WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell bioprocessing fundamentals

  1. Stem cell bioprocessing: fundamentals and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Mark R; Chung, I-Ming; Macedo, Hugo M; Ismail, Siti; Mortera Blanco, Teresa; Lim, Mayasari; Cha, Jae Min; Fauzi, Iliana; Kang, Yunyi; Yeo, David C L; Ma, Chi Yip Joan; Polak, Julia M; Panoskaltsis, Nicki; Mantalaris, Athanasios

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, the potential of stem cell research for tissue engineering-based therapies and regenerative medicine clinical applications has become well established. In 2006, Chung pioneered the first entire organ transplant using adult stem cells and a scaffold for clinical evaluation. With this a new milestone was achieved, with seven patients with myelomeningocele receiving stem cell-derived bladder transplants resulting in substantial improvements in their quality of life. While a bladder is a relatively simple organ, the breakthrough highlights the incredible benefits that can be gained from the cross-disciplinary nature of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) that encompasses stem cell research and stem cell bioprocessing. Unquestionably, the development of bioprocess technologies for the transfer of the current laboratory-based practice of stem cell tissue culture to the clinic as therapeutics necessitates the application of engineering principles and practices to achieve control, reproducibility, automation, validation and safety of the process and the product. The successful translation will require contributions from fundamental research (from developmental biology to the 'omics' technologies and advances in immunology) and from existing industrial practice (biologics), especially on automation, quality assurance and regulation. The timely development, integration and execution of various components will be critical-failures of the past (such as in the commercialization of skin equivalents) on marketing, pricing, production and advertising should not be repeated. This review aims to address the principles required for successful stem cell bioprocessing so that they can be applied deftly to clinical applications. PMID:19033137

  2. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by use of milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such.

  3. Fundamental bioprocessing research for coal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Scott, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this program is to gain a fundamental understanding and sound scientific and technical basis for evaluating the potential roles of innovative bioprocessing concepts for the utilization and conversion of coal. The aim is to explore the numerous ways in which advanced biological processes and techniques can open new opportunities for coal utilization or can replace more conventional techniques by using milder conditions with less energy consumption or loss. There are several roles where biotechnology is likely to be important in coal utilization and conversion. These include potential bioprocessing systems such as conversion of coal to liquids or gases; biocatalytic beneficiation of coal-derived liquids and conversion to useful chemical feedstocks; biocatalytic removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from coal combustion off-gas; environmental control technology for the removal or destruction of hazardous materials in process effluents and/or solid residues; and the removal and utilization of CO{sub 2} from combustion off-gas. Effective bioprocesses for such applications will require detailed knowledge of the biological process mechanisms and advanced bioreactor technology than can be optimized for high productivity, as well as supporting upstream and downstream processes that will allow an effective integrated bioprocess. Of particular interest is the development of predictive models that can be used for process design and scaleup. In this program, a generic approach is taken so that there will be utility over a broad range of applications. In conjunction with the generic approach, model experimental systems that address real-world problems are used to verify the results.

  4. Metabolite profiling of CHO cells: Molecular reflections of bioprocessing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellick, Christopher A; Croxford, Alexandra S; Maqsood, Arfa R; Stephens, Gill M; Westerhoff, Hans V; Goodacre, Royston; Dickson, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Whilst development of medium and feeds has provided major advances in recombinant protein production in CHO cells, the fundamental understanding is limited. We have applied metabolite profiling with established robust (GC-MS) analytics to define the molecular loci by which two yield-enhancing feeds improve recombinant antibody yields from a model GS-CHO cell line. With data across core metabolic pathways, that report on metabolism within several cellular compartments, these data identify key metabolites and events associated with increased cell survival and specific productivity of cells. Of particular importance, increased process efficiency was linked to the functional activity of the mitochondria, with the amount and time course of use/production of intermediates of the citric acid cycle, for uses such as lipid biosynthesis, precursor generation and energy production, providing direct indicators of cellular status with respect to productivity. The data provide clear association between specific cellular metabolic indicators and cell process efficiency, extending from prior indications of the relevance of lactate metabolic balance to other redox sinks (glycerol, sorbitol and threitol). The information, and its interpretation, identifies targets for engineering cell culture efficiency, either from genetic or environmental perspectives, and greater understanding of the significance of specific medium components towards overall CHO cell bioprocessing. PMID:26198903

  5. Establishing new microbial cell factories for sustainable bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Workman, Mhairi; Holt, Philippe; Liu, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    of products, it may be interesting to look to less domesticated strains and towards more non-conventional hosts in the development of new bioprocesses. This approach demands thorough physiological characterization as well as establishment of tools for genetic engineering if new cell factories are to...... be exploited through application of systems biology tools. Here two potential cell factories for the conversion of glycerol are described: Pachysolen tannophilus and Yarrowia lipolytica. These organisms exhibit considerable potential; producing ethanol and 1,3-butanediol (P. tannophilus) and organic...

  6. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature indicated that most of the R&D work was devoted predominantly to studies at an empirical level. A rational approach to molecular plant cell bioprocessing based on the fundamental understanding of metabolic pathways and their regulations is urgently required to stimulate further advances; however, the strategies and technical framework are still being developed. It is the aim of this review to take a step forward in framing workable strategies and technologies for molecular plant cell-based bioprocessing. Using anthocyanin biosynthesis as a case study, an integrated postgenomic approach has been proposed. This combines the functional analysis of metabolic pathways for biosynthesis of a particular metabolite from profiling of gene expression and protein expression to metabolic profiling. A global correlation not only can thus be established at the three molecular levels, but also places emphasis on the interactions between primary metabolism and secondary metabolism; between competing and/or complimentary pathways; and between biosynthetic and post-biosynthetic events.

  7. Stem cell bioprocess engineering towards cGMP production and clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sart, Sébastien; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Li, Yan; Agathos, Spiros N.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells and pluripotent stem cells, are becoming an indispensable tool for various biomedical applications including drug discovery, disease modeling, and tissue engineering. Bioprocess engineering, targeting large scale production, provides a platform to generate a controlled microenvironment that could potentially recreate the stem cell niche to promote stem cell proliferation or lineage-specific differentiation. This survey aims at defining the characte...

  8. Bioprocessing research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development activities performed for the Fossil Energy Bioprocessing Research Program. This program includes fundamental research for coal applications that investigates advanced reactor design for conversion of coal and coal liquids, the use of enzymes in pure organic media, and development of biological processes for the conversion of coal residuum. In addition, the program includes studies on advanced bioreactor systems for the treatment of gaseous substrates and the conversion to liquid fuels, removal of heteroatoms from heavy oils, renewable hydrogen production, remediation of oil containing soils. The program also includes natural gas and oil technology partnership support.

  9. A method for preparation of hydrogel microcapsules for stem cell bioprocessing and stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshmid, Revital; Mironi-Harpaz, Iris; Shachaf, Yonatan; Seliktar, Dror

    2015-08-01

    A method for the preparation of suspension culture microcapsules used in the bioprocessing of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is reported. The microcapsules are prepared from a semi-synthetic hydrogel comprising Pluronic®F127 conjugated to denatured fibrinogen. The Pluronic-fibrinogen adducts display a lower critical solubility temperature (LCST) at ∼30 °C, thus enabling mild, cell-compatible physical crosslinking of the microcapsules in a warm gelation bath. Cell-laden microgels were prepared from a solution of Pluronic-fibrinogen hydrogel precursor and hMSCs; these were cultivated for up to 15 days in laboratory-scale suspension bioreactors and harvested by reducing the temperature of the microcapsules to disassemble the physical polymer network. The viability, proliferation and cell recovery yields of the hMSCs were shown to be better than photo-chemically crosslinked microcapsules made from a similar material. The cell culture yields, which exceeded 300% after 15 days in suspension culture, were comparable to other microcarrier systems used for the mass production of hMSCs. The simplicity of this methodology, both in terms of the cell inoculation and mild recovery conditions, represent distinct advantages for stem cell bioprocessing with suspension culture bioreactors. PMID:25931428

  10. To Stretch the Boundary of Secondary Metabolite Production in Plant Cell-Based Bioprocessing: Anthocyanin as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Chris Franco; Chris Curtin; Simon Conn

    2004-01-01

    Plant cells and tissue cultures hold great promise for controlled production of a myriad of useful secondary metabolites on demand. The current yield and productivity cannot fulfill the commercial goal of a plant cell-based bioprocess for the production of most secondary metabolites. In order to stretch the boundary, recent advances, new directions and opportunities in plant cell-based bioprocessing, have been critically examined for the 10 years from 1992 to 2002. A review of the literature ...

  11. Performance monitoring of a mammalian cell based bioprocess using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ray, Bryan H; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2013-09-24

    Being able to predict the final product yield at all stages in long-running, industrial, mammalian cell culture processes is vital for both operational efficiency, process consistency, and the implementation of quality by design (QbD) practices. Here we used Raman spectroscopy to monitor (in terms of glycoprotein yield prediction) a fed-batch fermentation from start to finish. Raman data were collected from 12 different time points in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) based manufacturing process and across 37 separate production runs. The samples comprised of clarified bioprocess broths extracted from the CHO cell based process with varying amounts of fresh and spent cell culture media. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CoAdReS) and ant colony optimization (ACO) variable selection methods were used to enhance the predictive ability of the chemometric models by removing unnecessary spectral information. Using CoAdReS accurate prediction models (relative error of predictions between 2.1% and 3.3%) were built for the final glycoprotein yield at every stage of the bioprocess from small scale up to the final 5000 L bioreactor. This result reinforces our previous studies which indicate that media quality is one of the most significant factors determining the efficiency of industrial CHO-cell processes. This Raman based approach could thus be used to manage production in terms of selecting which small scale batches are progressed to large-scale manufacture, thus improving process efficiency significantly. PMID:24016587

  12. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  13. Development of yeast cell factories for consolidated bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol through cell surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    To build an energy and material secure future, a next generation of renewable fuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass is required. Although lignocellulosic biomass, which represents an abundant, inexpensive and renewable source for bioethanol production, is of great interest as a feedstock, the complicated ethanol production processes involved make the cost of producing bioethanol from it higher compared to corn starch and cane juice. Therefore, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which combines enzyme production, saccharification and fermentation in a single step, has gained increased recognition as a potential bioethanol production system. CBP requires a highly engineered microorganism developed for several different process-specific characteristics. The dominant strategy for engineering a CBP biocatalyst is to express multiple components of a cellulolytic system from either fungi or bacteria in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The development of recombinant yeast strains displaying cellulases and hemicellulases on the cell surface represents significant progress toward realization of CBP. Regardless of the process used for biomass hydrolysis, CBP-enabling microorganisms encounter a variety of toxic compounds produced during biomass pretreatment that inhibit microbial growth and ethanol yield. Systems biology approaches including disruptome screening, transcriptomics, and metabolomics have been recently exploited to gain insight into the molecular and genetic traits involved in tolerance and adaptation to the fermentation inhibitors. In this review, we focus on recent advances in development of yeast strains with both the ability to directly convert lignocellulosic material to ethanol and tolerance in the harsh environments containing toxic compounds in the presence of ethanol. PMID:22085593

  14. Proteomics in Cell Culture: From Genomics to Combined ‘Omics for Cell Line Engineering and Bioprocess Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heffner, Kelley; Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Kumar, Amit;

    2015-01-01

    in media development and cell line engineering to improve growth or productivity, delay the onset of apoptosis, or utilize nutrients efficiently. Mass-spectrometry based and other proteomics methods can provide for the detection of thousands of proteins from cell culture and bioinformatics analysis...... protein production has increased significantly because proteomics can track changes in protein levels for different cell lines over time, which can be advantageous for bioprocess development and optimization. Specifically, the identification of proteins that affect cell culture processes can aid efforts...

  15. Analysis of experimental errors in bioprocesses. 1. Production of lactobionic acid and sorbitol using the GFOR (glucose-fructose oxidoreductase) enzyme from permeabilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, João B; Pinto, José C; Ferraz, Helen C; Alves, Tito L M

    2011-09-01

    The proper determination of experimental errors in bioprocesses can be very important because experimental errors can exert a major impact on the analysis of experimental results. Despite this, the effect of experimental errors on the analysis of bioprocess data has been largely overlooked in the literature. For this reason, we performed detailed statistical analyses of experimental errors obtained during the production of lactobionic acid and sorbitol in a system utilizing as catalyst the GFOR (glucose-fructose oxidoreductase) enzyme from permeabilized cells of the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. The magnitude of the experimental errors thus obtained were then correlated with the process operation conditions and with the composition of the culture media used for bacterial growth. It is shown that experimental errors can depend very significantly on the operation conditions and affect the interpretation of available experimental data. More specifically, in this study, experimental errors depended on the nutritional supplements added to the cultivation medium, the inoculation process, and the reaction time, which may be of fundamental importance for actual process development. The results obtained also indicate, for the first time, that GFOR activity can be affected by the composition of the medium in which cells are cultivated. PMID:21328074

  16. Multivariate analysis of cell culture bioprocess data--lactate consumption as process indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Huong; Kabbur, Santosh; Pollastrini, Luciano; Sun, Ziran; Mills, Keri; Johnson, Kevin; Karypis, George; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2012-12-31

    Multivariate analysis of cell culture bioprocess data has the potential of unveiling hidden process characteristics and providing new insights into factors affecting process performance. This study investigated the time-series data of 134 process parameters acquired throughout the inoculum train and the production bioreactors of 243 runs at the Genentech's Vacaville manufacturing facility. Two multivariate methods, kernel-based support vector regression (SVR) and partial least square regression (PLSR), were used to predict the final antibody concentration and the final lactate concentration. Both product titer and the final lactate level were shown to be predicted accurately when data from the early stages of the production scale were employed. Using only process data from the inoculum train, the prediction accuracy of the final process outcome was lower; the results nevertheless suggested that the history of the culture may exert significant influence on the final process outcome. The parameters contributing most significantly to the prediction accuracy were related to lactate metabolism and cell viability in both the production scale and the inoculum train. Lactate consumption, which occurred rather independently of the residual glucose and lactate concentrations, was shown to be a prominent factor in determining the final outcome of production-scale cultures. The results suggest possible opportunities to intervene in metabolism, steering it towards the type with a strong propensity towards high productivity. Such intervention could occur in the inoculum stage or in the early stage of the production-scale reactors. Overall, this study presents pattern recognition as an important process analytical technology (PAT). Furthermore, the high correlation between lactate consumption and high productivity can provide a guide to apply quality by design (QbD) principles to enhance process robustness. PMID:22974585

  17. Bioprocessing in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. R. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings are presented of the 1976 NASA Colloquium on bioprocessing in space. The program included general sessions and formal presentations on the following topics: NASA's Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and space-processing programs; the known unusual behavior of materials in space; space-processing experiment results; cell biology, gravity sensors in cells, space electrophoresis of living cells, new approaches to biosynthesis of biologicals from cell culture in space, and zero-g fermentation concepts; and upcoming flight opportunities and industrial application planning studies already underway.

  18. Fundamentals of thin solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablonovitch, E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    It is now widely recognized that thin solar cells can present certain advantages for performance and cost. This is particularly the case when light trapping in the semiconductor film is incorporated, as compensation for the diminished single path thickness of the solar cell. In a solar cell thinner than a minority carrier diffusion length, the current collection is of course very easy. More importantly the concentration of an equivalent number of carriers in a thinner volume results in a higher Free Energy, or open circuit voltage. This extra Free Energy may be regarded as due to the concentration factor, just as it would be for photons, electrons, or for any chemical species. The final advantage of a thin solar cell is in the diminished material usage, a factor of considerable importance when we consider the material cost of the high quality semiconductors which we hope to employ.

  19. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  20. PEM Fuel Cells - Fundamentals, Modeling and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics. Part III: Applications Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell system design and applications.

  1. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. PMID:26284700

  2. Application of the wavelet image analysis technique to monitor cell concentration in bioprocesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. R. Garófano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of cells of great practical interest, such as, the filamentous cells of bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the insect Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9 cell, cultivated in shaking flasks with complex media at appropriate temperatures and pHs, was quantified by the new wavelet transform technique. This image analysis tool was implemented using Matlab 5.2 software to process digital images acquired of samples taken of these three types of cells throughoot their cultivation. The values of the average wavelet coefficients (AWCs of simplified images were compared with experimental measurements of cell concentration and with computer-based densitometric measurements. AWCs were shown to be directly proportional to measurements of cell concentration and to densitometric measurements, making evident the great potential of the wavelet transform technique to quantitatively estimate the growth of several types of cells.

  3. Cell Culture Derived AgMNPV Bioinsecticide: Biological Constraints and Bioprocess Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas, Valeria M.; Marques, Fabiano H.; Honda, Marcelo T.; Soares, Daniela M.; Soraia A. C. Jorge; Antoniazzi, Marta M.; Medugno, Claudia; Castro, Maria E. B.; Ribeiro, Bergmann M; Souza, Marlinda L.; Tonso, Aldo; Pereira, Carlos A

    2005-01-01

    We have studied parameters for optimizing the Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell culture and viral infection for the production of Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AgMNPV) polyhedra inclusion bodies (PIBs) in shaker-Schott or spinner bottles and bioreactors. We have assayed the kLa of the systems, initial cell seeding, cell culture volume, dissolved oxygen (DO), multiplicity of infection (MOI), nutrients consumption, and metabolites production. The medium surface oxygen ...

  4. Fuel cell science theory, fundamentals, and biocatalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of theoretical andexperimental concepts in fuel cell chemistry Fuel cell science is undergoing significant development, thanks, in part, to a spectacular evolution of the electrocatalysis concepts, and both new theoretical and experimental methods. Responding to the need for a definitive guide to the field, Fuel Cell Science provides an up-to-date, comprehensive compendium of both theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. Designed to inspire scientists to think about the future of fuel cell technology, Fuel Cell Science addresses the emerging field of

  5. Fundamentals of Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Expression of proteins in mammalian cells is a key technology important for many functional studies on human and higher eukaryotic genes. Studies include the mapping of protein interactions, solving protein structure by crystallization and X-ray diffraction or solution phase NMR and the generation of antibodies to enable a range of studies to be performed including protein detection in vivo. In addition the production of therapeutic proteins and antibodies, now a multi billion dollar industry, has driven major advances in cell line engineering for the production of grams per liter of active proteins and antibodies. Here the key factors that need to be considered for successful expression in HEK293 and CHO cells are reviewed including host cells, expression vector design, transient transfection methods, stable cell line generation and cultivation conditions. PMID:27165328

  6. Organic solar cells fundamentals, devices, and upscaling

    CERN Document Server

    Rand, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    Solution-Processed DonorsB. Burkhart, B. C. ThompsonSmall-Molecule and Vapor-Deposited Organic Photovoltaics R. R. Lunt, R. J. HolmesAcceptor Materials for Solution-Processed Solar Cells Y. HeInterfacial Layers R. Po, C. Carbonera, A. BernardiElectrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Cells S. Yoo, J.-Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. LeeTandem and Multi-Junction Organic Solar Cells J. Gilot, R. A. J. JanssenBulk Heterojunction Morphology Control and Characterization T. Wang, D. G. LidzeyOptical Modeling and Light Management

  7. Monoliths in Bioprocess Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignesh Rajamanickam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic columns are a special type of chromatography column, which can be used for the purification of different biomolecules. They have become popular due to their high mass transfer properties and short purification times. Several articles have already discussed monolith manufacturing, as well as monolith characteristics. In contrast, this review focuses on the applied aspect of monoliths and discusses the most relevant biomolecules that can be successfully purified by them. We describe success stories for viruses, nucleic acids and proteins and compare them to conventional purification methods. Furthermore, the advantages of monolithic columns over particle-based resins, as well as the limitations of monoliths are discussed. With a compilation of commercially available monolithic columns, this review aims at serving as a ‘yellow pages’ for bioprocess engineers who face the challenge of purifying a certain biomolecule using monoliths.

  8. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Finney, R. [Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  9. Electrochemical Detection of Multiple Bioprocess Analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus that includes highly miniaturized thin-film electrochemical sensor array has been demonstrated as a prototype of instruments for simultaneous detection of multiple substances of interest (analytes) and measurement of acidity or alkalinity in bioprocess streams. Measurements of pH and of concentrations of nutrients and wastes in cell-culture media, made by use of these instruments, are to be used as feedback for optimizing the growth of cells or the production of desired substances by the cultured cells. The apparatus is designed to utilize samples of minimal volume so as to minimize any perturbation of monitored processes. The apparatus can function in a potentiometric mode (for measuring pH), an amperometric mode (detecting analytes via oxidation/reduction reactions), or both. The sensor array is planar and includes multiple thin-film microelectrodes covered with hydrous iridium oxide. The oxide layer on each electrode serves as both a protective and electrochemical transducing layer. In its transducing role, the oxide provides electrical conductivity for amperometric measurement or pH response for potentiometric measurement. The oxide on an electrode can also serve as a matrix for one or more enzymes that render the electrode sensitive to a specific analyte. In addition to transducing electrodes, the array includes electrodes for potential control. The array can be fabricated by techniques familiar to the microelectronics industry. The sensor array is housed in a thin-film liquid-flow cell that has a total volume of about 100 mL. The flow cell is connected to a computer-controlled subsystem that periodically draws samples from the bioprocess stream to be monitored. Before entering the cell, each 100-mL sample is subjected to tangential-flow filtration to remove particles. In the present version of the apparatus, the electrodes are operated under control by a potentiostat and are used to simultaneously measure the pH and the concentration of glucose

  10. Fundamental Investigation of Si Anode in Li-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is approximately 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of Si anode during the first cycle, the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes.

  11. PEM Fuel Cells from Single Cell to Stack - Fundamental, Modeling, Analysis, and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2015-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: PEM fuel cell thermodynamics, electrochemistry, and performance. Chapter 3: PEM fuel cell components. Chapter 4: PEM fuel cell failure modes. Part II: Modeling and Simulation Chapter 5: PEM fuel cell models based on semi-empirical simulation. Chapter 6: PEM fuel cell models based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Part III: Analysis Chapter 7: PEM fuel cell analysis. Chapter 8: PEM fuel cell stack desig...

  12. Biotechnological potential of inulin for bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhen-Ming; Zhang, Tong; Cao, Tian-Shu; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Wei; Zhao, Chun-Hai

    2011-03-01

    Inulin consists of linear chains of β-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. In this review article, inulin and its applications in bioprocesses are overviewed. The tubers of many plants, such as Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, dahlia, and yacon contain a large amount of inulin. Inulin can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce fructose, glucose and inulooligosaccharides (IOS). The fructose and glucose formed can be further transformed into ethanol, single-cell protein, single cell oil and other useful products by different microorganisms. IOS formed have many functions. Therefore, inulin can be widely used in food, feed, pharmaceutical, chemical and biofuels industries. PMID:21247760

  13. Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiachang

    1995-12-31

    The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell culture process. A new concept of functional state and a multiple model (local models) approach were used for modelling the fed-batch baker`s yeast process for monitoring and control purposes. Finally, a combination of conventional electrical and biological models was used to simulate and to control a microbial fuel cell process. In the thesis, a yeast growth process was taken as an example to demonstrate the usefulness of the functional state concept and local models. The functional states were first defined according to the yeast metabolism. The process was then described by a set of simple local models. In different functional states, different local models were used. On the other hand, the on-line estimation of functional state and biomass of the process was discussed for process control purpose. As a consequence, both the functional state concept and the multiple model approach were applied for fuzzy logic control of yeast growth process. A fuzzy factor was calculated on the basis of a knowledge-based expert system and fuzzy logic rules. The factor was used to correct an ideal substrate feed rate. In the last part of the thesis, microbial fuel cell processes were studied. A microbial fuel cell is a device for direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical energy by using micro-organisms as catalysts. A combined model including conventional electrical and biological models was constructed for the process based on the biological and electrochemical phenomena

  14. Protein aggregation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Mary E. M.; Hilario, Eric; Jacobson, Fred

    2006-01-01

    Protein aggregation is a common issue encountered during manufacture of biotherapeutics. It is possible to influence the amount of aggregate produced during the cell culture and purification process by carefully controlling the environment (eg, media components) and implementing appro-priate strategies to minimize the extent of aggregation. Steps to remove aggregates have been successfully used at a manufacturing scale. Care should be taken when developing a process to monitor the compatibili...

  15. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  16. Quantitative feature extraction from the Chinese hamster ovary bioprocess bibliome using a novel meta-analysis workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabgir, Aydin; Gutierrez, Jahir M; Hefzi, Hooman; Li, Shangzhong; Palsson, Bernhard O; Herwig, Christoph; Lewis, Nathan E

    2016-01-01

    The scientific literature concerning Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells grows annually due to the importance of CHO cells in industrial bioprocessing of therapeutics. In an effort to start to catalogue the breadth of CHO phenotypes, or phenome, we present the CHO bibliome. This bibliographic compilation covers all published CHO cell studies from 1995 to 2015, and each study is classified by the types of phenotypic and bioprocess data contained therein. Using data from selected studies, we also present a quantitative meta-analysis of bioprocess characteristics across diverse culture conditions, yielding novel insights and addressing the validity of long held assumptions. Specifically, we show that bioprocess titers can be predicted using indicator variables derived from viable cell density, viability, and culture duration. We further identified a positive correlation between the cumulative viable cell density (VCD) and final titer, irrespective of cell line, media, and other bioprocess parameters. In addition, growth rate was negatively correlated with performance attributes, such as VCD and titer. In summary, despite assumptions that technical diversity among studies and opaque publication practices can limit research re-use in this field, we show that the statistical analysis of diverse legacy bioprocess data can provide insight into bioprocessing capabilities of CHO cell lines used in industry. The CHO bibliome can be accessed at http://lewislab.ucsd.edu/cho-bibliome/. PMID:26948029

  17. Intelligent automation platform for bioprocess development

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, T.

    2016-01-01

    Bioprocess development is very labour intensive, requiring many experiments to characterize each unit operation in a process sequence to achieve product safety and process efficiency. Recent advances in microscale biochemical engineering have led to automated high throughput experimentations. The activities for bioprocess development are implemented sequentially in which 1) liquid handling system performs the wet lab experiments; 2) standalone analytical devices detect the data; and 3) specif...

  18. Optimization of ferric chloride concentration and pH to improve both cell growth and flocculation in Chlorella vulgaris cultures. Application to medium reuse in an integrated continuous culture bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecina, Martí; Nadal, Gisela; Solà, Carles; Prat, Jordi; Cairó, Jordi J

    2016-09-01

    Combined effect of ferric chloride and pH on Chlorella vulgaris growth and flocculation were optimized using DoE. Afterwards, an integrated bioprocess for microalgae cultivation and harvesting conceived as a sole step was run in continuous operation mode. Microalgae concentration in a 2L-photobioreactor was about 0.5gL(-1) and the efficiency of flocculation in the coupled sedimentation tank was about 95%. Dewatered microalgae reached a biomass concentrations increase about 50-fold, whereas it was only about 0.02gL(-1) in the clarified medium. Then, the reuse of the clarified medium recovered was further evaluated. The clarified medium was reused without any further nutrient supplementation, whereas a second round of medium reuse was performed after supplementation of main nutrients (phosphate-sulfate-nitrate), micronutrients and ferric chloride. The medium reuse strategy did not affect cell growth and flocculation. Consequently, the reuse of medium reduces the nutrients requirements and the demand for water, and therefore the production costs should be reduced accordingly. PMID:27240237

  19. Fundamental investigations on periodic nano- and microstructured organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, M.

    2005-03-15

    Using organic semiconducting materials in solar cells is a new approach with promising possibilities. The great potential of low cost production combined with mechanical flexibility gives rise to new applications. Due to the relatively simple fabrication process from solution and the mechanical flexibility, the production of organic solar cells by the cost effective roll-to-roll process appears promising. However, the preconditions for commercialization are not fulfilled as yet. The demands on organic solar cells strongly depend on the type of application. The highest demands on solar cell technologies are set by the energy market. Organic solar cells are only expected to be competitive on the energy market when the requirements on efficiency, lifetime and costs are fulfilled at the same time. Regarding this as a long term goal, a less demanding but still challenging medium term goal would be the application of relatively small organic solar cell modules for i.e. portable electronic devices. The integration of Organic Field Effect Transistors (OFET) and Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLED) to all-polymer electronic devices is still under development. Nevertheless, the integration of organic solar cells as one functional component appears promising as the production technologies are expected to be compatible. The innovative contribution of this thesis to the development of organic solar cells is as follows: Motivated by the desire to fabricate efficient and cost effective organic solar cells, the approach of developing novel solar cell architectures based on periodic nano- and microstructures is followed. At present, planar organic solar cells with indium tin oxide (ITO) as a transparent electrode are intensively studied. One decisive cost factor would, however, be the indium price, which is the key component of the ITO electrode. The planar cell architecture can be conceived as a one-dimensional photonic device, however the presented work widens the investigations

  20. Monitoring Key Parameters in Bioprocesses Using Near-Infrared Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is known to be a rapid and non-destructive technique for process monitoring. Bioprocesses are usually complex, from both the chemical (ill-defined medium composition and physical (multiphase matrix aspects, which poses an additional challenge to the development of robust calibrations. We investigated the use of NIRS for on-line and in-line monitoring of cell, substrate and product concentrations, during aerobic and anaerobic bacterial fermentations, in different fermentation strategies. Calibration models were built up, then validated and used for the automated control of fermentation processes. The capability of NIR in-line to discriminate among differently shaped bacteria was tested.

  1. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-01-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones[R], BlackBerrys[R], and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year. Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they…

  2. Impact of Enzymatic and Microbial Bioprocessing on Protein Modification and Nutritional Properties of Wheat Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arte, Elisa; Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Nordlund, Emilia; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana

    2015-10-01

    Besides providing dietary fiber, wheat bran is a recognized source of protein and is considered a very valuable substitute for other protein-rich sources in the food and feed industry. Nonetheless, several factors affect protein bioavailability, including bran's layered structure. This study showed the influence on the release and protein modification of wheat bran of different bioprocessing methods involving the activation of endogenous enzymes of bran, the addition of an enzyme mixture having carbohydrase activity, and microbial fermentation. Bioprocessing in acidic conditions significantly enhanced the solubilization of protein from wheat bran, reaching the highest value in the treatment where the sole endogenous protease activity was activated. Bioprocessing through controlled fermentation allowed a more intense proteolysis and strongly impacted the in vitro digestibility of proteins. The combined use of starter cultures and cell-wall-degrading enzymes was characterized by the highest increase of phytase activity and total phenols. PMID:26365885

  3. Protein micro patterned lattices to probe a fundamental lengthscale involved in cell adhesion

    CERN Document Server

    Guillou, Herve; Chaussy, Jacques; Block, Marc R

    2009-01-01

    Cell adhesion, a fundamental process of cell biology is involved in the embryo development and in numerous pathologies especially those related to cancers. We constrained cells to adhere on extracellular matrix proteins patterned in a micro lattices. The actin cytoskeleton is particularly sensitive to this constraint and reproducibly self organizes in simple geometrical patterns. Such highly organized cells are functional and proliferate. We performed statistical analysis of spread cells morphologies and discuss the existence of a fundamental lengthscale associated with active processes required for spreading.

  4. Novel Micro-scale Analytical Devices for On-line Bioprocess Monitoring: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnčiřík, P.; Náhlík, J.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines the potential of novel micro-scale microfluidic analytical devices – lab-on-a-chip (LOC), micro total analysis systems (µ-TAS) – for on-line monitoring and control of industrial bioprocesses. First, motivation for the current study is presented and potential benefits from the use of micro-scale analytical devices in bioprocess control and monitoring are outlined. This is followed by a review of the state of the art in the relevant application domain (cell analysis) for...

  5. Fundamental limitations of hot-carrier solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A. P.; Fischetti, M. V.

