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Sample records for cell biological study

  1. Chemical approaches to studying stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Li; Kai Jiang; Wanguo Wei; Yan Shi; Sheng Ding

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells,including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells,hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development,homeostasis and pathology,and for treating numerous devastating diseases.Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology,and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine.Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell selfrenewal,lineage differentiation,reprogramming and regeneration.These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes.Ultimately,this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.

  2. Cell biological study on ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis of ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) has largely been dependent on the clinical findings such as cerebellar ataxia, telangiectasia, and immunological deficiency. However, diagnosis of AT by these ordinary criteria is sometimes not sufficient because of the lack of immunological abnormalities. We examined three cases of AT by ordinary clinical criteria and also by X-ray sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts. Case 1, a 9-year-old boy, revealed typical clinical features of AT. However, he had no abnormality in serum IgA or IgE. Case 2, a 10-year-old boy, showed decreased serum IgA level. Case 3, a 19-year-old female, had typical clinical features of AT with normal serum IgA, and developed papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid which was surgically removed. Fibroblast strains derived from these three cases of AT and from the parents of Case 3 were examined with regard to X-ray sensitivity. Three fibroblast strains derived from AT patients (AT homozygotes) showed remarkable hypersensitivity to X-ray. Fibroblast strains derived from the parents (AT heterozygotes) of Case 3, however, showed normal X-ray sensitivity. Recently, AT fibroblasts have been known to show hypersensitivity also to some mutagen like neocarzinostazin as reported by Shiloh et al. Fibroblasts from Case 3 revealed hypersensitivity to neocarzinostazin. However, the sensitivity of the strains from AT heterozygotes (the parents of Case 3) showed no apparent difference from that of control cells. The assay system for mutagen is quite unstable and proper conditioning of the seeding cell number is important for the carrier detection. However, the diagnosis of AT homozygotes was definitely established by X-ray irradiation to cultured fibroblasts from patients. (author)

  3. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  4. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was undertaken to determine differences in the expression of cell surface antigens in normal plasma cells and mature myeloma cells. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, including 5 A-bomb survivors. Seven normal persons, four with chronic tonsillitis, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and two with chronic lymphadenitis served as controls. In the group of myeloma cells, 12 showed mature myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+, and the other 8 showed precursor myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5-/MPC-1-. In terms of CD56 and CD19, CD56+/CD19- were seen in 13 patients, CD56-/CD19- in 5, and CD56+/CD19+ in 2; none of the patients showed phenotype of CD56-/CD19+. In the control group, all showed VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+/CD44+/CD56-/CD19+; phenotype of normal plasma cells was CD38++/CD56-/CD19+ alone, which was not seen in the group of mature myeloma cells. Thus, this type is considered characteristic to normal plasma cells. These findings revealed that the difference in the expression of CD56 and CD19 aids in the identification of myeloma cells from normal plasma cells. (N.K.)

  5. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  6. Studies of cell toxicity of complexes of magnetic fluids and biological macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we performed a comparative investigation of the binding properties of two surface-coated (carboxymethyldextran/glucuronic acid), magnetite-based biocompatible magnetic fluids with different biological macromolecules (BSA, HSA, and LDL). We also investigated the in vitro toxicity of the complex formed between the magnetic fluid and the biological macromolecule in the neoplastic cell line J774-A

  7. Studies of cell toxicity of complexes of magnetic fluids and biological macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroff, Patrícia P.; Oliveira, Daniela M.; Ribeiro, Karina F.; Lacava, Zulmira G. M.; Lima, Emília C. D.; Morais, Paulo C.; Tedesco, Antonio C.

    2005-05-01

    In this study, we performed a comparative investigation of the binding properties of two surface-coated (carboxymethyldextran/glucuronic acid), magnetite-based biocompatible magnetic fluids with different biological macromolecules (BSA, HSA, and LDL). We also investigated the in vitro toxicity of the complex formed between the magnetic fluid and the biological macromolecule in the neoplastic cell line J774-A.

  8. A multiwell platform for studying stiffness-dependent cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D Mih

    Full Text Available Adherent cells are typically cultured on rigid substrates that are orders of magnitude stiffer than their tissue of origin. Here, we describe a method to rapidly fabricate 96 and 384 well platforms for routine screening of cells in tissue-relevant stiffness contexts. Briefly, polyacrylamide (PA hydrogels are cast in glass-bottom plates, functionalized with collagen, and sterilized for cell culture. The Young's modulus of each substrate can be specified from 0.3 to 55 kPa, with collagen surface density held constant over the stiffness range. Using automated fluorescence microscopy, we captured the morphological variations of 7 cell types cultured across a physiological range of stiffness within a 384 well plate. We performed assays of cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis in 96 wells and resolved distinct profiles of cell growth as a function of stiffness among primary and immortalized cell lines. We found that the stiffness-dependent growth of normal human lung fibroblasts is largely invariant with collagen density, and that differences in their accumulation are amplified by increasing serum concentration. Further, we performed a screen of 18 bioactive small molecules and identified compounds with enhanced or reduced effects on soft versus rigid substrates, including blebbistatin, which abolished the suppression of lung fibroblast growth at 1 kPa. The ability to deploy PA gels in multiwell plates for high throughput analysis of cells in tissue-relevant environments opens new opportunities for the discovery of cellular responses that operate in specific stiffness regimes.

  9. Study on biological characters of SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Zhang; Peng-Fen Gao; Pei-Wu Yu; Yun Rao; Li-Xin Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the biological characters of the SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines.METHODS: The suspending living SGC7901 gastric cancer cells and dendritic cells were induced to be fusioned by polyethylene glycol. Pure fusion cells were obtained by selective culture with the HAT/HT culture systems.The fusion cells were counted at different time points of culture and their growth curves were drawn to reflect their proliferative activities. The fusion cells were also cultured in culture medium to investigate whether they could grow into cell clones. MTT method was used to test the stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations. Moreover, the fusion cells were planted into nude mice to observe whether they could grow into new planted tumors in this kind of immunodeficiency animals.RESULTS: The fusion cells had weaker proliferative activity and clone abilities than their parental cells. When they were cultured, the counts of cells did not increase remarkably, nor could they grow into cell clones in culture medium. The fusion cells could not grow into new planted tumors after planted into nude mice. The stimulating abilities of the fusion cells on T lymphocytes' proliferations were remarkably increased than their parental dendritic cells.CONCLUSION: The SGC7901 gastric cancer cell-dendritic cell fusion vaccines have much weaker proliferative abilities than their parental cells, but they keep strong abilities to irritate the T lymphocytes and have no abilities to grow into new planted tumors in immunodeficiency animals. These are the biological basis for their antitumor biotherapies.

  10. A Review of Cell Adhesion Studies for Biomedical and Biological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khalili, Amelia; Ahmad, Mohd Ridzuan

    2015-01-01

    Cell adhesion is essential in cell communication and regulation, and is of fundamental importance in the development and maintenance of tissues. The mechanical interactions between a cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) can influence and control cell behavior and function. The essential function of cell adhesion has created tremendous interests in developing methods for measuring and studying cell adhesion properties. The study of cell adhesion could be categorized into cell adhesion attachment and detachment events. The study of cell adhesion has been widely explored via both events for many important purposes in cellular biology, biomedical, and engineering fields. Cell adhesion attachment and detachment events could be further grouped into the cell population and single cell approach. Various techniques to measure cell adhesion have been applied to many fields of study in order to gain understanding of cell signaling pathways, biomaterial studies for implantable sensors, artificial bone and tooth replacement, the development of tissue-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip in tissue engineering, the effects of biochemical treatments and environmental stimuli to the cell adhesion, the potential of drug treatments, cancer metastasis study, and the determination of the adhesion properties of normal and cancerous cells. This review discussed the overview of the available methods to study cell adhesion through attachment and detachment events. PMID:26251901

  11. Using Femtosecond Laser Subcellular Surgery as a Tool to Study Cell Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, N; Colvin, M E; Huser, T

    2007-02-27

    Research on cellular function and regulation would be greatly advanced by new instrumentation using methods to alter cellular processes with spatial discrimination on the nanometer-scale. We present a novel technique for targeting submicrometer sized organelles or other biologically important regions in living cells using femtosecond laser pulses. By tightly focusing these pulses beneath the cell membrane, we can vaporize cellular material inside the cell through nonlinear optical processes. This technique enables non-invasive manipulation of the physical structure of a cell with sub-micrometer resolution. We propose to study the role mitochondria play in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our technique provides a unique tool for the study of cell biology.

  12. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  13. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  14. Growth control of the eukaryote cell: a systems biology study in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillo Juan I

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell growth underlies many key cellular and developmental processes, yet a limited number of studies have been carried out on cell-growth regulation. Comprehensive studies at the transcriptional, proteomic and metabolic levels under defined controlled conditions are currently lacking. Results Metabolic control analysis is being exploited in a systems biology study of the eukaryotic cell. Using chemostat culture, we have measured the impact of changes in flux (growth rate on the transcriptome, proteome, endometabolome and exometabolome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each functional genomic level shows clear growth-rate-associated trends and discriminates between carbon-sufficient and carbon-limited conditions. Genes consistently and significantly upregulated with increasing growth rate are frequently essential and encode evolutionarily conserved proteins of known function that participate in many protein-protein interactions. In contrast, more unknown, and fewer essential, genes are downregulated with increasing growth rate; their protein products rarely interact with one another. A large proportion of yeast genes under positive growth-rate control share orthologs with other eukaryotes, including humans. Significantly, transcription of genes encoding components of the TOR complex (a major controller of eukaryotic cell growth is not subject to growth-rate regulation. Moreover, integrative studies reveal the extent and importance of post-transcriptional control, patterns of control of metabolic fluxes at the level of enzyme synthesis, and the relevance of specific enzymatic reactions in the control of metabolic fluxes during cell growth. Conclusion This work constitutes a first comprehensive systems biology study on growth-rate control in the eukaryotic cell. The results have direct implications for advanced studies on cell growth, in vivo regulation of metabolic fluxes for comprehensive metabolic engineering, and for

  15. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  16. Combined ion conductance and fluorescence confocal microscopy for biological cell membrane transport studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical visualization of nanoscale morphological changes taking place in living biological cells during such important processes as endo- and exocytosis is challenging due to the low refractive index of lipid membranes. In this paper we summarize and discuss advances in the powerful combination of two complementary live imaging techniques, ion conductance and fluorescence confocal microscopy, that allows cell membrane topography to be related with molecular-specific fluorescence at high spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of the use of ion conductance microscopy to image apical plasma membrane of mouse embryo trophoblast outgrowth cells at a resolution sufficient to depict single endocytic pits. This opens the possibility to study individual endocytic events in embryo trophoblast outgrowth cells where endocytosis plays a crucial role during early stages of embryo development. (special issue article)

  17. Combined ion conductance and fluorescence confocal microscopy for biological cell membrane transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, A. I.; Novak, P.; Velazquez, M. A.; Fleming, T. P.; Korchev, Y. E.

    2013-09-01

    Optical visualization of nanoscale morphological changes taking place in living biological cells during such important processes as endo- and exocytosis is challenging due to the low refractive index of lipid membranes. In this paper we summarize and discuss advances in the powerful combination of two complementary live imaging techniques, ion conductance and fluorescence confocal microscopy, that allows cell membrane topography to be related with molecular-specific fluorescence at high spatial and temporal resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of the use of ion conductance microscopy to image apical plasma membrane of mouse embryo trophoblast outgrowth cells at a resolution sufficient to depict single endocytic pits. This opens the possibility to study individual endocytic events in embryo trophoblast outgrowth cells where endocytosis plays a crucial role during early stages of embryo development.

  18. Atomic force microscopy in cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhexue; ZHANG Zhiling; PANG Daiwen

    2005-01-01

    The history, characteristic, operation modes and coupling techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) are introduced. Then the application in cell biology is reviewed in four aspects: cell immobilization methods, cell imaging, force spectrum study and cell manipulation. And the prospect of AFM application in cell biology is discussed.

  19. Lipidomics Investigations in Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    YU, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Cell membrane is the biological barrier serving as both territorial defense and the communication hinge for the interior of cell from its surroundings. As building blocks of cellular membranes and also precursor for second messengers, a variety of lipids play essential roles in cellular membrane dynamics as well as important functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction and membrane trafficking modulation. Lipidomics, representing the systematic and integrative studies ...

  20. The Biological Study of the Cultured Human Lens Epithelial Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The human lens epithelial cells (HLE) cultured in vitro was established in normal and cataractous lenses. The biological feature, histological characteristics and the ultrastructure of the cultured HLE cells were investigated. The results reveal that the proliferative capacity of the culutured HLE cells is reversely proportional to the donour age; the cultured HLE cells has the limited proliferative capacity in vitro. The relieve of the contact inhibition is the effective trigger of the HLE cell prolife...

  1. Study on the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the biological characteristics of pancreatic cancer vascular endothelial cells,including the aspects of morphology,species,genetics,vascular formation ability,and proliferation ability in vitro. Methods The human pancreatic cancer cells were inoculated in nude mice pancreas to get pancreatic cancer

  2. Intravital microscopy: a novel tool to study cell biology in living animals

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Roberto; Sramkova, Monika; Parente, Laura; Masedunskas, Andrius

    2010-01-01

    Intravital microscopy encompasses various optical microscopy techniques aimed at visualizing biological processes in live animals. In the last decade, the development of non-linear optical microscopy resulted in an enormous increase of in vivo studies, which have addressed key biological questions in fields such as neurobiology, immunology and tumor biology. Recently, few studies have shown that subcellular processes can be imaged dynamically in the live animal at a resolution comparable to t...

  3. Numerical study of the electroporation pulse shape effect on molecular uptake of biological cells

    OpenAIRE

    Miklavčič, Damijan; Towhidi, Leila

    2010-01-01

    Background In order to reduce the side-effects of chemotherapy, combined chemotherapy-electroporation (electrochemotherapy) has been suggested. Electroporation, application of appropriate electric pulses to biological cells, can significantly enhance molecular uptake of cells due to formation of transient pores in the cell membrane. It was experimentally demonstrated that the efficiency of electroporation is under the control of electric pulse parameters. However, the theoretical basis for th...

  4. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of the action of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), as an inhibitor of repair of x radioinduced injuries were extended from synchronous Chinese hamster cells to synchronous human HeLa cells. These studies showed a similar mode of action in both cell types lending support to the notion that conclusions may be extracted from such observations that are of fairly general applicability to mammalian cells. Radiation studies with NEM are being extended to hypoxic cells to inquire if NEM is effective relative to oxygen-independent damage. Observations relative to survival, DNA synthesis, and DNA strand elongation resulting from the addition products to DNA when cells were exposed to near uv in the presence of psoralen were extended. (U.S.)

  5. Preliminary Study on Biological Properties of Adult Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tao; BAI Hai; WANG Jingchang; SHI Jingyun; WANG Cunbang; LU Jihong; OU Jianfeng; WANG Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of culture and expansion of adult human bone marrow-derived MSCs in vitro and to explore their biological properties. Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained from 5 mL adult human bone marrow by density gradient centrifugation with Percoll solution. Adult human MSCs were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium with low glucose (LG-DMEM) containing 10% fetal calf serum at a density of 2× 105 cell/cm2. The morphocytology was observed under phase-contrast microscope. The cell growth was measured by MTT method. The flow cytometer was performed to examine the expression of cell surface molecules and cell cycle. The ultrastructure of MSCs was observed under transmission electron microscope. The immunomodulatory functions of MSCs were measured by MTT method. The effects of MSCs on the growth of K562 cells and the dynamic change of HA, Ⅳ-C, LN concentration in the culture supernatant of MSCs was also observed. Results: The MSCs harvested in this study were homogenous population and exhibited a spindle-shaped fibroblastic morphology. The cell growth curve showed that MSCs had a strong ability of proliferation. The cells were positive for CD44,while negative for hematopoietic cell surface marker such as CD3, CD4, CD7, CD13, CD14, CD15, CD19,CD22, CD33, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR, which was closely related to graft versus host disease. Above 90% cells of MSCs were found at G0/G1 phase. The ultrastructure of MSCs indicated that there were plenty of cytoplasmic organelles. Allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes proliferation was suppressed by MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 60.68% (P<0.01). The suppressive effect was also existed in the culture supernatant of MSCs and the inhibition ratio was 9.00% (P<0.05). When lymphocytes were stimulated by PHA, the suppression effects of the culture supernatant were even stronger and the inhibition ratio was 20.91%(P<0.01). Compared with the cell growth curve of the K562 cells alone, the K562

  6. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  7. Clinico-biologic profile of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A single institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narula G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a rare atypical cellular disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells leading to myriad clinical presentations and highly variable outcomes. There is a paucity of Indian studies on this subject. Aim: To present the experience of management of LCH at a single institution. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective observational study of patients with LCH who presented at the Tata Memorial Hospital between January 1987 and December 2002. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with LCH were treated in the study period. Due to the long observation period and variability in diagnostic and therapeutic protocols, the patients were risk-stratified based on present criteria. The disease pattern, management approaches and treatment outcomes of patients were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analyses were done using Student′s ′t′ test, test for proportion and survival estimates based on the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median age at presentation was 3 years and more than 48% of the patients had Group I disease. Skeleton, skin and lymphoreticular system were the commonly involved organs. Majority (80% required some form of therapy. The projected overall survival is 63% at 10 years and mean survival is 118 months. Seventeen percent of surviving patients developed long-term sequelae. Conclusions: The clinico-biologic profile of LCH patients in India is largely similar to international patterns except a higher incidence of lymphoreticular involvement. Majority of the patients respond favorably to therapy and have a good outcome, except a subset of Group I patients who warrant enrolment in clinical trials with innovative therapeutic strategies to improve outcome.

  8. Systems Biology of cancer: Moving toward the Integrative Study of the metabolic alterations in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Erika Hernández Patiño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives in systems biology is to understand the biological mechanisms that give rise to the phenotype of a microorganism by using high-throughput technologies and genome-scale mathematical modeling. The computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic reconstructions is one systemic and quantitative strategy for characterizing the metabolic phenotype associated with human diseases and potentially for designing drugs with optimal clinical effects. The purpose of this short review is to describe how computational modeling, including the specific case of constraint-based modeling, can be used to explore, characterize and predict the metabolic capacities that distinguish the metabolic phenotype of cancer cell lines. As we show herein, this computational framework is far from a pure theoretical description, and to ensure proper biological interpretation, it is necessary to integrate high-throughput data and generate predictions for later experimental assessment. Hence, genome-scale modeling serves as a platform for the following: 1 the integration of data from high-throughput technologies, 2 the assessment of how metabolic activity is related to phenotype in cancer cell lines and 3 the design of new experiments to evaluate the outcomes of the in silico analysis. By combining the functions described above, we show that computational modeling is a useful methodology to construct an integrative, systemic and quantitative scheme for understanding the metabolic profiles of cancer cell lines, a first step to determine the metabolic mechanism by which cancer cells maintain and support their malignant phenotype in human tissues.

  9. Learning of Biochemistry and Cell Biology: Case Study of the School of Physiotherapy from ONCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T.L.P. Gonçalves,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Teaching biomedical disciplines for students with disabilities in highereducation is considered a major challenge, especially when it comes to the curriculum, themethods and the resources. In Brazil there are few reports on how the processes ofteaching and learning biomedical disciplines in higher education are conducted. In Spain,since the 70’s the School of Physiotherapy from the National Organization of Spanish blindpeople (ONCE offers exclusively for students with disabilities undergraduate degree inPhysiotherapy, as well as many post graduation courses in biomedicine. Thus, the aim ofthis study was to verify in situ what were the resources and methods used by theprofessors of biochemistry and cell biology to teach their students with visual impairments.Material and Methods: Technical visits were conducted using the following instruments tocollect the data: Unstructured interviews with teachers, students and staff (audio-recordedand later transcribed and classroom observation using photographs and reports. Thedata generated by the interviews were analyzed by the discourse analysis.Discussion and results: Reports indicated that the main methodological resources are:embossed boards made with Swell paper and with the help of an oven called Ricohfuser®; commercially sold models of cells and body structures; the technique of descriptivediscourse where the professor describes an image to be studied, individual touchtechniques where the professor shows an image using the touch of the student. It wasobserved that certain sectors inside the school are especially distinguished. Overall, theschool does not present any other routine different from a regular school, and according tothe professors, it happens intentionally, so that the future professionals are able to work inenvironments not adapted for their needs.Conclusion: The observed adjustments in the school of physiotherapy at ONCE could beseen as an example for Brazilian

  10. Electroporation dynamics in biological cells subjected to ultrafast electrical pulses: A numerical simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R. P.; Schoenbach, K. H.

    2000-07-01

    A model analysis of electroporation dynamics in biological cells has been carried out based on the Smoluchowski equation. Results of the cellular response to short, electric pulses are presented, taking account of the growth and resealing dynamics of transient aqueous pores. It is shown that the application of large voltages alone may not be sufficient to cause irreversible breakdown, if the time duration is too short. Failure to cause irreversible damage at small pulse widths could be attributed to the time inadequacy for pores to grow and expand beyond a critical threshold radius. In agreement with earlier studies, it is shown that irreversible breakdown would lead to the formation of a few large pores, while a large number of smaller pores would appear in the case of reversible breakdown. Finally, a pulse width dependence of the applied voltage for irreversible breakdown has been obtained. It is shown that in the absence of dissipation, the associated energy input necessary reduces with decreasing pulse width to a limiting value. However, with circuit effects taken into account, a local minima in the pulse dependent energy function is predicted, in keeping with previously published experimental reports.

  11. Label-Free Biosensors for Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Fang

    2011-01-01

    Label-free biosensors for studying cell biology have finally come of age. Recent developments have advanced the biosensors from low throughput and high maintenance research tools to high throughput and low maintenance screening platforms. In parallel, the biosensors have evolved from an analytical tool solely for molecular interaction analysis to powerful platforms for studying cell biology at the whole cell level. This paper presents historical development, detection principles, and applicat...

  12. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In part of studies on the mechanism of M-proteinemia (including myeloma) in A-bomb survivors, an attempt was made to identify precursor plasma cells in the peripheral blood by determining the expression of CD38 antigen on the surface of cells. Two-color analysis with FITC-labeled anti-CD38 antibody revealed the expression of moderately CD38-positive (CD38++) cells, i.e. CD38++CD19+CD56-VLA-5-MPC-1-. These cells were similar to immature plasma cells in bone marrow (CD38+++CD19+CD56-VLA-5-MPC-1-), which showed extremely CD38-positive (CD38+++) cells. Because germinal center B cells is slightly CD38-positive (CD38+), plasma cells in the peripheral blood was identified as precursor plasma cells that lie between germinal center B cells and bone marrow-derived immature plasma cells. These precursor plasma cells were scarcely seen in the peripheral blood from patients with myeloma, suggesting that malignant clones of myeloma cells may not be supplied by precursor plasma cells but originate from bone marrow. (N.K.)

  13. Biological properties of different type carbon particles in vitro study on primary culture of endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniak-Reczulska, M; Niedzielski, P; Balcerczyk, A; Bartosz, G; Karowicz-Bilińska, A; Mitura, K

    2010-02-01

    Carbon powders have extended surface of carbon layers, which is of significant biomedical importance since the powders are employed to cover implants material. Carbon Powder Particles are produced by different methods: by a detonation method, by RF PACVD (Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) or MW/RF PCVD (Microwave/Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) and others. Our previous data showed that Carbon Powder Particles may act as antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory factor. However the mechanism of such behavior has been not fully understood. The aim of the work was tested influence carbon powders manufactured by Radio Frequency Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition RFPACVD method and detonation method on selected parameters of human endothelial cells, which play a crucial role in the regulation of the circulation and vascular wall homeostasis. Graphite powder was used as a control substance. Endothelial cells are actively involved in a wide variety of processes e.g., inflammatory responses to a different type of stimuli (ILs, TNF-alpha) or regulating vasomotor tone via production of vasorelaxants and vasocontrictors. Biological activation is dependent on the type and quantity of chemical bonds on the surface of the powders. The effect of powders on the proliferation of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction assay. We found decreased cell proliferation after 72 h treatment with graphite as well as Carbon Powder Particles. PMID:20352757

  14. Biologically active monoiodinated alpha-MSH derivatives for receptor binding studies using human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different monoiodinated radioligands of alpha-MSH (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) were compared in a binding assay with human D10 melanoma cells: [Tyr(125I)2]-alpha-MSH, [Tyr(125I)2,NIe4]-alpha-MSH, and [Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH. They were prepared either by the classical chloramine T method or by the Enzymobead method. A simple and rapid purification scheme was developed consisting of a primary separation on reversed-phase C18 silica cartridges immediately after the iodination, followed by HPLC purification before each binding experiment. Biological testing of the three radioligands showed that they all retained high melanotropic activity in the B16 melanin assay and the Anolis melanophore assay. However, in human D10 melanoma cells, [Tyr(125I)2,NIe4]-alpha-MSH led to a high degree of non-specific binding to the cells which could not be displaced by excess alpha-MSH and only partially by [NIe4]-alpha-MSH. The [Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH tracer gave similar results but with a much lower proportion of non-specific binding. On the other hand, [Tyr(125I)2]-alpha-MSH proved to be an excellent radioligand whose non-specific binding to the D10 cells was not higher than 20% of the total binding

  15. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  16. The biological networks in studying cell signal transduction complexity: The examples of sperm capacitation and of endocannabinoid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabò, Nicola; Barboni, Barbara; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction is a complex phenomenon, which plays a central role in cell surviving and adaptation. The great amount of molecular data to date present in literature, together with the adoption of high throughput technologies, on the one hand, made available to scientists an enormous quantity of information, on the other hand, failed to provide a parallel increase in the understanding of biological events. In this context, a new discipline arose, the systems biology, aimed to manage the information with a computational modeling-based approach. In particular, the use of biological networks has allowed the making of huge progress in this field. Here we discuss two possible application of the use of biological networks to explore cell signaling: the study of the architecture of signaling systems that cooperate in determining the acquisition of a complex cellular function (as it is the case of the process of activation of spermatozoa) and the organization of a single specific signaling systems expressed by different cells in different tissues (i.e. the endocannabinoid system). In both the cases we have found that the networks follow a scale free and small world topology, likely due to the evolutionary advantage of robustness against random damages, fastness and specific of information processing, and easy navigability. PMID:25379139

  17. Biological atomism and cell theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Daniel J

    2010-09-01

    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, together with the theory's conceptual development and eventual consolidation. This paper then examines the major criticisms that have been waged against cell theory, and argues that these too can be interpreted through the prism of biological atomism as attempts to relocate the true biological atom away from the cell to a level of organization above or below it. Overall, biological atomism provides a useful perspective through which to examine the history and philosophy of cell theory, and it also opens up a new way of thinking about the epistemic decomposition of living organisms that significantly departs from the physicochemical reductionism of mechanistic biology. PMID:20934641

  18. Molecular biology of the cell

    CERN Document Server

    Alberts, Bruce; Lewis, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Molecular Biology of the Cell is the classic in-dept text reference in cell biology. By extracting the fundamental concepts from this enormous and ever-growing field, the authors tell the story of cell biology, and create a coherent framework through which non-expert readers may approach the subject. Written in clear and concise language, and beautifully illustrated, the book is enjoyable to read, and it provides a clear sense of the excitement of modern biology. Molecular Biology of the Cell sets forth the current understanding of cell biology (completely updated as of Autumn 2001), and it explores the intriguing implications and possibilities of the great deal that remains unknown. The hallmark features of previous editions continue in the Fourth Edition. The book is designed with a clean and open, single-column layout. The art program maintains a completely consistent format and style, and includes over 1,600 photographs, electron micrographs, and original drawings by the authors. Clear and concise concept...

  19. Micro and nanoplatforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2010-01-01

    while working in a biological environment maintaining the cells viability and adding analyte are addressed and discussed. An example of a cell culturing chamber useful for both adherent and non-adherent cells, with the capability of adding analyte is given, a small discussion of in vitro cellular......In this paper some of the technological platforms developed in our group for biological cell analysis will be highlighted. The paper first presents a short introduction pinpointing the advantages of using micro and nano technology in cellular studies. The issues of requiring transient analysis...... sorting cells using dielectrophoresis will be given, aiming at early cancer detection....

  20. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine how quantitative changes and qualitative abnormalities of IL-6R receptor (IL-6R) is involved in proliferation promotion of myeloma cells, the expression of IL-6R and recomposition of IL-6R genes were examined in myeloma cells obtained from a total of 37 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or plasma cell leukemia, including 6 A-bomb survivors. Among 6 A-bomb survivors, 4 had been directly exposed and the other two had entered the city after A-bombing. Binding assay performed in 10 patients revealed binding ability in all of them; the number of bound IL-6R was 31-2440/cell and Kd value was 1.2-3.7 x 10-10 M. Northern blot test revealed noticeable IL-6R mRNA expression in only one MM patient. Nor was definitive IL-6R expression observed by flow cytometry. There was no recomposition of IL-6R genes in any of 20 MM patients, including A-bomb survivors. This may deny extensively structural abnormality in the genetic area that activates IL-6R genes. Regarding the expression of IL-6R of myeloma cells, such as the number of IL-6R, Kd value, the expression of IL-6R mRNA, and the recomposition of IL-6R genes, there was no difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups. In elucidating the occurrence of M protenemia in A-bomb survivors, further studies are required concerning IL-6 and IL-6R involved in proliferation mechanism of myeloma cells. (N.K.)

  1. Teaching Cell Biology in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francele de Abreu Carlan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic concepts of cell biology are essential for scientific literacy. However, because many aspects of cell theory and cell functioning are quite abstract, students experience difficulties understanding them. In this study, we investigated whether diverse teaching resources such as the use of replicas of Leeuwenhoek’s microscope, visualization of cells using an optical microscope, construction of three-dimensional cell models, and reading of a comic book about cells could mitigate the difficulties encountered when teaching cell biology to 8th-grade primary school students. The results suggest that these didactic activities improve students’ ability to learn concrete concepts about cell biology, such as the composition of living beings, growth, and cicatrization. Also, the development of skills was observed, as, for example, the notion of cell size. However, no significant improvements were observed in students’ ability to learn about abstract topics, such as the structures of subcellular organelles and their functions. These results suggest that many students in this age have not yet concluded Piaget’s concrete operational stage, indicating that the concepts required for the significant learning of abstract subjects need to be explored more thoroughly in the process of designing programs that introduce primary school students to cell biology.

  2. The new stem cell biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem ce...

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems: Applications to liver preservation and metabolism in cultured pituitary tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study centers on applications of both 31P and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to two different biological systems. The first application utilizes 31P NMR to study mobile phospholipids in the MMQ cell line, a pituitary tumor cell line. These measurements characterize membrane phospholipids thought to be part of a RNA-proteolipid complex unique to cellular transformation. The second application utilizes both 31P and 13C spectroscopy to study liver preservation and transplantation an a rat model. In this work, several questions were addressed: (1) to what extent do successful preservation solutions slow ATP breakdown? (2) can clinically successful preservation conditions ameliorate total nucleotide breakdown? (3) to what extent is energy reconstitution following cold storage correlated with transport success? and (4) can any spectroscopic parameter be used as a diagnostic indicator of tissue viability?

  4. A microfluidic flow-cell for the study of the ultrafast dynamics of biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, Adrien, E-mail: adrien.chauvet@epfl.ch; Chergui, Majed [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, ISIC, Faculté des Sciences de Base, Station 6, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tibiletti, Tania; Caffarri, Stefano [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, CEA, UMR 7265 Biologie Végétale et Microbiologie Environnementales, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2014-10-01

    The study of biochemical dynamics by ultrafast spectroscopic methods is often restricted by the limited amount of liquid sample available, while the high repetition rate of light sources can induce photodamage. In order to overcome these limitations, we designed a high flux, sub-ml, capillary flow-cell. While the 0.1 mm thin window of the 0.5 mm cross-section capillary ensures an optimal temporal resolution and a steady beam deviation, the cell-pump generates flows up to ~0.35 ml/s that are suitable to pump laser repetition rates up to ~14 kHz, assuming a focal spot-diameter of 100 μm. In addition, a decantation chamber efficiently removes bubbles and allows, via septum, for the addition of chemicals while preserving the closed atmosphere. The minimal useable amount of sample is ~250 μl.

  5. Cell biology of fat storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    The worldwide epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes has greatly increased interest in the biology and physiology of adipose tissues. Adipose (fat) cells are specialized for the storage of energy in the form of triglycerides, but research in the last few decades has shown that fat cells also play a critical role in sensing and responding to changes in systemic energy balance. White fat cells secrete important hormone-like molecules such as leptin, adiponectin, and adipsin to influence processes such as food intake, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Brown fat, on the other hand, dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat, thereby defending against hypothermia, obesity, and diabetes. It is now appreciated that there are two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells, termed brown and beige adipocytes. In addition to these distinct properties of fat cells, adipocytes exist within adipose tissue, where they are in dynamic communication with immune cells and closely influenced by innervation and blood supply. This review is intended to serve as an introduction to adipose cell biology and to familiarize the reader with how these cell types play a role in metabolic disease and, perhaps, as targets for therapeutic development. PMID:27528697

  6. Postnatal development of the bronchiolar club cells of distal airways in the mouse lung: stereological and molecular biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnati, Srikanth; Graulich, Tilman; Oruqaj, Gani; Pfreimer, Susanne; Seimetz, Michael; Stamme, Cordula; Mariani, Thomas J; Weissmann, Norbert; Mühlfeld, Christian; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2016-06-01

    Club (Clara) cells are nonciliated secretory epithelial cells present in bronchioles of distal pulmonary airways. So far, no information is available on the postnatal differentiation of club cells by a combination of molecular biological, biochemical, and stereological approaches in the murine lung. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in the club cell secretory proteins (CC10, surfactant proteins A, B and D) and club cell abundance within the epithelium of bronchioles of distal airways during the postnatal development of the mouse lung. Perfusion-fixed murine lungs of three developmental stages (newborn, 15-day-old and adult) were used. Frozen, unfixed lungs were used for cryosectioning and subsequent laser-assisted microdissection of bronchiolar epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses. High resolution analyses of the three-dimensional structures and composition of lung airways were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, using design-based stereology, the total and average club cell volume and the volume of secretory granules were quantified by light and transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that murine club cells are immature at birth and differentiate postnatally. Further, increase of the club cell volume and number of intracellular granules are closely correlated to the total lung volume enlargement. However, secretory granule density was only increased within the first 15 days of postnatal development. The differentiation is accompanied by a decrease in glycogen content, and a close positive relationship between CC10 expression and secretory granule abundance. Taken together, our data are consistent with the concept that the morphological and functional differentiation of club cells is a postnatal phenomenon. PMID:26796206

  7. Visualizing Single Cell Biology: Nanosims Studies of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism in Diazotrophic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Finzi, J. A.; Capone, D. G.; Popa, R.; Nealson, K. H.; Ng, W.; Spormann, A. M.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Weber, P. K.

    2007-12-01

    , inter-species transfers (with Rhizobium epibionts), and within-cell depth profiles. Spatial enrichment patterns were correlated with morphological features evidenced in TEM images of microtomed filaments. These features indicate how 15N and 13C "hotspots" are dispersed throughout individual cells in different species, and may indicate isolated locations of increased N2 fixation, sites of amino acid/protein synthesis, or cyanophycin storage granules. This combination of Nano-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analysis and high resolution microscopy allows isotopic analysis to be linked to morphological features and holds great promise for fine-scale studies of bacteria metabolism.

  8. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether IL-6 production from myeloma cells is influenced by A-bombing. Subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, consisting of 9 A-bomb exposed patients and 11 non-exposed patients. According to disease types, 8 had IgG and one had BJ in the exposed group; 4 had IgG, 4 had IgA, and 3 had BJ in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, two were clinically staged as Stage I, 3 as Stage II, and 4 as Stage III; and one was staged as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, and 6 as Stage III in the non-exposed group. In both exposed and non-exposed groups, IL-6 production was observed in myeloma cells. There was no definitive difference in IL-6 production from myeloma cells between the groups. These findings suggest that IL-6 production is influenced by other factors than A-bombing. There is much to be done before promotion mechanism of multiple myeloma may be elucidated among A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  9. Study on the Dynamic Biological Characteristics of Sca-1+ Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches in the dynamic changes of the progress of HSCs aging are very limited and necessary. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 5 groups by age. We found that the superoxide damage of HSPCs started to increase from the middle age (6 months old, with notably reduced antioxidation ability. In accordance with that, the senescence of HSPCs also started from the middle age, since the self-renewal and differentiation ability remarkably decreased, and senescence-associated markers SA-β-GAL increased in the 6-month-old and the older groups. Interestingly, the telomere length and telomerase activity increased to a certain degree in the 6-month-old group. It suggested an intrinsic spontaneous ability of HSPCs against aging. It may provide a theoretical and experimental foundation for better understanding the senescence progress of HSPCs. And the dynamic biological characteristics of HSPCs senescence may also contribute to the clinical optimal time for antiaging drug intervention.

  10. Stem cell biology meets systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Roeder, I.; Radtke, F.

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells and their descendents are the building blocks of life. How stem cell populations guarantee their maintenance and/or self-renewal, and how individual stem cells decide to transit from one cell stage to another to generate different cell types are long-standing and fascinating questions in the field. Here, we review the discussions that took place at a recent EMBO conference in Cambridge, UK, in which these questions were placed in the context of the latest advances in stem cell biol...

  11. Cell biology experiments conducted in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    A review of cell biology experiments conducted during the first two decades of space flight is provided. References are tabulated for work done with six types of living test system: isolated viruses, bacteriophage-host, bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, protozoans, and small groups of cells (such as hamster cell tissue and fertilized frog eggs). The general results of studies involving the survival of cells in space, the effect of space flight on growing cultures, the biological effects of multicharged high-energy particles, and the effects of space flight on the genetic apparatus of microorganisms are summarized. It is concluded that cell systems remain sufficiently stable during space flight to permit experimentation with models requiring a fixed cell line during the space shuttle era.

  12. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  13. Biological studies using mammalian cell lines and the current status of the microbeam irradiation system, SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Iso, H.; Yasuda, N.; Oikawa, M.; Higuchi, Y.; Kato, T.; Hafer, K.; Kodama, K.; Hamano, T.; Suya, N.; Imaseki, H.

    2009-06-01

    The development of SPICE (single-particle irradiation system to cell), a microbeam irradiation system, has been completed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). The beam size has been improved to approximately 5 μm in diameter, and the cell targeting system can irradiate up to 400-500 cells per minute. Two cell dishes have been specially designed: one a Si 3N 4 plate (2.5 mm × 2.5 mm area with 1 μm thickness) supported by a 7.5 mm × 7.5 mm frame of 200 μm thickness, and the other a Mylar film stretched by pressing with a metal ring. Both dish types may be placed on a voice coil stage equipped on the cell targeting system, which includes a fluorescent microscope and a CCD camera for capturing cell images. This microscope system captures images of dyed cell nuclei, computes the location coordinates of individual cells, and synchronizes this with the voice coil motor stage and single-particle irradiation system consisting of a scintillation counter and a beam deflector. Irradiation of selected cells with a programmable number of protons is now automatable. We employed the simultaneous detection method for visualizing the position of mammalian cells and proton traversal through CR-39 to determine whether the targeted cells are actually irradiated. An immuno-assay was also performed against γ-H2AX, to confirm the induction of DNA double-strand breaks in the target cells.

  14. Stochastic processes in cell biology

    CERN Document Server

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology.  A wide range of biological topics are covered including normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, stochastic calcium signaling, molecular motors, intracellular transport, signal transduction, bacterial chemotaxis, robustness in gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, cell polarization, polymerization, cellular length control, and branching processes. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic process – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, master equations and jump Markov processes, diffusion approximations and the system size expansion, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, reaction-diffusion equations, exclusion processes, WKB methods, martingales and branching processes, stochastic calculus, and numerical methods.   This text is primarily...

  15. Three-Dimensional Printing of Human Skeletal Muscle Cells: An Interdisciplinary Approach for Studying Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, James R.; Galpin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Interdisciplinary exploration is vital to education in the 21st century. This manuscript outlines an innovative laboratory-based teaching method that combines elements of biochemistry/molecular biology, kinesiology/health science, computer science, and manufacturing engineering to give students the ability to better conceptualize complex…

  16. The biology of hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilvassy, Stephen J

    2003-01-01

    Rarely has so much interest from the lay public, government, biotechnology industry, and special interest groups been focused on the biology and clinical applications of a single type of human cell as is today on stem cells, the founder cells that sustain many, if not all, tissues and organs in the body. Granting organizations have increasingly targeted stem cells as high priority for funding, and it appears clear that the evolving field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will require as its underpinning a thorough understanding of the molecular regulation of stem cell proliferation, differentiation, self-renewal, and aging. Despite evidence suggesting that embryonic stem (ES) cells might represent a more potent regenerative reservoir than stem cells collected from adult tissues, ethical considerations have redirected attention upon primitive cells residing in the bone marrow, blood, brain, liver, muscle, and skin, from where they can be harvested with relative sociological impunity. Among these, it is arguably the stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian hematopoietic system that we know most about today, and their intense study in rodents and humans over the past 50 years has culminated in the identification of phenotypic and molecular genetic markers of lineage commitment and the development of functional assays that facilitate their quantitation and prospective isolation. This review focuses exclusively on the biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their immediate progeny. Nevertheless, many of the concepts established from their study can be considered fundamental tenets of an evolving stem cell paradigm applicable to many regenerating cellular systems. PMID:14734085

  17. Recent SIFT-MS Studies of Volatile Compounds in Physiology, Medicine and Cell Biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    1. Amsterdam: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2013, s. 49-76. ISBN 978-0-444-62620-2 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ION FLOW-TUBE * TRACE GAS-ANALYSIS * LUNG - CANCER CELLS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology investigates the organization, compartmentalization, and biochemistry of eukaryotic cells and the pathology associated...

