins in squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Azeem Mohiyuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the margins of resected specimen of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and to document the surgical margin (measured at the time of resection and margins at the time of pathological examination (after immersion of the specimen in formalin. Methods: Patients who were diagnosed and confirmed with squamous carcinoma of buccal mucosa were included in the study. Patients underwent resection of the tumor with a margin of 1 cm. Soon after resection, the distance between outermost visible margin of the tumor and the margin of the specimen was measured and documented. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and submitted for gross and histopathological examination. The closest histopathologic margin was compared with the in situ margin (10 mm to determine and document any shrinkage of the margin and the percentage of discrepancy if any. Results: A total of 52 specimens were collected from patients between January 2014 and December 2014. All specimens were obtained from the oral cavity (n = 52 of which 43 (82.7% were squamous cell carcinoma and 9 (17.3% were verrucous variant of squamous cell carcinoma. The average decrease in tumor margins measured after fixation in formalin was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05 in 65% of cases. Conclusion: Tumor margin shrinks significantly after formalin fixation by about 25%. The operating surgeon and pathologist should be well aware of such changes while planning for further management thereby ensuring adequate margin of resection and adjuvant treatment wherever required to prevent possible local recurrence of the disease. Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Formalin fixation, Margin of resection, Recurrence

  5. Facile in-situ fabrication of graphene/riboflavin electrode for microbial fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Wu, Xia-Yuan; Yu, Yang-Yang; Sun, De-Zhen; Jia, Hong-Hua; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2017-01-01

    A novel graphene/riboflavin (RF) composite electrode was developed and its potential application as microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode was demonstrated. Graphene layers were first grown on the surface of graphite electrode by a one-step in-situ electrochemical exfoliation approach. Then, noncovalent functionalization of the graphene layers with RF was achieved by a simple spontaneous adsorption process. The graphene/RF electrode was extensively characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman analysis, and cyclic voltammetry analysis. Remarkably, when applied as the anode of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 inoculated MFCs, the graphene/RF electrode significantly decreased charge transfer over-potential and enhanced cell attachment, which in turn delivered about 5.3- and 2.5-fold higher power output, when compared with that produced by the bare graphite paper electrode and graphene electrode, respectively. These results demonstrated that electron shuttle immobilization on the electrode surface could be a promising and practical strategy for improving the performance of microbial electrochemical systems.

  6. In situ synthesis of graphene molecules on TiO2: application in sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiqiang; Wu, Ruilian; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Velizhanin, Kirill A; Doorn, Stephen K; Sykora, Milan

    2014-11-26

    We present a method for preparation of graphene molecules (GMs), whereby a polyphenylene precursor functionalized with surface anchoring groups, preadsorbed on surface of TiO2, is oxidatively dehydrogenated in situ via a Scholl reaction. The reaction, performed at ambient conditions, yields surface adsorbed GMs structurally and electronically equivalent to those synthesized in solution. The new synthetic approach reduces the challenges associated with the tendency of GMs to aggregate and provides a convenient path for integration of GMs into optoelectronic applications. The surface synthesized GMs can be effectively reduced or oxidized via an interfacial charge transfer and can also function as sensitizers for metal oxides in light harvesting applications. Sensitized solar cells (SSCs) prepared from mesoscopic TiO2/GM films and an iodide-based liquid electrolyte show photocurrents of ∼2.5 mA/cm2, an open circuit voltage of ∼0.55 V and fill factor of ∼0.65 under AM 1.5 illumination. The observed power conversion efficiency of η=0.87% is the highest reported efficiency for the GM sensitized solar cell. The performance of the devices was reproducible and stable for a period of at least 3 weeks. We also report first external and internal quantum efficiency measurements for GM SSCs, which point to possible paths for further performance improvements.