    2012-10-01

    Sunlight-generated hot-carrier transport in strongly absorbing direct band-gap GaAs—among the most optimal of semiconductors for high-efficiency solar cells—is simulated with an accurate full-band structure self-consistent Monte Carlo method, including short- and long-range Coulomb interaction, impact ionization, and optical and acoustic phonon scattering. We consider an ultrapure 100-nm-thick intrinsic GaAs absorber layer designed with quasiballistic carrier transport that achieves complete photon absorption down to the band edge by application of careful light trapping and that has a generous hot-carrier retention time of 10 ps prior to the onset of carrier relaxation. We find that hot-carrier solar cells can be severely limited in performance due to the substantially reduced current density caused by insufficient extraction of the widely distributed hot electrons (holes) through the requisite energy selective contacts.

  6. Organic Chemicals from Bioprocesses in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Huang, Lei; Lin, Jianping; Xu, Zhinan; Cen, Peilin

    Over the last 20 years, China has successfully established a modern biotechnology industry from almost nothing. Presently, China is a major producer of a vast array of products involving bioprocesses, for some China is even the world's top producer. The ever-increasing list of products includes organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, solvents, chiral chemicals, biopesticides, and biopolymers. Herein, the research and development of bioprocesses in China will be reviewed briefly. We will concentrate on three categories of products: small molecules produced via fermentation, biopolymers produced via fermentation and small chemicals produced by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In comparison with the traditional chemical process, in which, nonrenewable mineral resources are generally used, products in the first and second categories noted above can use renewable bioresources as raw materials. The bioprocesses are generally energy saving and environmentally benign. For products developed via the third category, although the raw materials still need to be obtained from mineral resources, the biocatalysts are more effective with higher selectivity and productivity, and the bioprocesses occur under ambient temperature and pressure, therefore, these are "green processes." Most of the products such as citric acid, xanthan and acrylamide etc., discussed in this paper have been in large-scale commercial production in China. Also introduced herein are three scientists, Prof. Shen Yinchu, Prof. Ouyang Pingkai and Prof. Chen Guoqiang, and six enterprises, Anhui Fengyuan Biochemical Co. Ltd., Shandong Hiland Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shandong Fufeng Fermentation Co. Ltd., Shandong Bausch & Lomb-Freda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Zhejiang Hangzhou Xinfu Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., and Changzhou Changmao Biochemical Engineering Co. Ltd.; they have all contributed a great deal to research and development in the commercialization of bioprocesses.

  7. Catalysis in electrochemistry from fundamental aspects to strategies for fuel cell development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Catalysis in Electrochemistry: From Fundamental Aspects to Strategies for Fuel Cell Development is a modern, comprehensive reference work on catalysis in electrochemistry, including principles, methods, strategies, and applications. It points out differences between catalysis at gas/surfaces and electrochemical interfaces, along with the future possibilities and impact of electrochemical science on energy problems. This book contributes both to fundamental science; experience in the design, preparation, and characterization of electrocatalytic materials; and the industrial application o

  8. Consolidated bioprocessing method using thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielenz, Jonathan Richard

    2016-02-02

    The present invention is directed to a method of converting biomass to biofuel, and particularly to a consolidated bioprocessing method using a co-culture of thermophilic and extremely thermophilic microorganisms which collectively can ferment the hexose and pentose sugars produced by degradation of cellulose and hemicelluloses at high substrate conversion rates. A culture medium therefor is also provided as well as use of the methods to produce and recover cellulosic ethanol.

  9. Fundamentals and Application of Magnetic Particles in Cell Isolation and Enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Plouffe, Brian D.; Shashi K. Murthy; Lewis, Laura H.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic sorting using magnetic beads has become a routine methodology for the separation of key cell populations from biological suspensions. Due to the inherent ability of magnets to provide forces at a distance, magnetic cell manipulation is now a standardized process step in numerous processes in tissue engineering, medicine, and in fundamental biological research. Herein we review the current status of magnetic particles to enable isolation and separation of cells, with a strong focus on...

  10. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Owen D

    2013-01-01

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to ...

  11. Variant innate immune responses of mammary epithelial cells to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the regulating effect of taurine on these bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liuhai; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jinye; Liu, Ming; Bin Dai; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are important pathogens causing subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis, respectively. Taurine, an organic acid found in animal tissues, has been used for the treatment of various superficial infections and chronic inflammations. We challenged a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) line (MAC-T) or a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev) with either E. coli or S. aureus and compared the responses of MECs to these 2 pathogens. We also examined the regulatory effects of taurine on these responses. Receptor analyses showed that both TLR2 and TLR4 are upregulated upon exposure to either E. coli or S. aureus. Taurine pre-treatment dampened upregulation to some extent. E. coli and S. aureus stimulated comparable levels of ROS, which could be inhibited by taurine pre-treatment. E. coli infection elicited a dramatic change in iNOS expression. Taurine significantly decreased iNOS expression in the S. aureus challenged group. Protein microarray demonstrated that 32/40 and 8/40 inflammatory molecules/mediators were increased after E. coli or S. aureus challenge, respectively. The fold changes of most molecules were higher in the E. coli infection group than that in the S. aureus infection group. Taurine negatively regulated the inflammatory profile in both bacterial infections. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α) connected with TLR activation were down-regulated by taurine pre-treatment. The influence of TAK-242 and OxPAPC on cytokine/molecule expression profiles to E. coli challenge are different than to S. aureus. Some important factors (MyD88, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by TLR activation were suppressed either in protein microarray or special assay (PCR/kits) or both. TAK-242 restrained ROS production and NAGase activity similar to the effect of taurine in E. coli challenge groups. The detection of 3 indices (T-AOC, SOD and MDA) reflecting oxidative stress in vivo, showed that

  12. Dynamics of Complex Interconnected Systems: Networks and Bioprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Skjeltorp, Arne T

    2006-01-01

    The book reviews the synergism between various fields of research that are confronted with networks, such as genetic and metabolic networks, social networks, the Internet and ecological systems. In many cases, the interacting networks manifest so-called emergent properties that are not possessed by any of the individual components. This means that the detailed knowledge of the components is insufficient to describe the whole system. Recent work has indicated that networks in nature have so-called scale-free characteristics, and the associated dynamic network modelling shows unexpected results such as an amazing robustness against accidental failures. Modelling the signal transduction networks in bioprocesses as in living cells is a challenging interdisciplinary research area. It is now realized that the many features of molecular interaction networks within a cell are shared to a large degree by the other complex systems mentioned above, such as the Internet, computer chips and society. Thus knowledge gained ...

  13. Program for fundamental and applied research of fuel cells in VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisin, A.V.; Borisseonock, V.A.; Novitskii, Y.Z.; Potyomckin, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    According to VNIIEF the integral part of development of fuel cell power plants is fundamental and applied research. This paper describes areas of research on molten carbonate fuel cells. Topics include the development of mathematical models for porous electrodes, thin film electrolytes, the possibility of solid nickel anodes, model of activation polarization of anode, electrolyte with high solubility of oxygen. Other areas include research on a stationary mode of stack operation, anticorrosion coatings, impedance diagnostic methods, ultrasound diagnostics, radiation treatments, an air aluminium cell, and alternative catalysts for low temperature fuel cells.

  14. Microsystems for enhanced control of cell behavior fundamentals, design and manufacturing strategies, applications and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This handbook focuses on the entire development process of biomedical microsystems that promote special interactions with cells. Fundamentals of cell biology and mechanobiology are described as necessary preparatory input for design tasks. Advanced design, simulation, and micro/nanomanufacturing resources, whose combined use enables the development of biomedical microsystems capable of interacting at a cellular level, are covered in depth. A detailed series of chapters is then devoted to applications based on microsystems that offer enhanced cellular control, including microfluidic devices for diagnosis and therapy, cell-based sensors and actuators (smart biodevices), microstructured prostheses for improvement of biocompatibility, microstructured and microtextured cell culture matrices for promotion of cell growth and differentiation, electrophoretic microsystems for study of cell mechanics, microstructured and microtextured biodevices for study of cell adhesion and dynamics, and biomimetic microsystems (incl...

  15. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  16. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  17. Fundamentals and application of magnetic particles in cell isolation and enrichment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic sorting using magnetic beads has become a routine methodology for the separation of key cell populations from biological suspensions. Due to the inherent ability of magnets to provide forces at a distance, magnetic cell manipulation is now a standardized process step in numerous processes in tissue engineering, medicine, and in fundamental biological research. Herein we review the current status of magnetic particles to enable isolation and separation of cells, with a strong focus on the fundamental governing physical phenomena, properties and syntheses of magnetic particles and on current applications of magnet-based cell separation in laboratory and clinical settings. We highlight the contribution of cell separation to biomedical research and medicine and detail modern cell-separation methods (both magnetic and non-magnetic). In addition to a review of the current state-of-the-art in magnet-based cell sorting, we discuss current challenges and available opportunities for further research, development and commercialization of magnetic particle-based cell-separation systems. (review article)

  18. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Owen Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation....

  19. Fundamental processes of exciton scattering at organic solar-cell interfaces: One-dimensional model calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugata, Yoshimitsu; Iizuka, Hideyuki; Sato, Kosuke; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental processes of exciton scattering at organic solar-cell interfaces were studied using a one-dimensional tight-binding model and by performing a time-evolution simulation of electron–hole pair wave packets. We found the fundamental features of exciton scattering: the scattering promotes not only the dissociation of excitons and the generation of interface-bound (charge-transferred) excitons but also the transmission and reflection of excitons depending on the electron and hole interface offsets. In particular, the dissociation increases in a certain region of an interface offset, while the transmission shows resonances with higher-energy bound-exciton and interface bound-exciton states. We also studied the effects of carrier-transfer and potential modulations at the interface and the scattering of charged excitons, and we found trap dissociations where one of the carriers is trapped around the interface after the dissociation.

  20. Efficiency of ideal fuel cell and Carnot cycle from a fundamental perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanzadeh, H.; Mansouri, S.H.

    2005-06-15

    In this paper, we accept the fact that fuel cell and heat engine efficiencies are both constrained by the second law of thermodynamics and neither one is able to break this law. However, we have shown that this statement does not mean the two systems should have the same maximum thermal efficiency when being fed by the same amounts of chemical reactants. The intrinsic difference between fuel cells (electrochemical systems) and heat engines (combustion engines) efficiencies is a fundamental one with regard to the conversion of chemical energy of reactions into electrical work. The sole reason has been shown to be due to the combustion irreversibility of the latter. This has led to the statement that fuel cell efficiency is not limited by the Carnot cycle. Clarity is achieved by theoretical derivations and several numerical examples. (author)

  1. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias de Cazes; Ricardo Abejón; Marie-Pierre Belleville; José Sanchez-Marcano

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are describ...

  2. Biosensors and Automation for Bioprocess Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, M A

    2011-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring and control is a complex task that needs rapid and reliable methods which are adaptable to continuous analysis. Process monitoring during fermentation is widely applicable in the field of pharmaceutical, food and beverages and wastewater treatment. The ability to monitor has direct relevance in improving performance, quality, productivity, and yield of the process. In fact, the complexity of the bioprocesses requires almost real time insight into the dynamic process for ...

  3. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyomin, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  4. Intelligent control of mixed-culture bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, D.L.; Larsen, E.D.; Miller, K.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A hierarchical control system is being developed and applied to a mixed culture bioprocess in a continuous stirred tank reactor. A bioreactor, with its inherent complexity and non-linear behavior was an interesting, yet, difficult application for control theory. The bottom level of the hierarchy was implemented as a number of integrated set point controls and data acquisition modules. Within the second level was a diagnostic system that used expert knowledge to determine the operational status of the sensors, actuators, and control modules. A diagnostic program was successfully implemented for the detection of stirrer malfunctions, and to monitor liquid delivery rates and recalibrate the pumps when deviations from desired flow rates occurred. The highest control level was a supervisory shell that was developed using expert knowledge and the history of the reactor operation to determine the set points required to meet a set of production criteria. At this stage the supervisory shell analyzed the data to determine the state of the system. In future implementations, this shell will determine the set points required to optimize a cost function using expert knowledge and adaptive learning techniques.

  5. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  6. Osmotic Stress Response: Quantification of Cell Maintenance and Metabolic Fluxes in a Lysine-Overproducing Strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Cristian A.; Baez, Mauricio E.; Agosin, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    Osmotic stress diminishes cell productivity and may cause cell inactivation in industrial fermentations. The quantification of metabolic changes under such conditions is fundamental for understanding and describing microbial behavior during bioprocesses. We quantified the gradual changes that take place when a lysine-overproducing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is grown in continuous culture with saline gradients at different dilution rates. The use of compatible solutes depended on env...

  7. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  8. Design of digital learning material for bioprocess-engineering-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, van der H.

    2007-01-01

    With the advance of computers and the internet, new types of learning material can be developed: web-based digital learning material. Because many complex learning objectives in the food- and bioprocess technology domain are difficult to achieve in a traditional learning environment, a project was s

  9. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  10. At-line determination of spore inoculum quality in Penicillium chrysogenum bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgartner, Daniela; Herwig, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas

    2016-06-01

    Spore inoculum quality in filamentous bioprocesses is a critical parameter influencing pellet morphology and, consequently, process performance. It is essential to determine the concentration of viable spores before inoculation, to implement quality control and decrease batch-to-batch variability. The ability to assess the spore physiologic status with close-to-real time resolution would offer interesting perspectives enhanced process analytical technology (PAT) and quality by design (QbD) strategies. Up to now, the parameters contributing to spore inoculum quality are not clearly defined. The state-of-the-art method to investigate this variable is colony-forming unit (CFU) determination, which assesses the number of growing spores. This procedure is tedious, associated with significant inherent bias, and not applicable in real time.Here, a novel method is presented, based on the combination of viability staining (propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate) and large-particle flow cytometry. It is compatible with the complex medium background often observed in filamentous bioprocesses and allows for a classification of the spores into different subpopulations. Next to viable spores with intact growth potential, dormant or inactive as well as physiologically compromised cells are accurately determined. Hence, a more holistic few on spore inoculum quality and early-phase biomass composition is provided, offering enhanced information content.In an industrially relevant model bioprocess, good correlation to CFU counts was found. Morphological parameters (e.g. spore swelling) that are not accessible via standard monitoring tools were followed over the initial process phase with close temporal resolution. PMID:26820651

  11. Elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms in liquid Culture: Composition and mechanism of protection against allergic asthma in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of a bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia bark extract (BPUBE) from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelia culture against allergic asthma biomarkers in U266B1 leukemia cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cel...

  12. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations of fundamental and harmonic plasma radio emission mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, J. O.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2015-12-01

    Aims: The simulation of three-wave interaction based plasma emission, thought to be the underlying mechanism for Type III solar radio bursts, is a challenging task requiring fully-kinetic, multi-dimensional models. This paper aims to resolve a contradiction in past attempts, whereby some studies indicate that no such processes occur. Methods: We self-consistently simulate three-wave based plasma emission through all stages by using 2D, fully kinetic, electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations of relaxing electron beams using the EPOCH2D code. Results: Here we present the results of two simulations; Run 1 (nb/n0 = 0.0057, vb/ Δvb = vb/Ve = 16) and Run 2 (nb/n0 = 0.05, vb/ Δvb = vb/Ve = 8), which we find to permit and prohibit plasma emission respectively. We show that the possibility of plasma emission is contingent upon the frequency of the initial electrostatic waves generated by the bump-in-tail instability, and that these waves may be prohibited from participating in the necessary three-wave interactions due to frequency conservation requirements. In resolving this apparent contradiction through a comprehensive analysis, in this paper we present the first self-consistent demonstration of fundamental and harmonic plasma emission from a single-beam system via fully kinetic numerical simulation. We caution against simulating astrophysical radio bursts using unrealistically dense beams (a common approach which reduces run time), as the resulting non-Langmuir characteristics of the initial wave modes significantly suppresses emission. Comparison of our results also indicates that, contrary to the suggestions of previous authors, an alternative plasma emission mechanism based on two counter-propagating beams is unnecessary in an astrophysical context. Finally, we also consider the action of the Weibel instability which generates an electromagnetic beam mode. As this provides a stronger contribution to electromagnetic energy than the emission, we stress that

  13. Bioprocessing to improve oat bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Flander, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Oats contain a considerable amount of the soluble fibre β-glucan, which has recently received an authorised cholesterol lowering health claim in all member states of the EU. The healthy and natural image of whole grain oats has made them a desirable ingredient for use in breads. However, the absence of gluten-forming proteins and high fibre content pose technological challenges with respect to product texture. Fundamental understanding of the role of oat components on the structure formation...

  14. A robust method for the joint estimation of yield coefficients and kinetic parameters in bioprocess models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastemans, V; Rooman, M; Bogaerts, Ph

    2009-01-01

    Bioprocess model structures that require nonlinear parameter estimation, thus initialization values, are often subject to poor identification performances because of the uncertainty on those initialization values. Under some conditions on the model structure, it is possible to partially circumvent this problem by an appropriate decoupling of the linear part of the model from the nonlinear part of it. This article provides a procedure to be followed when these structural conditions are not satisfied. An original method for decoupling two sets of parameters, namely, kinetic parameters from maximum growth, production, decay rates, and yield coefficients, is presented. It exhibits the advantage of requiring only initialization of the first subset of parameters. In comparison with a classical nonlinear estimation procedure, in which all the parameters are freed, results show enhanced robustness of model identification with regard to parameter initialization errors. This is illustrated by means of three simulation case studies: a fed-batch Human Embryo Kidney cell cultivation process using a macroscopic reaction scheme description, a process of cyclodextrin-glucanotransferase production by Bacillus circulans, and a process of simultaneous starch saccharification and glucose fermentation to lactic acid by Lactobacillus delbrückii, both based on a Luedeking-Piret model structure. Additionally, perspectives of the presented procedure in the context of systematic bioprocess modeling are promising. PMID:19455623

  15. Membrane bioprocesses for pharmaceutical micropollutant removal from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  16. Bioprocesses: Modelling needs for process evaluation and sustainability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Gonzaléz, Concepcion; Woodley, John

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of process engineers will face a new set of challenges, with the need to devise new bioprocesses, with high selectivity for pharmaceutical manufacture, and for lower value chemicals manufacture based on renewable feedstocks. In this paper the current and predicted future roles...... of process system engineering and life cycle inventory and assessment in the design, development and improvement of sustainable bioprocesses are explored. The existing process systems engineering software tools will prove essential to assist this work. However, the existing tools will also require...... further development such that they can also be used to evaluate processes against sustainability metrics, as well as economics as an integral part of assessments. Finally, property models will also be required based on compounds not currently present in existing databases. It is clear that many new...

  17. Soft sensors in bioprocessing: A status report and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttmann, Reiner; Bracewell, Daniel G.; Cornelissen, Gesine;

    2012-01-01

    The following report with recommendations is the result of an expert panel meeting on soft sensor applications in bioprocess engineering that was organized by the Measurement, Monitoring, Modelling and Control (M3C) Working Group of the European Federation of Biotechnology - Section of Biochemical...... Engineering Science (ESBES). The aim of the panel was to provide an update on the present status of the subject and to identify critical needs and issues for the furthering of the successful development of soft sensor methods in bioprocess engineering research and for industrial applications, in particular...... with focus on biopharmaceutical applications. It concludes with a set of recommendations, which highlight current prospects for the extended use of soft sensors and those areas requiring development....

  18. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias de Cazes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds.

  19. Membrane Bioprocesses for Pharmaceutical Micropollutant Removal from Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cazes, Matthias; Abejón, Ricardo; Belleville, Marie-Pierre; Sanchez-Marcano, José

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review work is to give an overview of the research reported on bioprocesses for the treatment of domestic or industrial wastewaters (WW) containing pharmaceuticals. Conventional WW treatment technologies are not efficient enough to completely remove all pharmaceuticals from water. Indeed, these compounds are becoming an actual public health problem, because they are more and more present in underground and even in potable waters. Different types of bioprocesses are described in this work: from classical activated sludge systems, which allow the depletion of pharmaceuticals by bio-degradation and adsorption, to enzymatic reactions, which are more focused on the treatment of WW containing a relatively high content of pharmaceuticals and less organic carbon pollution than classical WW. Different aspects concerning the advantages of membrane bioreactors for pharmaceuticals removal are discussed, as well as the more recent studies on enzymatic membrane reactors to the depletion of these recalcitrant compounds. PMID:25295629

  20. Bioprocess data mining using regularized regression and random forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Syeda Sakira; Farhan, Muhammad; Mangayil, Rahul; Huttunen, Heikki; Aho, Tommi

    2013-01-01

    Background In bioprocess development, the needs of data analysis include (1) getting overview to existing data sets, (2) identifying primary control parameters, (3) determining a useful control direction, and (4) planning future experiments. In particular, the integration of multiple data sets causes that these needs cannot be properly addressed by regression models that assume linear input-output relationship or unimodality of the response function. Regularized regression and random forests,...

  1. Design of digital learning material for bioprocess-engineering-education

    OpenAIRE

    Schaaf, van der, Martijn

    2007-01-01

    With the advance of computers and the internet, new types of learning material can be developed: web-based digital learning material. Because many complex learning objectives in the food- and bioprocess technology domain are difficult to achieve in a traditional learning environment, a project was started to explore the possibilities of digital learning material to address those learning objectives. The material that has been developed, the choices that led to the material and the lessons lea...

  2. Comparison between conventional chemical processes and bioprocesses in cotton fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2015-01-01

    Textile processing is a growing industry that traditionally has used a lot of water, energy and harsh chemicals. They are also not easily biodegradable. Biotechnology in textiles is one of the revolutionary ways to promote the textile field. Bio-processing were accompanied by a significant lower demand of energy, water, chemicals, time and costs. Due to the ever growing costs for water and energy worldwide investigations are carried out to substitute conventional chemical textile processes by...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g−1, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m2 g−1 and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results

  4. Synthesis and characterization of robust magnetic carriers for bioprocess applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Willian, E-mail: willkopp@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Silva, Felipe A., E-mail: eq.felipe.silva@gmail.com [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Lima, Lionete N., E-mail: lionetenunes@yahoo.com.br [Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Masunaga, Sueli H., E-mail: sueli.masunaga@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Montana State University-MSU, 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Tardioli, Paulo W., E-mail: pwtardioli@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Giordano, Roberto C., E-mail: roberto@ufscar.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Araújo-Moreira, Fernando M., E-mail: faraujo@df.ufscar.br [Department of Physics, Federal University of São Carlos-UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luiz, km 235, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Silica magnetic microparticles were synthesized for applications in bioprocesses. • The process to produce magnetic microparticles is inexpensive and easily scalable. • Microparticles with very high saturation magnetization were obtained. • The structure of the silica magnetic microparticles could be controlled. - Abstract: Magnetic carriers are an effective option to withdraw selected target molecules from complex mixtures or to immobilize enzymes. This paper describes the synthesis of robust silica magnetic microparticles (SMMps), particularly designed for applications in bioprocesses. SMMps were synthesized in a micro-emulsion, using sodium silicate as the silica source and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as the magnetic core. Thermally resistant particles, with high and accessible surface area, narrow particle size distribution, high saturation magnetization, and with superparamagnetic properties were obtained. Several reaction conditions were tested, yielding materials with saturation magnetization between 45 and 63 emu g{sup −1}, particle size between 2 and 200 μm and average diameter between 11.2 and 15.9 μm, surface area between 49 and 103 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and pore diameter between 2 and 60 nm. The performance of SMMps in a bioprocess was evaluated by the immobilization of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase on to octyl modified SMMp, the biocatalyst obtained was used in the production of butyl butyrate with good results.

  5. Bioprocessing in nonaqueous media - critical needs and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, C.D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Blanch, H.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Klibanov, A.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Russell, A.J. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Center for Biotechnology

    1995-01-01

    Chemical conversion processes are pervasive in the U.S. industry. Whether they are used to make intermediate or final products or to remove hazardous materials from process waste streams, they are critical elements in the processing industries. Because of the mild reaction conditions, unique specificity, and selectivity, advanced processing concepts utilizing biocatalytic conversions are now being considered for many industrial uses, including those directly related to energy production and efficiency. Almost all bioprocessing systems currently used by industry utilize the biocatalysts (microorganisms or extracted enzymes) in a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} aqueous environment. This has resulted in many important large-scale applications, particularly in the fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. An exciting new area of bioprocessing research is now evolving - the use of biocatalysts in contact with nonaqueous media such as organic liquids or gases, or supercritical fluids. Such approaches could result in additional bioprocessing concepts that would result in a much broader range of utility, especially in energy production and energy-efficient conversion processes in the chemical industry. In fact, a whole new industry may be evolving.

  6. On-line bioprocess monitoring - an academic discipline or an industrial tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Lisbeth; Schulze, Ulrik; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    Bioprocess monitoring capabilities are gaining increasing Importance bath in physiological studies and in bioprocess development, The present article focuses on on-line analytical systems since these represent the backbone of most bioprocess monitoring systems, both in academia and in industry. We...... discuss advantages and drawbacks of various of the most frequently used components (sampling units, flow systems and detection unit) and analytical techniques, The differences between academia and industry in the use of bioprocess monitoring are discussed, based on the key drivers determining...

  7. Population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli lab scale cultivations simulating industrial scale bioprocesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena

    averaged values. Population distributions always exist, but are significantly pronounced due to a combination of metabolic and stress responses of single cells travelling throughout the reactor experiencing gradients of substrate, pH and oxygen caused by non-ideal mixing in industrial scale bioprocesses....... This thesis aimed at reaching a deeper understanding of how microbial physiology and cell dynamics are affected by the spatial heterogeneity in a bioreactor. Therefore large scale fermentation was simulated in laboratory scale using two of the most industrially relevant organisms E. coli and S...... in a quantitative manner through newly developed parameters, using percentile analysis followed by multivariate statistics as well as using a modeling approach. In general the applied reporter strains as well as fluorescence stains in combination with flow cytometry showed to be valuable tools to...

  8. Diffusion fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion Fundamentals is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary open-access online journal published as a part of the website Diffusion-Fundamentals.org. It publishes original research articles in the field of diffusion and transport. Main research areas include theory, experiments applications, methods and diffusion-like phenomena. The readers of Diffusion Fundamentals are academic or industrial scientists in all research disciplines. The journal aims at providing a broad forum for their c...

  9. Microfluidics-Based Single-Cell Functional Proteomics for Fundamental and Applied Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Zhou, Jing; Sutherland, Alex; Wei, Wei; Shin, Young Shik; Xue, Min; Heath, James R.

    2014-06-01

    We review an emerging microfluidics-based toolkit for single-cell functional proteomics. Functional proteins include, but are not limited to, the secreted signaling proteins that can reflect the biological behaviors of immune cells or the intracellular phosphoproteins associated with growth factor-stimulated signaling networks. Advantages of the microfluidics platforms are multiple. First, 20 or more functional proteins may be assayed simultaneously from statistical numbers of single cells. Second, cell behaviors (e.g., motility) may be correlated with protein assays. Third, extensions to quantized cell populations can permit measurements of cell-cell interactions. Fourth, rare cells can be functionally identified and then separated for further analysis or culturing. Finally, certain assay types can provide a conduit between biology and the physicochemical laws. We discuss the history and challenges of the field then review design concepts and uses of the microchip platforms that have been reported, with an eye toward biomedical applications. We then look to the future of the field.

  10. A Markov Chain Approach for Defining the Fundamental Efficiency Limits of Classical and Bifacial Multi-junction Tandem Solar Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Muhammad A

    2016-01-01

    Bifacial tandem cells promise to reduce three fundamental losses (above-bandgap, below bandgap, and the uncollected light between panels) inherent in classical single junction PV systems. The successive filtering of light through the bandgap cascade, and requirement of current continuity make optimization of tandem cells difficult, accessible only to numerical solution through computer modeling. The challenge is even more complicated for bifacial design. In this paper, we use an elegantly simple Markov chain approach to show that the essential physics of optimization is intuitively obvious, and deeply insightful results can obtained analytically with a few lines of algebra. This powerful approach reproduces, as special cases, all the known results of traditional/bifacial tandem cells, and highlights the asymptotic efficiency gain of these technologies.

  11. Fundamental Research and Development for Improved Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohatgi, A.

    2007-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2002-2006 period toward high-efficiency, low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. This program emphasize fundamental and applied research on commercial substrates and manufacturable technologies. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, technology development, and complete cell fabrication were used to accomplish the goals of this program. This report is divided into five sections that summarize our work on i) PECVD SiN-induced defect passivation (Sections 1 and 2); ii) the effect of material inhomogeneity on the performance of mc-Si solar cells (Section 3); iii) a comparison of light-induced degradation in commercially grown Ga- and B-doped Czochralski Si ingots (Section 4); and iv) the understanding of the formation of high-quality thick-film Ag contacts on high sheet-resistance emitters (Section 5).

  12. Bioprocess development for the production of mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII antibody C12 by suspension culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Suwen; Deng, Lei; Wang, Huamao; Zhuang, Yingping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Siliang; Li, Zhonghai; Guo, Meijin

    2011-01-01

    The mouse-human chimeric anti-epidermal growth factor receptor vIII (EGFRvIII) antibody C12 is a promising candidate for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, 3 processes were successfully developed to produce C12 by cultivation of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-DG44) cells in serum-free medium. The effect of inoculum density was evaluated in batch cultures of shaker flasks to obtain the optimal inoculum density of 5 × 105 cells/mL. Then, the basic metabolic ...

  13. Bioculture System: Expanding ISS Space Bioscience Capabilities for Fundamental Stem Cell Research and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Fitzpatrick, Garret; Ellingson, Lance; Mitchell, Sarah; Yang, Anthony; Kosnik, Cristine; Rayl, Nicole; Cannon, Tom; Austin, Edward; Sato, Kevin

    With the recent call by the 2011 Decadal Report and the 2010 Space Biosciences Roadmap for the International Space Station (ISS) to be used as a National Laboratory for scientific research, there is now a need for new laboratory instruments on ISS to enable such research to occur. The Bioculture System supports the extended culturing of multiple cell types and microbiological specimens. It consists of a docking station that carries ten independent incubation units or ‘Cassettes’. Each Cassette contains a cooling chamber (5(°) C) for temperature sensitive solutions and samples, or long duration fluids and sample storage, as well as an incubation chamber (ambient up to 42(°) C). Each Cassette houses an independent fluidics system comprised of a biochamber, medical-grade fluid tubing, medium warming module, oxygenation module, fluid pump, and sixteen solenoid valves for automated biochamber injections of sampling. The Bioculture System provides the user with the ability to select the incubation temperature, fluid flow rate and automated biochamber sampling or injection events for each separate Cassette. Furthermore, the ISS crew can access the biochamber, media bag, and accessory bags on-orbit using the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The Bioculture System also permits initiation of cultures, subculturing, injection of compounds, and removal of samples for on-orbit processing using ISS facilities. The Bioculture System therefore provides a unique opportunity for the study of stem cells and other cell types in space. The first validation flight of the Bioculture System will be conducted on SpaceX5, consisting of 8 Cassettes and lasting for 30-37 days. During this flight we plan to culture two different mammalian cell types in bioreactors: a mouse osteocytic-like cell line, and human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived cardiomyocytes. Specifically, the osteocytic line will enable the study of a type of cell that has been flown on the Bioculture System

  14. Adaptive control strategies for a class of nonlinear propagation bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the control problem of a class of propagation bio-processes that are carried out in fixed bed reactors. Since the dynamics of these processes are described by partial differential equations, in order to obtain useful models for control purposes, a possible method consists of approximation of their infinitely order associated models by finite order models. A class of nonlinear adaptive controllers are then designed based on these finite order models, which consist of a set of ordinary differential equations obtained here by orthogonal collocation method. Computer simulations conducted in the case of a fixed bed reactor are included to illustrate the performances of the proposed adaptive controllers. (authors)

  15. Upgrading protein products using bioprocessing on agricultural crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulewska, Anna Maria; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Markedal, Keld Ejdrup;

    2015-01-01

    -enriched products with minimized content of antinutritional compounds. For every crop it is a challenge to obtain protein fractions with sufficient added value to make processing economically feasible. In this work we present the characterization of protein products developed in pilot scale using the novel...... sustainability leads to a demand for plant protein products made from locally grown crops. Novel bioprocessing methods have been developed to generate protein products which are nutritious, readily available and do not generate hazardous waste. The processing focus has therefore been on developing protein...