  19. Automatic detection of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research work has dealt with the analysis of biological cell images in general, and more specially with the cervical cells. This work was carried out in order to develop an automaton leading to a better prevention of cancer through automated mass screening. The device has been implemented on Motorola 68.000 microprocessor system. The automaton carries out cell nucleus analysis in several steps. The main steps are: - First: the automaton focuses on an individual cell nucleus among the smear's cell (about 10.000), - Second: it process each nucleus image. The digital processing yields geometrical of the nucleus (area and perimeter) for each cell. These data are stored in a local memory for further discriminant analysis by a microcomputer. In this way smears are classed in two groups: hale smears and uncertain smears. The automaton uses a wired logic for image acquisition and its software algorithms provide image reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithms are general purpose. Tests have proved that they can reconstruct any two dimensional images independently of its geometrical form. Moreover they can make the reconstruction of any image among the several images present in observation field. The processing times registered during the tests (for different cases) were situated, all of them, below three minutes for 10,000 images (each of them formed by an average of 450 pixels). The interest of the method is generality and speed. The only restriction is the primary device sensor (CCD linear array) length. Thus the automaton application can be extended beyond the biological image field. (author)

  20. The biology of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Neethan A; Shimono, Yohei; Qian, Dalong; Clarke, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Cancers originally develop from normal cells that gain the ability to proliferate aberrantly and eventually turn malignant. These cancerous cells then grow clonally into tumors and eventually have the potential to metastasize. A central question in cancer biology is, which cells can be transformed to form tumors? Recent studies elucidated the presence of cancer stem cells that have the exclusive ability to regenerate tumors. These cancer stem cells share many characteristics with normal stem cells, including self-renewal and differentiation. With the growing evidence that cancer stem cells exist in a wide array of tumors, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and differentiation because corruption of genes involved in these pathways likely participates in tumor growth. This new paradigm of oncogenesis has been validated in a growing list of tumors. Studies of normal and cancer stem cells from the same tissue have shed light on the ontogeny of tumors. That signaling pathways such as Bmi1 and Wnt have similar effects in normal and cancer stem cell self-renewal suggests that common molecular pathways regulate both populations. Understanding the biology of cancer stem cells will contribute to the identification of molecular targets important for future therapies. PMID:17645413

  1. The biological networks in studying cell signal transduction complexity: The examples of sperm capacitation and of endocannabinoid system

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Bernabò; Barbara Barboni; Mauro Maccarrone

    2014-01-01

    Cellular signal transduction is a complex phenomenon, which plays a central role in cell surviving and adaptation. The great amount of molecular data to date present in literature, together with the adoption of high throughput technologies, on the one hand, made available to scientists an enormous quantity of information, on the other hand, failed to provide a parallel increase in the understanding of biological events. In this context, a new discipline arose, the systems biology, aimed to ma...

  2. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  3. Artificial vesicles as an animal cell model for the study of biological application of non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, S. H.; Park, J. K.; Sung, C.; Lee, C. B.; Uhm, H.; Choi, E. H.; Baik, K. Y.

    2016-03-01

    Artificial cell-like model systems can provide information which is hard to obtain with real biological cells. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) containing intra-membrane DNA or OH radical-binding molecules are used to visualize the cytolytic activity of OH radicals. Changes in the GUV membrane are observed by microscopy or flow cytometry as performed for animal cells after non-thermal plasma treatment. The experimental data shows that OH radicals can be detected inside the membrane, although the biological effects are not as significant as for H2O2. This artificial model system can provide a systemic means to elucidate the complex interactions between biological materials and non-thermal plasma.

  4. Artificial vesicles as an animal cell model for the study of biological application of non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artificial cell-like model systems can provide information which is hard to obtain with real biological cells. Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) containing intra-membrane DNA or OH radical-binding molecules are used to visualize the cytolytic activity of OH radicals. Changes in the GUV membrane are observed by microscopy or flow cytometry as performed for animal cells after non-thermal plasma treatment. The experimental data shows that OH radicals can be detected inside the membrane, although the biological effects are not as significant as for H2O2. This artificial model system can provide a systemic means to elucidate the complex interactions between biological materials and non-thermal plasma. (paper)

  5. The Biology of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuru, Judith A.; Bhattacharya, Deepta; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2016-01-01

    At the most basic level, success of an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) procedure relies upon the engraftment of recipients with donor hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that will generate blood formation for the life of that individual. The formula to achieve durable HSC engraftment involves multiple factors including the recipient conditioning regimen, the nature of the genetic disparity between donor and recipient, and the content of the hematopoietic graft. Animal and clinical studies have shown that the biology of host resistance is complex, involving both immune and nonimmune elements. In this article, we review the factors that contribute to host resistance, describe emerging concepts on the basic biology of resistance, and discuss hematopoietic resistance as it relates specifically to patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID)— disorders that bring unique insights into the dynamics of cell replacement by allogeneic HSCs and progenitor cells. PMID:19913629

  6. Synthetic and Biological Studies of Sesquiterpene Polygodial: Activity of 9-Epipolygodial against Drug-Resistant Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Ramesh; De Carvalho, Annelise; Medellin, Derek C; Middleton, Kelsey N; Hague, Frédéric; Volmar, Marie N M; Frolova, Liliya V; Rossato, Mateus F; De La Chapa, Jorge J; Dybdal-Hargreaves, Nicholas F; Pillai, Akshita; Mathieu, Véronique; Rogelj, Snezna; Gonzales, Cara B; Calixto, João B; Evidente, Antonio; Gautier, Mathieu; Munirathinam, Gnanasekar; Glass, Rainer; Burth, Patricia; Pelly, Stephen C; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Kiss, Robert; Kornienko, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    Polygodial, a terpenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper L., is a known agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1-agonist and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, which has antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. 9-Epipolygodial was found to maintain potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype. In addition, the chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the formation of a Paal-Knorr pyrrole with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated by the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. These compounds should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents, or the exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products. PMID:26434977

  7. Biologic characteristic studies of DNA mismatch—repair enzyme hMSH2—deficient cell strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeY; ZhuaZX

    2002-01-01

    The effect of hMSH2 enzyme-deficiency on the cell growing phenotypes,cell ultrastructure,growth character and cell cycle were observed with electronic microscopy examination,cell counting and flow cytometry.hMSH2-deficient cell strain was constructed by transfecting hMSH2 recombination plasmid of antisense RNA into human embryo lung fibroblasts(HLF).In hMSH2-deficient cells,there were a lot of morphological changes under electronic microscopy,such as irregular shape,a lot of protuberances on the surface of cell,the enlarged nuclei.The average time of double increment of HLF and hMSH2-deficient cells were 1.0d and 0.78d,respectively.This suggested that the cell proliferation of hMSH2-deficient cells was greater than that of HLF.The distribution of HLF and hMSH2-deficient cells in G1,G2 and S phases was different.A large part of hMSH2-deficient cells was blocked in G1 phase.hMSH2-deficient cells increased,but it is still not a typical malignant cells.Thus,this cell strain could be used as biologic material to detect mutagenesis of environmental chemicals.

  8. Electron Tomography in Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of electron tomography-based techniques to our understanding of cellular processes in plant cells. Electron microscopy techniques have evolved to provide better three-dimensional resolution and improved preservation of the subcellular components. In particular, the combination of cryofixation/freeze substitution and electron tomography have allowed plant cell biologists to image organelles and macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context with unprecedented three-dimensional resolution (4-7 nm). Until now, electron tomography has been applied in plant cell biology for the study of cytokinesis, Golgi structure and trafficking, formation of plant endosome/prevacuolar compartments, and organization of photosynthetic membranes. We discuss in this review the new insights that these tomographic studies have brought to the plant biology field.

  9. FTIR spectroscopic imaging and mapping with correcting lenses for studies of biological cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, James A; Foreman, Liberty; Turner, Benjamin; Rich, Peter; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2016-06-23

    Histopathology of tissue samples is used to determine the progression of cancer usually by staining and visual analysis. It is recognised that disease progression from healthy tissue to cancerous is accompanied by spectral signature changes in the mid-infrared range. In this work, FTIR spectroscopic imaging in transmission mode using a focal plane array (96 × 96 pixels) has been applied to the characterisation of Barrett's oesophageal adenocarcinoma. To correct optical aberrations, infrared transparent lenses were used of the same material (CaF2) as the slide on which biopsies were fixed. The lenses acted as an immersion objective, reducing scattering and improving spatial resolution. A novel mapping approach using a sliding lens is presented where spectral images obtained with added lenses are stitched together such that the dataset contained a representative section of the oesophageal tissue. Images were also acquired in transmission mode using high-magnification optics for enhanced spatial resolution, as well as with a germanium micro-ATR objective. The reduction of scattering was assessed using k-means clustering. The same tissue section map, which contained a region of high grade dysplasia, was analysed using hierarchical clustering analysis. A reduction of the trough at 1077 cm(-1) in the second derivative spectra was identified as an indicator of high grade dysplasia. In addition, the spatial resolution obtained with the lens using high-magnification optics was assessed by measurements of a sharp interface of polymer laminate, which was also compared with that achieved with micro ATR-FTIR imaging. In transmission mode using the lens, it was determined to be 8.5 μm and using micro-ATR imaging, the resolution was 3 μm for the band at a wavelength of ca. 3 μm. The spatial resolution was also assessed with and without the added lens, in normal and high-magnification modes using a USAF target. Spectroscopic images of cells in transmission mode using two

  10. Approaches to systems biology. Four methods to study single-cell gene expression, cell motility, antibody reactivity, and respiratory metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Peter

    To understand how complex systems, such as cells, function, comprehensive Measurements of their constituent parts must be made. This can be achieved by combining methods that are each optimized to measure specific parts of the system. Four such methods,each covering a different area, are presented......: Transcript profiling of one cell type extracted from a complex tissue containing several cell types; observation and recording of cell motility; measurement of antibody reactivities using microarrays; and invivo measurement of free and bound NADH in mitochondria. Detailed statistical analysis of the data...... from such measurements allows models of the system to be developed and tested. For each of the methods, such analysis and modelling approaches have beenapplied and are presented: Differentially regulated genes are identified and classified according to function; cell-specfic motility models are...

  11. Evolutionary cell biology: two origins, one objective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Field, Mark C; Goodson, Holly V; Malik, Harmit S; Pereira-Leal, José B; Roos, David S; Turkewitz, Aaron P; Sazer, Shelley

    2014-12-01

    All aspects of biological diversification ultimately trace to evolutionary modifications at the cellular level. This central role of cells frames the basic questions as to how cells work and how cells come to be the way they are. Although these two lines of inquiry lie respectively within the traditional provenance of cell biology and evolutionary biology, a comprehensive synthesis of evolutionary and cell-biological thinking is lacking. We define evolutionary cell biology as the fusion of these two eponymous fields with the theoretical and quantitative branches of biochemistry, biophysics, and population genetics. The key goals are to develop a mechanistic understanding of general evolutionary processes, while specifically infusing cell biology with an evolutionary perspective. The full development of this interdisciplinary field has the potential to solve numerous problems in diverse areas of biology, including the degree to which selection, effectively neutral processes, historical contingencies, and/or constraints at the chemical and biophysical levels dictate patterns of variation for intracellular features. These problems can now be examined at both the within- and among-species levels, with single-cell methodologies even allowing quantification of variation within genotypes. Some results from this emerging field have already had a substantial impact on cell biology, and future findings will significantly influence applications in agriculture, medicine, environmental science, and synthetic biology. PMID:25404324

  12. Microfluidic tools for cell biological research

    OpenAIRE

    Velve-Casquillas, Guilhem; Le Berre, Maël; Piel, Matthieu; Tran, Phong T.

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic technology is creating powerful tools for cell biologists to control the complete cellular microenvironment, leading to new questions and new discoveries. We review here the basic concepts and methodologies in designing microfluidic devices, and their diverse cell biological applications.

  13. A New Stem Cell Biology: The Continuum and Microvesicles

    OpenAIRE

    Quesenberry, Peter J.; Dooner, Mark S.; Goldberg, Laura R.; Aliotta, Jason M.; Pereira, Mandy; Amaral, Ashley; Del Tatto, Michael M.; Hixson, Douglas C.; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchical models of stem cell biology have been based on work first demonstrating pluripotental spleen-colony-forming units, then showing progenitors with many differentiation fates assayed in in vitro culture; there followed the definition and separation of “stem cells” using monoclonal antibodies to surface epitopes and fluorescent-activated cell characterization and sorting (FACS). These studies led to an elegant model of stem cell biology in which primitive dormant G0 stem cells wi...

  14. Simulation studies of statistical distributions of cell membrane capacities and an ellipse model to assess the frequency behaviour of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency behaviour of biological tissues is commonly described by a Cole model reflecting a single-cell bio-impedance model extended with an exponent α. However, for this parameter α there is no physical or biological substrate, which impedes an interpretation. The present study confirms by computer simulations of tissue models that the factual frequency behaviour can be explained by assuming a distribution of the electrical impedance properties of cells and of the capacitive coupling between cells. This behaviour is modelled mathematically by an ellipse. A mathematical procedure is presented to estimate this ellipse from experimental data by a least square method. A model parameter β is introduced, representing the ratio of the axes of the ellipse. A higher value of β means a larger variation in cell properties, which makes a patho-physiological interpretation of changes possible.

  15. Microsystems for biological cell characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Rissanen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes three techniques for the characterization of living cells using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based devices. The study of cellular function and structure is essential for bioprocess control, disease diagnosis, patient treatment and drug discovery. Microsystem technology enables characterization of very small samples, minimal use of expensive reagents, testing of multiple samples in parallel, and point-of-care testing, all of which increase throughput and reduce...

  16. Glycan Engineering for Cell and Developmental Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matthew E.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-surface glycans are a diverse class of macromolecules that participate in many key biological processes, including cell-cell communication, development, and disease progression. Thus, the ability to modulate the structures of glycans on cell surfaces provides a powerful means not only to understand fundamental processes but also to direct activity and elicit desired cellular responses. Here, we describe methods to sculpt glycans on cell surfaces and highlight recent successes in which artificially engineered glycans have been employed to control biological outcomes such as the immune response and stem cell fate. PMID:26933739

  17. Biology of SNU Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Ja-Lok; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2005-01-01

    SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pa...

  18. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells play a critical role during embryonic development and in the maintenance of homeostasis in adult individuals. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor RB controls the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of cells, and accumulating evidence points to a central role for RB activity in the biology of stem and progenitor cells. In this review by Sage, recent studies investigating the role of RB in embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells, and progenitor cells in plants and mammals is ...

  19. Biological study in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schizophrenia is associated with enormous morbidity, mortality, personal disability, and social cost. Although considerable research on schizophrenia has been performed, the etiology of this disease has not been fully elucidated. In recent years, imaging and genetic technologies have been developed dramatically. Disturbances in glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We attempted an integrative review, of studies pertaining to recent advances of schizophrenia research with a focus on neuroimaging and genetic studies. Additionally, we present the preliminary findings of the clinical research in our outpatient unit, specialized for early intervention, at the University of Tokyo Hospital. (author)

  20. Biological cell morphology studies by scanning electrochemical microscopy imagery at constant height: Contrast enhancement using biocompatible conductive substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning ElectroChemical Microscopy (SECM) has emerged as a very attractive method to image living cells activity due to its non invasive character and to the possibility of concomitant electro- and physico-chemical measurements. One of the difficulties when studying morphology of living cells in real time by SECM, using classical constant height mode, is the low contrast of the obtained images due to the insulating character of both the cells and of the underlying substrates. We propose here a technical approach to improve the contrast of SECM imagery obtained at constant height in the feedback mode without the need of Faraday cage. To this aim, a piece of biocompatible transparent conductive substrate (indium tin oxide, ITO coated PET) was attached into the bottom of cell culture well over which the cells were cultured. The transparency of ITO is intended to perform simultaneously SECM and optical microscopy measurements. The concept was applied to the study of endothelial cells, EA.hy926, whose morphology may be altered via an antivascular treatment. Our results show that the differences in the conductivity of the substrate and of the cells enhance the contrast of SECM image in feedback mode at constant height using highly charged redox mediator. In addition, differences in cell morphology are significantly observed by SECM after cell treatment with Combretastatin A4 antivascular agent

  1. Use of Animation in Teaching Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Stith, Bradley J.

    2004-01-01

    To address the different learning styles of students, and because students can access animation from off-campus computers, the use of digital animation in teaching cell biology has become increasingly popular. Sample processes from cell biology that are more clearly presented in animation than in static illustrations are identified. The value of animation is evaluated on whether the process being taught involves motion, cellular location, or sequential order of numerous events. Computer progr...

  2. Comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma and normal lung fibroblast cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Rashmezad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted the attention of the scientific community in nanotechnology and biotechnology due to their extensive application in the area of material sciences and medicine. Nowadays, despite a various application of nanomaterial’s, there is a little information about their impact on human health. In this study, we investigated the comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma (AGS and normal lung fibroblast (MRC-5 cell lines. Methods: The current experimental study was carried out in Islamic Azad University, East Tehran Branch, from April to November 2014. The biological synthesis of nanosilver was obtained from Eucalyptus plant extract as a reducing agent. Further to more analysis, morphological study on size and shape of developed biological nanosilver was characterized by performing scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. AGS and MCR-5 cell lines were treated with various concentration of nanosilver for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Finally, the cell viability was evaluated by using MTT assay. Results: The results show that the nanosilver exerts a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on viability of cells. At 100µg/mL of commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver, the viability of AGS was reduced to 7.47±0.002% (P=0.002 and 3.65±0.01% (P=0.003 after 72 hours, respectively. In addition, the viability of MRC-5 at the same condition was reduced to 10.27±0.19% (P=0.001 and 9.16±1.53% (P=0.002, respectively. Conclusion: Based on a thorough literature surveys, the present study is the first research about biosynthesis of nanosilver using Eucalyptus plant extract. This eco-friendly and cost effective method can be used for large scale production of silver nanoparticle. In addition, based on the current obtained data, commercial and biological synthesized nanosilver can more inhibitory effect on cancer cells compared

  3. A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Y; Okigaki, T

    2001-02-01

    The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the

  4. Evolutionary cell biology: functional insight from "endless forms most beautiful".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Elisabeth; Zerr, Kelly; Tsaousis, Anastasios; Dorrell, Richard G; Dacks, Joel B

    2015-12-15

    In animal and fungal model organisms, the complexities of cell biology have been analyzed in exquisite detail and much is known about how these organisms function at the cellular level. However, the model organisms cell biologists generally use include only a tiny fraction of the true diversity of eukaryotic cellular forms. The divergent cellular processes observed in these more distant lineages are still largely unknown in the general scientific community. Despite the relative obscurity of these organisms, comparative studies of them across eukaryotic diversity have had profound implications for our understanding of fundamental cell biology in all species and have revealed the evolution and origins of previously observed cellular processes. In this Perspective, we will discuss the complexity of cell biology found across the eukaryotic tree, and three specific examples of where studies of divergent cell biology have altered our understanding of key functional aspects of mitochondria, plastids, and membrane trafficking. PMID:26668171

  5. The cell biology of T-dependent B cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Zeine, R

    1989-01-01

    The requirement that CD4+ helper T cells recognize antigen in association with class II Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) encoded molecules constrains T cells to activation through intercellular interaction. The cell biology of the interactions between CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells...

  6. Modeling human liver biology using stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Pingnan; Zhou, XiaoLing; Farnworth, Sarah; Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  7. Modeling Human Liver Biology Using Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind H Patel; Hay, David C.; Farnworth, Sarah L.; Pingnan Sun; Xiaoling Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-derived hepatocytes represent promising models to study human liver biology and disease. This concise review discusses the recent progresses in the field, with a focus on human liver disease, drug metabolism and virus infection.

  8. Analysis of single biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of elemental information from single cultured cells using nuclear microscopy is an area of great potential because it can provide both quantitative information on the uptake of elements by the cell, and also its elemental response to a wide variety of external stimuli. A recent technique based on nuclear physics technology enables the analysis of single cells down to the parts per million level to be achieved

  9. A multifunctional 3D co-culture system for studies of mammary tissue morphogenesis and stem cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Campbell

    Full Text Available Studies on the stem cell niche and the efficacy of cancer therapeutics require complex multicellular structures and interactions between different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM in three dimensional (3D space. We have engineered a 3D in vitro model of mammary gland that encompasses a defined, porous collagen/hyaluronic acid (HA scaffold forming a physiologically relevant foundation for epithelial and adipocyte co-culture. Polarized ductal and acinar structures form within this scaffold recapitulating normal tissue morphology in the absence of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM hydrogel. Furthermore, organoid developmental outcome can be controlled by the ratio of collagen to HA, with a higher HA concentration favouring acinar morphological development. Importantly, this culture system recapitulates the stem cell niche as primary mammary stem cells form complex organoids, emphasising the utility of this approach for developmental and tumorigenic studies using genetically altered animals or human biopsy material, and for screening cancer therapeutics for personalised medicine.

  10. A Multifunctional 3D Co-Culture System for Studies of Mammary Tissue Morphogenesis and Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Jonathan J.; Davidenko, Natalia; Caffarel, Maria M.; Cameron, Ruth E.; Watson, Christine J

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the stem cell niche and the efficacy of cancer therapeutics require complex multicellular structures and interactions between different cell types and extracellular matrix (ECM) in three dimensional (3D) space. We have engineered a 3D in vitro model of mammary gland that encompasses a defined, porous collagen/hyaluronic acid (HA) scaffold forming a physiologically relevant foundation for epithelial and adipocyte co-culture. Polarized ductal and acinar structures form within this sc...

  11. The cell biology of touch

    OpenAIRE

    Lumpkin, Ellen A.; Marshall, Kara L.; Nelson, Aislyn M.

    2010-01-01

    The sense of touch detects forces that bombard the body’s surface. In metazoans, an assortment of morphologically and functionally distinct mechanosensory cell types are tuned to selectively respond to diverse mechanical stimuli, such as vibration, stretch, and pressure. A comparative evolutionary approach across mechanosensory cell types and genetically tractable species is beginning to uncover the cellular logic of touch reception.

  12. Toward cell therapy using placenta-derived cells: Disease mechanisms, cell biology, preclinical studies, and regulatory aspects at the round table

    OpenAIRE

    Parolini, O.; Alviano, F; Bergwerf, I; Boraschi, D.; De Bari, C; De Waele, P; Dominici, M; Evangelista, M; Falk, W; Hennerbichler, S; Hess, D C; G. Lanzoni; B. Liu; Marongiu, F; Mc Guckin, C

    2010-01-01

    Among the many cell types which may prove useful to regenerative medicine, mounting evidence suggests that human term placenta-derived cells will join the list of significant contributors. In making new cell therapy-based strategies a clinical reality, it is fundamental that no a priori claims are made regarding which cell source is preferable for a particular therapeutic application. Rather, ongoing comparisons of the potentiality and characteristics of cells from different sources should be...

  13. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the…

  14. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    made recently in the field of stem cell biology, researchers now have improved tools to define novel populations of stem cells, examine them ex vivo using conditions that promote self-renewal, track them into recipients, and determine whether they can contribute to the repair of damaged tissues......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...

  15. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  16. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  17. Cell biology of mitotic recombination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisby, Michael; Rothstein, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides high-fidelity DNA repair throughout all domains of life. Live cell fluorescence microscopy offers the opportunity to image individual recombination events in real time providing insight into the in vivo biochemistry of the involved proteins and DNA molecules as w...

  18. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...

  19. Quantum fluctuations of mesoscopic biological cell at finite temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-qi; XU Xing-lei

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the quantization of mesoscopic biological cell equivalent circuit,we studied the quantum fluctuations of voltage and current of mesoscopic biological cell equivalent circuit as finite temperature by Bogoliuov transformation.The result shows that the quantum fluctuations of voltage and current not only relate with the parameters of equivalent circuit,temperature,but also decay with time.This result may have significant value on the design and application of the bio-electronic apparatus.

  20. Measuring cell identity in noisy biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Birnbaum, Kenneth D; Kussell, Edo

    2011-01-01

    Global gene expression measurements are increasingly obtained as a function of cell type, spatial position within a tissue and other biologically meaningful coordinates. Such data should enable quantitative analysis of the cell-type specificity of gene expression, but such analyses can often be confounded by the presence of noise. We introduce a specificity measure Spec that quantifies the information in a gene's complete expression profile regarding any given cell type, and an uncertainty me...

  1. The biology of circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, K; Speicher, M R

    2016-03-10

    Metastasis is a biologically complex process consisting of numerous stochastic events which may tremendously differ across various cancer types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells that are shed from primary tumors and metastatic deposits into the blood stream. CTCs bear a tremendous potential to improve our understanding of steps involved in the metastatic cascade, starting from intravasation of tumor cells into the circulation until the formation of clinically detectable metastasis. These efforts were propelled by novel high-resolution approaches to dissect the genomes and transcriptomes of CTCs. Furthermore, capturing of viable CTCs has paved the way for innovative culturing technologies to study fundamental characteristics of CTCs such as invasiveness, their kinetics and responses to selection barriers, such as given therapies. Hence the study of CTCs is not only instrumental as a basic research tool, but also allows the serial monitoring of tumor genotypes and may therefore provide predictive and prognostic biomarkers for clinicians. Here, we review how CTCs have contributed to significant insights into the metastatic process and how they may be utilized in clinical practice. PMID:26050619

  2. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  3. Tritium and Autoradiography in Cell Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because tritium emits low energy beta radiation, it is the most useful isotope for high resolution autoradiography. The relative abundance of hydrogen in most biologically important substances combined with a relatively short half-life allows the labelling of cellular components at specific activities that can often be detected at intracellular dimensions by the use of nuclear emulsions. The cells are attached to glass by various cytological procedures and after fixation a -wet or fluid photographic emulsion is applied directly to the cell surface and allowed to dry. After exposure the emulsion is developed while still in contact with the biological specimen. The preparation, an autoradiogram, when viewed under the light microscope shows the cellular structures and the location of the isotope with a resolution of less than 1 pm. In this way the distribution of tritium-labelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of individual chromosomes has been traced through two to three cell divisions. These studies were made possible by the preparation of tritiated thymidine which is a highly selective label for DNA and is quickly depleted when the cell is removed from the environment containing the labelled thymidine. The technique has yielded information on the mechanism of DNA replication, structure and reproduction of chromosomes, kinetics of cell division and more recently on the patterns and time sequence in the reproduction of different chromosomes in the same nucleus and the different parts of a single chromosome. All chromosomes studied so far contain two functional sub-units of DNA which are distributed in a semi-conservative fashion during reproduction. The two sub-units are unlike in some structural sense that limits the type of exchanges that may occur among the four sub-units of a reproducing chromosome. Present evidence on sequences leads to the hypothesis that chromosomes reproduce in a genetically controlled sequence. Further evidence on the patterns and mechanism of

  4. Human pluripotent stem cells: an emerging model in developmental biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zengrong; Huangfu, Danwei

    2013-01-01

    Developmental biology has long benefited from studies of classic model organisms. Recently, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, have emerged as a new model system that offers unique advantages for developmental studies. Here, we discuss how studies of hPSCs can complement classic approaches using model organisms, and how hPSCs can be used to recapitulate aspects of human embryonic development ‘in a dish’. We also...

  5. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  6. Wnt Signaling in Cancer Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa e Melo, Felipe; Vermeulen, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling is a common theme seen across many tumor types. Decades of research have unraveled the epigenetic and genetic alterations that result in elevated Wnt pathway activity. More recently, it has become apparent that Wnt signaling levels identify stem-like tumor cells that are responsible for fueling tumor growth. As therapeutic targeting of these tumor stem cells is an intense area of investigation, a concise understanding on how Wnt activity relates to cancer stem cell traits is needed. This review attempts at summarizing the intricacies between Wnt signaling and cancer stem cell biology with a special emphasis on colorectal cancer. PMID:27355964

  7. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  8. Countercurrent distribution of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is known that the addition of phosphate buffer to two polymer aqueous phase systems has a strong effect on the partition behavior of cells and other particles in such mixtures. The addition of sodium phosphate to aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) dextran phase systems causes a concentration-dependent shift in binodial on the phase diagram, progressively lowering the critical conditions for phase separation as the phosphate concentration is increased. Sodium chloride produces no significant shift in the critical point relative to the salt-free case. Accurate determinations of the phase diagram require measurements of the density of the phases; data is presented which allows this parameter to be calculated from polarimetric measurements of the dextran concentrations of both phases. Increasing polymer concentrations in the phase systems produce increasing preference of the phosphate for the dextran-rich bottom phase. Equilibrium dialysis experiments showed that poly(ethylene glycol) effectively rejected phosphate, and to a lesser extent chloride, but that dextran had little effect on the distribution of either salt. Increasing ionic strength via addition of 0.15 M NaCl to phase systems containing 0.01 M phosphate produces an increased concentration of phosphate ions in the bottom dextran-rich phase, the expected effect in this type of Donnan distribution.

  9. Biological cell as IR-optical resonator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cifra, Michal

    Recife : OSA, 2011, TuA2. ISBN 978-1-55752-903-9. ISSN 2162-2701. [Latin America Optics and Photonics Conference, LAOP 2010. Recife (BR), 27.09.2010-30.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/10/P454 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Biological cells * Eigen modes * Living cell Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. Towards systems thinking in cell biology education

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoeff, Roald Pieter

    2003-01-01

    Students are taught a large variety of life structures and processes at the cellular level. The concepts used to describe them are mainly drawn from the sub-cellular level, but this knowledge seems to be fragmentary if its integration at the cellular and organismic level remains undone. As a consequence, many students fail to acquire coherent conceptual understanding of the cell as a basic and functional unit of the organism. To enhance the coherence in students’ cell biological knowledge we ...

  11. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-01-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabricatio...

  12. A new stem cell biology: the continuum and microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Peter J; Dooner, Mark S; Goldberg, Laura R; Aliotta, Jason M; Pereira, Mandy; Amaral, Ashley; Del Tatto, Michael M; Hixson, Douglas C; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    The hierarchical models of stem cell biology have been based on work first demonstrating pluripotental spleen-colony-forming units, then showing progenitors with many differentiation fates assayed in in vitro culture; there followed the definition and separation of "stem cells" using monoclonal antibodies to surface epitopes and fluorescent-activated cell characterization and sorting (FACS). These studies led to an elegant model of stem cell biology in which primitive dormant G0 stem cells with tremendous proliferative and differentiative potential gave rise to progressively more restricted and differentiated classes of stem/progenitor cells, and finally differentiated marrow hematopoietic cells. The holy grail of hematopoietic stem cell biology became the purification of the stem cell and the clonal definition of this cell. Most recently, the long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC) has been believed to be a lineage negative sca-1+C-kit+ Flk3- and CD150+ cell. However, a series of studies over the past 10 years has indicated that murine marrow stem cells continuously change phenotype with cell cycle passage. We present here studies using tritiated thymidine suicide and pyronin-Hoechst FACS separations indicating that the murine hematopoietic stem cell is a cycling cell. This would indicate that the hematopoietic stem cell must be continuously changing in phenotype and, thus, could not be purified. The extant data indicate that murine marrow stem cells are continually transiting cell cycle and that the purification has discarded these cycling cells. Further in vivo BrdU studies indicate that the "quiescent" LT-HSC in G0 rapidly transits cycle. Further complexity of the marrow stem cell system is indicated by studies on cell-derived microvesicles showing that they enter marrow cells and transcriptionally alter their cell fate and phenotype. Thus, the stem cell model is a model of continuing changing potential tied to cell cycle and microvesicle

  13. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1949-11-16

    This paper discusses procedures for research on biological effects of radiation, using mouse tissue: activation trace analysis including methods and proceedures for handling samples before during and after irradiation; methods and procedures for ion exchange study; method of separation and recovery of copper, iron, zinc, cobalt, pubidium and cesium. Also included are studies of trace elements with radioactive isotopes: the distribution of cobalt 60, zinc 65, and copper 64 in the cytoplasm and nuclei of normal mice and those with tumors. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The chromaffin cell: paradigm in cell, developmental and growth factor biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Unsicker, K

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews the chromaffin cell in relation to studies that have elucidated fundamental phenomena in cell biology (the molecular anatomy of exocytosis) and developmental neuroscience (the principle of neuropoiesis in the development of the sympathoadrenal cell lineage). A final section addresses growth factor synthesis and storage in chromaffin cells and their implications for the treatment of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease.

  15. An electrostatic model for biological cell division

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Eshel

    2010-01-01

    Probably the most fundamental processes for biological systems is their ability to create themselves through the use of cell division and cell differentiation. In this work a simple physical model is proposed for biological cell division. The model consists of a positive ionic gradient across the cell membrane, and concentration of charge at the nodes of the spindle and on the chromosomes. A simple calculation, based on Coulomb's Law, shows that under such circumstances a chromosome will tend to break up to its constituent chromatids and that the chromatids will be separated by a distance that is an order of thirty percent of the distance between the spindle nodes. Further repulsion between the nodes will tend to stretch the cell and eventually break the cell membrane between the separated chromatids, leading to cell division. The importance of this work is in continuing the understanding of the electromagnetic basis of cell division and providing it with an analytical model. A central implication of this and...

  16. Cell Science and Cell Biology Research at MSFC: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The common theme of these research programs is that they investigate regulation of gene expression in cells, and ultimately gene expression is controlled by the macromolecular interactions between regulatory proteins and DNA. The NASA Critical Path Roadmap identifies Muscle Alterations and Atrophy and Radiation Effects as Very Serious Risks and Severe Risks, respectively, in long term space flights. The specific problem addressed by Dr. Young's research ("Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Muscle Cell Signaling") is that skeletal muscle loss in space cannot be prevented by vigorous exercise. Aerobic skeletal muscles (i.e., red muscles) undergo the most extensive atrophy during long-term space flight. Of the many different potential avenues for preventing muscle atrophy, Dr. Young has chosen to study the beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) pathway. The reason for this choice is that a family of compounds called betaAR agonists will preferentially cause an increase in muscle mass of aerobic muscles (i.e., red muscle) in animals, potentially providing a specific pharmacological solution to muscle loss in microgravity. In addition, muscle atrophy is a widespread medical problem in neuromuscular diseases, spinal cord injury, lack of exercise, aging, and any disease requiring prolonged bedridden status. Skeletal muscle cells in cell culture are utilized as a model system to study this problem. Dr. Richmond's research ("Radiation & Cancer Biology of Mammary Cells in Culture") is directed toward developing a laboratory model for use in risk assessment of cancer caused by space radiation. This research is unique because a human model will be developed utilizing human mammary cells that are highly susceptible to tumor development. This approach is preferential over using animal cells because of problems in comparing radiation-induced cancers between humans and animals.

  17. Specificity of pH sensitive Tc(V)-DMS for acidophilic osteoclastic bone cells: biological and cellular studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive imaging method for detecting skeletal metastases but the low specificity has decreased its oncological use. Bone scintigraphy has relied on Tc-bisphosphonate (Tc-BP) agents with affinity for the mineral phase. However, bio-functional Tc(V)-DMS agent, sensitive to acid pH of tumoral tissue has shown osteotrophic properties, in adult bone pathologies. Objectives: Basis for understanding the osteotropic character of the pH sensitive Tc(V)-DMS in bone metastasis. Methods: Studies on differential Tc(V)-DMS and Tc-BP accumulation response were carried out by acidophilic osteoclast (OC) and basophilic osteoblast (OB) cells subjected to variable pH incubation media (HEPES, 370C) and by bone tissue of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) bearing mice, exposed to systemic NH4Cl or glucose mediated acidification (GmAc). Agents injected into tail vein and bone radioactivity analyzed. Bone metabolism markers measured in blood and urine (pH, Pi, Ca , Alp, Dpd). Acid-base regulation effect at cellular level, analyzed by using bafilomycin, amiloride, DIDS and acetazolamide inhibitors. Results: Lack of any OB response to acidification or alkalinization detected with either Tc(V)-DMS or Tc-BP agent. However, OC cells were highly sensitivity to acidification only in the presence of Tc(V)-DMS showing great radioactivity increase as the pH was lowered. This specificity also detected, in EAT bearing mice; increased bone tissue accumulation in response to systemic acidification was clearly detected upon administration of Tc(V)-DMS only under GmAc, an experimental model showing high urine excretion of deoxypyridinoline, a bone resorption marker. Conclusion: Peculiarity of multi nucleated OC cells sensitive to the environment pH and their activation in acid pH has been well known. Tc-BP agent showed lack of affinity for OC or OB cells. Specific affinity of OC cells for Tc(V)-DMS and its increased bone accumulation with the systemic pH lowering reflect the p

  18. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D2) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABAA receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D2) and the ion-channel type (GABAA). (J.P.N.)

  19. Long-term depression: a cell biological view

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Morgan; Ertürk, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular mechanisms of long-term depression (LTD) suggest a crucial role for the signalling pathways of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the weakening and elimination of synapses and dendritic spines. With this backdrop, we suggest that LTD can be considered as the electrophysiological aspect of a larger cell biological programme of synapse involution, which uses localized apoptotic mechanisms to sculpt synapses and circuits without causing cell death.

  20. Evaluation of the Redesign of an Undergraduate Cell Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Laura April; Harris, dik; Schmid, Richard F.; Vogel, Jackie; Western, Tamara; Harrison, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a case study of the evaluation of a redesigned and redeveloped laboratory-based cell biology course. The course was a compulsory element of the biology program, but the laboratory had become outdated and was inadequately equipped. With the support of a faculty-based teaching improvement project, the teaching team redesigned the course and re-equipped the laboratory, using a more learner-centered, constructivist approach. The focus of the article is on the project-supported...

  1. The Kynurenine Pathway in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Simon P; Guillemin, Gilles J; Bruce J Brew

    2013-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway (KP) is the main catabolic pathway of the essential amino acid tryptophan. The KP has been identified to play a critical role in regulating immune responses in a variety of experimental settings. It is also known to be involved in several neuroinflammatory diseases including Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. This review considers the current understanding of the role of the KP in stem cell biology. Both of these fundamental ar...

  2. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Daniel D.; Villarreal, Fernando D.; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the...

  3. Biological cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertz, Frederick; Khitun, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We report a manipulation of biological cells (erythrocytes) by magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. The experiment was accomplished on the top of a micro-electromagnet consisting of two magnetic field generating contours. An electric current flowing through the contour(s) produces a non-uniform magnetic field, which is about 1.4 mT/μm in strength at 100 mA current in the vicinity of the current-carrying wire. In responses to the magnetic field, magnetic nanoparticles move towards the systems energy minima. In turn, magnetic nanoparticles drag biological cells in the same direction. We present experimental data showing cell manipulation through the control of electric current. This technique allows us to capture and move cells located in the vicinity (10-20 microns) of the current-carrying wires. One of the most interesting results shows a periodic motion of erythrocytes between the two conducting contours, whose frequency is controlled by an electric circuit. The obtained results demonstrate the feasibility of non-destructive cell manipulation by magnetic nanoparticles with micrometer-scale precision.

  4. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G; Brewster, Robert C; Phillips, Rob

    2016-04-18

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features as a means to enable their theoretical description. Here, synthetic biology goes beyond previous efforts to engineer nature and becomes a tool to bend nature to understand it. We discuss various recent and classic experiments featuring applications of this synthetic approach to the elucidation of problems ranging from bacteriophage infection, to transcriptional regulation in bacteria and in developing embryos, to evolution. In all of these examples, synthetic biology provides the opportunity to turn cells into the equivalent of a test tube, where biological phenomena can be reconstituted and our theoretical understanding put to test with the same ease that these same phenomena can be studied in the in vitro setting. PMID:26952708

  5. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  6. Electrical Modeling and Impedance Analysis of Biological Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sree V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that the external electric field intensity has significant effects on the biological systems. The applied electric field intensity changes the electrical behavior of the cell systems. The impact of electric field intensity on the cell systems should be studied properly to optimize the electric field treatments of biological systems. Based on the cell dimensions and its dielectric properties, an electrical equivalent circuit for an endosperm cell in rice was developed and its total impedance and capacitance were verified with measurement results. The variations of impedance and conductance with respect to applied impulse voltage at different frequencies were plotted. This impedance analysis method can be used to determine the optimum voltage level for electric field treatment and also to determine the cell rupture due to electric field applications.

  7. Teaching Cell and Molecular Biology for Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sible, Jill C.; Wilhelm, Dayna E.; Lederman, Muriel

    2006-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, including cell biology, are characterized by the "leaky pipeline" syndrome in which, over time, women leave the discipline. The pipeline itself and the pond into which it empties may not be neutral. Explicating invisible norms, attitudes, and practices by integrating social studies of…

  8. Imaging cell biology in live animals: Ready for prime time

    OpenAIRE

    Weigert, Roberto; Porat-Shliom, Natalie; Amornphimoltham, Panomwat

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy is one of the main tools used to image subcellular structures in living cells. Yet for decades it has been applied primarily to in vitro model systems. Thanks to the most recent advancements in intravital microscopy, this approach has finally been extended to live rodents. This represents a major breakthrough that will provide unprecedented new opportunities to study mammalian cell biology in vivo and has already provided new insight in the fields of neurobi...

  9. Systems Biology for Organotypic Cell Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grego, Sonia [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dougherty, Edward R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Alexander, Francis J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Auerbach, Scott S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Berridge, Brian R. [GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bittner, Michael L. [Translational Genomics Research Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Casey, Warren [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cooley, Philip C. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Dash, Ajit [HemoShear Therapeutics, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Ferguson, Stephen S. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fennell, Timothy R. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hawkins, Brian T. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Hickey, Anthony J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kleensang, Andre [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing; Liebman, Michael N. [IPQ Analytics, Kennett Square, PA (United States); Martin, Florian [Phillip Morris International, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Maull, Elizabeth A. [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Paragas, Jason [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Qiao, Guilin [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Ft. Belvoir, VA (United States); Ramaiahgari, Sreenivasa [National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Sumner, Susan J. [RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Yoon, Miyoung [The Hamner Inst. for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-08-04

    Translating in vitro biological data into actionable information related to human health holds the potential to improve disease treatment and risk assessment of chemical exposures. While genomics has identified regulatory pathways at the cellular level, translation to the organism level requires a multiscale approach accounting for intra-cellular regulation, inter-cellular interaction, and tissue/organ-level effects. Tissue-level effects can now be probed in vitro thanks to recently developed systems of three-dimensional (3D), multicellular, “organotypic” cell cultures, which mimic functional responses of living tissue. However, there remains a knowledge gap regarding interactions across different biological scales, complicating accurate prediction of health outcomes from molecular/genomic data and tissue responses. Systems biology aims at mathematical modeling of complex, non-linear biological systems. We propose to apply a systems biology approach to achieve a computational representation of tissue-level physiological responses by integrating empirical data derived from organotypic culture systems with computational models of intracellular pathways to better predict human responses. Successful implementation of this integrated approach will provide a powerful tool for faster, more accurate and cost-effective screening of potential toxicants and therapeutics. On September 11, 2015, an interdisciplinary group of scientists, engineers, and clinicians gathered for a workshop in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, to discuss this ambitious goal. Participants represented laboratory-based and computational modeling approaches to pharmacology and toxicology, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, government, non-profits, and academia. Discussions focused on identifying critical system perturbations to model, the computational tools required, and the experimental approaches best suited to generating key data. This consensus report summarizes the discussions held.

  10. Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells from Animals I. Basic Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Michael V. Dodson, Gary J. Hausman, LeLuo Guan, Min Du, Theodore P. Rasmussen, Sylvia P. Poulos, Priya Mir, Werner G. Bergen, Melinda E. Fernyhough, Douglas C. McFarland, Robert P. Rhoads, Beatrice Soret, James M. Reecy, Sandra G. Velleman, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to grea...

  11. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. basic cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, Michael V.; Hausman, Gary J.; Guan, Leluo; Du, Min; Rasmussen, Theodore P.; Poulos, Sylvia P; Mir, Priya; Bergen, Werner G.; Fernyhough, Melinda E.; McFarland, Douglas C.; Rhoads, Robert P.; Soret Lafraya, Beatriz; Reecy, James M.; Velleman, Sandra G; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals are of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding of muscle stem cell biology and function is essential for developing technologies and strategies to augment the metabolic efficiency and muscle hypertrophy of growing animals potentially leading to grea...

  12. Stem cells - biological update and cell therapy progress

    OpenAIRE

    GIRLOVANU, MIHAI; Susman, Sergiu; Soritau, Olga; RUS-CIUCA, DAN; MELINCOVICI, CARMEN; CONSTANTIN, ANNE-MARIE; Carmen Mihaela MIHU

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the advances in stem cell research have suggested that the human body may have a higher plasticity than it was originally expected. Until now, four categories of stem cells were isolated and cultured in vivo: embryonic stem cells, fetal stem cells, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Although multiple studies were published, several issues concerning the stem cells are still debated, such as: the molecular mechanisms of differentiation, the methods t...