  7. Chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization of immunologically classified mitotic cells in hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiainen, M; Popp, S; Parlier, V; Emmerich, P; Bellomo, M J; Ruutu, T; Cremer, T; Knuutila, S

    1992-03-01

    Chromosomal in situ suppression (CISS) hybridization was performed with library DNA from sorted human chromosomes 8, 9, 15, 17, 21, and 22 on immunologically stained bone marrow cells of four patients with a hematologic neoplasm, including two patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and trisomy 8, one patient with promyelocytic leukemia bearing the translocation t(15;17)(q22;q11-12), and one patient with chronic myeloid leukemia and the translocation t(9;22)(q34;q11). In all patients, the results of conventional karyotype analysis could be confirmed by one- or two-color CISS hybridization using the appropriate chromosome-specific libraries. Our results show that CISS hybridization can detect both numerical and structural chromosome changes in immunologically classified cells with high specificity and reliability. The fact that chromosome spreads of very poor quality can now be included in such analyses is a decisive advantage of this approach. In addition, the suitability of this approach for interphase cytogenetics is discussed.

  8. Perineural Infiltration of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Basal Cell Carcinoma Without Clinical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Charles, E-mail: Charles_Lin@health.qld.gov.au [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Poulsen, Michael [Mater Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jarad [St. Andrews Hospital, Toowoomba, Queensland (Australia); Jackson, James; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To review the factors that influence outcome and patterns of relapse in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with perineural infiltration (PNI) without clinical or radiologic features, treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 222 patients with SCC or BCC with PNI on pathologic examination but without clinical or radiologic PNI features were identified. Charts were reviewed retrospectively and relevant data collected. All patients were treated with curative intent; all had radiotherapy, and most had surgery. The primary endpoint was 5-year relapse-free survival from the time of diagnosis. Results: Patients with SCC did significantly worse than those with BCC (5-year relapse-free survival, 78% vs. 91%; p < 0.01). Squamous cell carcinoma with PNI at recurrence did significantly worse than de novo in terms of 5-year local failure (40% vs. 19%; p < 0.01) and regional relapse (29% vs. 5%; p < 0.01). Depth of invasion was also a significant factor. Of the PNI-specific factors for SCC, focal PNI did significantly better than more-extensive PNI, but involved nerve diameter or presence of PNI at the periphery of the tumor were not significant factors. Conclusions: Radiotherapy in conjunction with surgery offers an acceptable outcome for cutaneous SCC and BCC with PNI. This study suggests that focal PNI is not an adverse feature.

  9. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma: a biological continuum of Basal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Karaninder S; Mahajan, Vikram K; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Sharma, Anju Lath; Sharma, Vikas; Abhinav, C; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg) and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg) on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  10. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaninder S. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide surgical excision of a pathologically diagnosed basal cell carcinoma. The recurrence was diagnosed as infiltrative BCC and found metastasizing to skin, soft tissue and muscles, and pretracheal and axillary lymph nodes. Three cycles of chemotherapy comprising intravenous cisplatin (50 mg and 5-florouracil (5-FU, 750 mg on 2 consecutive days and repeated at every 21 days were effective. As it remains unclear whether metastatic BCC is itself a separate subset of basal cell carcinoma, we feel that early BCC localized at any site perhaps constitutes a biological continuum that may ultimately manifest with metastasis in some individuals and should be evaluated as such. Long-standing BCC is itself potentially at risk of recurrence/dissemination; it is imperative to diagnose and appropriately treat all BCC lesions at the earliest.

  11. The Oxford-Diamond In Situ Cell for studying chemical reactions using time-resolved X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Saul J.; Vranješ, Nenad; Jupe, Andrew; Drakopoulos, Michael; O'Hare, Dermot

    2012-08-01

    A versatile, infrared-heated, chemical reaction cell has been assembled and commissioned for the in situ study of a range of chemical syntheses using time-resolved energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) on Beamline I12 at the Diamond Light Source. Specialized reactor configurations have been constructed to enable in situ EDXRD investigation of samples under non-ambient conditions. Chemical reactions can be studied using a range of sample vessels such as alumina crucibles, steel hydrothermal autoclaves, and glassy carbon tubes, at temperatures up to 1200 °C.

  12. Inverted U-shape relationships of the weather as biometeorological and hospital admissions due to carcinoma in situ and benign neoplasm in Germany in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Perkins, David R; Bearman, Nick

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to understand the relationships of the weather as biometeorological and hospital admissions due to carcinoma in sit