  16. Operator Fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent events show the need for constant attention on the operator fundamentals, in the commercial nuclear industry. The first report about decline in the application of operator fundamentals during plant operational activities and transient situations was issued in July 2005. Analyses of the events recorded during 18 month period between 2010 and 2011 show similar causes and contributors like it was before July 2005. Due to that fact, the WANO issued SOER 2013-1 Operator Fundamentals Weaknesses with proposed suggestions how to analyse area of operator fundamentals and gives recommendations for effective and sustainable corrective actions. Operator fundamentals are the essential knowledge, skills, behaviours, and practices that operating crews need to apply to operate the plant effectively. These fundamentals are as follows: · Monitoring plant indications and conditions closely · Controlling plant evolutions precisely · Operating the plant with a conservative bias · Working effectively as a team · Having a solid understanding of plant design, engineering principles, and sciences. NEK analysed area of operator fundamentals and verified how consistently the basic principles in the plant control are followed in practice. Some opportunities for improvement were recognized for the training area, operational procedures format improvement and improvement in process of preparation of the planned activities during power operation or during plant shutdown. Among other measures, stability in operation with a sufficient safety margin can be achieved only through continuous monitoring of the operational practice and by constant highlighting of the operational standards. (author)

  17. Fundamental aspects of the freezing of cells, with emphasis on mammalian ova and embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem in cryobiology is how to cool cells to -196/sup 0/C and return them to normal temperatures without killing them. One important factor is the presence of a protective additive like glycerol or dimethyl sulfoxide. Mammalian cells rarely survive freezing to below -40/sup 0/C in its absence. In the presence of an additive, survival is critically dependent on the cooling rate. Supraoptimal rates and suboptimal rates are both damaging. Death at supraoptimal rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice and its recrystallization during warming. Death at suboptimal rates is a consequence of the major alterations in aqueous solutions produced by ice formation. The chief effects are a major reduction in the fraction of the solution remaining unfrozen at a given temperature and a major increase in the solute concentration of that fraction. The introduction of molar concentrations of additive greatly reduces both the fraction frozen and the concentration of electrolytes in the unfrozen channels and in the cell interior. Usually, freezing either kills cells outright or it results in survivors that retain full capacity to function. But there is the possibility that in some cases survivors may in fact be impaired genetically or physiologically. All evidence indicates that genetic damage does not occur. But there are clear examples in which freezing does induce nonlethal physiological damage. (ERB)

  18. Nano particles play with electrons: Fundamental research into electron transport inside dye-sensitised solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Were stuck with a chicken-and-egg-problem: solar cells are expensive, so they dont get sold, which keeps the production volume low, so the price remains high.However, within a decade the price of electricity from a solar panel will be comparable to that of conventional mains power, says Dr. Albert G

  19. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  20. On fundamental mechanisms in dye sensitized solar cells through the behaviour of different mesoporous titanium dioxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Lídice; Vigil, Elena; Forcade, Fresnel; Thami, Thierry; Adnani, Hania; Yacou, Christelle; Ayral, André; Saint-Grégoire, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Understanding mechanisms in DSSCs is fundamental for their improvement; this includes the nanocrystalline semiconducting layer behaviour. Different mesoporous TiO2 layers are fabricated and analyzed for possible use in DSSC solar cells. The preparations included the addition of P123 triblock copolymer as structuring agent to the synthesized anatase sol. This preparation was also mixed with Degussa P25 TiO2 nanoparticles in one case and polystyrene latex in another. Mesoporous mixed TiO2-SiO2 thin layers were also analyzed. The diverse morphologies and features are studied by microscopic techniques and by means of spectral quantum efficiency of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) that uses as photoelectrode the unsensitized porous TiO2 layer. Contact angle measurements are also performed. We have found that a very high specific area due to very small nanocrystals and small pores can hinder electrolyte penetration in the pores formed by TiO2 nanograins, affecting photoelectrodes efficiency.

  1. Fundamental High-Speed Limits in Single-Molecule, Single-Cell, and Nanoscale Force Spectroscopies

    OpenAIRE

    Amo, C. A.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Force spectroscopy is enhancing our understanding of single-biomolecule, single-cell, and nanoscale mechanics. Force spectroscopy postulates the proportionality between the interaction force and the instantaneous probe deflection. By studying the probe dynamics, we demonstrate that the total force acting on the probe has three different components: the interaction, the hydrodynamic, and the inertial. The amplitudes of those components depend on the ratio between the resonant frequency and the...

  2. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2003-06-30

    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  3. BIOESTIM: software for automatic design of estimators in bioprocess engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farza, M; Chéruy, A

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes BIOESTIM, a software package devoted to on-line estimation in bioprocess engineering. BIOESTIM enables bioengineers automatically to design state and parameter estimators from a minimal knowledge of the process kinetics. Such estimators allow development of software sensors capable of coping with the lack of reliable instrumentation suited to real-time monitoring. The estimator building procedure through BIOESTIM starts up from a dynamical material balance model of the bioprocess. This model, supplied by the user, is next completed by other information with no requirement for numerical values: the user has only to specify available measurements, coupled reactions and the known yield coefficients. On the base of this knowledge, BIOESTIM proceeds to symbolic algebraic manipulations on the model in order to study estimation possibilities and check identifiability of yield coefficients. When the design of an estimator is possible, the corresponding equations are automatically generated. Moreover, these estimators are stored in a user-specified file which is automatically interfaced with a specialized simulation software including data treatment and numerical integration packages. Thus, the user can simulate the estimator performances under various operational conditions using available experimental measurements. A typical example dealing with microbial growth and biosynthesis reactions is given in order to illustrate the main functional capabilities of BIOESTIM. BIOESTIM has been designed and written in a modular fashion. The module dealing with estimators design makes use of symbolic computation; it is written in Mathematica and runs on every computer on which this language is available. PMID:7828062

  4. Therapeutic antibodies: market considerations, disease targets and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvin, John G; Couston, Ruairidh G; van der Walle, Christopher F

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are well established in mainstream clinical practice and present an exciting area for collaborative research and development in industry and academia alike. In this review, we will provide an overview of the current market and an outlook to 2015, focussing on whole antibody molecules while acknowledging the next generation scaffolds containing variable fragments. The market will be discussed in the context of disease targets, particularly in the areas of oncology and immune disorders which generate the greatest revenue by a wide margin. Emerging targets include central nervous system disorders which will also stimulate new delivery strategies. It is becoming increasingly apparent that a better understanding of bioprocessing is required in order to optimize the steps involved in the preparation of a protein prior to formulation. The latter is outside the scope of this review and nor is it our intention to discuss protein delivery and pharmacokinetics. The challenges that lie ahead include the discovery of new disease targets and the development of robust bioprocessing operations. PMID:22227342

  5. Dynamic optimization of bioprocesses: efficient and robust numerical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Julio R; Balsa-Canto, Eva; Moles, Carmen G; Alonso, Antonio A

    2005-06-29

    The dynamic optimization (open loop optimal control) of non-linear bioprocesses is considered in this contribution. These processes can be described by sets of non-linear differential and algebraic equations (DAEs), usually subject to constraints in the state and control variables. A review of the available solution techniques for this class of problems is presented, highlighting the numerical difficulties arising from the non-linear, constrained and often discontinuous nature of these systems. In order to surmount these difficulties, we present several alternative stochastic and hybrid techniques based on the control vector parameterization (CVP) approach. The CVP approach is a direct method which transforms the original problem into a non-linear programming (NLP) problem, which must be solved by a suitable (efficient and robust) solver. In particular, a hybrid technique uses a first global optimization phase followed by a fast second phase based on a local deterministic method, so it can handle the nonconvexity of many of these NLPs. The efficiency and robustness of these techniques is illustrated by solving several challenging case studies regarding the optimal control of fed-batch bioreactors and other bioprocesses. In order to fairly evaluate their advantages, a careful and critical comparison with several other direct approaches is provided. The results indicate that the two-phase hybrid approach presents the best compromise between robustness and efficiency. PMID:15888349

  6. Neural network programming in bioprocess variable estimation and state prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, P; Zhu, Y H

    1991-12-01

    A neural network program with efficient learning ability for bioprocess variable estimation and state prediction was developed. A 3 layer, feed-forward neural network architecture was used, and the program was written in Quick C ver 2.5 for an IBM compatible computer with a 80486/33 MHz processor. A back propagation training algorithm was used based on learning by pattern and momentum in a combination as used to adjust the connection of weights of the neurons in adjacent layers. The delta rule was applied in a gradient descent search technique to minimize a cost function equal to the mean square difference between the target and the network output. A non-linear, sigmoidal logistic transfer function was used in squashing the weighted sum of the inputs of each neuron to a limited range output. A good neural network prediction model was obtained by training with a sequence of past time course data of a typical bioprocess. The well trained neural network estimated accurately and rapidly the state variables with or without noise even under varying process dynamics. PMID:1367695

  7. Fundamental High-Speed Limits in Single-Molecule, Single-Cell, and Nanoscale Force Spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-07-26

    Force spectroscopy is enhancing our understanding of single-biomolecule, single-cell, and nanoscale mechanics. Force spectroscopy postulates the proportionality between the interaction force and the instantaneous probe deflection. By studying the probe dynamics, we demonstrate that the total force acting on the probe has three different components: the interaction, the hydrodynamic, and the inertial. The amplitudes of those components depend on the ratio between the resonant frequency and the frequency at which the data are measured. A force-distance curve provides a faithful measurement of the interaction force between two molecules when the inertial and hydrodynamic components are negligible. Otherwise, force spectroscopy measurements will underestimate the value of unbinding forces. Neglecting the above force components requires the use of frequency ratios in the 50-500 range. These ratios will limit the use of high-speed methods in force spectroscopy. The theory is supported by numerical simulations. PMID:27359243

  8. Pushing structural limits to reveal fundamental mechanisms of organic solar cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry

    2015-03-01

    Organic-based solar cells are beginning to emerge with the potential to compete with other thin film photovoltaic technologies, with efficiencies of 12% recently demonstrated. Unique to the function of organic photovoltaics are the creation of tightly bound excitons that can only be efficiently separated at a donor/acceptor (D/A) interface capable of providing the necessary energetic driving force for dissociation. The consequences of this are the need for long exciton diffusion lengths and the presence of charge transfer (CT) states, ground state complexes that exist at the D/A interface. We have found that charge transfer states are more easily separated into free charge if they are delocalized; an aspect that becomes most feasible for highly ordered systems. I will discuss our recent efforts to template and control film morphology and molecular orientation. These studies allow us to understand the importance of molecular orientation, crystallite size, and crystal phase. We will show templated devices utilizing neat films as well as bulk heterojunctions, with crystallite dimensions spanning from the more standard nano-sized grains to those with highly ordered micron-sized crystalline domains revealing unprecedented thin film exciton diffusion lengths of 100s of nm. In these highly ordered films, owing to significant delocalization, we are able to directly measure photocurrent from multiple CT states, an aspect which has important consequences for the design of more efficient photocurrent generation. We acknowledge support from DOE BES Grant #11493344.

  9. Self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations of fundamental and harmonic plasma radio emission mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Thurgood, J O

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The simulation of three-wave interaction based plasma emission, thought to be the underlying mechanism for Type III solar radio bursts, is a challenging task requiring fully-kinetic, multi-dimensional models. This paper aims to resolve a contradiction in past attempts, whereby some studies indicate that no such processes occur. Methods. We self-consistently simulate three-waved based plasma emission through all stages by using 2D, fully kinetic, electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations of relaxing electron beams using the EPOCH2D code. Results. Here we present the results of two simulations; Run 1 (nb/n0 = 0.0057, vb/{\\Delta}vb = vb/Ve = 16) and Run 2 (nb/n0 = 0.05, vb/{\\Delta}vb = vb/Ve = 8), which we find to permit and prohibit plasma emission respectively. We show that the possibility of plasma emission is contingent upon the frequency of the initial electrostatic waves generated by the bump-in-tail instability, and that these waves may be prohibited from participating in the necessary three-wave...

  10. Use of operating windows in the assessment of integrated robotic systems for the measurement of bioprocess kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealon, Anthony J; Willson, Karen E; Pickering, Samuel C R; Clayton, Tim M; O'Kennedy, Ronan D; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J; Lye, Gary J

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the utility of an automated liquid handling robot integrated with a microwell plate reader to enable the rapid acquisition of bioprocess kinetic data. The relationship between the key parameters for liquid handling accuracy and precision and the sample detection period has been characterized for typical low-viscosity (platform to be assessed once the user has determined the minimum sample detection period and the minimum accurate and precise dispense volume. This provides for a reduction in the duration of any experiment by maximizing well usage within each microwell plate. The suitability of employing an integrated automation platform to gather kinetic data for systems typical of those encountered in bioprocessing is analyzed via a series of case studies. Application to alkaline cell lysis, where disruption is complete within 120 s, showed that the range of available dispense volumes and the number of wells that can be utilized is limited. In contrast, analysis of a system exhibiting slow process kinetics, the fermentation of Escherichia coli TOP10 pQR239 in microwell plates, demonstrated that, for a typical sample detection period of 30 min, the only restrictions on the degree of well utilization are the liquid handling accuracy and precision and the volume capacity of the liquid handling robot. Finally, liquid-liquid extraction, an example of a kinetically independent operation, was also examined. In this case, only a single equilibrium measurement is required, which means that the only restrictions to the utilization of the integrated devices are the liquid handling accuracy and precision. Integrated automation platforms represent a powerful process development tool over traditional experimental methods used for bioprocess development. Smaller volumes of reagent and sample can be used to achieve greater throughput, while high levels of reproducibility and sensitivity are maintained. PMID:15903267

  11. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  12. Single cell oil production by Mortierella isabellina from steam exploded corn stover degraded by three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in the context of on-site enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hao; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Shaolin

    2016-09-01

    Single cell oil (SCO), promising as alternative oil source, was produced from steam exploded corn stover (SECS) by Mortierella isabellina. Different bioprocesses from SECS to SCO were compared and the bioprocess C using the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis was found to be the most efficient one. The bioprocess C used the lowest enzyme input 20FPIU cellulase/g glucan and the shortest time 222h, but produced 44.94g dry cell biomass and 25.77g lipid from 327.63g dry SECS. It had the highest lipid content 57.34%, and its productivities and yields were much higher than those of the bioprocess B and comparable to the bioprocess A, indicating that the three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis could greatly improve the efficiency of the bioprocess from high solid loading SECS to SCO by Mortierella isabellina. This work testified the application value of three-stage enzymatic hydrolysis in lignocellulose-based bioprocesses. PMID:27343451

  13. Advances and Practices of Bioprocess Scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jianye; Wang, Guan; Lin, Jihan; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-01-01

    : This chapter addresses the update progress in bioprocess engineering. In addition to an overview of the theory of multi-scale analysis for fermentation process, examples of scale-up practice combining microbial physiological parameters with bioreactor fluid dynamics are also described. Furthermore, the methodology for process optimization and bioreactor scale-up by integrating fluid dynamics with biokinetics is highlighted. In addition to a short review of the heterogeneous environment in large-scale bioreactor and its effect, a scale-down strategy for investigating this issue is addressed. Mathematical models and simulation methodology for integrating flow field in the reactor and microbial kinetics response are described. Finally, a comprehensive discussion on the advantages and challenges of the model-driven scale-up method is given at the end of this chapter. PMID:25636486

  14. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs

  15. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  16. Systematic Development of Miniaturized (Bio)Processes using Process Systems Engineering (PSE) Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Krühne, Ulrich; Larsson, Hilde; Heintz, Søren; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer; Pereira Rosinha, Ines; Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Andrade Santacoloma, Paloma de Gracia; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this work is on process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools, and especially on how such PSE methods and tools can be used to accelerate and support systematic bioprocess development at a miniature scale. After a short presentation of the PSE methods and the bioprocess development drivers, three case studies are presented. In the first example it is demonstrated how experimental investigations of the bi-enzymatic production of lactobionic acid can be modeled with h...

  17. Exploiting the inter-strain divergence of Fusarium oxysporum for microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Shahin S; Khan, Mojibur; Fagan, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Fiona M Doohan

    2012-01-01

    Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. A targeted evolution-based study was undertaken to determine if inter-strain microbial variability could be exploited for bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol. The microorganism studied was Fusarium oxysporum because of its capacity to both saccharify and ferment lignocellulose. Strains of F. oxysporum were isolated and assessed for their genetic variability. Using optimis...

  18. Modular Optimization of a Hemicellulose-Utilizing Pathway in Corynebacterium glutamicum for Consolidated Bioprocessing of Hemicellulosic Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sung Sun; Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Se Hwa; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2016-04-15

    Hemicellulose, which is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose, has the potential to become a major feedstock for microbial fermentation to produce various biofuels and chemicals. To utilize hemicellulose economically, it is necessary to develop a consolidated bioprocess (CBP), in which all processes from biomass degradation to the production of target products occur in a single bioreactor. Here, we report a modularly engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum strain suitable for CBP using hemicellulosic biomass (xylan) as a feedstock. The hemicellulose-utilizing pathway was divided into three distinct modules, and each module was separately optimized. In the module for xylose utilization, the expression level of the xylose isomerase (xylA) and xylulokinase (xylB) genes was optimized with synthetic promoters of different strengths. Then, the module for xylose transport was engineered with combinatorial sets of synthetic promoters and heterologous transporters to achieve the fastest cell growth rate on xylose (0.372 h(-1)). Next, the module for the enzymatic degradation of xylan to xylose was also engineered with different combinations of promoters and signal peptides to efficiently secrete both endoxylanase and xylosidase into the extracellular medium. Finally, each optimized module was integrated into a single plasmid to construct a highly efficient xylan-utilizing pathway. Subsequently, the direct production of lysine from xylan was successfully demonstrated with the engineered pathway. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the development of a consolidated bioprocessing C. glutamicum strain for hemicellulosic biomass. PMID:26808593

  19. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined. PMID:11401791

  20. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, ?. For example, the standard model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers or scales? they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as ?, c, G, e and k ?, are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense, only dimensionless constants are 'fundamental'. Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental 'constants' of nature is operationally well defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as ? or ? on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might disagree depending on their apparatus. All these confusions disappear if one asks only unit-independent questions. We provide a selection of opposing opinions in the literature and respond accordingly.

  1. How fundamental are fundamental constants?

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, M J

    2014-01-01

    I argue that the laws of physics should be independent of one's choice of units or measuring apparatus. This is the case if they are framed in terms of dimensionless numbers such as the fine structure constant, alpha. For example, the Standard Model of particle physics has 19 such dimensionless parameters whose values all observers can agree on, irrespective of what clock, rulers, scales... they use to measure them. Dimensional constants, on the other hand, such as h, c, G, e, k..., are merely human constructs whose number and values differ from one choice of units to the next. In this sense only dimensionless constants are "fundamental". Similarly, the possible time variation of dimensionless fundamental "constants" of nature is operationally well-defined and a legitimate subject of physical enquiry. By contrast, the time variation of dimensional constants such as c or G on which a good many (in my opinion, confusing) papers have been written, is a unit-dependent phenomenon on which different observers might...

  2. Nano-tubular cellulose for bioprocess technology development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios A Koutinas

    Full Text Available Delignified cellulosic material has shown a significant promotional effect on the alcoholic fermentation as yeast immobilization support. However, its potential for further biotechnological development is unexploited. This study reports the characterization of this tubular/porous cellulosic material, which was done by SEM, porosimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry. The results showed that the structure of nano-tubular cellulose (NC justifies its suitability for use in "cold pasteurization" processes and its promoting activity in bioprocessing (fermentation. The last was explained by a glucose pump theory. Also, it was demonstrated that crystallization of viscous invert sugar solutions during freeze drying could not be otherwise achieved unless NC was present. This effect as well as the feasibility of extremely low temperature fermentation are due to reduction of the activation energy, and have facilitated the development of technologies such as wine fermentations at home scale (in a domestic refrigerator. Moreover, NC may lead to new perspectives in research such as the development of new composites, templates for cylindrical nano-particles, etc.

  3. Consolidated bioprocessing of starchy substrates into ethanol by industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains secreting fungal amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Lorenzo; Viktor, Marko J; Rose, Shaunita H; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda; van Zyl, Willem H; Basaglia, Marina; Cagnin, Lorenzo; Casella, Sergio

    2015-09-01

    The development of a yeast strain that converts raw starch to ethanol in one step (called Consolidated Bioprocessing, CBP) could significantly reduce the commercial costs of starch-based bioethanol. An efficient amylolytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain suitable for industrial bioethanol production was developed in this study. Codon-optimized variants of the Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase (TLG1) and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera α-amylase (SFA1) genes were δ-integrated into two S. cerevisiae yeast with promising industrial traits, i.e., strains M2n and MEL2. The recombinant M2n[TLG1-SFA1] and MEL2[TLG1-SFA1] yeast displayed high enzyme activities on soluble and raw starch (up to 8118 and 4461 nkat/g dry cell weight, respectively) and produced about 64 g/L ethanol from 200 g/L raw corn starch in a bioreactor, corresponding to 55% of the theoretical maximum ethanol yield (g of ethanol/g of available glucose equivalent). Their starch-to-ethanol conversion efficiencies were even higher on natural sorghum and triticale substrates (62 and 73% of the theoretical yield, respectively). This is the first report of direct ethanol production from natural starchy substrates (without any pre-treatment or commercial enzyme addition) using industrial yeast strains co-secreting both a glucoamylase and α-amylase. PMID:25786804

  4. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. Supercritical fluids technology in bioprocess industries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Khosravi Darani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF science and moves on to the biotechnological applications of them e.g. removal of biostatic agents from fermentation broths, SCF disruption of microorganisms, destruction of industrial waste, the gas-antisolvent crystallization and micron-size particle formation. Also gaining ground is enzymatic catalysis in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, which offers the possibility of integrated synthesis product recovery processes. The paper is structured as follows: first, the effects of dense SC-CO2 on the extraction of biomaterials and disruption of cells are thoroughly reported and discussed. Then the application of SC-CO2 in particle formation and modifications of biopolymers and enzymes are described. In general, the article is focused on potential bio-industrial applications and future research needs of the SCF technology. Keywords: Biotechnology, Supercritical Fluids (SCF, disruption, inactivation, extraction, downstream, particle formation Received: 10 October 2009 / Received in revised form: 30 January 2010, Accepted: 30 January 2010, Published online: 10 March 2010

  6. Fundamental gap of fundamental biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likhacheva L. I.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article raises the problems of intracellular spatial and temporal organization of metabolism, signaling, and energy supply of these processes. To provide cell functions, the enzymes of metabolic chains, molecules of signaling pathways, and macroergs (as units of molecular interactions, accompanied by energy consumption should find their partners and get their precise spatial relationship. The current views are based on ideas of compartmentalization of all processes as local sites of cellular matrix membrane, where specific stages of different metabolic cycles take place. The assembly of complexes of macromolecules in the number and combinations, required for their adequate functioning in the space of a cell, is generally described as intracellular transport of vesicles, implemented by mobile elements of cytoskeleton. Inside the vesicle there is «effective load» – macromolecules. The membranes of these vesicles fuse with specific sites of the matrix membranes and therefore relocate macromolecules. Neither calculations nor assumptions allow explaining precise formation of enzymatic chains, their interaction, signaling, etc. on this basis. Such transport of macromolecules (inside vesicles enables solving other tasks. The concept of search-and-address systems in the form of space-scanning micro vesicles is proposed and well-grounded for purposes of searching for partners, forming chains and complexes, and building compartments. The micro vesicles collect corresponding chains of enzymes, signaling, and ensure the interactions on their surface. These micro vesicles are exactly those compartments, which provide for both precision of processes and their relationship.

  7. Gas cell based on optical contacting for fundamental spectroscopy studies with initial reference absorption spectrum of H2O vapor at 1723 K and 0.0235 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Scott T.; Sanders, Scott T.

    2016-09-01

    A gas cell, using optically contacted sapphire windows to form a hot vapor seal, has been created for high temperature fundamental spectroscopy studies. It is designed to operate at temperatures from 280-2273 K and pressures from vacuum to 1.3 bar. Using the cell in conjunction with an external cavity diode laser spectrometer, a reference H2O vapor absorption spectrum at P=0.0235±0.0036 bar and T=1723±6 K was measured with 0.0001 cm-1 resolution over the 7326-7598 cm-1 range. Comparison of the measured spectrum to simulations reveals errors in both the HITEMP and BT2 databases. This work establishes heated static cell capabilities at temperatures well above the typical limit of approximately 1300 K set by quartz material properties. This paper addresses the design of the cell as well as the cell's limitations.

  8. From Process Development to Manufacturing: Lab-Intensive Courses in Downstream Bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleskie, Gary L.; Reeves, Baley A.

    2014-01-01

    Most chemical engineering graduates work in industry, a fact that underscores the need for courses to provide experiences that prepare them for industry. The Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University has addressed this need by developing and delivering a comprehensive downstream bioprocessing program…

  9. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed ai

  10. Production of polyol oils from soybean oil by bioprocess and Philippines edible medicinal wild mushrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have been trying to develop a bioprocess for the production of polyol oils directly from soybean oil. We reported earlier the polyol products produced from soybean oil by Acinetobacter haemolyticus A01-35 (NRRL B-59985) (Hou and Lin, 2013). The objective of this study is to identify the chemical ...

  11. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  12. Supercritical fluids technology in bioprocess industries: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kianoush Khosravi Darani; Mohammad Reza Mozafari

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) science and moves on to the biotechnological applications of them e.g. removal of biostatic agents from fermentation broths, SCF disruption of microorganisms, destruction of industrial waste, the gas-antisolvent crystallization and micron-size particle formation. Also gaining ground is enzymatic catalysis in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), which offers the possibility of integrated synthesis product recovery processes. ...

  13. A low-cost computer-controlled Arduino-based educational laboratory system for teaching the fundamentals of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachariadou, K.; Yiasemides, K.; Trougkakos, N.

    2012-11-01

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental concepts of semiconductor physics by exploring the process of an experimental physics inquiry. The system runs under the Windows operating system and is composed of a data acquisition/control board, a power supply and processing boards, sensing elements, a graphical user interface and data analysis software. The data acquisition/control board is based on the Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform. The graphical user interface and communication with the Arduino are developed in C# and C++ programming languages respectively, by using IDE Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Professional, which is freely available to students. Finally, the data analysis is performed by using the open source, object-oriented framework ROOT. Currently the system supports five teaching activities, each one corresponding to an independent tab in the user interface. SolarInsight has been partially developed in the context of a diploma thesis conducted within the Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus under the co-supervision of the Physics and Electronic Computer Systems departments’ academic staff.

  14. A low-cost computer-controlled Arduino-based educational laboratory system for teaching the fundamentals of photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a low-cost, fully computer-controlled, Arduino-based, educational laboratory (SolarInsight) to be used in undergraduate university courses concerned with electrical engineering and physics. The major goal of the system is to provide students with the necessary instrumentation, software tools and methodology in order to learn fundamental concepts of semiconductor physics by exploring the process of an experimental physics inquiry. The system runs under the Windows operating system and is composed of a data acquisition/control board, a power supply and processing boards, sensing elements, a graphical user interface and data analysis software. The data acquisition/control board is based on the Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform. The graphical user interface and communication with the Arduino are developed in C number sign and C++ programming languages respectively, by using IDE Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Professional, which is freely available to students. Finally, the data analysis is performed by using the open source, object-oriented framework ROOT. Currently the system supports five teaching activities, each one corresponding to an independent tab in the user interface. SolarInsight has been partially developed in the context of a diploma thesis conducted within the Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus under the co-supervision of the Physics and Electronic Computer Systems departments’ academic staff. (paper)

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Fang, Jun; Liu, Zhixiang; Tang, Junhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the techno-economic evaluation of a combined bioprocess based on solid state fermentation for fermentative hydrogen production from food waste was carried out. The hydrogen production plant was assumed to be built in Hangzhou and designed for converting 3 ton food waste per day into hydrogen. The total capital cost (TCC) and the annual production cost (APC) were US$583092 and US$88298.1/year, respectively. The overall revenue after the tax was US$146473.6/year. The return on investment (ROI), payback period (PBP) and internal rate of return (IRR) of the plant were 26.75%, 5 years and 24.07%, respectively. The results exhibited that the combined bioprocess for hydrogen production from food waste was feasible. This is an important study for attracting investment and industrialization interest for hydrogen production from food waste in the industrial scale. PMID:26706723

  16. A solid-state bioprocess for selecting lipase-producing filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Luciane Maria; Rezzadori, Kátia; Câmara, Stela Kochenborger; Debon, Janaina; Tibolla, Márcia; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state bioprocess with wheat bran and rice husk as substrate was used to isolate filamentous fungi with lipase activity from dairy effluent and soil contaminated with diesel oil. The lipase activity was measured in units, with one unit (U) being defined as the amount of enzyme required to liberate 1 micromol of fatty acids per minute per gram of bran substrate (1 U = 1 micromol min(-1) g(-1)). We obtained 24 isolates of filamentous fungi with lipase activity, 17 from the dairy effluent and 7 from the diesel oil-contaminated soil. The best lipase producers were the dairy effluent isolate Aspergillus E-6, with a maximum lipase activity of 49.81 U, and Aspergillus isolate O-4 recovered from the diesel oil-contaminated soil, with a maximum lipase activity of 45.49 U. Both isolates produced their maximum lipase activity eight days after the start of the bioprocess. PMID:19323278

  17. Fundamental studies of materials, designs, and models development for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell flow field distributors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikam, Vaibhav Vilas

    Fuel cells are becoming a popular source of energy due to their promising performance and availability. However, the high cost of fuel cell stack forbids its deployment to end user. Moreover, bipolar plate is one of the critical components in current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system, causing severe increase in manufacturing cost. The objective of this research work is to develop new materials, design and manufacturing process for bipolar plates. The materials proposed for use were tested for corrosion resistance in simulated fuel cell conditions. After corrosion studies copper alloy (C17200) and Low Temperature Carburized (LTC) SS 316 were selected as an alternative material for bipolar plate. It was observed that though the copper alloy offered good resistance in corrosive atmosphere, the major advantage of using the alloys was good conductivity even after formation of corrosion layer compared to SS 316. However, LTC SS 316 achieved the best corrosion resistance (ever reported in current open literature at relatively low cost) with decreased contact resistance, as compared to SS 316. Due to the expensive and tedious machining for bipolar plate manufacturing, the conventional machining process was not used. Bipolar plates were manufactured from thin corrugated sheets formed of the alloy. This research also proposed a novel single channel convoluted flow field design which was developed by increasing the tortuosity of conventional serpentine design. The CFD model for novel single channel convoluted design showed uniform distribution of velocity over the entire three dimensional domain. The novel design was further studied using pressure drop and permeability models. These modeling calculations showed substantial benefit in using corrugated sheet design and novel single channel convoluted flow field design. All the concepts of materials (except for LTC SS 316), manufacturing and design are validated using various tests like long term stability

  18. More Than Meets the Eye in Bacterial Cellulose: Biosynthesis, Bioprocessing, and Applications in Advanced Fiber Composites.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K Y; Buldum, G.; Mantalaris, A.; Bismarck, A.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers are one of the stiffest organic materials produced by nature. It consists of pure cellulose without the impurities that are commonly found in plant-based cellulose. This review discusses the metabolic pathways of cellulose-producing bacteria and the genetic pathways of Acetobacter xylinum. The fermentative production of BC and the bioprocess parameters for the cultivation of bacteria are also discussed. The influence of the composition of the culture medium...