  13. Study on lethal effect on cells by determination of 10B in biological tissues and (n, α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the macroscopic distribution in tissues and microscopic distribution in cells of 10B administrated to patients, which are important in thermal neutron capture therapy, it is difficult to say that the method of quantitative determination has been established. The authors tried some experiments by solid state track detection for the determination. That is, the trial determinations of boron in cells by solution method (wet process), filter paper method (dry process) and the method using an electron microscope are reported. If the maximum thermal neutron fluence available is assumed to be 1014/cm2 and the minimum detectable surface density of etch pits is 104/cm2, the detection limit of 10B concentration is estimated as about 10-2 μg/ml either in the solution method or in the filter paper method. In the quantitative determination of boron distribution at cell level with an electron microscope, a sample of tissue was covered with a plastic thin film, etched after the irradiation with thermal neutrons, and the tissue and the thin film were simultaneously observed with the transmission electron microscope. The thin film thickness of about 0.1 μm is suitable for the sliced tissue of about 0.1 μm thick. The existence of fast neutrons at the time of thermal neutron irradiation causes the generation of etch pits by recoiled particles in celluloid, and increases background counts, while γ-dose above 106 rad leads to the deterioration of celluloid composition. Some automatic methods of counting etch pits under consideration are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhen eQiao; Marc eLibault

    2013-01-01

    Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i....

  15. Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures,...

  16. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. PMID:27278647

  17. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  18. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  19. 人牙周膜干细胞的生物学活性研究%Study on Biological Activity of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建峰; 毕文超; 张晨; 饶国洲; 李昂

    2013-01-01

    目的体外分离培养、鉴定人牙周膜干细胞(PDLSCs)并探讨其生物学活性的研究.方法应用酶解组织块法分离培养PDLSCs,应用相差显微镜观察细胞表型变化;HE染色及免疫组化染色进行形态学检测;流式细胞术检测细胞表面CD29,CD44,CD105,CD34,CD45和HLA-DR的表达;诱导成骨细胞、成脂肪细胞及成神经元分化,并进行特异性染色分析,扫描电镜观察,检测PDLSCs生物学活性.结果 体外成功分离培养人PDLSCs,HE染色显示细胞均一性好;角蛋白阴性,波形蛋白和CD44阳性表达;流式细胞仪结果显示PDLSCs表面高表达CD29(92.47%),CD44(96.42%)和CD105(96.40%);CD34,CD45和HLA-DR阴性表达;诱导成骨结果显示PDLSCs有较强的成骨活性,茜素红染色诱导组有明显的矿化结节形成,ALP染色阳性;成脂诱导PDLSCs有较强的成脂活性,油红"O"脂肪染色阳性;成神经元诱导后NSE免疫组化染色呈阳性.结论 PDLSCs在体外具有多向分化的潜能.%Objective To isolate and culture in vitro,the identification of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and to explore its biological activity. Methods Application of enzymatic tissue explant isolated and cultured in vitro the human periodontal ligament stem cells,in primary culture process by phase contrast microscopy to observe the changes of cell phenotype. Application HE staining and immunohistochemical study on morphological detection. The cell surfaceantigens such as CD29,CD44,CD105 and CD34,CD45 and HLA-DR were detected by flow cytometry. Induced PDLSCs into osteo-genic cells,into fat cells and into neuronal differentiation,and through the specific dyeing analysis,scanning electron microscopy (sem) to detect the PDLSCs biological activities. Results In vitro successfully isolated and cultured human periodontal ligament stem cells, HE staining showed that cell uniformity; negative expression of keratin and vimentin positive expression, CD44-positive expression. Flow

  20. Cell Wall Biology: Perspectives from Cell Wall Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kieran J.D.Lee; Susan E.Marcus; J.Paul Knox

    2011-01-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth,are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon,and,in addition,impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose,hemicelluloses,and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants,polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  1. Biological characteristics of a novel giant cell tumor cell line derived from spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Su; Yang, Cheng; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone(GCTB) is a special bone tumor for it consists of various cell types, and its biological characteristics is different from common benign or malignant neoplasm. In the present study, we report the biological features of a primary Asian GCTB cell line named GCTB28. We analyzed extensive properties of the GCTB28 cells including morphological observations, growth, cell cycle, karyotype, proliferation, proteins expression, surface biomarker verification, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that the stromal cells of GCTB were endowed with self-renewal capacity and played dominant roles in GCTB development. Moreover, we confirmed that GCTB cells can be CD33(-)CD14(-) phenotype which was not in accord with previous study. This study provides an in vitro model system to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and molecular characteristics of GCTB and also provides a useful tool for researching the therapeutic targeting of GCTB. PMID:26801673

  2. Molecular biologic study about the non-small cell lung carcinoma (2) : p53 gene alteration in non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this research was to identify of the p53 and 3p gene alteration in non-small cell lung cancer patients residing in Korea. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between the p53 and 3p gene alterations and the clinicopathologic results of lung cancer patients. And we have investigated the role of PCR-LOH in analyzing tumor samples for LOH of defined chromosomal loci. We have used the 40 samples obtained from the lung cancer patients who were diagnosed and operated curatively at Korea Cancer Center Hospital. We have isolated the high molecular weight. DNA from the tumors and normal tissues. And we have amplified the DNA with PCR method and used the microsatellite assay method to detect the altered p53 and 3p gene. The conclusions were as follow: 1) The 3p gene alteration was observed in 9/39 (23.1%) and p53 gene alteration was observed in 15/40 (37.5%) of resected non-small cell lung cancer. 2) There was no correlations between the 3p or p53 gene alterations and prognosis of patients, but further study is necessary. 3) PCR-LOH is a very useful tool for analyzing small amount of tumor samples for loss of heterozygosity of defined chromosomal loci. (author). 10 refs

  3. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.J. Bernink

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I descr

  4. Experimental models to study cholangiocyte biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pamela S. Tietz; Xian-Ming Chen; Ai-Yu Gong; Robert C. Huebert; Anatoliy Masyuk; Tatyana Masyuk; Patrick L. Splinter; Nicholas F. LaRusso

    2002-01-01

    Cholangiocytes-the epithelial cells which line the bileducts-are increasingly recognized as importanttransporting epithelia actively involved in the absorptionand secretion of water, ions, and solutes. Thisrecognition is due in part to the recent development ofnew experimental models. New biologic concepts haveemerged including the identification and topography ofreceptors and flux proteins on the apical and/orbasolateral membrane which are involved in the molecularmechanisms of ductal bile secretion. Individually isolatedand/or perfused bile duct units from livers of rats andmice serve as new, physiologically relevant in vitromodels to study cholangiocyte transport. Biliary treedimensions and novel insights into anatomic remodeling ofproliferating bile ducts have emerged from three-dimensional reconstruction using CT scanning andsophisticated software. Moreover, new pathologicconcepts have arisen regarding the interaction ofcholangiocytes with pathogens such as Cryptosporidiumparvum. These concepts and associated methodologiesmay provide the framework to develop new therapies for the cholangiopathies, a group of important hepatobiliarydiseases in which cholangiocytes are the target cell.Tietz PS, Chen XM, Gong AY, Huebert RC, Masyuk A, MasyukT, Splinter PL, LaRusso NF. Experimental models to studycoholangiocyte biology.

  5. Mesenchymal stem cells: cell biology and potential use in therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Kristiansen, Malthe; Abdallah, Basem M

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are clonogenic, non-haematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages e.g. neuronal-like cells. Several methods...... are currently available for isolation of the mesenchymal stem cells based on their physical and immunological characteristics. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells are among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Recent...... studies have demonstrated that the life span of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro can be extended by increasing the levels of telomerase expression in the cells and thus allowing culture of large number of cells needed for therapy. In addition, it has been shown that it is possible to culture the cells...

  6. Fluid models and simulations of biological cell phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamics of coated droplets are examined within the context of biofluids. Of specific interest is the manner in which the shape of a droplet, the motion within it as well as that of aggregates of droplets can be controlled by the modulation of surface properties and the extent to which such fluid phenomena are an intrinsic part of cellular processes. From the standpoint of biology, an objective is to elucidate some of the general dynamical features that affect the disposition of an entire cell, cell colonies and tissues. Conventionally averaged field variables of continuum mechanics are used to describe the overall global effects which result from the myriad of small scale molecular interactions. An attempt is made to establish cause and effect relationships from correct dynamical laws of motion rather than by what may have been unnecessary invocation of metabolic or life processes. Several topics are discussed where there are strong analogies droplets and cells including: encapsulated droplets/cell membranes; droplet shape/cell shape; adhesion and spread of a droplet/cell motility and adhesion; and oams and multiphase flows/cell aggregates and tissues. Evidence is presented to show that certain concepts of continuum theory such as suface tension, surface free energy, contact angle, bending moments, etc. are relevant and applicable to the study of cell biology.

  7. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  8. 人乳腺癌细胞微球体生物学特性研究%Study on the biological characteristics of human breast cancer cell mammospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范原铭; 侯婧; 董宁; 王强; 顾敏

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究人乳腺癌细胞微球体(MSs)的生物学特性,建立乳腺癌干细胞实验模型。方法无血清悬浮培养人乳腺癌MCF‐7细胞(MCF‐7组),并获取MSs(MSs组)。利用细胞划痕实验、transwell实验及动物成瘤实验检测MSs在细胞迁移、侵袭性生长及体外成瘤等方面的生物学特性。结果细胞划痕实验提示:MSs组划痕带可在48 h后愈合,而MCF‐7组划痕带在48 h后未能愈合;transwell实验提示MSs组中可见到(76.24±0.35)个细胞通过生物膜,而MCF‐7细胞组中为(17.38±0.18)个(P<0.05);动物成瘤实验提示:MSs在成瘤速度及移植瘤体积方面均强于MCF‐7细胞。结论 MSs具有极强的迁移、侵袭性生长及动物体内成瘤的能力,可作为实验模型应用于乳腺癌干细胞相关研究中。%Objective To study the biological characteristics of the human breast cancer cell mammospheres (MSs) ,and con‐struct breast cancer stem cell experiment model .Methods MCF‐7 cells were cultured in the serum‐free media supplemented with growth factors (the MCF‐7 group) ,and the MSs was collected (the MSs group) .The migration ,invasive and animal tumor forma‐tion abilities of MSs were detected by wound healing ,transwell invasive assay and animal tumor formation test .Results The wound line of MSs healed after 48 hours ,but the line of MCF‐7cells could not heal after 48 h .The number of the cells going through the membrane in MSs group was (76 .24 ± 0 .35) ,and the number in MCF‐7cells was (17 .38 ± 0 .18)(P<0 .05) .MSs had stronger ani‐mal tumor formation ability than MCF‐7 cells .Conclusion MSs have stronger abilities in migration ,invasive and animal tumor for‐mation ,and could be used in the studies of breast cancer stem cell as experimental model .

  9. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI SEL PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Muriati, St

    2015-01-01

    Learning in UIN Alauddin is still limited knowledge to students, while, one mission to improve the quality of educators Biology in terms of belief, moral and scientific attitudes have not been implemented. This is caused by a lack of learning resources that connects Biology Science and its relation to scientific Qur'an. Cell Biology as subjects that reveal about the phenomenon of the smallest unit of life, it can be studied with scientific Qur'an. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teachin...

  10. The Cell Biology of TRIM5α

    OpenAIRE

    Lukic, Zana; Campbell, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)–containing proteins are involved in many cellular functions such as cell signaling, apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immune modulation. TRIM5 proteins, including TRIM5α and TRIM-Cyp, are known to possess antiretroviral activity against many different retroviruses. Besides being retroviral restriction factors, TRIM5 proteins participate in other cellular functions that have recently emerged in the study of TRIM5α. In this review, we discuss properties of TRIM5α ...

  11. Nuclear biological studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the occasion of a colloquium on radiobiological research programmes, a number of documents dealing with French accomplishments and projects in this field were collected together. We felt that it would be useful to assemble these papers in one report; although they are brief and leave gaps to be filled in, they provide certain data, give an overall view of the situation, and can also suggest a rough plan for the general policy to adopt in the field of 'nuclear' biological research; i.e. research based on the nuclear tracer method or devoted to the action of ionising radiations. (author)

  12. Cell Biology and Pathology of Podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greka, Anna; Mundel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    As an integral member of the filtration barrier in the kidney glomerulus, the podocyte is in a unique geographical position: It is exposed to chemical signals from the urinary space (Bowman’s capsule), it receives and transmits chemical and mechanical signals to/from the glomerular basement membrane upon which it elaborates, and it receives chemical and mechanical signals from the vascular space with which it also communicates. As with every cell, the ability of the podocyte to receive signals from the surrounding environment and to translate them to the intracellular milieu is dependent largely on molecules residing on the cell membrane. These molecules are the first-line soldiers in the ongoing battle to sense the environment, to respond to friendly signals, and to defend against injurious foes. In this review, we take a membrane biologist’s view of the podocyte, examining the many membrane receptors, channels, and other signaling molecules that have been implicated in podocyte biology. Although we attempt to be comprehensive, our goal is not to capture every membrane-mediated pathway but rather to emphasize that this approach may be fruitful in understanding the podocyte and its unique properties. PMID:22054238

  13. Photonic engineering for biological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fei

    My dissertation focuses on designing and developing prototypes of optical tools in the laboratory that can facilitate practical medical therapies. More specifically, this dissertation examines two novel biophotonic techniques: (1) a frequency multiplexed confocal microscope with the potential to provide rational therapy of congestive heart failure (CHF), and (2) the "optical comb" with the potential to improve results of retina reattachment surgery and accelerate post surgical recovery. Next, I will discuss the background, design and initial experimental results of each study individually. Part I: The Frequency Multiplexed Confocal Microscope. To overcome the limitations of existing confocal microscope technology, this dissertation proposes a non-scanning, real-time, high resolution technique (a multi-point frequency multiplexed confocal microscope) to measure 3-D intracellular calcium ion concentration in a living cardiac myocyte. This method can be also applied to measure the intracellular sodium ion concentration, or other ions in which high quantum-yield fluorescent probes are available. The novelty of the proposed research lies in the introduction of carrier frequency multiplexing techniques which can differentiate fluorescence emitted at different spatial locations in cardiac myocyte by their modulated frequency. It therefore opens the possibility to visualize the transient dynamics of intracellular dynamics at multiple locations in cells simultaneously, which will shine a new light on our understanding of CHF. The procedure for frequency multiplexing proposed is described below. Multiple incident laser beams are focused onto different locations in an isolated rat cardiac myocyte with each beam modulated at a different carrier frequency. The fluorescence emission at each location therefore bears the same modulated frequency as the stimulation laser beam. Each fluorescence signal is sent to the photo multiplier tube (PMT) after being spatially filtered by a

  14. Synthetic biology outside the cell: linking computational tools to cell-free systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel D; Villarreal, Fernando D; Wu, Fan; Tan, Cheemeng

    2014-01-01

    As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo synthetic biological systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free synthetic systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems. PMID:25538941

  15. Cell-free biology: exploiting the interface between synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, D. Calvin; Jewett, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Just as synthetic organic chemistry once revolutionized the ability of chemists to build molecules (including those that did not exist in nature) following a basic set of design rules, cell-free synthetic biology is beginning to provide an improved toolbox and faster process for not only harnessing but also expanding the chemistry of life. At the interface between chemistry and biology, research in cell-free synthetic systems is proceeding in two different directions: using synthetic biology ...

  16. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenberg Scott L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.. A number of deterministic, probabilistic, and statistical learning models are used to understand sophisticated cellular behaviors such as protein expression during cellular differentiation and the activity of signaling networks. However, many of these models are bimodal i.e., they only consider row-column relationships. In contrast, multiway modeling techniques (also known as tensor models can analyze multimodal data, which capture much more information about complex behaviors such as cell differentiation. In particular, tensors can be very powerful tools for modeling the dynamic activity of biological networks over time. Here, we review the application of systems biology to stem cells and illustrate application of tensor analysis to model collagen-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Results We applied Tucker1, Tucker3, and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC models to identify protein/gene expression patterns during extracellular matrix-induced osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. In one case, we organized our data into a tensor of type protein/gene locus link × gene ontology category × osteogenic stimulant, and found that our cells expressed two distinct, stimulus-dependent sets of functionally related genes as they underwent osteogenic differentiation. In a second case, we organized DNA microarray data in a three-way tensor of gene IDs × osteogenic stimulus × replicates, and found that application of tensile strain to a

  17. Genome Annotation in a Community College Cell Biology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, C. Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Biology Department at Salt Lake Community College has used the IMG-ACT toolbox to introduce a genome mapping and annotation exercise into the laboratory portion of its Cell Biology course. This project provides students with an authentic inquiry-based learning experience while introducing them to computational biology and contemporary learning…

  18. Histamine modifies malignant biological behaviour in irradiated breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDA MB 231, a metastatic breast cancer cell line, expresses the four known types of histamine receptors (HAR), which differentially regulate cell proliferation. HA also exerts a radiosensitizing effect when is added to MDA MB 231 cells before irradiation in a way related to the elevation of H2O2 levels. However, ionizing radiation (IR) has also been demonstrated to affect malignant biological behaviour depending upon cell type and irradiation characteristics. The present study was conducted to investigate the action of HA and IR on two events involved in metastatic capacity such as the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cell motility. HA decreased MMP2 and MMP9 expression assessed by RT-PCR and cytochemistry as well enzymatic activity determined by zimography. This effect was mimicked by H2 agonists, while an opposite action was mainly observed when H4 agonists were employed. Cell motility, evaluated by wound healing assay, was also distinctly modulated through HAR. It was significantly augmented via H4R and to a lesser extent via H1R and H3R, though diminished through H2R. 2 Gy irradiated cells showed an enhanced MMP2 and MMP9 activity and cell motility compared to control cells. However, this effect was counteracted by HA. Results suggest that HA treatment could improve radiotherapy efficacy regarding the potential development of metastases. (authors)

  19. The Impact of Epigenetics on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Yusuf; Galderisi, Umberto

    2016-11-01

    Changes in epigenetic marks are known to be important regulatory factors in stem cell fate determination and differentiation. In the past years, the investigation of the epigenetic regulation of stem cell biology has largely focused on embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Contrarily, less is known about the epigenetic control of gene expression during differentiation of adult stem cells (AdSCs). Among AdSCs, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the most investigated stem cell population because of their enormous potential for therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In this review, we analyze the main studies addressing the epigenetic changes in MSC landscape during in vitro cultivation and replicative senescence, as well as follow osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte differentiation. In these studies, histone acetylation, DNA methylation, and miRNA expression are among the most investigated phenomena. We describe also epigenetic changes that are associated with in vitro MSC trans-differentiation. Although at the at initial stage, the epigenetics of MSCs promise to have profound implications for stem cell basic and applied research. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2393-2401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26960183

  20. A Diagnostic Assessment for Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia; Wood, William B.; Martin, Jennifer M.; Guild, Nancy A.; Vicens, Quentin; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed and validated a tool for assessing understanding of a selection of fundamental concepts and basic knowledge in undergraduate introductory molecular and cell biology, focusing on areas in which students often have misconceptions. This multiple-choice Introductory Molecular and Cell Biology Assessment (IMCA) instrument is designed…

  1. Biological effect of carbon beams on cultured human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed to determine the biological effect of carbon beams on 13 human tumor cells, in comparison with 200 KVp X-rays. Carbon beams were generated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron. The RBE (relative biological effectiveness) values were distributed from 1.46 to 2.20 for LET of 20 keV/μm, and 2.29-3.54 for 80 keV/μm. The RBEs were increased in all cell lines as the LET of carbon beams was increased from 20 to 80 keV/μm. There was no significant difference in radiosensitivity between cells from adenocarcinoma and those from squamous cell carcinoma. The relationship between the radiosensitivity of cells to X-rays and RBE was analyzed, but no significant correlation was suggested. Several survival curves of 20-40 keV/μm carbon beam irradiation showed the initial shoulders and the recovery ratios between two split doses were determined. Recovery was observed for LET of 2O keV/μm but not for that of 40 keV/μm. Furthermore, recovery ratios were 1.0-1.8, smaller than those for X-rays (1.5-2.4). (author)

  2. Alternative Educational Approach to Introducing Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilane T. Silva

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available First year medical students usually have a great  difficulty to visualize a three  dimensional  cell. They also present a series of misconceptions  related to cell biology that seems to begin in the high school. An alternative educational approach  is being tested  with high school students in order to minimize these misconceptions,  and also increase the pupils interest in the subject.  The approach  combines theoretical classes with experimental activities, the  use of models, games, discussions,  and oral presentations by the students at the end of the educational module.  In short,  the experimental activities  are low-cost, easy-to-follow experiments that basically show a few properties  of the living cells, such as membrane transport, enzyme action  as well as the  importance of the  membrane  integrity for life.  A card  game relates  the  functions  of the organnels  by matching  pairs  of cards.  This  game has one card without a matching  pair  that explains  apoptosis;  the  player  that ends up with  this  card  loses the game.   The pupils learn while they play the game.  A 3D model of the membrane  shows the major components  and allows the observation of membrane  assimetry.   After comparing  some panels of photomicrographs of cells and organnels, the students are presented  to a 3D model of a cell as the teacher  tries to relate the panels  with  a three  dimensional  visualization.  They  also have the  opportunity to present their  own models.  The opinion of high school teachers  about  the different activities  will be shown.  The aim of this educational module is to promote  learning while different abilities, according to Gardners  Multiple Intelligences  Theory,  such as the visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and naturalistic are being developed.  We believe that the diversity  of approaches  is one of the most important

  3. Comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma and normal lung fibroblast cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Rashmezad; Elahe Ali Asgary; Farzaneh Tafvizi; Seyed Ataollah Sadat Shandiz; Amir Mirzaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has attracted the attention of the scientific community in nanotechnology and biotechnology due to their extensive application in the area of material sciences and medicine. Nowadays, despite a various application of nanomaterial’s, there is a little information about their impact on human health. In this study, we investigated the comparative study on cytotoxicity effect of biological and commercial synthesized nanosilver on human gastric carcinoma (...

  4. Systems biology studies of Aspergilli - from sequence to science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2008-01-01

    The recent dawn of the new biological mindset called systems biology has put forth a new way of analyzing and understanding biology. Carried by the notion that no element of a cell is an island, systems biology takes a holistic approach, and attempts to understand life as systems that have co...... transcriptomic to mention a few. The recent publication of the genome sequences of several filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus species (Aspergilli), has, along with the accumulation of years of reductionist studies, been a catalyst for the application of systems biology to this interesting group of fungi. Among...... the genome sequenced Aspergilli are a known human pathogen (Aspergillus fumigatus), a model organism for cellular mechanisms (Aspergillus nidulans) and two industrial workhorses (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae). In the presented work, new analytical and computational tools have been designed...

  5. Natural Killer Cells: Biology and Clinical Use in Cancer Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William H. D. Hallett; William J. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have the ability to mediate both bone marrow rejection and promote engraftment, as well as the ability to elicit potent anti-tumor effects. However the clinical results for these processes are still elusive. Greater understanding of NK cell biology, from activating and inhibitory receptor functions to the role of NK cells in allogeneic transplantation, needs to be appreciated in order to draw out the clinical potential of NK cells. Mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) rejection are known to be dependant on inhibitory receptors specific for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and on activating receptors that have many potential ligands. The modulation of activating and inhibitory receptors may hold the key to clinical success involving NK cells. Pre-clinical studies in mice have shown that different combinations of activating and inhibitory receptors on NK cells can reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), promote engraftment, and provide superior graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. Recent clinical data have shown that the use of KIR-ligand incompatibility produces tremendous graft-versus-leukemia effect in patients with acute myeloid leukemia at high risk of relapse. This review will attempt to be a synthesis of current knowledge concerning NK cells, their involvement in BMT, and their use as an immunotherapy for cancer and other hematologic malignancies. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):12-21.

  6. Biological characteristics of side population cells in a self-established human ovarian cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEI, ZHENTONG; LV, SHUANG; WANG, YISHU; SUN, MEIYU; CHI, GUANGFAN; GUO, JUN; SONG, PEIYE; FU, XIAOYU; ZHANG, SONGLING; LI, YULIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish an ovarian cancer (OC) cell line from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient and investigate the biological characteristics of its side population (SP) cells. The OC cell line was established by isolating, purifying and subculturing primary cells from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient (stage IIIc; grade 3). SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and cultured in serum-free medium and soft agar to compare the tumorsphere and colony formation capacities. Furthermore, SP and NSP cell tumorigenesis was examined by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection of the cells to non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. Drug resistance to cisplatin was examined by cell counting kit-8. The OC cell line was successfully established from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient, which exhibited properties similar to primary tumors subsequent to >50 passages and >2 years of culture. The SP cell ratio was 0.38% in the OC cell line, and a similar SP cell ratio (0.39%) was observed when sorted SP cells were cultured for 3 weeks. Compared with NSP cells, SP cells exhibited increased abilities in differentiation and tumorsphere and colony formation, in addition to the formation of xenografted tumors and ascites and metastasis of the tumors in NOD/SCID mice, even at low cell numbers (3.0×103 cells). The xenografted tumors demonstrated histological features similar to primary tumors and expressed the ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma marker CA125. In addition, SP cells demonstrated a significantly stronger drug resistance to cisplatin compared with NSP and unsorted cells, while treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transporters, potently abrogated SP cell drug resistance. In conclusion, the present study verified SP cells from an established OC cell line and characterized the cells with self

  7. Micro and nano-platforms for biological cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Castillo, Jaime; Moresco, Jacob Lange;

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some technological platforms developed for biological cell analysis will be presented and compared to existing systems. In brief, we present a novel micro cell culture chamber based on diffusion feeding of cells, into which cells can be introduced and extracted after culturing using...

  8. Learning Cell Biology as a Team: A Project-Based Approach to Upper-Division Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Robin; Boggs, James

    2002-01-01

    To help students develop successful strategies for learning how to learn and communicate complex information in cell biology, we developed a quarter-long cell biology class based on team projects. Each team researches a particular human disease and presents information about the cellular structure or process affected by the disease, the cellular…

  9. Advances in radiation biology: Radiosensitization in DNA and living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, S.; Sech, C. Le

    2009-06-01

    One fundamental goal of radiation biology is the evolution of concepts and methods for the elaboration of new approaches and protocols for the treatment of cancers. In this context, the use of fast ions as ionizing particles offers the advantage of optimizing cell killing inside the tumor whilst preserving the surrounding healthy tissues. One extremely promising strategy investigated recently is the addition of radiosensitizers in the targeted tissue. The optimization of radiotherapy with fast ions implies a multidisciplinary approach to ionizing radiation effects on complex living systems, ranging from studies on single molecules to investigations of entire organisms. In this article we review recent studies on ion induced damages in simple and complex biological systems, from DNA to living cells. The specific aspect of radiosensitization induced by metallic atoms is described. As a fundamental result, the addition of sensitizing compounds with ion irradiation may improve therapeutic index in cancer therapy. In conclusion, new perspectives are proposed based on the experience and contribution of different communities including Surface Sciences, to improve the development of radiation biology.

  10. Isolation of biologically active nanomaterial (inclusion bodies from bacterial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peternel Špela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs were recognised as highly pure deposits of active proteins inside bacterial cells. Such active nanoparticles are very interesting for further downstream protein isolation, as well as for many other applications in nanomedicine, cosmetic, chemical and pharmaceutical industry. To prepare large quantities of a high quality product, the whole bioprocess has to be optimised. This includes not only the cultivation of the bacterial culture, but also the isolation step itself, which can be of critical importance for the production process. To determine the most appropriate method for the isolation of biologically active nanoparticles, three methods for bacterial cell disruption were analyzed. Results In this study, enzymatic lysis and two mechanical methods, high-pressure homogenization and sonication, were compared. During enzymatic lysis the enzyme lysozyme was found to attach to the surface of IBs, and it could not be removed by simple washing. As this represents an additional impurity in the engineered nanoparticles, we concluded that enzymatic lysis is not the most suitable method for IBs isolation. During sonication proteins are released (lost from the surface of IBs and thus the surface of IBs appears more porous when compared to the other two methods. We also found that the acoustic output power needed to isolate the IBs from bacterial cells actually damages proteins structures, thereby causing a reduction in biological activity. High-pressure homogenization also caused some damage to IBs, however the protein loss from the IBs was negligible. Furthermore, homogenization had no side-effects on protein biological activity. Conclusions The study shows that among the three methods tested, homogenization is the most appropriate method for the isolation of active nanoparticles from bacterial cells.

  11. Stem cell biology and neurodegenerative disease.

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, R D

    2004-01-01

    The fundamental basis of our work is that organs are generated by multipotent stem cells, whose properties we must understand to control tissue assembly or repair. Central nervous system (CNS) stem cells are now recognized as a well-defined population of precursors that differentiate into cells that are indisputably neurons and glial cells. Work from our group played an important role in defining stem cells of the CNS. Embryonic stem (ES) cells also differentiate to specific neuron and glial ...

  12. Functional Genomics and Cell Biology of the Dolphin (Tursiops runcatus): Establishment of Novel Molecular Tools to Study Marine Mammals in Changing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mancia, Annalaura

    2010-01-01

    The dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a mammal that is adapted to life in a totally aquatic environment. Despite the popularity and even iconic status of the dolphin, our knowledge of its physiology, its unique adaptations and the effects on it of environmental stressors are limited. One approach to improve this limited understanding is the implementation of established cellular and molecular methods to provide sensitive and insightful information for dolphin biology. We initiated our studi...

  13. Industrial systems biology and its impact on synthetic biology of yeast cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fletcher, Eugene; Krivoruchko, Anastasia; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Engineering industrial cell factories to effectively yield a desired product while dealing with industrially relevant stresses is usually the most challenging step in the development of industrial production of chemicals using microbial fermentation processes. Using synthetic biology tools, micro...

  14. Synthetic Biology Outside the Cell: Linking Computational Tools to Cell-Free Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eLewis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As mathematical models become more commonly integrated into the study of biology, a common language for describing biological processes is manifesting. Many tools have emerged for the simulation of in vivo systems, with only a few examples of prominent work done on predicting the dynamics of cell-free systems. At the same time, experimental biologists have begun to study dynamics of in vitro systems encapsulated by amphiphilic molecules, opening the door for the development of a new generation of biomimetic systems. In this review, we explore both in vivo and in vitro models of biochemical networks with a special focus on tools that could be applied to the construction of cell-free expression systems. We believe that quantitative studies of complex cellular mechanisms and pathways in synthetic systems can yield important insights into what makes cells different from conventional chemical systems.

  15. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  16. Modeling cell-in-cell structure into its biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    He, M-f; Wang, S.; Y Wang; Wang, X-n

    2013-01-01

    Although cell-in-cell structure was noted 100 years ago, the molecular mechanisms of ‘entering' and the destination of cell-in-cell remain largely unclear. It takes place among the same type of cells (homotypic cell-in-cell) or different types of cells (heterotypic cell-in-cell). Cell-in-cell formation affects both effector cells and their host cells in multiple aspects, while cell-in-cell death is under more intensive investigation. Given that cell-in-cell has an important role in maintainin...

  17. Examining the Effect of Multiple Writing Tasks on Year 10 Biology Students' Understandings of Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian; Hohenshell, Liesl; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the cumulative effects on students' learning of science, and perceptions of the role of writing in learning, when the students engaged in multiple writing tasks with planning strategy support. The study was conducted with Year 10 biology students who completed two consecutive units on Cells and Molecular…

  18. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  19. Progenitor cells in the kidney: biology and therapeutic perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, M.B.; Verhaar, M.C.; Zonneveld, A.J. van; Rabelink, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Progenitor cells in the kidney: Biology and therapeutic perspectives. The stem cell may be viewed as an engineer who can read the blue print and become the building. The role of this fascinating cell in physiology and pathophysiology has recently attracted a great deal of interest. The archetype of

  20. Multiway modeling and analysis in stem cell systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenberg Scott L; Bennett Kristin; Aguis Pheadra; Acar Evrim; Yener Bülent; Plopper George E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Systems biology refers to multidisciplinary approaches designed to uncover emergent properties of biological systems. Stem cells are an attractive target for this analysis, due to their broad therapeutic potential. A central theme of systems biology is the use of computational modeling to reconstruct complex systems from a wealth of reductionist, molecular data (e.g., gene/protein expression, signal transduction activity, metabolic activity, etc.). A number of deterministi...

  1. Computational Systems Biology Analysis of Cell Reprogramming and Activation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, molecular cell biology has transitioned from a traditional descriptive science into a quantitative science that systematically measures cellular dynamics on different levels of genome, transcriptome and proteome. Along with this transition emerges the interdisciplinary field of systems biology, which aims to unravel complex interactions in biological systems through integrating experimental data into qualitative or quantitative models and computer simulations. In th...

  2. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  3. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies. PMID:26482724

  4. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  5. The Study on Newly Developed McAb NJ001 Specific to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Its Biological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Shiyang; WANG, FANG; Huang, Peijun; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Lixia; Xu, Jian; Li, Qing; Xia, Wenying; Sun, Ruihong; Huang, Lei; Peng, Ying; Qin, Xuejun; Shu, Yongqian; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (McAb) is the key tool for cancer immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. McAb-based immunotherapy that targets tumor antigens has had great achivement. In this study, a cell clone which kept secreting high-titer IgG1-type McAb named NJ001 against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells was obtained. The titer of purified NJ001 was 2×106. The antigen named SP70 of NSCLC specifically identified by NJ001 was proved to be a protein with the relative molecular mass (Mr) of 7...

  6. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews Justen; Przytycka Teresa M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  7. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  8. Rupture force of cell adhesion ligand tethers modulates biological activities of a cell-laden hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Park, Jooyeon; Wang, Xuefeng; Roein-Peikar, Mehdi; Ko, Eunkyung; Qin, Ellen; Lee, Jonghwi; Ha, Taekjip; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2016-04-01

    Recent efforts to design a synthetic extracellular matrix for cell culture, engineering, and therapies greatly contributed to addressing biological roles of types and spatial organization of cell adhesion ligands. It is often suggested that ligand-matrix bond strength is another path to regulate cell adhesion and activities; however tools are lacking. To this end, this study demonstrates that a hydrogel coupled with integrin-binding deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tethers with pre-defined rupture forces can modulate cell adhesion, differentiation, and secretion activities due to the changes in the number and, likely, force of cells adhered to a gel. The rupture force of DNA tethers was tuned by altering the spatial arrangement of matrix-binding biotin groups. The DNA tethers were immobilized on a hydrogel of alginate grafted with biotin using avidin. Mesenchymal stem cells showed enhanced adhesion, neural differentiation, and paracrine secretion when cultured on the gel coupled with DNA tethers with higher rupture forces. Such innovative cell-matrix interface engineering would be broadly useful for a series of materials used for fundamental and applied studies on biological cells. PMID:26912186

  9. Mechanistic modeling confronts the complexity of molecular cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Phair, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanistic modeling has the potential to transform how cell biologists contend with the inescapable complexity of modern biology. I am a physiologist–electrical engineer–systems biologist who has been working at the level of cell biology for the past 24 years. This perspective aims 1) to convey why we build models, 2) to enumerate the major approaches to modeling and their philosophical differences, 3) to address some recurrent concerns raised by experimentalists, and then 4) to imagine a fu...

  10. The Effect of Hypoxia on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa Ejtehadifar; Karim Shamsasenjan; Aliakbar Movassaghpour; Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh; Nima Dehdilani; Parvaneh Abbasi; Zahra Molaeipour; Mahshid Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Although physiological and pathological role of hypoxia have been appreciated in mammalians for decades however the cellular biology of hypoxia more clarified in the past 20 years. Discovery of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, in the 1990s opened a new window to investigate the mechanisms behind hypoxia. In different cellular contexts HIF-1 activation show variable results by impacting various aspects of cell biology such as cell cycle, apoptosis, diff...

  11. Biological Evaluation of Single Cell Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the nutritional value of single cell protein (SCP) was evaluated as a non conventional protein source produced by fermenting fungal local strains of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Penicillium funiculosum with alkali treated sugar cane bagasse. Amino acid analysis revealed that the produced SCP contains essential and non essential amino acids. Male mice were fed on normal (basal) diet which contains 18% conventional protein and served as control group. In the second (T1) and the third (T2) group, the animals were fed on a diet in which 15% and 30% of conventional protein source were replaced by SCP, respectively. At intervals of 15, 30, 45 and 60 days, mice were sacrificed and the blood samples were collected for the biochemical evaluation. The daily averages of body weight were significantly higher with group T2 than group T1. Where as, the kidney weights in groups (T1) and (T2) were significantly increased as compared with control. A non significant difference between the tested groups in the enzyme activities of AST, ALT and GSH content of liver tissue were recorded. While, cholesterol and triglycerides contents showed a significant decrease in both (T1) and (T2) groups as compared with control. The recorded values of the serum hormone (T4), ALP activities, albumin and A/G ratio did not changed by the previous treatments. Serum levels of total protein, urea, creatinine and uric acid were higher for groups (T1) and (T2) than the control group. In conclusion, partial substitution of soy bean protein in mice diet with single cell protein (15%) improved the mice growth without any adverse effects on some of the physiological functions tested

  12. Advancing Our Understanding of Osteocyte Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Dayong; BONEWALD, LYNDA F.

    2009-01-01

    Osteocytes were the forgotten bone cell until the bone community could become convinced that these cells do serve an important role in bone function and maintenance. In this review we trace the history of osteocyte characterization and present some of the major observations that are leading to the conclusion that these cells are not passive placeholders residing in the bone matrix, but are indeed, major orchestrators of bone remodeling.

  13. Development of an autonomous biological cell manipulator with single-cell electroporation and visual servoing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Kelly; Dechev, Nikolai; Burke, Robert D; Park, Edward J

    2009-08-01

    Studies of single cells via microscopy and microinjection are a key component in research on gene functions, cancer, stem cells, and reproductive technology. As biomedical experiments become more complex, there is an urgent need to use robotic systems to improve cell manipulation and microinjection processes. Automation of these tasks using machine vision and visual servoing creates significant benefits for biomedical laboratories, including repeatability of experiments, higher throughput, and improved cell viability. This paper presents the development of a new 5-DOF robotic manipulator, designed for manipulating and microinjecting single cells. This biological cell manipulator (BCM) is capable of autonomous scanning of a cell culture followed by autonomous injection of cells using single-cell electroporation (SCE). SCE does not require piercing the cell membrane, thereby keeping the cell membrane fully intact. The BCM features high-precision 3-DOF translational and 2-DOF rotational motion, and a second z-axis allowing top-down placement of a micropipette tip onto the cell membrane for SCE. As a technical demonstration, the autonomous visual servoing and microinjection capabilities of the single-cell manipulator are experimentally shown using sea urchin eggs. PMID:19605307

  14. Cell and molecular biology. 8th Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Robertis

    1987-01-01

    Extensively revised and reorganized, this edition can be considered a new book. The chapters on the cell membrane, cell interactions, cytoskeleton and cell motility, cell secretion, interphase nucleus, the genetic code and genetic engineering, transcription and processing of RNA, ribosomes and protein synthesis, gene regulation and differentiation are completely rewritten. More than half of the 504 illustrations are new. The discussions are concise and easy to read. Each chapter offers an introduction to the broad objectives of that chapter and concluding summary paragraphs which underscore the important points.

  15. Microbubble generation by piezotransducer for biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; Alkhazal, M.; Cho, M.; Xiao, S.

    2015-12-01

    Bubbles induced by blast waves or shocks are speculated to be the major cause of damages in biological cells in mild traumatic brain injuries. Microbubble collapse was found to induce noticeable cell detachment from the cell substrate, changes in focal adhesion and biomechanics. To better understand the bubble mechanism, we would like to construct a system, which allows us to clearly differentiate the impact of bubbles from that of shocks. Such a generator needs to be low profile in order to place under a microscope. A piezoelectric transducer system was designed to meet the need. The system uses either a flat or a spherical focusing piezoelectric transducer to produce microbubbles in a cuvette loaded with cell-culture medium. The transducer is placed on the side of the cuvette with its axis lining horizontally. A cover slip is placed on the top of the cuvette. The impact of the waves to the cells is minimized as the cover slip is parallel to the direction of the wave. Only bubbles from the medium reach the cover slip and interact with cells. The effect of bubbles therefore can be separated that of pressure waves. The bubbles collected on a cover slip range in size from 100 μm to 10 μm in radius, but the dominant size is 20-30 μm.

  16. Expression of biological markers in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Thomazi Gassen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy, accounting for about 90% of all malignant oral lesions. Detection of the condition at early stages is rare; as a result, the clinical and histological characteristics and prognosis of this tumor have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and microscopic features of squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemical analysis and assessing biological markers of angiogenesis and tumor vascular activity (anti-CD31, anti-CD34, Factor VIII, cell proliferation (Ki-67, and loss of cell suppression (p53. Tolonium chloride 1% was used to determine the optimal biopsy site. Six patients seen at the Stomatology Service of a university hospital in Canoas, southern Brazil, with a suspected diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. All patients were male, with a mean age of 56.6 years, and four had a white skin color. Lesions were detected in the tongue (4 and tonsillar pillar (2. All diagnoses were confi rmed by microscopy (hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed p53 expression in 5 of the cases, Ki-67 in 6, and anti-CD34 in 1; anti-CD31 and Factor VIII were not detected in any patient. Our fi ndings suggest an important contribution of tumor markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of these malignancies, as well as in treatment planning.

  17. Studies on Semantic Systems Chemical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Current "one disease, one target and one drug" drug development paradigm is under question as relatively few drugs have reached the market in the last two decades. Increasingly research focus is being placed on the study of drug action against biological systems as a whole rather than against a single component (called "Systems…

  18. NK cell biology: An update and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kerry S.; Hasegawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells constitute a minor subset of normal lymphocytes that initiate innate immune responses toward tumor and virus-infected cells. They can mediate spontaneous cytotoxicity toward these abnormal cells and rapidly secrete numerous cytokines and chemokines to promote subsequent adaptive immune responses. Significant progress has been made in the past two decades to improve our understanding of NK cell biology. Here we review recent discoveries, including a better comprehensi...

  19. Thermal microscopy of single biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, R.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Plawinski, L.; Durrieu, M.-C.; Audoin, B.; Dehoux, T.

    2015-12-01

    Techniques that can probe the thermal properties of cells are used in many applications ranging from cryogenic preservation to hyperthermia therapy, and provide powerful tools to investigate diseased conditions. The structural complexity of cells, however, requires innovative modalities operating at a subcell scale. We developed a label-free, non-ionizing technique based on a thermoelastic lens. With this device, we captured images of single cells with a ˜2 μm resolution based on thermal properties as the contrast mechanism. To investigate the thermorheological behaviour of cells, we present simultaneous acoustic imaging using an inverted opto-acoustic microscope. Acoustic impedances extracted from the acoustic images support the effusivity obtained from the thermal images. This technique should provide diagnostic tools at the single cell scale.