  19. A new adaptive scheme for the adaptive linearizing control of bioprocesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, E. C.; Azevedo, S. Feyo de

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the development of model-based adaptive control algorithms for bioprocess operation. Non-linear adaptive control laws are proposed for single input single output regulation. Parameters are continuously adapted following a new adaptive scheme which ensures second-order dynamics of the parameter error system. A computational study is presented of the application of this theory to baker’s yeast fermentation. Results put in evidence the efficient performance both of ...

  20. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Goyal, Garima

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE THESISConsolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast ConsortiumbyGarima GoyalMaster of ScienceChemical and Environmental Engineering Graduate ProgramUniversity of California, Riverside, March 2011Dr. Wilfred Chen, ChairpersonFossil fuels have been the major source for liquid transportation fuels for ages. However, decline in oil reserves and environmental concerns have raised a lot of interest in alternative and renewable energy ...

  1. Bioprocessing with enzymes and lactic acid bacteria for production of new functional faba bean ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Karsma, Anni

    2015-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.) is a nutritious high protein crop widely cultivated for uses of both food and feed. Its use has limited due to presence of anti-nutritional factors, including phytic acid, bitter taste and poor technological functionality. Phytic acid is the major storage of phosphorus in cereals and legumes lowering the bioavailability of proteins and micronutrients. The aim of this master’s thesis was to study the impacts of bioprocessing with enzymes and lactic acid bacteria on bo...

  2. Parameter Identification of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Bioprocesses Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Sendrescu

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the offline parameters identification for a class of wastewater treatment bioprocesses using particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques. Particle swarm optimization is a relatively new heuristic method that has produced promising results for solving complex optimization problems. In this paper one uses some variants of the PSO algorithm for parameter estimation of an anaerobic wastewater treatment process that is a complex biotechnological system. The identification sc...

  3. Bioprocess automation on a Mini Pilot Plant enables fast quantitative microbial phenotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Unthan, Simon; Radek, Andreas; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Noack, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background The throughput of cultivation experiments in bioprocess development has drastically increased in recent years due to the availability of sophisticated microliter scale cultivation devices. However, as these devices still require time-consuming manual work, the bottleneck was merely shifted to media preparation, inoculation and finally the analyses of cultivation samples. A first step towards solving these issues was undertaken in our former study by embedding a BioLector in a robot...

  4. An automated workflow for enhancing microbial bioprocess optimization on a novel microbioreactor platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohe Peter

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput methods are widely-used for strain screening effectively resulting in binary information regarding high or low productivity. Nevertheless achieving quantitative and scalable parameters for fast bioprocess development is much more challenging, especially for heterologous protein production. Here, the nature of the foreign protein makes it impossible to predict the, e.g. best expression construct, secretion signal peptide, inductor concentration, induction time, temperature and substrate feed rate in fed-batch operation to name only a few. Therefore, a high number of systematic experiments are necessary to elucidate the best conditions for heterologous expression of each new protein of interest. Results To increase the throughput in bioprocess development, we used a microtiter plate based cultivation system (Biolector which was fully integrated into a liquid-handling platform enclosed in laminar airflow housing. This automated cultivation platform was used for optimization of the secretory production of a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisi with Corynebacterium glutamicum. The online monitoring of biomass, dissolved oxygen and pH in each of the microtiter plate wells enables to trigger sampling or dosing events with the pipetting robot used for a reliable selection of best performing cutinase producers. In addition to this, further automated methods like media optimization and induction profiling were developed and validated. All biological and bioprocess parameters were exclusively optimized at microtiter plate scale and showed perfect scalable results to 1 L and 20 L stirred tank bioreactor scale. Conclusions The optimization of heterologous protein expression in microbial systems currently requires extensive testing of biological and bioprocess engineering parameters. This can be efficiently boosted by using a microtiter plate cultivation setup embedded into a liquid-handling system, providing more throughput

  5. Development of bioprocesses based in biphasic media involving the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, N.; Gonçalves, C; Lopes, M.; Aguedo, Mario; Teixeira, J. A.; M. Mota; Belo, I.

    2008-01-01

    Yarrowia lipolytica has been intensively used in our research group to develop different bioprocesses based in the ability of this yeast to use hydrophobic substrates. Work has been focused in the optimization of the production of y-decalactone and lipase, and to degrade and detoxify olive oil wastewater producing simultaneously high-value compounds, such as enzymes. Studies of the oxygen mass transfer phenomenon in biphasic media was also conducted and applied to select the mo...

  6. Proof-of-concept of a novel micro-bioreactor for fast development of industrial bioprocesses

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, N; C. N. Gonçalves; Vicente, A.A.; Teixeira, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The experimental performance of a novel micro-bioreactor envisaged for parallel screening and development of industrial bioprocesses has been tested in this work. The micro-bioreactor with an internal volume of 4.5mL is operated under oscillatory flow mixing (OFM), where a controllable mixing and mass transfer rates are achieved under batch or continuous laminar flow conditions. Several batch fermentations with a flocculent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain were carried out at initi...

  7. Enhanced oxygen transfer rate and bioprocess yield by using magnetite nanoparticles in fermentation media of erythromycin

    OpenAIRE

    Labbeiki, Ghazal; Attar, Hossein; Heydarinasab, Amir; Sorkhabadi, Sayed; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite nanoparticles have widespread biomedical applications. In the aerobic bioprocesses, oxygen is a limiting factor for the microbial metabolic rate; hence a high availability of oxygen in the medium is crucial for high fermentation productivity. This study aimed to examine the effect of using magnetite nanoparticles on oxygen transfer rate in erythromycin fermentation culture. Methods Magnetite nanoparticles were synthetized through co-precipitation method. After observing t...

  8. Kupffer Cells Undergo Fundamental Changes during the Development of Experimental NASH and Are Critical in Initiating Liver Damage and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. T.; Reyes, J. L.; McDonald, B. A.; Vo, T.; Reimer, R. A.; Eksteen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has become the leading liver disease in North America and is associated with the progressive inflammatory liver disease non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Considerable effort has been made to understand the role of resident and recruited macrophage populations in NASH however numerous questions remain. Our goal was to characterize the dynamic changes in liver macrophages during the initiation of NASH in a murine model. Using the methionine-choline deficient diet we found that liver-resident macrophages, Kupffer cells were lost early in disease onset followed by a robust infiltration of Ly-6C+ monocyte-derived macrophages that retained a dynamic phenotype. Genetic profiling revealed distinct patterns of inflammatory gene expression between macrophage subsets. Only early depletion of liver macrophages using liposomal clodronate prevented the development of NASH in mice suggesting that Kupffer cells are critical for the orchestration of inflammation during experimental NASH. Increased understanding of these dynamics may allow us to target potentially harmful populations whilst promoting anti-inflammatory or restorative populations to ultimately guide the development of effective treatment strategies. PMID:27454866

  9. Elm Tree (Ulmus parvifolia) Bark Bioprocessed with Mycelia of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) Mushrooms in Liquid Culture: Composition and Mechanism of Protection against Allergic Asthma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2016-02-01

    Mushrooms can break down complex plant materials into smaller, more digestible and bioactive compounds. The present study investigated the antiasthma effect of an Ulmus parvifolia bark extract bioprocessed in Lentinus edodes liquid mycelium culture (BPUBE) against allergic asthma in chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/challenged mice. BPUBE suppressed total IgE release from U266B1 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Inhibitory activity of BPUBE against OVA-specific IgE secretion in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was observed in OVA-sensitized/challenged asthmatic mice. BPUBE also inhibited OVA-specific IgG and IgG1 secretion into serum from the allergic mice, suggesting the restoration of a Th2-biased immune reaction to a Th1/Th2-balanced status, as indicated by the Th1/Th2 as well as regulatory T cell (Treg) cytokine profile changes caused by BPUBE in serum or BALF. Inflammatory cell counts in BALF and lung histology showed that leukocytosis and eosinophilia induced by OVA-sensitization/challenge were inhibited by the oral administration of BPUBE. Amelioration of eosinophil infiltration near the trachea was associated with reduced eotaxin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Changes in proinflammatory mediator levels in BALF suggest that BPUBE decreased OVA-sensitization-induced elevation of leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The finding that asthma-associated biomarker levels of OVA-sensitized/challenged mice were much more inhibited with BPUBE treatment than NPUBE (not-bioprocessed Ulmus parvifolia extract) treatment suggested the production of new bioactive compounds by the mushroom mycelia that may be involved in enhancing the observed antiasthmatic properties. The possible relation of the composition determined by proximate analysis and GC/MS to observed bioactivity is discussed. The results suggest that the elm tree (Ulmus parvifolia) bark bioprocessed with mycelia of shiitake (Lentinus edodes

  10. Artificial intelligence and the supervision of bioprocesses (real-time knowledge-based systems and neural networks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynsley, M; Hofland, A; Morris, A J; Montague, G A; Di Massimo, C

    1993-01-01

    The ability to supervise and control a highly non-linear and time variant bioprocess is of considerable importance to the biotechnological industries which are continually striving to obtain higher yields and improved uniformity of production. Two AI methodologies aimed at contributing to the overall intelligent monitoring and control of bioprocess operations are discussed. The development and application of a real-time knowledge-based system to provide supervisory control of fed-batch bioprocesses is reviewed. The system performs sensor validation, fault detection and diagnosis and incorporates relevant expertise and experience drawn from both bioprocess engineering and control engineering domains. A complementary approach, that of artificial neural networks is also addressed. The development of neural network modelling tools for use in bioprocess state estimation and inferential control are reviewed. An attractive characteristic of neural networks is that with the appropriate topology any non-linear functional relationship can be modelled, hence significantly reducing model-process mismatch. Results from industrial applications are presented. PMID:8460575

  11. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  12. On the fundamental Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derivation of a fundamental object associated with internal symmetry is discussed. The form of the fundamental lagrangian is supposed to be known. The fundamental object is similar to an energy-momentum tensor having external space-time symmetry as a source

  13. Transplant of bone marrow and cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in pediatric practice, revisited according to the fundamental principles of bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G R; Locatelli, F

    1997-06-01

    The two most widely used sources of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplants in pediatric practice are bone marrow (BM) and cord blood (CB). While bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is reaching its 30th year of application, human umbilical cord blood transplantation (HUCBT) is approaching its 10th. Although these procedures have basically the same purpose, a number of biological differences distinguish them. In particular, the intrinsically limited quantity of CB stem cells and their immunological naiveté confer peculiar characteristics to these hematopoietic progenitors. From a bioethical point of view, the problems which have repeatedly been raised when the BM donor is a child are well-known. Different but no less important ethical problems are raised when one considers HUCBT; in this regard the most important issues are the easier propensity of programming a CB donor in comparison with a BM donor (clearly due to the shorter time interval needed to collect the hematopoietic progenitors); the in utero HLA-typing; the implication of employing 'blood belonging to a neonate' for a third party; the need to perform a number of investigations both on the CB of the donor and on the mother and the implications that the discovery of disease may have for them, but also the need to establish banks for storing CB, with the accompanying administration and management problems. All these different aspects of UCBT will be discussed in the light of the four fundamental and traditional principles of bioethics, namely autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. PMID:9208108

  14. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  16. Parameter Identification of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Bioprocesses Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sendrescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the offline parameters identification for a class of wastewater treatment bioprocesses using particle swarm optimization (PSO techniques. Particle swarm optimization is a relatively new heuristic method that has produced promising results for solving complex optimization problems. In this paper one uses some variants of the PSO algorithm for parameter estimation of an anaerobic wastewater treatment process that is a complex biotechnological system. The identification scheme is based on a multimodal numerical optimization problem with high dimension. The performances of the method are analyzed by numerical simulations.

  17. New perspectives for the petroleum industry. Bioprocesses for the selective removal of sulphur, nitrogen and metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel biocatalytic conversion is a process that removes, through selective enzyme-catalyzed reactions, sulphur, nitrogen and metals. The mild operating conditions, the specificity of reactions and the quality of coproducts (particularly the organo sulphur compounds, a source for the petrochemical industry) are just a few of the attractive aspects of this new technology which could open a new world of possibilities in the technology and in the environmental impact of fuels. The paper shows the state-of-the-art of the research and applications of bioprocesses to the petroleum field

  18. Stepwise bioprocess for exopolysaccharide production using potato starch as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Kumar, Narinder; Bhatia, Ravi Kant

    2014-01-01

    Xanthan gum is a biopolymer produced by Xanthomonas sp. XC6. In this study, xanthan gum is produced from potato starch using a stepwise bioprocess design. Potato starch is hydrolyzed using Bacillus sp. having amylase activity and 30.2 g/L reducing sugar was released, while Xanthomonas sp. XC6 can release only 14.5 g/L. Bacillus sp. hydrolyzed potato starch extract was further used as a carbon source for xanthan gum biosynthesis using Xanthomonas sp. XC6. Yeast extract acts as the best nitroge...

  19. At-line bioprocess monitoring by immunoassay with rotationally controlled serial siphoning and integrated supercritical angle fluorescence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A serial siphon based centrifugal microfluidic platform for the quantitative at-line monitoring of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in typical industrial bioprocess samples using a prototype optical SAF detection system. -- Highlights: •Sample-to-answer microfluidic lab-on-a-disc device for at-line bioprocess monitoring. •Centrifugally integrated and automated reagent delivery by serial-siphon valves. •Supercritical angle fluorescence optics embedded on centrifugal platform. •Development of fluorescence-linked-immunosorbent assay on human immunoglobulin G. •Bioprocess samples from industrial reactor determined on the prototype system. -- Abstract: In this paper we report a centrifugal microfluidic “lab-on-a-disc” system for at-line monitoring of human immunoglobulin G (hIgG) in a typical bioprocess environment. The novelty of this device is the combination of a heterogeneous sandwich immunoassay on a serial siphon-enabled microfluidic disc with automated sequential reagent delivery and surface-confined supercritical angle fluorescence (SAF)-based detection. The device, which is compact, easy-to-use and inexpensive, enables rapid detection of hIgG from a bioprocess sample. This was achieved with, an injection moulded SAF lens that was functionalized with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) for the immobilization of protein A, and a hybrid integration with a microfluidic disc substrate. Advanced flow control, including the time-sequenced release of on-board liquid reagents, was implemented by serial siphoning with ancillary capillary stops. The concentration of surfactant in each assay reagent was optimized to ensure proper functioning of the siphon-based flow control. The entire automated microfluidic assay process is completed in less than 30 min. The developed prototype system was used to accurately measure industrial bioprocess samples that contained 10 mg mL−1 of hIgG

  20. Developing a sustainable bioprocessing strategy based on a generic feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, C; Koutinas, Wang R; Wang, R

    2004-01-01

    Based on current average yields of wheat per hectare and the saccharide content of wheat grain, it is feasible to produce wheat-based alternatives to many petrochemicals. However, the requirements in terms of wheat utilization would be equivalent to 82% of current production if intermediates and primary building blocks such as ethylene, propylene, and butadiene were to be produced in addition to conventional bioproducts. If only intermediates and bioproducts were produced this requirement would fall to just 11%, while bioproducts alone would require only 7%. These requirements would be easily met if the global wheat yield per hectare of cultivated land was increased from the current average of 2.7 to 5.5 tonnes ha(-1) (well below the current maximum). Preliminary economic evaluation taking into account only raw material costs demonstrated that the use of wheat as a generic feedstock could be advantageous in the case of bioproducts and specific intermediate petrochemicals. Gluten plays a significant role considering the revenue occurring when it is sold as a by-product. A process leading to the production of a generic fermentation feedstock from wheat has been devised and evaluated in terms of efficiency and economics. This feedstock aims at providing a replacement for conventional fermentation media and petrochemical feedstocks. The process can be divided into four major stages--wheat milling; fermentation of whole wheat flour by A. awamori leading to the production of enzymes and fungal cells; glucose enhancement via enzymatic hydrolysis of flour suspensions; and nitrogen/micronutrient enhancement via fungal cell autolysis. Preliminary costings show that the operating cost of the process depends on plant capacity, cereal market price, presence and market value of added-value by-products, labour costs, and mode of processing (batch or continuous). PMID:15217108

  1. Open and continuous fermentation: products, conditions and bioprocess economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Chen, Xiang-bin; Chen, Jin-chun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2014-12-01

    Microbial fermentation is the key to industrial biotechnology. Most fermentation processes are sensitive to microbial contamination and require an energy intensive sterilization process. The majority of microbial fermentations can only be conducted over a short period of time in a batch or fed-batch culture, further increasing energy consumption and process complexity, and these factors contribute to the high costs of bio-products. In an effort to make bio-products more economically competitive, increased attention has been paid to developing open (unsterile) and continuous processes. If well conducted, continuous fermentation processes will lead to the reduced cost of industrial bio-products. To achieve cost-efficient open and continuous fermentations, the feeding of raw materials and the removal of products must be conducted in a continuous manner without the risk of contamination, even under 'open' conditions. Factors such as the stability of the biological system as a whole during long cultivations, as well as the yield and productivity of the process, are also important. Microorganisms that grow under extreme conditions such as high or low pH, high osmotic pressure, and high or low temperature, as well as under conditions of mixed culturing, cell immobilization, and solid state cultivation, are of interest for developing open and continuous fermentation processes. PMID:25476917

  2. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  3. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  4. Advances in consolidated bioprocessing systems for bioethanol and butanol production from biomass: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Salehi Jouzani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, lignocellulosic biomass as the most abundant renewable resource has been widely considered for bioalcohols production. However, the complex structure of lignocelluloses requires a multi-step process which is costly and time consuming. Although, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed for pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation, bioalcohols production from lignocelluloses is still limited because of the economic infeasibility of these technologies. This cost constraint could be overcome by designing and constructing robust cellulolytic and bioalcohols producing microbes and by using them in a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP system. This paper comprehensively reviews potentials, recent advances and challenges faced in CBP systems for efficient bioalcohols (ethanol and butanol production from lignocellulosic and starchy biomass. The CBP strategies include using native single strains with cellulytic and alcohol production activities, microbial co-cultures containing both cellulytic and ethanologenic microorganisms, and genetic engineering of cellulytic microorganisms to be alcohol-producing or alcohol producing microorganisms to be cellulytic. Moreover, high-throughput techniques, such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, next generation sequencing and synthetic biology developed to explore novel microorganisms and powerful enzymes with high activity, thermostability and pH stability are also discussed. Currently, the CBP technology is in its infant stage, and ideal microorganisms and/or conditions at industrial scale are yet to be introduced. So, it is essential to bring into attention all barriers faced and take advantage of all the experiences gained to achieve a high-yield and low-cost CBP process.

  5. Biological hydrogen and methane production from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues using a two-stage bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chung, Man-Chien; Chan, Kun-Chi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the recovery of H2 and CH4 from bagasse bioethanol fermentation residues (bagasse BEFR) using a two-stage bioprocess. In the hydrogen fermentation bioreactor (HFB), carbohydrate removal efficiency was maintained at 82-93% and the highest hydrogen yield was 8.24mL/gCOD at volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 80kgCOD/m(3)/day. The results indicated a positive correlation between hydrogen yield and butyrate-to-acetate ratio, which might be due to the mechanisms of lactate/acetate utilization for hydrogen production and acetogenesis occurring in the HFB. Remaining volatile fatty acids and alcohols in the HFB effluent were further utilized for methane production in methane fermentation bioreactor (MFB), in which the highest methane yield of 345.2mL/gCOD was attained at VLR of 2.5kgCOD/m(3)/day. Overall, the two-stage bioprocess achieved a maximum COD removal of 81% from bagasse BEFR, and converted 0.3% and 72.8% of COD in the forms of H2 and CH4, respectively. PMID:26774443

  6. Cleaner bioprocesses for promoting zero-emission biofuels production in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the policy, market conditions and food security of biomass energy sources are assessed for supplying the future needs of Vojvodina. The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia, containing about 27% of its total population according to the 2002 Census. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain, in southeastern Europe. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. The incentives to invest human and financial resources in the research and development of cleaner bioprocesses are high, considering the benefits which might be achieved in terms of environment protection and manufacturing costs. In the near and medium tenu, the development of bioprocesses for waste recycling and resource recovery might be one of the most viable options, considering much research work has already been done. In Vojvodina, there are technological solutions that biofuels produced in a closed cycle, so that the quantity of waste reduced to a minimum. These solutions include the stillage (remainder after distillation) used for fattening cattle, and cattle excrement to produce biogas and manure as fertilizer. The energy required for the production of bioethanol is obtained combustion lignocelullose residual waste from the production of basic raw materials starch, or biogas. Ash from the burned biomass returned to soil as a source of minerals for plants and replacement of mineral fertilizer. Such a closed cycle is economical for small farms in Vojvodina. (author)

  7. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  8. Fungal-mediated consolidated bioprocessing: the potential of Fusarium oxysporum for the lignocellulosic ethanol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahin S; Nugent, Brian; Mullins, Ewen; Doohan, Fiona M

    2016-03-01

    Microbial bioprocessing of lignocellulose to bioethanol still poses challenges in terms of substrate catabolism. The most important challenge is to overcome substrate recalcitrance and to thus reduce the number of steps needed to biorefine lignocellulose. Conventionally, conversion involves chemical pretreatment of lignocellulose, followed by hydrolysis of biomass to monomer sugars that are subsequently fermented into bioethanol. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) has been suggested as an efficient and economical method of manufacturing bioethanol from lignocellulose. CBP integrates the hydrolysis and fermentation steps into a single process, thereby significantly reducing the amount of steps in the biorefining process. Filamentous fungi are remarkable organisms that are naturally specialised in deconstructing plant biomass and thus they have tremendous potential as components of CBP. The fungus Fusarium oxysporum has potential for CBP of lignocellulose to bioethanol. Here we discuss the complexity and potential of CBP, the bottlenecks in the process, and the potential influence of fungal genetic diversity, substrate complexity and new technologies on the efficacy of CPB of lignocellulose, with a focus on F. oxysporum. PMID:26888202

  9. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  10. On Ethical Fundamentalisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio Gomes da Silva Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The history involves diverse types of fundamentalism. This article highlights a variety of ethical fundamentalist thoughts that marked humanity and were challenged by thinkers and intellectuals. The fundamentalism originates in the interpretation of doctrines isolated from their historical context and without room for criticism. As understood in the entry in Voltaire´s Dictionnaire philosophique_(1752, fundamentalism is closely related to fanaticism. The practice of interpreting any one doctrine as containing a single fundamental truth can result in a type of blindness that impedes the ability to observe reality with a critical spirit. Certain modern thinkers generally associate fundamentalism with religion and hold it responsible for great human tragedy._ However, fundamentalism unrelated to religion was also spread and likewise caused insurmountable damage to human life. Fundamentalism is defined in the following terms: philosophical, scientific, totalitarian and economic. In as much as one tries to identify and denounce fundamentalism, it seems that it continues to appear in the course of human relations. Whenever critics stand against determined fanaticisms, others will arise to be denounced._ This discussion might be considered trivial if the current state of affairs did not threaten human life, and if predictions were favorable for the life of our species on this planet.

  11. Technical Aspects of Use of Ultrasound for Intensification of Enzymatic Bio-Processing: New Path to "Green Chemistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of enzymatic processing in the food, textile, and bio-fuel applications is becoming increasingly popular, primarily because of rapid introduction of a new variety of highly efficient enzymes. In general, an enzymatic bio-processing generates less toxic and readily biodegradable wastewater efflue...

  12. A framework for model-based optimization of bioprocesses under uncertainty: Identifying critical parameters and operating variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Meyer, Anne S.; Gernaey, Krist;

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the development and application of a systematic model-based framework for bioprocess optimization, evaluated on a cellulosic ethanol production case study. The implementation of the framework involves the use of dynamic simulations, sophisticated uncertainty analysis (Monte-Ca...... opportunity for further process optimization of bioethanol production from lignocellulose....

  13. Selection of controlled variables in bioprocesses. Application to a SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja; Sin, Gürkan

    Selecting the right controlled variables in a bioprocess is challenging since the objectives of the process (yields, product or substrate concentration) are difficult to relate with a given actuator. We apply here process control tools that can be used to assist in the selection of controlled...... variables to the case of the SHARON-Anammox process for autotrophic nitrogen removal....

  14. How fundamental is the fundamental assumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Kurbis, Nils

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental assumption of Dummett’s and Prawitz’ proof-theoretic justification of deduction is that ‘if we have a valid argument for a complex statement, we can construct a valid argument for it which finishes with an application of one of the introduction rules governing its principal operator’. I argue that the assumption is flawed in this general version, but should be restricted, not to apply to arguments in general, but only to proofs. I also argue that Dummett’s and Prawitz’ project...

  15. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  16. Comparative studies for the biotechnological production of l-Lysine by immobilized cells of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and mutant MH 20-22 B

    OpenAIRE

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Viswanath, Buddolla

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a cost and time efficient approach for bioprocess optimization is desired but is challenging. In the present work, we have addressed the effectiveness of using immobilized cells for aerobic processes, behaviour of immobilized cells, optimization and upstream bioprocess analysis for the production of lysine by immobilized cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 and MH 20-22 B in stirred tank bioreactor. Optimized operational conditions for maximal yield and productivity wer...

  17. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  18. Fundamentals of crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Crystallography is a basic tool for scientists in many diverse disciplines. This text offers a clear description of fundamentals and of modern applications. It supports curricula in crystallography at undergraduate level.

  19. Fundamental strings in SFT

    OpenAIRE

    Bonora, L.; Maccaferri, C.; Santos, R. J. Scherer; Tolla, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this letter we show that vacuum string field theory contains exact solutions that can be interpreted as macroscopic fundamental strings. They are formed by a condensate of infinitely many completely space-localized solutions (D0-branes).

  20. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  1. Fundamental Equation of Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent experience of the great recession of 2008 has renewed one of the oldest debates in economics: whether economics could ever become a scientific discipline like physics. This paper proves that economics is truly a branch of physics by establishing for the first time a fundamental equation of economics (FEOE), which is similar to many fundamental equations governing other subfields of physics, for example, Maxwell’s Equations for electromagnetism. From recently established physics laws of...

  2. Fundamentalism and terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Cassandra Christina Rausch

    2015-01-01

    Citizens worldwide are becoming all too familiar with the accelerated frequency of terrorist attacks in the 21st century, particularly with those involving a religious underpinning. Why, though, have religiously-affiliated acts of terrorism become such a common occurrence? By examining how religious fundamentalism has accelerated and intensified terrorism within the modern world, scholars can focus on determining the “why”. By historically defining terrorism and fundamentalism and then placin...

  3. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  4. Fundamentalism and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pigliucci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.

  5. Distribution-Based Identification of Yield Coefficients in a Baker’s Yeast Bioprocess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sendrescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A distribution-based identification procedure for estimation of yield coefficients in a baker’s yeast bioprocess is proposed. This procedure transforms a system of differential equations to a system of algebraic equations with respect to unknown parameters. The relation between the state variables is represented by functionals using techniques from distribution theory. A hierarchical structure of identification is used, which allows obtaining a linear algebraic system of equations in the unknown parameters. The coefficients of this algebraic system are functionals depending on the input and state variables evaluated through some test functions from distribution theory. First, only some state equations are evaluated throughout test functions to obtain a set of linear equations in parameters. The results of this first stage of identification are used to express other parameters by linear equations. The process is repeated until all parameters are identified. The performances of the method are analyzed by numerical simulations.

  6. Influence of multiple bioprocess parameters on production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh Sooch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the influence of multiple bioprocess parameters for the maximum production of lipase from Pseudomonas sp. BWS-5. The culture reached the stationary phase of growth after 36h of incubation when the maximum lipase production was obtained at flask level. The different media components such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources, trace elements and process parameters such as the pH of the medium, temperature and time of incubation, agitation/stationary conditions, etc. were optimized at flask level and at bioreactor level. The maximum enzyme production of 298 IU/mL was obtained with the use of simple medium with pH 6.5 containing glucose (1 %, w/v, peptone (3 %, w/v and KCl (0.05 %, w/v after 30h of incubation at 37°C under agitation (200 rpm conditions with 0.75 vvm of air supply.

  7. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. PMID:21925857

  8. Development of a real-time bioprocess monitoring method for docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong-Sheng; Ji, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Lu-Jing; Li, Gan-Lu; Yin, Feng-Wei; Huang, He

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and respiratory quotient (RQ) are key respiratory parameters for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production by Schizochytrium sp. HX-308 under dissolved oxygen limited conditions. To investigate the relationship of OUR and RQ with culture status, three independent cultures with different aeration rates were performed in a 50L bioreactor. OUR was found to be positively correlated with the aeration rate, which reflected the oxygen supply level in each culture. The highest biomass, reaching 124.5g/L, was achieved under the highest OUR. DHA content was found to be highly correlated with the RQ value, and the highest DHA content (44.85% in total fatty acids, w/w) was achieved in the highest RQ level, which implies that the polyketide synthase pathway was more active. OUR and RQ, which reflect the physiological state of microorganisms, are suggested as synergistic real-time bioprocess monitoring parameters for DHA fermentation. PMID:27262097

  9. Dynamics of complex interconnected systems: Networks and bioprocesses[A NATO study seminary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmsen, Line K.

    2005-07-01

    Rapid detection of chemical and biological agents and weapons, and rapid diagnosis of their effects on people will require molecular recognition as well as signal discrimination, i.e. avoiding false positives and negatives, and signal transduction. It will be important to have reagentless, cheap, easily manufactured sensors that can be field deployed in large numbers. While this problem is urgent it is not yet solved. This ASI brought together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical physicists, soft condensed matter experimentalists, biological physicists, and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between modem physics and biology may be most fruitfully applied to the study of bioprocesses for molecular recognition and of networks for converting molecular reactions into usable signals and appropriate responses. (Author)

  10. Process integration in bioprocess indystry: waste heat recovery in yeast and ethyl alcohol plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process integration of the bioprocess plant for production of yeast and alcohol was studied. Preliminary energy audit of the plant identified the huge amount of thermal losses, caused by waste heat in exhausted process streams, and reviled the great potential for energy efficiency improvement by heat recovery system. Research roadmap, based on process integration approach, is divided on six phases, and the primary tool used for the design of heat recovery network was Pinch Analysis. Performance of preliminary design are obtained by targeting procedure, for three process stream sets, and evaluated by the economic criteria. The results of process integration study are presented in the form of heat exchanger networks which fulfilled the utilization of waste heat and enable considerable savings of energy in short payback period.

  11. New perspectives for the design of sustainable bioprocesses for phosphorus recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarayre, Cédric; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Camargo-Valero, Miller; Delvigne, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Phosphate rock has long been used for the production of phosphorus based chemicals. However, considering the depletion of the reservoirs and the decrease of the quality of phosphate rocks, a potential market is now emerging for the recovery of phosphate from waste and its reuse for different applications. Notably, phosphate recovery from wastewater could be included in a circular economy approach. This review focuses on the use of microbial systems for phosphorus accumulation and recovery, by considering the actual range of analytical techniques available for the monitoring of phosphorus accumulating organisms, as well as the actual biochemical and metabolic engineering toolbox available for the optimization of bioprocesses. In this context, knowledge gathered from process, system and synthetic biology could potentially lead to innovative process design. PMID:26873287

  12. A novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses for production of prebiotic and functional bioproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manisha; Patel, Satya Narayan; Lata, Kusum; Singh, Umesh; Krishania, Meena; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singh, Sudhir P

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the sugar industry by-product cane molasses was investigated as feedstock for acceptor reactions by dextransucrase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides MTCC 10508, leading to the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides. The starch industry corn fiber residue was used as a source for acceptor molecules, maltose, in the reaction. Production of approximately 124g oligosaccharides (DP3-DP6) per kg of fresh molasses was achieved. Further, cane molasses based medium was demonstrated as a sole carbon source for L. mesenteroides growth and dextransucrase production. d-Fructose released by dextransucrase activity as processing by-product was transformed into the functional monosaccharide with zero caloric value, d-psicose, by inducing its epimerization. Quantitative analysis approximated 37g d-psicose per kg of fresh molasses. Thus, the study established a novel approach of integrated bioprocessing of cane molasses into prebiotic and functional food additives. PMID:27498012

  13. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  14. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  15. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KUNZMAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  16. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  17. Antennas fundamentals, design, measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive revision (3rd Edition) is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level textbook on antenna fundamentals, design, performance analysis, and measurements. In addition to its use as a formal course textbook, the book's pragmatic style and emphasis on the fundamentals make it especially useful to engineering professionals who need to grasp the essence of the subject quickly but without being mired in unnecessary detail. This new edition was prepared for a first year graduate course at Southern Polytechnic State University in Georgia. It provides broad coverage of antenna

  18. Fundamentals of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Vibha

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of physics is a general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of physics based on different theories, with applications to a variety of important phenomena. Its clarity and completeness makes the text suitable for self-learning and for self-paced courses. Throughout the text the emphasis is on clarity, rather than formality, the various derivations are explained in detail and wherever possible, the physical interpretations are emphasised. The mathematical treatment is set out in great detail, carrying out the steps whic

  19. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  20. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  1. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  2. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  3. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    OpenAIRE

    KUNZMAN, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith...

  4. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  5. Grenoble Fundamental Research Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature

  6. Unification of Fundamental Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus; Taylor, Foreword by John C.

    2005-10-01

    Foreword John C. Taylor; 1. Unification of fundamental forces Abdus Salam; 2. History unfolding: an introduction to the two 1968 lectures by W. Heisenberg and P. A. M. Dirac Abdus Salam; 3. Theory, criticism, and a philosophy Werner Heisenberg; 4. Methods in theoretical physics Paul Adrian Maurice Dirac.

  7. The Fundamental Property Relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses a basic equation in thermodynamics (the fundamental property relation), focusing on a logical approach to the development of the relation where effects other than thermal, compression, and exchange of matter with the surroundings are considered. Also demonstrates erroneous treatments of the relation in three well-known textbooks. (JN)

  8. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...

  9. Division I: Fundamental astronomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, Jan; McCarthy, D.D.; Fukushima, T.; Brzezinski, A.; Burns, J.A.; Defraigne, P.; Evans, D.W.; Kaplan, G.H.; Klioner, S.; Kneževic, Z.; Kumkova, I.I.; Ma, Ch.; Manchester, R.N.; Petite, G.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009 - (van der Hucht, K.), s. 1-4 ISBN 978-0-521-85605-8. - (Proceedings of the IAU. IAU Transactions. 27A) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : fundamental astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  11. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  12. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  13. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  14. Adaptive algorithms for estimation of multiple biomass growth rates and biomass concentration in a class of bioprocesses

    OpenAIRE

    Lubenova, V.; Ferreira, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    An approach for multiple biomass growth rates and biomass concentration estimation is proposed for a class of bioprocesses characterizing by on-line measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration and off-line measurements of biomass concentration. The approach is based on adaptive observer theory and includes two steps. In the first one, an adaptive estimator of two biomass growth rates is designed using on-line measurements of dissolved oxygen concentration. In the second step...

  15. Development of printed-circuit-board based industry-compatible point-of-care biosensing and bioprocessing technology with applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Hsiu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of a technology employing printed circuit board (PCB) technology to facilitate the performance and translation of point-of-care (POC) biosensing and bioprocessing devices toward practical products. Key features of the proposed technology are a universal, standardized platform and a set of techniques, featuring integrated functional units, three-dimensional (3D) configurations, convenient device-instrumentation interconnections, and industry-compatible prec...

  16. Succinate production from CO2-grown microalgal biomass as carbon source using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum through consolidated bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jungseok; Sim, Sang Jun; Bott, Michael; Um, Youngsoon; Oh, Min-Kyu; Woo, Han Min

    2014-01-01

    The potential for production of chemicals from microalgal biomass has been considered as an alternative route for CO2 mitigation and establishment of biorefineries. This study presents the development of consolidated bioprocessing for succinate production from microalgal biomass using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum. Starch-degrading and succinate-producing C. glutamicum strains produced succinate (0.16 g succinate/g total carbon source) from a mixture of starch and glucose as a model m...

  17. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  18. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  19. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  20. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  1. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  2. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  3. Fundamental partial compositeness

    OpenAIRE

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a cu...

  4. Semantic Web Services Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Heymans, Stijn; Hoffmann, Joerg; Marconi, Annapaola; Phlipps, Joshua; Weber, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    The research area of Semantic Web Services investigates the annotation of services, typically in a SOA, with a precise mathematical meaning in a formal ontology. These annotations allow a higher degree of automation. The last decade has seen a wide proliferation of such approaches, proposing different ontology languages, and paradigms for employing these in practice. The next chapter gives an overview of these approaches. In the present chapter, we provide an understanding of the fundamental ...

  5. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  6. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  7. Fundamental cosmic strings

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, A. -C.; Kibble, T. W. B.

    2005-01-01

    Cosmic strings are linear concentrations of energy that may be formed at phase transitions in the very early universe. At one time they were thought to provide a possible origin for the density inhomogeneities from which galaxies eventually develop, though this idea has been ruled out, primarily by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Fundamental strings are the supposed building blocks of all matter in superstring theory or its modern version, M-theory. These two concepts w...

  8. Fundamental concepts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  9. Time in Fundamental Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The first three sections of this article contain a broad brush summary of the profound changes in the notion of time in fundamental physics that were brought about by three revolutions: the foundations of mechanics distilled by Newton in his Principia, the discovery of special relativity by Einstein and its reformulation by Minkowski, and, finally, the fusion of geometry and gravity in Einstein's general relativity. The fourth section discusses two aspects of yet another deep revision that wa...

  10. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  13. More than meets the eye in bacterial cellulose: biosynthesis, bioprocessing, and applications in advanced fiber composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Yang; Buldum, Gizem; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Bismarck, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers are one of the stiffest organic materials produced by nature. It consists of pure cellulose without the impurities that are commonly found in plant-based cellulose. This review discusses the metabolic pathways of cellulose-producing bacteria and the genetic pathways of Acetobacter xylinum. The fermentative production of BC and the bioprocess parameters for the cultivation of bacteria are also discussed. The influence of the composition of the culture medium, pH, temperature, and oxygen content on the morphology and yield of BC are reviewed. In addition, the progress made to date on the genetic modification of bacteria to increase the yield of BC and the large-scale production of BC using various bioreactors, namely static and agitated cultures, stirred tank, airlift, aerosol, rotary, and membrane reactors, is reviewed. The challenges in commercial scale production of BC are thoroughly discussed and the efficiency of various bioreactors is compared. In terms of the application of BC, particular emphasis is placed on the utilization of BC in advanced fiber composites to manufacture the next generation truly green, sustainable and renewable hierarchical composites. PMID:23897676

  14. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eRagauskas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes towards the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum’s role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum’s amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  15. Nutrition and bioprocess development for efficient biosynthesis of an antitumor compound from marine-derived fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqiang; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Jiushun; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Jiao; Wang, Meixia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2013-10-01

    An integrated nutrition and bioprocess strategy was developed for improving the biosynthesis of an antitumor compound, 1403C, by a marine-derived fungus, Halorosellinia sp. (no. 1403). First, statistical design strategies were synthetically applied to optimize the nutritional composition. The resulting 1403C production reached 2.07 g/l, which was 143.5 % higher than the original production. However, it only produced 0.44 g/l of 1403C in 5-l bioreactor fermentation. Thus, the operating parameters including culture pH, dissolved oxygen, agitation speed, impeller type and inoculum level were considered to improve the fermentation process, and an effective control strategy for 1403C production by Halorosellinia sp. submerged in a 5-l bioreactor was established. When inoculating 0.22 g/l dry biomass, controlling dissolved oxygen not lower than 30 % during the growth phase but ranging between 30 and 40 % during the stationary phase, using a double-layer six-flat-blade Rushton disc turbine agitated at 400 rpm, keeping short-term low pH and rapid-rising pH with glucose starvation, the highest 1403C production was finally obtained at 1.32 g/l, which was promoted by 200 % compared to before optimization. Fermentation scale-up was finally performed in a 500-l bioreactor, and 1403C production of 1.09 g/l was obtained. PMID:23887857

  16. Time in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    The first three sections of this article contain a broad brush summary of the profound changes in the notion of time in fundamental physics that were brought about by three revolutions: the foundations of mechanics distilled by Newton in his Principia, the discovery of special relativity by Einstein and its reformulation by Minkowski, and, finally, the fusion of geometry and gravity in Einstein's general relativity. The fourth section discusses two aspects of yet another deep revision that waits in the wings as we attempt to unify general relativity with quantum physics.

  17. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  18. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Blackley, John A; Peltier, Justin

    2004-01-01

    Effective security rules and procedures do not exist for their own sake-they are put in place to protect critical assets, thereby supporting overall business objectives. Recognizing security as a business enabler is the first step in building a successful program.Information Security Fundamentals allows future security professionals to gain a solid understanding of the foundations of the field and the entire range of issues that practitioners must address. This book enables students to understand the key elements that comprise a successful information security program and eventually apply thes

  19. Fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It indicates fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism. It mentions electromagnetic field model of introduction and International system of units and universal constant, Vector analysis with summary and orthogonal coordinate systems, electrostatic field on Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, electrostatic energy and strength, steady state current with Ohm's law and Joule's law and calculation of resistance, crystallite field with Vector's electrostatic potential, Biot-Savart law and application and Magnetic Dipole, time-Savart and Maxwell equation with potential function and Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, plane electromagnetic wave, transmission line, a wave guide and cavity resonator and antenna arrangement.

  20. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  1. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  2. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  3. Fundamentals of Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Muzaffar

    2004-01-01

    No mundo contemporâneo existe um nexo fundamental entre a ciência, a religião e as civilizações. A Ciência, como a conhecemos hoje em dia, emergiu na Europa como resultado de processos diversificados e complementares. Ora, a tecnologia produzida pela aplicação da ciência moderna colocou-nos nas margens de um desastre que pode muito bem eliminar toda a raça humana deste planeta. Isto é reconhecido por alguns dos Cientistas mais esclarecidos, e continua a ser uma grande pre...

  4. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  5. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  6. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  7. Japanese Marketing. Fundamentally Different

    OpenAIRE

    Höskuldur Hrafn Guttormsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    Japan has always had a unique image in the eyes of many westerners and especially when it comes to its unique and whacky commercials. This study is motivated by the question; “Do the Japanese have a fundamentally different way of marketing compared to the western world?” It aims to advance our understanding of how and why Japanese marketing differs from typical western marketing by focusing on the history of Japan, conventional marketing practices of Japanese companies and the differences bet...

  8. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  9. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  10. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  11. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  12. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  13. Fundamentals of librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Renu

    2010-01-01

    Fundamentals of Librarianship is written f or professional librarians and is therefore not intended as a mammal to instruct you on how to be a librarian. Instead it focuses on the federal angle of otherwise Standard practices and procedures of good librarianship. A topic was omitted if it was determined not to have anything uniquely federal about it. An exception was made for the chapter on 'copyright' because it remains a challenging and continuously developing topic for all librarians. We opted to produce this handbook in electronic format as a Web document that can be updated as often as ne

  14. Fundamental mechanisms of CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program of coordinated experimental and theoretical research on the fundamental chemistry and physics of VCD is described. The experimental work involves the development and use of laser diagnostic techniques for monitoring chemical species in the gas phase and measuring fluid-flow properties. The theoretical work applies state-of-the-art computational techniques to the coupled fluid mechanical and gas-phase chemical kinetics of CVD. The work has concentrated on the simple model system of silicon deposition from silane, although the concepts should be applicable to CVD in general. Some preliminary work on the chlorosilane and tungsten hexafluoride systems is also described

  15. Fundamental Constants and Conservation Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Heui-Seol

    2001-01-01

    This work describes underlying features of the universe such as fundamental constants and cosmological parameters, conservation laws, baryon and lepton asymmetries, etc. in the context of local gauge theories for fundamental forces under the constraint of the flat universe. Conservation laws for fundamental forces are related to gauge theories for fundamental forces, their resulting fundamental constants are quantitatively analyzed, and their possible violations at different energy scales are...

  16. The MOND Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F; Diaferio, A; Tortora, C; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has been shown to be able to fit spiral galaxy rotation curves as well as giving a theoretical foundation for empirically determined scaling relations, such as the Tully - Fisher law, without the need for a dark matter halo. As a complementary analysis, one should investigate whether MOND can also reproduce the dynamics of early - type galaxies (ETGs) without dark matter. As a first step, we here show that MOND can indeed fit the observed central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$ of a large sample of ETGs assuming a simple MOND interpolating functions and constant anisotropy. We also show that, under some assumptions on the luminosity dependence of the Sersic n parameter and the stellar M/L ratio, MOND predicts a fundamental plane for ETGs : a log - linear relation among the effective radius $R_{eff}$, $\\sigma_0$ and the mean effective intensity $\\langle I_e \\rangle$. However, we predict a tilt between the observed and the MOND fundamental planes.

  17. Fundamentals of electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.

    The study of electrokinetics is a very mature field. Experimental studies date from the early 1800s, and acceptable theoretical analyses have existed since the early 1900s. The use of electrokinetics in practical field problems is more recent, but it is still quite mature. Most developments in the fundamental understanding of electrokinetics are in the colloid science literature. A significant and increasing divergence between the theoretical understanding of electrokinetics found in the colloid science literature and the theoretical analyses used in interpreting applied experimental studies in soil science and waste remediation has developed. The soil science literature has to date restricted itself to the use of very early theories, with their associated limitations. The purpose of this contribution is to review fundamental aspects of electrokinetic phenomena from a colloid science viewpoint. It is hoped that a bridge can be built between the two branches of the literature, from which both will benefit. Attention is paid to special topics such as the effects of overlapping double layers, applications in unsaturated soils, the influence of dispersivity, and the differences between electrokinetic theory and conductivity theory.

  18. Fundamental Atomtronic Circuit Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeffrey; McIlvain, Brian; Lobb, Christopher; Hill, Wendell T., III

    2012-06-01

    Recent experiments with neutral superfluid gases have shown that it is possible to create atomtronic circuits analogous to existing superconducting circuits. The goals of these experiments are to create complex systems such as Josephson junctions. In addition, there are theoretical models for active atomtronic components analogous to diodes, transistors and oscillators. In order for any of these devices to function, an understanding of the more fundamental atomtronic elements is needed. Here we describe the first experimental realization of these more fundamental elements. We have created an atomtronic capacitor that is discharged through a resistance and inductance. We will discuss a theoretical description of the system that allows us to determine values for the capacitance, resistance and inductance. The resistance is shown to be analogous to the Sharvin resistance, and the inductance analogous to kinetic inductance in electronics. This atomtronic circuit is implemented with a thermal sample of laser cooled rubidium atoms. The atoms are confined using what we call free-space atom chips, a novel optical dipole trap produced using a generalized phase-contrast imaging technique. We will also discuss progress toward implementing this atomtronic system in a degenerate Bose gas.

  19. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  20. Unification of fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, a Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, provides an accessible overview of modern particle physics and the quest for the unification of the fundamental forces, the electromagnetic, strong nuclear weak nuclear and gravitational. A major theme of the lecture is the way in which the theoretical physicists approach the task of imposing orders on a seemingly chaotic universe. A secondary theme is that the electroweak force is most likely to be the force of life. The theme of the philosophy behind the work of theorists is continued in two additional lectures by Werner Heisenberg and Paul Dirac which give fascinating insights into the modus operandi and work of two of the founders of quantum mechanics. (author)

  1. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  2. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  3. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  4. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  5. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  6. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases for......Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  7. Fundamentals of Geometrothermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2011-01-01

    We present the basic mathematical elements of geometrothermodynamics which is a formalism developed to describe in an invariant way the thermodynamic properties of a given thermodynamic system in terms of geometric structures. First, in order to represent the first law of thermodynamics and the general Legendre transformations in an invariant way, we define the phase manifold as a Legendre invariant Riemannian manifold with a contact structure. The equilibrium manifold is defined by using a harmonic map which includes the specification of the fundamental equation of the thermodynamic system. Quasi-static thermodynamic processes are shown to correspond to geodesics of the equilibrium manifold which preserve the laws of thermodynamics. We study in detail the equilibrium manifold of the ideal gas and the van der Waals gas as concrete examples of the application of geometrothermodynamics.

  8. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  9. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  10. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  11. Capacity planning for batch and perfusion bioprocesses across multiple biopharmaceutical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siganporia, Cyrus C; Ghosh, Soumitra; Daszkowski, Thomas; Papageorgiou, Lazaros G; Farid, Suzanne S

    2014-01-01

    Production planning for biopharmaceutical portfolios becomes more complex when products switch between fed-batch and continuous perfusion culture processes. This article describes the development of a discrete-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model to optimize capacity plans for multiple biopharmaceutical products, with either batch or perfusion bioprocesses, across multiple facilities to meet quarterly demands. The model comprised specific features to account for products with fed-batch or perfusion culture processes such as sequence-dependent changeover times, continuous culture constraints, and decoupled upstream and downstream operations that permit independent scheduling of each. Strategic inventory levels were accounted for by applying cost penalties when they were not met. A rolling time horizon methodology was utilized in conjunction with the MILP model and was shown to obtain solutions with greater optimality in less computational time than the full-scale model. The model was applied to an industrial case study to illustrate how the framework aids decisions regarding outsourcing capacity to third party manufacturers or building new facilities. The impact of variations on key parameters such as demand or titres on the optimal production plans and costs was captured. The analysis identified the critical ratio of in-house to contract manufacturing organization (CMO) manufacturing costs that led the optimization results to favor building a future facility over using a CMO. The tool predicted that if titres were higher than expected then the optimal solution would allocate more production to in-house facilities, where manufacturing costs were lower. Utilization graphs indicated when capacity expansion should be considered. PMID:24376262

  12. Bio-Refineries Bioprocess Technologies for Waste-Water Treatment, Energy and Product Valorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith Cowan, A.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing pressure is being exerted on communities and nations to source energy from forms other than fossil fuels. Also, potable water is becoming a scarce resource in many parts of the world, and there remains a large divide in the demand and utilization of plant products derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The most extensive user and manager of terrestrial ecosystems is agriculture which is also the de facto steward of natural resources. As stated by Miller (2008) no other industry or institution comes close to the comparative advantage held for this vital responsibility while simultaneously providing food, fiber, and other biology-based products, including energy. Since modern commercial agriculture is transitioning from the production of bulk commodities to the provision of standardized products and specific-attribute raw materials for differentiated markets, we can argue that processes such as mass cultivation of microalgae and the concept of bio-refineries be seen as part of a `new' agronomy. EBRU is currently exploring the integration of bioprocess technologies using microalgae as biocatalysts to achieve waste-water treatment, water polishing and endocrine disruptor (EDC) removal, sustainable energy production, and exploitation of the resultant biomass in agriculture as foliar fertilizer and seed coatings, and for commercial extraction of bulk commodities such as bio-oils and lecithin. This presentation will address efforts to establish a fully operational solar-driven microalgae bio-refinery for use not only in waste remediation but to transform waste and biomass to energy, fuels, and other useful materials (valorisation), with particular focus on environmental quality and sustainability goals.

  13. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale. PMID:26940050

  14. Fundamental aspects of the freezing of cells, with emphasis on mammalian ova and embryos. (Aspectos fundamentales de la congelacion de celulas, especialmente ovulos y embriones de mamiferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, P.

    1980-01-01

    For most cells there exists an optimum cooling rate. Both supraoptimal rates and suboptimal rates can be very damaging. The optimal rate varies enormously from less than or equal to 1/sup 0/C/min for mammalian preimplantation embryos to greater than or equal to 800/sup 0/C/min for the human red cell. Death at supraoptimal rates is the result of the formation of intracellular ice and its recrystallization during warming. Intracellular ice occurs when cells are cooled too rapidly to allow them to equilibrate by the osmotic withdrawal of intracellular water. The definition of too rapid depends chiefly on the size of the cell and its permeability to water. Death at suboptimal rates is a consequence of the major alterations in aqueous solutions produced by ice formation. The chief effects are a major reduction in the fraction of the solution remaining unfrozen at a given temperature and a major increase in the solute concentration of that fraction. Presumably, slow freezing injury is a consequence of one or both of these solution effects. The introduction of molar concentrations of protective solutes (additives) greatly reduces both the fraction frozen and the concentration of electrolytes in the unfrozen channels and in the cell interior. Usually, freezing either kills cells outright or it yields survivors that retain full capacity to function. Although there is the possibility that in some cases survivors may in fact be impaired genetically, all evidence indicates that genetic damage does not occur. But there are clear examples in which freezing does induce nonlethal physiological damage. Particularly striking examples are found in certain mammalian sperm.

  15. Conversion of bioprocess ethanol to industrial chemical products - Applications of process models for energy-economic assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment approach for accurate evaluation of bioprocesses for large-scale production of industrial chemicals is presented. Detailed energy-economic assessments of a potential esterification process were performed, where ethanol vapor in the presence of water from a bioreactor is catalytically converted to ethyl acetate. Results show that such processes are likely to become more competitive as the cost of substrates decreases relative to petrolium costs. A commercial ASPEN process simulation provided a reasonably consistent comparison with energy economics calculated using JPL developed software. Detailed evaluations of the sensitivity of production cost to material costs and annual production rates are discussed.

  16. Fundamentals of vaccine immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S Clem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.

  17. Strings and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic idea, simple and revolutionary at the same time, to replace the concept of a point particle with a one-dimensional string, has opened up a whole new field of research. Even today, four decades later, its multifaceted consequences are still not fully conceivable. Up to now string theory has offered a new way to view particles as different excitations of the same fundamental object. It has celebrated success in discovering the graviton in its spectrum, and it has naturally led scientists to posit space-times with more than four dimensions - which in turn has triggered numerous interesting developments in fields as varied as condensed matter physics and pure mathematics. This book collects pedagogical lectures by leading experts in string theory, introducing the non-specialist reader to some of the newest developments in the field. The carefully selected topics are at the cutting edge of research in string theory and include new developments in topological strings, AdS/CFT dualities, as well as newly emerging subfields such as doubled field theory and holography in the hydrodynamic regime. The contributions to this book have been selected and arranged in such a way as to form a self-contained, graduate level textbook. (orig.)

  18. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing.

  19. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of Monte Carlo. Welcome to Los Alamos, the birthplace of “Monte Carlo” for computational physics. Stanislaw Ulam, John von Neumann, and Nicholas Metropolis are credited as the founders of modern Monte Carlo methods. The name “Monte Carlo” was chosen in reference to the Monte Carlo Casino in Monaco (purportedly a place where Ulam’s uncle went to gamble). The central idea (for us) – to use computer-generated “random” numbers to determine expected values or estimate equation solutions – has since spread to many fields. "The first thoughts and attempts I made to practice [the Monte Carlo Method] were suggested by a question which occurred to me in 1946 as I was convalescing from an illness and playing solitaires. The question was what are the chances that a Canfield solitaire laid out with 52 cards will come out successfully? After spending a lot of time trying to estimate them by pure combinatorial calculations, I wondered whether a more practical method than “abstract thinking” might not be to lay it out say one hundred times and simply observe and count the number of successful plays... Later [in 1946], I described the idea to John von Neumann, and we began to plan actual calculations." - Stanislaw Ulam.

  20. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  1. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled FUDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLESpublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  2. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  3. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing

  4. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  5. The Metabolic Core and Catalytic Switches Are Fundamental Elements in the Self-Regulation of the Systemic Metabolic Structure of Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.; Perez-Pinilla, Martin B.; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Vicente; Veguillas, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimental observations and numerical studies with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that cellular enzymatic activity self-organizes spontaneously leading to the emergence of a metabolic core formed by a set of enzymatic reactions which are always active under all environmental conditions, while the rest of catalytic processes are only intermittently active. The reactions of the metabolic core are essential for biomass formation and to assure optimal metabolic performance. The on-off catalytic reactions and the metabolic core are essential elements of a Systemic Metabolic Structure which seems to be a key feature common to all cellular organisms. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the functional importance of the metabolic core we have studied different catalytic patterns of a dissipative metabolic network under different external conditions. The emerging biochemical data have been analysed using information-based dynamic tools, such as Pearson's correlation and Transfer Entropy (which measures effective functionality). Our results show that a functional structure of effective connectivity emerges which is dynamical and characterized by significant variations of bio-molecular information flows. Conclusions/Significance We have quantified essential aspects of the metabolic core functionality. The always active enzymatic reactions form a hub –with a high degree of effective connectivity- exhibiting a wide range of functional information values being able to act either as a source or as a sink of bio-molecular causal interactions. Likewise, we have found that the metabolic core is an essential part of an emergent functional structure characterized by catalytic modules and metabolic switches which allow critical transitions in enzymatic activity. Both, the metabolic core and the catalytic switches in which also intermittently-active enzymes are involved seem to be fundamental elements in the self-regulation of the Systemic

  6. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  7. Fundamental Study on the Fabrication of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Using Two-Step Sequential Substrate Vibration-Assisted Spray Coating (2S-SVASC)

    OpenAIRE

    Zabihi, Fatemeh; Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scalable and fast process is developed and employed for the fabrication of the perovskite light harvesting layer in inverted planar heterojunction solar cell (FTO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3−x Cl x /PCBM/Al). Perovskite precursor solutions are sprayed onto an ultrasonically vibrating substrate in two sequential steps via a process herein termed as the two-step sequential substrate vibration-assisted spray coating (2S-SVASC). The gentle imposed ultrasonic vibration on the substrate p...

  8. Sulfur Tolerant Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Coal Syngas Application: Experimental Study on Diverse Impurity Effects and Fundamental Modeling of Electrode Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mingyang

    With demand over green energy economy, fuel cells have been developed as a promising energy conversion technology with higher efficiency and less emission. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) can utilize various fuels in addition to hydrogen including coal derived sygas, and thus are favored for future power generation due to dependence on coal in electrical industry. However impurities such as sulfur and phosphorous present in coal syngas in parts per million (p.p.m.) levels can severely poison SOFC anode typically made of Ni/yttria-stabilized-zirconia (Ni-YSZ) and limit SOFC applicability in economically derivable fuels. The focus of the research is to develop strategy for application of high performance SOFC in coal syngas with tolerance against trace impurities such as H2S and PH3. To realize the research goal, the experimental study on sulfur tolerant anode materials and examination of various fuel impurity effects on SOFC anode are combined with electrochemical modeling of SOFC cathode kinetics in order to benefit design of direct-coal-syngas SOFC. Tolerant strategy for SOFC anode against sulfur is studied by using alternative materials which can both mitigate sulfur poisoning and function as active anode components. The Ni-YSZ anode was modified by incorporation of lanthanum doped ceria (LDC) nano-coatings via impregnation. Cell test in coal syngas containing 20 ppm H2S indicated the impregnated LDC coatings inhibited on-set of sulfur poisoning by over 10hrs. Cell analysis via X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemistry revealed LDC coatings reacted with H2S via chemisorptions, resulting in less sulfur blocking triple--phase-boundary and minimized performance loss. Meanwhile the effects of PH3 impurity on SOFC anode is examined by using Ni-YSZ anode supported SOFC. Degradation of cell is found to be irreversible due to adsorption of PH3 on TPB and further reaction with Ni to form secondary phases with low melting point. The

  9. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  10. Fundamental Study on the Fabrication of Inverted Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Using Two-Step Sequential Substrate Vibration-Assisted Spray Coating (2S-SVASC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihi, Fatemeh; Ahmadian-Yazdi, Mohammad-Reza; Eslamian, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a scalable and fast process is developed and employed for the fabrication of the perovskite light harvesting layer in inverted planar heterojunction solar cell (FTO/PEDOT:PSS/CH3NH3PbI3-x Cl x /PCBM/Al). Perovskite precursor solutions are sprayed onto an ultrasonically vibrating substrate in two sequential steps via a process herein termed as the two-step sequential substrate vibration-assisted spray coating (2S-SVASC). The gentle imposed ultrasonic vibration on the substrate promotes droplet spreading and coalescence, surface wetting, evaporation, mixing of reagents, and uniform growth of perovskite nanocrystals. The role of the substrate temperature, substrate vibration intensity, and the time interval between the two sequential sprays are studied on the roughness, coverage, and crystalline structure of perovskite thin films. We demonstrate that a combination of a long time interval between spraying of precursor solutions (15 min), a high substrate temperature (120 °C), and a mild substrate vibration power (5 W) results in a favorable morphology and surface quality. The characteristics and performance of prepared perovskite thin films made via the 2S-SVASC technique are compared with those of the co-sprayed perovskite thin films. The maximum power conversion efficiency of 5.08 % on a 0.3-cm(2) active area is obtained for the device made via the scalable 2S-SVASC technique. PMID:26847697

  11. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...

  12. Construction of microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess: practical 2′-deoxyribonucleoside production involving a C−C coupling reaction with high energy substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horinouchi Nobuyuki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproduction and sustainability are important for future society, and bioprocesses are one technology that can be used to realize these concepts. However, there is still limited variation in bioprocesses and there are several challenges, especially in the operation of energy-requiring bioprocesses. As an example of a microbial platform for an energy-requiring bioprocess, we established a process that efficiently and enzymatically synthesizes 2′-deoxyribonucleoside from glucose, acetaldehyde, and a nucleobase. This method consists of the coupling reactions of the reversible nucleoside degradation pathway and energy generation through the yeast glycolytic pathway. Results Using E. coli that co-express deoxyriboaldolase and phosphopentomutase, a high amount of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside was produced with efficient energy transfer under phosphate-limiting reaction conditions. Keeping the nucleobase concentration low and the mixture at a low reaction temperature increased the yield of 2′-deoxyribonucleoside relative to the amount of added nucleobase, indicating that energy was efficiently generated from glucose via the yeast glycolytic pathway under these reaction conditions. Using a one-pot reaction in which small amounts of adenine, adenosine, and acetone-dried yeast were fed into the reaction, 75 mM of 2′-deoxyinosine, the deaminated product of 2′-deoxyadenosine, was produced from glucose (600 mM, acetaldehyde (250 mM, adenine (70 mM, and adenosine (20 mM with a high yield relative to the total base moiety input (83%. Moreover, a variety of natural dNSs were further synthesized by introducing a base-exchange reaction into the process. Conclusion A critical common issue in energy-requiring bioprocess is fine control of phosphate concentration. We tried to resolve this problem, and provide the convenient recipe for establishment of energy-requiring bioprocesses. It is anticipated that the commercial demand for d

  13. Mass Production of Stem Cell-Derived Progeny in Bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yan; Sart, Sébastien; Agathos, Spiros N.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), have shown great potential for various biomedical applications including drug discovery, disease modeling, and tissue engineering. Especially, the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with similar characteristics to embryonic stem cells (ESCs) opens a new era for stem cell research and transplantations. Bioprocess engineering provides a platform to generate a controlled microenvironment that ...