  20. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Applications of Microfluidics in Stem Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell research can significantly benefit from recent advances of microfluidics technology. In a rationally designed microfluidics device, analyses of stem cells can be done in a much deeper and wider way than in a conventional tissue culture dish. Miniaturization makes analyses operated in a high-throughput fashion, while controls of fluids help to reconstruct the physiological environments. Through integration with present characterization tools like fluorescent microscope, microfluidics...

  2. NMR Studies on Organic and Biological Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies on biomolecules and organic molecular crystals are presented here. The biological part of the work is focused on improving resolution and sensitivity of SSNMR techniques for larger protein systems, while the studies on organic molecular crystals extend the application of SSNMR to determining the crystal structure of a photoreaction intermediate. First, a long-observation-window band-selective homonuclear decoupling scheme is introduced. The homonuclear decoupli...

  3. Suspended micro- and nanotools for cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Ibáñez, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta el diseño, desarrollo tecnológico, caracterización y aplicaciones tanto químicas como biológicas de micro- y nanodispositivos destinados a ser herramientas funcionales en biología celular. Esta línea de investigación es posible gracias a los avances obtenidos en el campo de las Micro- y Nanotecnologías, donde la aplicación de técnicas de miniaturización en la fabricación de sus dispositivos a escala celular es ya una realidad. Estas herramientas son lo suficientemente p...

  4. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, John R

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information literacy instruction and then proceed to select, update, and write about a current research topic in an upper-level cell biology course is described....

  5. Bioinformatics approaches to single-cell analysis in developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Dicle; Hakguder, Zeynep M; Otu, Hasan H

    2016-03-01

    Individual cells within the same population show various degrees of heterogeneity, which may be better handled with single-cell analysis to address biological and clinical questions. Single-cell analysis is especially important in developmental biology as subtle spatial and temporal differences in cells have significant associations with cell fate decisions during differentiation and with the description of a particular state of a cell exhibiting an aberrant phenotype. Biotechnological advances, especially in the area of microfluidics, have led to a robust, massively parallel and multi-dimensional capturing, sorting, and lysis of single-cells and amplification of related macromolecules, which have enabled the use of imaging and omics techniques on single cells. There have been improvements in computational single-cell image analysis in developmental biology regarding feature extraction, segmentation, image enhancement and machine learning, handling limitations of optical resolution to gain new perspectives from the raw microscopy images. Omics approaches, such as transcriptomics, genomics and epigenomics, targeting gene and small RNA expression, single nucleotide and structural variations and methylation and histone modifications, rely heavily on high-throughput sequencing technologies. Although there are well-established bioinformatics methods for analysis of sequence data, there are limited bioinformatics approaches which address experimental design, sample size considerations, amplification bias, normalization, differential expression, coverage, clustering and classification issues, specifically applied at the single-cell level. In this review, we summarize biological and technological advancements, discuss challenges faced in the aforementioned data acquisition and analysis issues and present future prospects for application of single-cell analyses to developmental biology. PMID:26358759

  6. Advancing cell biology through proteomics in space and time (PROSPECTS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamond, A.I.; Uhlen, M.; Horning, S.;

    2012-01-01

    a range of sensitive and quantitative approaches for measuring protein structures and dynamics that promise to revolutionize our understanding of cell biology and molecular mechanisms in both human cells and model organisms. The Proteomics Specification in Time and Space (PROSPECTS) Network is a unique EU...

  7. Sub-terahertz resonance spectroscopy of biological macromolecules and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Tatiana; Moyer, Aaron; Gelmont, Boris; Khromova, Tatyana; Sizov, Igor; Ferrance, Jerome

    2013-05-01

    Recently we introduced a Sub-THz spectroscopic system for characterizing vibrational resonance features from biological materials. This new, continuous-wave, frequency-domain spectroscopic sensor operates at room temperature between 315 and 480 GHz with spectral resolution of at least 1 GHz and utilizes the source and detector components from Virginia Diode, Inc. In this work we present experimental results and interpretation of spectroscopic signatures from bacterial cells and their biological macromolecule structural components. Transmission and absorption spectra of the bacterial protein thioredoxin, DNA and lyophilized cells of Escherichia coli (E. coli), as well as spores of Bacillus subtillis and B. atrophaeus have been characterized. Experimental results for biomolecules are compared with absorption spectra calculated using molecular dynamics simulation, and confirm the underlying physics for resonance spectroscopy based on interactions between THz radiation and vibrational modes or groups of modes of atomic motions. Such interactions result in multiple intense and narrow specific resonances in transmission/absorption spectra from nano-gram samples with spectral line widths as small as 3 GHz. The results of this study indicate diverse relaxation dynamic mechanisms relevant to sub-THz vibrational spectroscopy, including long-lasting processes. We demonstrate that high sensitivity in resolved specific absorption fingerprints provides conditions for reliable detection, identification and discrimination capability, to the level of strains of the same bacteria, and for monitoring interactions between biomaterials and reagents in near real-time. Additionally, it creates the basis for the development of new types of advanced biological sensors through integrating the developed system with a microfluidic platform for biomaterial samples.

  8. Cell biology of homologous recombination in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert-Boulet, Nadine Valerie; Rothstein, Rodney; Lisby, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is an important pathway for error-free repair of DNA lesions, such as single- and double-strand breaks, and for rescue of collapsed replication forks. Here, we describe protocols for live cell imaging of single-lesion recombination events in the yeast Saccharomyces...

  9. Synthetic biology of cyanobacterial cell factories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Angermayr

    2014-01-01

    In the field of microbial biotechnology rational design approaches are employed for the generation of microbial cells with desired functions, such as the ability to produce precursor molecules for biofuels or bioplastics. In essence, that is the introduction of a (new) biosynthetic pathway into a mi

  10. The Dawn of Virtual Cell Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Freddolino, Peter L.; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    To fulfill systems biology’s promise of providing fundamental new insights will require the development of quantitative and predictive models of whole cells. In this issue, Karr et al. present the first integrated and dynamic computational model of a bacterium that accounts for all of its components and their interactions.

  11. An in vitro study of liposomal curcumin: stability, toxicity and biological activity in human lymphocytes and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human B-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Johnston, Thomas D; Jeon, Hoonbae; Gedaly, Roberto; McHugh, Patrick P; Burke, Thomas G; Ranjan, Dinesh

    2009-01-21

    Curcumin is a multi-functional and pharmacologically safe natural agent. Used as a food additive for centuries, it also has anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and anti-tumor properties. We previously found that it is a potent inhibitor of cyclosporin A (CsA)-resistant T-cell co-stimulation pathway. It inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, NFkappaB activation and IL-2 signaling. In spite of its safety and efficacy, the in vivo bioavailability of curcumin is poor, and this may be a major obstacle to its utility as a therapeutic agent. Liposomes are known to be excellent carriers for drug delivery. In this in vitro study, we report the effects of different liposome formulations on curcumin stability in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), human blood, plasma and culture medium RPMI-1640+10% FBS (pH 7.4, 37 degrees C). Liposomal curcumin had higher stability than free curcumin in PBS. Liposomal and free curcumin had similar stability in human blood, plasma and RPMI-1640+10% FBS. We looked at the toxicity of non-drug-containing liposomes on (3)H-thymidine incorporation by concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated human lymphocytes, splenocytes and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL). We found that dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) were toxic to the tested cells. However, addition of cholesterol to the lipids at DMPC:DMPG:cholesterol=7:1:8 (molar ratio) almost completely eliminated the lipid toxicity to these cells. Liposomal curcumin had similar or even stronger inhibitory effects on Con A-stimulated human lymphocyte, splenocyte and LCL proliferation. We conclude that liposomal curcumin may be useful for intravenous administration to improve the bioavailability and efficacy, facilitating in vivo studies that could ultimately lead to clinical application of curcumin. PMID:18840516

  12. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Shyam A; Heinrich, Andrew C; Bobby Y. Reddy; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the ef...

  13. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  14. Systems-biology dissection of eukaryotic cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Justen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent article in BMC Biology illustrates the use of a systems-biology approach to integrate data across the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of budding yeast in order to dissect the relationship between nutrient conditions and cell growth. See research article http://jbiol.com/content/6/2/4 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/68

  15. Cardiac Stem Cells: Biology and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Goichberg, Polina; Chang, Jerway; Liao, Ronglih; Leri, Annarosa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Heart disease is the primary cause of death in the industrialized world. Cardiac failure is dictated by an uncompensated reduction in the number of viable and fully functional cardiomyocytes. While current pharmacological therapies alleviate the symptoms associated with cardiac deterioration, heart transplantation remains the only therapy for advanced heart failure. Therefore, there is a pressing need for novel therapeutic modalities. Cell-based therapies involving cardiac stem ...

  16. Enhanced reaction kinetics in biological cells

    OpenAIRE

    Loverdo, C.; Benichou, O.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2008-01-01

    The cell cytoskeleton is a striking example of "active" medium driven out-of-equilibrium by ATP hydrolysis. Such activity has been shown recently to have a spectacular impact on the mechanical and rheological properties of the cellular medium, as well as on its transport properties : a generic tracer particle freely diffuses as in a standard equilibrium medium, but also intermittently binds with random interaction times to motor proteins, which perform active ballistic excursions along cytosk...

  17. Concise Review: Asymmetric Cell Divisions in Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Murke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells are rare cells with unique properties residing in many organs and tissues. They are undifferentiated cells responsible for tissue regeneration and homeostasis, and contain both the capacity to self-renew in order to maintain their stem cell potential and to differentiate towards tissue-specific, specialized cells. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms controlling somatic stem cell fate decisions remains sparse. One mechanism which has been described to control daughter cell fates in selected somatic stem cell systems is the process of asymmetric cell division (ACD. ACD is a tightly regulated and evolutionary conserved process allowing a single stem or progenitor cell to produce two differently specified daughter cells. In this concise review, we will summarize and discuss current concepts about the process of ACD as well as different ACD modes. Finally, we will recapitulate the current knowledge and our recent findings about ACD in human hematopoiesis.

  18. Biological Influence of Deuterium on Procariotic and Eukaryotic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologic influence of deuterium (D on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates are investigated at growth on media with heavy water (D2О. The method of step by step adaptation technique of cells to D2О was developed, consisting in plating of cells on 2 % agarose nutrient media containing increasing gradient of concentration of D2О (from 0 up to 98 % D2O and the subsequent selection of stable to D2O cells. In the result of that technique were obtained adapted to maximum concentration of D2O cells, biological material of which instead of hydrogen contained deuterium with levels of enrichment 92–97,5 at.% D.

  19. The untapped cell biology of neglected tropical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William

    2016-03-01

    The World Health Organization lists a constellation of 17 tropical diseases that afflict approximately one in six individuals on the planet and, until recently, few resources have been devoted to the treatment and eradication of those diseases. They are often referred to as the diseases of the "bottom billion," because they are most prevalent among the poorest individuals in impoverished tropical nations. However, the few studies that have been performed reveal an extraordinary world of molecular and cellular adaptations that facilitate the pathogens' survival in hosts ranging from insects to humans. A compelling case can be made that even a modest investment toward understanding the basic molecular and cell biology of these neglected pathogens has a high probability of yielding exciting new cellular mechanisms and insights into novel ways of combating these diseases. PMID:26915691

  20. Organic Production Systems: What the Biological Cell Can Teach Us About Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Lieven Demeester; Knut Eichler; Christoph H. Loch

    2004-01-01

    Biological cells run complicated and sophisticated production systems. The study of the cell's production technology provides us with insights that are potentially useful in industrial manufacturing. When comparing cell metabolism with manufacturing techniques in industry, we find some striking commonalities, but also some important differences. Like today's well-run factories, the cell operates a very lean production system, assures quality at the source, and uses component commonality to si...

  1. Integrative biological studies of anti-tumour agents

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, L. A.

    2009-01-01

    3, 11-difluoro-6, 8, 13-trimethyl-8H- quino [4, 3, 2-kl] acridinium methosulfate (RHPS4) is a member of a series of pentacyclic acridines developed at the University of Nottingham, which bind to, and stabilise the structure of G-quadruplex DNA and inhibit the action of telomerase at sub-micromolar concentrations in the cell free TRAP assay and limit cancer cell growth therefore leading to the conclusion that RHPS4 has potential anti-tumour activity. Previous biological studies, however, have...

  2. T Regulatory Cell Biology in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroqi, Fayhan J; Chatila, Talal A

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells that express the transcription factor forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) play an essential role in enforcing immune tolerance to self tissues, regulating host-commensal flora interaction, and facilitating tissue repair. Their deficiency and/or dysfunction trigger unbridled autoimmunity and inflammation. A growing number of monogenic defects have been recognized that adversely impact Treg cell development, differentiation, and/or function, leading to heritable diseases of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity. In this article, we review recent insights into Treg cell biology and function, with particular attention to lessons learned from newly recognized clinical disorders of Treg cell deficiency. PMID:26922942

  3. A data integration approach for cell cycle analysis oriented to model simulation in systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosca Ettore

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell cycle is one of the biological processes most frequently investigated in systems biology studies and it involves the knowledge of a large number of genes and networks of protein interactions. A deep knowledge of the molecular aspect of this biological process can contribute to making cancer research more accurate and innovative. In this context the mathematical modelling of the cell cycle has a relevant role to quantify the behaviour of each component of the systems. The mathematical modelling of a biological process such as the cell cycle allows a systemic description that helps to highlight some features such as emergent properties which could be hidden when the analysis is performed only from a reductionism point of view. Moreover, in modelling complex systems, a complete annotation of all the components is equally important to understand the interaction mechanism inside the network: for this reason data integration of the model components has high relevance in systems biology studies. Description In this work, we present a resource, the Cell Cycle Database, intended to support systems biology analysis on the Cell Cycle process, based on two organisms, yeast and mammalian. The database integrates information about genes and proteins involved in the cell cycle process, stores complete models of the interaction networks and allows the mathematical simulation over time of the quantitative behaviour of each component. To accomplish this task, we developed, a web interface for browsing information related to cell cycle genes, proteins and mathematical models. In this framework, we have implemented a pipeline which allows users to deal with the mathematical part of the models, in order to solve, using different variables, the ordinary differential equation systems that describe the biological process. Conclusion This integrated system is freely available in order to support systems biology research on the cell cycle and

  4. Advancing Stem Cell Biology toward Stem Cell Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok

    2012-01-01

    Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.

  5. A new view into prokaryotic cell biology from electron cryotomography

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryotomography (ECT) enables intact cells to be visualized in 3D in an essentially native state to 'macromolecular' (~4 nm) resolution, revealing the basic architectures of complete nanomachines and their arrangements in situ. Since its inception, ECT has advanced our understanding of many aspects of prokaryotic cell biology, from morphogenesis to subcellular compartmentalization and from metabolism to complex interspecies interactions. In this Review, we highlight how ECT has provid...

  6. Progress in focus: recent advances in histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther

    2002-12-01

    Advances in histochemical and cell biological techniques enable increasingly refined investigations into the cellular and subcellular distribution of specific molecules and into their role in dynamic processes; thus progress in these fields complements the growing knowledge in genomics and proteomics. The present review summarizes recent technical progress and novel applications. PMID:12483316

  7. A short guide to technology development in cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Steensel (Bas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractNew technologies drive progress in many research fields, including cell biology. Much of technological innovation comes from "bottom-up" efforts by individual students and postdocs. However, technology development can be challenging, and a successful outcome depends on many factors. This

  8. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia : recent molecular biology findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraszewska, Monika D.; Dawidowska, Malgorzata; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Witt, Michal

    2012-01-01

    For many years, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) has been considered and treated as a single malignancy, but divergent outcomes in T-ALL patients receiving uniform treatment protocols encouraged intensive research on the molecular biology of this disease. Recent findings in the field dem

  9. The time is right: proteome biology of stem cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whetton, A.D.; Williamson, A.J.K.; Krijgsveld, J.; Lee, B.H.; Lemischka, I.; Oh, S.; Pera, M.; Mummery, C.L.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    In stem cell biology, there is a growing need for advanced technologies that may help to unravel the molecular mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation. Proteomics, the comprehensive analysis of proteins, is such an emerging technique. To facilitate interactions between specialists in proteomi

  10. The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouland Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recognition of the growing influence of cell biology in retrovirus research, we recently organized a Summer conference sponsored by the American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB on the Cell Biology of HIV-1 and other Retroviruses (July 20–23, 2006, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. The meeting brought together a number of leading investigators interested in the interplay between cell biology and retrovirology with an emphasis on presentation of new and unpublished data. The conference was arranged from early to late events in the virus replication cycle, with sessions on viral fusion, entry, and transmission; post-entry restrictions to retroviral infection; nuclear import and integration; gene expression/regulation of retroviral Gag and genomic RNA; and assembly/release. In this review, we will attempt to touch briefly on some of the highlights of the conference, and will emphasize themes and trends that emerged at the meeting. Meeting report The conference began with a keynote address from W. Sundquist on the biochemistry of HIV-1 budding. This presentation will be described in the section on Assembly and Release of Retroviruses.

  11. Chemical Biology Studies on Molecular Diversity of Annonaceous Acetogenins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Zhu-Jun

    2004-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins, isolated from the Annonaceae plants, have been attracting worldwide attention in recent years due to their biological activities, especially as growth inhibitors of certain tumor ceils [ 1 ]. They have been shown to function by blocking complex I in mitochondria [2] as well as ubiquinone-linked NADPH oxidase in the cells of specific tumor cell lines, including some multidrug-resistant ones [3]. These features make these acetogenins excellent leads for the new antitumor agents. In our previous work, the compounds 1a to 1d (Figure 1), which relies on structure simplification while maintaining all essential functionalities of the acetogenins, was in vitro tested against several human solid tumor cell lines and showed interesting cell selectivity [4]. All four analogues show remarkable activity against the HCT-8 and HT-29 cell lines, while compound 1c was found the best [4bi. In order to further investigate the effects of key structural features, a convergent parallel fragments assembly strategy was developed [4e]. In addition, the biological relevancies of typical annonaceous acetogenin mimetics were also studied [4f].

  12. Natural killer cells: Biology, functions and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Natural Killer cells (NK cells represent the subset of peripheral lymphocytes that play critical role in the innate immune response to virus-infected and tumor transformed cells. Lysis of NK sensitive target cells could be mediated independently of antigen stimulation and without requirement of peptide presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. NK cell activity and functions are controlled by a considerable number of cell surface receptors, which exist in both inhibitory and activating isoforms. There are several groups of NK cell surface receptors: 1 killer immunoglobulin like receptors-KIR, 2 C-type lectin receptors,3natural citotoxicity receptors-NCR and 4 Toll-like receptors-TLR. Functions of NK receptors. Defining the biology of NK cell surface receptors has contributed to the concept of the manner how NK cells selectively recognize and lyse tumor and virally infected cells while sparing normal cells. Further, identification of NK receptor ligands and their expression on the normal and transformed cells has led to the development of clinical approaches to manipulating receptor/ligand interactions that showed clinical benefit. NK cells are the first lymphocyte subset that reconstitute the peripheral blood following allogeneic HSCT and multiple roles for alloreactive donor NK cells have been demonstrated, in diminishing Graft vs. Host Disease (GvHD through selective killing recipient dendritic cells, prevention of graft rejection by killing recipient T cells and participation in Graft vs. Leukaemia (GvL effect through destruction of residual host tumor cells. Conclusion. Besides their role in HSCT, NK cell receptors have an important clinical relevance that reflects from the fact that they play a crucial role in the development of some diseases as well as in possibilities of managing all NK receptors through selective expansion and usage of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Soft particle analysis of electrokinetics of biological cells and their model systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Kimiko; Ohshima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: makino@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: ohshima@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    In this article, we review the applications of a novel theory (Ohshima 2009 Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 10 063001) to the analysis of electrokinetic data for various soft particles, that is, particles covered with an ion-permeable surface layer of polyelectrolytes. Soft particles discussed in this review include various biological cells and hydrogel-coated particles as a model of biological cells. Cellular transformations increase the concentration of sialic acid of glycoproteins and are associated with blocked biosynthesis of glycolipids and aberrant expression of the developmentally programmed biosynthetic pathway. The change in shape or biological function of cells may affect their surface properties and can be detected by electrokinetic measurements. The experimental results were analyzed with Ohshima's electrokinetic formula for soft particles and soft surfaces. As a model system, hydrogel surfaces that mimic biological surfaces were also prepared and their surface properties were studied. (topical review)

  14. Statins as Modulators of Regulatory T-Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Forero-Peña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are pharmacological inhibitors of the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cholesterol. Some recent experimental studies have shown that besides their effects on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, statins may also have beneficial anti-inflammatory effects through diverse mechanisms. On the other hand, the induction and activity of regulatory T cells (Treg are key processes in the prevention of pathology during chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Hence, strategies oriented towards the therapeutic expansion of Tregs are gaining special attention among biomedical researchers. The potential effects of statins on the biology of Treg are of particular importance because of their eventual application as in vivo inducers of Treg in the treatment of multiple conditions. In this paper we review the experimental evidence pointing out to a potential effect of statins on the role of regulatory T cells in different conditions and discuss its potential clinical significance.

  15. A comparative study of biological effects on tumor cells between low-dose-rate β-irradiation and high- dose-rate γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To elucidate the radiobiological mechanism underlying cancer treatment with low-dose-rate β-irradiation of 32P, by comparing the cell-killing pattern with high-dose-rate γ-irradiation of 60Co. Methods: HeLa cells were exposed to low-dose-rate β-irradiation of 32P or high-dose-rate γ-irradiation of 60Co. Comparisons were made between these two types of radiations, focusing on the cell-killing patterns evaluated by radiation-induced reproductive cell death( senescence) and necrotic cell death through X-gal senescence staining and tRypan blue exclusion method respectively. Results: The results showed that there were different cell-killing patterns in HeLa cells between 32P radiation at dose-rate of 0.375 cGy/min and that of 60Co at dose-rate of 206 cGy/min at 72 h post irradiation. In exposure to 32P, more HeLa cells were lost due to reproductive cell death than to 60Co. X-gal staining showed that senescent cell ratio in HeLa cells after exposure of 32P was higher than after that of 60Co which caused more necrotic cell death. Conclusions: More reproductive and less necrotic cell death contribute to total cell loss in HeLa cells by radiation of 32P than by 60Co. Understanding the underlying mechanism of radiobiology in different radiations is helpful in radiotherapy of malignant tumor by choosing a more reasonable and effective procedure of treatment. (author)

  16. Ship diesel emission aerosols: A comprehensive study on the chemical composition, the physical properties and the molecular biological and toxicological effects on human lung cells of aerosols from a ship diesel engine operated with heavy or light diesel fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Dietmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Paur, H.; Dilger, M.; Mülhopt, S.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Rabe, R.; Hirvonen, M.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Berube, K.; Sippula, O.; Streibel, T.; Karg, E.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.; Lintelmann, J.; Sklorz, M.; Arteaga Salas, M.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Reda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Gröger, T.; Weiss, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties, transformation processes and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. This is performed by thorough comprehensive chemical and physical characterization of combustion aerosols (including application of advantageous on-line methods) and studying of biological effects on human lung cell-cultures. A new ALI air-liquid-interface (ALI) exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for the HICE-measurements. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized (e.g. proteomics). By using stable isotope labeling technologies (13C-Glucose/metabolomics; 2H-Lysine/SILAC-proteomics), high sensitivity and accuracy for detection of molecular-biological effects is achievable even at sub-toxic effect dose levels. Aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine (heavy/light fuel oil) have been investigated. The effect of wood combustion and ship diesel PM e.g. on the protein expression of ALI-exposed A549 cells was compared. Filtered aerosol is used as gas-reference for the isotope labeling based method (SILAC). Therefore the effects of wood combustion- and shipping diesel-PM can be directly compared. Ship diesel aerosol causes a broader distribution in the observed fold changes (log2), i.e. more proteins are significantly up-/down-regulated in case of shipping diesel PM-exposure. This corresponds to a stronger biological reaction if compared to wood combustion-PM exposure. The chemical analysis results on wood combustion- and ship diesel-PM depict more polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)/oxidized-PAH but less of some transition metals (V, Fe) in the wood combustion case. Interestingly, alkylated PAH are considerably more abundant in shipping PM, suggesting that PAH/Oxy-PAH may be less relevant for

  17. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R Littlejohn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximise the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labelling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC, perfluorodecalin (PFD enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal impact on physiology. Here, we assess the use of the perfluorocarbons PFD, and perfluoroperhydrophenanthrene (PP11 for in vivo plant leaf imaging using 4 advanced modes of microscopy: laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM, Two-photon fluorescence (TPF microscopy, second harmonic generation (SHG microscopy and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS microscopy. For every mode of imaging tested, we observed an improved signal when leaves were mounted in PFD or in PP11, compared to mounting the samples in water. Using an image analysis technique based on autocorrelation to quantitatively assess LSCM image deterioration with depth, we show that PP11 outperformed PFD as a mounting medium by enabling the acquisition of clearer images deeper into the tissue. In addition, we show that SRS microscopy can be used to image perfluorocarbons directly in the mesophyll and thereby easily delimit the negative space within a leaf, which may have important implications for studies of leaf development. Direct comparison of on and off resonance SRS micrographs show that PFCs do not to form intracellular aggregates in live plants. We conclude that the application of PFCs as mounting media substantially increases advanced microscopy image quality of living mesophyll and leaf vascular bundle cells.

  18. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  19. Spectroscopic study of biologically active glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumera, M.; Wacławska, I.; Mozgawa, W.; Sitarz, M.

    2005-06-01

    It is known that the chemical activity phenomenon is characteristic for some inorganic glasses and they are able to participate in biological processes of living organisms (plants, animals and human bodies). An example here is the selective removal of silicate-phosphate glass components under the influence of biological solutions, which has been applied in designing glasses acting as ecological fertilizers of controlled release rate of the nutrients for plants. The structure of model silicate-phosphate glasses containing the different amounts of the glass network formers, i.e. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+, as a binding components were studied. These elements besides other are indispensable of the normal growth of plants. In order to establish the function and position occupied by the particular components in the glass structure, the glasses were examined by FTIR spectroscopy (with spectra decomposition) and XRD methods. It has been found that the increasing amount of MgO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes systematically from a structure of the cristobalite type to a structure corresponding to forsterite type. Whilst the increasing content of CaO in the structure of silicate-phosphate glasses causes the formation of domains the structure of which changes from a structure typical for cristobalite through one similar to the structure of calcium orthophosphate, to a structure corresponding to calcium silicates. The changing character of domains structure is the reason of different chemical activity of glasses.

  20. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation

  1. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  2. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  3. Tensegrity I. Cell structure and hierarchical systems biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993, a Commentary in this journal described how a simple mechanical model of cell structure based on tensegrity architecture can help to explain how cell shape, movement and cytoskeletal mechanics are controlled, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical forces (J. Cell Sci. 104, 613-627). The cellular tensegrity model can now be revisited and placed in context of new advances in our understanding of cell structure, biological networks and mechanoregulation that have been made over the past decade. Recent work provides strong evidence to support the use of tensegrity by cells, and mathematical formulations of the model predict many aspects of cell behavior. In addition, development of the tensegrity theory and its translation into mathematical terms are beginning to allow us to define the relationship between mechanics and biochemistry at the molecular level and to attack the larger problem of biological complexity. Part I of this two-part article covers the evidence for cellular tensegrity at the molecular level and describes how this building system may provide a structural basis for the hierarchical organization of living systems--from molecule to organism. Part II, which focuses on how these structural networks influence information processing networks, appears in the next issue.

  4. Inflammatory mediators: Parallels between cancer biology and stem cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Patel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Shyam A Patel1,2,3, Andrew C Heinrich2,3, Bobby Y Reddy2, Pranela Rameshwar21Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 2Department of Medicine – Division of Hematology/Oncology, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Inflammation encompasses diverse molecular pathways, and it is intertwined with a wide array of biological processes. Recently, there has been an upsurge of interest in the interactions between mediators of inflammation and other cells such as stem cells and cancer cells. Since tissue injuries are associated with the release of inflammatory mediators, it would be difficult to address this subject without considering the implications of their systemic effects. In this review, we discuss the effects of inflammatory reactions on stem cells and extrapolate on information pertaining to cancer biology. The discussion focuses on integrins and cytokines, and identifies the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB as central to the inflammatory response. Since stem cell therapy has been proposed for type II diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, pulmonary edema, these disorders are used as examples to discuss the roles of inflammatory mediators. We propose prospects for future research on targeting the NFκB signaling pathway. Finally, we explore the bridge between inflammation and stem cells, including neural stem cells and adult stem cells from the bone marrow. The implications of mesenchymal stem cells in regenerative medicine as pertaining to inflammation are vast based on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Such features of stem cells offer great potential for therapy in graft-versus-host disease, conditions with a significant inflammatory component, and tissue regeneration.Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, cancer, cytokines

  5. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Emerson Randolph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies, such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some muscular dystrophies. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on their embryologic origins and the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  6. Recursive Partitioning Analysis of Mediastinal N2 Lymph Node Involvement with Selected Biological Markers in Operable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Correlative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bozcuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Expressions of various biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC have been linked with the prognosis and involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes.Methods: In this study, we utilized recursive partitioning analysis (RPA by using P53, c-erb-B2, and P-glycoprotein (PGP expressions evaluated by immunohistochemistry to estimate retrospectively the likelihood of the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in patients with operable NSCLC.Results: In univariate tests, immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor for these 3 markers in 61 patients undergoing surgery revealed no direct relationship with the N2 involvement. However, RPA demonstrated in patients aged 75 and with 4 mediastinal lymph nodes removed that, high PGP expression frequency (20% predicted an increased likelihood of the N2 involvement (46.7%, R2 = 0.25. Univariate nominal logistic regression analysis revealed that RPA group affiliation, and the number of mediastinal lymph nodes resected (logarithmic transformation were associated with the metastasis to N2 lymph nodes (χ2 = 17.59, p = 0.0005, and χ2 = 2.40, p = 0.0654, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that only RPA group affiliation predicted the N2 involvement (χ2 = 14.63, p = 0.0022.Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that PGP expression of the primary tumor may help to predict the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Thus, further research is required to understand whether PGP expression may aid in the decision process for preoperative mediastinoscopy.

  7. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  8. Biological dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in hematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes cytokinetic blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=c+ α D+β D2 where. Y is the number micronuclei per cell and D the dose. the curve is compared with those produced elsewhere

  9. The use of analysis of variance procedures in biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is widely used in biological studies, yet there remains considerable confusion among researchers about the interpretation of hypotheses being tested. Ambiguities arise when statistical designs are unbalanced, and in particular when not all combinations of design factors are represented in the data. This paper clarifies the relationship among hypothesis testing, statistical modelling and computing procedures in ANOVA for unbalanced data. A simple two-factor fixed effects design is used to illustrate three common parametrizations for ANOVA models, and some associations among these parametrizations are developed. Biologically meaningful hypotheses for main effects and interactions are given in terms of each parametrization, and procedures for testing the hypotheses are described. The standard statistical computing procedures in ANOVA are given along with their corresponding hypotheses. Throughout the development unbalanced designs are assumed and attention is given to problems that arise with missing cells.

  10. Biological Dosimetry of X-rays by micronuclei study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical an cytogenetics data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable, in this case, the study of micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes citokinetics blocked can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using micronuclei assay for X-rays at 250 kVp, 43,79 rads/min and temperature 37 degree centigree has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y=C+ αD+BD''2 where Y is the number of micronuclei per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 24 refs

  11. Bringing the physical sciences into your cell biology research

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Douglas N; Iglesias, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, much of biology was studied by physicists and mathematicians. With the advent of modern molecular biology, a wave of researchers became trained in a new scientific discipline filled with the language of genes, mutants, and the central dogma. These new molecular approaches have provided volumes of information on biomolecules and molecular pathways from the cellular to the organismal level. The challenge now is to determine how this seemingly endless list of components works toget...

  12. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  13. Skeletal muscle stem cells from animals I. Basic cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeletal muscle stem cells from food-producing animals have been of interest to agricultural life scientists seeking to develop a better understanding of the molecular regulation of lean tissue (skeletal muscle protein hypertrophy) and intramuscular fat (marbling) development. Enhanced understanding...

  14. The circadian clock and cell cycle: Interconnected biological circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Masri, Selma; Cervantes, Marlene; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    The circadian clock governs biological timekeeping on a systemic level, helping to regulate and maintain physiological processes, including endocrine and metabolic pathways with a periodicity of 24-hours. Disruption within the circadian clock machinery has been linked to numerous pathological conditions, including cancer, suggesting that clock-dependent regulation of the cell cycle is an essential control mechanism. This review will highlight recent advances on the ‘gating’ controls of the ci...

  15. Transport processes in biological systems: Tumoral cells and human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    The entropy generation approach has been developed for the analysis of complex systems, with particular regards to biological systems, in order to evaluate their stationary states. The entropy generation is related to the transport processes related to exergy flows. Moreover, cancer can be described as an open complex dynamic and self-organizing system. Consequently, it is used as an example useful to evaluate the different thermo-chemical quantities of the transport processes in normal and in tumoral cells systems.

  16. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics in cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, T. C.; Mann, M

    2010-01-01

    The global analysis of protein composition, modifications, and dynamics are important goals in cell biology. Mass spectrometry (MS)–based proteomics has matured into an attractive technology for this purpose. Particularly, high resolution MS methods have been extremely successful for quantitative analysis of cellular and organellar proteomes. Rapid advances in all areas of the proteomic workflow, including sample preparation, MS, and computational analysis, should make the technology more eas...

  17. Dentinoameloblastoma with ghost cells: A rare case report with emphasis on its biological behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas are regarded as a homogeneous group of neoplasms with locally invasive character. They generally do not show induction of dental hard tissue formation except in few cases. Biological behavior and histogenesis of these tumors is still unexplored as there is lack of relevant studies and long follow-up of these patients. So, we aimed to report this rare case of dentinoameloblastoma with unique presence of ghost cells in middle-aged female involving maxilla with emphasis on its biological behavior. We conclude that although histogenesis of this tumor is not clear but biological potential is similar to conventional ameloblastoma requiring wider excision.

  18. Studies on the effect of cell cycle arrest on central metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using physiological and systems biology approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joomi

    Diatoms (Bacillarophyceae) are photosynthetic unicellular microalgae that have risen to ecological prominence in the modern oceans over the past 30 million years. They are excellent candidates for biodiesel feedstocks. Global climate change has led to an interest in algal triacylglycerols (TAGs) as feedstocks for sustainable biodiesel, and diatoms are attractive candidates for TAG production as one of the most productive and environmentally flexible algae in the contemporary oceans. For Chapter 2, a genome-scale metabolic model was constructed to calculate intracellular fluxes of a diatom under different growth conditions. The model identified enzymes that may be relevant to increasing lipid synthesis, explored how transporters affect flux outputs, and explored unusual features of diatoms, including the Entner-Douderoff and phosphoketolase pathways, and glycolytic enzymes in their mitochondria. Chapter 3 discusses how cell cycle arrest via cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibition, can increase accumulation of TAGs, and shift metabolism away from protein synthesis. For Chapter 4, transcriptome analysis of cells under cell cycle arrest was performed to show that the pattern of gene expression was fundamentally different from nitrogen stress. Most of the genes related to fatty acid and TAG synthesis were up-regulated. The gene expression pattern for light harvesting complexes was similar to cells stressed by high light, suggesting that arrested cells have smaller sinks for photosynthetically generated electrons.

  19. Plant Cell and Signaling Biology Blooms in the Wuyi Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Eighth International Conference on Plant Biology Fron-tiers, organized by Zhenbiao Yang, Chentao Lin, and Xing-wang Deng, was convened in the Wuyi Mountain Yeohwa Resort in Fujian, China, 23-27 September 2010.The meeting's main theme was Cells and Signals, featuring four keynote speeches, 45 plenary talks, and over 40 poster presentations that covered a wide range of topics, from dynamic cellular structures to how developmental and environmental signals control various plant processes at the juncture of cells.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference between intracellular and extracellular proton relaxation rates provides the basis for the determination of the mean hemoglobin concentration (MHC) in red blood cells. The observed water T1 relaxation data from red blood cell samples under various conditions were fit to the complete equation for the time-dependent decay of magnetization for a two-compartment system including chemical exchange. The MHC for each sample was calculated from the hematocrit and the intracellular water fraction as determined by NMR. The binding of the phosphorylcholine (PC) analogue, 2-(trimethylphosphonio)-ethylphosphate (phosphoryl-phosphocholine, PPC) to the PC binding myeloma proteins TEPC-15, McPC 603, and MOPC 167 was studied by 31P NMR

  1. Early biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation on yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological effectiveness of different radiation types for variety organisms requires further study. For fundamental studies of this problem it is worthwhile to use the most thoroughly investigated biological objects, for example, yeasts. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the test eukaryotic organism which gives the experimenter complete control over its chemical and physical environment. The aim of the study consisted in comparative analysis of early effects induced by low doses of low LET (60Co and 137Cs) and high LET ( α-particles 239Pu, neutrons) radiation on eukaryotic cells (cell survival about 100%). Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation were studied by two criteria: 1.delay of cell division and kinetics of yeast cells micro-colonies formation; 2.morphology of micro-colonies at different temperature. The results have shown that only small part of irradiated cell population (∼10%) divided at the same rate as unirradiated cells. Other part of cells had a delayed division. Unirradiated control cells formed typical micro-colonies at the solid nutrient media (YEPD) after 10 15 h of incubation. The fraction of cells population (20- 25%) exposed to low doses of?-particles or neutrons formed spectrum of untypical micro-colonies for the same incubation time, which consisted of small number of larger and more elongated cells. Some of these micro-colonies had 10 50 cells were of exotic forms ('spider'), differed from other micro-colonies in population. Using this method we can reveal an early response of cells at very low doses (survival about 100%) and determine the number non-lethally damaged cells. (author)

  2. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Duanqing; Xu, Jianyong; Zhuang, Qiang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Esteban, Miguel A.

    The potential of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) for regenerative medicine is unquestionable, but practical and ethical considerations have hampered clinical application and research. In an attempt to overcome these issues, the conversion of somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells similar to ESCs, commonly termed nuclear reprogramming, has been a top objective of contemporary biology. More than 40 years ago, King, Briggs, and Gurdon pioneered somatic cell nuclear reprogramming in frogs, and in 1981 Evans successfully isolated mouse ESCs. In 1997 Wilmut and collaborators produced the first cloned mammal using nuclear transfer, and then Thomson obtained human ESCs from in vitro fertilized blastocysts in 1998. Over the last 2 decades we have also seen remarkable findings regarding how ESC behavior is controlled, the importance of which should not be underestimated. This knowledge allowed the laboratory of Shinya Yamanaka to overcome brilliantly conceptual and technical barriers in 2006 and generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from mouse fibroblasts by overexpressing defined combinations of ESC-enriched transcription factors. Here, we discuss some important implications of human iPSCs for biology and medicine and also point to possible future directions.

  3. Cystitis: From Urothelial Cell Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilho Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis is a urinary bladder disease with many causes and symptoms. The severity of cystitis ranges from mild lower abdominal discomfort to life-threatening haemorrhagic cystitis. The course of disease is often chronic or recurrent. Although cystitis represents huge economical and medical burden throughout the world and in many cases treatments are ineffective, the mechanisms of its origin and development as well as measures for effective treatment are still poorly understood. However, many studies have demonstrated that urothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role. In the present review we first discuss fundamental issues of urothelial cell biology, which is the core for comprehension of cystitis. Then we focus on many forms of cystitis, its current treatments, and advances in its research. Additionally we review haemorrhagic cystitis with one of the leading causative agents being chemotherapeutic drug cyclophosphamide and summarise its management strategies. At the end we describe an excellent and widely used animal model of cyclophosphamide induced cystitis, which gives researches the opportunity to get a better insight into the mechanisms involved and possibility to develop new therapy approaches.

  4. Biological effects of positron emitters in thyroid cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: Today, the use of 124I- (β+, half-life 4.2 d) is an increasing field in positron emission tomography (PET). In principle, positrons deposit their energy in the surrounding material like electrons. Therefore, we investigated the biological effects of positron emitters in comparison to electrons in vitro. Materials and Methods: two different thyroid cell lines (Fischer Rat Thyroid Cell Line No. 5 (FRTL5) and human papillary thyroid cancer cell line BCPAP) were investigated in vitro. While FRTL5 has been described to express a high level of sodium iodine transporter (NIS), the NIS expression of BCPAP is known to be low. Parallel cultures were incubated with either 50 -400 kBq/ml 124I- (IBA) or 50-400 kBq/ml 131I- (GE Health care). Cell count and radioiodine uptake were determined 24 h to 144 h after isotope application. Additionally, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of ethanol fixed cells was performed and induced apoptosis was determined by morphological analysis of the cell nucleus (condensation, fragmentation) by fluorescence microscopy. Results: BCPAP showed no significant uptake (<0.1 % per one million cells). The proliferation of BCPAP cells was not significantly influenced by radioiodine incubation. The uptake of NIS-expressing FRTL5 cells ranged between 0.6 % and 4 % per one million cells, independently of the isotope. In FRTL5 cells the incubation with 131I- induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation (p<0.05). The positron emitter 124I- induced analogue effects on proliferation compared to the electron emitter 131I- (30-40 % inhibition, 144 h incubation with 400 kBq/ml). In parallel, in FRTL5 cell lines an isotope-independent increase of morphological changes in the cell nuclei (up to 5 fold) could be determined. In contrast, no significant changes could be verified in BCPAP cell nuclei. Conclusions: As expected from the physical point of view, the biological effects of positrons

  5. cellPACK: A Virtual Mesoscope to Model and Visualize Structural Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Graham T; Autin, Ludovic; Al-Alusi, Mostafa; Goodsell, David S.; Sanner, Michel F.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    cellPACK assembles computational models of the biological mesoscale, an intermediate scale (10−7–10−8m) between molecular and cellular biology. cellPACK’s modular architecture unites existing and novel packing algorithms to generate, visualize and analyze comprehensive 3D models of complex biological environments that integrate data from multiple experimental systems biology and structural biology sources. cellPACK is currently available as open source code, with tools for validation of model...

  6. Simulated weightlessness alters biological characteristics of human breast cancer cell line MCF-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Airong; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Li; Weng, Yuanyuan; Yang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhe; Hu, Lifang; Xu, Huiyun; Tian, Zongcheng; Shang, Peng

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the clinostat-simulated microgravity on MCF-7 cells (a breast cancer cell line) biological characteristics. MCF-7 cells were incubated for 24 h in an incubator and then rotated in a clinostat as a model of simulated microgravity for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the clinostat-simulated microgravity on MCF-7 cells proliferation, invasion, migration, gelatinase production, adhesion, cell cycle, apoptosis and vinculin expression were detected. The results showed that the clinostat-simulated microgravity affected breast cancer cell invasion, migration, adhesion, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and vinculin expression. These results may explore a new field of vision to study tumor metastasis in future.