  14. Fundamental Aspects of Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sowjanya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal. The term 'biosensor' is often used to cover sensor devices used in order to determine the concentration of substances and other parameters of biological interest even where they do not utilize a biological system directly. This very broad definition is used by some scientific journals (e.g. Biosensors, Elsevier Applied Science but will not be applied to the coverage here. The emphasis of this Chapter concerns enzymes as the biologically responsive material, but it should be recognized that other biological systems may be utilized by biosensors, for example, whole cell metabolism, ligand binding and the antibody-antigen reaction. Biosensors represent a rapidly expanding field, at the present time, with an estimated 60% annual growth rate; the major impetus coming from the health-care industry (e.g. 6% of the western world are diabetic and would benefit from the availability of a rapid, accurate and simple biosensor for glucose but with some pressure from other areas, such as food quality appraisal and environmental monitoring. The estimated world analytical market is about 12,000,000,000 year- 1 of which 30% is in the health care area. There is clearly a vast market expansion potential as less than 0.1% of this market is currently using biosensors. Research and development in this field is wide and multidisciplinary, spanning biochemistry, bioreactor science, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, electronics and software engineering. Most of this current endeavour concerns potentiometric and amperometric biosensors and colorimetric paper enzyme strips. However, all the main transducer types are likely to be thoroughly examined, for use in biosensors, over the next few years.

  15. The stability of fundamental constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests of the constancy of fundamental constants are tests of the local position invariance and thus of the equivalence principle, at the heart of general relativity. After summarising the links between fundamental constants, gravity, cosmology and metrology, a brief overview of the observational and experimental constraints on their variation is proposed. (authors)

  16. The Fundamental Scale of Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Febres, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of a system description is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In natural language texts, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, is only a presumption. This study depicts the notion of the Description Fundamental Scale as a set of symbols which serves to analyze the essence a language structure. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested using English and MIDI music texts by means of an algorithm developed to search for a set of symbols, which minimizes the system observed entropy, and therefore best expresses the fundamental scale of the language employed. Test results show that it is possible to find the Fundamental Scale of some languages. The concept of Fundamental Scale, and the method for its determination, emerges as an interesting tool to fac...

  17. Consolidated Bio-Processing of Cellulosic Biomass for Efficient Biofuel Production Using Yeast Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Garima

    Fossil fuels have been the major source for liquid transportation fuels for ages. However, decline in oil reserves and environmental concerns have raised a lot of interest in alternative and renewable energy sources. One promising alternative is the conversion of plant biomass into ethanol. The primary biomass feed stocks currently being used for the ethanol industry have been food based biomass (corn and sugar cane). However, interest has recently shifted to replace these traditional feed-stocks with more abundant, non-food based cellulosic biomass such as agriculture wastes (corn stover) or crops (switch grass). The use of cellulosic biomass as feed stock for the production of ethanol via bio-chemical routes presents many technical challenges not faced with the use of corn or sugar-cane as feed-stock. Recently, a new process called consolidated Bio-processing (CBP) has been proposed. This process combines simultaneous saccharification of lignocellulose with fermentation of the resulting sugars into a single process step mediated by a single microorganism or microbial consortium. Although there is no natural microorganism that possesses all properties of lignocellulose utilization and ethanol production desired for CBP, some bacteria and fungi exhibit some of the essential traits. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most attractive host organism for the usage of this strategy due to its high ethanol productivity at close to theoretical yields (0.51g ethanol/g glucose consumed), high osmo- and ethanol- tolerance, natural robustness in industrial processes, and ease of genetic manipulation. Introduction of the cellulosome, found naturally in microorganisms, has shown new directions to deal with recalcitrant biomass. In this case enzymes work in synergy in order to hydrolyze biomass more effectively than in case of free enzymes. A microbial consortium has been successfully developed, which ensures the functional assembly of minicellulosome on the yeast surface

  18. Multi-criteria analyses of wastewater treatment bio-processes under an uncertainty and a multiplicity of steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Južnič-Zonta, Zivko; Kocijan, Juš; Flotats, Xavier; Vrečko, Darko

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents a multi-criteria evaluation methodology for determining the operating strategies for bio-chemical, wastewater treatment plants based on a model analysis under an uncertainty that can present multiple steady states. The method is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and the expected utility theory in order to deal with the analysis of choices among risky operating strategies with multi-dimensional outcomes. The motivation is given by a case study using an anaerobic digestion model (ADM) adapted for multiple co-substrates. It is shown how the multi-criteria analyses' computational complexity can be reduced within an approximation based on Gaussian-process regression and how a reliability map can be built for a bio-process model under uncertainty and multiplicity. In our uncertainty-analyses case study, the reliability map shows the probability of a biogas-production collapse for a given set of substrates mixture input loads. PMID:23021337

  19. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  20. Fundamentals of technology project management

    CERN Document Server

    Garton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Designed to provide software engineers, students, and IT professionals with an understanding of the fundamentals of project management in the technology/IT field, this book serves as a practical introduction to the subject. Updated with information on how Fundamentals of Project Management integrates with and complements Project Management Institute''s Project Management Body of Knowledge, this collection explains fundamental methodologies and techniques while also discussing new technology, tools, and virtual work environments. Examples and case studies are based on technology projects, and t

  1. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  2. Fundamental principles of particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper goes through the fundamental physics of particles-matter interactions which is necessary for the detection of these particles with detectors. A listing of 41 concepts and detector principles are given. 14 refs., 11 figs

  3. Fundamental Strings as Noncommutative Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    The interpretation of closed fundamental strings as solitons in open string field theory is reviewed. Noncommutativity is introduced to facilitate an explicit construction. The tension is computed exactly and the correct spectrum is recovered at long wave length.

  4. Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Acharjya, DP

    2005-01-01

    Salient Features Mathematical logic, fundamental concepts, proofs and mathematical induction (Chapter 1) Set theory, fundamental concepts, theorems, proofs, Venn diagrams, product of sets, application of set theory and fundamental products (Chapter 2) An introduction to binary relations and concepts, graphs, arrow diagrams, relation matrix, composition of relations, types of relation, partial order relations, total order relation, closure of relations, poset, equivalence classes and partitions. (Chapter 3) An introduction to functions and basic concepts, graphs, composition of functions, floor and ceiling function, characteristic function, remainder function, signum function and introduction to hash function. (Chapter 4) The algebraic structure includes group theory and ring theory. Group theory includes group, subgroups, cyclic group, cosets, homomorphism, introduction to codes and group codes and error correction for block code. The ring theory includes general definition, fundamental concepts, integra...

  5. Fundamental particles and their interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Ananthanarayan, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this article the current understanding of fundamental particles and their interactions is presented for the interested non-specialist, by adopting a semi-historical path. A discussion on the unresolved problems is also presented.

  6. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  7. Testing for Non-Fundamentalness

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidi Sahneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Non-fundamentalness arises when observed variables do not contain enough information to recover structural shocks. This paper propose a new test to empirically detect non-fundamentalness, which is robust to the conditional heteroskedasticity of unknown form, does not need information outside of the specified model and could be accomplished with a standard F-test. A Monte Carlo study based on a DSGE model is conducted to examine the finite sample performance of the test. I apply the prop...

  8. Conjugated polyelectrolytes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This is the first monograph to specifically focus on fundamentals and applications of polyelectrolytes, a class of molecules that gained substantial interest due to their unique combination of properties. Combining both features of organic semiconductors and polyelectrolytes, they offer a broad field for fundamental research as well as applications to analytical chemistry, optical imaging, and opto-electronic devices. The initial chapters introduce readers to the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of various conjugated polyelectrolytes. This is followed by chapters on the applica

  9. The fundamental parameters of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four parameters space, time, mass and charge are shown to possess an exact symmetry as a group of order 4. The explicit properties of the parameters as displayed in this group are then used to propose derivations of the fundamental principles of classical mechanics, electromagnetic theory and particle physics. The derivations suggest that the laws of physics and the fundamental particles have a single origin in the initial process of direct measurement. (Auth.)

  10. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  11. Fundamental units: physics and metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Okun, L. B.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fundamental units is discussed in the context of achievements of both theoretical physics and modern metrology. On one hand, due to fascinating accuracy of atomic clocks, the traditional macroscopic standards of metrology (second, metre, kilogram) are giving way to standards based on fundamental units of nature: velocity of light $c$ and quantum of action $h$. On the other hand, the poor precision of gravitational constant $G$, which is widely believed to define the ``cube of t...

  12. Toward genome-scale models of the Chinese hamster ovary cells: incentives, status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar; Kristensen, Claus; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2014-01-01

    Bioprocessing of the important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines used for the production of biopharmaceuticals stands at the brink of several redefining events. In 2011, the field entered the genomics era, which has accelerated omics-based phenotyping of the cell lines. In this review we...

  13. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  14. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel (eds.) [GSI Helmholtz-Zentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  15. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  16. Microsystems for biological cell characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce...

  17. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: Advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, M. J.; Farid, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discusse...

  18. Bioprocessing in Microgravity: Applications of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis to Rat Anterior Pituitary Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Seaman, G. V. F.; Snyder, R.; Matsumiya, H.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we describe the results of a continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE) experiment done on STS-65 in which we tested the idea that intracellular growth hormone (GH) particles contained in a cell lysate prepared from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells in microgravity might have different electrophoretic mobilities from those in a synchronous ground control cell lysate. Collectively, the results suggested that CFE processing in microgravity was better than on earth; more samples could be processed at a time (6 x) and more variant forms of GH molecules could be resolved as well. We had also hoped to carry out a pituitary cell CFE experiment, but failure of the hardware required that the actual cell electrophoresis trials be done on earth shortly after Shuttle landing. Data from these experiments showed that space-flown cells possessed a higher electrophoretic mobility than ground control cells, thereby offering evidence for the idea that exposure of cultured cells to microgravity can change their net surface charge-density especially when the cells are fed. Collectively, the results from this pituitary cell experiment document the advantage of using coupled cell culture and CFE techniques in the microgravity environment.

  19. RFID design fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    2010-01-01

    RFID is an increasingly pervasive tool that is now used in a wide range of fields. It is employed to substantiate adherence to food preservation and safety standards, combat the circulation of counterfeit pharmaceuticals, and verify authenticity and history of critical parts used in aircraft and other machinery-and these are just a few of its uses. Goes beyond deployment, focusing on exactly how RFID actually worksRFID Design Fundamentals and Applications systematically explores the fundamental principles involved in the design and characterization of RFID technologies. The RFID market is expl

  20. Fundamental Composite (Goldstone) Higgs Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cacciapaglia, G.; Sannino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation...... transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. This minimal choice enables us to use recent first principle lattice results to make the first predictions for the massive spectrum for models of composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics. These results are of the upmost relevance to guide...

  1. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    OpenAIRE

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-01-01

    The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the prot...

  2. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  3. Fundamental approach to discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Acharjya, DP

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: The book `Fundamental Approach to Discrete Mathematics` is a required part of pursuing a computer science degree at most universities. It provides in-depth knowledge to the subject for beginners and stimulates further interest in the topic. The salient features of this book include: Strong coverage of key topics involving recurrence relation, combinatorics, Boolean algebra, graph theory and fuzzy set theory. Algorithms and examples integrated throughout the book to bring clarity to the fundamental concepts. Each concept and definition is followed by thoughtful examples.

  4. Image restoration fundamentals and advances

    CERN Document Server

    Gunturk, Bahadir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Image Restoration: Fundamentals and Advances responds to the need to update most existing references on the subject, many of which were published decades ago. Providing a broad overview of image restoration, this book explores breakthroughs in related algorithm development and their role in supporting real-world applications associated with various scientific and engineering fields. These include astronomical imaging, photo editing, and medical imaging, to name just a few. The book examines how such advances can also lead to novel insights into the fundamental properties of image sources. Addr

  5. The fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fikhtengol'ts, G M

    1965-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Mathematical Analysis, Volume 1 is a textbook that provides a systematic and rigorous treatment of the fundamentals of mathematical analysis. Emphasis is placed on the concept of limit which plays a principal role in mathematical analysis. Examples of the application of mathematical analysis to geometry, mechanics, physics, and engineering are given. This volume is comprised of 14 chapters and begins with a discussion on real numbers, their properties and applications, and arithmetical operations over real numbers. The reader is then introduced to the concept of function, i

  6. Development of a Low Cost Bioprocess for Endotoxin Production by Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis Intended for Biological Control of Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ricardo Soccol; Teresinha E. V. Pollom; Ricardo Cancio Fendrich; Fernando Alberto Prochmann; Radijiskumar Mohan; Marita Maciel Moreira Blaskowski; André Luiz de Almeida Melo; Cláudio Jose Barros de Carvalho; Vanete Thomaz Soccol

    2009-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector of Dengue disease, responsible for 20,000 deaths/year worldwide. Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis - Bti releases selective and effective toxins (crystal proteins) against A. aegypti larvae. We present a low cost bioprocess for toxin production, accomplished by a selected Brazilian strain Bti (BR-LPB01) and employment of low cost substrates. Soybean meal and sugarcane molasses lead to high toxic effectiveness after 2L bioreactor fermentation (LD50=26ng/mL), ne...

  7. Biosorption of Mn (II, Co (II and Cr (VI in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor: experiments and evaluation of the integral bioprocess model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rezić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a multi heavy metals removal process with mixed microbial culture was examined in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB with different combinations of process parameters. Three metals were selected as examples of cations (manganese and cobalt and oxy-anion (hexavalent chromium. Hydrodynamic conditions and biomass sorption capacity in the HRTB had the main impact on the heavy metals removal efficiencies, which were for Mn2+ 87.0-93.6%, Co2+ 89.0-95.7% and Cr6+ 99.7-100%, respectively. For the bioprocess description in the HRTB, the integral bioprocess model that combines hydrodynamics, mass transfer and kinetics was used. This model was evaluated for the new experimental conditions and average variances between experimental and simulated data were in the range of 0.12 - 3.21·10-3. The results obtained clearly show that the integral bioprocess model is able to describe the heavy metal removal process in the HRTB.

  8. Electrochemical metallization memories-fundamentals, applications, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review focuses on electrochemical metallization memory cells (ECM), highlighting their advantages as the next generation memories. In a brief introduction, the basic switching mechanism of ECM cells is described and the historical development is sketched. In a second part, the full spectra of materials and material combinations used for memory device prototypes and for dedicated studies are presented. In a third part, the specific thermodynamics and kinetics of nanosized electrochemical cells are described. The overlapping of the space charge layers is found to be most relevant for the cell properties at rest. The major factors determining the functionality of the ECM cells are the electrode reaction and the transport kinetics. Depending on electrode and/or electrolyte material electron transfer, electro-crystallization or slow diffusion under strong electric fields can be rate determining. In the fourth part, the major device characteristics of ECM cells are explained. Emphasis is placed on switching speed, forming and SET/RESET voltage, RON to ROFF ratio, endurance and retention, and scaling potentials. In the last part, circuit design aspects of ECM arrays are discussed, including the pros and cons of active and passive arrays. In the case of passive arrays, the fundamental sneak path problem is described and as well as a possible solution by two anti-serial (complementary) interconnected resistive switches per cell. Furthermore, the prospects of ECM with regard to further scalability and the ability for multi-bit data storage are addressed. (topical review)

  9. Electrochemical metallization memories—fundamentals, applications, prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valov, Ilia; Waser, Rainer; Jameson, John R.; Kozicki, Michael N.

    2011-06-01

    This review focuses on electrochemical metallization memory cells (ECM), highlighting their advantages as the next generation memories. In a brief introduction, the basic switching mechanism of ECM cells is described and the historical development is sketched. In a second part, the full spectra of materials and material combinations used for memory device prototypes and for dedicated studies are presented. In a third part, the specific thermodynamics and kinetics of nanosized electrochemical cells are described. The overlapping of the space charge layers is found to be most relevant for the cell properties at rest. The major factors determining the functionality of the ECM cells are the electrode reaction and the transport kinetics. Depending on electrode and/or electrolyte material electron transfer, electro-crystallization or slow diffusion under strong electric fields can be rate determining. In the fourth part, the major device characteristics of ECM cells are explained. Emphasis is placed on switching speed, forming and SET/RESET voltage, RON to ROFF ratio, endurance and retention, and scaling potentials. In the last part, circuit design aspects of ECM arrays are discussed, including the pros and cons of active and passive arrays. In the case of passive arrays, the fundamental sneak path problem is described and as well as a possible solution by two anti-serial (complementary) interconnected resistive switches per cell. Furthermore, the prospects of ECM with regard to further scalability and the ability for multi-bit data storage are addressed.

  10. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  11. Fundamental Cycles of Cognitive Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, John

    Over recent years, various theories have arisen to explain and predict cognitive development in mathematics education. We focus on an underlying theme that recurs throughout such theories: a fundamental cycle of growth in the learning of specific concepts, which we frame within broader global theories of individual cognitive growth. Our purpose is…

  12. Political Management of Islamic Fundamentalism

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Anwar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This article attempts to explain why and how the Indian state has been successful in managing the militant form of Islamic fundamentalism in India, despite favourable internal and external conditions for such militancy. Internally, it includes such factors as the relative material and cultural deprivation of Indian Muslims, the context of Hindutava and the communal riots, and externally, the Islami...

  13. Environmental Law: Fundamentals for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, David R.

    This booklet outlines the environmental problems most likely to arise in schools. An overview provides a fundamental analysis of environmental issues rather than comprehensive analysis and advice. The text examines the concerns that surround superfund cleanups, focusing on the legal framework, and furnishes some practical pointers, such as what to…

  14. Composing Europe's Fundamental Rights Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Louise Halleskov

    2015-01-01

    The article offers a perspective on how the objective of a strong and coherent European protection standard pursued by the fundamental rights amendments of the Lisbon Treaty can be achieved, as it proposes a discursive pluralistic framework to understand and guide the relationship between the EU...

  15. Fundamental Parameters of Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Crowther, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the determination of fundamental parameters of `normal' hot, massive OB-type stars, namely temperatures, luminosities, masses, gravities and surface abundances. We also present methods used to derive properties of stellar winds -- mass-loss rates and wind velocities from early-type stars.

  16. Fundamentals: IVC and computer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F.; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    2013-01-01

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science” discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly

  17. Fundamental Concepts in Modern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    an opportunity to go into some depth with fundamental notions from mathematical analysis that are not only important from a mathematical point of view butalso occur frequently in the more theoretical parts of the engineering sciences. The book should also appeal to university students in mathematics...

  18. Fundamental composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson or as a massive excitation of the condensate. We show that, in general, these states mix with repercussions on the electroweak physics and phenomenology. Our results will help clarify the main differences, similarities, benefits and shortcomings of the different ways one can naturally realize a composite nature of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. We will analyze the minimal underlying realization in terms of fundamental strongly coupled gauge theories supporting the flavor symmetry breaking pattern SU(4)/Sp(4)∼SO(6)/SO(5). The most minimal fundamental description consists of an SU(2) gauge theory with two Dirac fermions transforming according to the fundamental representation of the gauge group. This minimal choice enables us to use recent first principle lattice results to make the first predictions for the massive spectrum for models of composite (Goldstone) Higgs dynamics. These results are of the utmost relevance to guide searches of new physics at the Large Hadron Collider

  19. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures

    CERN Document Server

    Akula, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  20. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality; Loren

  1. Lighting Fundamentals. Monograph Number 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig N.; Gerlach, Vernon S.

    Using an accompanying, specified film that consists of 10-second pictures separated by blanks, the learner can, with the 203-step, self-correcting questions and answers provided in this program, come to understand the fundamentals of lighting in photography. The learner should, by the end of the program, be able to describe and identify the…

  2. Experiments in Fundamental Neutron Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, J. S.; Snow, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments using slow neutrons address a growing range of scientific issues spanning nuclear physics, particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. The field of fundamental physics using neutrons has experienced a significant increase in activity over the last two decades. This review summarizes some of the recent developments in the field and outlines some of the prospects for future research.

  3. Fundamentals of Welding. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Clarence; And Others

    These instructional materials assist teachers in improving instruction on the fundamentals of welding. The following introductory information is included: use of this publication; competency profile; instructional/task analysis; related academic and workplace skills list; tools, materials, and equipment list; and 27 references. Seven units of…

  4. Fundamentals of 5G mobile networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of 5G Mobile Networks provides an overview of the key features of the 5th Generation (5G) mobile networks,  discussing the motivation for 5G and the main challenges in developing this new technology. This book provides an insight into the key areas of research that will define this new system technology paving the path towards future research and development.  The book is multi-disciplinary in nature, and aims to cover a whole host of intertwined subjects that will predominantly influence the 5G landscape, including the future Internet, cloud computing, small cells and self-organ

  5. New developments in fundamental and applied radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 23rd Annual Meeting of the European Society for Radiation Biology was held in Dublin, Eire, 23-26 September 1990. Papers presented were grouped into two themes:- (a) Promoting areas where new developments in cell and molecular biology are fundamentally altering concepts of radiation action (papers on radiation induced mutagenesis and transformations, dosimetry and risk, DNA damage and repair, low dose/low dose rate effects, and non-ionising radiation). (b) Areas where radiobiological information is directly important to the topic (papers on food irradiation, diagnostic imaging, environmental radiation, radiotherapy, and the oxygen effect). (UK)

  6. Population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli lab scale cultivations simulating industrial scale bioprocesses

    OpenAIRE

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Carlqvist, Magnus; Gernaey, Krist; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Modsat den tidligere traditionelle opfattelse er det i dag velkendt at en population af celler i en bioreaktor er heterogen. Cellerne i populationen er forskellige og derfor finder man fordelinger af enkel celle egenskaber, f.eks. celle størrelse, levedygtighed og metabolisk aktivitet, i modsætning til karakteristikker der kan blive beskrevet af gennemsnitlige værdier. Der vil altid være en vis heterogenicitet i en celle population, men heterogeniciteten bliver mere tydelig på grund af forske...

  7. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  8. Clustering Assisted Fundamental Matrix Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision, the estimation of the fundament al matrix is a basic problem that has been extensively studied. The accuracy of the estimation imposes a significant influence on subsequent tasks such as the camera trajectory dete rmination and 3D reconstruction. In this paper we propose a new method for fundamental matri x estimation that makes use of clustering a group of 4D vectors. The key insight is the obser vation that among the 4D vectors constructed from matching pairs of points obtained from the SIF T algorithm, well-defined cluster points tend to be reliable inliers suitable for fundamenta l matrix estimation. Based on this, we utilizes a recently proposed efficient clustering method thr ough density peaks seeking and propose a new clustering assisted method. Experimental resul ts show that the proposed algorithm is faster and more accurate than currently commonly us ed methods.

  9. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  10. THE FUNDAMENTS OF EXPLANATORY CAUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela VLĂDILĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new Criminal Code in the specter of the legal life the division of causes removing the criminal feature of the offence in explanatory causes and non-attributable causes. This dichotomy is not without legal and factual fundaments and has been subjected to doctrinaire debates even since the period when the Criminal Code of 1969 was still in force. From our perspective, one of the possible legal fundaments of the explanatory causes results from that the offence committed is based on the protection of a right at least equal with the one prejudiced by the action of aggression, salvation, by the legal obligation imposed or by the victim’s consent.

  11. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Classical Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Classical Physics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of physical forces and their properties. The handbook includes information on the units used to measure physical properties; vectors, and how they are used to show the net effect of various forces; Newton's Laws of motion, and how to use these laws in force and motion applications; and the concepts of energy, work, and power, and how to measure and calculate the energy involved in various applications. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility systems and equipment

  12. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  13. Fundamental research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical assistance is today a widespread activity. Large numbers of persons with special qualifications in the applied sciences go to the developing countries to work on specific research and development projects, as do educationists on Fulbright or other programmes - usually to teach elementary or intermediate courses. But I believe that until now it has been rare for a person primarily interested in fundamental research to go to one of these countries to help build up advanced education and pure research work. Having recently returned from such an assignment, and having found it a most stimulating and enlightening experience, I feel moved to urge strongly upon others who may be in a position to do so that they should seek similar experience themselves. The first step is to show that advanced education and fundamental research are badly needed in the under-developed countries.

  14. Fundamental Complexity Measures of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Grandpierre, Attila

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is a great deal of confusion regarding complexity and its measures (reviews on complexity measures are found in, e.g. Lloyd, 2001 and Shalizi, 2006 and more references therein). Moreover, there is also confusion regarding the nature of life. In this situation, it seems the task of determining the fundamental complexity measures of life is especially difficult. Yet this task is just part of a greater task: obtaining substantial insights into the nature of biological evolution. We think that without a firm quantitative basis characterizing the most fundamental aspects of life, it is impossible to overcome the confusion so as to clarify the nature of biological evolution. The approach we present here offers such quantitative measures of complexity characterizing biological organization and, as we will see, evolution.

  15. KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF PURIFIED LACCASE PRODUCED FROM Trametes versicolor IBL-04 IN SOLID STATE BIO-PROCESSING OF CORNCOBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asgher,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A locally isolated white rot fungal strain Trametes versicolor IBL-04 produced high laccase activities in solid state bio-processing of corn cobs. Addition of glucose and yeast extract (C: N ratio; 25:1 enhanced laccase synthesis. Addition of Tween-80 and CuSO4 enhanced laccase production to 1012 U/mL under optimized process conditions. Laccase was further purified to 2.89-fold (specific activity of 840 U/mg by ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, dialysis, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography. The purified laccase had a relative molecular mass of 63 kDa as detected by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Best enzyme activity was at pH 5 and 40oC. Using 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS as substrate, the enzyme showed maximum activity (Vmax of 780 U/mL with a corresponding Michaelis constant (Km value of 73µM. Among the different activators/inhibitors, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Fe2+ stimulated laccase activity, whereas EDTA and cystein inhibited the enzyme. The higher Vmax and lower Km for T. versicolor IBL-04 laccase as compared to most of the reported laccases suggests its potential for industrial applications.

  16. Thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains representing potentials for bioethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke by consolidated bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Nan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, SD (China). Key Lab. of Biofuels; Sun, Juan [Agricultural Univ., Qingdao, SD (China). College of Animal Science and Technology

    2012-09-15

    Thermotolerant inulin-utilizing yeast strains are desirable for ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). To obtain such strains, 21 naturally occurring yeast strains isolated by using an enrichment method and 65 previously isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were investigated in inulin utilization, extracellular inulinase activity, and ethanol fermentation from inulin and Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour at 40 C. The strains Kluyveromyces marxianus PT-1 (CGMCC AS2.4515) and S. cerevisiae JZ1C (CGMCC AS2.3878) presented the highest extracellular inulinase activity and ethanol yield in this study. The highest ethanol concentration in Jerusalem artichoke tuber flour fermentation (200 g L{sup -1}) at 40 C achieved by K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C was 73.6 and 65.2 g L{sup -1}, which corresponded to the theoretical ethanol yield of 90.0 and 79.7 %, respectively. In the range of 30 to 40 C, temperature did not have a significant effect on ethanol production for both strains. This study displayed the distinctive superiority of K. marxianus PT-1 and S. cerevisiae JZ1C in the thermotolerance and utilization of inulin-type oligosaccharides reserved in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. It is proposed that both K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae have considerable potential in ethanol production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers by a high temperature CBP. (orig.)

  17. Fundamental indexation for bond markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle de Jong; Hongwen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build alternative indices weighing using a measure of fundamental value rather than debt size. The official bond indices built to reflect general price trends are market weighted, meaning that the bonds are weighted by their debt size. The more indebted, the more weight in the index, which mechanically increments the investment risks that are inherent. Those market indices are shown to be return-to-risk inefficient in recent studies compared to indice...

  18. Fundamentals: IVC and computer science

    OpenAIRE

    Gozalvez, Javier; Haerri, Jerome; Hartenstein, Hannes; Heijenk, Geert; Kargl, Frank; Petit, Jonathan; Scheuermann, Björn; Tieler, Tessa; Altintas, O.; Dressler, F; Hartenstein, H.; Tonguz, O.K.

    2013-01-01

    The working group on “Fundamentals: IVC and Computer Science” discussed the lasting value of achieved research results as well as potential future directions in the field of inter- vehicular communication. Two major themes ‘with variations’ were the dependence on a specific technology (particularly the focus on IEEE 802.11p in the last decade) and the struggling with bringing self-organizing networks to deployment/market. The team started with a retrospective view and identified the following...

  19. Bangladesh: Drifting into Islamic Fundamentalism?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Siegfried O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 9/11 the world has regarded Pakistan and Afghanistan as the epicentre of Islamic fundamentalism. Many of the early observations dealt with the tremendous challenge that terrorism and religious-militant extremism would pose for peace and stability from a geopolitical perspective. Realising the increasingly complex scenarios as well as the causalities and impacts, analyses on the phenomenon under discussion were slowly but persistently broadening. In order to be able to address not only t...

  20. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  1. The fundamental problem of accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Cairns

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental problem of economic accounting is to determine a forwardlooking schedule of rentals, user costs or quasirents to provide for the recovery of irreversible investments. The method derived herein relaxes some restrictive assumptions that are common in capital theory. There can be multiple forms of comprehensive capital. Accounting for all forms of capital, including tangible and intangible capital, is symmetrical. The analytical focus becomes one of fixities and frictions and not...

  2. Early Cosmology and Fundamental Physics

    OpenAIRE

    De Vega, Hector

    2003-01-01

    Based on Lectures at the 9th. Chalonge School in Astrofundamental Physics, Palermo, September 2002, NATO ASI. To appear in the Proceedings, N. S'anchez and Yu. Parijskij editors, Kluwer. This is a pedagogical introduction to early cosmology and the host of fundamental physics involved in it (particle physics, grand unification andgeneral relativity). Inflation and the inflaton field are the centraltheme of this review. The quantum field treatment of the inflaton ispresented including its o...

  3. Fundamental Properties of Quaternion Spinors

    OpenAIRE

    Yefremov, Alexander P.

    2012-01-01

    The interior structure of arbitrary sets of quaternion units is analyzed using general methods of the theory of matrices. It is shown that the units are composed of quadratic combinations of fundamental objects having a dual mathematical meaning as spinor couples and dyads locally describing 2D surfaces. A detailed study of algebraic relationships between the spinor sets belonging to different quaternion units is suggested as an initial step aimed at producing a self-consistent geometric imag...

  4. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the two modules: structure of metals (bonding, common lattic types, grain structure/boundary, polymorphis, alloys, imperfections in metals) and properties of metals (stress, strain, Young modulus, stress-strain relation, physical properties, working of metals, corrosion, hydrogen embrittlement, tritium/material compatibility)

  5. Fundamental requirements for petrochemical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of NOVA Chemicals over the past 20 years is described as an illustration of how the petrochemical industry provides markets for natural gas, natural gas liquids and the products of crude oil distillation, and functions as a conduit for upgrading products which would otherwise be sold into the fuel market. Some fundamental characteristics of the business which are foundations for competitiveness are reviewed in the process. These fundamentals help to understand why the industry locates in certain geographic regions of the world, which are often remote from end-use markets. Chief among these fundamentals is access to an adequate supply of appropriately priced feedstock; this is the single most important reason why chemical companies continue to emphasize developments in areas of the world where feedstock are advantageously priced. The cost of operations is equally significant. Cost depends not so much on location but on the scale of operations, hence the tendency towards large scale plants. Plant and product rationalization, technology and product development synergies and leverage with suppliers are all opportunities for cost reduction throughout the product supply chain. The combination of lower natural gas cost in Alberta, the lower fixed cost of extraction and the economies of scale achieved by large scale operation (five billion pounds per year of polyethylene production capacity) are the crucial factors that will enable NOVA Chemicals to maintain its competitive position and to weather the highs and lows in industry price fluctuations

  6. Methyl Jasmonate Represses Growth and Affects Cell Cycle Progression in Cultured Taxus Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Rohan A.; Lenka, Sangram K.; Normanly, Jennifer; Walker, Elsbeth L.; Roberts, Susan C.

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) elicitation is an effective strategy to induce and enhance synthesis of the anticancer agent paclitaxel (Taxol®) in Taxus cell suspension cultures; however, concurrent decreases in growth are often observed, which is problematic for large scale bioprocessing. Here, increased accumulation of paclitaxel in Taxus cuspidata suspension cultures with MeJA elicitation was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in cell growth, evident within the first three days post-elicitatio...

  7. Fundamentals of fluorescence and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental physics of fluorescence. The application of fluorescence to microscopy represents an important transition in the development of microscopy, particularly as it applies to biology. It enables quantitating the amounts of specific molecules within a cell, determining whether molecules are complexing on a molecular level, measuring changes in ionic concentrations within cells and organelles, and measuring molecular dynamics. This chapter also discusses the issues important to quantitative measurement of fluorescence and focuses on four of quantitative measurements of fluorescence--boxcar-gated detection, streak cameras, photon correlation, and phase modulation. Although quantitative measurement presents many pitfalls to the beginner, it also presents significant opportunities to one skilled in the art. This chapter also examines how fluorescence is measured in the steady state and time domain and how fluorescence is applied in the modern epifluorescence microscope. PMID:23931503

  8. Bioremediation of uranium-bearing wastewater: Biochemical and chemical factors influencing bioprocess application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biotechnological process for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution utilizes enzymatically liberated phosphate ligand which precipitates with heavy metals (M) as cell-bound MHPO4. The enzyme, a phosphatase, obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics in resting and immobilized cells; an integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation was used to calculate the apparent Km (Kmapp) as operating in immobilized cells in flow-through columns by a ratio method based on the use of two enzyme loadings (Eo1, Eo2) or two input substrate concentrations (So1, So2). The calculated Kmapp (4.08 mM) was substituted into an equation to describe the removal of metals by immobilized cells. In operation the activity of the bioreactor was in accordance with that predicted mathematically, within 10%. The initial tests were done at neutral pH, whereas the pH of industrial wastewaters is often low; an increase in the Kmapp at low pH was found in previous studies. Immobilized cells were challenged with acidic mine drainage wastewaters, where the limiting factors were chemical and not biochemical. Bioreactors initially lost activity in this water, but recovered to remove uranyl ion with more than 70% efficiency under steady-state conditions in the presence of competing cations and anions. Possible reasons for the bioreactor recovery are chemical crystallization factors

  9. Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.

  10. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  11. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turyshev, Slava G.

    2013-10-15

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.

  12. Fundamentals of soft matter science

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Linda S

    2012-01-01

    ""The publication is written at a very fundamental level, which will make it easily readable for undergraduate students. It will certainly also be a valuable text for students and postgraduates in interdisciplinary programmes, as not only physical aspects, but also the chemistry and applications are presented and discussed. … The book is well illustrated, and I really do like the examples and pictures provided for simple demonstration experiments, which can be done during the lectures. Also, the experimental techniques chapter at the end of the book may be helpful. The question sections are he

  13. Heterogeneous catalysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Julian RH

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis plays a part in the production of more than 80% of all chemical products. It is therefore essential that all chemists and chemical engineers have an understanding of the fundamental principles as well as the applications of heterogeneous catalysts. This book introduces the subject, starting at a basic level, and includes sections on adsorption and surface science, catalytic kinetics, experimental methods for preparing and studying heterogeneous catalysts, as well as some aspects of the design of industrial catalytic reactors. It ends with a chapter that covers a range

  14. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  15. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  16. In search of fundamental laws

    CERN Document Server

    Pleitez, V

    1999-01-01

    One of the main activities in science teaching, and in particular in Physics teaching, is not only the discussion of both modern problems and problems which solution is an urgent matter. It means that the picture of an active and alive science should be transmitted to the students, mainly to the College students. A central point in this matter is the issue which characterizes the Fundamental Laws of Nature. In this work we emphasize that this sort of laws may exist in areas which are different from those usually considered. In this type of discussion it is neither possible nor desirable to avoid the historical perspective of the scientific development.

  17. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...

  18. Reconstruction of fundamental SUSY parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Zerwas et al.

    2003-09-25

    We summarize methods and expected accuracies in determining the basic low-energy SUSY parameters from experiments at future e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders in the TeV energy range, combined with results from LHC. In a second step we demonstrate how, based on this set of parameters, the fundamental supersymmetric theory can be reconstructed at high scales near the grand unification or Planck scale. These analyses have been carried out for minimal supergravity [confronted with GMSB for comparison], and for a string effective theory.

  19. Computing fundamentals digital literacy edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Computing Fundamentals has been tailor made to help you get up to speed on your Computing Basics and help you get proficient in entry level computing skills. Covering all the key topics, it starts at the beginning and takes you through basic set-up so that you'll be competent on a computer in no time.You'll cover: Computer Basics & HardwareSoftwareIntroduction to Windows 7Microsoft OfficeWord processing with Microsoft Word 2010Creating Spreadsheets with Microsoft ExcelCreating Presentation Graphics with PowerPointConnectivity and CommunicationWeb BasicsNetwork and Internet Privacy and Securit

  20. Computing fundamentals introduction to computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    The absolute beginner's guide to learning basic computer skills Computing Fundamentals, Introduction to Computers gets you up to speed on basic computing skills, showing you everything you need to know to conquer entry-level computing courses. Written by a Microsoft Office Master Instructor, this useful guide walks you step-by-step through the most important concepts and skills you need to be proficient on the computer, using nontechnical, easy-to-understand language. You'll start at the very beginning, getting acquainted with the actual, physical machine, then progress through the most common

  1. Fundamentals of magnetism and electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Arya, SN

    2009-01-01

    Fundamentals of Magnetism and Electricity is a textbook on the physics of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic fields and waves. It is written mainly with the physics student in mind, although it will also be of use to students of electrical and electronic engineering. The approach is concise but clear, and the author has assumed that the reader will be familiar with the basic phenomena. The theory, however, is set out in a completely self-contained and coherent way and developed to the point where the reader can appreciate the beauty and coherence of the Maxwell equations.

  2. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2014-01-01

    A classic now in its 14th edition, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best resource for students and professionals looking to brush up on how these technologies have developed, grown, and converged, as well as what's in store for the future. It begins by developing the communication technology framework-the history, ecosystem, and structure-then delves into each type of technology, including everything from mass media, to computers and consumer electronics, to networking technologies. Each chapter is written by faculty and industry experts who p

  3. Fundamental triangulation networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Academy of Sciences and Letters initiated a mapping project which should be based on the principle of triangulation. Eventually 24 maps were printed in varying scales, predominantly in 1:120 000. The last map was engraved in 1842. The Danish GradeMeasurement initiated remeasurements and redesign of the...... fundamental triangulation network. This network served scientific as well as cartographic purposes in more than a century. Only in the 1960s all triangulation sides were measured electronically. A combined least-squares adjustment followed in the 1970s...

  4. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  5. Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future

  6. Fundamental Properties of Quaternion Spinors

    CERN Document Server

    Yefremov, Alexander P

    2012-01-01

    The interior structure of arbitrary sets of quaternion units is analyzed using general methods of the theory of matrices. It is shown that the units are composed of quadratic combinations of fundamental objects having a dual mathematical meaning as spinor couples and dyads locally describing 2D surfaces. A detailed study of algebraic relationships between the spinor sets belonging to different quaternion units is suggested as an initial step aimed at producing a self-consistent geometric image of spinor-surface distribution on the physical 3D space background.

  7. Fundamental stellar properties from asteroseismology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva Aguirre, V.; Casagrande, L.; Miglio, A.

    2013-01-01

    different evolutionary phases. We present our results on determinations of masses, radii, and distances of stars in the CoRoT and Kepler fields, showing that we can map and date different regions of the galactic disk and distinguish gradients in the distribution of stellar properties at different heights......Accurate characterization of stellar populations is of prime importance to correctly understand the formation and evolution process of our Galaxy. The field of asteroseismology has been particularly successful in such an endeavor providing fundamental parameters for large samples of stars in...

  8. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, Rodger E

    2007-01-01

    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  9. Quantum Uncertainty and Fundamental Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simplified theoretical approach to infer some essential concepts on the fundamental interactions between charged particles and their relative strengths at comparable energies by exploiting the quantum uncertainty only. The worth of the present approach relies on the way of obtaining the results, rather than on the results themselves: concepts today acknowledged as fingerprints of the electroweak and strong interactions appear indeed rooted in the same theoretical frame including also the basic principles of special and general relativity along with the gravity force.

  10. DOE fundamentals handbook: Material science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of the structure and properties of metals. This volume contains the following modules: thermal shock (thermal stress, pressurized thermal shock), brittle fracture (mechanism, minimum pressurization-temperature curves, heatup/cooldown rate limits), and plant materials (properties considered when selecting materials, fuel materials, cladding and reflectors, control materials, nuclear reactor core problems, plant material problems, atomic displacement due to irradiation, thermal and displacement spikes due to irradiation, neutron capture effect, radiation effects in organic compounds, reactor use of aluminum)

  11. Autodesk Combustion 4 fundamentals courseware

    CERN Document Server

    Autodesk,

    2005-01-01

    Whether this is your first experience with Combustion software or you're upgrading to take advantage of the many new features and tools, this guide will serve as your ultimate resource to this all-in-one professional compositing application. Much more than a point-and-click manual, this guide explains the principles behind the software, serving as an overview of the package and associated techniques. Written by certified Autodesk training specialists for motion graphic designers, animators, and visual effects artists, Combustion 4 Fundamentals Courseware provides expert advice for all skill le

  12. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, R.V. [Instituto para a Investigacao Interdisciplinar, CMAF, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, IPFN - EURATOM/IST Association, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-11-15

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and {Dirac_h} are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  13. A laboratory scale fundamental time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of a fundamental time (or fundamental length) has been conjectured in many contexts. However, the ''stability of physical theories principle'' seems to be the one that provides, through the tools of algebraic deformation theory, an unambiguous derivation of the stable structures that Nature might have chosen for its algebraic framework. It is well-known that c and ℎ are the deformation parameters that stabilize the Galilean and the Poisson algebra. When the stability principle is applied to the Poincare-Heisenberg algebra, two deformation parameters emerge which define two time (or length) scales. In addition there are, for each of them, a plus or minus sign possibility in the relevant commutators. One of the deformation length scales, related to non-commutativity of momenta, is probably related to the Planck length scale but the other might be much larger and already detectable in laboratory experiments. In this paper, this is used as a working hypothesis to look for physical effects that might settle this question. Phase-space modifications, resonances, interference, electron spin resonance and non-commutative QED are considered. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of anaerobic digestion in a two-stage bioprocess producing hydrogen and methane

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Masset, Julien; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen has received wide attention in the last decades as a clean energy vector. The major advantage of energy generation from hydrogen is the near-zero carbon emissions, since the utilization of hydrogen, either via combustion or via fuel cells, results in pure water. Recently, there has been increasing interest on the biological production of hydrogen gas from renewable biomass such as carbohydrates from agriculture or agro-food industries. This specific anaerobic digestion...

  15. Development of a versatile computer integrated control system for bioprocess controls

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, DeYu; Gentz, Reiner; Zhang, Junli

    1998-01-01

    A general approach is described for the implementation of a networked multi-unit computer integrated control system. The use of data acquisition hardware and graphical programming tools alleviates tedious programming and maintains potency and flexibility. One application of the control system, the control of a mammalian cell perfusion culture based on a key nutrient glucose concentration, was demonstrated. The control system offers customized user interface for all process control parameters ...

  16. Chip-based amperometric enzyme sensor system for monitoring of bioprocesses by flow-injection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baecker, M.; Rakowski, D.; Poghossian, A.; Biselli, M; Wagner, P.; Schoening, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic chip integrating amperometric enzyme sensors for the detection of glucose, glutamate and glutamine in cell-culture fermentation processes has been developed. The enzymes glucose oxidase, glutamate oxidase and glutaminase were immobilized by means of cross-linking with glutaraldehyde on platinum thin-film electrodes integrated within a microfluidic channel. The biosensor chip was coupled to a flow-injection analysis system for electrochemical characterization of the sensors. The...

  17. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailin, Daniel Joe; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Othman, Nor Zalina; Malek, Roslinda; Phin, Hiew Siaw; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad; El Enshasy, Hesham Ali

    2016-07-01

    Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L(-1), respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L(-1) concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L(-1). PMID:27298582

  18. Bioprocess development for kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens in semi industrial scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Joe Dailin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens is non-pathogenic gram positive bacteria isolated from kefir grains and able to produce extracellular exopolysaccharides named kefiran. This polysaccharide contains approximately equal amounts of glucose and galactose. Kefiran has wide applications in pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, an approach has been extensively studied to increase kefiran production for pharmaceutical application in industrial scale. The present work aims to maximize kefiran production through the optimization of medium composition and production in semi industrial scale bioreactor. The composition of the optimal medium for kefiran production contained sucrose, yeast extract and K2HPO4 at 20.0, 6.0, 0.25 g L−1, respectively. The optimized medium significantly increased both cell growth and kefiran production by about 170.56% and 58.02%, respectively, in comparison with the unoptimized medium. Furthermore, the kinetics of cell growth and kefiran production in batch culture of L. kefiranofaciens was investigated under un-controlled pH conditions in 16-L scale bioreactor. The maximal cell mass in bioreactor culture reached 2.76 g L−1 concomitant with kefiran production of 1.91 g L−1.

  19. A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of producer and non-producer NS0 myeloma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Soo Hean Gary; Falciani, Francesco; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2007-06-01

    'Genome-wide' or 'global' gene expression profiling provides a powerful approach to the characterization of a cell's transcriptional state. Such technology has been used in animal cell culture to create genome-wide snapshots of transcriptional activity in response to environmental factors or cellular triggers under bioprocessing conditions. Furthermore, it allows us to have a fundamental understanding of genetic mechanisms involved in recombinant protein production. One such mechanism adversely affecting the growth of recombinant bacteria is the increased metabolic burden resulting from the maintenance of plasmid copy number and heterologous protein expression. There have also been some reports on the effect of metabolic burden in mammalian cell systems. In the present study, we have used a mouse array representing 6400 genes to assess the expression profile of a WT (wild-type) mouse plasmacytoma cell line, NS0 WT, and a GS (glutamine synthetase)-NS0 6A1-100 cell line expressing chimaeric monoclonal antibody. The producer cells did not exhibit a slower growth as the result of any metabolic burden, but showed differences in metabolic activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that the producer cell line was selected for a higher expression of chromosomal genes, genes for zinc-finger proteins as well as cell-cycle-related events. On the other hand, protein synthesis is greater and ribosomal genes were more expressed in the WT cells. A possible shift from expressing antigen presenting proteins to recombinant protein could also be seen. Hence, gene expression profiling suggests that the effect of the metabolic burden in slowing growth can be mostly negated in producer cell lines by careful clonal selection, where stable transfected cells are selected for both high productivity as well as high growth rates. PMID:17223793

  20. Benchmarking of commercially available CHO cell culture media for antibody production

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhart, David; Damjanovic, Lukas; Kaisermayer, Christian; Kunert, Renate

    2015-01-01

    In this study, eight commercially available, chemically defined Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture media from different vendors were evaluated in batch culture using an IgG-producing CHO DG44 cell line as a model. Medium adaptation revealed that the occurrence of even small aggregates might be a good indicator of cell growth performance in subsequent high cell density cultures. Batch experiments confirmed that the culture medium has a significant impact on bioprocess performance, but hi...

  1. Fundamental studies of polymer filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.F.; Lu, M.T.; Robison, T.W.; Rogers, Y.C.; Wilson, K.V.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were (1) to develop an enhanced fundamental understanding of the coordination chemistry of hazardous-metal-ion complexation with water-soluble metal-binding polymers, and (2) to exploit this knowledge to develop improved separations for analytical methods, metals processing, and waste treatment. We investigated features of water-soluble metal-binding polymers that affect their binding constants and selectivity for selected transition metal ions. We evaluated backbone polymers using light scattering and ultrafiltration techniques to determine the effect of pH and ionic strength on the molecular volume of the polymers. The backbone polymers were incrementally functionalized with a metal-binding ligand. A procedure and analytical method to determine the absolute level of functionalization was developed and the results correlated with the elemental analysis, viscosity, and molecular size.

  2. Materials Fundamentals of Gate Dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Demkov, Alexander A

    2006-01-01

    This book presents materials fundamentals of novel gate dielectrics that are being introduced into semiconductor manufacturing to ensure the continuous scalling of the CMOS devices. This is a very fast evolving field of research so we choose to focus on the basic understanding of the structure, thermodunamics, and electronic properties of these materials that determine their performance in device applications. Most of these materials are transition metal oxides. Ironically, the d-orbitals responsible for the high dielectric constant cause sever integration difficulties thus intrinsically limiting high-k dielectrics. Though new in the electronics industry many of these materials are wel known in the field of ceramics, and we describe this unique connection. The complexity of the structure-property relations in TM oxides makes the use of the state of the art first-principles calculations necessary. Several chapters give a detailed description of the modern theory of polarization, and heterojunction band discont...

  3. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  4. Microwave engineering concepts and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Ahmad Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the active and passive aspects of microwaves, Microwave Engineering: Concepts and Fundamentals covers everything from wave propagation to reflection and refraction, guided waves, and transmission lines, providing a comprehensive understanding of the underlying principles at the core of microwave engineering. This encyclopedic text not only encompasses nearly all facets of microwave engineering, but also gives all topics—including microwave generation, measurement, and processing—equal emphasis. Packed with illustrations to aid in comprehension, the book: •Describes the mathematical theory of waveguides and ferrite devices, devoting an entire chapter to the Smith chart and its applications •Discusses different types of microwave components, antennas, tubes, transistors, diodes, and parametric devices •Examines various attributes of cavity resonators, semiconductor and RF/microwave devices, and microwave integrated circuits •Addresses scattering parameters and their properties, as well a...

  5. Green Manufacturing Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Green Manufacturing: Fundamentals and Applications introduces the basic definitions and issues surrounding green manufacturing at the process, machine and system (including supply chain) levels. It also shows, by way of several examples from different industry sectors, the potential for substantial improvement and the paths to achieve the improvement. Additionally, this book discusses regulatory and government motivations for green manufacturing and outlines the path for making manufacturing more green as well as making production more sustainable. This book also: • Discusses new engineering approaches for manufacturing and provides a path from traditional manufacturing to green manufacturing • Addresses regulatory and economic issues surrounding green manufacturing • Details new supply chains that need to be in place before going green • Includes state-of-the-art case studies in the areas of automotive, semiconductor and medical areas as well as in the supply chain and packaging areas Green Manufactu...

  6. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Jie (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Intelligent Medical Research Center

    2013-07-01

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  7. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  8. Molecular imaging. Fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covers a wide range of new theory, new techniques and new applications. Contributed by many experts in China. The editor has obtained the National Science and Technology Progress Award twice. ''Molecular Imaging: Fundamentals and Applications'' is a comprehensive monograph which describes not only the theory of the underlying algorithms and key technologies but also introduces a prototype system and its applications, bringing together theory, technology and applications. By explaining the basic concepts and principles of molecular imaging, imaging techniques, as well as research and applications in detail, the book provides both detailed theoretical background information and technical methods for researchers working in medical imaging and the life sciences. Clinical doctors and graduate students will also benefit from this book.

  9. Queueing networks a fundamental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This handbook aims to highlight fundamental, methodological and computational aspects of networks of queues to provide insights and to unify results that can be applied in a more general manner.  The handbook is organized into five parts: Part 1 considers exact analytical results such as of product form type. Topics include characterization of product forms by physical balance concepts and simple traffic flow equations, classes of service and queue disciplines that allow a product form, a unified description of product forms for discrete time queueing networks, insights for insensitivity, and aggregation and decomposition results that allow subnetworks to be aggregated into single nodes to reduce computational burden. Part 2 looks at monotonicity and comparison results such as for computational simplification by either of two approaches: stochastic monotonicity and ordering results based on the ordering of the proces generators, and comparison results and explicit error bounds based on an underlying Markov r...

  10. Overview: Main Fundamentals for Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    AL-Ani, Zaidoon Kh; Zaidan, B B; Alanazi, Hamdan O

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of multimedia and internet allows for wide distribution of digital media data. It becomes much easier to edit, modify and duplicate digital information .Besides that, digital documents are also easy to copy and distribute, therefore it will be faced by many threats. It is a big security and privacy issue, it become necessary to find appropriate protection because of the significance, accuracy and sensitivity of the information. Steganography considers one of the techniques which used to protect the important information. The main goals for this paper, to recognize the researchers for the main fundamentals of steganography. In this paper provides a general overview of the following subject areas: Steganography types, General Steganography system, Characterization of Steganography Systems and Classification of Steganography Techniques.

  11. Fundamentals of modern unsteady aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gülçat, Ülgen

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the author introduces the concept of unsteady aerodynamics and its underlying principles. He provides the readers with a comprehensive review of the fundamental physics of free and forced unsteadiness, the terminology and basic equations of aerodynamics ranging from incompressible flow to hypersonics. The book also covers modern topics related to the developments made in recent years, especially in relation to wing flapping for propulsion. The book is written for graduate and senior year undergraduate students in aerodynamics and also serves as a reference for experienced researchers. Each chapter includes ample examples, questions, problems and relevant references.   The treatment of these modern topics has been completely revised end expanded for the new edition. It now includes new numerical examples, a section on the ground effect, and state-space representation.

  12. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  13. Holographic viscosity of fundamental matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M

    2007-03-01

    A holographic dual of a finite-temperature SU(Nc) gauge theory with a small number of flavors Nfblack hole background. By considering the backreaction of the branes, we demonstrate that, to leading order in Nf/Nc, the viscosity to entropy ratio in these theories saturates the conjectured universal bound eta/s> or =1/4pi. Given the known results for the entropy density, the contribution of the fundamental matter eta fund is therefore enhanced at strong 't Hooft coupling lambda; for example, eta fund approximately lambda NcNfT3 in four dimensions. Other transport coefficients are analogously enhanced. These results hold with or without a baryon number chemical potential. PMID:17358523

  14. Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Wenshan

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterials—artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties—have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. In just a few years, the field of optical metamaterials has emerged as one of the most exciting topics in the science of light, with stunning and unexpected outcomes that have fascinated scientists and the general public alike. This volume details recent advances in the study of optical metamaterials, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date implementations, in one unified treatment. Important recent developments and applications such as superlenses and cloaking devices are also treated in detail and made understandable. Optical Metamaterials will serve as a very timely book for both newcomers and advanced researchers in this rapidly evolving field. Early praise for Optical Metamaterials: "...this book is timely bringing to students and other new entrants to the field the most up to date concepts. Th...

  15. ALPHA: antihydrogen and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Detailed comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen promise to be a fruitful test bed of fundamental symmetries such as the CPT theorem for quantum field theory or studies of gravitational influence on antimatter. With a string of recent successes, starting with the first trapped antihydrogen and recently resulting in the first measurement of a quantum transition in anti-hydrogen, the ALPHA collaboration is well on its way to perform such precision comparisons. We will discuss the key innovative steps that have made these results possible and in particular focus on the detailed work on positron and antiproton preparation to achieve antihydrogen cold enough to trap as well as the unique features of the ALPHA apparatus that has allowed the first quantum transitions in anti-hydrogen to be measured with only a single trapped antihydrogen atom per experiment. We will also look at how ALPHA plans to step from here towards more precise comparisons of matter and antimatter.

  16. Phononic crystals fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Adibi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth analysis as well as an overview of phononic crystals. This book discusses numerous techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals and covers, among other material, sonic and ultrasonic structures, hypersonic planar structures and their characterization, and novel applications of phononic crystals. This is an ideal book for those working with micro and nanotechnology, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), and acoustic devices. This book also: Presents an introduction to the fundamentals and properties of phononic crystals Covers simulation techniques for the analysis of phononic crystals Discusses sonic and ultrasonic, hypersonic and planar, and three-dimensional phononic crystal structures Illustrates how phononic crystal structures are being deployed in communication systems and sensing systems.

  17. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  18. Fundamental enabling issues in nanotechnology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floro, Jerrold Anthony; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Hoyt, Jeffrey John; Seel, Steven Craig; Webb, Edmund Blackburn,; Morales, Alfredo Martin; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.

    2007-10-01

    To effectively integrate nanotechnology into functional devices, fundamental aspects of material behavior at the nanometer scale must be understood. Stresses generated during thin film growth strongly influence component lifetime and performance; stress has also been proposed as a mechanism for stabilizing supported nanoscale structures. Yet the intrinsic connections between the evolving morphology of supported nanostructures and stress generation are still a matter of debate. This report presents results from a combined experiment and modeling approach to study stress evolution during thin film growth. Fully atomistic simulations are presented predicting stress generation mechanisms and magnitudes during all growth stages, from island nucleation to coalescence and film thickening. Simulations are validated by electrodeposition growth experiments, which establish the dependence of microstructure and growth stresses on process conditions and deposition geometry. Sandia is one of the few facilities with the resources to combine experiments and modeling/theory in this close a fashion. Experiments predicted an ongoing coalescence process that generates signficant tensile stress. Data from deposition experiments also supports the existence of a kinetically limited compressive stress generation mechanism. Atomistic simulations explored island coalescence and deposition onto surfaces intersected by grain boundary structures to permit investigation of stress evolution during later growth stages, e.g. continual island coalescence and adatom incorporation into grain boundaries. The predictive capabilities of simulation permit direct determination of fundamental processes active in stress generation at the nanometer scale while connecting those processes, via new theory, to continuum models for much larger island and film structures. Our combined experiment and simulation results reveal the necessary materials science to tailor stress, and therefore performance, in

  19. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of Arthrospira cell factories

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpan Klanchui; Tayvich Vorapreeda; Wanwipa Vongsangnak; Chiraphan Kannapho; Supapon Cheevadhanarak; Asawin Meechai

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light) into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of A...

  20. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses: ICRF impurity studies; ICRF convective cells; sheath plasma waves and anomalous IBW loading; a quasilinear description for fast wave minority heating permitting off magnetic axis heating in a tokamak; and runaway electrons studies in support of TEXT

  1. Bioprocessing of bagasse hydrolysate for ethanol and xylitol production using thermotolerant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Dheeran, Pratibha; Singh, Surendra P; Mishra, Indra M; Adhikari, Dilip K

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of xylose-rich and glucose-rich bagasse hydrolysates, obtained from the two-stage acid hydrolysis was studied using the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. The yeast could grow on xylose-rich hydrolysate at 50 °C with the dry cell weight, cell mass yield and maximum specific growth rate of 5.35 g l(-1), 0.58 g g(-1) and 0.13 h(-1), respectively. The yeast was found to be very promising for ethanol as well as xylitol production from the sugars obtained from the lignocellulosic biomass. Batch fermentations of xylose-rich and glucose-rich hydrolysates yielded 0.61 g g(-1) xylitol and 0.43 g g(-1) ethanol in the broth, respectively based on the sugars present in the hydrolysate. Overall ethanol yield of 165 g (210 ml) and 183 g xylitol per kg of bagasse was obtained, when bagasse hydrolysate was used as a substrate. Utilization of both the glucose and xylose sugars makes the process most economical by producing both ethanol and xylitol based on biorefinery concept. On validating the experimental data of ethanol fermentation, the modified Luong kinetic model for product inhibition as well as inhibition due to inhibitory compounds present in hydrolysate, the model was found to be the best fit for ethanol formation from bagasse hydrolysate using Kluyveromyces sp. IIPE453. PMID:25090978

  2. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    This is the final report describing a long term basic research program in nonimaging optics that has led to major advances in important areas, including solar energy, fiber optics, illumination techniques, light detectors, and a great many other applications. The term ''nonimaging optics'' refers to the optics of extended sources in systems for which image forming is not important, but effective and efficient collection, concentration, transport, and distribution of light energy is. Although some of the most widely known developments of the early concepts have been in the field of solar energy, a broad variety of other uses have emerged. Most important, under the auspices of this program in fundamental research in nonimaging optics established at the University of Chicago with support from the Office of Basic Energy Sciences at the Department of Energy, the field has become very dynamic, with new ideas and concepts continuing to develop, while applications of the early concepts continue to be pursued. While the subject began as part of classical geometrical optics, it has been extended subsequently to the wave optics domain. Particularly relevant to potential new research directions are recent developments in the formalism of statistical and wave optics, which may be important in understanding energy transport on the nanoscale. Nonimaging optics permits the design of optical systems that achieve the maximum possible concentration allowed by physical conservation laws. The earliest designs were constructed by optimizing the collection of the extreme rays from a source to the desired target: the so-called ''edge-ray'' principle. Later, new concentrator types were generated by placing reflectors along the flow lines of the ''vector flux'' emanating from lambertian emitters in various geometries. A few years ago, a new development occurred with the discovery that making the design edge-ray a functional of some

  3. Understanding the Cash Flow-Fundamental Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Chyi-Lun Chiou

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the use of cash flow-fundamental ratio in forecasting stock market return and examines implications behind this ratio. By presuming the dynamics of cash flow-fundamental ratio I identify the relationship between economic uncertainty and risk premium. The evidence shows that cash flow-fundamental ratio is procyclical and is a predictor of cash flow growth and excess returns. The cash flow-fundamental ratio is proved to be negatively associated with risk premium. I als...

  4. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  5. Fundamental problems in fault detection and identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saberi, A.; Stoorvogel, A. A.; Sannuti, P.;

    2000-01-01

    A number of different fundamental problems in fault detection and fault identification are formulated in this paper. The fundamental problems include exact, almost, generic and class-wise fault detection and identification. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of the fundamental...

  6. Fundamental research with neutron interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention of neutron interferometry in 1974 stimulated many experiments related to the wave-particle dualism of quantum mechanics. Widely separated coherent beams can be produced within a perfect crystal interforemeter which can be influenced by nuclear, magnetic and gravitational interaction. High order interferences have been observed connected with the occurrence of an interferometric spectral modeling. This effect has been demonstrated by a proper post-selection procedure showing a persisting action of plane wave components outside the wave packets. The verification of the 4π-symmetry of spinor wave functions and of the spin superposition law at a macroscopic scale and the observation of gravitational effects including the Sagnac effect have been widely debated in literature. The coupling of the neutron magnetic moment to resonator coils permitted the coherent energy exchange between the neutron quantum system and the macroscopic resonator. This phenomenon provided the basis for the observation of the magnetic Josephson effect with an energy sensitivity of 10-19 eV. Partial beam path detection experiments are in close connection with the development of quantum mechanical measurement theory. The very high sensitivity of neutron interferometry may be used in future for new fundamental-, solid-state and nuclear-physics application. Further steps towards advanced neutron quantum optical methods are envisaged. (author)

  7. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered

  8. Fundamental principles of robot vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ernest L.

    1993-08-01

    Robot vision is a specialty of intelligent machines which describes the interaction between robotic manipulators and machine vision. Early robot vision systems were built to demonstrate that a robot with vision could adapt to changes in its environment. More recently attention is being directed toward machines with expanded adaptation and learning capabilities. The use of robot vision for automatic inspection and recognition of objects for manipulation by an industrial robot or for guidance of a mobile robot are two primary applications. Adaptation and learning characteristics are often lacking in industrial automation and if they can be added successfully, result in a more robust system. Due to a real time requirement, the robot vision methods that have proven most successful have been ones which could be reduced to a simple, fast computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the fundamental concepts in sufficient detail to provide a starting point for the interested engineer or scientist. A detailed example of a camera system viewing an object and for a simple, two dimensional robot vision system is presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for further study are presented.