  7. Integrated Genomic Analysis of Diverse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan; Dexheimer, Phillip J; Omberg, Larsson; Schroll, Robin; Bush, Stacy; Huo, Jeffrey; Schriml, Lynn; Ho Sui, Shannan; Keddache, Mehdi; Mayhew, Christopher; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Wells, James; Daily, Kenneth; Hubler, Shane; Wang, Yuliang; Zambidis, Elias; Margolin, Adam; Hide, Winston; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K; Malik, Punam; Cancelas, Jose A; Aronow, Bruce J; Lutzko, Carolyn

    2016-07-12

    The rigorous characterization of distinct induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived from multiple reprogramming technologies, somatic sources, and donors is required to understand potential sources of variability and downstream potential. To achieve this goal, the Progenitor Cell Biology Consortium performed comprehensive experimental and genomic analyses of 58 iPSC from ten laboratories generated using a variety of reprogramming genes, vectors, and cells. Associated global molecular characterization studies identified functionally informative correlations in gene expression, DNA methylation, and/or copy-number variation among key developmental and oncogenic regulators as a result of donor, sex, line stability, reprogramming technology, and cell of origin. Furthermore, X-chromosome inactivation in PSC produced highly correlated differences in teratoma-lineage staining and regulator expression upon differentiation. All experimental results, and raw, processed, and metadata from these analyses, including powerful tools, are interactively accessible from a new online portal at https://www.synapse.org to serve as a reusable resource for the stem cell community. PMID:27293150

  8. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, G; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M;

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1–15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland......, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). Ten-year event-free (pEFS10y) survival and overall (pOS10y) survival were 0.75 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively. Although treatment intensity was determined by WBC, nonremission and relapsed patients still had significantly higher WBC than those in remission for B-cell...

  9. Computational modeling of STED microscopy through multiple biological cells under one- and two-photon excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Andrew E.; Davis, Mitchell A.; Starosta, Matthew S.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2015-03-01

    While superresolution optical microscopy techniques afford enhanced resolution for biological applications, they have largely been used to study structures in isolated cells. We use the FDTD method to simulate the propagation of focused beams for STED microscopy through multiple biological cells. We model depletion beams that provide 2D and 3D confinement of the fluorescence spot and assess the effective PSF of the system as a function of focal depth. We compare the relative size of the STED effective PSF under one- and two-photon excitation. PSF calculations suggest that imaging is possible up to the maximum simulation depth if the fluorescence emission remains detectable.

  10. An update: improvements in imaging perfluorocarbon-mounted plant leaves with implications for studies of plant pathology, physiology, development and cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Littlejohn, George R.; Mansfield, Jessica C.; Christmas, Jacqueline T.; Witterick, Eleanor; Fricker, Mark D; Grant, Murray R.; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Everson, Richard M.; Moger, Julian; Love, John

    2014-01-01

    Plant leaves are optically complex, which makes them difficult to image by light microscopy. Careful sample preparation is therefore required to enable researchers to maximize the information gained from advances in fluorescent protein labeling, cell dyes and innovations in microscope technologies and techniques. We have previously shown that mounting leaves in the non-toxic, non-fluorescent perfluorocarbon (PFC), perfluorodecalin (PFD) enhances the optical properties of the leaf with minimal...

  11. The successes and limitations of preclinical studies in predicting the pharmacodynamics and safety of cell-surface-targeted biological agents in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Polson, Andrew G; Fuji, Reina N

    2012-01-01

    To improve drug development outcomes, it is important to review when preclinical pharmacodynamic and safety models have successfully predicted human responses and when they have not. In a recent issue of the BJP, Bugelski and Martin examined the concordance between preclinical and human data for biopharmaceuticals targeted to cell-surface proteins. The cases are interesting and several trends emerge. The pharmacodynamics of biopharmaceuticals in non-human primates is largely predictive; the u...

  12. Particle-based model to simulate the micromechanics of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Liedekerke, P.; Tijskens, E.; Ramon, H.; Ghysels, P.; Samaey, G.; Roose, D.

    2010-06-01

    This paper is concerned with addressing how biological cells react to mechanical impulse. We propose a particle based model to numerically study the mechanical response of these cells with subcellular detail. The model focuses on a plant cell in which two important features are present: (1) the cell’s interior liquidlike phase inducing hydrodynamic phenomena, and (2) the cell wall, a viscoelastic solid membrane that encloses the protoplast. In this particle modeling framework, the cell fluid is modeled by a standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. For the viscoelastic solid phase (cell wall), a discrete element method (DEM) is proposed. The cell wall hydraulic conductivity (permeability) is built in through a constitutive relation in the SPH formulation. Simulations show that the SPH-DEM model is in reasonable agreement with compression experiments on an in vitro cell and with analytical models for the basic dynamical modes of a spherical liquid filled shell. We have performed simulations to explore more complex situations such as relaxation and impact, thereby considering two cell types: a stiff plant type and a soft animal-like type. Their particular behavior (force transmission) as a function of protoplasm and cell wall viscosity is discussed. We also show that the mechanics during and after cell failure can be modeled adequately. This methodology has large flexibility and opens possibilities to quantify problems dealing with the response of biological cells to mechanical impulses, e.g., impact, and the prediction of damage on a (sub)cellular scale.

  13. Effects of membrane disruption on dielectric properties of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disruption of the plasma membrane causes serious changes in the dielectric properties of biological cells. The changes have been simulated with spherical cell models having holes in the plasma membrane. The complex permittivity of a cubic system including a cell model was calculated by a numerical technique based on the three-dimensional finite difference method. For a cell without hole, the complex permittivity showed dielectric relaxation (β-dispersion) as predicted from interfacial polarization theories for the single-shell model. When there is one hole in the membrane, the cell has anisotropic dielectric properties depending on whether the axis through the centres of the hole and the sphere is parallel (the parallel orientation) or perpendicular (the perpendicular orientation) to the electric field direction. In the parallel orientation, dielectric relaxation (called 'α-dispersion') appeared at lower frequencies in addition to the β-dispersion, whereas only the β-dispersion was found in the perpendicular orientation. When there were two holes at the opposite poles of the cell, the 'α-dispersion' did not appear and the intensity of the β-dispersion decreased with increasing size of the holes. When two holes located in the hemisphere of the cell, however, the 'α-dispersion' appeared again. These results suggest that the occurrence of the 'α-dispersion' requires either the presence of one hole or the localization of holes

  14. Mathematical models in cell biology and cancer chemotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eisen, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to show how mathematics can be applied to improve cancer chemotherapy. Unfortunately, most drugs used in treating cancer kill both normal and abnormal cells. However, more cancer cells than normal cells can be destroyed by the drug because tumor cells usually exhibit different growth kinetics than normal cells. To capitalize on this last fact, cell kinetics must be studied by formulating mathematical models of normal and abnormal cell growth. These models allow the therapeutic and harmful effects of cancer drugs to be simulated quantitatively. The combined cell and drug models can be used to study the effects of different methods of administering drugs. The least harmful method of drug administration, according to a given criterion, can be found by applying optimal control theory. The prerequisites for reading this book are an elementary knowledge of ordinary differential equations, probability, statistics, and linear algebra. In order to make this book self-contained, a chapter on...

  15. Adhesion in the stem cell niche: biological roles and regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuyi; Lewallen, Michelle; Xie, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell self-renewal is tightly controlled by the concerted action of stem cell-intrinsic factors and signals within the niche. Niche signals often function within a short range, allowing cells in the niche to self-renew while their daughters outside the niche differentiate. Thus, in order for stem cells to continuously self-renew, they are often anchored in the niche via adhesion molecules. In addition to niche anchoring, however, recent studies have revealed other important roles for adhe...

  16. Study of the influence of microgravity on the biological cells and molecular level; Seitai saibo bunshi level ni okeru bisho juryoku no eikyo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The shape of osteoblast, gene appearance, gene of rice blast, cellular fusion of plants, gravity acceptance mechanism of unicellular organisms, and physiological and immunity functions of mice were investigated under the microgravity condition. The influence of gravity on the vital reaction and the influence of microgravity on the crystallization of vital substances were also investigated. For the observation of osteoblast, the fluorescence dye reacted with Ca was well taken in the cells. The microgravity affected the stability of rice blast, but hardly affected the protoplast culture of mushroom. The reaction of ciliate against the gravity related to the specific gravity difference between cells and outer liquid. The level of adrenaline in blood of mice increased during the drop. The moving speed of trigger waves of chemical parallel slit formed at the BZ reaction under the microgravity became 60% to 80% of that on the ground. In the case of crystallization at the deposition agent concentration of 1% to 4%, the turbidity showing the degree of crystallization changed complicatedly. Nine processes of crystal growth were recognized. 21 refs., 55 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Studies about space radiation promote new fields in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astronauts are constantly exposed to space radiation of various types of energy with a low dose-rate during long-term stays in space. Therefore, it is important to determine correctly the biological effects of space radiation on human health. Studies about biological the effects at a low dose and a low dose-rate include various aspects of microbeams, bystander effects, radioadaptive responses and hormesis which are important fields in radiation biology. In addition, space radiations contain high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. In particular, neutrons may cause reverse effectiveness at a low dose-rate in comparison to ionizing radiation. We are also interested in p53-centered signal transduction pathways involved in the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis induced by space radiations. We must also study whether the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space radiation is affected by microgravity which is another typical component in space. To confirm this, we must prepare centrifuge systems in an International Space Station (ISS). In addition, we must prepare many types of equipment for space experiments in an ISS, because we cannot use conventional equipment from our laboratories. Furthermore, the research for space radiation might give us valuable information about the birth and evolution of life on the Earth. We can also realize the importance of preventing the ozone layer from depletion by the use of exposure equipment to sunlight in an ISS. For these reasons, we desire to educate space researchers of the next generation based on the consideration of the preservation of the Earth from research about space radiation. (author)

  18. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  19. 2012478 Biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and JAK2 mutation in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田竑

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMSCs) and detect JAK2 mutation in BMSCs from myeloproliferative neoplasms(MPN) patients. Methods JAK2 V617F mutation and exon 12 mutation in 70 MPN patients’ blood or bone marrow samples were detected.

  20. Mobile Applications in Cell Biology Present New Approaches for Cell Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Mayara Lustosa; Galembeck, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology apps were surveyed in order to identify whether there are new approaches for modelling cells allowed by the new technologies implemented in tablets and smartphones. A total of 97 apps were identified in 3 stores surveyed (Apple, Google Play and Amazon), they are presented as: education 48.4%, games 26.8% and medicine 15.4%. The apps…

  1. Study on Construction of Accelerating Ulcer Concrescence Cell/Hydrogel Compound and Its Biological Character%促溃疡愈合细胞/水凝胶三维复合物的初步构建及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董荣娜; 毋中明; 于德民

    2012-01-01

      目的:应用壳聚糖衍生物水凝胶负载表达人血小板衍化生长因子-BB 的 CHO 细胞系,初步构建促溃疡愈合复合物。方法:选择壳聚糖经 N-乙酰-L-半胱氨酸修饰后合成含巯基的双硫键壳聚糖,加水合成水凝胶,用 MTT 法检测生物相容性并负载转基因 CHO 细胞,构建促溃疡愈合复合物并进行表征。结果:该水凝胶材料与转基因 CHO 细胞系生物相容性良好。水凝胶呈网格结构,孔径一致、细胞黏附生长,负载转基因 CHO 细胞构成三维复合物。结论:CHO-rhPDGF-BB 细胞具有新的生物学功能,水凝胶与该细胞相容性良好,为研究糖尿病溃疡创面愈合提供了实验基础。%  Objective :Use natural macromolecule hydrogel material to compose 3D cell scaffolds loading transgenic cell that could stably express platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) to construct accelerating ulcer concrescence compound.Method:Choosed chitosan and modified it by NAC to synthesize disulfide bond chitosan with sulfydryl,dissolved the compound into deionized water generating hydrogel,tested it’s cytotoxicity by MTT;used it loading transgenic CHO as 3D cell scaffolds to construct cell/scaffold composition,scaned it’s structure.Result:The hydrogel has good biocompatibility.The compound has network structure,aperture well-distributed,cells stuck well.Conclusion:The CHO cell line had new biological character,and successfully constructed the cell/scaffold composition,which can afford experiment base and theory foundation to study ulcer concrescence.

  2. 15N in biological nitrogen fixation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography with 298 references on the use of the stable nitrogen isotope 15N in the research on the biological fixation of dinitrogen is presented. The literature pertaining to this bibliography covers the period from 1975 to the middle of 1985. (author)

  3. 白血病细胞分化与凋亡的化学生物学研究%Chemical biology study for differentiation and apoptosis of leukemic cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国强; 赵倩; 吴英理; 王立顺

    2012-01-01

    Chemical biology is a scientific interdiscipline spanning the fields of chemistry and biology that involves the application of chemical tools, often compounds, to the study and manipulation of biological systems. Remarkable achievements have been obtained on chemical biology which aims to study important biological events by using small molecular active compounds as a probe thus small active compound has become effective tools in the research of biomedieine. Our research group has achieved a series of results in the molecular mechanism study of leukemic cell differentiation and apoptosis through using small molecular active compounds. We discovered that adenanthin, a diterpenoid compound extracted from Rabdosia adenantha, induces APL-like cell differentiation, represses tumor growth in vivo and prolongs the survival of mouse A PL models that are sensitive and resistant to retinoic acid. The chemical probe biotin-tagged adenanthin was designed on the basis of structure-activity relationship data. Further study demonstrated adenanthin directly targets the conserved resolving cysteines of Prx I and Prx 0 and inhibits their peroxidase activities. Consequently, cellularH2O2 is elevated, leading to the activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases and increased transcription of C/EBP|3, which contributes to adenanthin-induced differentiation. In another study we identified a novel natural ent-kaurene diterpenoid derived from /. pharicus leaves called pharicin B that can rapidly stabilize RARa as well as PML-RARa protein and enhances ATRA-dependent transcriptional activity of RARa. Additionally, pharicin B enhances differentiation -enhancing effect of ATRA in AML cell lines, some primary leukemic cells and overcomes retinoid resistance in ATRA-resistant subclones. The effectiveness of the ATRA/pharicin B combination warrants further investigation on their use as a therapeutic strategy for AML patients. Based on our previous study that NSC606985, a novel

  4. Cell-to-cell variability in cell death: can systems biology help us make sense of it all?

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, X; Owen, M. S.; Lee, R E C; Gaudet, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common observations in cell death assays is that not all cells die at the same time, or at the same treatment dose. Here, using the perspective of the systems biology of apoptosis and the context of cancer treatment, we discuss possible sources of this cell-to-cell variability as well as its implications for quantitative measurements and computational models of cell death. Many different factors, both within and outside of the apoptosis signaling networks, have been correlated...

  5. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Wongkham, W.; Prakrajang, K.; Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Wanichapichart, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2013-06-01

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  6. Biological behaviour and role of endothelial progenitor cells in vascular diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiu-hua; SHE Ming-peng

    2007-01-01

    Obiective To review the biological behaviour of endothelial progenitor cells and their role in vascular diseases.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from Medline and PubMed for relevant English language articles published from 1985 to March 2007.The search term was "endothelial progenitor cells".Study selection Articles about the biological behaviour of endothelial progenitor cells and their roles in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases such as atherogenesis were used.Results Progenitor cells in bone marrow,peripheral blood and adventitia can differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs).The progenitor cells,which express certain surface markers including AC133,CD34 and KDR,enable restoration of the microcirculation and ECs when injury or ischaemia occurs.Endothelial progenitor cells used in experimental models and clinical trials for ischaemic syndromes could restore endothelial integrity and inhibit neointima development.Moreover,their number and functional properties are influenced by certain cytokines and atherosclerotic risk factors.Impairment of the progenitor cells might limit the regenerative capacity,even lead to the development of atherosclerosis or other vascular diseases.Conclusions Endothelial progenitor cells have a particular role in prevention and treatment of certain cardiovascular diseases.However,many challenges remain in understanding differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells,their mobilization and revascularization.

  7. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wongkham, W. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Inthanon, K. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90112 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, S. [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-06-15

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  8. Nano-ranged low-energy ion-beam-induced DNA transfer in biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy ion beams at a few tens of keV were demonstrated to be able to induce exogenous macromolecules to transfer into plant and bacterial cells. In the process, the ion beam with well controlled energy and fluence bombarded living cells to cause certain degree damage in the cell envelope in nanoscales to facilitate the macromolecules such as DNA to pass through the cell envelope and enter the cell. Consequently, the technique was applied for manipulating positive improvements in the biological species. This physical DNA transfer method was highly efficient and had less risk of side-effects compared with chemical and biological methods. For better understanding of mechanisms involved in the process, a systematic study on the mechanisms was carried out. Applications of the technique were also expanded from DNA transfer in plant and bacterial cells to DNA transfection in human cancer cells potentially for the stem cell therapy purpose. Low-energy nitrogen and argon ion beams that were applied in our experiments had ranges of 100 nm or less in the cell envelope membrane which was majorly composed of polymeric cellulose. The ion beam bombardment caused chain-scission dominant damage in the polymer and electrical property changes such as increase in the impedance in the envelope membrane. These nano-modifications of the cell envelope eventually enhanced the permeability of the envelope membrane to favor the DNA transfer. The paper reports details of our research in this direction.

  9. Mantle cell lymphoma: biological insights and treatment advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, John P; Williams, Michael E; Goy, Andre; Grant, Steven; Pfreundschuh, Michael; Rosen, Steve T; Sweetenham, John W

    2009-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exhibits considerable molecular heterogeneity and complexity, and is regarded as one of the most challenging lymphomas to treat. With increased understanding of the pathobiology of MCL, it is proposed that MCL is the result of 3 major converging factors, namely, deregulated cell cycle pathways, defects in DNA damage responses, and dysregulation of cell survival pathways. In the present era of targeted therapies, these biologic insights have resulted in the identification of several novel rational targets for therapeutic intervention in MCL that are undergoing active clinical testing. To date, there is no standard of care in MCL. Several approaches including conventional anthracycline-based therapies and intensive high-dose strategies with and without stem cell transplantation have failed to produce durable remissions for most patients. Moreover, considering the heterogeneity of MCL, it is increasingly being recognized that risk-adapted therapy might be a relevant therapeutic approach in this disease. At the first and second Global Workshops on Mantle Cell Lymphoma, questions addressing advances in the pathobiology of MCL, optimization of existing therapies, assessment of current data with novel therapeutic strategies, and the identification of molecular or phenotypic risk factors for utilization in risk-adapted therapies were discussed and will be summarized herein. PMID:19717376

  10. A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

    2015-02-01

    The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

  11. Electroporation of Biological Cells Embedded in a Polycarbonate Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Hercules, W A; Lindesay, J; Schmukler, R; Hercules, William A.; Lindesay, James; Coble, Anna; Schmukler, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The electropermeabilization of biological cell membranes by the application of an external field occurs whenever an applied field exceeds a threshold value. For fields above this threshold value but less than another critical value, the pores formed in the membrane are transient or reversible. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of these transient pores. Here we examine the local electric fields generated for the configuration of cells embedded in a polycarbonate filter, both in the region in and around the pore. We consider the shear forces created in the membrane due to the gradient of the field along the surface of the membrane, and the interaction of the charged molecules in the membrane with this field. A relationship between the electric field strength and the size of the pore formed is derived.

  12. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  13. Accumulation and biological effects of gallium in malignant cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation and biological effects of gallium (Ga) in malignant cells in vitro were studied. Biological effects were investigated cytokinetically and morphologically. The malignant cultured FM3A cells (originated from mammary carcinoma of C3H mice) accumulated 67Ga actively. This accumulation was more intensive in proliferating cells than in non-proliferating cells. 6.5 percent of 67Ga accumulated in the cultured FM3A cells was bound loosely at the cell surface. The colony forming capacity of C2W cells (originated from amelanotic melanoma of C57 Black mice ) was studied. The capacity decreased markedly when stable Ga was added to the medium in low concentration, but it decreased very little more in the range of rather high concentration. The growth response of FM3A cells to various concentrations of stable Ga was studied. The saturation density decreased and the doubling time became prolonged with increased Ga concentration. When 0.5 mM of stable Ga was added to the medium, the speed of proliferation changed markedly. The doubling time increased 1.7 times as compared to that before addition of Ga. The shape of the FM3A cells was usually spheroid in the medium. Swelling of the cells was observed when stable Ga was added to the culture medium. In particular, several per cent of these cells showed remarkable changes; that is, the cells were flattened and adhered to the dish and showed remarkable locomotion. It may be that these results are related to cell differentiation rather than to the cytotoxicity of stable Ga. (auth.)

  14. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  15. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ferrara, Napoleone, E-mail: nf@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  16. Role of Calcium Signaling in B Cell Activation and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    Increase in intracellular levels of calcium ions (Ca2+) is one of the key triggering signals for the development of B cell response to the antigen. The diverse Ca2+ signals finely controlled by multiple factors participate in the regulation of gene expression, B cell development, and effector functions. B cell receptor (BCR)-initiated Ca2+ mobilization is sourced from two pathways: one is the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and other is the prolonged influx of extracellular Ca2+ induced by depleting the stores via store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The identification of stromal interaction molecule 1(STIM1), the ER Ca2+ sensor, and Orai1, a key subunit of the CRAC channel pore, has now provided the tools to understand the mode of Ca2+ influx regulation and physiological relevance. Herein, we discuss our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying BCR-triggered Ca2+ signaling as well as its contribution to the B cell biological processes and diseases. PMID:26369772

  17. Study of Transport of Biologically Important Compounds in\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Vodičková, H.; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Gál, M.

    Singapore: IACSIT Press, 2015, s. 43-50. (International Proceedings of Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering. Vol. 90). ISBN 978-981-09-7382-7. [International Conference on Environment, Chemistry and Biology (ICECB 2015) /4./. Auckland (NZ), 19.11.2015-21.11.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : membrane * cell * protoplast Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  18. Teaching Cell Biology to Nonscience Majors through Forensics, or How to Design a Killer Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arwood, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Nonscience majors often do not respond to traditional lecture-only biology courses. However, these students still need exposure to basic biological concepts. To accomplish this goal, forensic science was paired with compatible cell biology subjects. Several topics such as human development and molecular biology were found to fulfill this purpose.…

  19. Teaching Cell Biology to Nonscience Majors Through Forensics, or How to Design a Killer Course

    OpenAIRE

    Arwood, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Nonscience majors often do not respond to traditional lecture-only biology courses. However, these students still need exposure to basic biological concepts. To accomplish this goal, forensic science was paired with compatible cell biology subjects. Several topics such as human development and molecular biology were found to fulfill this purpose. Another goal was to maximize the ...

  20. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3+ p...

  1. New advances in pollination biology and the studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Pollination biology is the study of the various biological features in relation to the event of pollen transfer. It is one of the central concerns of plant reproductive ecology and evolutionary biology. In this paper, we attempt to introduce the main advances and some new interests in pollination biology and make a brief review of the research work that has been done in China in recent years. We also give some insights into the study that we intend to carry out in this field in the future.

  2. Systems Biology Perspectives on Minimal and Simpler Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Joana C.; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The concept of the minimal cell has fascinated scientists for a long time, from both fundamental and applied points of view. This broad concept encompasses extreme reductions of genomes, the last universal common ancestor (LUCA), the creation of semiartificial cells, and the design of protocells and chassis cells. Here we review these different areas of research and identify common and complementary aspects of each one. We focus on systems biology, a discipline that is greatly facilitating the classical top-down and bottom-up approaches toward minimal cells. In addition, we also review the so-called middle-out approach and its contributions to the field with mathematical and computational models. Owing to the advances in genomics technologies, much of the work in this area has been centered on minimal genomes, or rather minimal gene sets, required to sustain life. Nevertheless, a fundamental expansion has been taking place in the last few years wherein the minimal gene set is viewed as a backbone of a more complex system. Complementing genomics, progress is being made in understanding the system-wide properties at the levels of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Network modeling approaches are enabling the integration of these different omics data sets toward an understanding of the complex molecular pathways connecting genotype to phenotype. We review key concepts central to the mapping and modeling of this complexity, which is at the heart of research on minimal cells. Finally, we discuss the distinction between minimizing the number of cellular components and minimizing cellular complexity, toward an improved understanding and utilization of minimal and simpler cells. PMID:25184563

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells: biological characteristics and potential clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are clonogenic, non-hematpoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into multiple mesoderm-type cell lineages, for example, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial-cells and also non-mesoderm-type lineages, for example, neuronal...... among the first stem cell types to be introduced in the clinic. Several studies have demonstrated the possible use of MSC in systemic transplantation for systemic diseases, local implantation for local tissue defects, as a vehicle for genes in gene therapy protocols or to generate transplantable tissues......-like cells. Several methods are currently available for isolation of the MSC based on their physical and physico-chemical characteristics, for example, adherence to plastics or other extracellular matrix components. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSC are...

  4. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...... binding domain (LBD) has been associated with EDCs, a significant number of EDCs do not appear to influence the LBDs of these receptors. Therefore, we evaluated the potential biological effects of EDCs in humans with the aim to rationalize the etiology of certain disorders associated with the reproductive...

  5. Parallel analysis of individual biological cells using multifocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Taylor, Douglas S; Matthews, Dennis L; Chan, James W

    2010-11-01

    We report on the development and characterization of a multifocal laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (M-LTRS) technique for parallel Raman spectral acquisition of individual biological cells. Using a 785-nm diode laser and a time-sharing laser trapping scheme, multiple laser foci are generated to optically trap single polystyrene beads and suspension cells in a linear pattern. Raman signals from the trapped objects are simultaneously projected through the slit of a spectrometer and spatially resolved on a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector with minimal signal crosstalk between neighboring cells. By improving the rate of single-cell analysis, M-LTRS is expected to be a valuable method for studying single-cell dynamics of cell populations and for the development of high-throughput Raman based cytometers. PMID:21073802

  6. Microstructured polymeric substrates applied to human stem cells studies

    OpenAIRE

    Grespan, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the capability to differentiate into specialized cells and to subdivide indefinitely to produce more stem cells. Studies on human stem cells represent a powerful method to analyze biological and physiological processes specific of human cells, as well as for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cell therapies. When these studies are performed in vitro it is important to take in account that cellular processes such as adhesion, migration...

  7. The 2~(nd) Guangzhou International Forum on the Frontier of Stem Cell and Regeneration Biology Invitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The forum will focus on the following topics: reprogramming of stem cell, chemical biology researchin stem cell, applied research in embryonic and somatic stem cells, stem cell and drug R&D, developmentand mode animal research, stem cell biology and cloning. The Forum will invite members of the CASOverseas Innovation Team on stem cells and cloning, expert panel members of the national key projecton Development and Procreation, the nation's 973 Project chief scientists and other professionals of thearea from all over the world.

  8. Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, SangYun; Yang, Su-A; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of biological cells is crucial for the investigation of cell biology, provide valuable information to reveal the mechanisms behind pathophysiology of cells and tissues. Recent advances in optical diffraction tomography (ODT) have demonstrated the potential for the study of various cells with its unique advantages of quantitative and label-free imaging capability. To provide insight on this rapidly growing field of research and to discuss its applications in biology and medicine, we present the summary of the ODT principle and highlight recent studies utilizing ODT with the emphasis on the applications to the pathophysiology of cells.

  9. Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Junko; Cartwright, Ian M.; Haskins, Jeremy S.; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hirakawa, Hirokazu; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Hisashi; Fujimori, Akira; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kato, Takamitsu A.

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ions, characterized by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, have advantages compared with low LET protons and photons in their biological effects. The application of heavy ions within veterinary clinics requires additional background information to determine heavy ion efficacy. In the present study, comparison of the cell-killing effects of photons, protons and heavy ions was investigated in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cells in vitro. A total of four canine OSA cell lines with various radiosensitivities were irradiated with 137Cs gamma-rays, monoenergetic proton beams, 50 keV/µm carbon ion spread out Bragg peak beams and 200 keV/µm iron ion monoenergetic beams. Clonogenic survival was examined using colony-forming as says, and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values were calculated relative to gamma-rays using the D10 value, which is determined as the dose (Gy) resulting in 10% survival. For proton irradiation, the RBE values for all four cell lines were 1.0–1.1. For all four cell lines, exposure to carbon ions yielded a decreased cell survival compared with gamma-rays, with the RBE values ranging from 1.56–2.10. Iron ions yielded the lowest cell survival among tested radiation types, with RBE values ranging from 3.51–3.69 observed in the three radioresistant cell lines. The radiosensitive cell line investigated demonstrated similar cell survival for carbon and iron ion irradiation. The results of the present study suggest that heavy ions are more effective for killing radioresistant canine OSA cells when compared with gamma-rays and protons. This markedly increased efficiency of cell killing is an attractive reason for utilizing heavy ions for radioresistant canine OSA. PMID:27446477

  10. The cytoskeleton significantly impacts invasive behavior of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Käs, Josef; Seltman, Kristin; Magin, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Cell migration is a key determinant of cancer metastasis and nerve regeneration. The role of the cytoskeleton for the epithelial-meschenymal transition (EMT), i.e, for invasive behavior of cells, is only partially understood. Here, we address this issue in cells lacking all keratins upon genome engineering. In contrast to prediction, keratin-free cells show a 60% higher deformability compared to less pronounced softening effects for actin depolymerization. To relate these findings with functional consequences, we use invasion and three-dimensional growth assays. These reveal higher invasiveness of keratin-free cells. This study supports the view that downregulation of keratins observed during EMT directly contributes to the migratory and invasive behavior of tumor cells. Cancer cells that effectively move through tissues are softer and more contractile than cells that stay local in tissues. Soft and contractile avoids jamming. Naturally, softness has to have its limits. So neuronal growth cones are too soft to carry large loads to move efficiently through scar tissue, which is required for nerve regeneration. In synopsis, the physical bounds that the functional modules of a moving cell experience in tissues may provide an overarching motif for novel approaches in diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Biological effectiveness of mammalian cells exposed to heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LET-relative biological effectiveness (RBE) spectra were investigated using cultured V79 cells by accelerated heavy ions. Cells were exposed to ''3He-, ''1''2C-, and ''2''0Ne-ion beams at HIMAC, the Medical Cyclotron at NIRS, and RRC at RIKEN with an LET ranging over approximately 10-500 keV/μm under aerobic conditions. Cell-survival curves were fitted by equations from the linear-quadratic model to obtain survival parameters, and the RBE values were analyzed as a function of LET. The RBE increased with LET, reaching a maximum at around 200 keV/μm, then decreased with a further increase in LET. Clear splits of the LET-RBE spectrum were found among ion-spices. The LET-RBE spectra were fitted by a newly contrived equation that including three parameters: LP, A, and W. The parameters will indicate a LET that gives a maximum RBE, a related value to maximum RBE, and indicates the width of the peak of RBE, respectively. It is also found that the parameters can be defined as functions of atomic numbers of the accelerated ions. At a given LET, the RBE-value for lighter ions was higher than that for heavier ions at lower-LET region. The LET that gives maximum RBE shifts to higher LET for heavier-ions, and the maximum values of the peak of RBE decreased with the atomic number of the irradiated ions. (author)

  12. Dynamic cell culture system: a new cell cultivation instrument for biological experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmunder, F. K.; Nordau, C. G.; Tschopp, A.; Huber, B.; Cogoli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The prototype of a miniaturized cell cultivation instrument for animal cell culture experiments aboard Spacelab is presented (Dynamic cell culture system: DCCS). The cell chamber is completely filled and has a working volume of 200 microliters. Medium exchange is achieved with a self-powered osmotic pump (flowrate 1 microliter h-1). The reservoir volume of culture medium is 230 microliters. The system is neither mechanically stirred nor equipped with sensors. Hamster kidney (Hak) cells growing on Cytodex 3 microcarriers were used to test the biological performance of the DCCS. Growth characteristics in the DCCS, as judged by maximal cell density, glucose consumption, lactic acid secretion and pH, were similar to those in cell culture tubes.

  13. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    OpenAIRE

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicate...

  14. The study of biocompatibility on build three-dimensional scaffold of dental pulp stem cells with biological fibrin glue in vitro%生物蛋白胶-牙髓干细胞构建三维支架的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红梅; 曾常爱; 陈彩芬; 李伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:构建牙髓干细胞-生物蛋白胶支架的三维培养体系,研究牙髓干细胞在生物蛋白胶中的生物相容性。方法体外复苏牙髓干细胞并复合进入生物蛋白胶中培养,通过CCK-8检测提取液对细胞增长情况的影响,并通过细胞的矿化情况进一步分析生物蛋白胶的生物特性。结果冻存的牙髓干细胞经免疫荧光染色具备干细胞的特性,细胞包埋于生物蛋白胶内可见三维培养下细胞状态更加伸展,更加模拟自然生长,细胞形态典型,2 w后生物蛋白胶可完全降解,牙髓干细胞矿化诱导结果较典型。结论生物蛋白胶是一种适宜的组织工程牙髓种子细胞载体。%Objective To build the three-dimensional cultivation system of dental pulp stem cells with biological fibrin glue bracket , study the compatibility of dental pulp stem cells in biological fibrin glue ,explore the feasibility of the biological fibrin glue in the dental pulp tissue engineering scaffold .Methods The dental pulp stem cells were recovered in vitro and identificated by immunofluorescence staining , and cultivated in biological fibrin glue ,the effect of cell growth was detected by CCK 8,the characteristics of the biological fibrin glue was an-alyzed through mineralization changes of the cells .Results Dental pulp stem cells in frozen storage had the characteristics of stem cells by immunofluorescence staining ,cell state was more stretch ,more simulated natural growth and more the typical forms in embedding in biological fibrin glue,the biological fibrin glue had completely degradations after 2 weeks,induced mineralization results of dental pulp stem cells .Con-clusions Biological fibrin glue is a suitable carrier of dental pulp tissue engineering seed cells .

  15. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis: Clinical implications of experimental studies on metastatic inefficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent technological advances have led to an increasing ability to detect isolated tumour cells and groups of tumour cells in patients' blood, lymph nodes or bone marrow. However, the clinical significance of these cells is unclear. Should they be considered as evidence of metastasis, necessitating aggressive treatment, or are they in some cases unrelated to clinical outcome? Quantitative experimental studies on the basic biology of metastatic inefficiency are providing clues that may help in understanding the significance of these cells. This understanding will be of use in guiding clinical studies to assess the significance of isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in cancer patients

  16. Anomalous transport in the crowded world of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, Felix; Franosch, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    A ubiquitous observation in cell biology is that the diffusive motion of macromolecules and organelles is anomalous, and a description simply based on the conventional diffusion equation with diffusion constants measured in dilute solution fails. This is commonly attributed to macromolecular crowding in the interior of cells and in cellular membranes, summarizing their densely packed and heterogeneous structures. The most familiar phenomenon is a sublinear, power-law increase of the mean-square displacement (MSD) as a function of the lag time, but there are other manifestations like strongly reduced and time-dependent diffusion coefficients, persistent correlations in time, non-Gaussian distributions of spatial displacements, heterogeneous diffusion and a fraction of immobile particles. After a general introduction to the statistical description of slow, anomalous transport, we summarize some widely used theoretical models: Gaussian models like fractional Brownian motion and Langevin equations for visco-elastic media, the continuous-time random walk model, and the Lorentz model describing obstructed transport in a heterogeneous environment. Particular emphasis is put on the spatio-temporal properties of the transport in terms of two-point correlation functions, dynamic scaling behaviour, and how the models are distinguished by their propagators even if the MSDs are identical. Then, we review the theory underlying commonly applied experimental techniques in the presence of anomalous transport like single-particle tracking, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). We report on the large body of recent experimental evidence for anomalous transport in crowded biological media: in cyto- and nucleoplasm as well as in cellular membranes, complemented by in vitro experiments where a variety of model systems mimic physiological crowding conditions. Finally, computer simulations are discussed which play an important

  17. Glucose Transport in Cultured Animal Cells: An Exercise for the Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Mary Lee S.; Lippert, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane transport is a fundamental concept that undergraduate students of cell biology understand better with laboratory experience. Formal teaching exercises commonly used to illustrate this concept are unbiological, qualitative, or intricate and time consuming to prepare. We have developed an exercise that uses uptake of radiolabeled nutrient…

  18. Microscopy Images as Interactive Tools in Cell Modeling and Cell Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Jorge, Tania C.; Cardona, Tania S.; Mendes, Claudia L. S.; Henriques-Pons, Andrea; Meirelles, Rosane M. S.; Coutinho, Claudia M. L. M.; Aguiar, Luiz Edmundo V.; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth L.; de Castro, Solange L.; Barbosa, Helene S.; Luz, Mauricio R. M. P.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of genomics, proteomics, and microarray technology has brought much excitement to science, both in teaching and in learning. The public is eager to know about the processes of life. In the present context of the explosive growth of scientific information, a major challenge of modern cell biology is to popularize basic concepts of…

  19. A description of the semiotic metaphor in biology teaching: assertions about the animal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Dantas Trevisan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this survey is describing signly the metaphor learning resource, with focus on biology education. Our teorical reference is the peircean semiotics, because it means solid heritage to code surveys implicated at science education, it led us to do an explanation about the main lines about that reference, addressed to researchers and lecturers interested in those reasonings. In the description yearned, another objectives appear: demonstrate diferences between metaphor/analogy and pragmatic analogy; to list metaphors, from cell representation analysis, and argue about principals diferences and probable cognitive consequences between the metaphor event in the visual representation and speech sentences. Therefore we analysed the animal cell of a high school first grade studying book – biologycell biology – used by São Paulo and another state students. The findings demonstrate the undeniable importance of the metaphor as a learning tool in the biology education, and new findings about that, such as its limits in the concept elaboration, gnosiologic consequences for receptioning, the search needs for propositions– pictures between concept relations – in the science speech construction, and other results.

  20. Student Perceptions of the Cell Biology Laboratory Learning Environment in Four Undergraduate Science Courses in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Juan, Joaquin; Pérez-Cañaveras, Rosa M.; Segovia, Yolanda; Girela, Jose Luis; Martínez-Ruiz, Noemi; Romero-Rameta, Alejandro; Gómez-Torres, Maria José; Vizcaya-Moreno, M. Flores

    2016-01-01

    Cell biology is an academic discipline that organises and coordinates the learning of the structure, function and molecular composition of cells in some undergraduate biomedical programs. Besides course content and teaching methodologies, the laboratory environment is considered a key element in the teaching of and learning of cell biology. The…

  1. The Comparison of Biologic Characteristics between Mice Embryonic Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Derived Dendritic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Liu; Zhixu He; Dong Shen; Jin Huang; Haowen Wang

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This research was to induce dendritic cells (DCs)from mice embryonic stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells in vitro, and then compare the biologic characteristics of them.METHODS Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) suspending cultured in petri dishes were induced to generate embryonic bodies (EBs).Fourteen-day well-developed EBs were transferred to histological culture with the same medium and supplemented 25 ng/ml GM-CSF and 25 ng/ml IL-3. In the next 2 weeks, there were numerous immature DCs outgrown. Meantime, mononuclear cells isolated from mice bone marrow were induced to derive dendritic cells by supplementing 25 ng/ml GM-CSF and 25 ng/ml IL-4, and then the morphology, phenotype and function of both dendritic cells from different origins were examined.RESULTS Growing mature through exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), both ESC-DCs and BM-DCs exhibited dramatic veils of cytoplasm and extensive dendrites on their surfaces, highly expressed CD11c, MHC-Ⅱ and CD86 with strong capacity to stimulate primary T cell responses in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR).CONCLUSION ESC-DC has the same biologic characteristics as BM-DC, and it provides a new, reliable source for the functional research of DC and next produce corresponding anti-tumor vaccine.

  2. Thin-film optoacoustic transducers for subcellular Brillouin oscillation imaging of individual biological cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cota, Fernando; Smith, Richard J; Moradi, Emilia; Marques, Leonel; Webb, Kevin F; Clark, Matt

    2015-10-01

    At low frequencies ultrasound is a valuable tool to mechanically characterize and image biological tissues. There is much interest in using high-frequency ultrasound to investigate single cells. Mechanical characterization of vegetal and biological cells by measurement of Brillouin oscillations has been demonstrated using ultrasound in the GHz range. This paper presents a method to extend this technique from the previously reported single-point measurements and line scans into a high-resolution acoustic imaging tool. Our technique uses a three-layered metal-dielectric-metal film as a transducer to launch acoustic waves into the cell we want to study. The design of this transducer and measuring system is optimized to overcome the vulnerability of a cell to the exposure of laser light and heat without sacrificing the signal-to-noise ratio. The transducer substrate shields the cell from the laser radiation, efficiently generates acoustic waves, facilitates optical detection in transmission, and aids with heat dissipation away from the cell. This paper discusses the design of the transducers and instrumentation and presents Brillouin frequency images on phantom, fixed, and living cells. PMID:26479614

  3. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov; Dmitry Skladnev; Vitaly Shvets

    2014-01-01

    Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris) was investigated at the growth on media with heavy wate...

  4. The IWOP Technique and Wigner-Function Approach to Quantum Effect of Mesoscopic Biological Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Xia

    2014-09-01

    Using the IWOP technique, Wigner function theory and TFD theory, the quantization of a mesoscopic biological cell equivalent circuit is proposed, The quantum fluctuations of the mesoscopic biological cell are researched in thermal vacuum state and vacuum state. It is shown that the IWOP technique, Wigner function theory and Umezawa-Takahashi's TFD theory play the key role in quantizing a mesoscopic biological cell at finite temperature and the fluctuations and uncertainty increase with increasing temperature and decrease with prolonged time.

  5. Single-Molecule Studies in Live Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Live-cell single-molecule experiments are now widely used to study complex biological processes such as signal transduction, self-assembly, active trafficking, and gene regulation. These experiments' increased popularity results in part from rapid methodological developments that have significantly lowered the technical barriers to performing them. Another important advance is the development of novel statistical algorithms, which, by modeling the stochastic behaviors of single molecules, can be used to extract systemic parameters describing the in vivo biochemistry or super-resolution localization of biological molecules within their physiological environment. This review discusses recent advances in experimental and computational strategies for live-cell single-molecule studies, as well as a selected subset of biological studies that have utilized these new technologies.

  6. Study of biological markers for radiation pretreatment of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients%造血干细胞移植辐射预处理生物标志物的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶; 胡莉钧; 徐军; 杨淑琴

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究小鼠受60C0γ射线照射后血液和免疫系统的早期生物参数变化,为造血干细胞移植(HSCT)受者放疗预处理寻找灵敏可靠的生物剂量标志物.方法 采用纯品系BALB/c雄性小鼠,随机分为1个对照组和3个照射组.应用60Coγ射线全身照射,吸收剂量分别为0、2、4和6Gy.照射后24 h,外周血白细胞计数及淋巴细胞百分率应用血常规计数测定;外周血和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核(mn-PCE)应用Giemsa染色镜下计数观察;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺早期凋亡率应用Annexin Ⅴ/PI双染法流式细胞仪检测.结果 与对照组比较,各照射组小鼠外周血白细胞计数及淋巴细胞百分率随辐射剂量增加而显著降低(P<0.01),其回归方程分别为E=0.1750D2-1.7440D+ 5.2020和E=84.9390-3.4255D;外周血和骨髓mn-PCE随辐射剂量增加而显著增加(P<0.01),骨髓mn-PCE与辐射剂量呈正相关,其回归方程为E=3.9725D+2.9700;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺早期凋亡率随辐射剂量增加而显著增高(P<0.01),呈线性正相关,回归方程分别为E=3.42D+ 8.36,E=3.0645D+ 3.1840和E=2.5620D+2.5090.结论 外周血淋巴细胞计数和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率与辐射剂量呈线性相关,其回归方程可作为放射预处理剂量评估灵敏可靠的早期生物剂量标志物;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺淋巴细胞早期凋亡率与辐射剂量呈线性正相关,其回归方程可用于HCST受者放射预处理免疫系统抑制程度的判定指标.%Objective To study the early biological parameterchanges of blood andimmune systems of mice after 60Co γ-ray irradiation in order to find sensitive and reliable biological dose markers for radiation pretreatment of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.Methods Pure strain BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into control group and three irradiation groups and absorbed doses of total body irradiation by 60Co γ-ray were 0,2,4,6 Gy,respectively.In 24h after

  7. A proposal of collaborative education for biochemistry and cell biology teaching

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Souza-Júnior; Silva, A.P.; Silva, T. A.; G. P.V. Andrade

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Currently students grow up in a world of digital tools that allow you to connect instantly with the world. At the same time, teachers face several challenges to increase student interest and learning efficiency. One such challenge is the pedagogical commitment of the density of biochemistry and cell biology contents, producing a conflict scenario, between meeting content and maintain the class quality. OBJECTIVES: From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the learning ...

  8. Nano-textured fluidic biochip as biological filter for selective survival of neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Lo, Hung-Chun; Wu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong; Ou, Keng-Liang; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    This is an innovative study to engineer biological filter to evaluate the effect of template surface structure and physiochemical properties that can be used for wide variety of applications in biological, health care as well as environmental protection. Specifically, planar silicon (Si) wafer and arrayed Si nano-tips (SiNT) templates were fabricated and coated with gold for various lengths of time to study the effect of surface charge, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity on biological activity of rat pheochromocytoma cell lines PC12. The initial growth and proliferation of PC12 cells on Si and SiNT templates showed an antipathy for the ultra-sharp SiNTs templates. In contrast, the same cells demonstrated a preferable adherence to and proliferation on planar Si templates, resulting in higher cell densities by three orders of magnitude than those on SiNT templates. It is hypothesized that SiNTs array does generate nano-fluidic effect such that the effective contact region for aqueous solution on SiNTs is lower than that on planar Si templates, thus decreasing adsorbable area for cell viability and survival. Moreover, the effect of the gold coating on cell number density was analyzed in terms of the surface roughness, zeta potential and wetting properties of the templates. It was determined that surface charge, as measured by the zeta potential, strongly correlated with the trend observed in the surface cell density, whereas no such correlation was observed for surface roughness or wetting properties in the ranges of our experiment conditions. PMID:25256631

  9. Metabolic modelling in the development of cell factories by synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Tuulia Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  10. Plasma cell myeloma--new biological insights and advances in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlogie, B; Epstein, J; Selvanayagam, P; Alexanian, R

    1989-03-01

    levels) and biology. Further studies of cellular and molecular biology (ie, CAL-LA, H-ras) may reveal those tumor cell features that define clinical entities, response to therapy, and long-term prognosis. The lack of a major advance in prognosis despite the use of more drugs and more intensive regimens justifies the continued use of standard melphalan-prednisone for patients with a highly favorable prognosis, for the very aged, and for those with a short life expectancy due to other major medical problems. However, a radical departure from standard practice is required to improve the prognosis for younger patients with poor risk features.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2465790

  11. Redefining plant systems biology: from cell to ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Dicke, M.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Molenaar, J.; Putten, van der W.H.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Struik, P.C.; Thomma, B.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular biologists typically restrict systems biology to cellular levels. By contrast, ecologists define biological systems as communities of interacting individuals at different trophic levels that process energy, nutrient and information flows. Modern plant breeding needs to increase agricultura

  12. The role of Protein Kinase Cη in T cell biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R.J. Gascoigne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase Cη (PKCη is a member of the novel PKC subfamily, which also includes δ, ε, and θ isoforms. Compared to the other novel PKCs, the function of PKCη in the immune system is largely unknown. Several studies have started to reveal the role of PKCη, particularly in T cells. PKCη is highly expressed in T cells, and is upregulated during thymocyte positive selection. Interestingly, like the θ isoform, PKCη is also recruited to the immunological synapse that is formed between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell. However, unlike PKCθ, which becomes concentrated to the central region of the synapse, PKCη remains in a diffuse pattern over the whole area of the synapse, suggesting distinctive roles of these two isoforms in signal transduction. Although PKCη is dispensable for thymocyte development, further analysis of PKCη− or PKCθ−deficient and double knockout mice revealed the redundancy of these two isoforms in thymocyte development. In contrast, PKCη rather than PKCθ, plays an important role for T cell homeostatic proliferation, which requires recognition of self-antigen. Another piece of evidence demonstrating that PKCη and PKCθ have isoform specific as well as redundant roles come from the analysis of CD4 to CD8 T cell ratios in the periphery of these knockout mice. Deficiency in PKCη or PKCθ had opposing effects as PKCη knockout mice had a higher ratio of CD4 to CD8 T cells compared to that of wild-type mice, whereas PKCθ-deficient mice had a lower ratio. Biochemical studies showed that calcium flux and NFκB translocation is impaired in PKCη-deficient T cells upon TCR crosslinking stimulation, a character shared with PKCθ-deficient T cells. However, unlike the case with PKCθ, the mechanistic study of PKCη is at early stage and the signaling pathways involving PKCη, at least in T cells, are essentially unknown. In this review, we will cover the topics mentioned above as well as provide some

  13. Using synthetic biology to make cells tomorrow's test tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, HG; Brewster, RC; Phillips, R.

    2016-01-01

    The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In t...

  14. Modeling human risk: Cell ampersand molecular biology in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response

  15. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  16. Predicting spiral wave patterns from cell properties in a model of biological self-organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberth, Daniel; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    In many biological systems, biological variability (i.e., systematic differences between the system components) can be expected to outrank statistical fluctuations in the shaping of self-organized patterns. In principle, the distribution of single-element properties should thus allow predicting features of such patterns. For a mathematical model of a paradigmatic and well-studied pattern formation process, spiral waves of cAMP signaling in colonies of the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, we explore this possibility and observe a pronounced anticorrelation between spiral waves and cell properties (namely, the firing rate) and particularly a clustering of spiral wave tips in regions devoid of spontaneously firing (pacemaker) cells. Furthermore, we observe local inhomogeneities in the distribution of spiral chiralities, again induced by the pacemaker distribution. We show that these findings can be explained by a simple geometrical model of spiral wave generation.

  17. Biological - Elwha River Dam Removal Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study examines the ecosystem response of the Elwha River to the removal of the Elwha River dams. We will measure the following attributes of ecosystem...

  18. Lighting the fires within: the cell biology of autoinflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Heiyoung; Bourla, Ariel Bulua; Kastner, Daniel L.; Colbert, Robert A.; Siegel, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are characterized by seemingly unprovoked, pathological activation of the innate immune system in the absence of autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells. Discovery of the causative mutations underlying several monogenic autoinflammatory diseases has identified key regulators of innate immune responses. Recent studies have highlighted the role of misfolding, oligomerization and abnormal trafficking of pathogenic mutant proteins in triggering autoinflammation, and sugge...

  19. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in ≥50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  20. WWW.Cell Biology Education: Using the World Wide Web to Develop a New Teaching Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; MacAlpine, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    "Cell Biology Education" calls attention each quarter to several Web sites of educational interest to the biology community. The Internet provides access to an enormous array of potential teaching materials. In this article, the authors describe one approach for using the World Wide Web to develop a new college biology laboratory exercise. As a…

  1. [Biological properties of L-asparaginase preparations from E. coli in cell cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrat'eva, N A; Dobrynin, Ia V; Merkulov, M F

    1978-01-01

    Non-specific cytotoxicity and specific antitumor activity of 5 preparations of L-asparaginase from E. coli were studied. Two cell line, i.e. the asparagine-dependent (Berkitt lymphoma cells) and asparagin-independent (human ovary cancer cells) were used as the test-system. Incorporation of 3H-thimidine into DNA was the criterion of the preparation effect on the cells. Preparation I with the specific activity of 60-90 IU per 1 mg of protein obtained at the first stages of purification had high non-specific cytotoxicity. Preparation II obtained after further purification of preparation I, as well as preparation II without any stabilizer with the specific activity of 200 IU/mg were not inferior to the "Bayer" preparation by their biological properties. Addition of L-asparaginase to the preparation as a stabilizer of excessive glycine (preparation IV) increased its non-specific cytotoxicity and interfered with the study of its properties in the cell systems. Mannitol (preparation V) had no effect on the biological activity of L-asparaginase preparation. PMID:341799

  2. Biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells and influence of donor age on cell replication in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the biological character of human adipose-derived adult stem cells (hADAS cells) when cultured in vitro and the relationship between hADAS cell’s replication activity and the donor’s age factor, and to assess the stem cells as a new source for tissue engineering. hADAS cells are isolated from human adipose tissue of different age groups (from adolescents to olds: <20 years old, 21―40 years old, 41―60 years old and >61 years old groups). The protein markers (CD29, CD34, CD44, CD45, CD49d, HLA-DR, CD106) of hADAS cells were detected by flow cytometry (FCM) to identify the stem cell, and the cell cycle was examined for P20 hADAS cells to evaluate the safety of the subculture in vitro. The generative activity of hADAS cells in different age groups was also examined by MTT method. The formula “ log2T D = t logN t ? logN 0” was used to get the time doubling (TD) of the cells. The results showed that the cells kept heredity stabilization by chromosome analysis for at least 20 passages. The TD of these cells increased progressively by ageing, and the TD of the <20 years old group was lower than that of the >61 years old group (statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA), P=0.002, P<0.05). These find- ings suggested that a higher level of hADAS cells replication activity was found in the younger dona- tors, and they represent novel and valuable seed cells for studies of tissue engineering.

  3. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  4. Pressure-assisted cell spinning: a direct protocol for spinning biologically viable cell-bearing fibres and scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We recently pioneered the ability to directly electrospin living cells from which scaffolds to membranes were derived. This protocol, now widely referred to as 'cell electrospinning', is currently undergoing in-depth investigations where the post-treated cell's global gene expression to its sub-cellular components is being investigated for understanding any effects post-treating. Our motivation is to develop this method for the biomedical sciences, in particular for applications in regenerative and therapeutic medicine. In the current work, we unveil a direct cell spinning protocol which is non-electric field driven and which will compete directly with cell electrospinning. We referred to this processing method as 'pressure-assisted spinning' in our previous studies, where we demonstrated this route as an emerging micro/nanotechnology. In the current context, we refer to this processing protocol as 'pressure-assisted cell spinning' (PACS). Our developmental studies on PACS reported here show, for the first time, that this technique could be explored as an alternative approach to cell electrospinning. Pressure-assisted cell spinning now enters the direct biological scaffold to membrane formation league

  5. Pressure-assisted cell spinning: a direct protocol for spinning biologically viable cell-bearing fibres and scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arumuganathar, Sumathy [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Irvine, Scott [Royal Free and University College London Medical School, Rayne Institute, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); McEwan, Jean R [Molecular Immunology Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London, Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH (United Kingdom); Jayasinghe, Suwan N [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    We recently pioneered the ability to directly electrospin living cells from which scaffolds to membranes were derived. This protocol, now widely referred to as 'cell electrospinning', is currently undergoing in-depth investigations where the post-treated cell's global gene expression to its sub-cellular components is being investigated for understanding any effects post-treating. Our motivation is to develop this method for the biomedical sciences, in particular for applications in regenerative and therapeutic medicine. In the current work, we unveil a direct cell spinning protocol which is non-electric field driven and which will compete directly with cell electrospinning. We referred to this processing method as 'pressure-assisted spinning' in our previous studies, where we demonstrated this route as an emerging micro/nanotechnology. In the current context, we refer to this processing protocol as 'pressure-assisted cell spinning' (PACS). Our developmental studies on PACS reported here show, for the first time, that this technique could be explored as an alternative approach to cell electrospinning. Pressure-assisted cell spinning now enters the direct biological scaffold to membrane formation league.

  6. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  7. Pediatric glioma stem cells: biologic strategies for oncolytic HSV virotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GregoryKFriedman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common adult malignant brain tumor, GBMs in childhood represent less than 10% of pediatric malignant brain tumors and are phenotypically and molecularly distinct from adult GBMs. Similar to adult patients, outcomes for children with high-grade gliomas (HGGs remain poor. Furthermore, the significant morbidity and mortality yielded by pediatric GBM is compounded by neurotoxicity for the developing brain caused by current therapies. Poor outcomes have been attributed to a subpopulation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant cells, termed ‘glioma stem cells’ (GSCs, ‘glioma progenitor cells’, or ‘glioma-initiating cells', which have the ability to initiate and maintain the tumor and to repopulate the recurring tumor after conventional therapy. Future innovative therapies for pediatric HGGs must be able to eradicate these therapy-resistant GSCs. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, genetically engineered to be safe for normal cells and to express diverse foreign anti-tumor therapeutic genes, have been demonstrated in preclinical studies to infect and kill GSCs and tumor cells equally while sparing normal brain cells. In this review, we discuss the unique aspects of pediatric GSCs, including markers to identify them, the microenvironment they reside in, signaling pathways that regulate them, mechanisms of cellular resistance, and approaches to target GSCs, with a focus on the promising therapeutic, genetically engineered oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV.

  8. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-12-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM. PMID:26781288

  9. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  10. On the biological plausibility of grandmother cells: implications for neural network theories in psychology and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental claim associated with parallel distributed processing (PDP) theories of cognition is that knowledge is coded in a distributed manner in mind and brain. This approach rejects the claim that knowledge is coded in a localist fashion, with words, objects, and simple concepts (e.g. "dog"), that is, coded with their own dedicated representations. One of the putative advantages of this approach is that the theories are biologically plausible. Indeed, advocates of the PDP approach often highlight the close parallels between distributed representations learned in connectionist models and neural coding in brain and often dismiss localist (grandmother cell) theories as biologically implausible. The author reviews a range a data that strongly challenge this claim and shows that localist models provide a better account of single-cell recording studies. The author also contrast local and alternative distributed coding schemes (sparse and coarse coding) and argues that common rejection of grandmother cell theories in neuroscience is due to a misunderstanding about how localist models behave. The author concludes that the localist representations embedded in theories of perception and cognition are consistent with neuroscience; biology only calls into question the distributed representations often learned in PDP models. PMID:19159155

  11. In vitro growth, differentiation and biological characteristics of neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meijiang Yun; Lianzhong Wang; Yongcai Wang; Xiaolian Jiang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the biological characteristics of neural stem cells, and the separation, purification, differentiation and source of neural stem cells.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify English articles about the growth of neural stem cells in vitro published from January 2000 to October 2006 by using the keywords of "neural stem ceils, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), umbilical cord blood stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC), separation methods, neural growth factor". And relevant articles published in IEEE/IEE Electronic Library (IEL) database, Springer Link database and Kluwer Online Journals were also searched.Chinese relevant articles published between January 2000 to October 2006 were searched with the same keywords in Chinese in Chinese journal full-text database.STUDY SELECTTON: The articles were primarily screened, and then the full-texts were searched. Inclusive criteria: ① Articles relevant to the biological characteristics and classification of neural stem cells; ② Articles about the source, separation and differentiation of the ESCs, BMSCs and umbilical cord blood stem cells. The repetitive studies and reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Thirty articles were selected from 203 relevant articles according to the inclusive criteria.Articles were excluded because of repetition and reviews.DATA SYNTHESTS: Neural stem cells have the ability of self-renewing and high differentiation, and they are obtained from ESCs, nerve tissue, nerve system, BMSCs and umbilical cord blood stem cells. ESCs can be separated by means of mechanical dissociation is better than that of the trypsin digestion, BMSCs by density gradient centrifuge separation, hemolysis, whole-blood culture, etc., and umbilical cord blood stem cells by Ficoil density gradient centrifugation, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) centrifugation sedimentation, etc. Neural growth factor (NGF) and other factors play an important role in the growth

  12. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifeng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs exhibit high proliferation and self-renewal capabilities and are critical for tissue repair and regeneration during ontogenesis. They also play a role in immunomodulation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues and have many potential applications in the clinical setting. However, MSCs of different origins may possess different biological characteristics. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and skin (BMMSCs and SMSCs, resp., including analysis of the skin sampling area, separation method, culture conditions, primary and passage culture times, cell surface markers, multipotency, cytokine secretion, gene expression, and fibroblast-like features. The results showed that the MSCs from both sources had similar cell morphologies, surface markers, and differentiation capacities. However, the two cell types exhibited major differences in growth characteristics; the primary culture time of BMMSCs was significantly shorter than that of SMSCs, whereas the growth rate of BMMSCs was lower than that of SMSCs after passaging. Moreover, differences in gene expression and cytokine secretion profiles were observed. For example, secretion of proliferative cytokines was significantly higher for SMSCs than for BMMSCs. Our findings provide insights into the different biological functions of both cell types.

  13. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Wei, Hong; Zhang, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit high proliferation and self-renewal capabilities and are critical for tissue repair and regeneration during ontogenesis. They also play a role in immunomodulation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues and have many potential applications in the clinical setting. However, MSCs of different origins may possess different biological characteristics. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and skin (BMMSCs and SMSCs, resp.), including analysis of the skin sampling area, separation method, culture conditions, primary and passage culture times, cell surface markers, multipotency, cytokine secretion, gene expression, and fibroblast-like features. The results showed that the MSCs from both sources had similar cell morphologies, surface markers, and differentiation capacities. However, the two cell types exhibited major differences in growth characteristics; the primary culture time of BMMSCs was significantly shorter than that of SMSCs, whereas the growth rate of BMMSCs was lower than that of SMSCs after passaging. Moreover, differences in gene expression and cytokine secretion profiles were observed. For example, secretion of proliferative cytokines was significantly higher for SMSCs than for BMMSCs. Our findings provide insights into the different biological functions of both cell types. PMID:27239202

  14. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifeng; Chang, Wenjuan; Wei, Hong; Zhang, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit high proliferation and self-renewal capabilities and are critical for tissue repair and regeneration during ontogenesis. They also play a role in immunomodulation. MSCs can be isolated from a variety of tissues and have many potential applications in the clinical setting. However, MSCs of different origins may possess different biological characteristics. In this study, we performed a comprehensive comparison of MSCs isolated from bone marrow and skin (BMMSCs and SMSCs, resp.), including analysis of the skin sampling area, separation method, culture conditions, primary and passage culture times, cell surface markers, multipotency, cytokine secretion, gene expression, and fibroblast-like features. The results showed that the MSCs from both sources had similar cell morphologies, surface markers, and differentiation capacities. However, the two cell types exhibited major differences in growth characteristics; the primary culture time of BMMSCs was significantly shorter than that of SMSCs, whereas the growth rate of BMMSCs was lower than that of SMSCs after passaging. Moreover, differences in gene expression and cytokine secretion profiles were observed. For example, secretion of proliferative cytokines was significantly higher for SMSCs than for BMMSCs. Our findings provide insights into the different biological functions of both cell types.

  15. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Dogaru Gabriela; Crăciun Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flo...

  16. Direct Observation of Wet Biological Samples by Graphene Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungwon; Park, Hyesung; Ercius, Peter; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Xu, Chen; Kim, Jin Woong; Han, Sang Hoon; Weitz, David A

    2015-07-01

    Recent development of liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) enables the study of specimens in wet ambient conditions within a liquid cell; however, direct structural observation of biological samples in their native solution using TEM is challenging since low-mass biomaterials embedded in a thick liquid layer of the host cell demonstrate low contrast. Furthermore, the integrity of delicate wet samples is easily compromised during typical sample preparation and TEM imaging. To overcome these limitations, we introduce a graphene liquid cell (GLC) using multilayer graphene sheets to reliably encapsulate and preserve biological samples in a liquid for TEM observation. We achieve nanometer scale spatial resolution with high contrast using low-dose TEM at room temperature, and we use the GLC to directly observe the structure of influenza viruses in their native buffer solution at room temperature. The GLC is further extended to investigate whole cells in wet conditions using TEM. We also demonstrate the potential of the GLC for correlative studies by TEM and fluorescence light microscopy imaging. PMID:26065925

  17. Design and testing of biological scaffolds for delivering reparative cells to target sites in the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, Edward P; Sen, Elif; Tsai, Larry W; Murthy, Shankar; Hoffman, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    This study summarizes the development and testing of a scaffold to promote engraftment of cells in the distal lung. A fibrinogen-fibronectin-vitronectin hydrogel (FFVH) was developed and optimized with respect to its mechanical and biological properties for this application. In vitro, FFVH scaffolds promoted attachment, histiotypic growth and expression of basement membrane proteins by primary ovine lung mesenchymal cells derived from lung biopsies. In vivo testing was then performed to assess the ability of FFVHs to promote cell engraftment in the sheep lung. Treatment with autologous cells delivered using FFVH was clinically well tolerated. Cells labelled with a fluorescent dye (PKH-26) were detected at treatment sites after 1 month. Tissue mass (assessed by CT imaging) and lung perfusion (assessed by nuclear scintigraphy) were increased at emphysema test sites. Post-treatment histology demonstrated cell proliferation and increased elastin expression without scarring or collapse. No treatment-related pathology was observed at healthy control sites. FFVH scaffolds promote cell attachment, spreading and extracellular matrix expression in vitro and apparent engraftment in vivo, with evidence of trophic effects on the surrounding tissue. Scaffolds of this type may contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for patients with end-stage pulmonary diseases. PMID:20020503

  18. 3D-dynamic visualization of complex molecular cell biology processes : 1-year university students' understanding of visualizations of signal transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsson, Johan Lars Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This study deals with the use of 3D-dynamic visualizations for teaching complex molecular cell biology concepts. The focus is on signal transduction, which is a concept that constitutes an important part of biological systems. 3D-dynamic visualizations (animations) were produced and shown for a total of 24 students attending a course in molecular cell biology at Karlstad University, Sweden. Data were collected by questionnaires and interviews which were structured around the understandability...

  19. Three-dimensional cell-dense constructs containing endothelial cell-networks are an effective tool for in vivo and in vitro vascular biology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Sachiko; Muraoka, Megumi; Sasagawa, Tadashi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2010-12-01

    Angiogenesis is a complicated natural process, and understanding the mechanism by which it occurs is important for medical, pharmaceutical, and cell biological sciences. Many techniques for investigating angiogenesis have been reported. In this study, we introduced a novel application of a cell culture technique that can be used in in vitro and in vivo vascular biology research. Cultivated endothelial cells (ECs) were harvested from temperature responsive culture dishes by reducing the temperature, without the need for a proteinase treatment. For this technique, the direct contact of ECs with fibroblasts was important for the formation of a capillary-like network in vitro. Moreover, layered cell sheets containing EC-networks produced lumen and vascular structures in the three-dimensional constructs, as well as in the construct transplanted into a living body. Thus, our culture technique was able to create cell sheets and three-dimensional constructs containing EC-networks, because they preserved normal and intrinsic cell-cell direct contact and various cell adhesive factors. Moreover, the thickness of these three-dimensional (3-D) constructs could be controlled by the number of layered cell sheets. These observations indicated that our novel technology contributed to the progress of vascular biology and lead to a new tool that can be used in in vivo and in vitro vascular biology research. PMID:20696176

  20. Experimental study of the biological properties of 188Re-Hepama-1 biologic superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate a new biologic-superparamagnetic nanoparticles's characteristics of immunological activity, biological distributing in vivo, targeting and inhibiting tumor effect. Methods: The experimental group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and control groups, including 188ReO4-, 188Re-Hepama-1, and 188Re-superparamagnetic nanoparticles, were set up. The distributions were measured after injection 4 h and 24 h by caudal vein of Kuming mice. The magnetic targeting experiments in vivo were clone with and without magnetic field in liver after injection in New Zealand rabbit. The inhibiting tumor effect on hepatic cancer cell lines SMMC-7721 of the above four 188Re labeled products were measured by mono nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay method. Results: After injection 4 h and 24 h by vein, the liver taking was highest in group 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles. The radiative activity in liver in magnetism zoo was higher than in non magnetism zoo in 188Re- Hepama-1-superparamagnetic nanoparticles after applying magnetic field in left lobe of liver, and the ratio of in magnetism zoo to non magnetism zoo was 1.87. And the half effective inhibition radioactive concentrations (IC50) in 188Re-Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles was one forth of 188ReO4-. Conclusion: 188Re- Hepama-l-superparamagnetic nanoparticles showed its fine stability in intro, good immunological activity and significant liver target. (authors)

  1. Simulated studies on the biological effects of space radiation on quiescent human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; He, Jinpeng; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Liu, Cuihua; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Li, He; Hu, Wentao; Li, Yinghui; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Tieshan; Zhou, Guangming

    2013-10-01

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are severe risk to manned long-term outer space exploration. Studies on the biological effects of space HZE particles and the underlying mechanisms are essential to the accurate risk assessment and the development of efficient countermeasure. Since majority of the cells in human body stay quiescent (G0 phase), in this study, we established G0 cell and G1 cell models by releasing human normal embryonic lung fibroblast cells from contact inhibition and studied the radiation toxicity of various kinds of HZE particles. Results showed that all of the particles were dose-dependently lethal and G0 cells were more radioresistant than G1 cells. We also found that 53BP1 foci were induced in a LET- and fluence-dependent manner and fewer foci were induced in G0 cells than G1 cells, however, the decrease of foci in 24 h after irradiation was highly relevant to the type of particles. These results imply that even though health risk of space radiation is probably overestimated by the data obtained with exponentially growing cells, whose radiosensitivity is similar to G1 cells, the risk of space HZE particles is un-ignorable and accurate assessment and mechanistic studies should be deepened. The diverse abilities of G0 cells and G1 cells in repairing DNA damages induced by HZE particles emphasize the importance in studying the impact of HZE particles on DNA damage repair pathways.

  2. The Biological Effect of Hepsin on the Proliferation and Invasion of PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xu; Zhiqiang Fan; Jantao Sun; Ranlu Liu; Weiming Zhao; Chunyu Wang; Ju Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown that hepsin, a type of transmembrane serine protease, is highly upregulated in prostate cancer, but, little is known about its role in progression and invasion of this cancer. We constructed a hepsin-expressing plasmid and transfected it into PC-3 cells to investigate the effect of the hepsin gene on the biological behavior of the PC-3 cells.METHODS Plasmid pHepsin-IRES2 was transfected into prostate cancer PC-3 cells using Fugene6, and the cells with stable hepsin expression were screened and selected with Zeocin (600 mg/L). The hepsin mRNA level was measured by real-time PCR and the growth curve of the PC-3-transfected cells assessed using MTT and BrdU assays. A Boyden chamber was used to examine the difference in invasion and metastases between transfected and non-transfected cells.RESULTS The hepsin mRNA level in pHepsin-IRES2 transfected -PC-3 cells was significantly higher than that found in the control PC-3 cells. While the growth curve of the hepsin gene transfected PC-3 cells showed that there was no significant effect on proliferation, the invasive ability of the pHepsin-IRES2 transfected PC-3 cells, as compared with control cells, was significantly increased (P<0.05).CONCLUSION The results suggest that even though hepsin has no effect on the proliferation of prostate cancer PC-3 cells, it does promote cellular invasion and metastasis.Therefore hepsin may have a role in the development of prostate cancer.

  3. Biological characterization of cultured dermal papilla cells and hair follicle regeneration in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhong-fa; CAI Sui-qing; WU Jin-jin; ZHENG Min

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermal papilla cells (DPC) are a group of mesenchyme-derived cells at the base of the hair follicle, where they regulate and control hair follicle growth through the expression and secretion of cytokines. Nevertheless, the role of DPC derived chemokines and other cytokines in the hair follicle biology remain speculative. In this study, we investigated the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and stem cell factor (SCF) in different passages of cultured DPC and their effects on the biological behaviour of DPC.Methods The expression of bFGF, ET-1 and SCF in different passages of cultured DPC and their possible effects on the biological behavior of DPC are investigated using in situ hybridization and immunochemistry. In addition, we performed transplantation of hair follicle cells into nude mice. The cultured DPC, dermal sheath cells and fibroblast of human scalp, respectively, were mixed with cells of the hair follicle epithelium in different ratios, and then were cultured in hair follicle organotypic cultures or implanted into the subcutis of nude mice.Results The expression of ET-1 and SCF in early passages of cultured DPC became stronger, but turned weaker and even negative in late passages (>6 passages). Hair follicle-like structures were formed after DPC combined with the cells of hair follicle epithelium cells in hair follicle organotypic cultures. When hair follicle organotypic cultures were implanted into the subcutis of nude mice, the relative intact hair follicles were formed. After the transplantation of hair follicle cells into the nude mice, the hair follicle-like structure was formed in the group that contained DPC mixed with hair follicle epithelium cells. However, no hair follicles were formed in the other two groups. It was found that the higher the expression of ET-1 and SCF in DPC, the stronger the ability of DPC to induce hair follicle regeneration.Conclusions The cultured DPC can induce hair follicle

  4. A few nascent methods for measuring mechanical properties of the biological cell.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Corvalan, Carlos (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Corwin, Alex David; Campanella, Osvaldo H. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Nivens, David (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Werely, Steven (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Sumali, Anton Hartono; Koch, Steven John

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes a survey of several new methods for obtaining mechanical and rheological properties of single biological cells, in particular: (1) The use of laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) to measure the natural vibrations of certain cells. (2) The development of a novel micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for obtaining high-resolution force-displacement curves. (3) The use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for cell imaging. (4) The adaptation of a novel squeezing-flow technique to micro-scale measurement. The LDV technique was used to investigate the recent finding reported by others that the membranes of certain biological cells vibrate naturally, and that the vibration can be detected clearly with recent instrumentation. The LDV has been reported to detect motions of certain biological cells indirectly through the motion of a probe. In this project, trials on Saccharomyces cerevisiae tested and rejected the hypothesis that the LDV could measure vibrations of the cell membranes directly. The MEMS investigated in the second technique is a polysilicon surface-micromachined force sensor that is able to measure forces to a few pN in both air and water. The simple device consists of compliant springs with force constants as low as 0.3 milliN/m and Moire patterns for nanometer-scale optical displacement measurement. Fields from an electromagnet created forces on magnetic micro beads glued to the force sensors. These forces were measured and agreed well with finite element prediction. It was demonstrated that the force sensor was fully functional when immersed in aqueous buffer. These results show the force sensors can be useful for calibrating magnetic forces on magnetic beads and also for direct measurement of biophysical forces on-chip. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for profiling the geometry of red blood cells was the third technique investigated here. An important finding was that the method commonly used for attaching the cells to a

  5. External irradiation facilities open for biological studies - progress in july 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Life Science Division of the Atomic Energy Commission is making an inventory of the various radiation sources accessible for investigation on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. In this field, a wide range of studies is being carried out at the Life Science Division, attempting to characterize the kind of lesions with their early biological consequences (on the various cell compartments) and their late biological consequences (deterministic or stochastic effects), in relation to the radiation type and dose, especially at low doses. Several experimental models are available: plants, bacteria, eukaryotic cells from yeast up to mammalian cells and in vivo studies, mostly on rodents, in order to characterize the somatic late effects and the hereditary effects. Due to the significant cost of these facilities, also to their specific properties (nature of the radiation, dose and dose rate, possible accuracy of the irradiation at the molecular level), the closeness is no longer the only criteria for biologists to make a choice. The current evolution is to set up irradiation infrastructures combining ionizing radiation sources themselves and specific tools dedicated to biological studies: cell or molecular biology laboratories, animal facilities. The purpose, in this new frame, is to provide biologists with the most suitable facilities, and, if possible, to change these facilities according to requirements in radiobiology. In this report, the basics of interactions of ionizing radiation with biological tissues are briefly introduced, followed by a presentation of some of the facilities available for radiobiological studies especially at CEA. This panorama is not a comprehensive one, new data will be included as they advance, whether reporting existing facilities or if a new one is developed. (authors)

  6. From microbe to man: the role of microbial short chain fatty acid metabolites in host cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Niranjana; Pluznick, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a myriad of ways in which the activity and composition of the gut microbiota can affect the host organism. A primary way in which the gut microbiota affect host physiology is by the production of metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream of the host. Although recent studies have begun to unravel the ways in which gut microbial SCFAs affect host physiology, less is understood regarding the underlying cell biological mechanisms. In this review, we will outline the known receptors and transporters for SCFAs, and review what is known about the cell biological effects of microbial SCFAs. PMID:25273884

  7. Utilizing FUCCI reporters to understand pluripotent stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amar M; Trost, Robert; Boward, Benjamin; Dalton, Stephen

    2016-05-15

    The fluorescence ubiquitination cell cycle indicator (FUCCI) system provides a powerful method to evaluate cell cycle mechanisms associated with stem cell self-renewal and cell fate specification. By integrating the FUCCI system into human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) it is possible to isolate homogeneous fractions of viable cells representative of all cell cycle phases. This method avoids problems associated with traditional tools used for cell cycle analysis such as synchronizing drugs, elutriation and temperature sensitive mutants. Importantly, FUCCI reporters allow cell cycle events in dynamic systems, such as differentiation, to be evaluated. Initial reports on the FUCCI system focused on its strengths in reporting spatio-temporal aspects of cell cycle events in living cells and developmental models. In this report, we describe approaches that broaden the application of FUCCI reporters in PSCs through incorporation of FACS. This approach allows molecular analysis of the cell cycle in stem cell systems that were not previously possible. PMID:26404921

  8. Directing experimental biology: a case study in mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Hibbs

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Computational approaches have promised to organize collections of functional genomics data into testable predictions of gene and protein involvement in biological processes and pathways. However, few such predictions have been experimentally validated on a large scale, leaving many bioinformatic methods unproven and underutilized in the biology community. Further, it remains unclear what biological concerns should be taken into account when using computational methods to drive real-world experimental efforts. To investigate these concerns and to establish the utility of computational predictions of gene function, we experimentally tested hundreds of predictions generated from an ensemble of three complementary methods for the process of mitochondrial organization and biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The biological data with respect to the mitochondria are presented in a companion manuscript published in PLoS Genetics (doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000407. Here we analyze and explore the results of this study that are broadly applicable for computationalists applying gene function prediction techniques, including a new experimental comparison with 48 genes representing the genomic background. Our study leads to several conclusions that are important to consider when driving laboratory investigations using computational prediction approaches. While most genes in yeast are already known to participate in at least one biological process, we confirm that genes with known functions can still be strong candidates for annotation of additional gene functions. We find that different analysis techniques and different underlying data can both greatly affect the types of functional predictions produced by computational methods. This diversity allows an ensemble of techniques to substantially broaden the biological scope and breadth of predictions. We also find that performing prediction and validation steps iteratively allows us to more completely

  9. What Trends Do Turkish Biology Education Studies Indicate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Unsal Umdu; Calik, Muammer; Cavus, Ragip

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine what trends Turkish biology education studies indicate. To achieve this aim, the researchers examined online databases of the Higher Education Council and open access archives of graduate theses in web sites of Turkish universities. Finally, totally 138 graduate theses were elicited to analyze in regard to…

  10. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF PULSED SHORT WAVE TREATMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogaru Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed short waves are short electromagnetic waves emitted as intermittent trains with a fixed duration, separated by free intervals of variable duration. The biological effects of pulsed short waves could be explained according to most of the authors by an activation of cellular enzymatic reactions, a stimulation of energy metabolism, a stimulation of liver function, of adrenal gland function and of the reticulocyte system, changes in cell permeability, by an increase of peripheral blood flow through the enhancement of local vascularization. This research aimed to investigate the biological effects of exposure to pulsed short waves at different doses on the adrenal glands of experimental animals, by structural and ultrastructural studies. The study included 35 animals assigned to 4 groups. Group I included 10 experimental animals exposed to radiation at a dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, group II, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, group III, 10 animals exposed to a dose of 6/600 impulses/sec, for 10 min/day, and the control group consisted of 5 unexposed animals. Structural and ultrastructural changes of adrenal glands induced by the dose of 4/400 impulses/sec, compared to the unexposed control group and the dose of 1/80 impulses/sec, include an intensification of protein synthesis processes, an enhancement of energy metabolism in providing the energy required for an increased production of hormones, an intensification of collagen fiber synthesis processes in the capsule, necessary for healing. It was demonstrated that this dose induced an intensification of hormone synthesis and secretion, a stimulation of adrenal function. At the dose of 6/600 cycles/sec, a slight diminution of hormone synthesis and secretion activity was found, which was not below the limits existing in the unexposed control group, but was comparable to group II. This dose is probably too strong for experimental animals, inducing them a state of stress. The

  11. Differential biological effects of iodoacetate in mammalian cell lines; radio sensitization and radio protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several studies where it has been shown that Iodoacetate (IA) possesses in vivo anti-tumor activity. The fact that it is a model glycolytic inhibitor makes it more interesting. As seen in recent trends, glycolytic inhibitors are emerging as new strategy for cancer therapeutic research taking advantage of glycolytic phenotype of cancerous tissues. IA has been reported to have radioprotective effects in yeast cells and human lymphocytes. Biological effects of IA in response to radiation in mammalian cell lines are not well documented. We screened IA for cytotoxicity using clonogenic assay at different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 μg/ml using three different mammalian cell lines; A-549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), MCF-7 (human mammary cancer cell line) and a noncancerous CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cell line). For studying radioprotective/radio sensitizing efficacy, cells were exposed to 4 Gy of 60Co-γ radiation using a teletherapy source at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min, following which IA post-treatment was carried out. Clonogenic and micronucleus assay were performed to assess radioprotection/sensitization. The results indicated that IA was highly cytotoxic in cancerous cell lines A-549 (IC50=1.25 μg/ml) and MCF-7 (IC50 = 1.9 μg/ml). In contrast, it was totally non-toxic in non-cancerous cell line, viz. CHO, in the same concentration range. In addition, IA exhibited radio protective effect in CHO cell line, whereas in other two cancer cell lines, viz. A-549 and MCF-7, radio sensitizing effect was seen as judged by induction of cell killing and micronuclei. In conclusion, lA, a model glycolytic inhibitor, was found to be selectively cytotoxic in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Further, it reduced radiation induced damage (micronuclei and cell killing) in normal cells but increased it in cancer cells indicating its potential use in cancer therapy. (author)

  12. Autotaxin: Its Role in Biology of Melanoma Cells and as a Pharmacological Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Jankowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX is an extracellular lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD released from normal cells and cancer cells. Activity of ATX is detected in various biological fluids. The lysophosphatidic acid (LPA is the main product of ATX. LPA acting through specific G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-LPA6 affects immunological response, normal development, and malignant tumors' formation and progression. In this review, the impact of autotoxin on biology of melanoma cells and potential treatment is discussed.

  13. Cells release subpopulations of exosomes with distinct molecular and biological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Willms; Johansson, Henrik J; Imre Mäger; Yi Lee; Blomberg, K. Emelie M.; Mariam Sadik; Amr Alaarg; C.I. Edvard Smith; Janne Lehtiö; Samir EL Andaloussi; Matthew J A Wood; Pieter Vader

    2016-01-01

    Cells release nano-sized membrane vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. It is generally accepted that cells release at least three types of extracellular vesicles (EVs): apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. While a wide range of putative biological functions have been attributed to exosomes, they are assumed to represent a homogenous population of EVs. We hypothesized the existence of subpopulations of exosomes...

  14. Psychological and biological foundations of time preference : evidence from a day reconstruction study with biological tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the relationship between the economic concept of time preference and relevant concepts from psychology and biology. Using novel data from a time diary study conducted in Ireland that combined detailed psychometric testing with medical testing and real-time bio-tracking, we examine the distribution of a number of psychometric measures linked to the economic concept of time preferences and test the extent to which these measures form coherent clusters and the degree to whic...

  15. Primordial germ cell biology at the beginning of the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felici, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    At the XIV Workshop on the Development and Function of the Reproductive Organs held at the Congress Centre of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Monteporzio Catone, Rome, Italy, the introduction to the first session entitled Mammalian primordial germ cells dedicated to the memory of Anne McLaren, was the occasion for a concise review of the state of art of research on the biology of primordial germ cells (PGCs). This great, unforgettable scientist, who died in a car accident in July 2007, dedicated most of her studies to this field over the last 25 years. Topics briefly reviewed in this Meeting Report are: 1) how the germ line is determined; 2) what are the mechanisms underlying PGC migration; 3) to what extent PGC survival, proliferation and differentiation are cell autonomous or environmentally controlled processes and 4) how the potential for totipotency is retained in PGCs. PMID:19598110

  16. The cultivation of Rhizobial cells in sewage sludge and waste for the production of biological fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the growth of Rhizobium japonicum THA-7 in carriers: Peat Sludge, Filter press cake from sugar industry and the mixer compone nts of Sludge and Filter press cake. These carriers were sterilized by Gamm a radiation at 55 Kilograys. Then rhizobium suspension which grew to late log phase in Mannitol Yeast Extract broth were transfer to carriers. The initial rhizobial cells were 107 cfu at 50 percent moisture content. The maximum growth (109 cfu) was found after incubation at 30oC for 17 days in all carriers. The rhizobial cells were stored in carriers at 4o- 5oC for 120 days. The amount of cells in all carriers were detected at 108 cfu. Maximum survival rate was in the mixture of sludge and filter press cake at the ratio of 1 : 3. Therefore, It should be used as biological fertilizer better than other carriers

  17. Immunglobulin Expression and Its Biological Significance in Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duosha Hu; Hui Zheng; Haidan Liu; Ming Li; Wei Ren; Wei Liao; Zhi Duan; Lili Li; Ya Cao

    2008-01-01

    It is generally believed that the expression of a gene iS restricted "within the right place and at the right time".This principle has long been considered applicable as well to the expression of immunoglobulin(Ig)lymphocytes of B cell lineage.However,increasing evidence has shown Ig "paradoxically" expressed in malignant tumors of epitheliaI origin.We reviewed the recent progress in the study of cancer-derived Ig,and also discussed its mechanisms and possible functions,trying to arouse interest and attention to those working in the field of immunology and oncology.

  18. Sperm cell biology: current perspectives and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R John Aitken; Ralf R Henkel

    2011-01-01

    @@ Major advances in biomolecular techniques as well as in the sensitivity and accuracy of mass spectrometers are transform-ing the scientific landscape by fueling unprecedented advances in ana-lytical biochemistry-the 'omics revolution, which refers to the study of genes (genomics), transcripts (transcriptomics), proteins (proteo-mics) and the various metabolites (metabolomics). It is now possible to secure inventories of lipids, proteins, metabolites and RNA species in purified cell populations and to determine how these entities change in relation to cellular function.

  19. Experimental genomics: The application of DNA microarrays in cellular and molecular biology studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The genome sequence information in combination with DNA microarrays promises to revolutionize the way of cellular and molecular biological research by allowing complex mixtures of RNA and DNA to interrogated in a parallel and quant itative fashion. DNA microarrays can be used to measure levels of gene expressio n for tens of thousands of gene simultaneously and take advantage of all availab le sequence information for experimental design and data interpretation in pursu it of biological understanding. Recent progress in experimental genomics allows DNA microarrays not simply to provide a catalogue of all the genes and informati on about their function, but to understand how the components work together to comprise functioning cells and organisms. This brief review gives a survey of DNA microarrays technology and its applications in genome and gene function analysis, gene expression studies, biological signal and defense system, cell cyclereg ulation, mechanism of transcriptional regulation, proteomics, and the functional ity of food component.

  20. Intracellular Target-Specific Accretion of Cell Penetrating Peptides and Bioportides: Ultrastructural and Biological Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah; Uusna, Julia; Langel, Ülo; Howl, John

    2016-01-20

    Cell penetrating peptide (CPP) technologies provide a viable strategy to regulate the activities of intracellular proteins that may be intractable to other biological agents. In particular, the cationic helical domains of proteins have proven to be a reliable source of proteomimetic bioportides, CPPs that modulate the activities of intracellular proteins. In this study we have employed live cell imaging confocal microscopy to determine the precise intracellular distribution of a chemically diverse set of CPPs and bioportides. Our findings indicate that, following efficient cellular entry, peptides are usually accreted at intracellular sites rather than being freely maintained in an aqueous cytosolic environment. The binding of CPPs to proteins in a relatively stable manner provides a molecular explanation for our findings. By extension, it is probable that many bioportides influence biological processes through a dominant-negative influence upon discrete protein-protein interactions. As an example, we report that bioportides derived from the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 discretely influence the biology and stability of this key therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. The intracellular site-specific accretion of CPPs and bioportides can also be readily modulated by the attachment of larger cargoes or, more conveniently, short homing motifs. We conclude that site-specific intracellular targeting could be further exploited to expand the scope of CPP technologies. PMID:26623479

  1. Biological studies of matrix metalloproteinase sensitive drug delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann

    for delivery of drugs to specific tissues or cells utilizing biological knowledge of cancer tissue is getting increased attention. In this thesis a novel matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) sensitive poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) coated liposomal drug delivery system for treatment of cancer was developed......Cancer, which is a group of diseases characterized by cells with elevated replication rate and compromised DNA damage response, is often treated with cytotoxic drugs, chemotherapeutics, inducing DNA damage that results in cell death. The use of chemotherapeutics in the clinic, however, is limited...... due to severe side effects as a result of drug distribution to healthy tissues. To enhance ecacy of treatment and improve life quality of patients, tumor specific drug delivery strategies, such as liposome encapsulated drugs, which accumulate in tumor tissue, has gained increased attention. Several...

  2. A conundrum in molecular toxicology: molecular and biological changes during neoplastic transformation of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, G E; Shuler, C F; Lee, H; Casto, B C

    1995-12-01

    The process of multistage carcinogenesis lends itself to the concept that the effects of carcinogens are mediated through dose-related, multi-hit, linear changes. Multiple in vitro model systems have been developed that are designed to examine the cellular changes associated with the progression of cells through the different stages in the process; however, these systems may have inherent limitations due to the cell lines used for these studies, the manner of assessing the effects of the carcinogens, and the subsequent growth and differentiation of the exposed cells. Each of these variables results in increasing levels of uncertainty relative to the correlation of the events with the actual process of human tumor development. Therefore, the prediction of the ultimate effect of any carcinogen is difficult. Moreover, relationships between individual biological endpoints resulting from carcinogen treatment appear at best to be approximations. The presence of an activated carcinogen inside the cell can give rise to multiple outcomes, only some of which may be critical events. For example, site-specific modification of the 12th and 13th codons of H-ras is different than that in the adjacent 14th and 15th codons. It is interesting to speculate what effect these differences might have on a biological outcome, e.g., transformation to anchorage-independent growth. The use of different model systems to examine the effects of activated carcinogens also creates additional problems. Comparisons of in vitro transformed cells with similar cells isolated from human tumors indicate that the culture environment appears to influence the expression of a particular phenotype, in that human tumor cells in culture express many of the same parameters as those found in cells transformed with carcinogens in vitro. If the process of transformation is linear, then less aggressive phenotypes should progress to a more aggressive transformed stage. However, in carcinogen-transformed human cells

  3. Mass spectrometry based proteomics in cell biology and signaling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Proteomics is one of the most powerful post-genomics technologies. Recently accomplishments include large scale protein-protein interaction mapping, large scale mapping of phosphorylation sites and the cloning of key signaling molecules. In this talk, current state of the art of the technology will be reviewed. Applications of proteomics to the mapping of multiprotein complexes will be illustrated with recent work on the spliceosome and the nucleolus. More than 300 proteins have been mapped to each of these complexes. Quantitative techniques are becoming more and more essential in proteomics. They are usually performed by the incorporation of stable isotopes - a light form in cell state 'A' and a heavy form in cell state 'E' - and subsequent comparison of mass spectrometric peak heights. A new technique called, SILAC for Stable isotope Incorporation by Amino acids in Cell culture, has been applied to studying cell differentiation and mapping secreted proteins from adipocytes. A number of known and novel proteins important in adipocyte differentiation have been identified by this technique. Some of these proved to be upregulated at the 1 mRNA level, too, whereas others appear to be regulated post-translationally. We have also applied the SILAC method to protein-protein interaction mapping. For example, we compared immunoprecipitates from stimulated and non-stimulated cells to find binding partners recruited to the bait due to the stimulus. Several novel substrates in the EGF pathway were found in this way. An important application of proteomics in the signaling field is the mapping of post-translational modifications. In particular, there are a number of techniques for phosphotyrosine phosphorylation mapping which have proven very useful. Making use of the mass deficiency of the phosphogroup, 'parent ion scans' con be performed, which selectively reveal phosphotyrosine peptides from complex peptides mixtures. This technique has been used to clone several

  4. Information Literacy in Biology Education: An Example from an Advanced Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Information literacy skills are critically important for the undergraduate biology student. The ability to find, understand, evaluate, and use information, whether from the scientific literature or from Web resources, is essential for a good understanding of a topic and for the conduct of research. A project in which students receive information…

  5. Dissecting Social Cell Biology and Tumors Using Drosophila Genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor-Pareja, José Carlos; Xu, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Cancer was seen for a long time as a strictly cell-autonomous process in which oncogenes and tumor-suppressor mutations drive clonal cell expansions. Research in the past decade, however, paints a more integrative picture of communication and interplay between neighboring cells in tissues. It is increasingly clear as well that tumors, far from being homogenous lumps of cells, consist of different cell types that function together as complex tissue-level communities. The repertoire of interact...

  6. Stem cell-based biological tooth repair and regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Volponi, Ana Angelova; Pang, Yvonne; Sharpe, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Teeth exhibit limited repair in response to damage, and dental pulp stem cells probably provide a source of cells to replace those damaged and to facilitate repair. Stem cells in other parts of the tooth, such as the periodontal ligament and growing roots, play more dynamic roles in tooth function and development. Dental stem cells can be obtained with ease, making them an attractive source of autologous stem cells for use in restoring vital pulp tissue removed because of infection, in regene...

  7. Vital Autofluorescence: Application to the Study of Plant Living Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Roshchina, Victoria V.

    2012-01-01

    The application of various microscopy methods such as luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry and laser-scanning confocal microscopy has been considered as an approach to study the autofluorescence of plant living cells—from cell diagnostics up to modelling the cell-cell contacts and cell interactions with fluorescent biologically active substances. It bases on the direct observations of secretions released from allelopathic and medicinal species and the cell-donor interactions with ...

  8. Ricin transport into cells: studies of endocytosis and intercellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Grimmer, S.; Iversen, T.G.; Rodal, S.K.; Torgersen, Maria Lyngaas; Nicoziani, Paolo; van Deurs, Bo

    Cell Biology, ricin, endocytosis, Golgi apparatus, cholesterol, clathrin, toxin, Rab, endoplasmic reticulum......Cell Biology, ricin, endocytosis, Golgi apparatus, cholesterol, clathrin, toxin, Rab, endoplasmic reticulum...

  9. History of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale School of Medicine, 1813-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lentz, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Cell Biology at the Yale University School of Medicine was established in 1983. It was preceded by the Section of Cell Biology, which was formed in 1973 when George E. Palade and collaborators came to Yale from the Rockefeller University. Cell Biology at Yale had its origins in the Department of Anatomy that existed from the beginning of classes at the Medical Institution of Yale College in 1813. This article reviews the history of the Department of Anatomy at Yale and its e...

  10. Stable isotope methods in biological and ecological studies of arthropods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hood-Nowotny, R.C.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This is an eclectic review and analysis of contemporary and promising stable isotope methodologies to study the biology and ecology of arthropods. It is augmented with literature from other disciplines, indicative of the potential for knowledge transfer. It is demonstrated that stable isotopes can b

  11. Learning Experiences of University Biology Faculty: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this article incorporates qualitative research through in-depth, individual, structured interviews with 12 biology faculty from two Midwestern universities to explore perceptions about how they have learned to teach and how they work to improve their skills.

  12. Vitamin D biology and heart failure : Clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, vitamin D biology has been studied more extensively than ever before.. The use of vitamin D supplements is common, and so is determination of plasma vitamin D status. Besides its role in bone homeostasis, vitamin D is thought to be an important player in the development and treat

  13. Subject Didactic Studies of Research Training in Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybeck, Leif

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and design of a 3-year study of research training and supervision in biology and physics are discussed. Scientific problems arising from work on the thesis will be a focus for the postgraduate students and their supervisors. Attention will be focused on supervisors' and students' conceptions of science, subject range, research,…

  14. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs. PMID:25707959

  15. Systems Biology Approaches to Epidemiological Studies of Complex Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hongzhe

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology approaches to epidemiological studies of complex diseases include collection of genetic, genomic, epigenomic and metagenomic data in large-scale epidemiological studies of complex phenotypes. Designs and analyses of such studies raise many statistical challenges. This paper reviews some issues related to integrative analysis of such high dimensional and inter-related data sets and outline some possible solutions. I focus my review on integrative approaches for genome-wide gene...

  16. Structural and Computational Studies of Small Organic and Biological Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Casal, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Over the last three decades high-pressure X-ray diffraction techniques have been widely utilised to perform structural studies in many areas of research. For example, physicists make use of these experimental techniques to investigate metals, conductor and semi-conductor compounds among others, whereas geochemists apply them to study the conditions deep within the Earth’s interior. Furthermore, pressure studies have reached an important status in chemistry, biology and planetary science, and ...

  17. Cell and molecular biology for diagnostic and therapeutic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Our body contains 100 trillion cells. However, each cell has certain function and structure. For maintaining their integrity, cells will be collaborating with each other and with extracellular matrix surround them to form a tissue. These interactions effect internally on many networks or pathway such as signalling pathway, metabolic pathway and transport network in the cell. These networks interact with each other to maintain cell survival, cell structure and function and moreover the tissue as well as the organ which the cells built. Therefore, as part of a tissue, genetic and epigenetic abnormality of a cell can also alter these networks, and moreover disturb the function of the tissue itself. Hence, condition of genetic and epigenetic of the cell may affect other conditions in omics level such as transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomics characteristics which can be differentiated by a particular unique molecular profile from each level, which can be used for diagnostic as well as for targeted therapy.

  18. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the "Alba" variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy. PMID:27498973

  19. Hairy-cell leukemia variant: recent view on diagnosis, biology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robak, Tadeusz

    2011-02-01

    Hairy-cell leukemia variant (HCl-V) is a district clinico-pathological entity with intermediate features between classical HCl (HCl-C) and B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. HCl-V is now included in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification as a provisional entity. It is an uncommon disorder accounting for approximately 0.4% of chronic lymphoid malignancies and 10% of all HCl cases. In contrast to HCl-C, HCl-V is a more aggressive disease and according to the new WHO classification it is no longer considered to be biologically related to HCl-C. Patients with HCl-V have an elevated white blood count, easy-to-aspirate bone marrow and weak reactivity to tartrate - resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). Immunophenotypically, HCl-V cells are positive for CD103 and CD11c and negative for CD25. The HCl-V cells express also the B-cell antigens, CD19, CD20 and CD22. The HCl-V patients have frequently an unmutated Ig gene configuration. Currently, the principles of therapy for this rare disease derive from uncontrolled single institutional studies, or even single case reports. In contrast to HCl-C, the HCl-V response to purine nucleoside analogs (PNA) is limited to partial responses in approximately 50% of patients. However, complete responses were observed in patients treated with rituximab and anti-CD22 immunotoxins. In Japan, a distinct subtype of HCl known as HCl-Japanese variant (HCl-JV) has been identified. As with HCl-V, patients with HCl-JV have leukocytosis, weak TRAP activity in leukemic cells, and lack of CD25 antigen. In this review, the biology, diagnostic criteria, and current therapeutic options in HCl-V and HCl-JV are presented. PMID:20558005

  20. Cell Hydration as a Biomarker for Estimation of Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation on Cells and Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinerik Ayrapetyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available “Changes in cell hydration” have been hypothesized as an input signal for intracellular metabolic cascade responsible for biological effects of nonionizing radiation (NIR. To test this hypothesis a comparative study on the impacts of different temperature and NIR (infrasound frequency mechanical vibration (MV, static magnetic field (SMF, extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF, and microwave (MW pretreated water on the hydration of barley seeds in its dormant and germination periods was performed. In dormant state temperature sensitivity (Q10 of seed hydration in distilled water (DW was less than 2, and it was nonsensitive to NIR treated DW, whereas during the germination period (48–72 hours seeds hydration exhibited temperature sensitivity Q10>2 and higher sensitivity to NIR treated DW. Obtained data allow us to suggest that the metabolic driving of intracellular water dynamics accompanied by hydrogen bonding and breaking is more sensitive to NIR-induced water structure changes in seed bathing aqua medium than the simple thermodynamic processes such as osmotic gradient driven water absorption by seeds in dormant state. Therefore, cell hydration is suggested to be a universal and extrasensitive biomarker for detection of biological effects of NIR on cells and organisms.

  1. Cells release subpopulations of exosomes with distinct molecular and biological properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willms, Eduard; Johansson, Henrik J; Mäger, Imre; Lee, Yi; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Sadik, Mariam; Alaarg, Amr; Smith, C I Edvard; Lehtiö, Janne; El Andaloussi, Samir; Wood, Matthew J A; Vader, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Cells release nano-sized membrane vesicles that are involved in intercellular communication by transferring biological information between cells. It is generally accepted that cells release at least three types of extracellular vesicles (EVs): apoptotic bodies, microvesicles and exosomes. While a wi

  2. The Cell Collective: Toward an open and collaborative approach to systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helikar Tomáš

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite decades of new discoveries in biomedical research, the overwhelming complexity of cells has been a significant barrier to a fundamental understanding of how cells work as a whole. As such, the holistic study of biochemical pathways requires computer modeling. Due to the complexity of cells, it is not feasible for one person or group to model the cell in its entirety. Results The Cell Collective is a platform that allows the world-wide scientific community to create these models collectively. Its interface enables users to build and use models without specifying any mathematical equations or computer code - addressing one of the major hurdles with computational research. In addition, this platform allows scientists to simulate and analyze the models in real-time on the web, including the ability to simulate loss/gain of function and test what-if scenarios in real time. Conclusions The Cell Collective is a web-based platform that enables laboratory scientists from across the globe to collaboratively build large-scale models of various biological processes, and simulate/analyze them in real time. In this manuscript, we show examples of its application to a large-scale model of signal transduction.

  3. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  4. A brief review of recent advances in stem cell biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhui Chen; Libing Zhou; Su-yue Pan

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types, essentially with-out limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive, offering immense hope of curing Alzheimer’s disease, repairing damaged spinal cords, treating kidney, liver and lung diseases and making damaged hearts whole. Until recently, scientists primarily worked with two kinds of stem cells from animals and humans:embryonic stem cells and non-embryonic“somatic”or“adult”stem cells. Recent breakthrough make it possible to convert or“reprogram”specialized adult cells to assume a stem stem-like cells with different technologies. The review will brielfy dis-cuss the recent progresses in this area.

  5. Developmental biology: cell fate in the mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most breast cancers have their origin in the luminal epithelial cells of the mammary gland. Defining how a master regulator controls the development of this cell lineage could provide important hints about why this should be. ...

  6. Compact Electro-Permeabilization System for Controlled Treatment of Biological Cells and Cell Medium Conductivity Change Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novickij Vitalij

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subjection of biological cells to high intensity pulsed electric field results in the permeabilization of the cell membrane. Measurement of the electrical conductivity change allows an analysis of the dynamics of the process, determination of the permeabilization thresholds, and ion efflux influence. In this work a compact electro-permeabilization system for controlled treatment of biological cells is presented. The system is capable of delivering 5 μs - 5 ms repetitive square wave electric field pulses with amplitude up to 1 kV. Evaluation of the cell medium conductivity change is implemented in the setup, allowing indirect measurement of the ion concentration changes occurring due to the cell membrane permeabilization. The simulation model using SPICE and the experimental data of the proposed system are presented in this work. Experimental data with biological cells is also overviewed

  7. Cancer Stem Cells: Biological Functions and Therapeutically Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Eugen Ciurea; Ada Maria Georgescu; Stefana Oana Purcaru; Stefan-Alexandru Artene; Ghazaleh Hooshyar Emami; Mihai Virgil Boldeanu; Daniela Elise Tache; Anica Dricu

    2014-01-01

    Almost all tumors are composed of a heterogeneous cell population, making them difficult to treat. A small cancer stem cell population with a low proliferation rate and a high tumorigenic potential is thought to be responsible for cancer development, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Stem cells were reported to be involved in both normal development and carcinogenesis, some molecular mechanisms being common in both processes. No less controversial, stem cells are considered to be importan...

  8. Role of inositol phospholipid signaling in natural killer cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gumbleton, Matthew; Kerr, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important for host defense against malignancy and infection. At a cellular level NK cells are activated when signals from activating receptors exceed signaling from inhibitory receptors. At a molecular level NK cells undergo an education process to both prevent autoimmunity and acquire lytic capacity. Mouse models have shown important roles for inositol phospholipid signaling in lymphocytes. NK cells from mice with deletion in different members of the inositol ph...

  9. Muscle Satellite Cells: Exploring the Basic Biology to Rule Them

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Camila F.; Fernandes, Stephanie A.; Ribeiro Junior, Antonio F.; Oswaldo Keith Okamoto; Mariz Vainzof

    2016-01-01

    Adult skeletal muscle is a postmitotic tissue with an enormous capacity to regenerate upon injury. This is accomplished by resident stem cells, named satellite cells, which were identified more than 50 years ago. Since their discovery, many researchers have been concentrating efforts to answer questions about their origin and role in muscle development, the way they contribute to muscle regeneration, and their potential to cell-based therapies. Satellite cells are maintained in a quiescent st...

  10. Radiation biology of Caenorhabditis elegans. Germ cell response, aging and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of radiation effect in Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans has been carried out over three decades and now allow for understanding at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. This review describes the current knowledge of the biological effects of ionizing irradiation with a scope of the germ line, aging and behavior. In germ cells, ionizing radiation induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. Lots of molecules involved in these responses and functions have been identified in C. elegans, which are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes. Radiosensitivity and the effect of heavy-ion microbeam irradiation on germ cells with relationship between initiation of meiotic recombination and DNA lesions are discussed. In addition to DNA damage, ionizing radiation produces free radicals, and the free radical theory is the most popular aging theory. A first signal transduction pathway of aging has been discovered in C. elegans, and radiation-induced metabolic oxidative stress is recently noted for an inducible factor of hormetic response and genetic instability. The hormetic response in C. elegans exposed to oxidative stress is discussed with genetic pathways of aging. Moreover, C. elegans is well known as a model organism for behavior. The recent work reported the radiation effects via specific neurons on learning behavior, and radiation and hydrogen peroxide affect the locomotory rate similarly. These findings are discussed in relation to the evidence obtained with other organisms. Altogether, C. elegans may be a good 'in vivo' model system in the field of radiation biology. (author)

  11. My Dog's Cheeks: A PBL Project on Collagen for Cell Biology and Genetics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casla, Alberto Vicario; Zubiaga, Isabel Smith

    2010-01-01

    Students often have an oversimplified view of biological facts, which may hinder subsequent understanding when conceptual complexity gives rise to cognitive conflicts. To avoid this situation here, we present a PBL approach for the analysis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), which integrates a variety of topics in cell biology, genetics, and…

  12. Development of an Instrument for Measuring Self-Efficacy in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Suzanne; Kitchen, Elizabeth; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bell, John D.; Bradshaw, William S.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of a ten-item scale to assess biology majors' self-efficacy towards the critical thinking and data analysis skills taught in an upper-division cell biology course. The original seven-item scale was expanded to include three additional items based on the results of item analysis. Evidence of reliability and…

  13. Evaluation of Formative Computer-Based Assessment by Cell Biology Students with Differing Entry Qualifications and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bax, Christopher; Baggott, Glenn; Howey, Ellen; Pellet-Many, Carolyn; Rayne, Richard; Neonaki, Maria; Bax, Bridget E.; White, Christopher Branford

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine students' responses to the use of on-line assessments that included feedback. First year BSc students taking a Cell Biology module undertook such an assessment and were then asked to evaluate the test by completing an anonymous questionnaire. Answers were analysed in light of the respondents' ethnicity and…

  14. Sphingolipid mediators in cardiovascular cell biology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levade, T; Augé, N; Veldman, R J; Cuvillier, O; Nègre-Salvayre, A; Salvayre, R

    2001-11-23

    Sphingolipids have emerged as a new class of lipid mediators. In response to various extracellular stimuli, sphingolipid turnover can be stimulated in vascular cells and cardiac myocytes. Subsequent generation of sphingolipid molecules such as ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate, is followed by regulation of ion fluxes and activation of various signaling pathways leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation, endothelial cell differentiation or apoptotic cell death, cell contraction, retraction, or migration. The importance of sphingolipids in cardiovascular signaling is illustrated by recent observations implicating them in physiological processes such as vasculogenesis as well as in frequent pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:11717151

  15. Molecular structure and biological function of proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the core component of replication complex in eukaryote.As a processive factor of DNA polymerase delta, PCNA coordinates the replication process by interacting with various replication proteins. PCNA appears to play an essential role in many cell events, such as DNA damage repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, through the coordination or organization of different partners. PCNA is an essential factor in cell proliferation, and has clinical significance in tumor research. In this article we review the functional structure of PCNA, which acts as a function switch in different cell events.

  16. Human mesenchymal stem cells: from basic biology to clinical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, B M; Kassem, M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  17. Scale-free flow of life: on the biology, economics, and physics of the cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurakin Alexei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualization of the cell and biological organization reveals hitherto unappreciated connections among many seemingly disparate phenomena and observations, and provides new and powerful insights into the universal principles governing the emergence and organizational dynamics of living systems on each and every scale of biological organizational hierarchy, from proteins and cells to economies and ecologies.

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Series of CAL Modules on Cell Biology for Undergraduate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharrad, Heather; Kent, Christine; Allcock, Nick; Wood, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project at the University of Nottingham (United Kingdom) that developed and evaluated modules for computer assisted instruction to teach cell biology to undergraduate nursing students. Topics include instructional effectiveness, feedback, and student attitudes. (LRW)

  19. Studies on Biological Development of Hybrid Bees Families

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pârvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta-Elena Simion; Carmen Bergheş; Adriana Amfim

    2010-01-01

    It has made a study concerning the biological development of hybrid bee’s families (Italian x Carpathian) comparative with Carpathian bee’s families. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The following parameters were studied: the queen bee prolificacy, the flight intensity during harvesting, the flight intensity during bad weather the irascibility, the behaviour of the bees during the survey and the predisposition to swarming. At the hybrid families, queen bee prolificacy and the rate ...

  20. Final report on LDRD project: Semiconductor surface-emitting microcavity laser spectroscopy for analysis of biological cells and microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; McDonald, A.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nanostructure and Semiconductor Physics Dept.; Gourley, M.F. [Washington Hospital Center, DC (United States); Bellum, J. [Coherent Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This article discusses a new intracavity laser technique that uses living or fixed cells as an integral part of the laser. The cells are placed on a GaAs based semiconductor wafer comprising one half of a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser. After placement, the cells are covered with a dielectric mirror to close the laser cavity. When photo-pumped with an external laser, this hybrid laser emits coherent light images and spectra that depend sensitively on the cell size, shape, and dielectric properties. The light spectra can be used to identify different cell types and distinguish normal and abnormal cells. The laser can be used to study single cells in real time as a cell-biology lab-on-a-chip, or to study large populations of cells by scanning the pump laser at high speed. The laser is well-suited to be integrated with other micro-optical or micro-fluidic components to lead to micro-optical-mechanical systems for analysis of fluids, particulates, and biological cells.

  1. Molecular biological mechanism II. Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell cycle in eukaryotes is regulated by central cell cycle controlling protein kinase complexes. These protein kinase complexes consist of a catalytic subunit from the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family (CDK), and a regulatory subunit from the cyclin family. Cyclins are characterised by their periodic cell cycle related synthesis and destruction. Each cell cycle phase is characterised by a specific set of CDKs and cyclins. The activity of CDK/cyclin complexes is mainly regulated on four levels. It is controlled by specific phosphorylation steps, the synthesis and destruction of cyclins, the binding of specific inhibitor proteins, and by active control of their intracellular localisation. At several critical points within the cell cycle, named checkpoints, the integrity of the cellular genome is monitored. If damage to the genome or an unfinished prior cell cycle phase is detected, the cell cycle progression is stopped. These cell cycle blocks are of great importance to secure survival of cells. Their primary importance is to prevent the manifestation and heritable passage of a mutated genome to daughter cells. Damage sensing, DNA repair, cell cycle control and apoptosis are closely linked cellular defence mechanisms to secure genome integrity. Disregulation in one of these defence mechanisms are potentially correlated with an increased cancer risk and therefore in at least some cases with an increased radiation sensitivity. (orig.)

  2. Cancer Stem Cells: Biological Functions and Therapeutically Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Eugen Ciurea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost all tumors are composed of a heterogeneous cell population, making them difficult to treat. A small cancer stem cell population with a low proliferation rate and a high tumorigenic potential is thought to be responsible for cancer development, metastasis and resistance to therapy. Stem cells were reported to be involved in both normal development and carcinogenesis, some molecular mechanisms being common in both processes. No less controversial, stem cells are considered to be important in treatment of malignant diseases both as targets and drug carriers. The efforts to understand the role of different signalling in cancer stem cells requires in depth knowledge about the mechanisms that control their self-renewal, differentiation and malignant potential. The aim of this paper is to discuss insights into cancer stem cells historical background and to provide a brief review of the new therapeutic strategies for targeting cancer stem cells.

  3. Gene Concepts in Higher Education Cell and Molecular Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Pitombo Maiana; de Almeida, Ana Maria Rocha; El-Hani, Nino Charbel

    2008-01-01

    Despite being a landmark of 20th century biology, the "classical molecular gene concept," according to which a gene is a stretch of DNA encoding a functional product, which may be a single polypeptide or RNA molecule, has been recently challenged by a series of findings (e.g., split genes, alternative splicing, overlapping and nested genes, mRNA…

  4. Scale-free Flow of Life: On the Biology, Economics, and Physics of the Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kurakin Alexei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The present work is intended to demonstrate that most of the paradoxes, controversies, and contradictions accumulated in molecular and cell biology over many years of research can be readily resolved if the cell and living systems in general are re-interpreted within an alternative paradigm of biological organization that is based on the concepts and empirical laws of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In addition to resolving paradoxes and controversies, the proposed re-conceptualizatio...

  5. A proposal of collaborative education for biochemistry and cell biology teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Souza-Júnior

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Currently students grow up in a world of digital tools that allow you to connect instantly with the world. At the same time, teachers face several challenges to increase student interest and learning efficiency. One such challenge is the pedagogical commitment of the density of biochemistry and cell biology contents, producing a conflict scenario, between meeting content and maintain the class quality. OBJECTIVES: From this perspective, this study aimed to evaluate the learning biochemistry and cell biology contents in high school classes of IFRN, using collaborative and digital tools in the Moodle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The contents were offered using various tools such as video lectures, forums, questionnaires, portfolios, glossaries and electronic books. Then these tools were evaluated using an electronic form.  In addition to the tools, we evaluated the platform interaction, the performance of activities and the content gamification. RESULTS: The quantitative results revealed directly proportional relationship of the interaction of Moodle with the performance of activities. The content gamification was also assessed positively, with 61% of students considered good, very good or excellent. The best evaluated tools were video lectures, with 31% preference, and questionnaires, with 24%; followed by electronic book, with 10%, and portfolio, with 5.5%. The other tools totaled 30% of the preference. Qualitative results revealed an educational gain of content, because the student lived the experience of teaching and learning collaboratively. In addition, these tools decreased conflicts between content and schedule. CONCLUSION: Thus, the use of information and communication technology (ICT in a collaborative learning provides relevant results, bringing the reality of the world connected to the classroom. In addition, it assists in defining the content and creative development of a strategy for the construction of the concepts applied

  6. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine Nanotechnology at the interface of cell biology, materials science and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Andreas; Miles, Mervyn

    2008-09-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) and related scanning probe microscopes have become resourceful tools to study cells, supramolecular assemblies and single biomolecules, because they allow investigations of such structures in native environments. Quantitative information has been gathered about the surface structure of membrane proteins to lateral and vertical resolutions of 0.5 nm and 0.1 nm, respectively, about the forces that keep protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid assemblies together as well as single proteins in their native conformation, and about the nanomechanical properties of cells in health and disease. Such progress has been achieved mainly because of constant development of AFM instrumentation and sample preparation methods. This special issue of Nanotechnology presents papers from leading laboratories in the field of nanobiology, covering a wide range of topics in the form of original and novel scientific contributions. It addresses achievements in instrumentation, sample preparation, automation and in biological applications. These papers document the creativity and persistence of researchers pursuing the goal to unravel the structure and dynamics of cells, supramolecuar structures and single biomolecules at work. Improved cantilever sensors, novel optical probes, and quantitative data on supports for electrochemical experiments open new avenues for characterizing biological nanomachines down to the single molecule. Comparative measurements of healthy and metastatic cells promise new methods for early detection of tumors, and possible assessments of drug efficacy. High-speed AFMs document possibilities to monitor crystal growth and to observe large structures at video rate. A wealth of information on amyloid-type fibers as well as on membrane proteins has been gathered by single molecule force spectroscopy—a technology now being automated for large-scale data collection. With the progress of basic research and a strong industry supporting

  7. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report 2015. Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Darcy E; Cardoso, Wellington V; Gilpin, Sarah E; Majka, Susan; Ott, Harald; Randell, Scott H; Thébaud, Bernard; Waddell, Thomas; Weiss, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    The University of Vermont College of Medicine, in collaboration with the NHLBI, Alpha-1 Foundation, American Thoracic Society, Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, European Respiratory Society, International Society for Cellular Therapy, and the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation, convened a workshop, "Stem Cells and Cell Therapies in Lung Biology and Lung Diseases," held July 27 to 30, 2015, at the University of Vermont. The conference objectives were to review the current understanding of the role of stem and progenitor cells in lung repair after injury and to review the current status of cell therapy and ex vivo bioengineering approaches for lung diseases. These are all rapidly expanding areas of study that both provide further insight into and challenge traditional views of mechanisms of lung repair after injury and pathogenesis of several lung diseases. The goals of the conference were to summarize the current state of the field, discuss and debate current controversies, and identify future research directions and opportunities for both basic and translational research in cell-based therapies for lung diseases. This 10th anniversary conference was a follow up to five previous biennial conferences held at the University of Vermont in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2013. Each of those conferences, also sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, American Thoracic Society, and respiratory disease foundations, has been important in helping guide research and funding priorities. The major conference recommendations are summarized at the end of the report and highlight both the significant progress and major challenges in these rapidly progressing fields. PMID:27509163

  8. Structure and cell biology of archaeal virus STIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-yu; Johnson, Johnson E

    2012-04-01

    Recent investigations of archaeal viruses have revealed novel features of their structures and life cycles when compared to eukaryotic and bacterial viruses, yet there are structure-based unifying themes suggesting common ancestral relationships among dsDNA viruses in the three kingdoms of life. Sulfolobus solfataricus and the infecting virus Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) is one of the well-established model systems to study archaeal virus replication and viral-host interactions. Reliable laboratory conditions to propagate STIV and available genetic tools allowed structural characterization of the virus and viral components that lead to the proposal of common capsid ancestry with PRD1 (bacteriophage), Adenovirus (eukaryotic virus) and PBCV (chlorellavirus). Microarray and proteomics approaches systematically analyzed viral replication and the corresponding host responses. Cellular cryo-electron tomography and thin-section EM studies uncovered the assembly and maturation pathway of STIV and revealed dramatic cellular ultra-structure changes upon infection. The viral-induced pyramid-like protrusions on cell surfaces represent a novel viral release mechanism and previously uncharacterized functions in viral replication. PMID:22482708

  9. Biology and Molecular Markers of Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Germ cell tumors occur both in the gonads of both sexes and in extra-gonadal sites during adoles-cence and early adulthood. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of all cases of ovarian malignancy. In contrast, testicular cancer is the most common malignancy among young males. Most of patients survive the disease. Prognostic factors of gonadal germ cell tumors include histology, clinical stage, size of the primary tumor and residua, and levels of tu...

  10. Quantum mechanical simulation methods for studying biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most known biological mechanisms can be explained using fundamental laws of physics and chemistry and a full understanding of biological processes requires a multidisciplinary approach in which all the tools of biology, chemistry and physics are employed. An area of research becoming increasingly important is the theoretical study of biological macromolecules where numerical experimentation plays a double role of establishing a link between theoretical models and predictions and allowing a quantitative comparison between experiments and models. This workshop brought researchers working on different aspects of the development and application of quantum mechanical simulation together, assessed the state-of-the-art in the field and highlighted directions for future research. Fourteen lectures (theoretical courses and specialized seminars) deal with following themes: 1) quantum mechanical calculations of large systems, 2) ab initio molecular dynamics where the calculation of the wavefunction and hence the energy and forces on the atoms for a system at a single nuclear configuration are combined with classical molecular dynamics algorithms in order to perform simulations which use a quantum mechanical potential energy surface, 3) quantum dynamical simulations, electron and proton transfer processes in proteins and in solutions and finally, 4) free seminars that helped to enlarge the scope of the workshop. (N.T.)

  11. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment

  12. Survey of cell biology experiments in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of spaceflight on terrestrial cell systems are discussed. With some important exceptions, static cell systems carried aboard U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. space flights have failed to reveal space related anomalies. Some sophisticated devices which were developed for viewing directly, or continuously recording, the growth of cells, tissue cultures and eggs in flight, are described and the results summarized. The unique presence of high energy, multicharged (HZE) particles and full-range ultraviolet irradiation in space prompted evaluation of the response of single cells to these factors. Summary results and general conclusions are presented. Potential areas of research in future space flights are identified.

  13. Biological Behavior of Osteoblast Cell and Apatite Forming Ability of the Surface Modified Ti Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingming; Hwang, K H; Choi, W S; Shin, S J; Lee, J K

    2016-02-01

    Titanium as one kind of biomaterials comes in direct contact with the body, making evaluation of biocompatibility an important aspect to biomaterials development. Surface chemistry of titanium plays an important role in osseointegration. Different surface modification alters the surface chemistry and result in different biological response. In this study, three kinds of mixed acid solutions were used to treat Ti specimens to induce Ca-P formation. Following a strong mixed acid activation process, Ca-P coating successfully formed on the Ti surfaces in simulated body fluid. Strong mixed acid increased the roughness of the metal surface, because the porous and rough surface allows better adhesion between Ca-P coatings and substrates. After modification of titanium surface by mixed acidic solution and subsequently H2O2/HCL treatment evaluation of biocompatibility was conducted from hydroxyapatite formation by biomimetic process and cell viability on modified titanium surface. Nano-scale modification of titanium surfaces can alter cellular and tissue responses, which may benefit osseointegration and dental implant therapy. Results from this study indicated that surface treatment methods affect the surface morphology, type of TiO2 layer formed and subsequent apatite deposition and biological responses. The thermo scientific alamarblue cell viability assay reagent is used to quantitatively measure the viability of mammalian cell lines, bacteria and fungi by incorporating a rapid, sensitive and reliable fluorometric/colorimetric growth indicator, without any toxic and side effect to cell line. In addition, mixed acid treatment uses a lower temperature and shorter time period than widely used alkali treatment. PMID:27433617

  14. Light scattering by irradiated cells as a method of biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light scattering (LS) parameters between 350-500 nm wavelength have been studied for 2 groups of cells: 1) blood (BL) and thymus (TL) lymphocytes of rats and mice, and 2) Ehrlich ascite tumor (EAT) cells. LS measurements of freshly prepared cell suspensions have been made 24 hrs after x-ray irradiation of rodents (250 Kev, HVL = 2 mm Cu) at doses of 50-900 cGy. A steep (30% per Gy) linear (50-800 cGy for TL and 50-400 cGy for BL) dose-dependence was obtained for the increase in 900-angle LS intensity. Increase in absorption (low-angle LS) was also linear (50-800 cGy for TL and BL) but less steep (9% per Gy). Irradiated cells were the same size as unirradiated. Changes in LS for TL and BL appear to follow the appearance of additional vacuoles which may become new internal smaller-size centers of LS. This suggestion is supported by direct observations of cells with dark-field microscopy. For EAT cells, both 900 and low angle LS had the same slope. This slope (4% per Gy) is much shallower than that for BL and TL, and quantitatively coincides with enlargement of area of EAT cells, which could explain LS changes. The difference in LS behavior of the two cellular groups reflects a difference in their early response to irradiation: interphase death for TL and BL, vs division delay for EAT cells. The above data suggest the fast and simple method of biological dosimetry

  15. Aqueous Extracts of Selected Potentilla Species Modulate Biological Activity of Human Normal Colon Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Locatelli, Marcello; Pleszczyńska, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional and in folk medicine for many years. This study characterized the activity of extracts from aerial parts of selected Potentilla species: P. argentea, P. anserina, P. grandiflora and P. erecta as well as one species of closely related to the genus Potentilla, Drymocallis rupestris (syn. P. rupestris). The biological activities were analyzed using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on CCD 841 CoTr and CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, cell morphology and cytoskeletal actin F-filaments organization and IL-6 and IL-10 levels by ELISA were analyzed after 24 h of incubation. Potentilla extracts at dose levels between 25 and 250 µg/mL were analyzed. For ELISA, 15 µg/mL and 30 μg/mL were chosen. When mitochondrial succinyl dehydrogenase activity was tested (MTT assay) only extract obtained from P. erecta at lower concentrations (up to 125 µg/mL) suppressed metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells mitochondrial enzyme activity increased after incubation with all extracts. In Neutral Red (NR) method cellular membrane disturbance of both cell cultures was found after D. rupestris and P. grandiflora addition. Moreover, strong influence on epithelial cells was also found for P. anserina. All extracts showed similar, concentration-dependent free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect. Potentilla extracts, especially at lower concentration, decreased IL-6 production in myofibroblasts but the level of the cytokine was found to be stable in epithelial cells. IL-10 analysis revealed that P. argentea, D. rupestris, P. erecta extracts decrease cytokine level in myofibroblasts, while only when higher concentration were applied, decreased cytokine level produced by epithelial cells was found. F-actin filaments staining revealed that Potentilla extracts significantly influence on cellular cytoskeleton organization. Potentilla extracts influence on cells of human colon wall lining modulating the main features of them (viability

  16. Biological properties of neural progenitor cells isolated from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background The existence of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult nonhuman primates has been confirmed in recent years, however, the biological properties of adult neural stem cells or neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from this region remain to be extensively explored. The present work was to investigate on the expansion of NSCs/NPCs from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys and the examination of their characteristics in vitro.Methods NPCs isolated from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys were expanded in vitro in serum-free media containing growth factors, and were then allowed to differentiate by removing mitotic factors. The expansion capacity of NPCs and their differentiation potential were assayed by immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical analysis.Results During primary culture, NPCs underwent cell division, proliferation and aggregation to form neurospheres that were growing in suspension. Without mitotic stimulation, most neurospheres adhered to the culture dish and started to differentiate. Eventually, nearly 12% of the differentiated cells expressed neuron specific marker-βIII-tubulin (Tuj1) and 84% expressed astrocyte specific marker-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). In addition, the expression of a neural stem cell marker, nestin, was found both in NPCs and in the subgranular zone of adult monkey hippocampus, where NPCs were originally derived. Conclusions NPCs from the hippocampus of adult cynomolgus monkeys can be expanded to some extent in vitro and are capable of differentiating into neurons and astrocytes. Further experiments to promote the in vitro proliferation capacity of NPCs will be required before adult NPCs can be used as a useful cell model for studying adult neurogenesis and cell replacement therapy using adult stem cells.

  17. The Morphology and Cell Biology of the Hair Apparatus : Recent Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in knowledge of the morphology and biology of hair apparatuses are introduced. The hair apparatus morphologically shows a cyclic change "hair cycle" from anagen through catagen to telogen. In anagen, the hair apparatus is composed of eight epithelial cell layers, one of which has been very recently discovered: the innermost cell layer of the outer root sheath. When the ultrastructures of these cell layers are compared with each other, the cells of each layer reveal unique ultr...

  18. Pattern formation in biological fluids II: cell deformation in shear fields evidences convective membrane organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Lofthouse, Juanita

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour and symmetry-breaking shape deformation of red blood cells subjected to shear flows is used to demonstrate that far from being random fluids, both the membrane and cytoplasm of every biological cell undergo spatially organised convective and shear driven flows when the cell maintains a Near Equilibrium state through continuousmetabolic activity. The model demonstrates that fluid bifurcation events drive cell shape changes, rather than a Meccano like cytoskeletal struc...

  19. Human Cancer Classification: A Systems Biology- Based Model Integrating Morphology, Cancer Stem Cells, Proteomics, and Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Halliday A Idikio

    2011-01-01

    Human cancer classification is currently based on the idea of cell of origin, light and electron microscopic attributes of the cancer. What is not yet integrated into cancer classification are the functional attributes of these cancer cells. Recent innovative techniques in biology have provided a wealth of information on the genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic changes in cancer cells. The emergence of the concept of cancer stem cells needs to be included in a classification model to capture...

  20. Cell Biology of Chromerids: Autotrophic Relatives to Apicomplexan Parasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oborník, Miroslav; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 306, č. 2013 (2013), s. 333-369. ISSN 1937-6448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : long-branch attraction * Plasmodium falciparum * Toxoplasma gondii * phylogenetic analysis * extrachromosomal DNA * sterol composition * ribosomal RNA * life cycle * phtotosynthetic alveolata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.522, year: 2013

  1. Radiolabelled substrates for studying biological effects of trace contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of coordinated isotopic tracer-aided investigations of the biological side-effects of foreign chemical residues in food and agriculture, initiated in 1973, was reviewed. The current status of representative investigations from the point of view of techniques and priorities was assessed. Such investigations involved radioactive substrates for studying DNA injury and its repair; 14C-labelled acetylcholine as substrate for measuring enzyme inhibition due to the presence of, or exposure to, anticholinesteratic contaminants; radioactive substrates as indication of side-effects in non-target organisms and of their comparative susceptibilities; radioactive substrates as indicators of persistence or biodegradability of trace contaminants of soil or water; and labelled pools for studying the biological side-effects of trace contaminants. Priorities were identified

  2. Influence of some biologically active substances on amount of MGMT and MARP proteins in human cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotsarenko K. V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate an effect of biologically active compounds IFN-α2b, EMAPII, Card medium, fibronectin on the amount of MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase and MARP (anti-Methyltransferase Antibody Recognizable Protein proteins in human cells in vitro. Methods. The human cells of 4BL, Hep-2 and A102 lines were treated with growth factors and cytokines. Changes in the amount of MGMT and MARP proteins were studied by Western blot analysis with anti-MGMT mAbs. Results. The treatment of A102 cells with EMAPII, fibronectin, Laferon and Card medium led to a decreased level of the MGMT protein, whereas the amount of MARP was highly increased in these cells. The treatment with the recombinant protein IFN-α2b increased the amount of MGMT and MARP proteins in Hep-2 cells. The treatment with extracts of transgenic plants,containing human IFN-α2b, caused a significant decrease in the content of both proteins in Hep-2 cells and MARP in 4BL cells. Conclusions. Both MGMT and MARP are highly inducible proteins. Their amount in cells can be changed by some growth factors (Card medium, fibronectin, cytokine (IFN-α2b, cytokine-like (EMAPII or cytokine-containing substances (Laferon and IFN-α2b in plant extracts. This regulation depended not only on the type of biologically active substances but on the cell line used in this study as well.

  3. Fluorescence imaging for bacterial cell biology: from localization to dynamics, from ensembles to single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhizhong; Carballido-López, Rut

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins and developments in superresolution (nanoscopy) and single-molecule techniques bring high sensitivity, speed, and one order of magnitude gain in spatial resolution to live-cell imaging. These technologies have only recently been applied to prokaryotic cell biology, revealing the exquisite subcellular organization of bacterial cells. Here, we review the parallel evolution of fluorescence microscopy methods and their application to bacteria, mainly drawing examples from visualizing actin-like MreB proteins in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We describe the basic principles of nanoscopy and conventional techniques and their advantages and limitations to help microbiologists choose the most suitable technique for their biological question. Looking ahead, multidimensional live-cell nanoscopy combined with computational image analysis tools, systems biology approaches, and mathematical modeling will provide movie-like, mechanistic, and quantitative description of molecular events in bacterial cells. PMID:25002084

  4. Adipogenic placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells are not lineage restricted by withdrawing extrinsic factors: developing a novel visual angle in stem cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C; Cao, H; Pan, X; Li, J; He, J; Pan, Q; Xin, J; Yu, X; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhu, D; Li, L

    2016-01-01

    Current evidence implies that differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) can act as progenitor cells and transdifferentiate across lineage boundaries. However, whether this unrestricted lineage has specificities depending on the stem cell type is unknown. Placental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDMSCs), an easily accessible and less invasive source, are extremely useful materials in current stem cell therapies. No studies have comprehensively analyzed the transition in morphology, surface antigens, metabolism and multilineage potency of differentiated PDMSCs after their dedifferentiation. In this study, we showed that after withdrawing extrinsic factors, adipogenic PDMSCs reverted to a primitive cell population and retained stem cell characteristics. The mitochondrial network during differentiation and dedifferentiation may serve as a marker of absent or acquired pluripotency in various stem cell models. The new population proliferated faster than unmanipulated PDMSCs and could be differentiated into adipocytes, osteocytes and hepatocytes. The cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM) components modulate cell behavior and enable the cells to proliferate or differentiate during the differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes in our study. These observations indicate that the dedifferentiated PDMSCs are distinguishable from the original PDMSCs and may serve as a novel source in stem cell biology and cell-based therapeutic strategies. Furthermore, whether PDMSCs differentiated into other lineages can be dedifferentiated to a primitive cell population needs to be investigated. PMID:26986509

  5. Diffusion wave and signal transduction in biological live cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tian You

    2012-01-01

    Transduction of mechanical stimuli into biochemical signals is a fundamental subject for cell physics. In the experiments of FRET signal in cells a wave propagation in nanoscope was observed. We here develop a diffusion wave concept and try to give an explanation to the experimental observation. The theoretical prediction is in good agreement to result of the experiment.

  6. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  7. Three-dimensional imaging of biological cells with picosecond ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danworaphong, Sorasak; Tomoda, Motonobu; Matsumoto, Yuki; Matsuda, Osamu; Ohashi, Toshiro; Watanabe, Hiromu; Nagayama, Masafumi; Gohara, Kazutoshi; Otsuka, Paul H.; Wright, Oliver B.

    2015-04-01

    We use picosecond ultrasonics to image animal cells in vitro—a bovine aortic endothelial cell and a mouse adipose cell—fixed to Ti-coated sapphire. Tightly focused ultrashort laser pulses generate and detect GHz acoustic pulses, allowing three-dimensional imaging (x, y, and t) of the ultrasonic propagation in the cells with ˜1 μm lateral and ˜150 nm depth resolutions. Time-frequency representations of the continuous-wavelet-transform amplitude of the optical reflectivity variations inside and outside the cells show GHz Brillouin oscillations, allowing the average sound velocities of the cells and their ultrasonic attenuation to be obtained as well as the average bulk moduli.

  8. Sleep and Multisystem Biological Risk: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Judith E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Merkin, Sharon Stein; Seeman, Teresa E

    2015-01-01

    Background Short sleep and poor sleep quality are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and mortality. This study examines the contribution of sleep duration and sleep quality on a multisystem biological risk index that is known to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods Analyses include a population-based sample from the Midlife Development in the United States survey recruited to the Biomarker substudy. A total of 1,023 participants aged 54.5 years (S...

  9. Marine Sponges and Symbionts: Chemical and Biological Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis concerns two quite different types of research that are separated into distinct sections of the thesis, but which seek to answer the same question using diametrically opposite approaches. The first part (Chapters 1-8) covers research leading to novel, bioactive compounds in marine sponges, while the second (Chapters 9-10) involves molecular biological studies of symbiosis between microbes and sponges. Although these topics seem at first glance completely separate, they are in real...

  10. Algebraic Systems Biology: A Case Study for the Wnt Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Elizabeth; Harrington, Heather A.; Rosen, Zvi; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Steady state analysis of dynamical systems for biological networks give rise to algebraic varieties in high-dimensional spaces whose study is of interest in their own right. We demonstrate this for the shuttle model of the Wnt signaling pathway. Here the variety is described by a polynomial system in 19 unknowns and 36 parameters. Current methods from computational algebraic geometry and combinatorics are applied to analyze this model.

  11. Supramolecular approaches to cryorelaxors for biological NMR studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cuda, F.

    2010-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis concerns the development of Cryorelaxors having potential applications in very low temperature NMR studies of biological materials. Two approaches have been explored, namely calixarene host-guest complexes incorporating rotationally labile methyl groups, and endohedral fullerene complexes. The first chapter provides an overview of the background of the project and of potential approaches to the problem of low temperature relaxation agents, particularly thos...

  12. Physicochemical and biological treatability study of textile dye wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgone, Christine Ann

    1995-01-01

    The textile industry discharges a highly colored wastewater characterized by high organic levels. Industrial wastewater with these characteristics can be harmful to receiving streams and municipal plants, and must be treated prior to discharge. In this project, a yam dyeing facility was studied that uses biological treatment followed by chemical coagulation to treat their highly colored wastewater prior to discharging to the local river. Occasionally, color, organic, and metal ...

  13. Cell survival studies for moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 330 patients with static tumors have been treated at GSI with a scanned C-12 beam. For targets that are subject to respiratory motion, treatment is not yet possible because target motion and scanning motion interfere. GSI is developing a motion compensation system to compensate target motion by adaptation of each individual Bragg peak position. Within this project, the GSI treatment planning software TRiP was extended to calculate physical dose distributions in the presence of motion. These motion extensions were experimentally validated. Recently we included the calculation of cell survival for moving targets. To validate the software, a program of experimental studies with biological samples has been started. In a first set of experiments, living cell cultures were placed on a periodically moving table and irradiated with and without motion compensation. Results are compared to reference cell cultures that were static during standard irradiations. Furthermore, measured cell survival distributions are compared to calculated distributions for all irradiation schemes

  14. Stem cell biology in thyroid cancer: Insights for novel therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parisha; Bhatia; Koji; Tsumagari; Zakaria; Y; Abd; Elmageed; Paul; Friedlander; Joseph; F; Buell; Emad; Kandil

    2014-01-01

    Currently, thyroid cancer is one of the most common endocrine cancer in the United States. A recent involvement of sub-population of stem cells, cancer stem cells, has been proposed in different histological types of thyroid cancer. Because of their ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various specialized cells in the body, these putative cells drive tumor genesis, metastatic activity and are responsible to provide chemo- and radioresistant nature to the cancer cells in the thyroid gland. Our Review was conducted from previously published literature to provide latest apprises to investigate the role of embryonic, somatic and cancer stem cells, and discusses the hypothesis of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Different methods for their identification and isolation through stemness markers using various in vivo and in vitro methods such as flow cytometry, thyrosphere formation assay, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 efflux-pump mediated Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion have been discussed. The review also outlines various setbacks that still remain to target these tumor initiating cells. Future perspectives of therapeutic strategies and their potential to treat advanced stages of thyroid cancer are also disclosed in this review.

  15. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, Juan Sebastian Totero

    2015-05-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Optical force on diseased blood cells: Towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Juan Sebastian Totero; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease.

  17. Optical force on diseased blood cells: towards the optical sorting of biological matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gongora, Juan Sebastian Totero

    2016-01-01

    By employing a series of massively parallel ab-initio simulations, we study how optical forces act on biological matter subject to morphological disease. As a representative case study, we here consider the case of Plasmodium Falciparum on red blood cells (RBC) illuminated by a monochromatic plane wave. Realistic parameters for the geometry and the refractive index are then taken from published experiments. In our theoretical campaign, we study the dependence of the optical force on the disease stage for different incident wavelengths. We show that optical forces change significantly with the disease, with amplitude variation in the hundreds of pN range. Our results open up new avenues for the design of new optical systems for the treatment of human disease.

  18. Scheffersomyces stipitis: a comparative systems biology study with the Crabtree positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papini, Marta; Nookaew, Intawat; Uhlén, Mathias;

    2012-01-01

    regulated by a decrease in oxygen levels. Even though S. stipitis has been extensively studied due to its potential application in pentoses fermentation, a limited amount of information is available about its metabolism during aerobic growth on glucose. Here, we provide a systems biology based comparison...... useful results and allows for the possibility to incorporate these data into recently developed genome-scaled metabolic, thus contributing to improve future industrial applications of S. stipitis as cell factory....

  19. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Adipose and Other Tissues: Basic Biological Properties and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Orbay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are adult stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. However, subsequent research has shown that other adult tissues also contain MSCs. MSCs originate from mesenchyme, which is embryonic tissue derived from the mesoderm. These cells actively proliferate, giving rise to new cells in some tissues, but remain quiescent in others. MSCs are capable of differentiating into multiple cell types including adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteocytes, and cardiomyocytes. Isolation and induction of these cells could provide a new therapeutic tool for replacing damaged or lost adult tissues. However, the biological properties and use of stem cells in a clinical setting must be well established before significant clinical benefits are obtained. This paper summarizes data on the biological properties of MSCs and discusses current and potential clinical applications.

  20. Structural biology studies of CagA from Helicobacter pylori and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystal structures of proteins and their complexes have become critical information for molecular-based life science. Biochemical and biological analysis based on tertiary structural information is a powerful tool to unveil complex molecular processes in the cell. Here, we present two examples of the structure-based life science study, structural biology studies of CagA, an effector protein from Helicobacter pylori, and histone chaperone CIA/ASF1, which is involved in transcription initiation. (author)

  1. Cardiomyocyte microvesicles contain DNA/RNA and convey biological messages to target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Waldenström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shedding microvesicles are membrane released vesicles derived directly from the plasma membrane. Exosomes are released membrane vesicles of late endosomal origin that share structural and biochemical characteristics with prostasomes. Microvesicles/exosomes can mediate messages between cells and affect various cell-related processes in their target cells. We describe newly detected microvesicles/exosomes from cardiomyocytes and depict some of their biological functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microvesicles/exosomes from media of cultured cardiomyocytes derived from adult mouse heart were isolated by differential centrifugation including preparative ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. They were surrounded by a bilayered membrane and flow cytometry revealed presence of both caveolin-3 and flotillin-1 while clathrin and annexin-2 were not detected. Microvesicle/exosome mRNA was identified and out of 1520 detected mRNA, 423 could be directly connected in a biological network. Furthermore, by a specific technique involving TDT polymerase, 343 different chromosomal DNA sequences were identified in the microvesicles/exosomes. Microvesicle/exosomal DNA transfer was possible into target fibroblasts, where exosomes stained for DNA were seen in the fibroblast cytosol and even in the nuclei. The gene expression was affected in fibroblasts transfected by microvesicles/exosomes and among 333 gene expression changes there were 175 upregulations and 158 downregulations compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that microvesicles/exosomes released from cardiomyocytes, where we propose that exosomes derived from cardiomyocytes could be denoted "cardiosomes", can be involved in a metabolic course of events in target cells by facilitating an array of metabolism-related processes including gene expression changes.

  2. MicroRNA function in NK cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Beaulieu, AM; Bezman, NA; Lee, JE; Matloubian, M; Sun, JC; Lanier, LL

    2013-01-01

    The important role of microRNAs in directing immune responses has become increasingly clear. Here, we highlight discoveries uncovering the role of specific microRNAs in regulating the development and function of natural killer (NK) cells. Furthermore, we discuss the impact of NK cells on the entire immune system during global and specific microRNA ablation in the settings of inflammation, infection, and immune dysregulation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Stem Cell and Biological Interventions to treat Allergic Airway Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate immune modulation with a particular focus on airway inflammation and allergic pathogenesis. This was probed in a model of pathogen driven immunomodulation (B. pertussis), and two models of therapeutic intervention namely immunisation (attenuated B. pertussis, BPZE1) or using a candidate cell therapy approach (mesenchymal stem cells, MSC). This work demonstrated that, in contrast to virulent B. pertussis, an attenuated, candidate vaccin...

  4. Systems biology and metabolic engineering of Arthrospira cell factories

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpan Klanchui; Tayvich Vorapreeda; Wanwipa Vongsangnak; Chiraphan Kannapho; Supapon Cheevadhanarak; Asawin Meechai

    2012-01-01

    Arthrospira are attractive candidates to serve as cell factories for production of many valuable compounds useful for food, feed, fuel and pharmaceutical industries. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocessing, it is a challenge to design and develop efficient Arthrospira cell factories which can certify effective conversion from the raw materials (i.e. CO2 and sun light) into desired products. With the current availability of the genome sequences and metabolic models of A...

  5. Cell biological mechanisms of multidrug resistance in tumors.

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S. M.; Schindler, M

    1994-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a generic term for the variety of strategies tumor cells use to evade the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs. MDR is characterized by a decreased sensitivity of tumor cells not only to the drug employed for chemotherapy but also to a broad spectrum of drugs with neither obvious structural homology nor common targets. This pleiotropic resistance is one of the major obstacles to the successful treatment of tumors. MDR may result from structural or functional cha...

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems complement biologging in spatial ecology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero-Pázmány, Margarita; Barasona, Jose Ángel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Vicente, Joaquín; Negro, Juan José

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge about the spatial ecology and distribution of organisms is important for both basic and applied science. Biologging is one of the most popular methods for obtaining information about spatial distribution of animals, but requires capturing the animals and is often limited by costs and data retrieval. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have proven their efficacy for wildlife surveillance and habitat monitoring, but their potential contribution to the prediction of animal distribution patterns and abundance has not been thoroughly evaluated. In this study, we assess the usefulness of UAS overflights to (1) get data to model the distribution of free-ranging cattle for a comparison with results obtained from biologged (GPS-GSM collared) cattle and (2) predict species densities for a comparison with actual density in a protected area. UAS and biologging derived data models provided similar distribution patterns. Predictions from the UAS model overestimated cattle densities, which may be associated with higher aggregated distributions of this species. Overall, while the particular researcher interests and species characteristics will influence the method of choice for each study, we demonstrate here that UAS constitute a noninvasive methodology able to provide accurate spatial data useful for ecological research, wildlife management and rangeland planning. PMID:26640661

  7. GSK-3: functional insights from cell biology and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana eKaidanovich-Beilin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded in mammals by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. GSK-3 is active in cells under resting conditions and is primarily regulated through inhibition or diversion of its activity. While GSK-3 is one of the few protein kinases that can be inactivated by phosphorylation, the mechanisms of GSK-3 regulation are more varied and not fully understood. Precise control appears to be achieved by a combination of phosphorylation, localization, and sequestration by a number of GSK-3-binding proteins. GSK-3 lies downstream of several major signaling pathways including the phosphatidylinositol 3’ kinase pathway, the Wnt pathway, Hedgehog signaling and Notch. Specific pools of GSK-3, which differ in intracellular localization, binding partner affinity and relative amount are differentially sensitized to several distinct signaling pathways and these sequestration mechanisms contribute to pathway insulation and signal specificity. Dysregulation of signaling pathways involving GSK-3 is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders and there are data suggesting GSK-3 isoform-selective roles in several of these. Here, we review the current knowledge of GSK-3 regulation and targets and discuss the various animal models that have been employed to dissect the functions of GSK-3 in brain development and function through the use of conventional or conditional knock-out mice as well as transgenic mice. These studies have revealed fundamental roles for these protein kinases in memory, behavior and neuronal fate determination and provide insights into possible therapeutic interventions.

  8. Study of nanoscale structural biology using advanced particle beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseman, Adam J.

    This work investigates developmental and structural biology at the nanoscale using current advancements in particle beam microscopy. Typically the examination of micro- and nanoscale features is performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but in order to decrease surface charging, and increase resolution, an obscuring conductive layer is applied to the sample surface. As magnification increases, this layer begins to limit the ability to identify nanoscale surface structures. A new technology, Helium Ion Microscopy (HIM), is used to examine uncoated surface structures on the cuticle of wild type and mutant fruit flies. Corneal nanostructures observed with HIM are further investigated by FIB/SEM to provide detailed three dimensional information about internal events occurring during early structural development. These techniques are also used to reconstruct a mosquito germarium in order to characterize unknown events in early oogenesis. Findings from these studies, and many more like them, will soon unravel many of the mysteries surrounding the world of developmental biology.

  9. Biological studies of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Roger K; Rasmusson, Ann M; Koenen, Karestan C; Shin, Lisa M; Orr, Scott P; Gilbertson, Mark W; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only major mental disorder for which a cause is considered to be known: that is, an event that involves threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others and induces a response of intense fear, helplessness or horror. Although PTSD is still largely regarded as a psychological phenomenon, over the past three decades the growth of the biological PTSD literature has been explosive, and thousands of references now exist. Ultimately, the impact of an environmental event, such as a psychological trauma, must be understood at organic, cellular and molecular levels. This Review attempts to present the current state of this understanding on the basis of psychophysiological, structural and functional neuroimaging, and endocrinological, genetic and molecular biological studies in humans and in animal models. PMID:23047775

  10. Differences in the primary culture, purification and biological characteristics between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaobo Hu; Zifang Song; Qichang Zheng; Jun Nie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences of primary culture, purification and biological characteristics between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells from rat aorta. Methods: Endothelial cells were obtained using the vascular ring adherence, collagenase digestion method and an improved vascular ring adherence method, while smooth muscle cells were separated from tissue sections of rat aorta. Clones of endothelial cells were selected by limiting dilution assay. Both cell types were identified using specific cell immunofluorescent markers,and phase contrast microscopy was used to observe the morphological disparity between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells at the single cell and colony level. Cell proliferation was determined by the cell counting kit-8. Differences between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were evaluated in trypsin digestion 6me, attachment time and recovery after cryopreservation. Results: Endothelial cells were obtained by all three methods. The improved vascular ring method provided the most reproducible results. Cells were in good condition, and of high purity. Smooth muscle cells were cultured successfully by the tissue fragment culture method. Clonal expansion of singleendothelial cells was attained. The two cell types expressed their respective specific markers, and the rate of proliferation of smooth muscle cells exceeded that of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were more sensitive to trypsin digestion than smooth muscle cells. In addition, they had a shorter adherence time and better recovery following cryopreservation than smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: The improved vascular ring method was optimal for yielding endothelial cells. Limiting dilution is a novel and valid method for purifying primary endothelial cells from rat aorta. Primary rat endothelial cell and vascular smooth muscle cell cultures exhibited different morphological characteristics, proliferation rate, adherence time, susceptibility to trypsin

  11. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Yong-Ju Liang; Xing-Ping Wu; Xiao-Dong Su; Li-Wu Fu

    2012-01-01

    S1-M1-80 cells,derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells,are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance (MDR).In this study,S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo.Our results showed that the proliferation,cell cycle,and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells).Consistently,xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan,but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin.Furthermore,the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan.These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks.Thus,this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR.

  12. Systems Modelling and the Development of Coherent Understanding of Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Roald P.; Waarlo, Arend Jan; Boersma, Kerst Th.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on educational design research concerning a learning and teaching strategy for cell biology in upper-secondary education introducing "systems modelling" as a key competence. The strategy consists of four modelling phases in which students subsequently develop models of free-living cells, a general two-dimensional model of…

  13. Using Osteoclast Differentiation as a Model for Gene Discovery in an Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Mark J.; Picco, Jenna; Clements, Meghan; Witwicka, Hanna; Yang, Meiheng; Hoey, Margaret T.; Odgren, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    A key goal of molecular/cell biology/biotechnology is to identify essential genes in virtually every physiological process to uncover basic mechanisms of cell function and to establish potential targets of drug therapy combating human disease. This article describes a semester-long, project-oriented molecular/cellular/biotechnology laboratory…

  14. Multiweek Cell Culture Project for Use in Upper-Level Biology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Rebecca E.; Gardner, Grant E.; Parks, Lisa D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a laboratory protocol for a multiweek project piloted in a new upper-level biology laboratory (BIO 426) using cell culture techniques. Human embryonic kidney-293 cells were used, and several culture media and supplements were identified for students to design their own experiments. Treatments included amino acids, EGF,…

  15. Wood smoke particle sequesters cell iron to impact a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological effect of an inorganic particle (i.e., silica) can be associated with a disruption in cell iron homeostasis. Organic compounds included in particles originating from combustion processes can also complex sources of host cell iron to disrupt metal homeostasis. We te...

  16. Atomic Force Microscopy Application in Biological Research: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surena Vahabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  17. Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Printing of Blood Cells as a Tool in Cell Biology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, Ingrid; Monteiro, Douglas; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Dos Santos, Thaisa Oliveira; Rosa Belmonte, Simone Letícia; Pinto de Oliveira, Jairo; Mauad, Helder; da Silva Pacheco, Marcos; Lenz, Dominik; Stefanon Bittencourt, Athelson; Valentim Nogueira, Breno; Lopes Dos Santos, Jorge Roberto; Miranda, Kildare; Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes

    2016-01-01

    The cell biology discipline constitutes a highly dynamic field whose concepts take a long time to be incorporated into the educational system, especially in developing countries. Amongst the main obstacles to the introduction of new cell biology concepts to students is their general lack of identification with most teaching methods. The introduction of elaborated figures, movies and animations to textbooks has given a tremendous contribution to the learning process and the search for novel teaching methods has been a central goal in cell biology education. Some specialized tools, however, are usually only available in advanced research centers or in institutions that are traditionally involved with the development of novel teaching/learning processes, and are far from becoming reality in the majority of life sciences schools. When combined with the known declining interest in science among young people, a critical scenario may result. This is especially important in the field of electron microscopy and associated techniques, methods that have greatly contributed to the current knowledge on the structure and function of different cell biology models but are rarely made accessible to most students. In this work, we propose a strategy to increase the engagement of students into the world of cell and structural biology by combining 3D electron microscopy techniques and 3D prototyping technology (3D printing) to generate 3D physical models that accurately and realistically reproduce a close-to-the native structure of the cell and serve as a tool for students and teachers outside the main centers. We introduce three strategies for 3D imaging, modeling and prototyping of cells and propose the establishment of a virtual platform where different digital models can be deposited by EM groups and subsequently downloaded and printed in different schools, universities, research centers and museums, thereby modernizing teaching of cell biology and increasing the accessibility to

  18. Virtual Reconstruction and Three-Dimensional Printing of Blood Cells as a Tool in Cell Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard-Dias, Wendell; dos Santos, Thaisa Oliveira; Rosa Belmonte, Simone Letícia; Pinto de Oliveira, Jairo; Mauad, Helder; da Silva Pacheco, Marcos; Lenz, Dominik; Stefanon Bittencourt, Athelson; Valentim Nogueira, Breno; Lopes dos Santos, Jorge Roberto; Miranda, Kildare; Guimarães, Marco Cesar Cunegundes

    2016-01-01

    The cell biology discipline constitutes a highly dynamic field whose concepts take a long time to be incorporated into the educational system, especially in developing countries. Amongst the main obstacles to the introduction of new cell biology concepts to students is their general lack of identification with most teaching methods. The introduction of elaborated figures, movies and animations to textbooks has given a tremendous contribution to the learning process and the search for novel teaching methods has been a central goal in cell biology education. Some specialized tools, however, are usually only available in advanced research centers or in institutions that are traditionally involved with the development of novel teaching/learning processes, and are far from becoming reality in the majority of life sciences schools. When combined with the known declining interest in science among young people, a critical scenario may result. This is especially important in the field of electron microscopy and associated techniques, methods that have greatly contributed to the current knowledge on the structure and function of different cell biology models but are rarely made accessible to most students. In this work, we propose a strategy to increase the engagement of students into the world of cell and structural biology by combining 3D electron microscopy techniques and 3D prototyping technology (3D printing) to generate 3D physical models that accurately and realistically reproduce a close-to-the native structure of the cell and serve as a tool for students and teachers outside the main centers. We introduce three strategies for 3D imaging, modeling and prototyping of cells and propose the establishment of a virtual platform where different digital models can be deposited by EM groups and subsequently downloaded and printed in different schools, universities, research centers and museums, thereby modernizing teaching of cell biology and increasing the accessibility to

  19. Pediatric T- and NK-cell lymphomas: new biologic insights and treatment strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T- and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphomas are challenging childhood neoplasms. These cancers have varying presentations, vast molecular heterogeneity, and several are quite unusual in the West, creating diagnostic challenges. Over 20 distinct T- and NK-cell neoplasms are recognized by the 2008 World Health Organization classification, demonstrating the diversity and potential complexity of these cases. In pediatric populations, selection of optimal therapy poses an additional quandary, as most of these malignancies have not been studied in large randomized clinical trials. Despite their rarity, exciting molecular discoveries are yielding insights into these clinicopathologic entities, improving the accuracy of our diagnoses of these cancers, and expanding our ability to effectively treat them, including the use of new targeted therapies. Here, we summarize this fascinating group of lymphomas, with particular attention to the three most common subtypes: T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma-not otherwise specified. We highlight recent findings regarding their molecular etiologies, new biologic markers, and cutting-edge therapeutic strategies applied to this intriguing class of neoplasms

  20. Caenorhabditis elegans - A model system for space biology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas E.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in studies spanning aspects of development, aging, and radiobiology is reviewed. These topics are interrelated via cellular and DNA repair processes especially in the context of oxidative stress and free-radical metabolism. The relevance of these research topics to problems in space biology is discussed and properties of the space environment are outlined. Exposure to the space-flight environment can induce rapid changes in living systems that are similar to changes occurring during aging; manipulation of these environmental parameters may represent an experimental strategy for studies of development and senescence. The current and future opportunities for such space-flight experimentation are presented.

  1. Study on the biological characteristics of Homalotglus flaminus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Homalotglus flaminus (Dalman) is an important natural enemy of the Chilocorus kuwanae. Its biological characteristic, life history, the action style on hosts were studied at Hongqi Forest Farm, Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province from June 1998 to October 2000, in order to control H. flaminus and raise the control ability of Chilocorus kuwanae to Quadraspidiotus gigas pest. The observed results indicated that H. flaminus has two generation one year in study area, the pupating span is 12.7 d, life span of females and males is 17.6 d and 10.8 d respectively, egg span is 10 d, and the sex ratio of females to males is 1:3.

  2. Algebraic Systems Biology: A Case Study for the Wnt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Elizabeth; Harrington, Heather A; Rosen, Zvi; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Steady-state analysis of dynamical systems for biological networks gives rise to algebraic varieties in high-dimensional spaces whose study is of interest in their own right. We demonstrate this for the shuttle model of the Wnt signaling pathway. Here, the variety is described by a polynomial system in 19 unknowns and 36 parameters. It has degree 9 over the parameter space. This case study explores multistationarity, model comparison, dynamics within regions of the state space, identifiability, and parameter estimation, from a geometric point of view. We employ current methods from computational algebraic geometry, polyhedral geometry, and combinatorics. PMID:26645985

  3. Molecular cell biology and physiology of solute transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Michael J.; Seo-Mayer, Patricia; Zhang, Li

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review An enormous body of research has been focused on exploring the mechanisms through which epithelial cells establish their characteristic polarity. It is clear that under normal circumstances cell–cell contacts mediated by the calcium-dependent adhesion proteins of the intercellular adhesion junctions are required to initiate complete polarization. Furthermore, formation of the tight, or occluding, junctions that limit paracellular permeability has long been thought to help to establish polarity by preventing the diffusion of membrane proteins between the two plasmalemmal domains. This review will discuss several selected kinases and protein complexes and highlight their relevance to transporting epithelial cell polarization. Recent findings Recent work has shed new light on the roles of junctional complexes in establishing and maintaining epithelial cell polarity. In addition, work from several laboratories, suggests that the formation of these junctions is tied to processes that regulate cellular energy metabolism. Summary Junctional complexes and energy sensing kinases constitute a novel class of machinery whose capacity to generate and modulate epithelial cell polarity is likely to have wide ranging and important physiological ramifications. PMID:18695392

  4. Student Perception of Relevance of Biology Content to Everyday Life: A Study in Higher Education Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himschoot, Agnes Rose

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method case study was to examine the effects of methods of instruction on students' perception of relevance in higher education non-biology majors' courses. Nearly ninety percent of all students in a liberal arts college are required to take a general biology course. It is proposed that for many of those students, this is…

  5. Analyzing Biological Performance of 3D-Printed, Cell-Impregnated Hybrid Constructs for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadifar, Zohreh; Chang, Tuanjie; Kulyk, William; Chen, Xiongbiao; Eames, B Frank

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting of hybrid constructs is a promising biofabrication method for cartilage tissue engineering because a synthetic polymer framework and cell-impregnated hydrogel provide structural and biological features of cartilage, respectively. During bioprinting, impregnated cells may be subjected to high temperatures (caused by the adjacent melted polymer) and process-induced mechanical forces, potentially compromising cell function. This study addresses these biofabrication issues, evaluating the heat distribution of printed polycaprolactone (PCL) strands and the rheological property and structural stability of alginate hydrogels at various temperatures and concentrations. The biocompatibility of parameters from these studies was tested by culturing 3D hybrid constructs bioprinted with primary cells from embryonic chick cartilage. During initial two-dimensional culture expansion of these primary cells, two morphologically and molecularly distinct cell populations ("rounded" and "fibroblastic") were isolated. The biological performance of each population was evaluated in 3D hybrid constructs separately. The cell viability, proliferation, and cartilage differentiation were observed at high levels in hybrid constructs of both cell populations, confirming the validity of these 3D bioprinting parameters for effective cartilage tissue engineering. Statistically significant performance variations were observed, however, between the rounded and fibroblastic cell populations. Molecular and morphological data support the notion that such performance differences may be attributed to the relative differentiation state of rounded versus fibroblastic cells (i.e., differentiated chondrocytes vs. chondroprogenitors, respectively), which is a relevant issue for cell-based tissue engineering strategies. Taken together, our study demonstrates that bioprinting 3D hybrid constructs of PCL and cell-impregnated alginate hydrogel is a promising approach for

  6. Mitochondria in mesenchymal stem cell biology and cell therapy: From cellular differentiation to mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ting-Hsien; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized to have the capacity of self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into mesoderm, ectoderm-like and endoderm-like cells. MSCs hold great promise for cell therapies due to their multipotency in vitro and therapeutic advantage of hypo-immunogenicity and lower tumorigenicity. Moreover, it has been shown that MSCs can serve as a vehicle to transfer mitochondria into cells after cell transplantation. Mitochondria produce most of the energy through oxidative phosphorylation in differentiated cells. It has been increasingly clear that the switch of energy supply from glycolysis to aerobic metabolism is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. Post-translational modifications of proteins have been established to regulate mitochondrial function and metabolic shift during MSCs differentiation. In this article, we review and provide an integrated view on the roles of different protein kinases and sirtuins in the maintenance and differentiation of MSCs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that alteration in the expression of Sirt3 and Sirt5 and relative changes in the acylation levels of mitochondrial proteins might be involved in the activation of mitochondrial function and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs. We summarize their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, oxidative responses and differentiation of MSCs. On the other hand, we discuss recent advances in the study of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial transfer as well as their roles in the differentiation and therapeutic application of MSCs to improve cell function in vitro and in animal models. Accumulating evidence has substantiated that the therapeutic potential of MSCs is conferred not only by cell replacement and paracrine effects but also by transferring mitochondria into injured tissues or cells to modulate the cellular metabolism in situ. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms

  7. Space experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space (CellRad)": Hardware and biological system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, Christine E; Dilruba, Shahana; Adrian, Astrid; Feles, Sebastian; Schmitz, Claudia; Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Briganti, Luca; Franz, Markus; Segerer, Jürgen; Spitta, Luis F; Henschenmacher, Bernd; Konda, Bikash; Diegeler, Sebastian; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Panitz, Corinna; Reitz, Günther

    2015-11-01

    One factor contributing to the high uncertainty in radiation risk assessment for long-term space missions is the insufficient knowledge about possible interactions of radiation with other spaceflight environmental factors. Such factors, e.g. microgravity, have to be considered as possibly additive or even synergistic factors in cancerogenesis. Regarding the effects of microgravity on signal transduction, it cannot be excluded that microgravity alters the cellular response to cosmic radiation, which comprises a complex network of signaling pathways. The purpose of the experiment "Cellular Responses to Radiation in Space" (CellRad, formerly CERASP) is to study the effects of combined exposure to microgravity, radiation and general space flight conditions on mammalian cells, in particular Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells that are stably transfected with different plasmids allowing monitoring of proliferation and the Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) pathway by means of fluorescent proteins. The cells will be seeded on ground in multiwell plate units (MPUs), transported to the ISS, and irradiated by an artificial radiation source after an adaptation period at 0 × g and 1 × g. After different incubation periods, the cells will be fixed by pumping a formaldehyde solution into the MPUs. Ground control samples will be treated in the same way. For implementation of CellRad in the Biolab on the International Space Station (ISS), tests of the hardware and the biological systems were performed. The sequence of different steps in MPU fabrication (cutting, drilling, cleaning, growth surface coating, and sterilization) was optimized in order to reach full biocompatibility. Different coatings of the foil used as growth surface revealed that coating with 0.1 mg/ml poly-D-lysine supports cell attachment better than collagen type I. The tests of prototype hardware (Science Model) proved its full functionality for automated medium change, irradiation and fixation of cells. Exposure of

  8. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone (φ/ψ) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined 13Ca, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of α-helical and β-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly β-sheet.

  9. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  10. Cell Biological Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance in Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sanford M.; Schindler, Melvin

    1994-04-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a generic term for the variety of strategies tumor cells use to evade the cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs. MDR is characterized by a decreased sensitivity of tumor cells not only to the drug employed for chemotherapy but also to a broad spectrum of drugs with neither obvious structural homology nor common targets. This pleotropic resistance is one of the major obstacles to the successful treatment of tumors. MDR may result from structural or functional changes at the plasma membrane or within the cytoplasm, cellular compartments, or nucleus. Molecular mechanisms of MDR are discussed in terms of modifications in detoxification and DNA repair pathways, changes in cellular sites of drug sequestration, decreases in drug-target affinity, synthesis of specific drug inhibitors within cells, altered or inappropriate targeting of proteins, and accelerated removal or secretion of drugs.

  11. DIFFERENCE IN BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIOTHERAPY BETWEEN INTRAHEPATIC AND EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA CELLS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ran He; Xiao-peng Wu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate and compare the biological characteristics and sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiother-apy of intrahepatic and extrahepatie cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro.Methods The intrahepatic and extrahepatie eholangiocarcinoma cell lines were established, and cells with steady passage were chosen to study the biological characteristics including morphology, growth dynamics, chromosome, and levels of cancer antigen (CA)125, CA 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA).M.eanwhile, MTT assay was used to determine the sensitivity of both kinds of cells to 6 chemotherapeutic drugs, inclu-ding cisplatin, paclitaxel, harringtonine, 5-fluorouracil, vincristine, and aelacimomycin, and the inhibitory rate of ceils under the irradiation of 10 Gy ray was also measured.Reanlts The intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were mostly fusiform in shape, and extrahepatic eholangiocar-cinoma cells were mostly round or polygon in shape. Their doubling time was 26. 3 hours and 23.1 hours, respectively.Their average number of chromosomes was 59 (range, 38-84) and 67 (range, 49-103 ), respectively. The chromo-some karyotypes of most intrahepatlc ebolangiocarcinoma cells were hyperdiploid and hypotriploid, while hypertriploid was predominant in extrahepatic cholangioearcinoma cells. The level of CA 125 in supernatant of extrahepatic cholangio-carcinoma cells increased obviously, while levels of other determined tumor markers in both kinds of cells were all with-in normal range. The intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were low sensitive to cisplatin and paclitaxel, but not sensi-tive to the other 4 chemotherapeutic drugs. The extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells were high sensitive to eisplatin,but not sensitive to the other 5 drugs. Both kinds of cells had poor sensitivity to radiotherapy.Conelusions Intrahepatic and extrahepatie cbolangiocareinoma cells show differences in shape, doubling time,chromosome karyotype, tumor marker level, and

  12. Biological studies of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the US is assessing the feasibility of emplacing high level radioactive wastes (HLW) within deep-sea sediments and is developing the means for assessing the feasibility of the disposal practices of other nations. This paper discusses the role and status of biological research in the SDP. Studies of the disposal methods and of the conceived barriers (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that biological knowledge will be principally needed to address the impact of accidental releases of radionuclides. Current experimental work is focusing on the deep-sea ecosystem to determine: (1) the structure of benthic communities, including their microbial component; (2) the faunal composition of deep midwater nekton; (3) the biology of deep-sea amphipods; (4) benthic community metabolism; (5) the rates of bacterial processes; (6) the metabolism of deep-sea animals, and (7) the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. A multicompartment model is being developed to assess quantitatively the impact (on the environment and on man) of releases of radionuclides into the sea

  13. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  14. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Bioreactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present results from bioreactor studies involving H{sub 2} production by water gas shift and H{sub 2}S removal to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the results for H{sub 2} production by Rhodospirillum rubrum have been presented during earlier contracts. Thus, this report concentrates mainly on H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur by R. rubrum.

  15. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  16. ESTABLISHMENT OF A HUMAN T-LYMPHOMA CELL LINE(H-TL90) AND ANALYSIS OF ITS BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史历; 刘旭; 张月梅; 李有芳; 李殿俊; 王吾如

    1995-01-01

    We established a human T-lymphoma cell line from the cancerous ascites of a male patient with prostate cancer which was named H-TL90. This cell line was characterized by its histological features, and by chromosomal and immunological analysis. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that the cells expressed surface antigen CD3- CD4- CD7+ CD8-. Biological analysis revealed that the cell can promote lymphocyte proliferation. This suggested that the cell line has an autosecretion function. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that H-TL90 was a hyperdlploid with 47 chromosomes and had characteristic translocation between chromosome 3 and 11, and the deletion of the long arm of chromosome 6. These results demonstrated the H-TL90 cell line can be a useful modal for the study of human T-lymphoma.

  17. Molecular Thermodynamics for Cell Biology as Taught with Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Luis S.; Lopez, Maria Jose; Becker, Wayne M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic principles are basic to an understanding of the complex fluxes of energy and information required to keep cells alive. These microscopic machines are nonequilibrium systems at the micron scale that are maintained in pseudo-steady-state conditions by very sophisticated processes. Therefore, several nonstandard concepts need to be…

  18. An ECHO in biology II: Insights in chondrocyte cell fate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schivo, S.; Scholma, J.; Huang, X.; Zhong, L.; Pol, van de J.C.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Langerak, R.; Post, J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: An intricate network of regulatory processes determines the chondrocyte cell fate during development and maintains tissue homeostasis. In the event of a disease such as OA, the regulatory network is critically compromised. To cure the disease, we need to restore the regulatory processes to

  19. Responses of Cell Renewal Systems to Long-term Low-Level Radiation Exposure: A Feasibility Study Applying Advanced Molecular Biology Techniques on Available Histological and Cytological Material of Exposed Animals and Men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First results of this feasibility study showed that evaluation of the stored material of the chronically irradiated dogs with modern molecular biological techniques proved to be successful and extremely promising. Therefore an in deep analysis of at least part of the huge amount of remaining material is of outmost interest. The methods applied in this feasibility study were pathological evaluation with different staining methods, protein analysis by means of immunohistochemistry, strand break analysis with the TdT-assay, DNA- and RNA-analysis as well as genomic examination by gene array. Overall more than 50% of the investigated material could be used. In particular the results of an increased stimulation of the immune system within the dogs of the 3mSv group as both compared to the control and higher dose groups gives implications for the in depth study of the cellular events occurring in context with low dose radiation. Based on the findings of this study a further evaluation and statistically analysis of more material can help to identify promising biomarkers for low dose radiation. A systematic evaluation of a correlation of dose rates and strand breaks within the dog tissue might moreover help to explain mechanisms of tolerance to IR. One central problem is that most sequences for dog specific primers are not known yet. The discovery of the dog genome is still under progress. In this study the isolation of RNA within the dog tissue was successful. But up to now there are no gene arrays or gene chips commercially available, tested and adapted for canine tissue. The uncritical use of untested genomic test systems for canine tissue seems to be ineffective at the moment, time consuming and ineffective. Next steps in the investigation of genomic changes after IR within the stored dog tissue should be limited to quantitative RT-PCR of tested primer sequences for the dog. A collaboration with institutions working in the field of the discovery of the dog genome could

  20. Glycan Sulfation Modulates Dendritic Cell Biology and Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland El Ghazal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In cancer, proteoglycans have been found to play roles in facilitating the actions of growth factors, and effecting matrix invasion and remodeling. However, little is known regarding the genetic and functional importance of glycan chains displayed by proteoglycans on dendritic cells (DCs in cancer immunity. In lung carcinoma, among other solid tumors, tumor-associated DCs play largely subversive/suppressive roles, promoting tumor growth and progression. Herein, we show that targeting of DC glycan sulfation through mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 in mice increased DC maturation and inhibited trafficking of DCs to draining lymph nodes. Lymphatic-driven DC migration and chemokine (CCL21-dependent activation of a major signaling pathway required for DC migration (as measured by phospho-Akt were sensitive to Ndst1 mutation in DCs. Lewis lung carcinoma tumors in mice deficient in Ndst1 were reduced in size. Purified CD11c+ cells from the tumors, which contain the tumor-infiltrating DC population, showed a similar phenotype in mutant cells. These features were replicated in mice deficient in syndecan-4, the major heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed on the DC surface: Tumors were growth-impaired in syndecan-4–deficient mice and were characterized by increased infiltration by mature DCs. Tumors on the mutant background also showed greater infiltration by NK cells and NKT cells. These findings indicate the genetic importance of DC heparan sulfate proteoglycans in tumor growth and may guide therapeutic development of novel strategies to target syndecan-4 and heparan sulfate in cancer.