  9. The water, fundamental ecological base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To speak of ecology and the man's interaction with the environment takes, in fact implicit many elements that, actuating harmoniously generates a conducive entropy to a better to be, however it is necessary to hierarchy the importance of these elements, finding that the water, not alone to constitute sixty five percent of the total volume of the planet, or sixty percent of the human body, but to be the well called molecule of the life, it is constituted in the main element to consider in the study of the ecology. The water circulates continually through the endless hydrological cycle of condensation, precipitation, filtration, retention, evaporation, precipitation and so forth; however, due to the quick growth of the cities, its expansion of the green areas or its border lands, result of a demographic behavior and of inadequate social establishment; or of the advance industrial excessive, they produce irreparable alterations in the continuous processes of the water production, for this reason it is fundamental to know some inherent problems to the sources of water. The water, the most important in the renewable natural resources, essential for the life and for the achievement of good part of the man's goals in their productive function, it is direct or indirectly the natural resource more threatened by the human action

  10. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Juul Jensen, D.; Mishin, O.V.; Nielsen, S.F.; Pantleon, W.; Toftegaard, H.; Winther, G.; Yu, T. (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  11. Nanostructured metals. Fundamentals to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the today's world, materials science and engineering must as other technical fields focus on sustainability. Raw materials and energy have to be conserved and metals with improved or new structural and functional properties must be invented, developed and brought to application. In this endeavour a very promising route is to reduce the structural scale of metallic materials, thereby bridging industrial metals of today with emerging nanometals of tomorrow, i.e. structural scales ranging from a few micrometres to the nanometre regime. While taking a focus on metals with structures in this scale regime the symposium spans from fundamental aspects towards applications, uniting materials scientists and technologists. A holistic approach characterizes the themes of the symposium encompassing synthesis, characterization, modelling and performance where in each area significant progress has been made in recent years. Synthesis now covers top-down processes, e.g. plastic deformation, and bottom-up processes, e.g. chemical and physical synthesis. In the area of structural and mechanical characterization advanced techniques are now widely applied and in-situ techniques for structural characterization under mechanical or thermal loading are under rapid development in both 2D and 3D. Progress in characterization techniques has led to a precise description of different boundaries (grain, dislocation, twin, phase), and of how they form and evolve, also including theoretical modelling and simulations of structures, properties and performance. (au)

  12. IDDT: Fundamentals and Test Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG JiShun(邝继顺); YOU ZhiQiang(尤志强); ZHU QiJian(朱启建); MIN YingHua(闵应骅)

    2003-01-01

    It is the time to explore the fundamentals of IDDT testing when extensive workhas been done for IDDT testing since it was proposed. This paper precisely defines the concept ofaverage transient current (IDDT) of CMOS digital ICs, and experimentally analyzes the feasibilityof IDDT test generation at gate level. Based on the SPICE simulation results, the paper suggests aformula to calculateIDDT by means of counting only logical up-transitions, which enablesIDDT testgeneration at logic level. The Bayesian optimization algorithm is utilized for IDDT test generation.Experimental results show that about 25% stuck-open faults are withIDDT testability larger than2.5, and likely to beIDDT testable. It is also found that most IDDT testable faults are located nearthe primary inputs of a circuit under test. IDDT test generation does not require fault sensitizationprocedure compared with stuck-at fault test generation. Furthermore, some redundant stuck-atfaults can be detected by using IDDT testing.

  13. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding

  14. Application of holographic sub-wavelength diffraction gratings for monitoring of kinetics of bioprocesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulevicius, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.tamulevicius@ktu.lt [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Seperys, Rimas; Andrulevicius, Mindaugas; Kopustinskas, Vitoldas; Meskinis, Sarunas; Tamulevicius, Sigitas [Institute of Materials Science of Kaunas University of Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 271, LT-50131, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Daugelavicius, Rimantas [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnologies of Vytautas Magnus University, Vileikos St. 8, LT-44404 Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Refractive index sensor based on DLC holographic sub-wavelength period grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic analysis of polarized white light reflected from the grating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Control of critical wavelength shift and reflectivity changes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Testing of model liquid analyte materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaluation of interaction between B. subtilis cells and lysozyme. - Abstract: In this work we present a refractive index (RI) sensor based on a sub-wavelength holographic diffraction grating. The sensor chip was fabricated by dry etching of the finely spaced (d = 428 nm) diffraction grating in SiO{sub x} doped diamond like carbon (DLC) film. It is shown that employing a fabricated sensor chip, and using the proposed method of analysis of data, one can inspect kinetics of processes in liquids occurring in the vicinity of the grating surface. The method is based on the spectral composition analysis of polarized polychromatic light reflected from the sub-wavelength diffraction grating. The RI measurement system was tested with different model liquid analytes including 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% sugar water solutions, 10 Degree-Sign C, 50 Degree-Sign C distilled water, also Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis interaction with ion-permeable channels forming antibiotic gramicidin D and a murolytic enzyme lysozyme. Analysis of the data set of specular reflection spectra enabled us to follow the kinetics of the RI changes in the analyte with millisecond resolution. Detectable changes in the effective RI were not worse than {Delta}n = 10{sup -4}.

  15. Fundamentals of Biomedical Transport Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    Transport processes represent important life-sustaining elements in all humans. These include mass transfer processes, including gas exchange in the lungs, transport across capillaries and alveoli, transport across the kidneys, and transport across cell membranes. These mass transfer processes affect how oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in your bloodstream, how metabolic waste products are removed from your blood, how nutrients are transported to tissues, and how all cells function throughout the body. A discussion of kidney dialysis and gas exchange mechanisms is included. Another elem

  16. Exosomes: Fundamental Biology and Roles in Cardiovascular Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Marbán, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are nanosized membrane particles that are secreted by cells that transmit information from cell to cell. The information within exosomes prominently includes their protein and RNA payloads. Exosomal microRNAs in particular can potently and fundamentally alter the transcriptome of recipient cells. Here we summarize what is known about exosome biogenesis, content, and transmission, with a focus on cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. We also highlight some of the questions currently under active investigation regarding these extracellular membrane vesicles and their potential in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26667071

  17. Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekama, G A

    2009-05-01

    Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery

  18. Evaluation of the bioconversion of genetically modified switchgrass using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Kelsey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the major economic hurdles for the production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Additionally, lignin is recognized as having a negative impact on enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and as a result much interest has been placed on modifying the lignin pathway to improve bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks. Results Down-regulation of the caffeic acid 3-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene in the lignin pathway yielded switchgrass (Panicum virgatum that was more susceptible to bioconversion after dilute acid pretreatment. Here we examined the response of these plant lines to milder pretreatment conditions with yeast-based simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and a consolidated bioprocessing approach using Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis. Unlike the S. cerevisiae SSF conversions, fermentations of pretreated transgenic switchgrass with C. thermocellum showed an apparent inhibition of fermentation not observed in the wild-type switchgrass. This inhibition can be eliminated by hot water extraction of the pretreated biomass, which resulted in superior conversion yield with transgenic versus wild-type switchgrass for C. thermocellum, exceeding the yeast-based SSF yield. Further fermentation evaluation of the transgenic switchgrass indicated differential inhibition for the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strains, which could not be rectified by additional processing conditions. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolite profiling was used to examine the fermentation broth to elucidate the relative abundance of lignin derived aromatic compounds. The types and abundance of fermentation-derived-lignin constituents varied between C. thermocellum and each of the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. strains. Conclusions The down-regulation of the COMT gene improves the bioconversion of switchgrass relative to the

  19. Detachment factors for enhanced carrier to carrier transfer of CHO cell lines on macroporous microcarriers

    OpenAIRE

    Landauer, K.; Dürrschmid, M.; Klug, H.; Wiederkum, S.; Blüml, G.; Doblhoff-Dier, O.

    2002-01-01

    In this publication different detachment factors were tested for enhancing carrier to carrier transfer for scale-up of macroporous microcarrier based bioprocesses. Two Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, CHO-K1 and a genetically engineered CHO-K1 derived cell line (CHO-MPS), producing recombinant human Arylsulfatase B, were examined. The cells were grown on Cytoline 1microcarriers (Amersham Biosciences, Uppsala, Sweden) in protein-free and chemically defined medium respectively. Fully colonised...

  20. Systematic analysis of embryonic stem cell differentiation in hydrodynamic environments with controlled embryoid body size

    OpenAIRE

    Kinney, Melissa A.; Saeed, Rabbia; McDevitt, Todd C.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of stem cells to environmental perturbations has prompted many studies which aim to characterize the influence of mechanical factors on stem cell morphogenesis and differentiation. Hydrodynamic cultures, often employed for large scale bioprocessing applications, impart complex fluid shear and transport profiles, and influence cell fate as a result of changes in media mixing conditions. However, previous studies of hydrodynamic cultures have been limited in their ability to dis...

  1. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is

  2. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  3. Molecular fundamentals of chromosomal mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise quantitative correlation between the yield of chromosome structure damages and the yield of DNA damages is shown when comparing data on molecular and cytogenetic investigations carried out in cultural Mammalia cells. As the chromosome structure damage is to be connected with the damage of its carcass structure, then it is natural that DNA damage in loop regions is not to affect considerably the structure, while DNA damage lying on the loop base and connected with the chromosome carcass is to play a determining role in chromosomal mutagenesis. This DNA constitutes 1-2% from the total quantity of nuclear DNA. If one accepts that damages of these regions of DNA are ''hot'' points of chromosomal mutagenesis, then it becomes clear why 1-2% of preparation damages in a cell are realized in chromosome structural damages

  4. Fundamental behavior of montmorillonite surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Montmorillonite in contact with water undergoes a variety of surface chemical reactions that can be detected as changes in solution pH and conductivity. The nature of these reactions depends on pH and ionic strength and can roughly be divided into two categories, namely hydrolysis reactions and ion specific surface complexation reactions (the only difference being that the former involves reactions with water (also H+/OH-) and the latter with any other (ionic) species). Hydrolysis reactions may induce changes in surface charge density or lead to dissolution of montmorillonite. Mainly, reactions between montmorillonite and water have previously been studied at an empirical level that yields very little information about specific reaction mechanisms. With this contribution, we aim to increase the level of understanding regarding reaction mechanisms at the montmorillonite-water interface. Because of the unconventional structure and composition of montmorillonite, surface phenomena tend to be complex and difficult to interpret qualitatively. Usually, a combination of different techniques is required to gain meaningful information. Through montmorillonite surface titrations coupled with solution elemental analysis we have studied and identified a few fundamental processes occurring at the montmorillonite-water interface. It is possible to distinguish between at least three different reaction domains. Over a 24 hour period, an initial rapid drop in pH is observed which is followed by a linear drop in pH (implying a zero order reaction), continuing approximately during the first three hours. This period is followed by an exponentially decreasing pH which eventually levels out after approximately 8 hours to a constant value of 6.9. Taking a closer look at the first 20 minutes reveals that the initial sharp drop in pH actually contains two distinct regions, both of them linear. Interestingly, the conductivity increases

  5. Flavour of fundamental particles and prime numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discreteness and continuity as described by the ratio of the discreteness of the n's and the continuous spread of n/2n, which is directly connected with the width and lifetimes of fundamental particles, the flavours of fundamental particles can be directly obtained. The behaviour of beta decay and the energy levels of light nuclei can also be predicted. The appearance of primes also seems to suggest that further application of reductionism to fundamental particles is not possible

  6. State estimation for bioprocesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lecture notes we explain how to build an observer for a biological system. We review the existing linear and nonlinear observers and we propose criteria to define which is the best observer with respect to the available information. Depending on the model reliability and on the level of noise, we can develop observers which use the full model description (high gain observers) or asymptotic observers which use only a mass balance model where the biological kinetics are considered as unknown inputs. If the bounds on the uncertainties can be characterised, interval observers can be designed. Each observer is illustrated with an example performed on a biological system. (author)

  7. Fundamental Laws and the Completeness of Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Spurrett, David Jon

    1999-01-01

    The status of fundamental laws is an important issue when deciding between the three broad ontological options of fundamentalism (of which the thesis that physics is complete is typically a sub-type), emergentism, and disorder or promiscuous realism. Cartwright’s assault on fundamental laws which argues that such laws do not, and cannot, typically state the facts, and hence cannot be used to support belief in a fundamental ontological order, is discussed in this context. A case is made in def...

  8. Arithmetic fundamental groups and moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a short note on the algebraic (or sometimes called arithmetic) fundamental groups of an algebraic variety, which connects classical fundamental groups with Galois groups of fields. A large part of this note describes the algebraic fundamental groups in a concrete manner. This note gives only a sketch of the fundamental groups of the algebraic stack of moduli of curves. Some application to a purely topological statement, i.e., an obstruction to the subjectivity of Johnson homomorphisms in the mapping class groups, which comes from Galois group of Q, is explained. (author)

  9. On-line cell mass monitoring of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivations by multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Eliasson, Anna; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    decomposition of the multivariate fluorescent landscape, whereby underlying spectra of the individual intrinsic fluorophors present in the cell mass were estimated. Furthermore, gravimetrically determined cell mass concentration was used together with the fluorescence spectra for calibration and validation of......The catalyst in bioprocesses, i.e. the cell mass, is one of the most challenging and important variables to monitor in bioprocesses. In the present study, cell mass in cultivations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae was monitored on-line with a non-invasive in situ placed sensor measuring multi......-wavelength culture fluorescence. The excitation wavelength ranged from 270 to 550 nm with 20 nm steps and the emission wavelength range was from 310 to 590 nm also with 20 nm steps. The obtained spectra were analysed chemometrically with the multi-way technique, parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), resulting in a...

  10. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations

  11. Individual differences in fundamental social motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Rebecca; Kenrick, Douglas T; White, Andrew Edward; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-06-01

    Motivation has long been recognized as an important component of how people both differ from, and are similar to, each other. The current research applies the biologically grounded fundamental social motives framework, which assumes that human motivational systems are functionally shaped to manage the major costs and benefits of social life, to understand individual differences in social motives. Using the Fundamental Social Motives Inventory, we explore the relations among the different fundamental social motives of Self-Protection, Disease Avoidance, Affiliation, Status, Mate Seeking, Mate Retention, and Kin Care; the relationships of the fundamental social motives to other individual difference and personality measures including the Big Five personality traits; the extent to which fundamental social motives are linked to recent life experiences; and the extent to which life history variables (e.g., age, sex, childhood environment) predict individual differences in the fundamental social motives. Results suggest that the fundamental social motives are a powerful lens through which to examine individual differences: They are grounded in theory, have explanatory value beyond that of the Big Five personality traits, and vary meaningfully with a number of life history variables. A fundamental social motives approach provides a generative framework for considering the meaning and implications of individual differences in social motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26371400

  12. An Approximate Bayesian Fundamental Frequency Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    Joint fundamental frequency and model order estimation is an important problem in several applications such as speech and music processing. In this paper, we develop an approximate estimation algorithm of these quantities using Bayesian inference. The inference about the fundamental frequency and...

  13. Heat pipes and solid sorption transformations fundamentals and practical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiliev, LL

    2013-01-01

    Developing clean energy and utilizing waste energy has become increasingly vital. Research targeting the advancement of thermally powered adsorption cooling technologies has progressed in the past few decades, and the awareness of fuel cells and thermally activated (heat pipe heat exchangers) adsorption systems using natural refrigerants and/or alternatives to hydrofluorocarbon-based refrigerants is becoming ever more important. Heat Pipes and Solid Sorption Transformations: Fundamentals and Practical Applications concentrates on state-of-the-art adsorption research and technologies for releva

  14. Addressing the Crisis in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stubbs, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    I present the case for fundamental physics experiments in space playing an important role in addressing the current "dark energy'' crisis. If cosmological observations continue to favor a value of the dark energy equation of state parameter w=-1, with no change over cosmic time, then we will have difficulty understanding this new fundamental physics. We will then face a very real risk of stagnation unless we detect some other experimental anomaly. The advantages of space-based experiments could prove invaluable in the search for the a more complete understanding of dark energy. This talk was delivered at the start of the Fundamental Physics Research in Space Workshop in May 2006.

  15. Fundamentals of preparative and nonlinear chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiochon, Georges A [ORNL; Felinger, Attila [ORNL; Katti, Anita [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Shirazi, Dean G [unknown

    2006-02-01

    The second edition of Fundamentals of Preparative and Nonlinear Chromatography is devoted to the fundamentals of a new process of purification or extraction of chemicals or proteins widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and in preparative chromatography. This process permits the preparation of extremely pure compounds satisfying the requests of the US Food and Drug Administration. The book describes the fundamentals of thermodynamics, mass transfer kinetics, and flow through porous media that are relevant to chromatography. It presents the models used in chromatography and their solutions, discusses the applications made, describes the different processes used, their numerous applications, and the methods of optimization of the experimental conditions of this process.

  16. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  17. Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goldak, J.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); DebRoy, T.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.

  18. The Geometric Nature of the Fundamental Lemma

    CERN Document Server

    Nadler, David

    2010-01-01

    The Fundamental Lemma is a somewhat obscure combinatorial identity introduced by Robert P. Langlands as an ingredient in the theory of automorphic representations. After many years of deep contributions by mathematicians working in representation theory, number theory, algebraic geometry, and algebraic topology, a proof of the Fundamental Lemma was recently completed by Ngo Bau Chau, for which he was awarded a Fields Medal. Our aim here is to touch on some of the beautiful ideas contributing to the Fundamental Lemma and its proof. We highlight the geometric nature of the problem which allows one to attack a question in p-adic analysis with the tools of algebraic geometry.

  19. Development of the Fibulin-3 protein therapeutics of non small cell lung cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on developing an efficient bioprocess for large-scale production of fibulin-3 using Chinese Hamster Ovary cell expression system and evaluating its therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer. The specific aims are as follows: Isolation and establishment of CSCs using FACS based on cell surface markers and high ALDH1 activity. Identification and characterization of lung cancer stem cells that acquire features of CSC upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Evaluation of the fibulin-3 effects on the stem traits and signaling pathways required for the generation and maintenance of CSCs. In vivo validation of fivulin-3 for tumor prognosis and therapeutic efficacy against lung cancer using animal model

  20. Development of the Fibulin-3 protein therapeutics of non small cell lung cancer stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kugchan; Jung, Il Lae; Kim, Seo Yeon; Choi, Su Im; Lee, Jae Ha

    2013-09-15

    This study focuses on developing an efficient bioprocess for large-scale production of fibulin-3 using Chinese Hamster Ovary cell expression system and evaluating its therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer. The specific aims are as follows: Isolation and establishment of CSCs using FACS based on cell surface markers and high ALDH1 activity. Identification and characterization of lung cancer stem cells that acquire features of CSC upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Evaluation of the fibulin-3 effects on the stem traits and signaling pathways required for the generation and maintenance of CSCs. In vivo validation of fivulin-3 for tumor prognosis and therapeutic efficacy against lung cancer using animal model.

  1. Fundamentals of nuclear science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shultis, J Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    An ideal introduction to the fundamentals of nuclear science and engineering. Presents the basic nuclear science needed to understand and quantify nuclear phenomena such as nuclear reactions, nuclear energy, radioactivity, and radiation interactions with matter.

  2. A fundamental identity for Parseval frames

    OpenAIRE

    Balan, R.; Casazza, P. G.; Edidin, D; Kutyniok, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we establish a suprising fundamental identity for Parseval frames in a Hilbert space. Several variations of this result are given, including an extension to general frames. Finally, we discuss the derived results.

  3. Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.

  4. Fundamental Group of Desargues Configuration Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berceanu, Barbu

    2011-01-01

    We compute the fundamental group of various spaces of Desargues configurations in complex projective spaces: planar and non-planar configurations, with a fixed center and also with an arbitrary center.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA PART - III

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Vaidya Navnitlal B.

    1983-01-01

    In this part the author explains the origination of Rasas (tastes) and their effect on Dosas (bodily humors) in various seasons. Also he throws some light on the fundamentals of Pharmacology of Ayurveda.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF AYURVEDA - PART V

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Vaidya Navnitlal B.

    1983-01-01

    In this concluding part of the study, the author explains the pathological investigation of urine and faeces. Also he throws some light on the fundamentals of Pharmacy relevant to pharmacology of Ayurveda.

  7. Symmetric differentials and the fundamental group

    CERN Document Server

    Brunebarbe, Yohan; Totaro, Burt

    2012-01-01

    Esnault asked whether every smooth complex projective variety with infinite fundamental group has a nonzero symmetric differential (a section of a symmetric power of the cotangent bundle). In a sense, this would mean that every variety with infinite fundamental group has some nonpositive curvature. We show that the answer to Esnault's question is positive when the fundamental group has a finite-dimensional complex representation with infinite image. This applies to all known varieties with infinite fundamental group. Along the way, we produce many symmetric differentials on the base of a variation of Hodge structures. One interest of these results is that symmetric differentials give information in the direction of Kobayashi hyperbolicity. For example, they limit how many rational curves the variety can contain.

  8. Instructor Special Report: RIF (Reading Is FUNdamental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instructor, 1976

    1976-01-01

    At a time when innovative programs of the sixties are quickly falling out of the picture, Reading Is FUNdamental, after ten years and five million free paperbacks, continues to expand and show results. (Editor)

  9. How Unstable Are Fundamental Quantum Supermembranes?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaku, Michio

    1996-01-01

    String duality requires the presence of solitonic $p$-branes. By contrast, the existence of fundamental supermembranes is problematic, since they are probably unstable. In this paper, we re-examine the quantum stability of fundamental supermembranes in 11 dimensions. Previously, supermembranes were shown to be unstable by approximating them with SU(n) super Yang-Mills fields as $n \\rightarrow \\infty$. We show that this instability persists even if we quantize the continuum theory from the ver...

  10. Chiral transition of fundamental and adjoint quarks

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevilla, R. M.; Doff, A.(Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná – UTFPR – DAFIS, Av. Monteiro Lobato Km 04, 84016-210 Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil); Natale, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    The chiral symmetry breaking transition of quarks in the fundamental and adjoint representation is studied in a model where the gap equation contains two contributions, one containing a confining propagator and another corresponding to the exchange of one-dressed dynamically massive gluons. When quarks are in the fundamental representation the confinement effect dominates the chiral symmetry breaking while the gluon exchange is suppressed due to the dynamical gluon mass effect in the propagat...

  11. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  12. Photonic crystal fibers: fundamentals to emerging applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2005-01-01

    A review of the fundamental properties of photonic crystal fibers is presented. Special focus is held on the emerging fields of application within areas such as actively controlled fiber devices and high-power fiber lasers.......A review of the fundamental properties of photonic crystal fibers is presented. Special focus is held on the emerging fields of application within areas such as actively controlled fiber devices and high-power fiber lasers....

  13. Plasmid DNA fermentation strategies: influence on plasmid stability and cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Queiroz, João A; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2012-03-01

    In order to provide sufficient pharmaceutical-grade plasmid DNA material, it is essential to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the bioprocesses involved; so, the development of protocols and techniques that allow a fast monitoring of process performance is a valuable tool for bioprocess design. Regarding plasmid DNA production, the metabolic stress of the host strain as well as plasmid stability have been identified as two of the key parameters that greatly influence plasmid DNA yields. The present work describes the impact of batch and fed-batch fermentations using different C/N ratios and different feeding profiles on cell physiology and plasmid stability, investigating the potential of these two monitoring techniques as valuable tools for bioprocess development and design. The results obtained in batch fermentations showed that plasmid copy number values suffered a pronounced increase at the end of almost all fermentation conditions tested. Regarding fed-batch fermentations, the strategies with exponential feeding profiles, in contrast with those with constant feeding, showed higher biomass and plasmid yields, the maximum values obtained for these two parameters being 95.64 OD(600) and 344.3 mg plasmid DNA (pDNA)/L, respectively, when using an exponential feed rate of 0.2 h(-1). Despite the results obtained, cell physiology and plasmid stability monitoring revealed that, although higher pDNA overall yields were obtained, this fermentation exhibited lower plasmid stability and percentage of viable cells. In conclusion, this study allowed clarifying the bioprocess performance based on cell physiology and plasmid stability assessment, allowing improvement of the overall process and not only plasmid DNA yield and cell growth. PMID:22089386

  14. The Supercontinuum Laser Source Fundamentals with Updated References

    CERN Document Server

    Alfano, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Photonics and nonlinear optics are important areas of science, engineering and technology. One of the most important ultrafast nonlinear optical processes is the supercontinuum (SC) – the production of intense white light pulses covering: uv, visible, NIR, MIR, and IR. It is produced using ultrashort laser pulses (ps/fs) to produce the ultrabroad band of frequencies. This book covers the fundamental principles and surveys research of current thinkers and experts in the field with updated references of the key breakthroughs over the past decade and a half. The application of SC are time-resolved pump-SC probe absorption and excitation spectroscopy for chemistry, biology and physics fundamental processes; optical coherence tomography; ultrashort pulse generation in femtosecond and attosecond regions; frequency clocks; phase stabilization; optical communication; atmospheric science; lightning control; optical medical imaging; biological cell imaging; and metrology standards.

  15. Microscale technologies for cell engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians,...

  16. Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Jue, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    HANDBOOK OF MODERN BIOPHYSICS Series Editor Thomas Jue, PhD Handbook of Modern Biophysics brings current biophysics topics into focus, so that biology, medical, engineering, mathematics, and physical-science students or researchers can learn fundamental concepts and the application of new techniques in addressing biomedical challenges. Chapters explicate the conceptual framework of the physics formalism and illustrate the biomedical applications. With the addition of problem sets, guides to further study, and references, the interested reader can continue to explore independently the ideas presented. Volume I: Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics Editor Thomas Jue, PhD In Fundamental Concepts in Biophysics, prominent professors have established a foundation for the study of biophysics related to the following topics: Mathematical Methods in Biophysics Quantum Mechanics Basic to Biophysical Methods Computational Modeling of Receptor–Ligand Binding and Cellular Signaling Processes Fluorescence Spectroscopy Elec...

  17. Valorisation of wastes for single cell oil production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Marlene; Melo, João; Belo, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Various strains of oleaginous microorganisms, mainly fungi and yeast, have been widely used for the production of single cell oil (SCO) rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids or having an exceptional triacylglycerol structure. Difficulties for industrial scale production are related to the high cost of fermentation and oil extraction. The quantity of oil accumulated per unit of dry cellular mass is a critical factor that influences the final cost of SCO. The economics of these bioprocess become ...

  18. HADAMARD'S FUNDAMENTAL SOLUTION AND CONICAL REFRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Minyou

    2000-01-01

    Conical refraction in anisotropic media shows two different light speeds,hence the characteristic conoid is composed of two sheets. In a special case that two of the dielectric constants are equal, conic refraction is depicted by a partial differential operator which is factorizable. Thus the singular support of the fundamental solution should also be composed of two sheets. In this paper, the author gives the Hadamard construction of the fundamental solution which is just singular on these two sheets. In case of conic refraction considered, these two sheets are tangent to each other along two bi-characteristic curves, and a special singularity of the boundary-layer type appears there.

  19. Derecho a la vida, derecho fundamental

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Chomali

    2007-01-01

    En el artículo "Derecho a la vida, derecho fundamental" se pretende mostrar a la luz de los importantes aportes que entrega las ciencias biológicas que la vida humana comienza desde el momento de la fecundación. Esta nueva realidad en virtud de su condición de ser humano tiene el derecho a que se le respete su vida y ninguna consideración de orden utilitarista o social puede justificar su eliminación. La razón de este respeto hunde sus raíces en que no hay bien superior que la vida, fundament...

  20. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations.

  1. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive transformers; and electrical test components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  2. STRATEGY OF STOCK VALUATION BY FUNDAMENTAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoran Ivanovic; Sinisa Bogdan; Suzana Baresa

    2013-01-01

    Common stock valuation presents one of the most complex tasks in financial analysis. When it attemps to answer on question: „what affects on stock movements?“ then the answer would not relate only on economic factors. There are numerous factors that affect the stock price and which are almost impossible to predict. As one of the best ways to fight against many factors that make the uncertainty arises fundamental analysis. Fundamental analysis is one of the most widely used method for estimati...

  3. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  4. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  5. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  6. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Electrical Science, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electrical Science Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of electrical theory, terminology, and application. The handbook includes information on alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) theory, circuits, motors, and generators; AC power and reactive components; batteries; AC and DC voltage regulators; transformers; and electrical test instruments and measuring devices. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the basic operation of various types of DOE nuclear facility electrical equipment

  7. DOE Fundamentals Handbook: Mathematics, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mathematics Fundamentals Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors provide operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of mathematics and its application to facility operation. The handbook includes a review of introductory mathematics and the concepts and functional use of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus. Word problems, equations, calculations, and practical exercises that require the use of each of the mathematical concepts are also presented. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding and performing basic mathematical calculations that are associated with various DOE nuclear facility operations

  8. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonics. A subject with applications across all the basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and oceanography, yet even the broader topic of acoustics is now rarely offered at undergraduate levels. Ultrasonics is addressed primarily at the doctoral level, and texts appropriate for beginning graduate students or newcomers to the field are virtually nonexistent.Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves fills that void. Designed specifically for senior undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and those just entering the field, it begins with the fundamentals, but goes well beyond th

  9. Fundamental theories in a phantom universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F.

    2004-01-01

    Starting with the holographic dark energy model of Li it is shown that the holographic screen at the future event horizon is sent toward infinity in the phantom energy case, so allowing for the existence of unique fundamental theories which are mathematically consistent in phantom cosmologies.

  10. Applied and fundamental aspects of fusion science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexander V.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion research is driven by the applied goal of energy production from fusion reactions. There is, however, a wealth of fundamental physics to be discovered and studied along the way. This Commentary discusses selected developments in diagnostics and present-day research topics in high-temperature plasma physics.

  11. Workshop on Fundamental Science using Pulsed Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-20

    The project objective was to fund travel to a workshop organized by the Institute for High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin. In so doing the intent was to a) Grow the national academic High Energy Density Science (HEDS) community, b) Expand high impact, discovery driven fundamental HEDS, and c) Facilitate user-oriented research

  12. Trauma Radiology Companion: methods, guidelines, imaging fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book contains two sections: (1). Traumatological reference data, epidemiology of traumata.(2). Imaging fundamentals, reference data for trauma assessment, imaging of brain and vertebrae, body upper extremities and pelvis. Comparative assessment of available imaging methods: X-ray, MRI, CT, nuclear imaging methods, ultrasound

  13. The fundamental group of complex hyperplanes arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we suggest a new method to compute the fundamental group of the complemented of any complex hyperplanes arrangements. Our computation is based on a construction called labyrinth of an arrangement of complex lines. The method can be generalized for the case of an arbitrary affine curve. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  14. Theoretical fundamentals for thermochemical compressing of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, I.L.; Solovey, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    An examination is made of the theoretical fundamentals for constructing cycles of hydride thermal-sorption compressors. A thermodynamic analysis is made of the cycle of compression of A/sub 2/ with the help of reversible hydrides of inert-metal compounds. Ratios are obtained which reflect the influence of the internal irreversibility on effectiveness.

  15. Drafting Fundamentals. Drafting Module 1. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials. Ten units cover drafting fundamentals: (1) introduction to drafting; (2) general safety;…

  16. Fundamental Composite Higgs Dynamics on the Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hietanen, Ari; Lewis, Randy; Pica, Claudio;

    2014-01-01

    In reference [1] a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian level, of models of composite Higgs dynamics was proposed. In the unified framework the Higgs itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak symmetry is embedded, either as a pseudo-Goldstone boson...

  17. Fundamental Concepts Bridging Education and the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Steve; Foisy, Lorie-Marlène Brault

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of papers have already discussed the relevance of brain research for education, the fundamental concepts and discoveries connecting education and the brain have not been systematically reviewed yet. In this paper, four of these concepts are presented and evidence concerning each one is reviewed. First, the concept of…

  18. Uncovering Racial Bias in Nursing Fundamentals Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The portrayal of African Americans in nursing fundamentals textbooks was analyzed, resulting in 11 themes in the areas of history, culture, and physical assessment. Few African American leaders were included, and racial bias and stereotyping were apparent. Differences were often discussed using Eurocentric norms, and language tended to minimize…

  19. Mathematical Fundamentals of Modern Linear Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Gitin, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    All known quantum-mechanical approaches to wave and statistical optics are united into a single theory, using Feynman's path integral as a fundamental principle. In short-wave approximations, this principle, the Fourier transformations, and concepts of the theory reproduce Fermat's principle, the Legendre transformations, and concepts of Hamilton's optics and radiometry in a one-to-one fashion.

  20. Solar Energy: Solar System Design Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar system design fundamentals is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy…