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Sample records for celdas fotovoltaicasgeneric photovoltaic

  1. Reutilización de efluentes de tintura: celda UVEC

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Bouzán, María Carmen; Sala Gastón, Mireia

    2010-01-01

    Algunos tipos de colorantes y otros compuestos no biodegradables presentes en las aguas residuales no se pueden eliminar mediante los tratamientos biológicos convencionales. Se presenta una tecnología constituida por una celda electroquímica con una fuente de irradiación UV, la Celda UVEC, capaz de degradar este tipo de compuestos. Esta celda es un método eficaz para eliminar el color de los baños de tintura agotados. Es un sistema limpio, funciona a temperature ambiente, no genera residuos y...

  2. Tolerancia al co en celdas de combustible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBIAN HOYOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El entendimiento completo del proceso de adsorción y posterior oxidación de moléculas de CO en platino es de fundamental importancia para el desarrollo de celdas de combustible poliméricas que operan a baja temperatura. En este trabajo se presenta una revisión de las cinco estrategias experimentales más importantes en la búsqueda de mejorar la tolerancia al CO: disminución del potencial de inicio de la reacción de oxidación, reducción de la cantidad de CO adsorbido, utilización de pequeñas cantidades de oxígeno en la corriente de alimentación al ánodo, aumento de la temperatura de operación y limpieza del CO a la entrada. Aunque se han desarrollado catalizadores bastante promisorios (PtMo y PdAu, todavía se sigue considerando a la mezcla Pt-Ru como el catalizador anódico más eficiente para combustibles que contienen 10 ppm de CO o más. La estrategia de inyectar oxígeno al ánodo parece promisoria pero requiere el desarrollo de nuevas membranas más resistentes y de la implementación de condiciones más seguras de operación de la celda. El diseño estructural de ánodos especiales con múltiples capas soportando catalizadores específicos para cada tipo de combustible puede ser una estrategia muy atractiva.

  3. para celdas de combustible de etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS MONSALVE GIL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se elaboraron dos membranas nanocompuestas de Nafion®- TiO2 con 2 y 4% del cerámico por el método del “recasting”. El análisis de composición del microscopio de barrido electrónico (SEMEDS mostró una estructura de dos capas, una enriquecida en cerámico y otra con menos cantidad, pero con dispersión uniforme. Se midió la velocidad de permeación de etanol y la absorción de solventes en estas membranas a diferentes temperaturas y concentraciones y los resultados fueron comparados con los obtenidos para la membrana de Nafion® sin modificar. Los resultados experimentales mostraron un incremento de la permeación y de la absorción de solvente con la concentración de etanol y la temperatura. La absorción de agua también mostró un incremento en las membranas compuestas lo cual puede permitir operar a mayores temperaturas y menores humedades relativas y aumentar el desempeño de la celda de combustible.

  4. INTEGRACIÓN DE UNA CELDA FLEXIBLE DE MANUFACTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Grasa, P; Chavoya, O

    2011-01-01

    La consideración de las necesidades de la pequeña y mediana industria, ha orientado la propuesta de un proyecto de investigación en el ITESM-CEM, cuyo objetivo es desarrollar una estructura automatizada de producción, en nuna instalación piloto, mejor conocida como Celda de Mnufactura Flexible, para transferir el conocimiento y experiencia adquiridos a la industria.En este trabajo se presentan los lineamientos generales para la integración de una celda flexible de manufactura a partir de máqu...

  5. 40 years of solar cell research in the CINVESTAV of the IPN; 40 anos de investigacion de celdas solares en el CINVESTAV del IPN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Acevedo, Arturo [Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    Basically, this presentation describes what the Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV) has been working on during this last 40 years, e.g. solar cells. Firstly, it is explained the starting point of the research of solar cells in this institute. Next, it is briefly described the project focused on the factory, which produced 3-inch solar cells, and there are also explained the methodologies that were used in order to produce such sort of cells. In addition, the issues related to photovoltaic systems are explained, among there are found: the characteristics and the first places where they were installed, among others. Next, it is described the program of the PV system installation in the facilities of some child hostel of the Republic of Mexico, carried out with the collaboration of the National Indigenist Institute (INI). Next, it is presented the technology that the CINVESTAV is currently working on, i.e. crystalline silicon solar cells. Besides, it is shown by graphic and illustrative means the process of the same. Finally, it is described the strategic plan suggested in order to produce solar cells in Mexico; besides, there are shown the got conclusions a long with the future expectations. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describe basicamente todo lo que ha pasado a lo largo de 40 anos en el Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), en relacion a las celdas solares. En primer plano, se describe el punto de inicio de la investigacion de celdas solares en esta institucion. Enseguida, se describe brevemente el proyecto que se realizo sobre la planta piloto fabricante de celdas solares de 3 pulgadas de diametro, tambien se explican las metodologias que se seguian para fabricar dichas celdas. Mas adelante, se explican cuestiones relacionadas con los modulos fotovoltaicos entre las que se encuentran: las caracteristicas y los primeros lugares donde fueron instalados este tipo de sistemas. Enseguida, se describe el programa

  6. Modelado de una Celda de Manufactura Integrada por Computadora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika S. Puga Velázquez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, se propone una metodología secuencial que: (1 modela una celda de manufactura flexible utilizando redes de Petri y (2 realiza la conversión del modelo obtenido a la programación de hardware de bajo nivel. La propuesta representa una solución al problema que presentan las redes de Petri a su realización física en sistemas dinámicos de eventos discretos, como lo son los centros de manufactura integrada.

  7. Combustible Biogás en Celdas de Hidrógeno

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmar Rössel Kipping; Hipólito Ortiz Laurel

    2013-01-01

    Celdas de hidrógeno con una capacidad de hasta 10 kW se ensayan en plantas pequeñas de generación de energía eléctrica. Esta es una fuente motriz alternativa, viable y competitiva. El combustible biogás consiste principalmente de metano y dióxido de carbono y otros compuestos, además de una variedad de impurezas que sin embargo, son dañinas para las celdas. Se exploró la viabilidad de producir un biogás adecuado para utilizarse en las celdas, la identificación de los gases dañinos y su remoci...

  8. Catalizadores anodicos basados en platino para celdas de combustible de etanol

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Se estudio el comportamiento electro catalítico de platino puro y aleaciones basadas en el con Ru, Sn, Ir y Os soportados en carbón para la electro oxidación de etanol con el propósito de desarrollar catalizadores anódicos para celdas de combustible directas de etanol. Adicionalmente, se construyeron electrodos porosos y ensambles electrodo-membrana para celdas de combustible poliméricas, en las cuales se probaron los ánodos. La caracterización de los catalizadores se realizo mediante voltame...

  9. Desarrollo de electrocatalizadores anódicos para celdas de combustible (DMFC)

    OpenAIRE

    Veizaga, Natalia Soledad

    2014-01-01

    Entre los diferentes tipos de celdas de combustible, las más apropiadas para suministrar energía a dispositivos portátiles, vehículos eléctricos y medios de transporte, son las de electrolito polimérico (PEMFCs) y metanol directo (DMFCs) debido a sus bajas temperaturas de trabajo (60–120 ºC) y a su rápida puesta en funcionamiento. Los catalizadores más utilizados en el ánodo de estas celdas son el Pt y sus aleaciones. En esta tesis se realizo el estudio de electrocatalizadores anódicos para c...

  10. Celdas galvánicas. Montaje y comprobación de la celda constituida por los pares Fe(III)/Fe(II)y Cu(II)/Cu.

    OpenAIRE

    Milla González, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Se dispone de disoluciones de sulfato de cobre(II), sulfato de hierro(II) y nitrato de Fe(III), de un potenciómetro, un puente salino y electrodos de Cu y de grafito. Con las disoluciones citadas, montar una celda galvánica y medir su potencial. Son posibles todas las combinaciones tanto en el compartimento anódico como en el catódico.

  11. Catalizadores anodicos basados en platino para celdas de combustible de etanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBIAN HOYOS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento electro catalítico de platino puro y aleaciones basadas en él con Ru, Sn, Ir y Os soportados en carbón para la electro oxidación de etanol con el propósito de desarrollar catalizadores anódicos para celdas de combustible directas de etanol. Adicionalmente, se construyeron electrodos porosos y ensambles electrodo-membrana para celdas de combustible poliméricas, en las cuales se probaron los ánodos. La caracterización de los catalizadores se realizó mediante voltametría cíclica, mientras que las pruebas del desempeño de las celdas se realizaron mediante pruebas de polarización corriente-potencial. En general, todas las aleaciones mostraron un menor potencial de inicio de la reacción y mayor actividad catalítica que el platino puro. Sin embargo en la zona de altos sobre potenciales, el platino puro tiene mayor actividad catalítica que las aleaciones. De acuerdo con estos resultados, las aleaciones estudiadas podrían ser útiles en celdas de combustible operando a corrientes moderadas y bajas

  12. Combustible Biogás en Celdas de Hidrógeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Rössel Kipping

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celdas de hidrógeno con una capacidad de hasta 10 kW se ensayan en plantas pequeñas de generación de energía eléctrica. Esta es una fuente motriz alternativa, viable y competitiva. El combustible biogás consiste principalmente de metano y dióxido de carbono y otros compuestos, además de una variedad de impurezas que sin embargo, son dañinas para las celdas. Se exploró la viabilidad de producir un biogás adecuado para utilizarse en las celdas, la identificación de los gases dañinos y su remoción exitosa y el estudio de los parámetros tecnológicos del reformado con vapor. Existe una correlación entre la formulación del sustrato en el biodigestor con la cantidad de gases perjudiciales en el biogás. La concentración del biogás tiene variaciones hasta del 15% con respecto al tiempo. La sensibilidad de las celdas a ciertos compuestos nocivos obliga a someter el biogás a un riguroso proceso de limpieza/acondicionamiento y finalmente a un reformado para lograr un combustible rico en hidrógeno. Para el reformado del biogás hasta lograr una calidad aceptable para utilizarse en las celdas de baja temperatura se requieren tratamientos de limpieza más agresivos y mayor equipamiento cuando se dispone de un biogás con bajo contenido de metano y un alto contenido de CO2.

  13. Identificación de celdas atípicas en experimentos factoriales mediante el uso de regresión robusta

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas N., José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    La identificación de celdas atípicas en diseños factoriales puede llevarse a cabo de una forma más eficaz mediante la utilización de estimadores M redescending. En regresión robusta se les asigna un peso pequeño a estas celdas. Se propone un método que permite identificar estas celdas cuando se ajusta un modelo de orden menor a las median as de las observaciones recolectadas en cada celda.

  14. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  15. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  16. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  17. Diseño del programa de control para una celda de manufactura flexible didáctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Diego Murillo-Soto

    2014-09-01

    El presente trabajo describe la interpretación de la teoría ABM con la finalidad de implementarla en un PLC comercial. El programa de control diseñado se probó con tres políticas de producción, en una celda de manufactura flexible multireentrante (MRF ubicada en el Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica; el objeto de las pruebas fue observar el rendimiento de la celda de manufactura ante distintas políticas de despacho en la producción.

  18. Diseño de celda de carga optoelectrónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Martínez Serrano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de medición representan una herramienta indispensable en todas las actividades productivas, y en el caso de empresas que aprovechan los avances del desarrollo tecnológico para mejorar la calidad de sus productos éstos son fundamentales. Frecuentemente en la industria de la manufactura metalmecánica se requiere controlar con gran precisión el ajuste de dos piezas ensambladas a presión, los materiales de ingeniería deben someterse constantemente a pruebas de resistencia, los equipos de pruebas de balanceo y vibraciones mecánicas funcionan bajo el principio de medición de fuerzas. Los métodos de medición más precisos utilizan dispositivos electromecánicos conocidos como celdas de carga, que consisten básicamente en una fina resistencia eléctrica adherida a un elemento mecánico sometido directamente o no, a las cargas de trabajo. Las cargas cíclicas que sufre el elemento mecánico afectan igualmente a la resistencia eléctrica, y debido a que está hecha de un alambre muy delgado, su capacidad a resistir elásticamente deformación es limitada. Con este proyecto se pretende construir una celda de carga opto-mecatrónica, cuyo principio de funcionamiento está basado en que gracias a la aplicación de carga en un elemento mecánico, se produce en éste cierta deformación. Esta deformación reduce la distancia entre el emisor y el receptor, provocando un cambio en la señal eléctrica. Cabe señalar que la distribución de intensidad luminosa varía entre el emisor y el receptor debido al desplazamiento generado (R. Jones, 1985; Martínez, 2004. A la celda de carga se le adaptó un emisor de infrarrojo cuya señal es recibida por el detector en el otro extremo. Se pretende demostrar que este sistema optoelectrónico es capaz de medir cargas externas sobre un elemento mecánico a través de un método indirecto para medir esfuerzos. Se ha implementado un prototipo sensible a deformación inducida a un elemento mec

  19. Fisicoquímica de materiales para celdas de combustible PEM alimentadas con metanol

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschini, Esteban Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Las celdas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protónico (PEM) alimentadas con metanol directo (DMPEM) utilizan en la actualidad como catalizadores catódico y anódico, platino y aleaciones platino/rutenio, respectivamente. Los catalizadores comerciales utilizados, están compuestos por nanopartículas de estos metales soportadas sobre partículas de carbón Vulcan XC72®. Estos catalizadores soportados presentan un bajo aprovechamiento del platino debido a que, para obtener una alta área ele...

  20. Productividad en una celda de manufactura flexible simulada en promodel utilizando path networks type crane

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Bernal Loaiza; German Cock Sarmiento; Jorge Hernán Restrepo Correa

    2015-01-01

    Esta investigación se centra en el diseño de una simulación del proceso de una celda de manufactura flexible (FMC) de la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, con el propósito de medir y elegir aquella alternativa de solución que mejore en mayor grado la productividad del sistema actual utilizando los resultados que proporciona el software Promodel. Para realizar lo anterior se utilizaron etapas de la simulación como definición del sistema, formulación de...

  1. CELDAS FOTOVOLTAICAS DE ALTA EFICIENCIA Y SISTEMA DE PANELES SOLARES DEL CUBESAT COLOMBIA 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Enrique Salamanca Céspedes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento presenta el resultado parcial de la investigación acerca de las tecnologías de celdas solares multijuntura para uso espacial. Asimismo, se presenta una recopilación de los pasos que se han seguido hasta la fecha en el diseño de un prototipo de paneles fotovoltaicos de acuerdo a los requerimientos físicos, eléctricos y financieros  del picosatélite Cubesat Colombia 1 de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas.

  2. Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolis Kiela

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with an overview of photovoltaic cells that are currently manufactured and those being developed, including one or several p-n junction, organic and dye-sensitized cells using quantum dots. The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of various photovoltaic cells, identifies the main parameters, explains the main reasons for the losses that may occur in photovoltaic cells and looks at the ways to minimize them.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Prospective of the photovoltaic solar technology for electricity generation (Annexe 7 in 'A vision of year 2030 on the use of the renewable energies in Mexico'); Prospectiva de la tecnologia solar fotovoltaica para la generacion de electricidad (Anexo 7 en 'Una vision al 2030 de la utilizacion de las energias renovables en Mexico')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-08-15

    The first experience where it was found the relationship between the light of the sun and its conversion to electricity was reported by the French physicist Edmund Bequerel in 1839, nevertheless the development of the modern photovoltaic cell, as it is known now, occurred until the middle of the last century in the Bell labs of the United States, that in year 1955 presented the first patent of photovoltaic silicon cells. The main elements of a photovoltaic system are: the photovoltaic cells, (some times referred to as solar cells), interconnected and encapsulated to form one photovoltaic module, the structure of assembly for the module or modules, the inversor (essential for systems connected to the network and for systems outside the network that require provision of alternating current), storage battery and a load controller (required solely for systems outside the network). [Spanish] La primera experiencia donde se encontro la relacion entre la luz del sol y su conversion a electricidad la reporto el fisico Frances Edmund Bequerel en 1839, sin embargo el desarrollo de la celda fotovoltaica moderna tal y como se conoce ahora, se dio hasta mediados del siglo pasado en los laboratorios Bell en los Estados Unidos, quienes en 1955 presentaron la primera patente de celdas fotovoltaicas de silicio. Los elementos principales de un sistema fotovoltaico son: las celdas fotovoltaicas, (algunas veces referidas como celdas solares), interconectadas y encapsuladas para formar un modulo fotovoltaico, la estructura de montaje para el modulo o modulos, el inversor (esencial para sistemas conectados a red y necesario para sistemas fuera de red que requieren suministro de corriente alterna), bateria de almacenamiento y un controlador de carga (requerido unicamente para sistemas fuera de red).

  4. Estudio del efecto del plano de masa en filtros pasa banda usando celdas OSRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Díaz-Pardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un estudio del efecto del plano de masa en filtros pasa banda mediante la utilización de celdas m eta material en estructura de resonadores abiertos en anillo dividi do OSRR (Open Split Ring Resonator sobre sustratos microstrip. Se plantean tres tipos de configuraciones, a saber: eliminar parci almente el plano de masa en la parte posterior a las celdas OSR R, diseñar ventanas sobre el plano de masa al respaldo de cada cel da y colocar el plano de masa co mpleto. El análisis llevado a cabo muestra que la respuesta de transmisión del filtro con ventanas en el plano de masa resulta ser la más plana de los tres caso s y de igual manera con un ancho de ba nda intermedio. Por otra parte, el desempeño de este tipo de filtros es similar al de un filtro convencional en tecnología microstrip de tres polos, sin embarg o su tamaño resulta ser un 60% más pequeño.

  5. Photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  6. Photovoltaic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module including a plurality of serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, each including a first electrode, a printed light-harvesting layer and a printed second electrode, wherein at least one of the electrodes is transparent, and wherein the second electrode...... of a first cell is printed such that it forms an electrical contact with the first electrode of an adjacent second cell without forming an electrical contact with the first electrode of the first cell or the light-harvesting layer of the second cell, and a method of making such photovoltaic cell modules....

  7. Caracterización de las antocianinas de la flor de ceibo como sensibilizadores naturales para su uso en celdas fotovoltaicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Enciso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La energía solar es la fuente de energía más promisoria del futuro, ya que la conversión directa de luz solar en energía eléctrica mediante el uso de celdas solares posee muchas ventajas sobre los métodos usados en la actualidad, debido a que no genera desechos o contaminantes.En particular, las celdas solares sensibilizadas con pigmentos (DSSC o celdas de Graetzel representan una alternativa a las convencionales celdas solares de silicio. En las últimas tres décadas han atraído considerable atención como una forma de producir celdas fotovoltaicas de bajo costo debido a la posibilidad de alcanzar una alta eficiencia de conversión (de aprox. 12% y su alto rendimiento durante períodos de luz prolongados e incluso en condiciones de stress térmico.En este trabajo se evalúan pigmentos de origen natural, la mezcla de antocianinas provenientes de la flor del ceibo, como sensibilizadores de estas celdas. Se utilizan medidas de absorbancia UV-visible, voltamperometría cíclica y espectroscopía de impedancia electroquímica como forma de caracterización.

  8. Photovoltaic technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnall, Darren M.; Boreland, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaics is already a billion dollar industry. It is experiencing rapid growth as concerns over fuel supplies and carbon emissions mean that governments and individuals are increasingly prepared to ignore its current high costs. It will become truly mainstream when its costs are comparable to other energy sources. At the moment, it is around four times too expensive for competitive commercial production. Three generations of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power in...

  9. “DESARROLLO DE MATERIALES PARA CELDAS SOLARES BASADAS EN KESTERITAS”

    OpenAIRE

    ARIAS ORTIZ, JULIO OMAR

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN En este trabajo se estudiaron y depositaron sobre sustratos de vidrio películas delgadas de los materiales usados en celdas solares basadas en Kesterita: Mo, Cu2ZnSnS4 y CdS. Las películas delgadas de Mo fueron depositadas variando la presión parcial de argón usando la técnica de RF-sputtering. Las películas fueron analizadas morfológicamente por microscopía electrónica de barrido y eléctricamente por el método de cuatro puntas. La resistencia de las películas aument...

  10. Construcción de celdas calorimétricas metálicas con escudos adiabáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ruiz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se discuten los criterios de diseño y la caracterización térmica de ccldiis calorimétricas construidas en cobre dorado y aluminio, que son acopladas a un calorímetro de inmersión para el estudio de mojado de sólidos porosos. Los resultados muestran que las celdas metálicas presentan constantes fugas térmicas y tiempos de equilibrio menores que los hallados en las celdas de vidrios tradicionales tipo Dewar. Los mejores resultados se obtiene con la celda de aluminio provista de escudos adiabáticos flotantes, construidos en lámina del mismo material, con valores de constantes de fugas tcrinicas del orden de 3,5 * 10 ' min" ' y tiempos de equilibrio de solamente 8 minutos. La instalación calorimétrica completa se calibra secundariamente, con la determinación del calor de mezcla del sistema benccnociclohcxano; los resultados están en buen acuerdo con los registrados en la literatura.

  11. Applied photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wenham, Stuart R; Watt, Muriel E; Corkish, Richard; Sproul, Alistair

    2013-01-01

    The new edition of this thoroughly considered textbook provides a reliable, accessible and comprehensive guide for students of photovoltaic applications and renewable energy engineering. Written by a group of award-winning authors it is brimming with information and is carefully designed to meet the needs of its readers. Along with exercises and references at the end of each chapter, it features a set of detailed technical appendices that provide essential equations, data sources and standards. The new edition has been fully updated with the latest information on photovoltaic cells,

  12. Improvement of the performance of a new type of single chamber microbial fuel cell compared to a conventional cell; Mejora del desempeno de un nuevo tipo de celda de combustible microbiana de una camara comparado con una celda convencional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Vazquez-Huerta, G.; Esparza-Garcia, F.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; linevazquez@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this work was to design, build and operate a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC-A) and evaluate the architectural changes in the production of electricity. The results were compared with those of a standard fuel cell (MFC-B). The MFC-A consisted of a horizontal acrylate cylinder with two systems of sandwiched electrodes (each with a anode proton exchange membrane-cathode) separated by 78 mm. The MFC-B consisted of an anode and a cathode each in the opposite faces of the cell. The internal resistance of the cells were determined with polarization curves. The cells were operated in batch during 50 h at 30 degrees Celsius obtained with 38 mW/m{sup 2} and 5 mW/m{sup 2} for MFC-A and MFC-B, respectively. The changes in the architecture of the cell and design of the electrodes occurred at a power density 8 times greater, associated with the decrease in internal resistance of 1200 and 3900 {Omega} for MFC-A and MFC-B, respectively. The change in architecture (double electrode in the same volume for MFC-A) enabled obtaining a 13 times greater potential per unit volume, with 922 mW/m{sup 3} in the new MFC-A cell versus 69 mW/m{sup 3} in MFC-B. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo fue disenar, construir y operar una celda de combustible microbiana de nuevo tipo (CCM-A), y evaluar los cambios de arquitectura en la produccion de electricidad. Los resultados fueron comparados con los de una celda de combustible estandar (CCM-B). La CCM-A consistio de un cilindro horizontal de acrilato, con dos sistemas de electrodos emparedados (cada uno con catodo/membrana de intercambio protonico/anodo) separados por 78 mm. La CCM-B consistio de un anodo y un catodo cada uno en las caras opuestas de la celda. Las Ri de las celdas fueron determinadas por curva de polarizacion. Las celdas fueron operadas en lote durante 50 h, a 30 grados centigrados, y fueron inoculadas con un inoculo sulfato reductor (In-SR) y cargadas con un extracto modelo similar al perfil de metabolitos

  13. Fuel cells applied to transport; Celdas de combustible aplicadas al transporte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Gonzalez, Miguel [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The future demand of energy as well as the preservation of the environment have generated, in several countries, the necessity of developing alternative means for the most efficient transformation of energy that causes minimum damages to the environment. The fuel cells technology is outlined as one of the alternating means to the traditional forms of transforming the energy for residential use as well as for the automotive vehicles. At present it is in a final stage of demonstration, reason why as of year 2003 the possibility will exist on automobiles and trucks circulating normally. [Spanish] La futura demanda de energeticos asi como la preservacion del medio ambiente ha generado, en varios paises, la necesidad de desarrollar medios alternos para la transformacion mas eficiente de la energia que cause minimos danos al ambiente. La tecnologia de celdas de combustible se perfila como uno de los medios alternos a la forma tradicional de transformar la energia tanto para uso residencial como para los vehiculos automotores. En la actualidad se encuentra en una etapa final de demostracion por lo que posiblemente a partir del ano 2003 se cuente con automoviles y camiones circulando normalmente.

  14. Organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-01-01

    spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device...... parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most successful solution processable organic photovoltaic devices at present. Andrey E Rudenko, Sangtaik Noh, and Barry C Thompson...... Z and Wang L 2013 Fine tuning of the PCDTBT-OR:PC71BM blend nanoscale phase separation via selective solvent annealing toward high-performance polymer photovoltaics Nanotechnology 24 484004 [6] Arar M et al 2013 Influence of morphology and polymer:nanoparticle ratio on device performance of hybrid...

  15. Photovoltaic Wire Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  16. Roof Photovoltaic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In order to accurately predict the annual energy production of photovoltaic systems for any given geographical location, building orientation, and photovoltaic cell...

  17. Catalizadores anódicos basados en platino para celdas de combustible de etanol. / Pt - based anode catalysts for direct etanol fuel cells.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Se estudió el comportamiento electro catalítico de platino puro y aleaciones basadas en él con Ru, Sn, Ir y Os soportados en carbón para la electro oxidación de etanol con el propósito de desarrollar catalizadores anódicos para celdas de combustible directas de etanol. Adicionalmente, se construyeron electrodos porosos y ensambles electrodo-membrana para celdas de combustible poliméricas, en las cuales se probaron los ánodos. La caracterización de los catalizadores se realizó mediante voltame...

  18. Preparación y evaluación de electrocatalizadores de platino sobre diferentes soportes para celdas de combustible PEM

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Se sintetizaron electrocatalizadores de Pt para celdas de combustible PEM sobre diferentes soportes: SC, modificado y sin modificar, y Vulcan XC72 para comparación. El material SC exhibió características que lo hacen un potencial sustituto del soporte Vulcan XC72. El estudio de estabilidad en las condiciones de operación de una celda de combustible PEM mostró que el electrocatalizador soportado sobre SC tiene una velocidad de degradación mayor al soportado sobre Vulcan XC72. Se requiere optim...

  19. Análisis de materiales catódicos de estructura perovskita para celdas de combustible de oxido sólido, sofcs

    OpenAIRE

    J. Alvarado-Flores; J. Espino-Valencia; L. Ávalos-Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Las celdas de combustible convierten directa y eficientemente la energ´a qu´mica de un combustible en energ´a electrica. De los diversos ´ tipos de celdas de combustible, las de oxido s ´ olido (SOFC), combinan las ventajas en generaci ´ on de energ ´ ´a ambientalmente benigna con la flexibilidad del combustible. Sin embargo, la necesidad de elevadas temperaturas de funcionamiento (800-1000C) se ha traducido en altos costos y grandes retos en relacion a la compatibilidad para los materiales c...

  20. Potential of energy saving with photovoltaic systems; Potencialidad de ahorro de energia con sistemas fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman S, Eusebio; Bratu S, Neagu [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents an approach on the application of photovoltaic systems in energy saving. The problem of the electric energy demand in the coming years is analyzed and its consequences on the environment and on the energy reserves of conventional sources. A model of the electric circuit equivalent to a photovoltaic cell illustrates the behavior of the photovoltaic cell in function of the climatological conditions. The former in order to show some of the limiting factors in this type of generator. Also, the evolution of the applications of the photovoltaic systems and its forecasting in the installed capacity in the next 20 years, is described. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta un enfoque de la aplicacion de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el ahorro de energia. Se plantea el problema del crecimiento de la demanda energetica en los proximos anos y sus consecuencias sobre el medio ambiente y las reservas de energia por fuentes convencionales. Un modelo del circuito electrico equivalente de una celda fotovoltaica ilustra el comportamiento del generador fotovoltaico en funcion de las condiciones climatologicas. Lo anterior con el fin de mostrar algunas limitantes de este tipo de generador. Tambien se describe la evolucion de las aplicaciones de los sistemas fotovoltaicos y el pronostico de la potencia instalada en los proximos 20 anos.

  1. Estimación de la cantidad de potencia suministrada por las celdas fotovoltaicas de un CubeSat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús D. González Llorente

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Los CubeSat son pequeños satélites que, debido a las restricciones propias de sus dimensiones, tienen como única fuente de energía celdas foto-voltaicas sobre su superficie. El propósito de este artículo es estimar la cantidad máxima de potencia que puede obtenerse de estas celdas solares, de manera que sea posible realizar un balance de energía cuando se diseñan misiones espaciales con este tipo de satélites. En el escenario analizado, un CubeSat de 10cm x 10cm x 10cm (1U tiene una cara siempre orientada hacia la Tierra. Se consideran las pérdidas por el coseno del ángulo y la variación de la temperatura debido a la órbita del satélite. Para la estimación se usa un modelo matemático de las celdas solares, con el cual se calcula el punto de máxima potencia según el ángulo de incidencia de la radiación solar y la temperatura sobre una órbita baja alrededor de la Tierra. Los resultados muestran la variación de la potencia eléctrica máxima suministrada por los paneles sobre la porción iluminada de la órbita, sin considerar el albedo de la Tierra. Además de la potencia, se estiman las curvas corriente-voltaje para diferentes ubicaciones sobre la órbita del CubeSat.

  2. Celdas Solares Sensibilizadas por Colorante Basadas en Dióxido de Titanio Modificado con Oxido de Cobre

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Rojas, Vanessa Celia

    2016-01-01

    Se prepararon celdas solares sensibilizadas empleando pel__culas fabricadas a partir de nano partículas de dióxido de titanio comercial modificado con oxido de cobre. Para obtener el recubrimiento modificado se mezcló una pequeña cantidad de CuO en polvo con el producto comercial P25 (TiO2 nano estructurado) en etanol hasta obtener una pasta homogénea. La pasta resultante se depositó, por el método del doctor Blade, sobre un sustrato conductor, al cual se le deposito previamente una película ...

  3. Nanostructured photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lan; Tan, H. Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Energy and the environment are two of the most important global issues that we currently face. The development of clean and sustainable energy resources is essential to reduce greenhouse gas emission and meet our ever-increasing demand for energy. Over the last decade photovoltaics, as one of the leading technologies to meet these challenges, has seen a continuous increase in research, development and investment. Meanwhile, nanotechnology, which is considered to be the technology of the future, is gradually revolutionizing our everyday life through adaptation and incorporation into many traditional technologies, particularly energy-related technologies, such as photovoltaics. While the record for the highest efficiency is firmly held by multijunction III-V solar cells, there has never been a shortage of new research effort put into improving the efficiencies of all types of solar cells and making them more cost effective. In particular, there have been extensive and exciting developments in employing nanostructures; features with different low dimensionalities, such as quantum wells, nanowires, nanotubes, nanoparticles and quantum dots, have been incorporated into existing photovoltaic technologies to enhance their performance and/or reduce their cost. Investigations into light trapping using plasmonic nanostructures to effectively increase light absorption in various solar cells are also being rigorously pursued. In addition, nanotechnology provides researchers with great opportunities to explore the new ideas and physics offered by nanostructures to implement advanced solar cell concepts such as hot carrier, multi-exciton and intermediate band solar cells. This special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics contains selected papers on nanostructured photovoltaics written by researchers in their respective fields of expertise. These papers capture the current excitement, as well as addressing some open questions in the field, covering topics including the

  4. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Clews, Peggy J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-08

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting the photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.

  5. AUTOMATIZACIÓN DEL PROCESO DE PALETIZADO DE LA CELDA HAS-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Mauricio Granada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema HAS-200 se ha desarrollado teniendo en cuenta las necesidades que la industria requiere en capacitación, dado los altos niveles de automatización que se están implantando. La versatilidad y diseño de este sistema logran representar una planta de fabricación con todos los procesos de una manera real, en este proyecto se abordo un proceso que en la versión actual de la maquina no se tenía contemplado, pero si hace parte de todas las industrias y es el final de cualquier línea de producción, el paletizado, que consiste en disponer los productos finales de tal manera que se facilite su proceso de embalaje, despacho y control de almacén. El desarrollo se fundamento en la base de datos que maneja la HAS-200, en esta se encuentra toda la información referente a la producción incluyendo la identificación del cliente para quien se ordeno el producto, que fue el parámetro escogido para realizar el proceso de paletizado. Como resultado se obtuvo una aplicación capaz de realizar la conexión con la base de datos, para accesarla y realizar la consulta pertinente además de visualizar  el estado del almacén, la automatización se implemento con un brazo robótico y los elementos de sensado e identificación del producto, alcanzando una autonomía total del proceso, obteniendo con esto un nuevo modulo para la celda de fabricación flexible, y cerrando por completo el ciclo de producción que se pretende emular mediante la HAS-200.

  6. Productividad en una celda de manufactura flexible simulada en promodel utilizando path networks type crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bernal Loaiza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se centra en el diseño de una simulación del proceso de una celda de manufactura flexible (FMC de la Facultad de Ingeniería Industrial de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, con el propósito de medir y elegir aquella alternativa de solución que mejore en mayor grado la productividad del sistema actual utilizando los resultados que proporciona el software Promodel. Para realizar lo anterior se utilizaron etapas de la simulación como definición del sistema, formulación del modelo, identificación de variables, recolección de datos, implementación e interpretación.Como resultado, se calculó la productividad teniendo en cuenta las variables del modelo y tiempo de la simulación, al mismo tiempo se interpretó la información de cada una de las locaciones, hallando el porcentaje de utilización y total de entidades para las locaciones con capacidad unitaria; para las locaciones con mayor capacidad se encuentra información referente al porcentaje de tiempo vacío, parcialmente ocupado, lleno y no disponible respecto del tiempo disponible. A diferencia de otras simulaciones, en este diseño en la parte de redes se utilizó el tipo de red Crane, asociado a los recursos del modelo. El cual facilita el desplazamiento de los brazos robots con las piezas que circulan a través del sistema.

  7. Proceedings of the International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA) (11th, Porto, Portugal, October 25-27, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 11th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2014), October 25-27, 2014, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) and endorsed by the Japanese Society for Information and Systems in…

  8. Organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  9. MÉTODOS DISCRETOS BASADOS EN QUIMIOTAXIS DE BACTERIAS Y ALGORITMOS GENÉTICOS PARA SOLUCIONAR EL PROBLEMA DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE PLANTA EN CELDAS DE MANUFACTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mejía Moncayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta la solución mono-objetivo y multi-objetivo del problema de la distribución de planta en celdas de manufactura a través de dos nuevos algoritmos híbridos discretos basados en quimiotaxis de bacterias y en algoritmos genéticos. Los modelos propuestos resuelven simultáneamente los dos inconvenientes que constituyen el problema de la distribución de planta en celdas de manufactura: la formación de las celdas y la distribución de planta intra e inter celdas, considerando el agrupamiento de las celdas y el costo de transporte y manipulación de materiales. El desempeño de las propuestas se evaluó con problemas de prueba de distribución de planta de celdas de manufactura, agente viajero (TSP y el caso multi-objetivo del problema de las mochilas. Los resultados mono-objetivo se compararon con AG, BFOA y Bacterial-GA, mientras que los resultados multi-objetivo se compararon con los reconocidos algoritmos NSGA2 y SPEA2 en los que se obtuvo un mejor desempeño en los dos casos.

  10. Procedimiento para la caracterización de una celda de punto triple de agua Isotech en el LATU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Robatto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La realización en el punto triple de agua es crucial para una mejor aproximación a la Escala Internacional de Temperatura (ITS-90, ya que la definición de esta última está directamente vinculada al punto fijo citado. Es necesario conocer la influencia de la presión hidrostática en el punto triple de agua para corregir los valores de resistencia medidos y obtener una mejor aproximación al valor real de la temperatura en dicho punto.Este artículo describe las dificultades encontradas al estudiar el perfil térmico correspondiente a una celda de punto triple de agua comercial bajo condiciones normales de operación con un baño Dewar termostatizado con hielo picado. Este trabajo fue llevado a cabo en dos fases: en la primera se detectaron problemas con los perfiles de temperatura, cuyo comportamiento era lejano al ideal. Para mejorar dicho comportamiento se hicieron cambios en el equipamiento, con el fin de minimizar el tiempo de estabilización de la celda y mejorar la transferencia de calor. El aislamiento del baño fue mejorado y se colocó un dispositivo ecualizador de temperatura de cobre en el pozo de la celda. Los resultados se discuten en el presente artículo.AbstractThe Realization of the Triple Point of Water (TPW is of main importance when approximating to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90, because it is properly involved in its definition. Therefore it is necessary to know the Hydrostatic Pressure influence at the Triple Point of Water to correct the values of resistance measured and to obtain a better approximation of the real temperature of this point. This article shows the difficulties found when studying the thermal profile of one commercial cell of the triple point of water under normal operation conditions in a Dewar thermostatic bath with crushed ice. The work was performed in two phases. In the first phase problems were detected with the temperature profiles, whose behaviors were far away from

  11. A photovoltaic module

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Frederik C.; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovolt...

  12. High density photovoltaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, R.E.; Jacobson, G.F.; Wojtczuk, S. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1997-10-14

    Photovoltaic technology can directly generate high voltages in a solid state material through the series interconnect of many photovoltaic diodes. We are investigating the feasibility of developing an electrically isolated, high-voltage power supply using miniature photovoltaic devices that convert optical energy to electrical energy.

  13. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  14. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  15. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  16. Síntesis y evaluación cinética de electrocatalizadores anódicos de celdas de combustible H2/O2

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, María Sol

    2011-01-01

    La celda de combustible es el dispositivo más prometedor para producir energía limpia. Estos transforman la energía química almacenada en un combustible determinado, en energía eléctrica. En las celdas de combustible de tipo el H2/O2, el hidrógeno se oxida en el ánodo, generando iones H + y electrones. En este sentido el Pt ha demostrado ser el catalizador más eficaz para la oxidación del hidrógeno, aunque su actividad electrocatalítica disminuye cuando el H2 utilizado contiene CO, incluso u...

  17. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  18. Simulación de una Celda Calorimétrica mediante Elementos Finitos Simulation of a Calorimetric Cell using Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Moreno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha usado el método de los elementos finitos con el fin de determinar la conveniencia de usar una forma de paralelepípedo y diferentes materiales para una celda de un microcalorímetro de conducción tipo Calvet. El empleo las condiciones de frontera en la ecuación de calor permite describir las curvas isotermas que se establecen al interior de la celda calorimétrica cuando se realiza un proceso de transferencia térmica. La existencia de puntos críticos en la geometría de la celda puede afectar la medición y ser un factor de error en la adquisición experimental de datos. La simulación permite conocer la posibilidad de disminuir estos efectos cambiando los materiales de construcción de la misma.Finite elements have been employed in this work with the purpose of determining the convenience of using a parallelepiped geometry and different materials for a cell of a Calvet type conduction microcalorimeter. The heat equation allows to describe isotherm curves established inside the calorimetric cell during the heat transfer process. The existence of critical points in the geometry of the cell can affect the measuring process and be an factor of error during experimental data acquisition. The simulation allows to determine the feasibility of diminishing these effects by changing the construction materials.

  19. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  20. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  1. Research and development of hydrogen and fuel cells technology at the IIE; Investigacion y desarrollo de tecnologia de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible en el IIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano C, Ulises; Arriaga H, Gerardo; Romero C, T; Medrano V, M. Consolacion; Gonzalez, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In April, 2001, a fuel cells project was initiated at the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) as a part of the interest of this institution for such a technology. Towards end of that same year, a group dedicated to research and development (R and D) activities was implemented and efforts were initiated for the assembly of a laboratory with specialized infrastructure that would support these activities. Thus, in the last two years, the hydrogen and fuel cells group has taken under its responsibility the task of renewing and conditioning a space to receive specialized instrumentation and to initiate its operation, as well as to develop its own knowledge on the technology of fuel cells. The R and D work related to fuel cells was initiated from basic electrochemical studies of platinum electrodes on vitreous coal in acid solutions, to determine kinetic parameters and structural properties. Since the main components of PEM cells to a great extent define the cost of the technology, other additional efforts related to basic studies for the development of components as bipolar plates, are described by the same author in 2001. Other work on basic research is bound to the response of fuel monocells under different operation conditions, and that also will be reviewed in this article. [Spanish] En abril del 2001, se inicio un proyecto de celdas de combustible en el IIE como parte del interes de esta institucion por tal tecnologia. Hacia finales de ese mismo ano, se conformo un grupo dedicado a actividades de investigacion y desarrollo (I y D) y se iniciaron esfuerzos para el montaje de un laboratorio con infraestructura especializada que apoyara estas actividades. Asi, en los ultimos dos anos, el grupo de hidrogeno y celdas de combustible se ha dado a la tarea de renovar y acondicionar un espacio para recibir instrumentacion especializada e iniciar su operacion, asi como a desarrollar su propio conocimiento de tecnologia de celdas de combustible. Los trabajos de I y

  2. A photovoltaic module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic module comprising a carrier substrate, said carrier substrate carrying a purely printed structure comprising printed positive and negative module terminals, a plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units each comprising one or more printed...... photovoltaic cells, wherein the plurality of printed photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected in series between the positive and the negative module terminals such that any two neighbouring photovoltaic cell units are electrically connected by a printed interconnecting electrical conductor....... The carrier substrate comprises a foil and the total thickness of the photovoltaic module is below 500 [mu]m. Moreover, the nominal voltage level between the positive and the negative terminals is at least 5 kV DC....

  3. Photovoltaic technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief review of the history of photovoltaic devices and a discussion of the cost goals set for photovoltaic modules, the status of photovoltaic technology is assessed. Included are discussions of: current applications, present industrial production, low-cost silicon production techniques, energy payback periods for solar cells, advanced materials research and development, concentrator systems, balance-of-system components. Also discussed are some nontechnical aspects, including foreign markets, US government program approach, and industry attitudes and approaches. (LEW)

  4. Photovoltaics - The endless spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presened. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  5. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  6. Current and future photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Boreland, M.B.; Bagnall, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaics, now a billion-dollar industry, is experiencing staggering growth as increased concerns over fuel supply and carbon emissions have encouraged governments and environmentalists to become increasingly prepared to offset the extra cost of solar energy. Three 'generations' of photovoltaics have been envisaged that will take solar power into the mainstream. Photovoltaic production is currently 90% 'first-generation' or '1G' solar cells that rely on expensive bulk multi-crystalline or...

  7. Science technology of photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive introductory text covering solar photovoltaic technologies and its increasing number of applications to generate clean energy around the globe. It treats the fundamentals of solar cells, technologies, solar modules and arrays, solar photovoltaic systems, storage batteries, power conditioning, equipment design of solar PV systems, building integrated photovoltaics, system installation, operation and maintenance, manufacturing and worldwide players and markets. Written in a clear style and with multiple illustrations, this volume is intended for students in natural sciences, engi

  8. Photovoltaic System in Progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive update on photovoltaic (PV) technologies and the materials. In recent years, targeted research advancement has been made in the photovoltaic cell technologies to reduce cost and increase efficiency. Presently, several types of PV solar panels are commercially...... utilized and playing an important role in the market. Three generations of photovoltaic technologies are investigated and discussed; Crystalline Silicon Technology categorized as first generation of PV technology, Thin Film Technologies are second generation of PV technologies and Multi-junction Cells...... structure. Silicon remains the prominent semiconductor within photovoltaic....

  9. Comparación de la habilidad reproductiva y mortalidad del ácaro Varroa destructor en celdas con cría de obrera y zángano en abejas africanizadas de Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, Rafael A.; Ureña, Susana; Sánchez, Luis; Calderón, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la reproducción del ácaro Varroa destructor en celdas con cría de obrera y zángano. Además se evaluó la mortalidad de la progenie de V. destructor, especialmente la muerte o ausencia del macho. El estudio se realizó de marzo a diciembre de 2010, utilizando 15 colmenas de abejas africanizadas ubicadas en Barreal de Heredia y Ciudad Colón, San José. Se examinaron 388 celdas de obrera y 403 celdas de zángano infestadas de manera natural con un ácaro adulto. La reproducción de cada áca...

  10. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  11. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  13. Handbook for photovoltaic cabling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, D. N.

    1980-08-01

    This volume, originally written as part of the Interim Performance Criteria Document Development Implementation Plan and Procedures for Photovoltaic Energy Systems, is an analysis of the several factors to be considered in selecting cabling for photovoltaic purposes. These factors, correspoonding to chapter titles, are electrical, structural, safety, durability/reliability, and installation. A glossary of terms used within the volume is included for reference.

  14. Photovoltaics industry profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    A description of the status of the US photovoltaics industry is given. Principal end-user industries are identified, domestic and foreign market trends are discussed, and industry-organized and US government-organized trade promotion events are listed. Trade associations and trade journals are listed, and a photovoltaic product manufacturers list is included. (WHK)

  15. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  16. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  17. Interdisciplinariedad aplicada a una tecnología actual, en el diseño de una celda robotizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odorico, Arnaldo Héctor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En menos de 30 años la robótica ha pasado de ser un mito, propio de la imaginación de algunos autores literarios, a una realidad imprescindible en el actual mercado productivo. La robótica posee un reconocido carácter interdisciplinario, participando en ella diferentes disciplinas básicas, y tecnológicas tales como la teoría de control, la mecánica, la electrónica, y la informática, entre otras. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo establecer conexiones interdisciplinarias, enfocando el diseño de una celda robotizada y el software apropiado que permita facilitar dicho desarrollo. Se intenta además, responder a la pregunta: ¿Cómo es el uso didáctico de los programas de computadora en el aula, para la concreción de mejores aprendizajes? Por este motivo se ha procurado llegar a un equilibrio entre los temas relacionados con el conocimiento del funcionamiento de un robot (en los aspectos mecánico, informático y de control y aquellos en los que se proporcionan los criterios para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar un robot y el modo más adecuado de hacerlo.

  18. Estudios fisicoquímicos sobre materiales basados enel TiO2 relacionados con la foto-descomposición deagua y el desarrollo de celdas solares fotoelectroquímicas

    OpenAIRE

    Pedemonte, Marcos Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En términos generales, el objetivo del presente trabajo de tesis consiste en contribuir al cuerpo de conocimientos respecto a los materiales empleados en las celdas solares foto-electroquímicas. Para ello se desea desarrollar una metodología que permita preparar, estudiar y caracterizar materiales adecuados para ser empleados en una celda solar fotoelectroquímica, con objeto de convertir la radiación proveniente del sol en hidrógeno y oxígeno a partir de agua. De esta ma...

  19. Experimental comparison of standard fuel cells PEM in radial configuration, coil and spiral; Comparacion experimental de celdas de combustible tipo PEM en configuracion radial, serpentin y espiral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Andrade, Sergio

    2008-12-15

    sustituir al petroleo surge la siguiente pregunta: cual de todas las fuentes posibles es la adecuada? Sin duda se debe tomar en cuenta otro factor importante en la eleccion de dicha fuente, el cual tiene que ver con el gran problema que la humanidad trata a diario: el efecto invernadero. Tomando en cuenta el efecto invernadero, las celdas de combustible en base a hidrogeno son la fuente de energia mas viable para sustituir al petroleo, ya que en su funcionamiento son amigables con el medio ambiente pues no producen contaminantes, reduciendo enormemente el problema del calentamiento global en que esta enfrascado el planeta. Es muy cierto que aun existen muchas desventajas en estas celdas de combustible en base a hidrogeno, pero las arduas investigaciones realizadas hasta la actualidad auguran un excelente futuro donde el plantea podra satisfacer su demanda energetica diaria en base a la tecnologia de hidrogeno. En trabajos futuros se debe tener especial cuidado en el control de la humedad de los gases antes de entrar a la celda de combustible, ya que es un parametro importante en el funcionamiento correcto de las celdas de combustible tipo PEM. En la presente investigacion se ilustra el avance en el estado del arte de la tecnologia de hidrogeno, especificamente con la generacion de electricidad en base a las novedosas configuraciones de celdas de combustible tipo PEM. Hasta el momento no se ha encontrado en bibliografia trabajo semejante donde se experimente con este tipo de configuracion radial para las tecnologias de hidrogeno. La geometria y los resultados presentados en este analisis corresponden a un trabajo de la mas alta categoria en el estado del arte de las celdas de combustible, ademas de que se tiene una amplia expectativa debido a los resultados altamente satisfactorios encontrados tanto numericamente como experimentalmente, en comparacion con otras geometrias.

  20. Performance of hybrid photovoltaic collector

    OpenAIRE

    Garbisu Eugui, Josu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present project is the study of the performance of a combined photovoltaic-thermal plant, called also hybrid system, located in south Italy, evaluating the efficiency of the photovoltaic and thermal systems and the advantage respect to the two single plants (photovoltaic and thermal ). This research project has two objectives fundamentals of efficiency improvement energy from solar photovoltaic panels. On one hand, increase photovoltaic efficiency, at the same time an...

  1. Construction and evaluation of a fuel cell prototype (proton exchange fuel cell); Construccion y evaluacion de un prototipo de celda a combustible (proton exchange fuel cell)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, L. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)] e-mail: luciano.silva@univali.br; Paula, M.M.S.; Fiori, M [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Santos, V. [Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Energia - LAPEN, Universidade do Vale do Itajai, São Jose, SC (Brasil)

    2009-09-15

    Because electric energy is a vitally important material for the development of the country, this work is aimed at offering an alternative methodology for the construction and operational demonstration of a PEMFC fuel cell. Recently discovered natural gas reserves can be exploited using modern methods and its use fulfills generation, distribution and low environmental impact priorities. All these factors can be observed with the use of fuel cells, especially when working with reformed natural gas. In addition to its low environmental impact during the generation of this energy, the use of fuel cells reflects a generator source that can be located with the consumer, further reducing problems created by transmission lines, fuel transport, etc. Fuel cells are receiving a great deal of attention from the international community and some models are already commercially available. They are showing excellent possibilities for becoming one of the future technologies to generate electric energy with low environmental impact. [Spanish] En funcion de la necesidad de energia electrica como insumo de vital importancia para el desarrollo del pais, este trabajo pretende ofrecer una metodologia alternativa para la construccion y demostracion operacional de una celda a combustible del tipo PEMFC. La explotacion de las reservas de gas natural descubiertas recientemente puede realizarse a traves de metodos modernos y su uso tiene las prioridades de generacion, distribucion y bajo impacto ambiental. Todos estos aspectos se pueden observar dentro del uso de celdas a combustible, especialmente cuando se trabaja con gas natural reformado. Ademas del factor de bajo impacto ambiental durante la misma generacion de energia, el uso de las celdas a combustible involucra una fuente generadora, que puede colocarse junto al consumidor, reduciendo aun mas los problemas generados por las lineas de transmision, el transporte del combustible, etc. Las celdas a combustible estan recibiendo una gran

  2. Organic photovoltaic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Nelson

    2002-05-01

    The last two years have seen an unprecedented growth of interest in solar cells made from organic electronic materials. This is partly due to the rapid growth of the photovoltaic market1, which has stimulated research into longer term, more innovative photovoltaic technologies, and partly to the development of organic electronic materials for display applications. The rapid progress in optoelectronic molecular materials has introduced a range of potential new photovoltaic materials, as well as an improved understanding of the capabilities of such materials and confidence in their application2.

  3. Clean electricity from photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Martin A

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics , first published in 2001, provides an updated account of the underlying science, technology and market prospects for photovoltaics. All areas have advanced considerably in the decade since the first edition was published, which include: multi-crystalline silicon cell efficiencies having made impressive advances, thin-film CdTe cells having established a decisive market presence, and organic photovoltaics holding out the prospect of economical large-scale power production. Contents: The Past and Present (M D Archer); Limits to Photovol

  4. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  5. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  6. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  7. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  8. Photonic Design for Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosten, E.; Callahan, D.; Horowitz, K.; Pala, R.; Atwater, H.

    2014-08-28

    We describe photonic design approaches for silicon photovoltaics including i) trapezoidal broadband light trapping structures ii) broadband light trapping with photonic crystal superlattices iii) III-V/Si nanowire arrays designed for broadband light trapping.

  9. Plastic photovoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

    2004-01-01

    The development of organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements has introduced the possibility of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light. Photoinduced electron transfer from donor-type semiconducting polymers onto acceptor-type polymers or molecules, such as C60, is the basic phenomenon utilized in these photovoltaic devices. This process mimics the early photo-effects in natural photosynthesis. The polymeric semiconductors combine the photoelectrical properties of inorganic se...

  10. Photovoltaic systems and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Abstracts are given of presentations given at a project review meeting held at Albuquerque, NM. The proceedings cover the past accomplishments and current activities of the Photovoltaic Systems Research, Balance-of-System Technology Development and System Application Experiments Projects at Sandia National Laboratories. The status of intermediate system application experiments and residential system analysis is emphasized. Some discussion of the future of the Photovoltaic Program in general, and the Sandia projects in particular is also presented.

  11. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2009-04-15

    spain and Germany set the pace for the world photovoltaic market in 2008, which grew to more than twice its 2007 size. The European Union continued to drive photocell installation with an additional 4 592.3 MWp in 2008, or 151.6% growth over 2007. However, European growth prospects for the photovoltaic market in 2009 are being dampened by the global financial crisis and the scheduled slow-down of the Spanish market. (author)

  12. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (Fort Worth, Texas, October 22-24, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2013), October 22-24, 2013, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by The University of North Texas (UNT), sponsored by the…

  13. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA) (Madrid, Spain, October 19-21, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Association for Development of the Information Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The IADIS CELDA 2012 Conference intention was to address the main issues concerned with evolving learning processes and supporting pedagogies and applications in the digital age. There had been advances in both cognitive psychology and computing that have affected the educational arena. The convergence of these two disciplines is increasing at a…

  14. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (13th, Mannheim, Germany, October 28-30, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 13th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2016), October 28-30, 2016, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by the University of Mannheim, Germany, and endorsed by the…

  15. Proceedings of the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS) International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA) (12th, Maynooth, Greater Dublin, Ireland, October 24-26, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Demetrios G., Ed.; Spector, J. Michael, Ed.; Ifenthaler, Dirk, Ed.; Isaias, Pedro, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 12th International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in the Digital Age (CELDA 2015), October 24-26, 2015, which has been organized by the International Association for Development of the Information Society (IADIS), co-organized by Maynooth University, Ireland, and endorsed by the…

  16. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Lentine, Anthony L.; Resnick, Paul J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  17. Photovoltaic mounting/demounting unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a photovoltaic arrangement comprising a photovoltaic assembly comprising a support structure defining a mounting surface onto which a photovoltaic module is detachably mounted; and a mounting/demounting unit comprising at least one mounting/demounting apparatus...... which when the mounting/demounting unit is moved along the mounting surface, causes the photovoltaic module to be mounted or demounted to the support structure; wherein the photovoltaic module comprises a carrier foil and wherein a total thickness of the photo voltaic module is below 500 muiotaeta....... The present invention further relates to an associated method for mounting/demounting photovoltaic modules....

  18. Infrastructure of the hydrogen use and materials for fuel cells: key for its soon use; Infraestructura de uso de hidrogeno y materiales para celdas de combustible: clave para su pronto uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Rejon Garcia, Leonardo; Ojeda Hernandez, Mirna [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Nowadays, many products for the personal generation of electrical energy exist, such as the batteries and the of internal combustion machines; that have developed and established the infrastructure required for their manufacture, distribution and commercial use. Nevertheless, disadvantages as well as practical limitations and their relationship with the environment exist. The fuel cells are able to increase their applications, as well as to solve practical and environmental challenges, but still they face challenges related to the initial cost and the infrastructure required for their uses. In this article the materials and the fuel cells (PEM) are described (membrane cells of proton interchange or of polymeric membrane electrolyte), of the proton interchanging membrane, gas diffuser, current collector plates of with fields gas flow fields and electrocatalizers. A table of fuel cells applications is shown according to the type of cell from a power of less than 1 KW to greater than 1 MW. Also there is a table of hydrogen production methods and tables where it is represented the hydrogen route in a PEM cell and the basic components of a type PEM fuel cell. In the article appears a table where a comparison of some properties of current collector plates is shown, as well as a graph of the spectra of electrochemical impedances. [Spanish] Hoy en dia, existen muchos productos para la generacion personal de energia electrica, como las baterias y las maquinas de combustion interna; que han desarrollado y establecido la infraestructura requerida para su fabricacion, distribucion y su uso comercial. Sin embargo, existen desventajas en cuanto a limitaciones practicas y su relacion con el ambiente. Las celdas de combustion son capaces de aumentar sus aplicaciones, asi como resolver retos practicos y ambientales, pero asi enfrentan retos relacionados con el costo inicial y las infraestructura requerida para su usos. En este articulo se describen los materiales y la descripcion

  19. Benchmarking concentrating photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Muthirayan, Buvaneshwari; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-08-01

    Integral to photovoltaics is the need to provide improved economic viability. To achieve this goal, photovoltaic technology has to be able to harness more light at less cost. A large variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts has provided cause for pursuit. To obtain a detailed profitability analysis, a flexible evaluation is crucial for benchmarking the cost-performance of this variety of concentrating photovoltaic concepts. To save time and capital, a way to estimate the cost-performance of a complete solar energy system is to use computer aided modeling. In this work a benchmark tool is introduced based on a modular programming concept. The overall implementation is done in MATLAB whereas Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) is used for ray tracing calculations. This allows for a flexible and extendable structuring of all important modules, namely an advanced source modeling including time and local dependence, and an advanced optical system analysis of various optical designs to obtain an evaluation of the figure of merit. An important figure of merit: the energy yield for a given photovoltaic system at a geographical position over a specific period, can be calculated.

  20. International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    The International Photovoltaics Program Plan is in direct response to the Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (PL 95-590). As stated in the Act, the primary objective of the plan is to accelerate the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets. Benefits which could result from increased international sales by US companies include: stabilization and expansion of the US photovoltaic industry, preparing the industry for supplying future domestic needs; contribution to the economic and social advancement of developing countries; reduced world demand for oil; and improvements in the US balance of trade. The plan outlines programs for photovoltaic demonstrations, systems developments, supplier assistance, information dissemination/purchaser assistance, and an informaion clearinghouse. Each program element includes tactical objectives and summaries of approaches. A program management office will be established to coordinate and manage the program plan. Although the US Department of Energy (DOE) had the lead responsibility for preparing and implementing the plan, numerous federal organizations and agencies (US Departments of Commerce, Justice, State, Treasury; Agency for International Development; ACTION; Export/Import Bank; Federal Trade Commission; Small Business Administration) were involved in the plan's preparation and implementation.

  1. Laser generated nanoparticles based photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, C; Savva, K; Kymakis, E; Stratakis, E

    2017-03-01

    The exploitation of nanoparticles (NP), synthesized via laser ablation in liquids, in photovoltaic devices is reviewed. In particular, the impact of NPs' incorporation into various building blocks within the solar cell architecture on the photovoltaic performance and stability is presented and analysed for the current state of the art photovoltaic technologies.

  2. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  3. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  4. Photovoltaic barometer; Barometre photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-04-15

    The photovoltaic sector is continuing on track, just as the extent of solar energy's electricity-generating potential is dawning on the public mind. The annual global installation figure was up more than twofold in 2010 (rising from just short of 7000 MWp in 2009). It leapt to over 16000 MWp, bringing worldwide installed photovoltaic capacity close to 38000 MWp. The photovoltaic power generated in the European Union at the end of 2010 reached 22.5 TWh which means an additional capacity of 13023 MWp during 2010. Concerning the cumulated installed capacity, Germany and Spain rank first and second in the European Union with respectively 17370 MWp and 3808 MWp

  5. Photovoltaic systems in Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawand, T.A. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Brace Research Inst., Macdonald Coll; Rapallini, A. [MR Consultores, Buenos Aires, (Argentina); Pedro, G. [Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen, Neuquen, (Argentina)

    1998-05-01

    The feasibility of using of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the remote cold areas of the Neuquen province in Argentina was discussed. A program was developed by the local public utility to provide schools with electricity using photovoltaic panels. The PV systems have replaced expensive diesel generators which had become unreliable. In the first phase of the program, 27 schools were electrified using photovoltaic panels, battery storage systems and simple control panels. A review of the performance of the system components under the harsh climatic conditions of the region was discussed. The program has been expanded to include about 50 family systems. Another 150 are projected for the near future. 3 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Three-dimensional photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bryan; Bernardi, Marco; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2010-03-01

    The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint and total volume. Our simulations demonstrate that the performance of 3D photovoltaic structures scales linearly with height, leading to volumetric energy conversion, and provides power fairly evenly throughout the day. Furthermore, we show that optimal 3D shapes are not simple box-like shapes, and that design attributes such as reflectivity can be optimized in new ways using three-dimensionality.

  7. Photovoltaic systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Selected photovoltaic systems currently under user-environment field test by the U.S. Department of Energy Photovoltaics Program are discussed, and operational results are summarized. There are many systems in the stand-alone sector that are cost effective now. As proven products become available, distributed residential, commercial, institutional and industrial on-site systems should be able to displace significant amounts of centrally-generated electricity throughout most of the United States. Finally, utilities should ultimately be able to augment their generating capacity with larger-scale systems. Field experience and industry interface has led to excellent overall product performance.

  8. The DOE photovoltaics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The considered program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has the objective to provide federal support for research and development work related to photovoltaics. According to definitions of policy in 1981, a strong emphasis is to be placed on long-term, high-risk research and development that industry could not reasonably be expected to perform using their own funds. Attention is given to the program structure, the photovoltaics program management organization, the advanced research and development subprogram, the collector research and development subprogram, flat-plate collectors, concentrator collectors, and the systems research and technology subprogram.

  9. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  10. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  11. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzberger, Adolf; Hoffmann, Volker U.

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems.

  12. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  13. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  14. Producción de tomate tipo italiano en función del volumen de la celda y de la edad de las mudas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rossmary Santacruz Oviedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la influencia de las bandejas de celdas sobre la producción de tomate tipo italiano en el campo, se realizó este trabajo en Piracicaba, SP, Brasil, de mayo a agosto del 2005. Los tratamientos consistieron en cuatro volúmenes de recipiente, tres bandejas de poliestireno expandido de 121,2; 34,6 y 12,0 cm³ y de una bandeja de plástico rígido de 14,0 cm³ (72, 128, 288 y 450 celdas, respectivamente combinadas con cuatro edades para el trasplante (19, 24, 29 y 34 días después de la siembra. El delineamiento para la producción de mudas fue completamente al azar, con cinco plantas por parcela y tres repeticiones. Se analizaron área foliar, altura, masa verde y seca de la parte aérea y raíz y la calidad de las mudas. En la producción a campo, el delineamiento fue en bloques al azar con diez plantas por parcela y tres repeticiones. Fueron evaluadas la precocidad para inicio de cosecha, producción comercial y total por planta. Volúmenes mayores de recipiente (121,2 y 34,6 cm³ presentaron mejor calidad de mudas. En la producción de frutos, el número comercial y total de frutos por planta fue superior en la muda de 24 días de edad, sin embargo, en la producción total de frutos, no hubo diferencia entre los tratamientos. Por otro lado, también se obtuvo precocidad para la cosecha en los tratamientos realizados en los volúmenes de 121,2 y 34,6 cm³. El volumen de recipiente de 14,0 cm³ (450 celdas resultó en mudas de calidad muy inferior, alongadas y raquíticas.

  15. Photovoltaics fundamentals, technology and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    Concise introduction to the basic principles of solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic cells, photovoltaic measurement techniques, and grid connected systems, overviewing the potential of photovoltaic electricity for students and engineers new to the topic After a brief introduction to the topic of photovoltaics' history and the most important facts, Chapter 1 presents the subject of radiation, covering properties of solar radiation, radiation offer, and world energy consumption. Chapter 2 looks at the fundamentals of semiconductor physics. It discusses the build-up of semiconducto

  16. Interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öner, S.Z.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with material interfaces in nanoscale photovoltaics. Interface properties between the absorbing semiconductor and other employed materials are crucial for an efficient solar cell. While the optical properties are largely unaffected by a few nanometer thin layer, the electronic prop

  17. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed A. A. Hafez; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  18. BMDO photovoltaics program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caveny, Leonard H.; Allen, Douglas M.

    1994-01-01

    This is an overview of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) Photovoltaic Program. Areas discussed are: (1) BMDO advanced Solar Array program; (2) Brilliant Eyes type satellites; (3) Electric propulsion; (4) Contractor Solar arrays; (5) Iofee Concentrator and Cell development; (6) Entech linear mini-dome concentrator; and (7) Flight test update/plans.

  19. Photovoltaics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1985-01-01

    Report surveys status of research and development on photovoltaics in Japan. Report based on literature searches, private communications, and visits by author to Japanese facilities. Included in survey are Sunshine Project, national program to develop energy sources; industrial development at private firms; and work at academic institutions.

  20. Modelling the Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsanevakis, Markos

    2011-01-01

    This paper refers into various ways in simulation the Photovoltaic (PV) module behaviour under any combination of solar irradiation and ambient temperature. There are three different approaches presented here briefly and one of them is chosen because of its good accuracy and relatively low...

  1. Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    DOE works with national labs, academia, and industry to support the domestic photovoltaics (PV) industry and research enterprise. SunShot aims to achieve widespread, unsubsidized cost-competitiveness through an applied research and development (R&D) portfolio spanning PV materials, devices, and manufacturing technologies.

  2. Photovoltaic solar; Solaire photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    This study aims to observe, from european examples, the local governments policies in matter of the photovoltaic development. This approach is very different for each town. The first part evaluates the initiatives, the second part is devoted to the global situation in Europe and the third part brings recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  3. LA CELDA, EL HÁBITO Y LA EVASIÓN EPISTOLAR EN SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Martínez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Centrado en las representaciones plásticas de Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, el presente trabajo reflexiona sobre la relación entre la representación del Barroco de Indias y su contexto de producción. A partir de las anteriores coordenadas, revisa la obra de la monja y la orientación epistolar que adquieren sus poemas como forma de evasión de la celda y el hábito.Focused on the visual representations of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, this paper reflects on the relationship between the Baroque of the Indies aesthetics and their context o production. Based on the above coordinates, it reviews the nun's work and the epistolary orientation that her poems acquire as a form of escape from the convent and habit.

  4. General Situations of Development of Photovoltaic Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.

  5. Monitoring system for individual cells in energy backing banks; Sistema para monitorizar las celdas individuales en bancos de respaldo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    relatively smaller investment compared with the cost of a fault in the energy supply system. [Spanish] Las baterias plomo-acido (BPA) son ampliamente utilizadas en la industria para almacenar energia quimica y liberarla en forma de electricidad. Los fenomenos que ocurren en el interior de una BPA -durante sus ciclos de carga y descarga - afectan la vida util de la bateria a largo plazo. En este sentido, se han realizado diversas investigaciones alrededor del mundo; no obstante, dichos estudios han arrojado solo dos conclusiones: a) La seleccion de un algoritmo de carga adecuado puede extender la vida util de la bateria. b) Un monitoreo continuo del banco puede ayudar a estimar el estado de salud de las baterias y a detectar los elementos del banco que estan mas proximos a fallar. Una bateria plomo-acido esta formada por un conjunto de celdas plomo-acido conectadas en serie. A mayor numero de celdas, mayor el voltaje de la bateria. Las BPA que se utilizan para formar bancos de respaldo de energia son dispositivos sumamente delicados cuya vida util depende fuertemente de factores como: temperatura de operacion, regimen de descarga, regimen de carga. Las BPA se conectan, en serie, para elevar el voltaje, o bien, en paralelo, para elevar la corriente suministrada por el banco. Con una combinacion de arreglos serie-paralelo es posible lograr casi cualquier especificacion de voltaje y corriente. Por otro lado, la operacion confiable de un arreglo de celdas requiere que todos los elementos de este funcionen correctamente. Si una celda falla en un arreglo serie, el resto deja de funcionar, lo que ocasiona costos de mantenimiento ademas de reducir la confiabilidad del sistema de respaldo. Para incrementar la confiabilidad de los arreglos de celdas Pb-A, es necesario un monitoreo individual y continuo de las celdas. Ello permite determinar cuales son las que tienen mayor probabilidad de falla y, entonces, poder reemplazarlas. Entre los principales beneficios de un sistema de monitoreo

  6. Monitoring system for individual cells in energy backing banks; Sistema para monitorizar las celdas individuales en bancos de respaldo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    relatively smaller investment compared with the cost of a fault in the energy supply system. [Spanish] Las baterias plomo-acido (BPA) son ampliamente utilizadas en la industria para almacenar energia quimica y liberarla en forma de electricidad. Los fenomenos que ocurren en el interior de una BPA -durante sus ciclos de carga y descarga - afectan la vida util de la bateria a largo plazo. En este sentido, se han realizado diversas investigaciones alrededor del mundo; no obstante, dichos estudios han arrojado solo dos conclusiones: a) La seleccion de un algoritmo de carga adecuado puede extender la vida util de la bateria. b) Un monitoreo continuo del banco puede ayudar a estimar el estado de salud de las baterias y a detectar los elementos del banco que estan mas proximos a fallar. Una bateria plomo-acido esta formada por un conjunto de celdas plomo-acido conectadas en serie. A mayor numero de celdas, mayor el voltaje de la bateria. Las BPA que se utilizan para formar bancos de respaldo de energia son dispositivos sumamente delicados cuya vida util depende fuertemente de factores como: temperatura de operacion, regimen de descarga, regimen de carga. Las BPA se conectan, en serie, para elevar el voltaje, o bien, en paralelo, para elevar la corriente suministrada por el banco. Con una combinacion de arreglos serie-paralelo es posible lograr casi cualquier especificacion de voltaje y corriente. Por otro lado, la operacion confiable de un arreglo de celdas requiere que todos los elementos de este funcionen correctamente. Si una celda falla en un arreglo serie, el resto deja de funcionar, lo que ocasiona costos de mantenimiento ademas de reducir la confiabilidad del sistema de respaldo. Para incrementar la confiabilidad de los arreglos de celdas Pb-A, es necesario un monitoreo individual y continuo de las celdas. Ello permite determinar cuales son las que tienen mayor probabilidad de falla y, entonces, poder reemplazarlas. Entre los principales beneficios de un sistema de monitoreo

  7. The fuel cells: Truths on the generation of clean and efficient electricity electrochemical way; Las celdas de combustible: Verdades sobre la generacion de electricidad limpia y eficiente via electroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In the search of alternative technologies for the generation of electrical energy, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) has put special attention in a technology that promises to be key in the next years: The fuel cells, it is for this reason that in this article a review of this type of cells is presented, as well as its basic characteristics and benefits as a result of its use for the generation of electrical energy. [Spanish] En la busqueda de tecnologias alternativas de generacion de energia electrica, el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) ha puesto atencion especial en una tecnologia que promete ser clave en los proximos anos: Las celdas de combustible, es por ello que en este articulo se presenta una resena de este tipo de celdas, asi como sus caracteristicas principales y beneficios como resultado de su utilizacion para la generacion de energia electrica.

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. EVALUACIÓN DE CELDAS DE COMBUSTIBLE DE ELECTROLITO POLIMÉRICO CON ÁNODOS Pt-M (M= Sn, Ru e Ir PARA LA OXIDACIÓN DE H2 Y CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIBIAN HOYOS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de celdas de combustible de electrolito polimérico alimentadas con hidrógeno, CO y una mezcla H2-(2%CO, utilizando oxígeno en el cátodo. Para la oxidación de los combustibles, se probaron seis catalizadores: Pt, Pt85Ru15, Pt50Ru50, Pt90Ir10, Pt50Ir50 y Pt90Sn10. Como catalizador en el cátodo se usó platino puro. Todos los catalizadores fueron soportados en carbón Vulcan XC-72R ®. La composición de los catalizadores preparados fue verificada en un Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (SEM y las pruebas de desempeño de las celdas construidas se realizaron mediante curvas corriente-potencial. Los resultados muestran que la técnica depreparación de los electrodos produce mezclas catalíticas con composiciones muy cercanas a las nominales. Las mezclas catalíticas Pt-Ir son las que presentan el desempeño más bajo para las condiciones evaluadas en este trabajo. La mezcla Pt90Sn10 presentó un desempeño similar al del platino a bajas corrientes cuando la celda de combustible fue alimentada con hidrógeno puro y superó el desempeño de los demás catalizadores cuando la celda se alimentó con H2/(2%CO. El electrodo Pt90Sn10 pierde actividad catalítica cuando se emplea CO puro.

  10. Three-phase Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    the grid through a three-phase power electronic converter are now well on the way to becoming a major player in the power system in many countries. Therefore, this article gives an overview of photovoltaic systems with a focus on three-phase applications, presenting these both from a hardware point of view......Photovoltaic technology has experienced unprecedented growth in the last two decades, transforming from mainly off-grid niche generation to a major renewable energy technology, reaching approximately 180 GW of capacity worldwide at the end of 2014. Large photovoltaic power plants interfacing......, detailing the different photovoltaic inverter structures and topologies as well as discussing the different control layers within a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. Modulation schemes for various photovoltaic inverter topologies, grid synchronization, current control, active and reactive power control...

  11. Estimación de los Parámetros de un Modelo de una Celda Fotovoltaica Utilizando un Algoritmo de Optimización de Búsqueda de Patrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Tobón-Mejía

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone un nuevo método para la estimación de los parámetros del modelo matemático de una celda fotovoltaica de un solo diodo. El trabajo está basado en el algoritmo de optimización llamado Pattern Search Method (MPS, por sus siglas en inglés. Los parámetros estimados son: corriente de diodo, corriente de saturación, resistencia en serie, resistencia en paralelo y el factor del diodo ideal. Los resultados muestran que es posible obtener el modelo equivalente a través de la identificación de los parámetros. Adicionalmente, los resultados obtenidos son comparados con datos obtenidos mediante un emulador de celdas fotovoltaicas. Para realizar los experimentos se asumió condiciones controladas, es decir, temperatura e irradiación constantes. De esta manera, se puede deducir que el método propuesto se puede utilizar en aplicaciones de control para el seguimiento del máximo punto de potencia (MPPT, por sus siglas en inglés de celdas fotovoltaicas.

  12. Modificación en la manera de calcular la energía total que producen las celdas solares de los sensores remotos de la Universidad de Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucía Moya-Mora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presente propone una mejora en la forma de calcular la cantidad de energía que producen las celdas solares de los sensores remotos construidos en la Universidad de Alberta, Edmonton, Canadá. De esta manera, se determinó que para los sitios en los que se tienen instalados los dispositivos, las celdas deben colocarse con un ángulo de 25°. Además, se planteó el cálculo de la cantidad de radiación absorbida por la cubierta del sensor, de esta manera se modificó el dato correspondiente a la cantidad de radiación luminosa total que llega a las celdas y se propone agregar estas fórmulas al algoritmo utilizado para calcular la energía total que estas producen. Por último, se señalaron los cambios generados en el cálculo de la cantidad de energía total a raíz de las modificaciones anteriores.

  13. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  14. Photovoltaic prospects in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, M. R.

    The economics of solar cells is reviewed with an eye to potential cost reductions in processing, and potential markets are explored. Current solar cell systems costs are noted to be on the road to achieving the U.S. DoE goals of $0.40/kWp by 1990. Continued progress will depend on technical developments in cheaper materials and processes, scaling up production, and the success of sales programs. Various consumer and professional markets are outlined, with a prediction that a 12 MWp deman will be reached as a steady state by 1995. Photovoltaic panels may conceivably replace conventional roofing materials, resulting in the projection that, if grid-supplied power continues to inflate in price, then all new European homes would be equipped with photovoltaics by the year 2000. Further, accomplishment of the cost goals could generate a 1 GWp/yr industrial market at the same time.

  15. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  16. Inverted organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Chang; Meng, Tianyu; Yi, Chao; Gong, Xiong

    2016-05-21

    The advance in lifestyle, modern industrialization and future technological revolution are always at high expense of energy consumption. Unfortunately, there exist serious issues such as limited storage, high cost and toxic contamination in conventional fossil fuel energy sources. Instead, solar energy represents a renewable, economic and green alternative in the future energy market. Among the photovoltaic technologies, organic photovoltaics (OPVs) demonstrate a cheap, flexible, clean and easy-processing way to convert solar energy into electricity. However, OPVs with a conventional device structure are still far away from industrialization mainly because of their short lifetime and the energy-intensive deposition of top metal electrode. To address the stability and cost issue simultaneously, an inverted device structure has been introduced into OPVs, bridging laboratory research with practical application. In this review, recent progress in device structures, working mechanisms, functions and advances of each component layer as well their correlations with the efficiency and stability of inverted OPVs are reviewed and illustrated.

  17. Photovoltaics. III - Concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, C. E.

    1980-02-01

    Photovoltaic concentration systems that redirect sunlight falling on a surface to a smaller solar-cell surface concentrating the intensity of sunlight many times are examined. It is noted that solar cells for concentrating systems must be designed for low internal resistance as well as for high sunlight intensities. Two designs of silicon cells are presented that perform well at high concentrations; these are interdigitated back-contact cells and vertical multijunction cells. Attention is given to heat tapping of reemitted light.

  18. Photovoltaic systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    Each of the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Systems Program projects funded and/or in existence during fiscal year 1978 (October 1, 1977 through September 30, 1978) are described. The project sheets list the contractor, principal investigator, and contract number and funding and summarize the programs and status. The program is divided into various elements: program assessment and integration, research and advanced development, technology development, system definition and development, system application experiments, and standards and performance criteria. (WHK)

  19. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  20. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  1. Design of photovoltaic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Martínez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) harvesting of solar energy is based on capturing sunlight and transforming it into electricity. This type of electricity generation does not pollute the environment as much as other types of energy production, that is why nowadays some engineers would like to improve it. To carry out this change we use solar cells made of semiconductor materials (Silicon) in which it is artificially created a permanent electric field. These cells are connected in series or par...

  2. Photovoltaic sources modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Petrone, Giovanni; Spagnuolo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive guide surveys all available models for simulating a photovoltaic (PV) generator at different levels of granularity, from cell to system level, in uniform as well as in mismatched conditions. Providing a thorough comparison among the models, engineers have all the elements needed to choose the right PV array model for specific applications or environmental conditions matched with the model of the electronic circuit used to maximize the PV power production.

  3. Do photovoltaics have a future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  4. Quantum Dot Based Photovoltaics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hybrid photovoltaic cells that combine nanostructured inorganic semiconductors with organic conductors such as the cell proposed, show promise for energy generation...

  5. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States); Richards, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  6. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger-Waldau A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  7. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  8. Quo Vadis photovoltaics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger-Waldau, A.

    2011-10-01

    Since more than 10 years photovoltaics is one of the most dynamic industries with growth rates well beyond 40% per annum. This growth is driven not only by the progress in materials knowledge and processing technology, but also by market introduction programmes in many countries around the world. Despite the negative impacts on the economy by the financial crisis since 2009, photovoltaics is still growing at an extraordinary pace and had in 2010 an extraordinary success, as both production and markets doubled. The open question is what will happen in 2011 and the years after as the situation is dominated by huge manufacturing overcapacities and an increasing unpredictability of policy support. How can the PV industry continue their cost reduction to ensure another 10 to 20 years of sustained and strong growth necessary to make PV to one of the main pillars of a sustainable energy supply in 2030. Despite the fact, that globally the share of electricity from photovoltaic systems is still small, at local level it can be already now above 30% of the demand at certain times of the year. Future research in PV has to provide intelligent solutions not only on the solar cell alone, but also on the module and the system integration level in order to permit a 5 to 10% share of electricity in 2020.

  9. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  10. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  11. Steady-State Screening-Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in the Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke-Qing; ZHANG Yan-Peng; TANG Tian-Tong; LU Zhi-Xian; LIU Lin

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the screening-photovoltaic solitons is improved in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals. When the photovoltaic effect is negligible, the screening-photovoltaic solitons are the screening ones, and their space-charge field is the space-charge field of the screening solitons. If the external field is absent, the screening photovoltaic solitons are the photovoltaic ones on the open- and closed-circuit conditions, and their space-charge field is of the photovoltaic solitons. We also show theoretically that the screening and the photovoltaic solitons on the open- and closed-circuit conditions may be studies together as the screening-photovoltaic solitons.

  12. Evaluation of the different supported bifunctional electrocatalysts for unified regenerative cells; Evaluacion de diferentes soportes de electrocatalizadores bifuncionales para celdas regenerativas unificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurrola, M. P.; Torres-Amaya, D. S.; Duron-Torres, S. M.; Escalante-Garcia, I. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Ciencias Quimicas, Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: duronsm@prodigy.net.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Unified regenerative fuel cells (URFC) represent an alternative to normal regenerative cells, providing decreased costs and space in one single device. The challenges of these systems are even greater than those for conventional fuel cells, with the most pressing technical problem being the optimization of the oxygen electrode. The high operating potentials of these devices in the electrolyzer mode, E >1.6 V vs. ENH, limit the use of supported Pt/Vulcan electrodes. The electroactivity of Pt is not sufficient to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and at these potentials carbon-based supports undergo corrosion. In addition to studies of materials that function as bifunctional catalysts, a significant amount of research is being aimed at the search of new matrixes for use in supporting electrocatalysts for OER and ORR{sup 1,2}. This work presents the preliminary results of the kinetic study of oxygen reactions on different Pt combinations, with IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} supported by different forms of carbon and substoichiometric titanium oxide. The studies were conducted using cyclical (CV) and linear (LV) voltamperometry for OER and rotary disc electrode (RDE) for the ORR in watery H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5M solutions. The chronoamperometry (CA) technique provided information about the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. The results indicate that the performance of the electrodes supported by different forms of carbon decreases gradually as a result of corrosion when consecutive cycles of oxygen reduction and formation reactions occur. Titanium oxide provides the greatest stability to electrodes constructed on that material and thus can potentially support oxygen electrodes based on combinations of Pt, IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} as binfunctional electrocatalysts for the URFC. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible regenerativas unificadas (URFC) representan una alternativa a las celdas regenerativas normales que implica disminucion de costos y espacio en

  13. A comparative performance study of a photovoltaic concentrator system with discrete mirror and continuos profile for two different absorber shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H, Saiful; Rezau, K.M [University of Dhaka, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2000-07-01

    Profiles of parabolic concentrators of discrete mirror and continuos surface mirror have been designed for combined electrical thermal photovoltaic systems. In the design the changes of concentration ratio, effect of reflection, angle of incidence over the absorber have been taken into account for maximum energy collection. The performances of the system are studied for solar cells of modified grid finger for illuminations from 1-10 sun. The local concentration ratio (LCR) distribution over the absorbers for both the concentrator, the optical efficiency, thermal efficiency, electrical and thermal power output and overall efficiency have been evaluated for different values of beam radiation concentration ratio and focal distance. [Spanish] Se han disenado perfiles de concentradores parabolicos de espejo discreto y de superficie continua para sistemas fotovoltaicos combinados electricos y termicos. En el diseno los cambios de la proporcion de concentracion, del efecto de la reflexion, del angulo de incidencia sobre el observador se han tenido en cuenta para una maxima recoleccion de energia. Los rendimientos del sistema se han estudiado para celdas solares de parrilla modificada para iluminaciones solares de 1-10. Han sido evaluados para diferentes valores de la proporcion de la concentracion de la radiacion en el rayo y la distancia focal la proporcion de concentracion local (LCR) de la distribucion en los absorbedores, para el concentrador la eficiencia optica, la eficiencia termica, electrica, la produccion de energia termica y electrica y la eficiencia total.

  14. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    , TiOx and ZnO; (c) providing the layer of metal oxide nanoparticles with a bulk hetero junction layer comprising metal oxide nanoparticles and a hole conducting polymer containing thermocleavable groups, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO2, TiOx, CeO2, Nb2O5 and Zn......A method of forming a conducting polymer based photovoltaic device comprising the steps of : (a) providing a transparent first electrode; (b) providing the transparent first electrode with a layer of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO2...

  15. Photovoltaic panel clamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Brown, Malcolm P.; Stancel, Robert

    2012-06-05

    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  16. Optical waveguide enhanced photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Sven; Greenwald, Shlomit; Koren, Elad; Zaban, Arie

    2008-12-22

    Enhanced light to electric power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells with a low absorbance was achieved using waveguide integration. We present a proof of concept using a very thin dye-sensitized solar cell which absorbed only a small fraction of the light at normal incidence. The glass substrate in conjunction with the solar cells reflecting back contact formed a planar waveguide, which lead to more than four times higher conversion efficiency compared to conventional illumination at normal incidence. This illumination concept leads to a new type of multi-junction PV systems based on enforced spectral splitting along the waveguide.

  17. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive outdoor study of polymer solar cells and modules for duration of one year was conducted. Different sample geometries and encapsulations were employed in order to study the spread in the lifetimes. The study is a complimentary report to previous work that focused on indoor ageing...... tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  18. Photovoltaic system reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  19. Incoherently Coupled Grey Photovoltaic Spatial Soliton Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-Cheng; SHE Wei-Long

    2005-01-01

    @@ A theory is developed for incoherently coupled grey photovoltaic soliton families in unbiased photovoltaic crystals.Both the properties and the forming conditions of these soliton families are discussed in detail The theory canalso be used to investigate the dark photovoltaic soliton families. Some relevant examples are presented, in which the photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal is of lithium niobate type.

  20. El orden de la representación en la novela colombiana de la primera década del siglo XXI: la transgresión de La celda sumergida The Order of Representation in the Colombian Novel of XXI Century First Decade: The Transgression of La Celda Sumergida

    OpenAIRE

    Yamilet Angulo Noguera

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio es describir y revisar la dinámica del campo de la novela de la primera década del siglo XXI que da cuenta de un orden de la representación que aboga por la inclusión de formas expresivas divergentes y por una percepción del género en la que se emprenden pactos narrativos que problematizan la relación fición-realidad. El análisis sociocrítico de La celda sumergida, de Julio Paredes, es el punto de partida de una reflexión alrededor de la lucha por la legitimidad en...

  1. Photovoltaic Product Directory and Buyers Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Lee, V.E.

    1984-04-01

    The directory guide explains photovoltaic systems briefly and shows what products are available off-the-shelf. Information is given to assist in designing a photovoltaic system and on financial incentives. Help is given for determining if photovoltaic products can meet a particular buyer's needs, and information is provided on actual photovoltaic user's experiences. Detailed information is appended on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments, sources of additional information on photovoltaics, sources of various photovoltaic products, and a listing of addresses of photovoltaic products suppliers. (LEW)

  2. El orden de la representación en la novela colombiana de la primera década del siglo XXI: la transgresión de La celda sumergida The Order of Representation in the Colombian Novel of XXI Century First Decade: The Transgression of La Celda Sumergida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilet Angulo Noguera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir y revisar la dinámica del campo de la novela de la primera década del siglo XXI que da cuenta de un orden de la representación que aboga por la inclusión de formas expresivas divergentes y por una percepción del género en la que se emprenden pactos narrativos que problematizan la relación fición-realidad. El análisis sociocrítico de La celda sumergida, de Julio Paredes, es el punto de partida de una reflexión alrededor de la lucha por la legitimidad en la que se cuestiona el horizonte fijando lógicas enunciativas centrales. Este estudio parte de los planteamientos de los trabajos teóricos en literatura de Pierre Bourdieu, Georg Lukács, Lucien Goldmann, Mijail Bajtin y de la reflexión modernidad-posmodernidad realizada por Gianni Vattimo, Zygmunt Bauman, Jorge Orlando Melo y Salomón Kalmanovitz.The purpose of this essay is to describe and to review the dynamic of the premier decade of the twenty one century novel champ. This literary movement realizes an order of representation that procures the inclusion of diverse expressive manners and the perception of the genre where new narrative pacts make complex the relationship between fiction and reality. The analysis sociocritical of La celda sumergida by Julio Paredes is the starting point of a reflexion around the fight for legitimacy in which the horizon fixed by central enunciative logics are demanded. To write this essay, the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Georg Lukács, Lucien Goldmann, Mijail Bajtin and the critical thinking around modernity-posmodernity developed by Gianni Vattimo, Zygmunt Bauman, Jorge Orlando Melo and Salomón Kalmanovitz.

  3. Diseño y desarrollo de un sistema automático para la síntesis de películas delgadas de ZnO utilizadas para la fabricación de celdas solares por el método de evaporación reactiva

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez Botero, Asdrubal Antonio

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se contribuyó con la síntesis y optimización de las propiedades ópticas, eléctricas, morfológicas y estructurales de películas delgadas del compuesto Óxido de Zinc (ZnO) crecidas por el método de evaporación reactiva, para uso en celdas solares inorgánicas, celdas solares orgánicas con estructura invertida y celdas híbridas basadas en compuestos metal-orgánicos con estructura tipo perovskita. Se hizo énfasis en la obtención de condiciones que permitan crecer secuencialmen...

  4. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  5. Nanocarbon-based photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Lohrman, Jessica; Kumar, Priyank V; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ferralis, Nicola; Grossman, Jeffrey C; Ren, Shenqiang

    2012-10-23

    Carbon materials are excellent candidates for photovoltaic solar cells: they are Earth-abundant, possess high optical absorption, and maintain superior thermal and photostability. Here we report on solar cells with active layers made solely of carbon nanomaterials that present the same advantages of conjugated polymer-based solar cells, namely, solution processable, potentially flexible, and chemically tunable, but with increased photostability and the possibility to revert photodegradation. The device active layer composition is optimized using ab initio density functional theory calculations to predict type-II band alignment and Schottky barrier formation. The best device fabricated is composed of PC(70)BM fullerene, semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes, and reduced graphene oxide. This active-layer composition achieves a power conversion efficiency of 1.3%-a record for solar cells based on carbon as the active material-and we calculate efficiency limits of up to 13% for the devices fabricated in this work, comparable to those predicted for polymer solar cells employing PCBM as the acceptor. There is great promise for improving carbon-based solar cells considering the novelty of this type of device, the high photostability, and the availability of a large number of carbon materials with yet untapped potential for photovoltaics. Our results indicate a new strategy for efficient carbon-based, solution-processable, thin film, photostable solar cells.

  6. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  7. Aplicación de celda fotoacústica diferencial en la determinación de la permeabilidad de agua en hueso descalcificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Cortés-Ibarra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La espectroscopia mediante celda fotoacústica diferencial (CFD tiene la capacidad de medir in situ el desarrollo de diversos procesos dinámicos, entre otros la difusión de agua a través de una membrana. Mediante esta técnica se realizó el estudio de permeación de agua en huesos de rata Wistar sanos y descalcificados. Los huesos descalcificados fueron tratados mediante estimulación electromagnética a fin de evaluar la actividad celular en el hueso y, en su caso, detener la descalcificación del mismo. En este trabajo fue posible determinar la viabilidad de la CFD para la evaluación de densidad ósea indirectamente, siendo posible efectuar la evaluación in situ de permeación de agua, así como la cantidad de agua retenida en la estructura ósea al finalizar las pruebas en CFD. Palabras clave: electromagnetismo; estimulación;  huesos; osteoporosis; electromagnetism; stimulation; bones; osteoporosis

  8. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  9. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  10. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  11. Photovoltaic module mounting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miros, Robert H. J.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Seery, Martin N.; Holland, Rodney H.

    2012-04-17

    A solar array mounting system having unique installation, load distribution, and grounding features, and which is adaptable for mounting solar panels having no external frame. The solar array mounting system includes flexible, pedestal-style feet and structural links connected in a grid formation on the mounting surface. The photovoltaic modules are secured in place via the use of attachment clamps that grip the edge of the typically glass substrate. The panel mounting clamps are then held in place by tilt brackets and/or mid-link brackets that provide fixation for the clamps and align the solar panels at a tilt to the horizontal mounting surface. The tilt brackets are held in place atop the flexible feet and connected link members thus creating a complete mounting structure.

  12. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  13. All-Oxide Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, Sven; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Kupfer, Benjamin; Bouhadana, Yaniv; Rosh-Hodesh, Eli; Zaban, Arie

    2012-12-20

    Recently, a new field in photovoltaics (PV) has emerged, focusing on solar cells that are entirely based on metal oxide semiconductors. The all-oxide PV approach is very attractive due to the chemical stability, nontoxicity, and abundance of many metal oxides that potentially allow manufacturing under ambient conditions. Already today, metal oxides (MOs) are widely used as components in PV cells such as transparent conducting front electrodes or electron-transport layers, while only very few MOs have been used as light absorbers. In this Perspective, we review recent developments of all-oxide PV systems, which until today were mostly based on Cu2O as an absorber. Furthermore, ferroelectric BiFeO3-based PV systems are discussed, which have recently attracted considerable attention. The performance of all-oxide PV cells is discussed in terms of general PV principles, and directions for progress are proposed, pointing toward the development of novel metal oxide semiconductors using combinatorial methods.

  14. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  15. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Gupta, Vipin P.; Okandan, Murat; Watts, Michael R.

    2016-03-15

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  16. Chalcogenide perovskites for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Agiorgousis, Michael L; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Shengbai

    2015-01-14

    Chalcogenide perovskites are proposed for photovoltaic applications. The predicted band gaps of CaTiS3, BaZrS3, CaZrSe3, and CaHfSe3 with the distorted perovskite structure are within the optimal range for making single-junction solar cells. The predicted optical absorption properties of these materials are superior compared with other high-efficiency solar-cell materials. Possible replacement of the alkaline-earth cations by molecular cations, e.g., (NH3NH3)(2+), as in the organic-inorganic halide perovskites (e.g., CH3NH3PbI3), are also proposed and found to be stable. The chalcogenide perovskites provide promising candidates for addressing the challenging issues regarding halide perovskites such as instability in the presence of moisture and containing the toxic element Pb.

  17. Photovoltaic cell assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Panitz, Janda K. G.; Sharp, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    A photovoltaic assembly for converting high intensity solar radiation into lectrical energy in which a solar cell is separated from a heat sink by a thin layer of a composite material which has excellent dielectric properties and good thermal conductivity. This composite material is a thin film of porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in which the pores have been substantially filled with an electrophoretically-deposited layer of a styrene-acrylate resin. This composite provides electrical breakdown strengths greater than that of a layer consisting essentially of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and has a higher thermal conductivity than a layer of styrene-acrylate alone.

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Polymer Photovoltaic Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui Hou; Chunhe Yang; Erjun Zhou; Chang He; Zhan'ao Tan; Youjun He; Yongfang Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Polymer photovoltaic cells (PPVCs) have attracted much attention recently because of its easy fabrication, low cost and possibility to make flexible devices[1]. PPVC is composed of a conjugated polymer/C60blend layer (photosensitive layer) sandwiched between a transparent ITO electrode and a metal electrode.When a light through ITO electrode irradiates on the photosensitive layer, the photons with appropriate energy will be absorbed by the conjugated polymer (CP) and excitons (electron-hole pair) are produced. The excitons move to the interface of CP/C60 where the electrons transfer to the LUMO of C60 and holes leave on the HOMO of the CP. The separated electrons migrate through the C60 network to and are collected by the metal electrode, and the holes migrate through the CP network to and are collected by the ITO electrode, so that the photocurrent and photovoltage are attained.

  20. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  1. Study of the flooding and dehydration processes of a PEM fuel cell using the EIS technique; Estudio de los procesos de inundacion y deshidratacion en una celda de combustible tipo PEM mediante la tecnica EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyola-Morales, F.; Cano-Castillo, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: feloyola@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    In this work, a study was conducted of the flooding and dehydration processes of a PEM fuel cell using the EIS technique. The experiments were conducted in a 50 cm{sup 2} cell. The gradual flooding of the system was induced by operating the cell at a potential of 0.3 V and maintaining the gas outlet closed (that is, stoichiometry of 1 for the anode (H{sub 2}) and the cathode (O{sub 2})) to enable the water produced by the reaction to accumulate inside. The gradual dehydration was induced by operating the cell at a potential of 0.3V and establishing a oxidized gas flow at a stoichiometry of 4. EIS tests were applied throughout both processes. The results showed that the EIS technique is highly sensitive for the analysis of the different degrees of the flooding processes by monitoring variations in the imaginary components of total impedance (Z{sup )} or the phase angle ({theta}). For low degrees of flooding, the technique had good sensitivity, between 1 and 6 Hz, while at high degrees of flooding the technique's greatest sensitivity was limited to a range between 1 and 2 Hz. In the case of the dehydration process of the system, the results showed that this type of process can be analyzed for variations in the value of the real component (Z{sup '}) as well as for the imaginary component of total impedance and variations in the phase angle. The analysis of dehydration with Z{sup '} was possible at a rather wide range, from 100 to 1000 Hz; with Z{sup }or {theta} it was only possible at a range of 20 to 200 Hz. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo, se llevo a cabo el estudio de los procesos de inundacion y deshidratacion de una celda de combustible tipo PEM mediante la tecnica EIS. Los experimentos fueron realizados en una celda de 50 cm{sup 2}. La inundacion gradual del sistema se indujo operando la celda a un potencial de 0.3 V de celda y manteniendo la salida de gases cerrada (i. e. estequiometria de 1 tanto en anodo (H{sub 2}) como en catodo (O{sub 2

  2. Photovoltaic sources modeling and emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Maria Carmela Di

    2012-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the modeling of photovoltaic generators and their emulation by means of power electronic converters will aid in understanding and improving design and setup of new PV plants.

  3. On the plasmonic photovoltaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen, Syed; Lee, Joun; Lee, Woo-Ram; Singh, Nirala; Stucky, Galen D; Moskovits, Martin

    2014-06-24

    The conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics is currently a mature science and the foundation of a lucrative industry. In conventional excitonic solar cells, electron-hole pairs are generated by light absorption in a semiconductor and separated by the "built in" potential resulting from charge transfer accompanying Fermi-level equalization either at a p-n or a Schottky junction, followed by carrier collection at appropriate electrodes. Here we report a stable, wholly plasmonic photovoltaic device in which photon absorption and carrier generation take place exclusively in the plasmonic metal. The field established at a metal-semiconductor Schottky junction separates charges. The negative carriers are high-energy (hot) electrons produced immediately following the plasmon's dephasing. Some of the carriers are energetic enough to clear the Schottky barrier or quantum mechanically tunnel through it, thereby producing the output photocurrent. Short circuit photocurrent densities in the range 70-120 μA cm(-2) were obtained for simulated one-sun AM1.5 illumination with devices based on arrays of parallel gold nanorods, conformally coated with 10 nm TiO2 films and fashioned with a Ti metal collector. For the device with short circuit currents of 120 μA cm(-2), the internal quantum efficiency is ∼2.75%, and its wavelength response tracks the absorption spectrum of the transverse plasmon of the gold nanorods indicating that the absorbed photon-to-electron conversion process resulted exclusively in the Au, with the TiO2 playing a negligible role in charge carrier production. Devices fabricated with 50 nm TiO2 layers had open-circuit voltages as high as 210 mV, short circuit current densities of 26 μA cm(-2), and a fill factor of 0.3. For these devices, the TiO2 contributed a very small but measurable fraction of the charge carriers.

  4. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  6. Síntesis y caracterización de circonato de Bario, dopado con cationes trivalentes como posible conductor protónico para celdas combustibles de óxido sólido

    OpenAIRE

    Gerena Rojas, Oscar Arturo

    2012-01-01

    El circonato de bario es un material con alto punto de fusión, buena conductividad iónica y estabilidad química apreciable, que lo convierten en un buen candidato para diversas aplicaciones en el campo de las cerámicas avanzadas tales como crisoles, sistemas de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear, barreras térmicas, sensor específico de gases y en particular como electrolito para celdas de combustible de óxido sólido. Atendiendo a estas propiedades se abordó el estudio d...

  7. Estimación de los Parámetros de un Modelo de una Celda Fotovoltaica Utilizando un Algoritmo de Optimización de Búsqueda de Patrones

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Tobón-Mejía; Jorge Aurelio Herrera-Cuartas; Julián Peláez-Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se propone un nuevo método para la estimación de los parámetros del modelo matemático de una celda fotovoltaica de un solo diodo. El trabajo está basado en el algoritmo de optimización llamado Pattern Search Method (MPS, por sus siglas en inglés). Los parámetros estimados son: corriente de diodo, corriente de saturación, resistencia en serie, resistencia en paralelo y el factor del diodo ideal. Los resultados muestran que es posible obtener el modelo equivalente a través de l...

  8. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  9. Photovoltaic product directory and buyers guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-06-01

    Basic information on photovoltaic conversion technology is provided for those unfamiliar with the field. Various types of photovoltaic products and systems currently available off-the-shelf are described. These include products without batteries, battery chargers, power packages, home electric systems, and partial systems. Procedures are given for designing a photovoltaic system from scratch. A few custom photovoltaic systems are described, and a list is compiled of photovoltaic firms which can provide custom systems. Guidance is offered for deciding whether or not to use photovoltaic products. A variety of installations are described and their performance is appraised by the owners. Information is given on various financial incentives available from state and federal governments. Sources of additional information on photovoltaics are listed. A matrix is provided indicating the sources of various types of photovoltaic products. The addresses of suppliers are listed. (LEW)

  10. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  11. ULTRA BARRIER TOPSHEET (UBT) FOR FLEXIBLE PHOTOVOLTAICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeScioli, Derek

    2013-06-01

    This slide-show presents 3M photovoltaic-related products, particularly flexible components. Emphasis is on the 3M Ultra Barrier Solar Films. Topics covered include reliability and qualification testing and flexible photovoltaic encapsulation costs.

  12. Transparent contacts for stacked compound photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2016-11-29

    A microsystems-enabled multi-junction photovoltaic (MEM-PV) cell includes a first photovoltaic cell having a first junction, the first photovoltaic cell including a first semiconductor material employed to form the first junction, the first semiconductor material having a first bandgap. The MEM-PV cell also includes a second photovoltaic cell comprising a second junction. The second photovoltaic cell comprises a second semiconductor material employed to form the second junction, the second semiconductor material having a second bandgap that is less than the first bandgap, the second photovoltaic cell further comprising a first contact layer disposed between the first junction of the first photovoltaic cell and the second junction of the second photovoltaic cell, the first contact layer composed of a third semiconductor material having a third bandgap, the third bandgap being greater than or equal to the first bandgap.

  13. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  14. CONTRIBUCIÓN AL CONOCIMIENTO DE LOS INTERIORES MONÁSTICOS: “¿SON ESTAS CELDAS DE MONJES O LONJAS DE MERCADERES?”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Juan García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo estudia la decoración interior de las celdas benedictinas en España durante los siglos XVII y XVIII. Esta investigación se basa en el análisis de unas cartas redactadas por los monjes visitadores de la Orden de San Benito que recogían comentarios sobre el modo de vida y la observancia que se seguía en los monasterios. Hemos examinado estas epístolas para encontrar referencias que nos permitan conocer la ornamentación, los muebles y los objetos que había en las habitaciones privadas. Los datos que hemos localizado demuestran que los benedictinos se rodearon de suntuosos enseres con los que hicieron alarde de su gusto barroco a partir de un lujoso mobiliario que, si bien les alejó de la pobreza y sencillez monacal, vinculó a estos monjes a la moda y la estética de su tiempo.This paper studies the interior decoration of the Benedictine cells in Spain during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This research is based on the analysis of some letters written by the so-called visitor monks of the Order of Saint Benedict who collected comments on lifestyle and the religious observance which was followed inside the monasteries. We have examined these epistles to find references that can allow us to know how the ornamentation, furniture and objects placed in the private rooms were. The data that we have located show how the Benedictines were surrounded by sumptuous furnishings with which they flaunted their Baroque lifestyle, from luxurious furnishings that moved them away from their original monastic poverty and simplicity, linking them to both fashion and the aesthetics of their time.

  15. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  16. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  17. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels

    OpenAIRE

    Castán Fortuño, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  18. Dynamics of Incoherent Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Qi; LU Ke-Qing; ZHANG Mei-Zhi; LI Ke-Hao; LIU Shuang; ZHANG Yan-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Propagation properties of bright and dark incoherent beams are numerically studied in photovoltaic-photorefractive crystal by using coherent density approach for the first time.Numerical simulations not only exhibit that bright incoherent photovoltaic quasi-soliton,grey-like incoherent photovoltaic soliton,incoherent soliton doublet and triplet can be established under proper conditions,but also display that the spatial coherence properties of these incoherent beams can be significantly affected during propagation by the photovoltaic field.

  19. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  20. INCOHERENTLY COUPLED SCREENING-PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLITON FAMILIES IN BIASED PHOTOVOLTAIC PHOTOREFRACTIVE CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU CHUN-FENG; LI BIN; SUN XIU-DONG; JIANG YONG-YUAN; XU KE-BIN

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of incoherently coupled screening-photovoltaic soliton families is possible in biased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These screening-photovoltaic soliton families can be established provided the multiple incident beams have the same polarization and wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. Such soliton families reduce to screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs when they contain only two components. Relevant examples are presented where the photovoltaic photorefractive crystal is of the lithium niobate type.

  1. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepperd, L.W. [ed.] [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  2. A MARKETING STRATEGY ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coita Dorin Cristian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic is an increasingly important energy technology. Deriving energy from the sun offers numerous environmental benefits. It is an extremely clean energy source, and few other power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as photovoltaic. In this article we explored some dimensions of photovoltaic market and suggested a marketing strategy for solar panels manufacturers

  3. 10-kilowatt Photovoltaic Concentrator Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, R.L.; Broadbent, S.

    1978-05-01

    Martin Marietta has designed a Photovoltaic Concentrator Array (PCA) for Sandia Laboratories, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico. The PCA is based on the use of an acrylic Fresnel lens to concentrate sunlight on high intensity solar cells. The objective of the development was to obtain economical photovoltaic power generation by replacing relatively high priced solar cells with low cost lenses. Consequently, a major task of the program was to optimize the design for minimum cost per unit power output. Major design aspects considered for optimization were the concentration ratio, size and shape of the Fresnel lens, array size and shape, structure minimization, tracking and control and the practical aspects of operation and maintenance. In addition to design of the complete array, several porototype photovoltaic concentrator module subassemblies were fabricated and delivered to Sandia for evaluation. These prototypes exceed the 9.0% efficiency requirement established for this program.

  4. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) -- formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  5. Photovoltaics characterization: Beyond the horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    1997-04-01

    This paper examines current photovoltaic test, measurement, and characterization techniques and makes evaluations and predictions of the next-generation technologies needed to meet the evolving requirements of photovoltaics. The range of support and research areas, from array through atomic-level analysis, are cited. The specific requirements of research and manufacturing sectors are addressed, including the need for more rapid response, new and photovoltaic-specific measurement techniques, manufacturing-environment measurement capabilities, and electronic-based centralized facilities. The integration and cohesion of analytical services with the evolving capabilities of the information highway are discussed and anticipated. To ensure the security of both intellectual and product property, the increased demands of protection of data are emphasized. Trends toward greater accuracy, precision, smaller- and larger-area analysis, and more-versatile measurement technologies are discussed.

  6. Construction of an electrolytic photocell fuel cell system used to energize a cellular telephone; Construccion de un sistema fotocelda-electrolizador-celda de combustible, utilizado para energizar un telefono celular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Quezada, Eduardo; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Solorza Feria, O. [CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: edfq_1986@hotmail.com

    2009-09-15

    de carbono que es liberado a la atmosfera, ademas de contribuir en gran parte al calentamiento global del planeta. Una alternativa para la generacion de energia electrica es la utilizacion de celdas de combustible de membrana polimerica (PEMFC) las cuales promoveran la utilizacion de combustibles alternos como el hidrogeno. En este trabajo se presenta la puesta en operacion de un sistema constituido por una celda fotovoltaica un electrolizador y una PEMFC. La celda fotovoltaica trasforma la energia solar en electrica con la que se electroliza el agua proporcionando hidrogeno (combustible) y oxigeno (comburente). Se diseno y construyo un electrolizador el cual fue caracterizado mediante ensayos de polarizacion. Los gases obtenidos del electrolizador son alimentados a una celda de combustible disenada y construida en el laboratorio. Para darle aplicacion a este trabajo la energia producida en la celda de combustible es alimentada a un dispositivo de baja potencia como lo es la carga electrica de un telefono movil. La integracion de dispositivos electroquimicos revolucionaran por completo las fuentes de energia que hoy en dia estan basadas en los derivados del petroleo. Estos sistemas integrados son eficientes para la produccion de energia electrica sin emisiones de gases contaminantes.

  7. Interband Cascade Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rui Q. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Santos, Michael B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Johnson, Matthew B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-24

    In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells [1]. These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.

  8. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  9. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  10. Macromolecular architectures for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popere, Bhooshan C; Della Pelle, Andrea M; Poe, Ambata; Thayumanavan, S

    2012-03-28

    Research in the field of organic photovoltaics has gained considerable momentum in the last two decades owing to the need for developing low-cost and efficient energy harvesting systems. Elegant molecular architectures have been designed, synthesized and employed as active materials for photovoltaic devices thereby leading to a better molecular structure-device property relationship understanding. In this perspective, we outline new macromolecular scaffolds that have been designed within the purview of each of the three fundamental processes involving light harvesting, charge separation and charge transport.

  11. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-09-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  12. A Photovoltaic System Payback Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Jeffrey E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, Gerald R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Roof Asset Management Program (RAMP) is a DOE NNSA initiative to manage roof repairs and replacement at NNSA facilities. In some cases, installation of a photovoltaic system on new roofs may be possible and desired for financial reasons and to meet federal renewable energy goals. One method to quantify the financial benefits of PV systems is the payback period, or the length of time required for a PV system to generate energy value equivalent to the system's cost. Sandia Laboratories created a simple spreadsheet-based solar energy valuation tool for use by RAMP personnel to quickly evaluate the estimated payback period of prospective or installed photovoltaic systems.

  13. Voltage Regulators for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delombard, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two simple circuits developed to provide voltage regulation for highvoltage (i.e., is greater than 75 volts) and low-voltage (i.e., is less than 36 volts) photovoltaic/battery power systems. Use of these circuits results in voltage regulator small, low-cost, and reliable, with very low power dissipation. Simple oscillator circuit controls photovoltaic-array current to regulate system voltage and control battery charging. Circuit senses battery (and system) voltage and adjusts array current to keep battery voltage from exceeding maximum voltage.

  14. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  15. Photovoltaic Systems Test Facilities: Existing capabilities compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmer, K.

    1982-01-01

    A general description of photovoltaic systems test facilities (PV-STFs) operated under the U.S. Department of Energy's photovoltaics program is given. Descriptions of a number of privately operated facilities having test capabilities appropriate to photovoltaic hardware development are given. A summary of specific, representative test capabilities at the system and subsystem level is presented for each listed facility. The range of system and subsystem test capabilities available to serve the needs of both the photovoltaics program and the private sector photovoltaics industry is given.

  16. Rapid screening buffer layers in photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, III, Frederick Alyious; Tuncer, Enis

    2014-09-09

    An apparatus and method of testing electrical impedance of a multiplicity of regions of a photovoltaic surface includes providing a multi-tipped impedance sensor with a multiplicity of spaced apart impedance probes separated by an insulating material, wherein each impedance probe includes a first end adapted for contact with a photovoltaic surface and a second end in operable communication with an impedance measuring device. The multi-tipped impedance sensor is used to contact the photovoltaic surface and electrical impedance of the photovoltaic material is measured between individual first ends of the probes to characterize the quality of the photovoltaic surface.

  17. System tests and applications photovoltaic program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-01

    A summary of all the photovoltaic system tests and application experiments that have been initiated since the start of the US DOE Photovoltaics Program in 1975 is presented. They are organized in the following manner for ease of reference: (1) application experiments: these are independently designed and constructed projects which are funded by DOE; (2) system field tests: projects designed and monitored by the national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program; (3) exhibits: designed to acquaint the general public to photovoltaics; (4) component field tests: real time endurance testing conducted to monitor module reliability under actual environmental conditions; and (5) test facilities: descriptions of the four national laboratories involved in the photovoltaic program.

  18. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  19. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-27

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM). The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory maintains and distributes SAM, which is available as a free download from https://sam.nrel.gov. These descriptions are based on SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41).

  20. Photovoltaics radiometric issues and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a summary of issues discussed at the photovoltaic radiometric measurements workshop. Topics included radiometric measurements guides, the need for well-defined goals, documentation, calibration checks, accreditation of testing laboratories and methods, the need for less expensive radiometric instrumentation, data correlations, and quality assurance.

  1. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report reviews the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaic (PV) Program from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993 (fiscal year [FY] 1993). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The FY 1993 budget authority (BA) for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $40.1 million in operating funds and $0.9 million in capital equipment funds. An additional $4.8 million in capital equipment funds were made available for the new Solar Energy Research Facility (SERF) that will house the in-house PV laboratories beginning in FY 1994. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with more than $23.7 million (nearly 59%) of the FY 1993 operating funds going to 70 subcontractors. In FY 1993, DOE assigned certain other PV subcontracting efforts to the DOE Golden Field Office (DOE/GO), and assigned responsibility for their technical support to the NREL PV Program. An example is the PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the U.S. for Photovoltaics) Project. These DOE/GO efforts are also reported in this document.

  2. Emissions from photovoltaic life cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Kim, H.C.; Alsema, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technologies have shown remarkable progress recently in terms of annual production capacity and life cycle environmental performances, which necessitate timely updates of environmental indicators. Based on PV production data of 2004–2006, this study presents the life-cycle greenhou

  3. Photovoltaic systems: an economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.; Fato, I. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica e Impianti Termotecnici)

    Costs and benefits of a photovoltaic plant intended for residential utilization and connected to the supply mains are evaluated. Three types of panels (mono, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon) are considered in determining the optimum economical size. Criteria for estimating the economically convenient peak watt cost compared with the mains supply cost are suggested.

  4. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program, FY 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K.A. (ed.)

    1991-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaics Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The SERI subcontracted PV research and development represents most of the subcontracted R D that is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program. This report covers fiscal year (FY) 1990: October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. During FY 1990, the SERI PV program started to implement a new DOE subcontract initiative, entitled the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) Project.'' Excluding (PVMaT) because it was in a start-up phase, in FY 1990 there were 54 subcontracts with a total annualized funding of approximately $11.9 million. Approximately two-thirds of those subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of over $3.3 million. Cost sharing by industry added another $4.3 million to that $11.9 million of SERI PV subcontracted R D. The six technical sections of this report cover the previously ongoing areas of the subcontracted program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, and the University Participation Program. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs discuss approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1990, and future research directions. Another section introduces the PVMaT project and reports the progress since its inception in FY 1990. Highlights of technology transfer activities are also reported.

  5. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C

    2006-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  6. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  7. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  8. Parameter changes during gradual flooding of a PEM fuel cell through EIS studies; Cambio en parametros de una celda de combustible PEM durante inundacion gradual mediante estudios de EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano Castillo, Ulises; Cruz Manzo, Samuel; Arriaga Hurtado, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ortiz, Alondra; Orozco, German [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C. (CIDETEQ) (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The gradual flooding of a single PEM fuel cell was produced and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were realized in order to follow changes of the fuel cell impedance parameters. These changes were followed by using two equivalent circuit models: one simple model of the Randles type accounting for cathode and anode interfaces and a more complex model based on distributed elements, more suitable for porous electrodes in order to include protonic resistance of the catalyst layers. [Spanish] La inundacion gradual de una monocelda de combustible tipo PEM fue estudiada empleando espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica (EIS), con el proposito de seguir cambios en los parametros de impedancia de la celda. Estos cambios fueron estudiados utilizando dos circuitos equivalentes: un modelo simple de tipo Randles, el cual considerara las interfaces del catodo y del anodo, y un modelo mas complejo basado en elementos distribuidos, el cual fuera adecuado para electrodos porosos, a fin de incluir la resistencia protonica de las capas catalizadoras.

  9. A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Khamooshi; Hana Salati; Fuat Egelioglu; Ali Hooshyar Faghiri; Judy Tarabishi; Saeed Babadi

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the recent centuries, the limits of using energy resources due to the cost and environmental issues became one of the scientists’ concerns. Because of the huge amount of energy received by the Earth from the sun, the application of photovoltaic solar cells has become popular in the world. The photovoltaic (PV) efficiency can be increased by several factors; concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system is one of the important tools for efficiency improvement and enables for a reduction i...

  10. Recent progress in space photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Flood, Dennis J.; Weinberg, Irving

    1987-01-01

    Key issues and opportunities in space photovoltaic research and technology relative to future NASA mission requirements and drivers are addressed. Examples are given of space missions and/or operational capabilities on NASA's planning horizon presenting major technology challenges to the use of photovoltaic power generation in space. The status of cell R and D and the performance goals to be met by space photovoltaic power systems to remain competitive are described.

  11. Photovoltaic power in less developed countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.V.

    1977-03-24

    The potential of solar photovoltaic power in the third world (less developed countries) is analyzed. Application of irrigation systems powered by photovoltaics in Bangladesh, Chad, India, and Pakistan, plus an economic analysis of a photovoltaic-powered village in northern India indicate solar energy is competitive with the least-cost fossil-fuel alternatives. The most cost-effective method for specific geographical locations can be determined by field testing based on the case history data reported.

  12. Photovoltaic Energy Program Overview Fiscal Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Significant activities in the National Photovoltaic Program are reported for each of the three main program elements. In Research and Development, advances in thin-film materials and crystalline silicon materials are described. The Technology Development report describes activities in photovoltaic manufacturing technology, industrial expansion, module and array development, and testing photovoltaic system components. Systems Engineering and Applications projects described include projects with government agencies, projects with utilities, documentation of performance for international applications, and product certification.

  13. Linearity Testing of Photovoltaic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinegar, S.; Nalley, D.; Emery, K.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic devices are rated in terms of their power output or efficiency with respect to a specific spectrum, total irradiance, and temperature. In order to rate photovoltaic devices, a reference detector whose response is linear with total irradiance is needed. This procedure documents a procedure to determine if a detector is linear over the irradiance range of interest. Testing the short circuit current versus the total irradiance is done by illuminating a reference cell candidate with two lamps that are fitted with programmable filter wheels. The purpose is to reject nonlinear samples as determined by national and international standards from being used as primary reference cells. A calibrated linear reference cell tested by the two lamp method yields a linear result.

  14. Photovoltaic research opportunities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macaleer, B.; Bowers, J.; Hurlburt, B.

    1985-11-19

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for photovoltaic (PV) research projects to capitalize on related but non-PV research. The study is performed under the assumption that a considerable body of ongoing semiconductor research in non-PV areas could be of value to its PV Program and the PV community in general. Research related to III-V compounds, thin films, and crystalline silicon materials is included. Research that is known to be PV-related or sponsored by DOE was excluded from consideration. The study resulted in 11 recommendations (research areas) and a subset of 58 specific research projects. In addition, over 75 non-PV research managers in the semiconductor field are identified as potential sources of ideas which could benefit photovoltaics.

  15. Bimolecular recombination in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhwani, Girish; Rao, Akshay; Friend, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    The recombination of electrons and holes is a major loss mechanism in photovoltaic devices that controls their performance. We review scientific literature on bimolecular recombination (BR) in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic devices to bring forward existing ideas on the origin and nature of BR and highlight both experimental and theoretical work done to quantify its extent. For these systems, Langevin theory fails to explain BR, and recombination dynamics turns out to be dependent on mobility, temperature, electric field, charge carrier concentration, and trapped charges. Relationships among the photocurrent, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and morphology are discussed. Finally, we highlight the recent emergence of a molecular-level picture of recombination, taking into account the spin and delocalization of charges. Together with the macroscopic picture of recombination, these new insights allow for a comprehensive understanding of BR and provide design principles for future materials and devices.

  16. Performance of photovoltaic electrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, D.; Ganibal, C.; Steinmetz, D.; Vialaron, A.

    A photovoltaic generator with concentrated light is combined with a water electrolysis cell in an effort to further the development of solar energy utilization. SOPHOCLE, a photovoltaic generator with limited concentration of energy, is a heliostat of the altazimuth type, consisting of an optical device to focus the sunlight on the photocells, a tracking device to follow the position of the sun, and a cooling device to allow dissipation of thermal energy. The combined cost and performance of SOPHOCLE gives an overall efficiency of 9 percent (for direct solar radiation). A power conditioning device matches the generator photocell characteristics with the electrolysis cell to give maximum hydrogen production. Hydrogen can be produced by this method with an overall efficiency of 7 percent.

  17. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  18. Photovoltaic plants: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Fato, I.; Lazzarin, R.

    A photovoltaic unit, designed at the University of Bari and already in operation, is described as well as the methodology followed to measure the main characteristic parameters of its operation. The experimental results, compared with those obtained by applying semi-empirical calculations, suggest that load intermittence should be taken into account by introducing a parameter (N) into the calculation, and that intervention of the solar section control device should be considered.

  19. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  20. Towards photovoltaic powered artificial retina

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts in the field of retinal prostheses, and is focused on the power supply based on solar energy conversion; we introduce the possibility of using PV minimodules as power supply for a new concept of retinal prostheses: Photovoltaic Powered Artificial Retina (PVAR). Main characteristics of these PV modules are presented showing its potential for this application. Peer Reviewed

  1. A vision for photovoltaic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Perezagua, E. [Isofoton, Madrid (Spain); Demarcq, F.; Bal, J.L. [ADEME, Paris (France); Alferov, Z.I.; Andreev, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); De Segundo, K. [Shell International Renewables, London (United Kingdom); Dimmler, B. [Wuerth Solar GMBH und Co.KG, Marbach am Neckar (Germany); Goetzberger, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Itoiz Beunza, C. [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Lojkowski, W. [High Pressure Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland); Nowak, S. [NET Nowak nergy and Technology Ltd, St. Ursen (Switzerland); Vleuten, P. van der [Free Energy International, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Shell Solar, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-02-01

    The report identifies the major technical and non-technical barriers to the uptake of the technology and outlines a strategic research agenda designed to ensure a breakthrough of PV (photovoltaics) and an increase in deployment in the Union and worldwide. The Council proposes the use of a European Technology Platform as a mechanism to implement the strategy and achieve the wider goals defined in the vision.

  2. Microprocessor control of photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present low power CMOS microprocessor controller for photovoltaic power systems possesses three programs, which are respectively intended for (1) conventional battery-charging systems with state-of-charge estimation and sequential shedding of subarrays and loads, (2) maximum power-controlled battery-charging systems, and (3) variable speed dc motor drives. Attention is presently given to the development of this terrestrial equipment for spacecraft use.

  3. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  4. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  5. Review of photovoltaic research in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R D

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes US research efforts to develop new generations of photovoltaic technologies having the potential for lower cost and better performance than the older generations of crystalline silicon technologies. The newer generations consist primarily of single and multijunction thin film devices destined for either flat plate or concentrator photovoltaic systems. The principal sponsors for the research are the US Department of Energy, US photovoltaic companies, the Electric Power Research Institute, and those US government agencies interested in the use of photovoltaics in space. The paper concludes with a description of future research activities in the areas of amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, high efficiency concepts, and fundamental research.

  6. International photovoltaic program. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses conducted in preparation of an international photovoltaic marketing plan are summarized. Included are compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about the how US government actions could affect this market;international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  7. Sistema de control óptimo para la regulación de presión del cabezal de cloro de las cámaras de celdas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Cañizalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El control es esencial en los procesos industriales, donde variables físicas como presión, temperatura, humedad y flujo entre otras, deben ser parametrizadas de acuerdo a las condiciones del proceso con la finalidad de mejorarlos y optimizarlos. La mayoría de los procesos industriales son multivariables y se requiere del análisis del sistema dinámico, manipulando sus entradas de manera que se comporte de acuerdo a las necesidades que el ambiente y el sistema experimenten en cada intervalo de tiempo. Luego el propósito de esta investigación estuvo dirigido al diseño de un sistema que regulara la presión del cabezal de cloro en las cámaras de celdas (Planta de Cloro Soda en Pequiven utilizando como técnica el control óptimo. La metodología utilizada según la investigación fue de tipo descriptivo y aplicada, De diseño no experimental, de Campo y Transaccional descriptiva. La unidad de análisis se enfocó en la generación de cloro por medio de la regulación de presión del cabezal de cloro de 30 “de FRP de la cámara de celdas, basada en la recolección de datos finitos en tiempo real directos del proceso. Las técnicas de recolección de datos fueron cualitativas y cuantitativas en función de los diferentes programas utilizados para el desarrollo de los modelos matemáticos y los parámetros para el control óptimo. El resultado final es la demostración de la efectiva del control óptimo dentro de la investigación propuesta.

  8. Nanochemistry and nanomaterials for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanying; Seo, Jangwon; Yang, Chunhui; Prasad, Paras N

    2013-11-01

    Nanochemistry and nanomaterials provide numerous opportunities for a new generation of photovoltaics with high solar energy conversion efficiencies at low fabrication cost. Quantum-confined nanomaterials and polymer-inorganic nanocomposites can be tailored to harvest sun light over a broad range of the spectrum, while plasmonic structures offer effective ways to reduce the thickness of light-absorbing layers. Multiple exciton generation, singlet exciton fission, photon down-conversion, and photon up-conversion realized in nanostructures, create significant interest for harvesting underutilized ultraviolet and currently unutilized infrared photons. Nanochemical interface engineering of nanoparticle surfaces and junction-interfaces enable enhanced charge separation and collection. In this review, we survey these recent advances employed to introduce new concepts for improving the solar energy conversion efficiency, and reduce the device fabrication cost in photovoltaic technologies. The review concludes with a summary of contributions already made by nanochemistry. It then describes the challenges and opportunities in photovoltaics where the chemical community can play a vital role.

  9. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  10. Molecular Photovoltaics in Nanoscale Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei V. Pakoulev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the intrinsic charge transport in organic photovoltaic (PVC devices and field-effect transistors (SAM-OFETs fabricated by vapor phase molecular self-assembly (VP-SAM method. The dynamics of charge transport are determined and used to clarify a transport mechanism. The 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylic diphenylimide (NTCDI SAM devices provide a useful tool to study the fundamentals of polaronic transport at organic surfaces and to discuss the performance of organic photovoltaic devices in nanoscale. Time-resolved photovoltaic studies allow us to separate the charge annihilation kinetics in the conductive NTCDI channel from the overall charge kinetic in a SAM-OFET device. It has been demonstrated that tuning of the type of conductivity in NTCDI SAM-OFET devices is possible by changing Si substrate doping. Our study of the polaron charge transfer in organic materials proposes that a cation-radical exchange (redox mechanism is the major transport mechanism in the studied SAM-PVC devices. The role and contribution of the transport through delocalized states of redox active surface molecular aggregates of NTCDI are exposed and investigated. This example of technological development is used to highlight the significance of future technological development of nanotechnologies and to appreciate a structure-property paradigm in organic nanostructures.

  11. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  12. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  13. Utility photovoltaic group: Status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Hester, Stephen L.; Wills, Bethany N.

    1996-01-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)—an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)—an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process.

  14. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-04-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  15. Changes in the internal resistance of a single chamber microbial fuel cell associated with architectural changes and inoculation; Cambios en la resistencia interna de una celda de combustible microbiana de una camara asociados a cambios de arquitectura y tipo de inoculo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez Larios, A.L.; Vazquez-Huerta, G.; Esparza-Garcia, F.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi Varaldo, H.M. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hectorpoggi2001@gmail.com; linevazquez@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    The objective of this work was to electrochemically characterize a new type of microbial fuel cell (MFC-A) and evaluate the effect of three inoculated types on internal resistance (Ir). The results were compared with those from a standard fuel cell (MFC-B). The MFC-A consisted of a horizontal acrylate cylinder equipped with two sandwiched electrode systems (each with a anode proton exchange membrane-cathode) at each end of the chamber. The MFC-B consisted of an anode and cathode each placed at opposing faces of the chamber, separated by 78 mm. The Ir of the cells were determined using a polarization curve. The inoculates were from continuous complete-mix reactors, biomass in suspension, at the laboratory scale. The inoculate with the lowest Ir value (1 200 and 3900 {Omega}) was sulfate reduction (SR-In). The second corresponded to methanogen inoculated cells (M-In) with Ir of 5300 and 7500 {Omega}. Aerobic inoculated cells (A-IN) had extremely high Ir values, 100000 and 130000 {Omega} for MFC-A and MFC-B, respectively. The Ir for all the inoculates was the lowest in the MFC-A, attributed to the change in the cell's architecture and the design of the electrodes. These results are encouraging since a decrease in Ir is required to increase the power and efficiency of a microbial fuel cell. [Spanish] El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar electroquimicamente una celda de combustible microbiana de nuevo tipo (CCM-A), y evaluar el efecto de tres tipos de inoculos sobre la resistencia interna (R{sub i}). Los resultados fueron comparados con los de una celda de combustible estandar (CCM-B). La CCM-A consistio de un cilindro horizontal de acrilato, equipado con dos sistemas de electrodos emparedados (cada uno con catodo/membrana de intercambio protonico/anodo) en cada uno de los extremos de la camara. La CCM-B consistio de un anodo y un catodo colocados cada uno en las caras opuestas de la celda, separados por 78 mm. Las Ri de las celdas fueron determinadas por

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene membranes for use in fuel cells; Sintesis y evaluacion de membranas base poliestireno para uso en celdas a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)] e-mail: robertob@ciqa.mx; Paula, M.M.S.; Da Silva, L.; Fiori, M.; Coronetti, J.C.; Silvano, W.F. [Lasicom, Universidade do Extremos Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, S.C. (Brasil); B.M. Huerta [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada (CIQA), Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    DSC), nivel de entrecruzamiento mediante % Gel y funcion acida mediante titulacion con hidroxido de sodio. Los espectros IR de las membranas antes de sulfonar muestran la existencia de bandas tradicionales de los polimeros utilizados con dos senales de los homopolimeros que se pierden y dos nuevas que aparecen, corroborando las reacciones de copolimerizacion. La termogravimetria muestra una temperatura de descomposicion mayor para las membranas entrecruzadas con el DVB, mientras que el DSC no es muy util para observar transiciones debido a la higroscopicidad de las membranas. Finalmente, el porcentaje de gel esta efectivamente relacionado con la cantidad de DVB utilizado y la acidez de las membranas es mayor con el contenido de acido acrilico, con el tiempo de sulfonacion y el porcentaje de DVB; aunque este valor depende mucho de la facilidad de solubilizar el material. Las propiedades ionicas de las membranas con mejores propiedades mecanicas fueron evaluadas en un prototipo de celda a combustible.

  17. Diseño y desarrollo de una experiencia que evidencie el fenómeno de la celda Hele-Shaw por medio de fluidos de viscosidades y colores diferentes, para la sala Física Viva del Parque Explora

    OpenAIRE

    González Múnera, Roxana; Lineros Candamil, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    A lo largo de este trabajo se diseño y desarrollo una experiencia interactiva que muestra la teoría de los fractales utilizando como base formas que resultaban de la repetición de lo micro a lo macro y también la teoría de la celda Hele-Shaw. El primer concepto se evidencia en el aspecto formal de la experiencia y el segundo en su funcionamiento.

  18. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices.

  19. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor s

  20. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview, fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Photovoltaic Energy Program fosters the widespread acceptance of photovoltaic (PV) technology and accelerates commercial use of US PV products. The Program is founded on a collaborative strategy involving industry, the research and development community, potential users, utilities, and state and federal agencies. There are three main Program elements: Systems Engineering and Applications, Technology Development, and Research and Development.

  1. Recent facts about photovoltaics in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Harry (comp.)

    2015-10-16

    Germany is leaving the age of fossil fuel behind. In building a sustainable energy future, photovoltaics is going to have an important role. The following summary consists of the most recent facts, figures and findings and shall assist in forming an overall assessment of the photovoltaic expansion in Germany.

  2. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  3. Effects of concentrated sunlight on organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tromholt, Thomas; Katz, Eugene A.; Hirsch, Baruch;

    2010-01-01

    We report the effects of concentrated sunlight on key photovoltaic parameters and stability of organic photovoltaics (OPV). Sunlight collected and concentrated outdoors was focused into an optical fiber and delivered onto a 1 cm2 bulk-heterojunction cell. Sunlight concentration C was varied...

  4. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  5. A challenging future for improved photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas M.

    The expansion of space requirements creates opportunities and priorities for power production, thus driving the development of innovative technologies. Key requirements for improving photovoltaics are outlined including cell efficiency, specific power, packaging, reliability, and affordability issues. The competition faced by photovoltaic cells is discussed with specific reference to solar dynamics and nuclear radioisotope thermal generator systems.

  6. Building integrated photovoltaic; Photovaltaique integre aux batiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Durable, modular and flexible in use, as demonstrated by the different case studies in this publication, photovoltaic can replace diverse building elements, from glass facades to weather proof roofs. This leaflet towards architects describes aesthetic, technical, economic and environmental interest of building integrated photovoltaic. (author)

  7. Photovoltaics - Where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The directions that will be followed for solar cell development, production and marketing are projected on the basis of experiences gained during the JPL's Flat-Plate Solar Array project. It is thought that a billion dollar market for Si ribbons can be established by 1990. Thin film technology will yield a product at $2 U.S./W at the end of the 1980s. R&D is growing more focused on central station photovoltaic generators, although the residential market may be the more suitable goal. The intermediate markets, e.g., schools, hospitals and shopping centers may be developed before the central stations.

  8. Advances in photovoltaics pt.3

    CERN Document Server

    Willeke, Gerhard P

    2014-01-01

    This volume is the third of a set of seven on the topic of photovoltaics. Solar cell-related technologies covered here include: ribbon silicon; heterojunction crystalline silicon; wafer equivalent crystalline silicon; and other advanced silicon solar cell structures and processes. Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant v

  9. Advanced photovoltaic-trough development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.; Yasuda, K.; Merson, B.

    1982-04-01

    The scope of the work on photvoltaic troughs includes analytical studies, hardware development, and component testing. Various aspects of the system have been optimized and improvements have been realized, particularly in the receiver and reflecting surface designs. An empirical system performance model has been developed that closely agrees with measured system performance. This in-depth study of single-axis reflecting linear focus photovoltaic concentrators will be very beneficial in the development of improved models for similar systems as well as other phtovoltaic concentrator designs.

  10. Photovoltaics system design and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Häberlin, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    With the explosive growth in PV (photovoltaic) installations globally, the sector continues to benefit from important improvements in manufacturing technology and the increasing efficiency of solar cells. this timely handbook brings together all the latest design, layout and construction methods for entire PV plants in a single volume. Coverage includes procedures for the design of both stand-alone and grid-connected systems as well as practical guidance on typical operational scenarios and problems encountered for optimum PV plant performance. Key features:

    • Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

      2015-09-22

      Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

    • Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

      OpenAIRE

      Petru Chioncel; Cristian Paul Chioncel; Nicoleta Gillich

      2013-01-01

      This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

    • Mathematical Model for Photovoltaic Cells

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wafaa ABD EL-BASIT

      2013-11-01

      Full Text Available The study of photovoltaic systems in an efficient manner requires a precise knowledge of the (I-V and (P-V characteristic curves of photovoltaic modules. So, the aim of the present paper is to estimate such characteristics based on different operating conditions. In this concern, a simple one diode mathematical model was implemented using MATLAB script. The output characteristics of PV cell depend on the environmental conditions. For any solar cell, the model parameters are function of the irradiance and the temperature values of the site where the panel is placed. In this paper, the numerical values of the equivalent circuit parameters are generated by the program. As well, the dependence of the cells electrical parameters are analyzed under the influence of different irradiance and temperature levels. The variation of slopes of the (I–V curves of a cell at short-circuit and open-circuit conditions with intensity of illumination in small span of intensity and different temperature levels have been applied to determine the cell parameters, shunt resistance, series resistance. The results show that the efficiency of solar cells has an inverse relationship with temperature, irradiance levels are affected by the change of the photo-generation current and the series resistance in the single diode model.

    • Real options analysis for photovoltaic project under climate uncertainty

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Sejong; Kim, Hyoungkwan

      2016-08-01

      The decision on photovoltaic project depends on the level of climate environments. Changes in temperature and insolation affect photovoltaic output. It is important for investors to consider future climate conditions for determining investments on photovoltaic projects. We propose a real options-based framework to assess economic feasibility of photovoltaic project under climate change. The framework supports investors to evaluate climate change impact on photovoltaic projects under future climate uncertainty.

    • Added values of photovoltaic power systems

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      NONE

      2001-03-15

      The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20{sup th} century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

    • Low-amplitude Screening-photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in Biased Photovoltaic Photorefractive Crystals

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      HOU Chunfeng; LI Yan; YUAN Baohong; SUN Xiudong

      2000-01-01

      The low-amplitude spatial solitons in biased photovoltaic photorefractive crystals are investigated theoretically. The analytical solutions for both the bright and the dark low-amplitude screening-photovoltaic spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals are obtained. The expressions for the width of these solitons are given. The explicit expressions for the spatial deflection and angular deviation of the bright low-amplitude screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton are also presented by taking into account the effect of diffusion.

    • Performance of the PdNi and PdNiSe as cathodes in PEM fuel cells; Desempeno de PdNi y PdNiSe como catodos en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Santana, A.; Ramos-Sanchez, G.; Vazquez, G.; Solorza-Feria, O. [Centro de Investigaciones y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: gramos@cinvestav.mx

      2009-09-15

      The search for new materials capable of catalyzing oxygen reactions in low temperature fuel cells continues to be one of the key issues in the development of a hydrogen economy. Electrochemical and physical characterization studies have demonstrated that the PdNi and PdNiSe catalysts have adequate properties for use as cathodes in fuel cells. Nevertheless, the performance of the materials in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells depends not only on the catalytic properties but also on the adequate preparation of the electrocatalyst membrane interface (EMI). This work presents the results of the search for optimal conditions to prepare the EMIs with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes. There are many variables for handling the preparation of the interfaces, nevertheless our search focuses on two: catalyst ratio/Vulcan Carbon® and the catalyst amount. Interfaces were prepared with an active area of 5 cm{sup 2} with PdNi and PdNiSe cathodes and carbon fabric anode with Pt E-tek®. These interfaces were tested with an ElectroChem model under different gas pressure and temperature conditions. The optimization method was carried out using a simplex method with the variables mentioned above and power density per unit mass and catalyst area as response variables. [Spanish] La busqueda de nuevos materiales capaces de catalizar la Reaccion de Oxigeno (RRO) en celdas de combustible de baja temperatura, sigue siendo uno de los temas clave para el desarrollo de una Economia del Hidrogeno. Estudios electroquimicos y de caracterizacion fisica han demostrado que los catalizadores PdNi y PdNiSe, tienen las propiedades adecuadas para poder ser utilizados como catodos en celdas de combustible; sin embargo el desempeno de los materiales en celdas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protonico (PEM), no solo depende de las propiedades del catalizador, sino tambien de la preparacion adecuada del Ensamble Membrana Electrocatalizador (EME). En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la

    • Bifunctional electrodes with ir and Ru oxide mixtures and pt for unified regenerative cells; Electrodos bifuncionales basados en mezclas de oxidos de Ir y Ru con Pt para celdas regenerativas unificadas

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Duron-Torres, S.M.; Escalante-Garcia, I.L. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Cruz, J. C.; Arriaga-Hurtado; L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)]. E-mail: duronsm@prodigy.net.mx

      2009-09-15

      Unified regenerative fuel cells (URFC) represent an attractive option to obtain hydrogen and generate energy using a compact device. Nevertheless, the fusion of a fuel cell (PEMFC) and a water electrolyzer continue to be a challenge because of the wide range of conditions to which this type of device is subject. Because of its kinetic characteristics, oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in PEMFC and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEMWE are the limiting stages of the URFC depending on the mode of operation. The primary focus of research related to URFC is the obtainment of bifunctional electrocatalysts that satisfactorily perform in both oxygen reactions and support the different working conditions found in a fuel cell and an electrolyzer. The present work contributes to the research on bifunctional electrocatalysts and shows some preliminary results from the electrochemical study of different Pt gcc, IrO{sub 2} and RuO{sub 2} mixtures supported in Ebonex® as oxygen electrodes. The electrochemical characterization with cyclic voltamperometry (CV), linear voltamperometry (LV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} 0.5 M, in the absence and present of oxygen shows that Ebonex®-supported bifunctional electrodes IrO{sub 2}-Pt and RuO{sub 2}-Pt present reasonable electrocatalytic properties for oxygen evolution and reduction reactions and present the possibility of their use in an URFC. The Ir- based oxide electrodes show greater stability than ruthenium-oxide electrodes. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible regenerativas unificadas (URFC) representan una atractiva opcion para la obtencion de hidrogeno y generacion de energia en un dispositivo compacto. Sin embargo, la fusion de una celda de combustible (PEMFC) y un electrolizador de agua (PEMWE) sigue siendo un reto por la amplia gama de condiciones a que se sujeta un dispositivo de este tipo. Por sus caracteristicas cineticas, la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno (ORR) en la PEMFC y la

    • Future contingencies and photovoltaic system worth

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jones, G. J.; Thomas, M. G.; Bonk, G. J.

      1982-01-01

      The value of dispersed photovoltaic systems connected to the utility grid has been calculated using the General Electric Optimized Generation Planning program. The 1986 to 2001 time period was used for this study. Photovoltaic systems were dynamically integrated, up to 5% total capacity, into 9 NERC based regions under a range of future fuel and economic contingencies. Value was determined by the change in revenue requirements due to the photovoltaic additions. Displacement of high cost fuel was paramount to value, while capacity displacement was highly variable and dependent upon regional fuel mix.

    • Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

      Science.gov (United States)

      1993-03-01

      US DOE's Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the R and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accomplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included.

  1. Advanced silicon materials for photovoltaic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzini, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Today, the silicon feedstock for photovoltaic cells comes from processes which were originally developed for the microelectronic industry. It covers almost 90% of the photovoltaic market, with mass production volume at least one order of magnitude larger than those devoted to microelectronics. However, it is hard to imagine that this kind of feedstock (extremely pure but heavily penalized by its high energy cost) could remain the only source of silicon for a photovoltaic market which is in continuous expansion, and which has a cumulative growth rate in excess of 30% in the last few years. Ev

  2. Bright-Dark Vector Screening-Photovoltaic Spatial Solitons in Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢克清; 钱士雄; 窦春升; 吴振森

    2002-01-01

    We show that the vector beam evolution equations in properly oriented biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals can exhibit bright-dark vector solitons, which result from both the bulk photovoltaic effect and the spatially non-uniform screening of the external bias field. By adjusting the polarization of the incident beam to obtain the appropriate ratio of two orthogonal components, these vector solitons can be established. When the bulk photovoltaic effect is negligible, these vector solitons are bright-dark vector screening solitons. When the external field is absent, these vector solitons predict bright-dark vector photovoltaic solitons.

  3. Feasibility of implementation of an autonomous hybrid system for PEM fuel cells to electrify localities in rural Cuba; Factibilidad de implementacion de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM para electrificar localidades rurales en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Torres, Yamir [Centro de Estudios de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (CETER), Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)] e-mail: yamir@ceter.cujae.edu.cu

    2009-09-15

    The use of PEM fuel cells to produce electric energy in autonomous systems is closely linked with the production and storage of hydrogen. Eventually joined with sources of renewable energy, this creates an ecologically clean and sustainable system. In several developing countries, localities exist that do not have electricity but have significant unexploited renewable energy power, where an autonomous hybrid system can be designed to electrify these population centers. This work presents a hybrid electricity scheme with a PEM fuel cell to produce hydrogen and electricity in order to electrify rural zones far from the national power grid in Cuba. The electric demand of the zone and available energy power was calculated using the informatics modeling and simulation programs HOMER, PVSYST and Matlab 1,2,3. Variability in wind and photovoltage power was determined based on daylight hours and seasonal periods throughout the year as well as their effect on the production of hydrogen and electricity. It was shown that the energy demand is met even for the most adverse scenarios. This work offers a detailed description of the behavior of the system and evidence of no effect on the environment, enabling the electrification and wellbeing of residents of the locality. [Spanish] El uso de celdas de combustible PEM para la produccion de energia electrica en sistemas autonomos esta estrechamente ligado a la produccion y almacenamiento de hidrogeno. Esto eventualmente unido a las fuentes renovables de energia forma un sistema ecologicamente limpio y sustentable. En varios paises subdesarrollados existen localidades que no cuentan con electricidad y que tienen importantes potenciales energeticos renovables no explotados actualmente en los cuales se puede disenar un sistema hibrido autonomo para electrificar estas poblaciones. En este trabajo se presenta el esquema de un sistema hibrido autonomo con celda de combustible PEM, para la produccion de hidrogeno y electricidad encaminado

  4. Ánodos de Pt-Ru y Pt-Ir para Celdas de Combustible Alimentadas con Metano y Propano Directo Pt-Ru and Pt-Ir Anodes for Direct Methane and Propane Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibian A Hoyos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evalúa el efecto de la temperatura en el desempeño de celdas de combustible de membrana de intercambio protónico alimentadas con metano y propano, utilizando oxígeno como alimentación en el cátodo. Para la oxidación de los combustibles en los ánodos, se probaron cinco catalizadores soportados en carbón: Pt, Pt85Ru15, Pt50Ru50, Pt90Ir10 y Pt50Ir50. Como catalizador en el cátodo se usó platino puro soportado en carbón. El desempeño de las celdas de combustible fue evaluado mediante curvas de polarización obtenidas a partir de los datos corriente-potencial. Los resultados indican que la oxidación de metano se ve favorecida a altas temperaturas sobre los catalizadores Pt90/Ir10, Pt50/Ir50 y Pt50/Ru50. A bajas temperaturas los mejores catalizadores resultaron ser Pt y Pt85/Ru15. La mezcla bimetálica Pt85/Ru15 fue la que presentó mejor desempeño para llevar a cabo la oxidación de propano a 30 °C.In this paper, the effect of temperature in the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells feed with methane and propane, using oxygen as feed to the cathode, is presented. For the fuel oxidation in the anodes, five carbon supported catalysts were tested: Pt, Pt85/Ru15, Pt50/Ru50, Pt90/Ir10, and Pt50/Ir50. Carbon-supported pure platinum was used as catalysts in the cathode side. The performance of the fuel cells was evaluated by polarization curves obtained from the current-potential data. Results indicate that methane oxidation is favoured at high temperatures on the Pt90/Ir10, Pt50/Ir50 and Pt50/Ru50 catalysts. At low temperatures the best catalysts were Pt and Pt85/Ru15. The Pt85/Ru15 bimetallic mixture showed the best performance to carry out propane oxidation at 30 °C.

  5. Cinética de separación de Cu (II por técnicas de flotación iónica, en celdas con dispersores flexibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes, M.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This research studies and experimentally determines the kinetic parameters and effect of modifying the hydrodynamics and chemical conditions of the air-liquid dispersions during the Cu (II extraction by ion flotation techniques in cells with porous spargers. Results show that the elimination of Cu (II from solution can be carried out by ion flotation in one stage, obtaining efficiencies of 68% and 56% for the flat and cylindrical sparger respectively with a xanthate concentration of 0,02 g/l. In multistage systems five cells, recoveries over 92 % were achieved for both sparger geometries. The behavior of the flotation apparent kinetic constant is linear to the parameters that characterize dispersion (Jg, eg y Db, until a point is achieved where the process instability makes the system inoperable. The results show that removing base metal ions by ion flotation is strongly affected by the following factors: collector concentration [C], Jg, eg, Db, Jl and Sb.

    Este estudio investiga y determina experimentalmente los parámetros cinéticos y el efecto de la modificación de las condiciones químicas e hidrodinámicas de las dispersiones aire-líquido, durante la separación de Cu (II mediante técnicas de flotación iónica en celdas con dispersores porosos. Los resultados muestran que la eliminación de Cu (II de la solución se puede llevar acabo por flotación iónica en una etapa, con 68 y 56 % de recuperación y una concentración de xantato de 0,02 g/l, para los difusores de burbujas cilíndrico y plano, respectivamente. En sistemas multi etapas cinco celdas, se lograron recuperaciones superiores al 92 % para ambas geometrías de dispersión. La constante cinética de flotación aparente mantiene un comportamiento lineal con los parámetros que caracterizan una dispersión (Jg, eg y Db, hasta un punto donde la inestabilidad del proceso vuelve inoperable el sistema. Los resultados muestran que la remoción de iones

  6. Photovoltaic module parameters acquisition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibira, Gabriel; Koščová, Marcela

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents basic procedures for photovoltaic (PV) module parameters acquisition using MATLAB and Simulink modelling. In first step, MATLAB and Simulink theoretical model are set to calculate I-V and P-V characteristics for PV module based on equivalent electrical circuit. Then, limited I-V data string is obtained from examined PV module using standard measurement equipment at standard irradiation and temperature conditions and stated into MATLAB data matrix as a reference model. Next, the theoretical model is optimized to keep-up with the reference model and to learn its basic parameters relations, over sparse data matrix. Finally, PV module parameters are deliverable for acquisition at different realistic irradiation, temperature conditions as well as series resistance. Besides of output power characteristics and efficiency calculation for PV module or system, proposed model validates computing statistical deviation compared to reference model.

  7. Organic photovoltaics concepts and realization

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Vladimir; Parisi, Jürgen; Sariciftci, Niyazi

    2003-01-01

    Achieving efficient solar energy conversion at both large scale and low cost is among the most important technological challenges for the near future. The present volume describes and explains the fundamentals of organic/plastic solar cells in a manner accessible to both researchers and students. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the operational principles underlying several types of solar cells that have absorber layers based on polymer materials and small molecules. It addresses competing approaches, such as polymer solar cells and dye-sensitized cells, while considering the thermodynamic principles within the context of these schemes. Organic Photovoltaics also analyzes in detail the charge-transfer processes in the bulk-heterojunction devices corresponding to the relevant mechanism of carrier generation. Emphasized throughout is the concept of interpenetrating polymer-fullerene networks, due to their high potential for improving power efficiency.

  8. Photovoltaic module and module arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botkin, Jonathan; Graves, Simon; Lenox, Carl J. S.; Culligan, Matthew; Danning, Matt

    2012-07-17

    A photovoltaic (PV) module including a PV device and a frame. The PV device has a PV laminate defining a perimeter and a major plane. The frame is assembled to and encases the laminate perimeter, and includes leading, trailing, and side frame members, and an arm that forms a support face opposite the laminate. The support face is adapted for placement against a horizontal installation surface, to support and orient the laminate in a non-parallel or tilted arrangement. Upon final assembly, the laminate and the frame combine to define a unitary structure. The frame can orient the laminate at an angle in the range of 3.degree.-7.degree. from horizontal, and can be entirely formed of a polymeric material. Optionally, the arm incorporates integral feature(s) that facilitate interconnection with corresponding features of a second, identically formed PV module.

  9. A Space Testbed for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.

    1998-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute and the NASA Lewis Research Center are designing and building a solar-cell calibration facility, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) to fly on the International Space Station to test advanced solar cell types in the space environment. A wide variety of advanced solar cell types have become available in the last decade. Some of these solar cells offer more than twice the power per unit area of the silicon cells used for the space station power system. They also offer the possibilities of lower cost, lighter weight, and longer lifetime. The purpose of the PET facility is to reduce the cost of validating new technologies and bringing them to spaceflight readiness. The facility will be used for three primary functions: calibration, measurement, and qualification. It is scheduled to be launched in June of 2002.

  10. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.J. (Utility Power Group, Chatsworth, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report documents Utility Power Group's (UPG) contract under Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Specifically, the report contains the results of a manufacturing technology cost analysis based on an existing PV module production facility. It also projects the cost analysis of a future production facility based on a larger module area, a larger production rate, and the elimination of several technical obstacles. With a coordinated 18-month engineering effort, the technical obstacles could be overcome. Therefore, if solutions to the financial obstacles concerning production expansion were found, UPG would be able to manufacture PV modules at a cost of under $1.25 per watt by 1994.

  11. Combat climat change with competetive photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeyron, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Zietek, G.

    2009-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) offer a promising solution for CO2 emission reductions and climate change combat. However, before its wide spread on the market, PV needs to find new approaches to make solar cells competitive with respect to conventional electricity sources.

  12. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  13. FSM Model of a Simple Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Latkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a simulation model of a simple photovoltaic system intended as a tool for testing the use of finite state machines for simulations representing a long-term operation of renewable energy sources. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic system is described first. Then it is used to build a finite state machine model that calculates a power output of the photovoltaic system for changing values of a solar irradiance and a temperature. Data measured on a real photovoltaic installation are used to verify model’s accuracy through its comparison with a previously created and verified Matlab model. The finite state machine model presented in this paper was created using Ptolemy II software.

  14. Basic research challenges in crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, J.H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    Silicon is abundant, non-toxic and has an ideal band gap for photovoltaic energy conversion. Experimental world record cells of 24 % conversion efficiency with around 300 {mu}m thickness are only 4 % (absolute) efficiency points below the theoretical Auger recombination-limit of around 28 %. Compared with other photovoltaic materials, crystalline silicon has only very few disadvantages. The handicap of weak light absorbance may be mastered by clever optical designs. Single crystalline cells of only 48 {mu}m thickness showed 17.3 % efficiency even without backside reflectors. A technology of solar cells from polycrystalline Si films on foreign substrates arises at the horizon. However, the disadvantageous, strong activity of grain boundaries in Si could be an insurmountable hurdle for a cost-effective, terrestrial photovoltaics based on polycrystalline Si on foreign substrates. This talk discusses some basic research challenges related to a Si based photovoltaics.

  15. 76 FR 70960 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... concerning imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules...

  16. 77 FR 73018 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells..., laminates, panels and building integrated materials. This order covers crystalline silicon photovoltaic... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  17. 77 FR 63791 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled into Modules, from the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... photovoltaic cells, and modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled into Modules... photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules (``solar cells''), from the People's Republic...

  18. Topologies for large scale photovoltaic power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The concern of increasing renewable energy penetration into the grid together with the reduction of prices of photovoltaic solar panels during the last decade have enabled the development of large scale solar power plants connected to the medium and high voltage grid. Photovoltaic generation components, the internal layout and the ac collection grid are being investigated for ensuring the best design, operation and control of these power plants. This ...

  19. Autonomous photovoltaic systems: a sizing criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayr, U.; Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R. (Bari Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Tecnica e Impianti Termotecnici)

    The proposed method for the sizing of photovoltaic plants is based on the evaluation of the LLP parameter (Load Loss Probability), defined as the average monthly load fraction not supplied by the plant itself. In this study, the LLP parameter is determined by simulating the operation of a photovoltaic system under the typical climatic conditions of Italy. This allows the determination, for each system, of the values of the collecting surfaces and of the storage capacity.

  20. Photovoltaic solar energy; Energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru; Vilela, Olga de Castro; Barbosa, Elielza Moura de Souza [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco(UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear (DEN). Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia

    2003-07-01

    This chapter gives an overview on energy generation from thermal solar energy, analysing the international markets of the photovoltaic modules, the changes which are being produced in the application character, the environmental phenomena resulting from the modules production, briefly describes the physical phenomena explaining the photovoltaic effect, analyses the process of module price formation and performs the energy costs resultant for the user and subsides politics being practiced in various countries.

  1. Evaluation and directions of the photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L.; Emery, K.A.; DeBlasio, R. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-08-01

    The status of, directions and expectations for photovoltaic technologies are discussed and updated, with emphasis on the performances of cells and modules used in various research and commercial solar cell approaches. Current and projected research and development directions are indicated. Special aspects of the current evolution of photovoltaics from the research laboratory to the commercial arena are discussed, including new programs directed to make this energy resource a viable electricity choice for users worldwide. (Author)

  2. Development of a solar photovoltaic backpack sprayer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Shigueaki Sasak; Mauri Martins Teixeira; Delly Oliveira Filho; Carlos JúnioCesconetti; Anderson Candido Silva; Daniel Mariano Leite

    2014-01-01

    Backpack solar photovoltaic sprayers have appeared in the market with the aim of improving spraying quality and reducing physical effort for the operator. Queries related to the duration and how to charge batteries are very common and in general they become a barrier for using this equipment in the field. With the objective to better such sprayers, this work has aimed to develop and evaluate a solar photovoltaic backpack sprayer. An electric backpack sprayer MTS brand, model Spritz 18, ...

  3. University Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajeet Rohatgi; Vijay Yelundur; Abasifreke Ebong; Dong Seop Kim

    2008-08-18

    The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology to make photovoltaics more competitive with conventional energy sources. This program emphasizes fundamental and applied research that results in low-cost, high-efficiency cells on commercial silicon substrates with strong involvement of the PV industry, and support a very strong photovoltaics education program in the US based on classroom education and hands-on training in the laboratory.

  4. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  5. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  6. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1997-08-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's and the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.

  7. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  8. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991--FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activites that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A succesful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15% for flat-plate and 25% for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  9. Evaluación de las técnicas de planificación de movimientos, Descomposición exacta trapezoidal y Descomposición adaptativa de celdas a través de mallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Durley Torres Pardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Compara el desempeño de dos técnicas de planificación de movimientos: la descomposición exacta trapezoidal y la descomposición adaptativa de celdas a través de mallas. Ambas técnicas se implementaron en robots móviles Lego Mindstorms, bajo el ambiente de desarrollo Java-LeJOS. Su evaluación se realizó en tres ambientes de prueba, asumiendo la geometría del robot de dos maneras: como un punto y como un círculo en el espacio. Esta evaluación permitió ver que la descomposición exacta presenta trayectorias más cortas que la adaptativa; que su desempeño es similar en cuanto al error generado en la localización real final del robot; y que ambas técnicas permiten hallar caminos con menor distancia cuando se considera la geometría del robot como un círculo, que cuando se considera como un punto, ya que se delimitan opciones de recorridos más cercanos a la realidad.

  10. Evaluación de las técnicas de planificación de movimientos, Descomposición exacta trapezoidal y Descomposición adaptativa de celdas a través de mallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Veléz Carvajal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Compara el desempeño de dos técnicas de planificación de movimientos: la descomposición exacta trapezoidal y la descomposición adaptativa de celdas a través de mallas. Ambas técnicas se implementaron en robots móviles Lego Mindstorms, bajo el ambiente de desarrollo Java-LeJOS. Su evaluación se realizó en tres ambientes de prueba, asumiendo la geometría del robot de dos maneras: como un punto y como un círculo en el espacio. Esta evaluación permitió ver que la descomposición exacta presenta trayectorias más cortas que la adaptativa; que su desempeño es similar en cuanto al error generado en la localización real final del robot; y que ambas técnicas permiten hallar caminos con menor distancia cuando se considera la geometría del robot como un círculo, que cuando se considera como un punto, ya que se delimitan opciones de recorridos más cercanos a la realidad. 

  11. Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.; Doane, J.; Bishop, C.

    1978-07-01

    This appendix contains a brief summary of a detailed description of alternative future energy scenarios which provide an overall backdrop for the photovoltaic venture analysis. Also included is a summary of a photovoltaic market/demand workshop, a summary of a photovoltaic supply workshop which used cross-impact analysis, and a report on photovoltaic array and system prices in 1982 and 1986. The results of a sectorial demand analysis for photovoltaic power systems used in the residential sector (single family homes), the service, commercial, and institutional sector (schools), and in the central power sector are presented. An analysis of photovoltaics in the electric utility market is given, and a report on the industrialization of photovoltaic systems is included. A DOE information memorandum regarding ''A Strategy for a Multi-Year Procurement Initiative on Photovoltaics (ACTS No. ET-002)'' is also included. (WHK)

  12. Biomonitoring for the photovoltaics industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernholc, N.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1995-07-01

    Biomonitoring often is used as a method for estimating the dose to an individual. Therefore, a parameter of measurement, or biomarkers must be identified. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of biomonitoring protocols for metals used in the photovoltaics industry. Special attention is given to areas that often are skimmed over, to gain insights into some of the problems that may arise when these tasks are carried out. Biological monitoring can be used to determine current human exposures to chemicals, as well as to detect past exposures, and the effects that these exposures may have on human health. It is used in conjunction with environmental monitoring to describe more completely worker`s exposures to, and absorption of, chemicals in the workplace. Biological specimens (e.g., blood, hair or urine) are analyzed for chemical agents, metabolites, or for some specific effect on the person (Lowry 1994). Biomonitoring can assess a workers exposure to industrial chemicals by all routes including skin absorption and ingestion. Although the methodology still is in its infancy, in cases where the procedures have been developed, it can be an invaluable component of an ongoing program of industrial hygiene monitoring. Like any technology, there are limitations to its effectiveness because of a lack of knowledge, contamination of specimens, and the introduction of errors.

  13. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  14. Printed interconnects for photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, J. D.; Pach, G.; Horowitz, K. A. W.; Stockert, T. R.; Woodhouse, M.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Film-based photovoltaic modules employ monolithic interconnects to minimize resistance loss and enhance module voltage via series connection. Conventional interconnect construction occurs sequentially, with a scribing step following deposition of the bottom electrode, a second scribe after deposition of absorber and intermediate layers, and a third following deposition of the top electrode. This method produces interconnect widths of about 300 um, and the area comprised by interconnects within a module (generally about 3%) does not contribute to power generation. The present work reports on an increasingly popular strategy capable of reducing the interconnect width to less than 100 um: printing interconnects. Cost modeling projects a savings of about $0.02/watt for CdTe module production through the use of printed interconnects, with savings coming from both reduced capital expense and increased module power output. Printed interconnect demonstrations with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide and cadmium-telluride solar cells show successful voltage addition and miniaturization down to 250 um. Material selection guidelines and considerations for commercialization are discussed.

  15. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. (Black and Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)); Hutchison, G. (Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)); Nowlan, M.J. (Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Photovoltaic Prospection in South Tamaulipas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleme Vila, S.; Rivas, D.; Ortega Izaguirre, R.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial monocrystalline silicon (c-Si), polycrystalline silicon (p-Si) and amorphous silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic (PV) panels are tested on real conditions in order to identify which of the aforementioned PV panels present the best performance in the city of Altamira, Tamaulipas (northeastern Mexico) and to evaluate the impact of the city's climatic conditions over the electrical characteristics and power generation of the aforementioned PV panels. In situ direct solar irradiance and current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of each PV panel were taken from Monday to Friday at 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00 hours (GMT-6) with 3 repeats from 08/04/2014 to 07/31/2015. Also, daylong in situ direct solar irradiance, panel temperature, and I-V characteristics were taken from 8:00 to 20:30 hours with a 30-minute interval in synchrony with National Polytechnic Institute-owned CICATA-I meteorological station in order to cross-reference the experimental data with the station's air temperature, specific humidity and global solar irradiance data. Up to June 2015, c-Si panel presented the best performance on real conditions with mean max power loss of 49% compared to the reference max power value followed by the p-Si with 54% mean max power loss and the a-Si panel with a 73% mean max power loss. The number of cloudy days, electrical resistance due to panel materials nature and meteorological impact are further discussed.

  17. Designer Nanocrystal Materials for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie

    Advances in synthetic methods allow a wide range of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) to be tailored in size and shape and to be used as building blocks in the design of NC solids. However, the long, insulating ligands commonly employed in the synthesis of colloidal NCs inhibit strong interparticle coupling and charge transport once NCs are assembled into the solids state as NC arrays. We will describe the range of short, compact ligand chemistries we employ to exchange the long, insulating ligands used in synthesis and to increase interparticle coupling. These ligand exchange processes can have a dramatic influence on NC surface chemistry as well as NC organization in the solids, showing examples of short-range order. Synergistically, we use 1) thermal evaporation and diffusion and 2) wet-chemical methods to introduce extrinsic impurities and non-stoichiometry to passivate surface traps and dope NC solids. NC coupling and doping provide control over the density of states and the carrier type, concentration, mobility, and lifetime, which we characterize by a range of electronic and spectroscopic techniques. We will describe the importance of engineering device interfaces to design NC materials for solar photovoltaics.

  18. Energy losses in photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. Abdulsadek

    1994-10-01

    The maximum power generated by photovoltaic (PV) arrays is not fully used. During summer, the main cause for the energy loss is the system design that necessitates an oversizing of the PV array to supply the load during the winter season when the solar energy is limited. Other reasons that cause energy loss are: the mismatch between the array and the load or battery, the loss in the batteries, and the loss due to the PV array disconnect. The array disconnect loss takes place during summer season when the battery is fully charged. To avoid the disconnect loss, a novel battery voltage regulator (BVR) is used. This supplies the load directly from the array when the battery is fully charged. Energy losses have been analyzed and divided into fundamental (unavoidable) and non-fundamental losses. Both conventional (using a conventional BVR) and new (using a novel BVR) PV systems are studied. A load that consumes constant power for 24 h a day through the year is considered. The climatic condition of Cairo city is taken as the test case.

  19. Characterization of gold and nickel coating on AISI 304 stainless steel for use in the fabrication of current collector plates for fuel cells; Caracterizacion de recubrimientos de oro y niquel realizados sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304 para su empleo en la fabricacion de placas colectoras de corriente para celdas de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Hernandez, J. Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)] e-mail: jrflores@iie.org.mx; Aguilar Gama, M. Tulio [UNAM. Facultad de Quimica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cano Castillo, Ulises; Albarran, Lorena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Olvera, J. Carlos; Orozco, German [CIDETEQ, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Among the different components that compose fuel cell technology (MEA, bipolar plates, seals, etc.) current collector plates play an important role in the good performance of fuel cells, since they collect all of the current generated and distribute it to the external circuit. Therefore, the most important properties that the current collector plates should have are excellent conductivity and good resistance to the corrosive conditions present in the fuel cell. This document presents results obtained during the nickel and gold electrodeposition process on AISI 304 stainless steel and the morphology and thickness of each coating, their adhesion, hardness and conductivity values. Finally, results obtained during some of the electrochemical tests performed on the coatings are shown. [Spanish] De los diferentes componentes que integran la tecnologia de celdas de combustible (MEA's, placas bipolares, sellos, etc.), las placas colectoras de corriente tienen un importante rol en el buen desempeno de la celdas de combustibles, ya que en estas placas se colecta toda la corriente generada y se distribuye al circuito externo. Debido a esto, las propiedades mas importantes que deben tener las placas colectaras de corriente son: excelente conductividad y buena resistencia a las condiciones corrosivas presentes en la celda de combustible. En este documento se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el proceso de electrodeposicion de niquel y oro sobre acero inoxidable AISI 304, asi como la morfologia y el espesor de cada recubrimiento, sus valores de adherencia, dureza y conductividad. Finalmente se muestran tambien los resultados obtenidos de algunas pruebas electroquimicas a los que fueron sometidos los recubrimientos.

  20. Accelerated Life Test for Photovoltaic Cells Using Concentrated Light

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Tudor Cotfas; Petru Adrian Cotfas; Dan Ion Floroian; Laura Floroian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new method developed to significantly reduce the necessary time for the ageing tests for different types of photovoltaic cells. Two ageing factors have been applied to the photovoltaic cells: the concentrated light and the temperature. The maximum power of the photovoltaic cells was monitored during the ageing process. The electrical dc and ac parameters of the photovoltaic cells were measured and analyzed at 1 sun irradiance, before and after the test stress. During the...

  1. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  2. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  3. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  4. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  5. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  6. Solar energy – new photovoltaic technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Solar energy technologies directly convert sunlight into electricity and heat, or power chemical reactions that convert simple molecules into synthetic chemicals and fuels. The sun is by far the most abundant source of energy, and a sustainable society will need to rely on solar energy as one...... of its major energy sources. Solar energy is a focus point in many strategies for a sustainable energy supply. The European Commission’s Strategic Energy Plan (SET-plan) envisages a Solar Europe Initiative, where photovoltaics and concentrated solar power (CSP) supply as much power as wind mills...... in the future. Much focus is directed towards photovoltaics presently. Installation of solar cell occurs at an unprecedented pace and the expectations of the photovoltaics industry are high: a total PV capacity of 40 GW by 2012 as reported by a recent study. The talk progresses from general solar energy topics...

  7. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W-1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  8. Use of photovoltaics for waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D

    2013-04-16

    A device for recovering waste heat in the form of radiated light, e.g. red visible light and/or infrared light includes a housing having a viewing window, and a photovoltaic cell mounted in the housing in a relationship to the viewing window, wherein rays of radiated light pass through the viewing window and impinge on surface of the photovoltaic cell. The housing and/or the cell are cooled so that the device can be used with a furnace for an industrial process, e.g. mounting the device with a view of the interior of the heating chamber of a glass making furnace. In this manner, the rays of the radiated light generated during the melting of glass batch materials in the heating chamber pass through the viewing window and impinge on the surface of the photovoltaic cells to generate electric current which is passed onto an electric load.

  9. Optical Refrigeration for Ultra-Efficient Photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Improving the conversion efficiency of solar energy to electricity is most important to mankind. For single-junction photovoltaic solar-cells, the Shockley-Queisser thermodynamic efficiency limit is extensively due to the heat dissipation, inherently accompanying the quantum process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics and thermo-photonics, have been suggested to harness this wasted heat, yet efficiencies exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit have not been demonstrated due to the challenge of operating at high temperatures. Here, we present a highly efficient converter based on endothermic photoluminescence, which operates at relative low temperatures. The thermally induced blue-shifted photoluminescence of a low-bandgap absorber is coupled to a high-bandgap photovoltaic cell. The high absorber's photo-current and the high cell's voltage results in 69% maximal theoretical conversion efficiencies. We experimentally demonstrate tenfold thermal-enhancement of usef...

  10. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program. Annual report, FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.

  11. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M; M Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W(-1). Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.

  12. Annual Report: Photovoltaic Subcontract Program FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K. A.

    1992-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1991 (October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991) progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Amorphous Silicon Research Project, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High Efficiency Concepts, the New Ideas Program, the University Participation Program, and the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1991, and future research directions.

  13. PROCESS OF ELECTRICAL CONNECTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell module comprising at least two serially connected photovoltaic cells on a common substrate, wherein the cells each comprise a first electrode layer, a first charge selective layer, a light harvesting layer which comprises an organic conjugated polymer, and a second charge...... of the pair, which connection is made through the light harvesting layer common to the at least one pair of cells, without forming an electrical connection with the first electrode of the first cell or the second charge selective layer of the second cell; and a method of making such a photovoltaic cell module....... selective layer that selects for an opposite charge to the first charge selective layer, wherein the first electrode layers for each cell are formed such that the first electrode layer of one cell has no direct electrical connection to the first electrode layer of any other cell, and the second charge...

  14. Design considerations for Mars photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Considerations for operation of a photovoltaic power system on Mars are discussed with reference to Viking Lander data. The average solar insolation at Mars is 590 W/sq m, which is reduced yet further by atmospheric dust. Of major concern are dust storms, which have been observed to occur on local as well as on global scales, and their effect on solar array output. While atmospheric opacity may rise to values ranging from 3 to 9, depending on storm severity, there is still an appreciable large diffuse illumination, even at high opacities, so that photovoltaic operation is still possible. If the power system is to continue to generate power even on high-optical-opacity (i.e., dusty atmosphere) days, it is important that the photovoltaic system be designed to collect diffuse irradiance as well as direct. Energy storage will be required for operation during the night. Temperature and wind provide additional considerations for array design.

  15. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  16. Photovoltaics: Contract lists, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    US DOE`s Photovoltaics Program has helped photovoltaic technologies evolve from materials and concepts in laboratories to competitive products rolling off automated assembly lines. The program is working to expand industrial capacity while continuing basic and applied technology R and D. This document is a tabulation of photovoltaics R and D that were begun, continued, or completed during this period. National laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions perform the RR and D activities. The document is organized first by directing organization, then by project title and individual task. Each listing provides the name of contractor, period of performance, funding, objectives, accoplishments, and FY 1993 milestones. An index of contractors is included. (DLC)

  17. Photovoltaics characterization: A survey of diagnostic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. [Center for Measurements and Characterization, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The advancement of the photovoltaic technology is closely linked to the standard evaluation of the product, the diagnosis of problems, the validation of materials and cell properties, and the engineering and documentation of the ensemble of device properties from internal interfaces through power outputs. The focus of this paper is on some of the more common, visible, and important techniques dealing with physical-chemical through electro-optical parameters, which are linked intimately to the performance quality of materials and devices. Two areas, defined by their spatial-resolution qualities, are emphasized: macroscale and microscale measurement technologies. The importance, strengths, and limitations of these techniques are stressed, especially their significance to photovoltaics. Included are several techniques that have been developed specifically to address problems and requirements for photovoltaics. The regime of measurement literally covers arrays through atoms. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  18. Modelling of Photovoltaic Module Using Matlab Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiqah Zainal, Nurul; Ajisman; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module consists of numbers of photovoltaic cells that are connected in series and parallel used to generate electricity from solar energy. The characteristics of PV module are different based on the model and environment factors. In this paper, simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab Simulink approach is presented. The method is used to determine the characteristics of PV module in various conditions especially in different level of irradiations and temperature. By having different values of irradiations and temperature, the results showed the output power, voltage and current of PV module can be determined. In addition, all results from Matlab Simulink are verified with theoretical calculation. This proposed model helps in better understanding of PV module characteristics in various environment conditions.

  19. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C.

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  20. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  1. Photovoltaic industry progress through 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Smith, S.A.; Dirks, J.A.

    1985-04-01

    The growth of the US photovoltaics (PV) industry over the past decade has been impressive. First designed to provide power for satellites using high-cost production techniques, PV is now the economical choice in many remote terrestrial applications. The remarkable growth of PV in terms of quality of cells and modules, production techniques, and system design, was initiated by a cooperative effort of the US Government and the domestic PV manufacturers. European and Japanese firms entered the PV industry later, but are also growing rapidy. The Europeans continue to supply PV systems for village electrification and water pumping to many Third World countries. The Japanese have been developing the amorphous silicon (A-Si) technology by expanding its use in consumer goods. The world PV industry saw dramatic changes in industry ownership and in the emphasis on developing new and improved technology during 1984. The objective of this report is to present information on the developments of the world PV industry and focuses on developments occurring in 1984. Information is presented on a regional basis (US, Europe, Japan, other) to avoid disclosing company-confidential data. All information was gleaned from several sources, including a review of the technical literature and direct contacts with PV manufacturers. Prior to publishing the regional totals, all numbers were compared with those of other sources. The information contained in this report is prepared for use by the Department of Energy for their use in long-term R and D planning. However, this information should also be of interest by PV manufacturers and to those who may be contemplating entering the PV market. PV shipments for 1984, government supports for PV, and various PV market sectors are discussed.

  2. Large and small photovoltaic powerplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, Daniel

    The installed base of photovoltaic power plants in the United States has roughly doubled every 1 to 2 years between 2008 and 2015. The primary economic drivers of this are government mandates for renewable power, falling prices for all PV system components, 3rd party ownership models, and a generous tariff scheme known as net-metering. Other drivers include a desire for decreasing the environmental impact of electricity generation and a desire for some degree of independence from the local electric utility. The result is that in coming years, PV power will move from being a minor niche to a mainstream source of energy. As additional PV power comes online this will create challenges for the electric grid operators. We examine some problems related to large scale adoption of PV power in the United States. We do this by first discussing questions of reliability and efficiency at the PV system level. We measure the output of a fleet of small PV systems installed at Tucson Electric Power, and we characterize the degradation of those PV systems over several years. We develop methods to predict energy output from PV systems and quantify the impact of negatives such as partial shading, inverter inefficiency and malfunction of bypass diodes. Later we characterize the variability from large PV systems, including fleets of geographically diverse utility scale power plants. We also consider the power and energy requirements needed to smooth those systems, both from the perspective of an individual system and as a fleet. Finally we report on experiments from a utility scale PV plus battery hybrid system deployed near Tucson, Arizona where we characterize the ability of this system to produce smoothly ramping power as well as production of ancillary energy services such as frequency response.

  3. Study of Photovoltaic Cells Engineering Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yu, Zhengping; Lu, Zhengyi; Li, Chenhui; Zhang, Ruilan

    2016-11-01

    The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells is the theoretical basis of PV Power, which simplifies the existing mathematical model, eventually, obtains a mathematical model used in engineering. The characteristic curve of photovoltaic cells contains both exponential and logarithmic calculation. The exponential and logarithmic spread out through Taylor series, which includes only four arithmetic and use single chip microcontroller as the control center. The result shows that: the use of single chip microcontroller for calculating exponential and logarithmic functions, simplifies mathematical model of PV curve, also can meet the specific conditions’ requirement for engineering applications.

  4. Pyroelectric coupling in thin film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpov, Victor G.; Shvydka, Diana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We propose a theory of thin film photovoltaics in which one of the polycrystalline films is made of a pyroelectric material grains such as CdS. That film is shown to generate strong polarization improving the device open circuit voltage. Implications and supporting facts for the major photovoltaic types based on CdTe and CuIn(Ga)Se{sub 2} absorber layers are discussed. Band diagram of a pyroelectric (CdS) based PV junction. Arrows represent the charge carrier photo-generation. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Photovoltaic materials: Present efficiencies and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Albert; Knight, Mark; Garnett, Erik C; Ehrler, Bruno; Sinke, Wim C

    2016-04-15

    Recent developments in photovoltaic materials have led to continual improvements in their efficiency. We review the electrical characteristics of 16 widely studied geometries of photovoltaic materials with efficiencies of 10 to 29%. Comparison of these characteristics to the fundamental limits based on the Shockley-Queisser detailed-balance model provides a basis for identifying the key limiting factors, related to efficient light management and charge carrier collection, for these materials. Prospects for practical application and large-area fabrication are discussed for each material.

  6. Monte carlo simulations of organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Chris; Greenham, Neil C

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are a valuable tool to model the generation, separation, and collection of charges in organic photovoltaics where charges move by hopping in a complex nanostructure and Coulomb interactions between charge carriers are important. We review the Monte Carlo techniques that have been applied to this problem, and describe the results of simulations of the various recombination processes that limit device performance. We show how these processes are influenced by the local physical and energetic structure of the material, providing information that is useful for design of efficient photovoltaic systems.

  7. Lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics: Status and Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Roth, Bérenger;

    2016-01-01

    The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal the prog......The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal...

  8. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  9. Properties of interlayer for organic photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzung-Han Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial materials play an important role in determining the efficiency of an organic photovoltaic (OPV cell. They are not only responsible for establishing ohmic contact, but also determining different device parameters such as the internal electric field, the film morphology, and the carrier recombination rate which are important to the device performance. Here, we will present the material properties and requirements for these interlayers used in high efficiency OPV cells. This paper aims to reveal the different roles of interlayers, introduce techniques for characterizing their properties, and provide an insight into the future development of novel interlayers for high efficiency organic photovoltaic cells.

  10. Photovoltaic systems for export application. Informal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffy, J.; Campbell, H.; Sajo, A.; Sanz, E. [Univ. of Lowell, MA (United States)

    1988-01-31

    One approach to improving the competitiveness of photovoltaic systems is the development of designs specifically for export applications. In other words, where is it appropriate in a system design to incorporate components manufactured and/or assembled in the receiving country in order to improve the photovoltaic exports from the US? What appears to be needed is a systematic method of evaluating the potential for export from the US of PV systems for various application in different countries. Development of such a method was the goal of this project.

  11. Terawatt solar photovoltaics roadblocks and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Solar energy will undoubtedly become a main source of energy in our life by the end of this century, but how big of a role will photovoltaics play in this new energy infrastructure Besides cost and efficiency, there are other barriers for current solar cell technologies to become a noticeable source of energy in the future. Availability of raw materials, energy input, storage of solar electricity, and recycling of dead modules can all prevent or hinder a tangible impact by solar photovoltaics. This book is intended for readers with minimal technical background and aims to explore not only the

  12. Status and assessment of photovoltaic technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    The history and status of the current photovoltaic technologies are reviewed and evaluated. The problems and strengths of single-crystal, polycrystalline, and amorphous technologies are discussed, compared, and assessed. Single-junction and multiple-junction or tandem cell configurations are evaluated for performance, processing, and engineering criteria. Some emphasis is placed on the emerging thin film options for low cost terrestrial applications. The basic photovoltaic system building block, the solar cell, is discussed along with important module developments and problems. Future technology and research directions are provided for materials, cells, and modules.

  13. Excitons and recombination in photovoltaic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S.; Cheong, H. M.; Fluegel, B. D.; Geisz, J. F.; Olson, J. M.; Dhere, R.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mascarenhas, A.

    1999-03-01

    High spatial resolution (˜0.7μm) scanning confocal microscopy, combined with low-temperature (5K) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the spatial variations in the spectral properties of photovoltaic materials with submicron spatial resolution (˜0.7μm). We report on the successful demonstration of this technique applied to two particular photovoltaic systems: a partially ordered GaInP2 epilayer, and a released (exposing the CdTe/CdS interface) polycrystalline CdTe film.

  14. Excitons and recombination in photovoltaic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Cheong, H.M.; Fluegel, B.D.; Geisz, J.F.; Olson, J.M.; Dhere, R.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Mascarenhas, A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    1999-03-01

    High spatial resolution ({approximately}0.7{mu}m) scanning confocal microscopy, combined with low-temperature (5K) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the spatial variations in the spectral properties of photovoltaic materials with submicron spatial resolution ({approximately}0.7{mu}m). We report on the successful demonstration of this technique applied to two particular photovoltaic systems: a partially ordered GaInP{sub 2} epilayer, and a released (exposing the CdTe/CdS interface) polycrystalline CdTe film. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Excitons and Recombination in Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Cheong, H. M.; Fluegel, B. D.; Geisz, J. F.; Olson, J. V.; Dhere, R.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mascarenhas, A.

    1998-10-16

    High spatial resolution ({approx} 0.7{micro}m) scanning confocal microscopy, combined with low-temperature (5K) photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, can be used to probe the spatial variations in the spectral properties of photovoltaic materials with sub- micron spatial resolution ( {approx} 0.7{micro}m). We report on the successful demonstration of this technique applied to two particular photovoltaic systems: a partially ordered GaInP{sub 2} epilayer, and a released (exposing the CdTe/CdS interface) polycrystalline CdTe film.

  16. Status and assessment of photovoltaic technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The history and status of the current photovoltaic technologies are reviewed and evaluated. The problems and strengths of single-crystal, polycrystalline, and amorphous technologies are discussed, compared and assessed. Single-junction and multiple-junction or tandem cell configurations are evaluated for performance, processing, and engineering criteria. Some emphasis is placed on the emerging thin film options for low cost terrestrial applications. Discussions centre around the basic photovoltaic system building block, the solar cell, but important module developments and problems are cited. Future technology and research directions are provided for materials, cells, and modules. (author).

  17. Superior Valley photovoltaic power processing and system controller evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, R.; Ginn, J.; Zirzow, J.; Sittler, G.

    1995-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management, conducts the photovoltaic balance-of-system program. Under this program, Sandia supports the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research Development Plan, SERDP, which is advancing the use of photovoltaics in operational DoD facilities. This report details the acceptance testing of the first of these photovoltaic hybrid systems: the Superior Valley photovoltaic-diesel hybrid system. This is the first of several photovoltaic installations for the Department of Defense. The system hardware tested at Sandia included an inverter, maximum power trackers, and a system controller.

  18. Compendium of photovoltaic degradation rates: Photovoltaic degradation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; VanSant, Kaitlyn [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden CO 8040 USA; Newmiller, Jeff [DNV GL, 2420 Camino Ramon, Suite 300 San Ramon CA 95483 USA

    2016-02-07

    Published data on photovoltaic (PV) degradation measurements were aggregated and re-examined. The subject has seen an increased interest in recent years resulting in more than 11 000 degradation rates in almost 200 studies from 40 different countries. As studies have grown in number and size, we found an impact from sampling bias attributable to size and accuracy. Because of the correlational nature of this study we examined the data in several ways to minimize this bias. We found median degradation for x-Si technologies in the 0.5-0.6%/year range with the mean in the 0.8-0.9%/year range. Hetero-interface technology (HIT) and microcrystalline silicon (..mu..c-Si) technologies, although not as plentiful, exhibit degradation around 1%/year and resemble thin-film products more closely than x-Si. Several studies showing low degradation for copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) have emerged. Higher degradation for cadmium telluride (CdTe) has been reported, but these findings could reflect a convolution of less accurate studies and longer stabilization periods for some products. Significant deviations for beginning-of-life measurements with respect to nameplate rating have been documented over the last 35 years. Therefore, degradation rates that use nameplate rating as reference may be significantly impacted. Studies that used nameplate rating as reference but used solar simulators showed less variation than similar studies using outdoor measurements, even when accounting for different climates. This could be associated with confounding effects of measurement uncertainty and soiling that take place outdoors. Hotter climates and mounting configurations that lead to sustained higher temperatures may lead to higher degradation in some, but not all, products. Wear-out non-linearities for the worst performing modules have been documented in a few select studies that took multiple measurements of an ensemble of modules during the lifetime of the system. However, the majority

  19. PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1998. REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP PHOTOVOLTAICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.; ZWEIBEL,K.; MOSKOWITZ,P.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the workshop ``Photovoltaics and the Environment'' was to bring together PV manufacturers and industry analysts to define EH and S issues related to the large-scale commercialization of PV technologies.

  20. Sizing an isolated wind-solar-fuel cell generation system based on the particle swarm optimization method; Dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion aislado eolico-solar-celda de combustible basado en el metodo de optimizacion de enjambre de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Huerta, V; Ramirez-Arredondo, Juan M. [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: vsanchez@gdl.cinvestav.mx; Arriaga-Hurtado, L. G. [CIDETEQ, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Sizing an electric energy system requires an analysis of investment, maintenance and operating costs. In the case of a generation system that uses renewable sources, optimal capacity becomes more complex compared to a conventional system, because of the randomness of renewable resources (wind, solar) and the still high costs of wind and photovoltage generator modules. This work presents the optimal sizing of a wind-solar-fuel cell generation system, minimizing the costs of the system while satisfying the energy demands of an isolated charge. The optimization method used is based on an evolutionary programming technique known as particle swarms (PSO-particle swarm optimization). The generation of energy with a hybrid system is discussed, based on the profile of insolation and wind availability at the site, with the objective of satisfying a specific electric demand. [Spanish] El dimensionamiento de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica requiere un analisis de los costos de inversion, mantenimiento y operacion. En el caso de un sistema de generacion que utiliza fuentes renovables la capacidad optima resulta mas compleja con respecto a un sistema convencional, debido a la aleatoriedad de los recursos renovables (eolico, solar), y a los aun altos costos de generadores eolicos y modulos fotovoltaicos. En este trabajo se presenta el dimensionamiento optimo de un sistema de generacion eolico-solar-celda de combustible minimizando los costos del sistema que satisfaga la energia demandada por una carga aislada. El metodo de optimizacion utilizado esta basado en una tecnica de programacion evolutiva conocida como enjambre de particulas (PSO por sus siglas en ingles: particle swarm optimization). Se plantea la generacion de energia del sistema hibrido con base a la insolacion y el perfil del viento disponible en sitio, con objeto de satisfacer una demanda electrica determinada.

  1. Análisis del Diseño y Programación de Celdas en Entornos de Fabricación Ágil Analysis of the Design and the Scheduling of Cells in Agile Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Domingo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar un enfoque apropiado del diseño y de la programación de una celda de fabricación ágil para que responda con rapidez, flexibilidad y competencia a cambios impredecibles del mercado. Se identifican como elementos fundamentales de la fabricación ágil las tecnologías de la fabricación flexible y de la fabricación esbelta. En este contexto se revisan las técnicas de la tecnología de grupos, identificando como idóneas las relativas al coeficiente de similitud. También, se analiza el método kanban, estableciendo las características a considerar para su adecuación. Se concluye que la integración de la tecnología de grupos y del kanban facilita la fabricación ágil siempre que en el diseño se consideren los tiempos de preparación, múltiples hojas de proceso y múltiples tipos de máquina.The objective of this work was to determine an appropriate approach of design and scheduling in an agile manufacturing cell so it is able to respond quickly, flexibility and competitiveness to unpredictable changes of market. Technologies of flexible and lean manufacturing have been identified as fundamental elements of agile manufacturing. In this context, techniques of group technology have been reviewed, finding as suitable techniques those related to the similarity coefficient. In addition, kanban method has been analyzed setting its implementation characteristics. It is concluded that the integration of groups technology and kanban facilitates agile manufacturing if the cell design considers preparation times, multiple process plans and multiple machine types.

  2. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  3. Photovoltaics; L'electricite photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the photovoltaics. It presents the principles and the applications, the issues and the current technology, the challenges and the Group Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  4. A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Concentrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Khamooshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the recent centuries, the limits of using energy resources due to the cost and environmental issues became one of the scientists’ concerns. Because of the huge amount of energy received by the Earth from the sun, the application of photovoltaic solar cells has become popular in the world. The photovoltaic (PV efficiency can be increased by several factors; concentrating photovoltaic (CPV system is one of the important tools for efficiency improvement and enables for a reduction in the cell area requirement. The limits of the PV area can reduce the amount of absorbing irradiation; CPV systems can concentrate a large amount of sunlight into a smaller one by applying lenses or curved and flat mirrors. However, the additional costs on concentrating optics and cooling systems made CPV less common than nonconcentrated photovoltaic. This paper reviews the different types of PV concentrators, their performance with advantages and disadvantages, concentration ratio, acceptance angle, brief comparison between their efficiencies, and appropriate cooling system.

  5. Progress of photovoltaic technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yuwen; Wang Sicheng; Zhao Ying

    2009-01-01

    Chinese government has been devoting itself to the development of renewable energy sources. This paper de-scribes the history, achievement and future trends of photovoltaic technology, and suggestions are proposed for strength-ening the research and development (R&D) ability of China.

  6. Photovoltaic module mounting clip with integral grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2010-08-24

    An electrically conductive mounting/grounding clip, usable with a photovoltaic (PV) assembly of the type having an electrically conductive frame, comprises an electrically conductive body. The body has a central portion and first and second spaced-apart arms extending from the central portion. Each arm has first and second outer portions with frame surface-disrupting element at the outer portions.

  7. Grid-Optimization Program for Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R. E.; Lee, T. S.

    1986-01-01

    CELLOPT program developed to assist in designing grid pattern of current-conducting material on photovoltaic cell. Analyzes parasitic resistance losses and shadow loss associated with metallized grid pattern on both round and rectangular solar cells. Though performs sensitivity studies, used primarily to optimize grid design in terms of bus bar and grid lines by minimizing power loss. CELLOPT written in APL.

  8. Measuring The Contact Resistances Of Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simple method devised to measure contact resistances of photovoltaic solar cells. Method uses readily available equipment and applicable at any time during life of cell. Enables evaluation of cell contact resistance, contact-end resistance, contact resistivity, sheet resistivity, and sheet resistivity under contact.

  9. Space Environment Testing of Photovoltaic Array Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    To successfully operate a photovoltaic (PV) array system in space requires planning and testing to account for the effects of the space environment. It is critical to understand space environment interactions not only on the PV components, but also the array substrate materials, wiring harnesses, connectors, and protection circuitry.

  10. Design and components of photovoltaic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the various aspects of photovoltaic (PV) system components and design. The basic performance of cells, modules, and inverters and how this is used in PV system design is described. Two case studies illustrating PV system design are presented: a hybrid system on t

  11. Self-deploying photovoltaic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A lightweight flexible photovoltaic (PV) blanket is attached to a support structure of initially stowed telescoping members. The deployment mechanism comprises a series of extendable and rotatable columns. As these columns are extended the PV blanket is deployed to its proper configuration.

  12. The World's Largest Photovoltaic Concentrator System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry V.

    1982-01-01

    The Mississippi County Community College large-scale energy experiment, featuring the emerging high technology of solar electricity, is described. The project includes a building designed for solar electricity and a power plant consisting of a total energy photovoltaic system, and features two experimental developments. (MLW)

  13. Spectroscopy on Polymer-Fullerene Photovoltaic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyakonov, V.; Riedel, I.; Godovsky, D.; Parisi, J.; Ceuster, J. De; Goovaerts, E.; Hummelen, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the electrical transport properties of ITO/conjugated polymer-fullerene/Al photovoltaic cells and the role of defect states with current-voltage studies, admittance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance technique. In the temperature range 293-40K, the characteristic step in the ad

  14. Photovoltaic Energy Program overview: Fiscal year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This is the 1994 overview for the Photovoltaic (PV) Energy Program. The topics of this overview include cooperative research projects to improve PV systems and develop precommercial prototypes of new PV products, expanding understanding of the fundamental mechanisms governing the formation and performance of PV materials, and helping US industry enhance its leadership position in the PV market.

  15. Thin Film Photovoltaics: Markets and Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Jäger-Waldau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, total PV production increased almost by two orders of magnitude, with a compound annual growth rate of over 52%. The most rapid growth in annual cell and module production over the last five years could be observed in Asia, where China and Taiwan together now account for about 60% of worldwide production. Between 2005 and 2009, thin film production capacity and volume increased more than the overall industry but did not keep up in 2010 and 2011 due to the rapid price decline for solar modules. Prices for photovoltaic electricity generation systems have more than halved over the last five years making the technology affordable to an ever-increasing number of customers worldwide. With worldwide over 60 GW cumulative installed photovoltaic electricity generation capacity installed in November 2011, photovoltaics still is a small contributor to the electricity supply, and another 10 to 15 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic solar electricity to become one of the main providers of electricity. To achieve this, a continuous improvement of the current solar cell technologies will be necessary.

  16. Photovoltaics: the role of private industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traverso, F. [Helios Technology, Carmignano di Brenta (Italy)

    1996-12-01

    Photovoltaics are fast approaching the sort of economic viability which could see them begin to make a real impact in the renewable energy marketplace. Franco Traverso, of the Italian firm Helios Technology has very firm views about the development and marketing of PV. (author)

  17. Detailed Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.; Mancilla-David, F.; Ellis, K.; Muljadi, E.; Jenkins, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a modified current-voltage relationship for the single diode model. The single-diode model has been derived from the well-known equivalent circuit for a single photovoltaic cell. The modification presented in this paper accounts for both parallel and series connections in an array.

  18. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  19. Quantifying limits and losses in nanoscale photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The conversion efficiency of a solar panel is the most important lever in the cost of electricity it produces. For photovoltaics to make a significant and lasting impact as a renewable energy resource, the electricity costs have to decrease, and the conversion efficiency therefore has to increase. T

  20. Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies...

  1. Charge carrier dynamics in photovoltaic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    We employ the experimental technique THz Time Domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to study the optoelectronic properties of potential photovoltaic materials. This all-optical method is useful for probing photoconductivities in a range of materials on ultrafast timescales without the application of physica

  2. Photovoltaic Solar Energy - From Fundamentals to Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Verlinden, P.J.; Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Freundlich, A.

    2017-01-01

    Solar PV is now the third most important renewable energy source, after hydro and wind power, in terms of global installed capacity. Bringing together the expertise of international PV specialists Photovoltaic Solar Energy: From Fundamentals to Applications provides a comprehensive and up-to-date ac

  3. Internal mode of incoherent photovoltaic vector solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing-Zhi; Wang Hong-Cheng; She Wei-Long

    2007-01-01

    The internal modes of incoherent vector solitons (IVSs) in photovoltaic photorefractive materials are investigated in the framework of coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations. It is found that there is a pair of internal modes corresponding to a bright-bright IVS. The propagation dynamics of the bright-bright IVS perturbed by the internal modes is simulated by numerical method.

  4. Development of a computer program of fast calculation for the pre design of advanced nuclear fuel 10 x 10 for BWR type reactors; Desarrollo de un program de computo de calculo rapido para el prediseno de celdas de combustible nuclear avanzado 10 x 10 para reactores de agua en ebullicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Montes, J.L.; Ortiz, J.J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: mrpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) a methodology is developed to optimize the design of cells 10x10 of assemble fuels for reactors of water in boil or BWR. It was proposed a lineal calculation formula based on a coefficients matrix (of the change reason of the relative power due to changes in the enrichment of U-235) for estimate the relative powers by pin of a cell. With this it was developed the computer program of fast calculation named PreDiCeldas. The one which by means of a simple search algorithm allows to minimize the relative power peak maximum of cell or LPPF. This is achieved varying the distribution of U-235 inside the cell, maintaining in turn fixed its average enrichment. The accuracy in the estimation of the relative powers for pin is of the order from 1.9% when comparing it with results of the 'best estimate' HELIOS code. With the PreDiCeldas it was possible, at one minimum time of calculation, to re-design a reference cell diminishing the LPPF, to the beginning of the life, of 1.44 to a value of 1.31. With the cell design with low LPPF is sought to even design cycles but extensive that those reached at the moment in the BWR of the Laguna Verde Central. (Author)

  5. Risk management method for small photovoltaic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirova Milena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is necessary for achieving the goals of the organization. There are many methods, approaches, and instruments in the literature concerning risk management. However, these are often highly specialized and transferring them to a different field can prove difficult. Therefore, managers often face situations where they have no tools to use for risk management. This is the case with small photovoltaic plants (according to a definition by the Bulgarian State Energy and Water Regulatory Commission small applies to systems with a total installed power of 200 kWp. There are some good practices in the energy field for minimizing risks, but they offer only partial risk prevention and are not sufficient. Therefore a new risk management method needs to be introduced. Small photovoltaic plants offer plenty of advantages in comparison to the other renewable energy sources which makes risk management in their case more important. There is no classification of risks for the exploitation of small photovoltaic systems in the available literature as well as to what degree the damages from those risks could spread. This makes risk analysis and evaluation necessary for obtaining information which could aid taking decisions for improving risk management. The owner of the invested capital takes a decision regarding the degree of acceptable risk for his organization and it must be protected depending on the goals set. Investors in small photovoltaic systems need to decide to what degree the existing risks can influence the goals previously set, the payback of the investment, and what is the acceptable level of damages for the investor. The purpose of this work is to present a risk management method, which currently does not exist in the Bulgaria, so that the risks and the damages that could occur during the exploitation of small photovoltaic plants could be identified and the investment in such technology – justified.

  6. Development of photovoltaic hydrogen and hypochlorite generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Beltran, E.D.; Meas, Y.; Ortega, R.; Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Sodium hypochlorite is among the most efficient methods to disinfect water. Although sodium hypochlorite can be generated from chemical reactions of chlorine gas, the transportation of chlorine is a safety concern. In-situ generation of sodium hypochlorite in an electrolysis cell is therefore desirable. This study examined the feasibility of electrolytically producing both hypochlorite and hydrogen using photovoltaic energy. Since the hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity and the hypochlorite can be used to purify drinking water, the integrated process may be operated economically because the products from both the anode and the cathode are valuable. The apparatus used in this study was designed and constructed in such a way that the photovoltaic module was coupled to the hydrogen and hypochlorite generator. The apparatus is suitable for operation in remote areas. The rates of hydrogen and hypochlorite generation were measured and the current/voltage characteristics of both the PV module and the electrolysis cell were analyzed. The electrolytic process yielded a sodium hypochlorite solution that was stable at pH 7. This study showed that environmental conditions such as solar intensity, ambient temperature and surface temperature of the photovoltaic module have a small effect on the rate of hydrogen production. Photovoltaic cells can supply the necessary electric current and voltage to produce 5 litres of 3.5 g/l NaOCl daily when a membrane is incorporated in the cell. The quantity of sodium hypochlorite produced by membraneless electrolysis with 2 photovoltaic modules could purify water for 40 families. It was concluded that long-term testing under real operating conditions is needed in order to estimate the capital cost of the equipment. 15 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2007. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids and PV environmental health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 22 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  8. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2008. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids as well as health and safety activities. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  9. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2006. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications and hybrid systems within mini-grids. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  10. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2004. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  11. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2005. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 21 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  12. 77 FR 14732 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not assembled into modules, from the People's.... \\1\\ See Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From...

  13. 77 FR 63788 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into...

  14. 77 FR 73017 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, From the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... modules, laminates, and panels, consisting of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not... International Trade Administration Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules... issuing a countervailing duty order on crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells, whether or not...

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    2017-03-07

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  16. 23. Symposium photovoltaic solar energy; 23. Symposium Photovoltaische Sonnenenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the 23rd symposium of the Ostbayerische Technologie Transfer Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 5th to 7th March, 2008, in Bad Staffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Technical and economical further development in the photovoltaics: Strategies and projects (J. Nick-Leptin); (2) The future of photovoltaics technology: Solution of the silicon problem, concentrator technology and thin-film technology (E.R. Weber); (3) Financing of technology - Thin-film processes versus crystalline silicon? (N. Brinkmann); (4) The German market of solar power at the test stand: Evaluation of the state of the art 2008 (K. Freier); (5) Point of view photon (A. Kreutzmann); (6) Viewpoint of the branch of industry (W. Hoffmann); (7) EEG novella: Kind blows for the solar industry (S. Droxner); (8) Priority of photovoltaic power - Use by substitution of the conventional park of power plants as well as consumption near generation (M. Braun); (9) Launch of photovoltaics: The EEG as a model of success with small disturbances of growth? The outer view (R. Wuestenhagen); (10) Current converter for the solar technology - 20-year-balance and future perspectives (P. Zacharias); (11) Damages at bypass diodes in photovoltaic modules by means of induced voltages and currents caused by nearby lightning currents (N. Henze); (12) A photovoltaic a.c. module in high voltage technology (N. Henze); (13) 98.5 % degree of efficiency at inverters with SiC MOSFETs (B. Burger); (14) 99.9 % MPP tracking performance - only the ''half truth''? (R. Bruendlinger); (15) Photovoltaics for network far electrification (H. Gabler); (16) 10 years hybrid system ''Starkenburger Huette'' - operational experiences with an innovative system concept (M. Landau); (17) Photovoltaics-wind-fuel cell-hybrid systems for the supply of measuring stations at offshore drilling platforms (M. Vetter); (18) Requirement and reality

  17. Photovoltaic sheathing element with one or more tabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure. The shingle including at least a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly. Wherein the body portion includes one or more top peripheral tabs each capable of fitting under one or more vertically adjoining devices.

  18. REVIEW ON GRID INTERFACING OF MULTIMEGAWATT PHOTOVOLTAIC INVERTERS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents review on the latest development of control of grid connected photovoltaic energy conversion system. Also this paper present existing systems control algorithm for three-phase and single phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system.  This paper focuses on one aspect of solar energy, namely grid interfacing of large-scale PV farms. This Grid-connected photovoltaic  i.e. PV systems can provide a number of benefits to electric utilities, such as power loss reductio...

  19. Hetero union solar cells of CdS/Cd Te. Part 2. Processed solar cells by the cathodic erosion planar-magnetron and GREG techniques; Celdas solares de heterounion de CdS/CdTe. Parte 2. Celdas solares procesadas por las tecnicas de erosion catodica magneto-planar y GREG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufino V, M.; Contreras P, G.; Albor A, M.L.; Gonzalez T, M.A. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, U.P.A. Lopez Mateos, Edif. 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Compaan, A.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Toledo, Ohio 43606, (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We present the processing and characterization of CdS/Cd Te thin film solar cells depositing CdS by r f planar-magnetron sputtering and Cd Te by the gradient recrystallization and growth, GREG technique. CdS was deposited on soda-lime LOF {sup TM} conducting glass substrates, then Cd Te on CdS and Cu-Au contacts evaporated on the Cd Te film. The films deposition parameters were: for CdS a 25 W r f power was used at 18 mtorr of Ar pressure and a substrate temperature T{sub S} of 380 Centigrade, while for Cd Te a source temperature T{sub f} between 570 and 650 Centigrade and T{sub S} from 460 to 480 Centigrade were used under a 500 mtorr Ar pressure. CdS and Cd Te films were polycrystalline showing preferential orientation in the (002) direction for CdS and in the (111) direction for Cd Te; grain size was 0.1 {mu} m for CdS and 0.5 -2 {mu} m for Cd Te. The photovoltaic parameters were determined yielding the best solar cell performance values of V{sub OC} = 0.74 V, I{sub SC} 2.3 m A, f f = 55%, SQE{sub max} 0.7 electrons/photon at 600 nm and 8 % solar energy conversion efficiency. (Author)

  20. Next Generation of Photovoltaics New Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Vega, Antonio; López, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This book presents new concepts for a next generation of PV. Among these concepts are: Multijunction solar cells, multiple excitation solar cells (or how to take benefit of high energy photons for the creation of more than one electron hole-pair), intermediate band solar cells (or how to take advantage of below band-gap energy photons) and related technologies (for quantum dots, nitrides, thin films), advanced light management approaches (plasmonics). Written by world-class experts in next generation photovoltaics this book is an essential reference guide accessible to both beginners and experts working with solar cell technology. The book deeply analyzes the current state-of-the-art of the new photovoltaic approaches and outlines the implementation paths of these advanced devices. Topics addressed range from the fundamentals to the description of state-of-the-art of the new types of solar cells.

  1. Strained quantum well photovoltaic energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlich, Alexandre (Inventor); Renaud, Philippe (Inventor); Vilela, Mauro Francisco (Inventor); Bensaoula, Abdelhak (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An indium phosphide photovoltaic cell is provided where one or more quantum wells are introduced between the conventional p-conductivity and n-conductivity indium phosphide layer. The approach allows the cell to convert the light over a wider range of wavelengths than a conventional single junction cell and in particular convert efficiently transparency losses of the indium phosphide conventional cell. The approach hence may be used to increase the cell current output. A method of fabrication of photovoltaic devices is provided where ternary InAsP and InGaAs alloys are used as well material in the quantum well region and results in an increase of the cell current output.

  2. Design and optimization of photovoltaics recycling infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Fthenakis, Vasilis

    2010-11-15

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  3. Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.K.; Fthenakis, V.

    2010-10-01

    With the growing production and installation of photovoltaics (PV) around the world constrained by the limited availability of resources, end-of-life management of PV is becoming very important. A few major PV manufacturers currently are operating several PV recycling technologies at the process level. The management of the total recycling infrastructure, including reverse-logistics planning, is being started in Europe. In this paper, we overview the current status of photovoltaics recycling planning and discuss our mathematic modeling of the economic feasibility and the environmental viability of several PV recycling infrastructure scenarios in Germany; our findings suggest the optimum locations of the anticipated PV take-back centers. Short-term 5-10 year planning for PV manufacturing scraps is the focus of this article. Although we discuss the German situation, we expect the generic model will be applicable to any region, such as the whole of Europe and the United States.

  4. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities that have been developed during recent years for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues. A set of 10 performance models have been selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first-order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Next, each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. Then each of the issues is discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. Finally, the models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  5. Pulsed laser illumination of photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yater, Jane A.; Lowe, Roland A.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    In future space missions, free electron lasers (FEL) may be used to illuminate photovoltaic receivers to provide remote power. Both the radio-frequency (RF) and induction FEL produce pulsed rather than continuous output. In this work we investigate cell response to pulsed laser light which simulates the RF FEL format. The results indicate that if the pulse repetition is high, cell efficiencies are only slightly reduced compared to constant illumination at the same wavelength. The frequency response of the cells is weak, with both voltage and current outputs essentially dc in nature. Comparison with previous experiments indicates that the RF FEL pulse format yields more efficient photovoltaic conversion than does an induction FEL format.

  6. Photovoltaics as an operating energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. J.; Post, H. N.; Thomas, M. G.

    In the short time since the discovery of the modern solar cell in 1954, terrestrial photovoltaic power system technology has matured in all areas, from collector reliability to system and subsystem design and operations. Today's PV systems are finding widespread use in powering loads where conventional sources are either unavailable, unreliable, or too costly. A broad range of applications is possible because of the modularity of the technology---it can be used to power loads ranging from less than a watt to several megawatts. This inherent modularity makes PV an excellent choice to play a major role in rural electrification in the developing world. The future for grid-connected photovoltaic systems is also very promising. Indications are that several of today's technologies, at higher production rates and in megawatt-sized installations, will generate electricity in the vicinity of $0.12/kWh in the near future.

  7. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-12-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  8. Characterization of a low concentrator photovoltaics module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, B.A. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Dyk, E.E. van, E-mail: ernest.vandyk@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Vorster, F.J.; Okullo, W.; Munji, M.K. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P. O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Booysen, P. [Setsolar, P. O. Box 15934, Panorama 7506 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV) systems have the potential to reduce the cost per kWh of electricity compared to conventional flat-plate photovoltaics (PV) by up to 50%. The cost-savings are realised by replacing expensive PV cells with relatively cheaper optical components to concentrate incident solar irradiance onto a receiver and by tracking the sun along either 1 axis or 2 axes. A LCPV module consists of three interrelated subsystems, viz., the optical, electrical and the thermal subsystems, which must be considered for optimal module design and performance. Successful integration of these subsystems requires the balancing of cost, performance and reliability. In this study LCPV experimental prototype modules were designed, built and evaluated with respect to optimisation of the three subsystems and overall performance. This paper reports on the optical and electrical evaluation of a prototype LCPV module.

  9. NREL photovoltaic program FY 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.D.; Hansen, A.; Smoller, S.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontracted research and development (R and D) activities under the NREL PV Program from October 1, 1996, through September 30, 1997 (FY 1997). The NREL PV Program is part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE National Photovoltaics Program Plan for 1996--2000. The FY 1997 budget authority for carrying out the NREL PV Program was $39.3 million in operating funds and $0.4 million in capital equipment funds. Subcontract activities represent a major part of the NREL PV Program, with $21.8 million (55% of PV funds) going to some 84 subcontractors. Cost sharing by industry added almost $8.8 million to the subcontract R and D activities with industry.

  10. Temperature Effect on Photovoltaic Modules Power Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Mohammed Aish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine what type of photovoltaic solar module could best be used in a thermoelectric photovoltaic power generation. Changing in powers due to higher temperatures (25oC, 35oC, and 45oC have been done for three types of solar modules: monocrystalline , polycrystalline, and copper indium gallium (di selenide (CIGS. The Prova 200 solar panel analyzer is used for the professional testing of three solar modules at different ambient temperatures; 25oC, 35oC, and 45oC and solar radiation range 100-1000 W/m2. Copper indium gallium (di selenide module has the lowest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.38%/oC while monocrystalline module has the highest power drop (with the average percentage power drop 0.54%/oC, while polycrystalline module has a percentage power drop of 0.49%/oC.

  11. Energy Prediction in Urban Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramos-Paja

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available  This paper proposes a new method to accurately estimate the power and energy production in urban photovoltaic (PV systems, which are commonly covered by shades affecting its performance. The solution is based on an efficient algorithm designed to compute, in short time, an accurate model accounting for the shades impact. In such a way, the proposed approach improves classical solutions by significantly reducing the processing time to simulate long periods, e.g. months and years, but without introducing sensible errors. Therefore, this approach is suitable to estimate the production of PV systems for economical analyses such as the return-of-invested time calculation, but also to accurately design PV installations by selecting the right number of photovoltaic modules to supply the required load power. 

  12. Semiconductor materials for solar photovoltaic cells

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Ng, Winnie; Bhattacharya, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the current status of semiconductor materials for conversion of sunlight to electricity, and highlights advances in both basic science and manufacturing.  Photovoltaic (PV) solar electric technology will be a significant contributor to world energy supplies when reliable, efficient PV power products are manufactured in large volumes at low cost.  Expert chapters cover the full range of semiconductor materials for solar-to-electricity conversion, from crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon to cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium sulfide selenides, dye sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells, and environmentally friendly copper zinc tin sulfide selenides. The latest methods for synthesis and characterization of solar cell materials are described, together with techniques for measuring solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor Materials for Solar Photovoltaic Cells presents the current state of the art as well as key details about future strategies to increase the efficiency and reduce ...

  13. Hybrid Photovoltaic-Hydrogen Power Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Ejea, J. B.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper explores a power conditioning unit for photovoltaic/hydrogen based energy systems. Similar power conversion techniques, compared to traditional space power systems, are applied. An S4R regulator is devised with an unregulated battery bus as primary output and a secondary path to feed and electrolyser. A modular fuel cell converter completes the system and it operates when photovoltaic energy is not available or load demand exceeds solar power, i. e. like a traditional BDR. An ancillary battery keeps the unregulated bus voltage distributed in the system and it also aids the fuel cell during transients or start-up due to its limited speed. A 1kW breadboard has been designed and implemented to corroborate the proposed system.

  14. Lighting porphyrins and phthalocyanines for molecular photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; de la Torre, Gema; Torres, Tomás

    2010-10-14

    The field of organic photovoltaics (OPV) represents one of the most promising technological areas. Porphyrins and phthalocyanines are perfectly suited for their integration in light energy conversion systems. These colored macrocycles exhibit very attractive physical properties, particularly very high extinction coefficients in the visible and near IR regions, where the maximum of the solar photon flux occurs, that is necessary for efficient photon harvesting, besides a rich redox chemistry, as well as photoinduced electron transfer and semiconducting capabilities.

  15. Technological status of organic photovoltaics (OPV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Jon Eggert; Krebs, Frederik C

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a technological status of organic and polymer photovoltaics (OPV) for both single and tandem junctions. We list the current state-of-the-art at the laboratory level for very small rigid and mostly vacuum processed devices to larger area flexible and printed devices. In comparison...... to other thin film PV the view held is that OPV is at a very early stage of industrial development with future success depending on an application where OPV is uniquely performing....

  16. Fusing photovoltaic data for improved confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansgar Steland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing and testing photovoltaic modules requires carefully made measurements on important variables such as the power output under standard conditions. When additional data is available, which has been collected using a different measurement system and therefore may be of different accuracy, the question arises how one can combine the information present in both data sets. In some cases one even has prior knowledge about the ordering of the variances of the measurement errors, which is not fully taken into account by commonly known estimators. We discuss several statistical estimators to combine the sample means of independent series of measurements, both under the assumption of heterogeneous variances and ordered variances. The critical issue is then to assess the estimator’s variance and to construct confidence intervals. We propose and discuss the application of a new jackknife variance estimator devised by [1] to such photovoltaic data, in order to assess the variability of common mean estimation under heterogeneous and ordered variances in a reliable and nonparametric way. When serial correlations are present, which usually a ect the marginal variances, it is proposed to construct a thinned data set by downsampling the series in such a way that autocorrelations are removed or dampened. We propose a data adaptive procedure which downsamples a series at irregularly spaced time points in such a way that the autocorrelations are minimized. The procedures are illustrated by applying them to real photovoltaic power output measurements from two different sun light flashers. In addition, focusing on simulations governed by real photovoltaic data, we investigate the accuracy of the jackknife approach and compare it with other approaches. Among those is a variance estimator based on Nair’s formula for Gaussian data and, as a parametric alternative, two Bayesian models. We investigate the statistical accuracy of the resulting confidence

  17. The Capital Intensity of Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basore, Paul

    2015-10-19

    Factory capital expenditure (capex) for photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing strongly influences the per-unit cost of a c-Si module. This provides a significant opportunity to address the U.S. DOE SunShot module price target through capex innovation. Innovation options to reduce the capex of PV manufacturing include incremental and disruptive process innovation with c-Si, platform innovations, and financial approaches. and financial approaches.

  18. Application of Bond Graph Modeling for Photovoltaic Module Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, photovoltaic generator is represented using the bond-graph methodology. Starting from the equivalent circuit the bond graph and the block diagram of the photovoltaic generator have been derived. Upon applying bond graph elements and rules a mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator is obtained. Simulation results of this obtained model using real recorded data (irradiation and temperature at the Renewable Energies Development Centre in Bouzaréah – Algeria are obtained using MATLAB/SMULINK software. The results have compared with datasheet of the photovoltaic generator for validation purposes.

  19. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2001. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  20. Objectives and strategies of the International Photovoltaic Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Koontz, R.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Perelman, L.

    1979-07-01

    The Solar Photovoltaic Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD and D) Act of 1978 calls for the Secretary of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a plan to demonstrate photovoltaic systems in other nations and to facilitate the widespread use of these systems. The objective of the International Photovoltaic Program Plan, the strategies that will be used in the plan, and the approach that is being taken to prepare the plan are described. Background on photovoltaic technology and markets and the DOE domestic photovoltaic effort is also provided. The International Photovoltaic Program Plan will complement the DOE domestic activities to stimulate international markets. A number of national and international benefits could result if the objective of accelerating the widespread use of photovoltaic systems in international markets is realized. A primary benefit is that foreign markets may help stabilize the US photovoltaic industry and foster its expansion. Other benefits include contributions to the advancement of developing countries, reductions in world oil imports, and improvements in the US balance of trade. Strategies to be addressed in the plan are photovoltaic system demonstrations, systems development, information gathering and dissemination, financial incentives, and administrative actions. A critical aspect of the plan will be the coordination of selected programs and the monitoring and assessment of the plan's results. Analyses of international markets, international financial institutions, foreign competition, international marketing experiences of other US industries, and system development needs have been initiated to support the plan.

  1. Antibatic photovoltaic response in zinc-porphyrin-liked oligothiophenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Spanggaard, H.

    2005-01-01

    (SEC), NMR, MALDI-TOF and elemental analysis and purified by preparative SEC before subjecting them to photophysical studies. UV-vis and emission spectroscopy were used to determine quantum yields and energy transfer. The photon balance was established and used to rationalise the photovoltaic behaviour...... of 4 and 5. While 4 gave rise to photovoltaic devices giving a moderate photovoltaic response that was symbatic with the absorption spectrum, 5 showed a photovoltaic response that was antibatic with a part of the absorption spectrum of the zinc-porphyrin constituent. We ascribe this behaviour...

  2. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2000. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance and design of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, the grid interconnection of building-integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, very large scale photovoltaic power generation systems and the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries. The status and prospects in the 20 countries participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  3. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2003. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed. The programme's tenth anniversary is noted. Status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, the operational performance, maintenance and sizing of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic power systems in the built environment, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, the deployment of photovoltaic technologies in developing countries and urban-scale PV applications. The status and prospects in the 20 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  4. Distribuciones de tamaño de burbujas en celdas de flotación de laboratorio e industrial y modelación del efecto de las variables de operación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallebuona, G.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, bubble size distribution in a flotation cell, in both industrial and laboratory scale, are characterized. Experimentally, bubbles are sampled, their sizes are measured using image analysis and their distributions are expressed by surface. The distributions are represented with a unique model structure for all tests, either in industrial or laboratory scale, only with different values in the parameters model. In the industrial case, with data reported in the literature as well as with experimental data obtained by the authors, the proposed model is fitted with correlation coefficients higher than 84 %. In the lab, the effects of the operational variables Jg y NS on the parameters d50 y l are modeled. From the experimental study at laboratory scale it is possible to conclude that combinations of NS y Jg allow producing different bubble size distributions.

    En este trabajo, se caracteriza la distribución de tamaño de burbujas en una celda de flotación, tanto a escala industrial como a escala de laboratorio. En los casos experimentales, los tamaños de burbuja se miden vía análisis de imágenes obtenidas en un dispositivo de toma de muestras y sus distribuciones se expresan en superficie. Las distribuciones de tamaño se representan con un modelo único, equivalente en su estructura para todas las pruebas, tanto industriales como de laboratorio, cambiando sólo sus parámetros. En el caso industrial, utilizando distribuciones reportadas en la literatura y datos obtenidos experimentalmente, se ajusta el modelo propuesto con coeficientes de correlación superiores al 84 %. En el laboratorio, se modela los efectos que las variables operacionales Jg y NS, tienen sobre los parámetros del modelo (d50 y l. Del trabajo a escala laboratorio se concluye que combinaciones de NS y Jg producen

  5. Caracterización y modelación de las distribuciones de tamaño de burbujas en celdas de flotación con agitación mecánica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallebuona, G.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In tbis work, bubble size distribution is determined for tests in a batch flotation cell, for different impeller speed and air flowrate. Bubbles are sampled and their sizes are measured using image analysis. Size distributions by surface are expressed as cumulative percent passing as well as percent retained. The distributions show a common shape for all tests and are represented with a unique model, selected due to its goodness of fit. This model corresponds to an equation used in heavy media separation and considers two parameters: X50, the 50 % passing size, and 1, an adjustable parameter. The correlation coefficient for all tests averages 0.999 for the cumulative distributions and 0.912 for the retained distributions.

    En este trabajo se determina la distribución de tamaño de las burbujas en una celda de flotación de laboratorio, para pruebas en las que se varió el flujo de aire y la agitación. Los tamaños de burbuja se miden vía análisis de imágenes obtenidas en un dispositivo de toma de muestras y sus distribuciones se expresan como distribución en superficie, como porcentaje acumulado bajo el tamaño y como porcentaje retenido. Las distribuciones muestran una forma equivalente para todas las pruebas y se representan con un modelo único, seleccionado por bondad de ajuste, que corresponde a una ecuación utilizada en separación por medios densos. El modelo tiene dos parámetros: X50, tamaño bajo el cual se encuentra el 50 % de la superficie de burbujas y 1, parámetro por ajustan El coeficiente de correlación promedio de todas las pruebas resulta de 0,999 para las distribuciones acumuladas y de 0,912 para las distribuciones retenidas

  6. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  7. Department of Energy: Photovoltaics program - FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The National Photovoltaic Program supports efforts to make PV an important part of the US economy through three main program elements: Research and Development, Technology Development, and Systems Engineering and Applications. (1) Research and Development activities generate new ideas, test the latest scientific theories, and push the limits of PV efficiencies in laboratory and prototype materials and devices. (2) Technology Development activities apply laboratory innovations to products to improve PV technology and the manufacturing techniques used to produce PV systems for the market. (3) Systems Engineering and Applications activities help improve PV systems and validate these improvements through tests, measurements, and deployment of prototypes. In addition, applications research validates, sales, maintenance, and financing mechanisms worldwide. (4) Environmental, Health, Safety and Resource Characterization activities help to define environmental, health and safety issues for those facilities engaged in the manufacture of PV products and organizations engaged in PV research and development. All PV Program activities are planned and executed in close collaboration and partnership with the U.S. PV industry. The overall PV Program is planned to be a balanced effort of research, manufacturing development, and market development. Critical to the success of this strategy is the National Photovoltaic Program`s effort to reduce the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaic. The program is doing this in three primary ways: by making devices more efficient, by making PV systems less expensive, and by validating the technology through measurements, tests, and prototypes.

  8. Photovoltaics with Ferroelectrics: Current Status and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Charles; Bai, Xiaofei; Infante, Ingrid C; Guennou, Maël; Geneste, Grégory; Alexe, Marin; Kreisel, Jens; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-07-01

    Ferroelectrics carry a switchable spontaneous electric polarization. This polarization is usually coupled to strain, making ferroelectrics good piezoelectrics. When coupled to magnetism, they become so-called multiferroic systems, a field that has been widely investigated since 2003. While ferroelectrics are birefringent and non-linear optically transparent materials, the coupling of polarization with optical properties has received, since 2009, renewed attention, triggered notably by low-bandgap ferroelectrics suitable for sunlight spectrum absorption and original photovoltaic effects. Consequently, power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1% were recently achieved and values of 19.5% were predicted, making photoferroelectrics promising photovoltaic alternatives. This article aims at providing an up-to-date review on this emerging and rapidly progressing field by highlighting several important issues and parameters, such as the role of domain walls, ways to tune the bandgap, consequences arising from the polarization switchability, and the role of defects and contact electrodes, as well as the downscaling effects. Beyond photovoltaicity, other polarization-related processes are also described, like light-induced deformation (photostriction) or light-assisted chemical reaction (photostriction). It is hoped that this overview will encourage further avenues to be explored and challenged and, as a byproduct, will inspire other research communities in material science, e.g., so-called hybrid halide perovskites.

  9. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  10. Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

    2005-01-01

    There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

  11. Portable thermo-photovoltaic power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppero, Anthony C.; Krawetz, Barton; Barklund, C. Rodger; Seifert, Gary D.

    1997-01-14

    A miniature thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) device for generation of electrical power for use in portable electronic devices. A TPV power source is constructed to provide a heat source chemical reactor capable of using various fuels, such as liquid hydrocarbons, including but not limited to propane, LPG, butane, alcohols, oils and diesel fuels to generate a source of photons. A reflector dish guides misdirected photon energy from the photon source toward a photovoltaic array. A thin transparent protector sheet is disposed between the photon source and the array to reflect back thermal energy that cannot be converted to electricity, and protect the array from thermal damage. A microlens disposed between the protector sheet and the array further focuses the tailored band of photon energy from the photon source onto an array of photovoltaic cells, whereby the photon energy is converted to electrical power. A heat recuperator removes thermal energy from reactor chamber exhaust gases, preferably using mini- or micro-bellows to force air and fuel past the exhaust gases, and uses the energy to preheat the fuel and oxidant before it reaches the reactor, increasing system efficiency. Mini- or micro-bellows force ambient air through the system both to supply oxidant and to provide cooling. Finally, an insulator, which is preferably a super insulator, is disposed around the TPV power source to reduce fuel consumption, and to keep the TPV power source cool to the touch so it can be used in hand-held devices.

  12. Photovoltaic solar energy. Proceedings; Photovoltaische Solarenergie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Within the 21st symposium 'Photovoltaic Solar Energy' of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at Banz Monastery (Bad Staffelstein, Federal Republic of Germany) between 8th and 10th March, 2006, the following lessons were held: (1) Basic conditions for a market support programme in the European context (EEG) (Winfried Hoffmann); (2) Actual developments in the German market of photovoltaics (Gerhard Stryi-Hipp); (3) Become a part of the global economic survey of Task 2 ''PV cost over time'' (Thomas Nordmann); (4) The market of photovoltaic will be a European market in the future (Murray Cameron); (5) Development and state of the art of the photovoltaic industry in the Peoples Republic of China (Frank Haugwitz); (6) Silicon for the photovoltaic industry (Karl Hesse); (7) Cell technology: Impulses for a cost effective photovoltaic with valuable silicon (Rolf Brendel); (8) Thin-film solar modules for the photovoltaic - state of the art and industrial perspectives (Michael Powalla); (9) Modules - bottleneck and flood of orders: How to act an installer? (Helmut Godard); (10) Photovoltaic open-field systems - Actual experiences and conflict lines (Ole Langniss); (11) Comparison of actual and future trends of Balance-of-System costs for large scale ground based PV systems with crystalline and thin-film modules (Manfred Baechler); (12) Financing PX projects from a Bank perspective (Joachim Treder); (13) Criteria of quality for solar fonds - Criteria of evaluation for capital investors and self-commitment for emission houses (Ulla Meixner); (14) Analysis of the distribution pathways for photovoltaic plants from the manufacturer to the final customer considering the decreasing demand and increasing prices (Michael Forst); (15) Solar power 2005 - Evaluation of real operational data of 1,000 plants in Germany (Gerd Heilscher); (16) Improvement of PV-inverter efficiency - targets, pathways

  13. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  14. New Markets for Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chacko; Jennings, Philip; Singh, Dilawar

    2007-10-01

    Over the past five years solar photovoltaic (PV) power supply systems have matured and are now being deployed on a much larger scale. The traditional small-scale remote area power supply systems are still important and village electrification is also a large and growing market but large scale, grid-connected systems and building integrated systems are now being deployed in many countries. This growth has been aided by imaginative government policies in several countries and the overall result is a growth rate of over 40% per annum in the sales of PV systems. Optimistic forecasts are being made about the future of PV power as a major source of sustainable energy. Plans are now being formulated by the IEA for very large-scale PV installations of more than 100 MW peak output. The Australian Government has announced a subsidy for a large solar photovoltaic power station of 154 MW in Victoria, based on the concentrator technology developed in Australia. In Western Australia a proposal has been submitted to the State Government for a 2 MW photovoltaic power system to provide fringe of grid support at Perenjori. This paper outlines the technologies, designs, management and policies that underpin these exciting developments in solar PV power.

  15. Formation of multiple dark photovoltaic spatial solitons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yuhong Zhang; Keqing Lu; Jianbang Guo; Xuewen Long; Xiaohong Hu; Kehao Li

    2012-02-01

    We theoretically study the formation of multiple dark photovoltaic soliton splitting in the quasi-steady-state and steady-state regimes under open-circuit conditions. We find that the initial width of the dark notch at the entrance face of the crystal is a key parameter for generating an even (or odd) number sequence of dark coherent photovoltaic solitons. If the initial width of the dark notch is small, only a fundamental soliton or Y-junction soliton pair is generated. As the initial width of the dark notch is increased, the dark notch tends to split into an odd (or even) number of multiple dark photovoltaic solitons, which realizes a progressive transition from a low-order soliton to a sequence of higher-order solitons. The soliton pairs far away from the centre have bigger width and less visibility. In addition, when the distance from the centre of the dark notch increases, the separations between adjacent dark stripes become slightly smaller.

  16. Automatic outdoor monitoring system for photovoltaic panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefancich, Marco; Simpson, Lin; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Long-term acquisition of solar panel performance parameters, for panels operated at maximum power point in their real environment, is of critical importance in the photovoltaic research sector. However, few options exist for the characterization of non-standard panels such as concentrated photovoltaic systems, heavily soiled or shaded panels or those operating under non-standard spectral illumination; certainly, it is difficult to find such a measurement system that is flexible and affordable enough to be adopted by the smaller research institutes or universities. We present here an instrument aiming to fill this gap, autonomously tracking and maintaining any solar panel at maximum power point while continuously monitoring its operational parameters and dissipating the produced energy without connection to the power grid. The instrument allows periodic acquisition of current-voltage curves to verify the employed maximum power point tracking approach. At the same time, with hardware schematics and software code being provided, it provides a flexible open development environment for the monitoring of non-standard generators like concentrator photovoltaic systems and to test novel power tracking approaches. The key issues, and the corresponding solutions, encountered in the design are analyzed in detail and the relevant schematics presented.

  17. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  18. A sensitivity analysis of central flat-plate photovoltaic systems and implications for national photovoltaics program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosetti, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the National Photovoltaic Research Program goals to changes in individual photovoltaic system parameters is explored. Using the relationship between lifetime cost and system performance parameters, tests were made to see how overall photovoltaic system energy costs are affected by changes in the goals set for module cost and efficiency, system component costs and efficiencies, operation and maintenance costs, and indirect costs. The results are presented in tables and figures for easy reference.

  19. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of ceramic materials for its application in fuel cells in solid state; Sintesis y evaluacion de materiales ceramicos para su aplicacion en celdas de combustible en estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes Escobedo, Claudia Alicia

    2007-09-15

    and the minor for LaMnO{sub 3} prepared from MnO and without doping. The reactivity of the cathodes perovsquita type was studied with zirconium preparing mixtures 1:1 by weight of the ground of manganites of lanthanum with zirconium partially stabilized with yttrium and treated at 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1300 degrees Celsius. Almost all the resulting mixtures showed the formation of the compound type pyrocloride La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and in addition those doped with strontium also showed the presence of SrZrO{sub 3}. The formation of La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} was managed to avoid it in samples prepared from mixtures of MnO{sub 2} with atomic 15% atomic of Sr. these samples have a mixture of manganite phases and manganese. Finally, the stabilization of the cubical phase of the zirconium with manganite of lanthanum in all the mixtures was observed. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio sobre la manganita de lantano (LaMnO{sub 3}) con estructura tipo perovsquita y su uso potencial como catodo en celdas de combustible. La mecanosintesis de polvo de manganitas de lantano se propone como un metodo para maximizar los defectos, ya que se requieren defectos puntuales en estos materiales para aplicaciones de catodos en celdas de combustible. Defectos puntuales intrinsecos fueron introducidos en la manganita de lantano mezclando oxido de lantano con oxido de manganeso (con diferentes numeros de oxidacion). Ademas se introdujeron defectos extrinsecos dopando las manganitas de lantano con 15 y 20% at de estroncio en sitios de lantano. Se presenta una comparacion entre las propiedades estructurales finales de las manganitas obtenidas por diferentes procesos: a) molienda de alta energia en un paso en un SPEX8000D, b) en dos pasos por molienda de alta energia en un SPEX8000 y tratamiento termico y c) por activacion termica. Se presenta un estudio de las principales variables que intervienen en la tecnica de mecanosintesis, como las relaciones volumetricas entre las bolas y los viales

  1. Electricity from Sunlight: The Future of Photovoltaics. Worldwatch Paper 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    Solar photovoltaic cells have been called the ultimate energy technology, environmentally benign and without moving parts, solar cells directly convert sunlight into electricity. Photovoltaic energy conversion is fundamentally different from all other forms of electricity generation. Without turbines, generators or other mechanical equipment, it…

  2. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 3: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were evaluated in terms of their potential for terrestrial application A comprehensive overview of important issues which bear on photovoltaic (PV) systems development is presented. Studies of PV system costs, the societal implications of PV system development, and strategies in PV research and development in relationship to current energy policies are summarized.

  3. Carbazole functionalized isocyanide brushes in heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, E.; Gao, F.; Schwartz, E.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.; Rowan, A.E.; Greenham, N.C.; Do, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, carbazole-containing polyisocyanide (PIACz) brushes were used for photovoltaic devices. A photovoltaic device was fabricated on top of the brushes by spin-coating a suitable acceptor and evaporating an Al cathode. Devices with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) bulk polymer were also prepa

  4. Design considerations for lunar base photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, J. Mark; Curtis, Henry B.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was made of factors that may affect the design of photovoltaic arrays for a lunar base. These factors, which include the lunar environment and system design criteria, are examined. A photovoltaic power system design with a triangular array geometry is discussed and compared to a nuclear reactor power systems and a power system utilizing both nuclear and solar power sources.

  5. Small azomethine molecules and their use in photovoltaic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, T.J.; Petrus, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is in the field of a small azomethine molecule having photovoltaic characteristics, a method of synthesizing said molecule, use of said molecule in a photovoltaic device, a solar cell comprising said molecule, and a film comprising said molecule. The present molecules may find

  6. NREL Photovoltaic Research -- Extensive Capabilities and Experience Under One Roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-08-01

    NREL's high-impact photovoltaic successes in fundamental research, advanced materials and devices, and technology development contribute to: 1) boosting solar cell conversion efficiencies, 2) Lowering the cost of solar cells, modules, and systems, and 3) improving the reliability of photovoltaic (PV) components and systems.

  7. Plasmonic Nanocone Arrays as Photoconductive and Photovoltaic Metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei; Babicheva, Viktoriia; Evlyuknin, Andrey B.;

    2014-01-01

    Photoconductive and photovolta ic properties of metamaterials comprising plasmonic nanocone arrays embedded in a semiconductor matrix are studied. Under uniform plane-wave illumination, directed photocurrent and electromotive force arise ne ar asymmetrically shaped nanocones. The resulting giant...... photogalvanic effect is a plasmonic analogue of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectrics....

  8. Bright-dark incoherently coupled photovoltaic soliton pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Chun-Feng; Pei Yan-Bo; Zhou Zhong-Xiang; Sun Xiu-Dong

    2005-01-01

    The coupling between two mutually incoherent optical beams that propagate collinearly in open-circuit photovoltaic photorefractive media is investigated. It is shown that an incoherently coupled bright-dark spatial soliton pair can be formed due to photovoltaic effect. The physical properties of such a soliton pair are also discussed.

  9. Study on electrical power output of floating photovoltaic and conventional photovoltaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Mohd Syahriman Mohd; Othman, Mohd Yusof Hj.; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz Hj.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, several attempt were made to investigate the best electrical performance of a floating photovoltaic (FPV). In photovoltaic (PV) system, the electrical efficiency of the system decreases rapidly as the PV module temperature increases. Therefore, in order to achieve higher electrical efficiency, the PV module have to be cooled by removing the heat in some way. This paper presents study on a conventional photovoltaic (PV) module and floating photovoltaic (FPV) system. The objective of the study is to compare the performance of conventional PV module and FPV. At FPV, an absorber comprises of aluminum flat-box housing was attached to the back of the PV module to absorb heat. Water is used to cool the PV module by passing it under the bottom surface of the module. The system was tested under simulated solar intensity of 417 W/m2, 667 W/m2 and 834 W/m2. Current (I) - voltage (V) curves and power (P) - voltage (V) curves of the results were analyzed. The study found that the FPV has higher efficiency and total power gain than the conventional PV module. The average PV temperature in a FPV might be lower than that for a conventional PV module, thereby increasing its electrical power output. The simplicity of the system structure and aluminum as the chosen material enabled it to reduce the installation costs for a larger scale. Applicable as heat sink, this FPV system is convenient to place on lakes, ponds or rivers.

  10. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonergan, Mark [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been the polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.

  11. Enlarging photovoltaic effect: combination of classic photoelectric and ferroelectric photovoltaic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjiao; Su, Xiaodong; Shen, Mingrong; Dai, Zhihua; Zhang, Lingjun; He, Xiyun; Cheng, Wenxiu; Cao, Mengyu; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-01

    Converting light energy to electrical energy in photovoltaic devices relies on the photogenerated electrons and holes separated by the built-in potential in semiconductors. Photo-excited electrons in metal electrodes are usually not considered in this process. Here, we report an enhanced photovoltaic effect in the ferroelectric lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) by using low work function metals as the electrodes. We believe that electrons in the metal with low work function could be photo-emitted into PLZT and form the dominant photocurrent in our devices. Under AM1.5 (100 mW/cm²) illumination, the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of Mg/PLZT/ITO are about 150 and 2 times of those of Pt/PLZT/ITO, respectively. The photovoltaic response of PLZT capacitor was expanded from ultraviolet to visible spectra, and it may have important impact on design and fabrication of high performance photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric materials.

  12. In situ KPFM imaging of local photovoltaic characteristics of structured organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuchi, Yasumasa; Fukasawa, Masako; Sassa, Takafumi; Kimoto, Atsushi; Tajima, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamashita, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Aoyama, Tetsuya

    2014-02-12

    Here, we discuss the local photovoltaic characteristics of a structured bulk heterojunction, organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a liquid carbazole, and a fullerene derivative based on analysis by scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Periodic photopolymerization induced by an interference pattern from two laser beams formed surface relief gratings (SRG) in the structured films. The surface potential distribution in the SRGs indicates the formation of donor and acceptor spatial distribution. Under illumination, the surface potential reversibly changed because of the generation of fullerene anions and hole transport from the films to substrates, which indicates that we successfully imaged the local photovoltaic characteristics of the structured photovoltaic devices. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed the formation of the SRG because of the material migration to the photopolymerized region of the films, which was induced by light exposure through photomasks. The structuring technique allows for the direct fabrication and the control of donor and acceptor spatial distribution in organic photonic and electronic devices with minimized material consumption. This in situ KPFM technique is indispensable to the fabrication of nanoscale electron donor and electron acceptor spatial distribution in the devices.

  13. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  14. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...... damping techniques Power control under grid fault conditions, considering both positive and negative sequences Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems is intended as a coursebook for graduated students with a background in electrical engineering and also for professionals in the evolving...

  15. Photovoltaic for the Chinese; Du photovoltaique pour les Chinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahjejian, L.

    2010-10-15

    China produces and exports about half of the photovoltaic cells made in the world. About 1000 Chinese enterprises work in the photovoltaic sector and the offer grows too fast to allow some enterprises to cope with lower and lower production costs. Research activities are a key element for the reduction of production costs but small companies can not usually sustain sufficient research. Economists foresee a strong reorganization of the sector: some enterprises will cease their photovoltaic activities, others will face financial difficulties, others will merge to make bigger companies. To make the demand bigger Chinese authorities are taking steps to develop the photovoltaic home market. The installed capacity of photovoltaic plants in China is expected to be somewhere between 11 GWc and 18 GWc in 2015, figures to be compared with only 0.9 GWc in 2010. (A.C.)

  16. Photovoltaic procurement strategies: an assessment of supply issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, D.; Costello, D.

    1980-02-01

    This review report presents the results of an analysis of alternative approaches to the design of a federal photovoltaics procurement program. Advantages and disadvantages of large purchases at fixed prices and smaller purchases for testing and demonstrating the technology are presented. The objectives and possible impacts of these purchase programs on the photovoltaic industry are described. The reactions of the industry to alternative purchase programs were assessed using personal interviews with selected companies currently active in photovoltaics. The report begins with a review of the impacts of federal procurements on other innovations, including the electronics industry, and suggests the relation of these procurements to photovoltaics. The methodology for conducting the interviews is presented next. The results of the interviews are summarized into possible scenarios of future developments in the industry and into discussions of key issues in the design of a procurement program. An appendix on the current structure of the photovoltaic industry is provided.

  17. 1992 DOE/Sandia crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A. [ed.

    1992-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia National Laboratories` Photovoltaic Technology and Photovoltaic Evaluation Departments. It contains information supplied by organizations making presentations at the meeting, which was held July 14--15, 1992 at the Sheraton Old Town Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Overview sessions covered the Department of Energy (DOE) program, including those at Sandia and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and non-DOE programs, including the EPRI concentrator collector program, The Japanese crystalline silicon program, and some concentrating photovoltaic activities in Europe. Additional sessions included papers on Sandia`s Photovoltaic Device Fabrication Laboratory`s collaborative research, cell processing research, the activities of the participants in the Concentrator Initiative Program, and photovoltaic technology evaluation at Sandia and NREL.

  18. Implementing agreement on photovoltaic power systems - Annual report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This annual report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) reports on the programme's activities in 2009. The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative research and development agreements established within the IEA. Its mission is to enhance international collaboration efforts which support the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. In this annual report, the programme's mission and its strategies for reaching four objectives are reviewed and status reports on the programme's various tasks and sub-tasks are presented, as are activities planned for 2010. The tasks include the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems, a study on very large scale photovoltaic power generation system, photovoltaic services for developing countries, urban-scale PV applications, hybrid systems within mini-grids, PV environmental health and safety activities, performance and reliability of PV systems and high penetration PV in electricity grids. The status and prospects in the 23 countries and organisations participating in the programme are presented. Along with country-specific topics, industry activities, research, development and demonstration projects, applications, education and governmental activities as well as future activities are reviewed. Finally, completed tasks are reviewed. These include the performance, reliability and analysis of photovoltaic systems, the use of photovoltaic power systems in stand-alone and island applications, grid interconnection of building integrated and other distributed photovoltaic power systems, design and operation of modular photovoltaic plants for large scale power generation and photovoltaic power systems in the built environment. The report is completed with a list of Executive Committee members and Operating Agents.

  19. Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Module Stability and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Profits realized from investment in photovoltaic will benefit from decades of reliable operation. Service life prediction through accelerated tests is only possible if indoor tests duplicate power loss and failure modes observed in fielded systems. Therefore, detailing and quantifying power loss and failure modes is imperative. In the first section, we examine recent trends in degradation rates, the gradual power loss observed for different technologies, climates and other significant factors. In the second section, we provide a summary of the most commonly observed failure modes in fielded systems.

  20. Status of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maish, A.B.

    1994-04-01

    Several leading line- and point-focus photovoltaic concentrator system development programs are reviewed, including those by ENTECH, SEA Corporation, AMONIX, and Alpha Solarco. Concentrating collectors and trackers are gaining maturity and reaching product status as designs are made more manufacturable and reliable. Utilities are starting to take notice of this emerging technology, and several privately-funded utility installations are underway. Several advantages are offered by concentrators, including low system and capital cost and rapid production ramp-up. These are discussed along with issues generally raised concerning concentrator technology.

  1. Field failure mechanisms for photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning in 1976, Department of Energy field centers have installed and monitored a number of field tests and application experiments using current state-of-the-art photovoltaic modules. On-site observations of module physical and electrical degradation, together with in-depth laboratory analysis of failed modules, permits an overall assessment of the nature and causes of early field failures. Data on failure rates are presented, and key failure mechanisms are analyzed with respect to origin, effect, and prospects for correction. It is concluded that all failure modes identified to date are avoidable or controllable through sound design and production practices.

  2. Solar simulator for concentrator photovoltaic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, César; Antón, Ignacio; Sala, Gabriel

    2008-09-15

    A solar simulator for measuring performance of large area concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules is presented. Its illumination system is based on a Xenon flash light and a large area collimator mirror, which simulates natural sun light. Quality requirements imposed by the CPV systems have been characterized: irradiance level and uniformity at the receiver, light collimation and spectral distribution. The simulator allows indoor fast and cost-effective performance characterization and classification of CPV systems at the production line as well as module rating carried out by laboratories.

  3. Photovoltaic village power systems: the minigrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The photovoltaic power system of Schuchuli, a Papgo Indian village in Arizona, USA, is described and illustrated. 24 solar panels, each 1.22 x 2.44 m supply up to 3.5 kW at a supply voltage of 120 Vdc. Energy storage is provided by fifty-two 2380-Ah batteries connected in series. A load management system is utilized to disconnect, progressively, different loads as the battery capacity falls, and to reconnect the loads in the reverse sequence as the batteries become recharged. Such a system is considered eminently suitable for villages in the Third World. 5 references.

  4. Reliability of photovoltaic systems: A field report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. G.; Fuentes, M. K.; Lashway, C.; Black, B. D.

    Performance studies and field measurements of photovoltaic systems indicate a 1 to 2% per year degradation in array energy production. The cause for much of the degradation has been identified as soiling, failed modules, and failures in interconnections. System performance evaluation continues to be complicated by the poor reliability of some power conditioning hardware that has greatly diminished the system availability and by inconsistent field ratings. Nevertheless, the current system reliability is consistent with degradation of less than 10% in 5 years and with estimates of less than 10% per year of the energy value for O and M.

  5. Reliability of photovoltaic systems - A field report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M. G.; Fuentes, M. K.; Lashway, C.; Black, B. D.

    Performance studies and field measurements of photovoltaic systems indicate a 1-2-percent/yr degradation in array energy production. The cause for much of the degradation has been identified as soiling, failed modules, and failures in interconnections. System performance evaluation continues to be complicated by the poor reliability of some power conditioning hardware (which greatly diminished system availability) and by inconsistent field ratings. Nevertheless, the current system reliability is consistent with degradation of less than 10 percent in 5 years and with estimates of less than 10 percent/yr of the energy value for O&M.

  6. Photovoltaic domestic field trial. Third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    An update on a photovoltaics field trial that has been running for four years is presented. The PV Domestic Field Trial was set up to use the design, construction, performance and monitoring of PV units to generate data for utilities, builders and other current and potential users of PVs. Subjects covered were appearance of the systems, architectural integration, fixing methods, cost effectiveness, opinions of users, monitoring and results. During the past 12 months, most of the human effort has gone into collation of data from 22 of the 28 projects. The study was sponsored by Great Britain's DTI.

  7. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Durrant, James R.; Tsoi, Wing C.

    2016-06-01

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  8. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; McNutt, P.; Lisell, L.; Burch, J.; Jones, D.; Heinicke, D.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  9. Photovoltaic pilot projects in the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.; Grassi, G.; Schnell, W.

    The paper presents proposals received for the construction of photovoltaic pilot plants as part of the Commission of the European Communities' second 4-year solar energy R and D program. The proposed plants range from 30 to 300 kWp and cover a variety of applications including rural electrification, water pumping, desalination, dairy farming, factories, hospitals, schools and vacation centers. Fifteen projects will be accepted with a total generating capacity of 1 MWp, with preference given to those projects involving the development of new techniques, components and systems.

  10. Photovoltaic Degradation Rates -- An Analytical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-06-01

    As photovoltaic penetration of the power grid increases, accurate predictions of return on investment require accurate prediction of decreased power output over time. Degradation rates must be known in order to predict power delivery. This article reviews degradation rates of flat-plate terrestrial modules and systems reported in published literature from field testing throughout the last 40 years. Nearly 2000 degradation rates, measured on individual modules or entire systems, have been assembled from the literature, showing a median value of 0.5%/year. The review consists of three parts: a brief historical outline, an analytical summary of degradation rates, and a detailed bibliography partitioned by technology.

  11. Behavioral Model of Photovoltaic Panel in Simulink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAPLATILEK, K.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with creation and application of a model of photovoltaic panel in the MATLAB and Simulink environments. An original model of the real PV panel is applied using the model based design technique. A so-called physical model is also developed using the SimPowerSystems library. The described PV panel model is applied for maximum power optimization in the one-shot and the continuous modes. A few illustrating examples and source code parts are also presented.

  12. Ultrafast Photovoltaic Response in Ferroelectric Nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daranciang, Dan

    2012-02-15

    We show that light drives large-amplitude structural changes in thin films of the prototypical ferroelectric PbTiO3 via direct coupling to its intrinsic photovoltaic response. Using time-resolved x-ray scattering to visualize atomic displacements on femtosecond timescales, photoinduced changes in the unit-cell tetragonality are observed. These are driven by the motion of photogenerated free charges within the ferroelectric and can be simply explained by a model including both shift and screening currents, associated with the displacement of electrons first antiparallel to and then parallel to the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  13. Flexible, light trapping substrates for organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonseok; Berger, Jana; Tang, Zheng; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Lasagni, Andrés Fabián; Vandewal, Koen; Leo, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Micro-structured organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrates are produced using direct laser interference patterning (DLIP). The performance of organic solar cells on these substrates is improved by a factor of 1.16, and a power conversion efficiency of 7.70% is achieved. We show that a shorter spatial period of the pattern allows for a stronger light trapping effect in solar cell, as it leads to a longer light path. Moreover, since the patterned structures are located on the outside of the fully encapsulated OPV devices, there are no problems with the roughness induced shunts.

  14. Oil companies and photovoltaics: a potential monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    Oil companies are rapidly acquiring a huge share of the photovoltaics (PV) industry, causing concern by some solar advocates that PV ultimately might be controlled by large companies with no immediate incentive to develop the technology. A review of antitrust laws reveals they are only minimally applicable to a new field such as PV. Federal legislation preventing further oil company investments is not necessarily the best approach to keeping the PV industry healthy, financially as well as competitively. Instead, the government should encourage competition by providing financial assistance for small PV businesses.

  15. Photovoltaic cell with nano-patterned substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zhou, Xiaowang; Zubia, David

    2016-10-18

    A photovoltaic solar cell comprises a nano-patterned substrate layer. A plurality of nano-windows are etched into an intermediate substrate layer to form the nano-patterned substrate layer. The nano-patterned substrate layer is positioned between an n-type semiconductor layer composed of an n-type semiconductor material and a p-type semiconductor layer composed of a p-type semiconductor material. Semiconductor material accumulates in the plurality of nano-windows, causing a plurality of heterojunctions to form between the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer.

  16. Photovoltaic: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Herbert J.

    This instructional manual contains 11 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on photovoltaic converters. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction; solar radiation--input for photovoltaic converters; photovoltaic cells; solar electric generator systems; characteristics of silicon cells; photovoltaic module source resistance;…

  17. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yan; Arinze, Ebuka S.; Palmquist, Nathan; Thon, Susanna M.

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  18. Tracking-integrated systems for concentrating photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoleris, Harry; Stefancich, Marco; Chiesa, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems, which use optical elements to focus light onto small-area solar cells, have the potential to minimize the costs, while improving efficiency, of photovoltaic technology. However, CPV is limited by the need to track the apparent motion of the Sun. This is typically accomplished using high-precision mechanical trackers that rotate the entire module to maintain normal light incidence. These machines are large, heavy and expensive to build and maintain, deterring commercial interest and excluding CPV from the residential market. To avoid this issue, some attention has recently been devoted to the development of tracking-integrated systems, in which tracking is performed inside the CPV module itself. This creates a compact system geometry that could be less expensive and more suitable for rooftop installation than existing CPV trackers. We review the basic tracking principles and concepts exploited in these systems, describe and categorize the existing designs, and discuss the potential impact of tracking integration on CPV cost models and commercial potential.

  19. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2011-11-22

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) offer a path toward high-efficiency photovoltaics based on low-cost materials and processes. Spectral tunability via the quantum size effect facilitates absorption of specific wavelengths from across the sun\\'s broad spectrum. CQD materials\\' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements represent important first steps toward commercially compelling performance. Here we review advances in device architecture and materials science. We diagnose the principal phenomenon-electronic states within the CQD film band gap that limit both current and voltage in devices-that must be cured for CQD PV devices to fulfill their promise. We close with a prescription, expressed as bounds on the density and energy of electronic states within the CQD film band gap, that should allow device efficiencies to rise to those required for the future of the solar energy field. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  20. Photovoltaics: From the laboratory to the marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.S.; Surek, T.; Thornton, J.

    1991-03-01

    Photovoltaics (PV), the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity, is experiencing significant improvements in technology performance and lowered costs. Fostering these improvements, the SERI Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development (PV AR D) Project supports research and provides services to the US PV industry. This paper presents the recent advances and future direction of the PV project. Research areas are Fundamental and Supporting Research, Advanced Thin-Film Materials, High-Efficiency Materials, Module Development, and Systems Development. Materials of interest include amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, crystalline silicon, gallium arsenide and related alloys, transparent conductors, antireflection coatings, substrates, and encapsulants. The PV project inherently provides technology transfer that helps industry shorten the time to bring R D advances to the marketplace. SERI annually performs over 10,000 measurements for the entire PV community, participates in collaborative research, and welcomes visiting scientists. Two specific areas of recently increased national focus are: (1) manufacturing processes for cost-effective PV modules, and (2) systems development for high-value utility applications. The SERI research approach is based on facilitating direct contact between industry, electric utilities, and others interested in PV technology. This approach heavily relies on SERI/industry partnerships. The arrangements vary to address generic and company-specific problems to improve the US industry's competitive position and accelerate greater electric utility deployment of PV systems. 5 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Practical roadmap and limits to nanostructured photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Richard R; Osedach, Timothy P; Brown, Patrick R; Rowehl, Jill A; Bulović, Vladimir

    2011-12-22

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power conversion efficiency (PCE). With the emergence of a multitude of nanostructured photovoltaic (nano-PV) device architectures, the question has arisen of where both the practical and the fundamental limits of performance reside in these new systems. Here, the former is addressed a posteriori. The specific challenges associated with improving the electrical power conversion efficiency of various nano-PV technologies are discussed and several approaches to reduce their thermal losses beyond the single bandgap limit are reviewed. Critical considerations related to the module lifetime and cost that are unique to nano-PV architectures are also addressed. The analysis suggests that a practical single-junction laboratory power conversion efficiency limit of 17% and a two-cell tandem power conversion efficiency limit of 24% are possible for nano-PVs, which, when combined with operating lifetimes of 10 to 15 years, could position them as a transformational technology for solar energy markets.

  2. Acetylene-based materials in organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Fabio; Marrocchi, Assunta

    2010-04-08

    Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (poly)arylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (poly)arylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (co)polymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C(60), and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  3. Installations solaires photovoltaïques

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Cet ouvrage présente les règles de conception et de mise en œuvre des installations photovoltaïques raccordées au réseau public de distribution à basse tension. Il s’applique aux bâtiments neufs et existants et concerne non seulement les petites installations résidentielles, d’une puissance de l’ordre de quelques kWc, mais aussi celles des bâtiments collectifs, tertiaires ou agricoles. Il traite successivement : - des fondamentaux de l'énergie solaire photovoltaïque (gisement solaire, principe de la conversion, composants d'une installation...) ; - du dimensionnement de l'installation (choix des matériels, règles de conception, estimation de l'énergie récupérable...) ; - de sa mise en oeuvre (travail en hauteur, habilitation électrique, mise en service, maintenance...) ; - des démarches administratives nécessaires (aides financières, accès au réseau de distribution, vente de l'électricité produite...).

  4. Inkjet technology for crystalline silicon photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stüwe, David; Mager, Dario; Biro, Daniel; Korvink, Jan G

    2015-01-27

    The world's ever increasing demand for energy necessitates technologies that generate electricity from inexhaustible and easily accessible energy sources. Silicon photovoltaics is a technology that can harvest the energy of sunlight. Its great characteristics have fueled research and development activities in this exciting field for many years now. One of the most important activities in the solar cell community is the investigation of alternative fabrication and structuring technologies, ideally serving both of the two main goals: device optimization and reduction of fabrication costs. Inkjet technology is practically evaluated along the whole process chain. Research activities cover many processes, such as surface texturing, emitter formation, or metallization. Furthermore, the inkjet technology itself is manifold as well. It can be used to apply inks that serve as a functional structure, present in the final device, as mask for subsequent structuring steps, or even serve as a reactant source to activate chemical etch reactions. This article reviews investigations of inkjet-printing in the field of silicon photovoltaics. The focus is on the different inkjet processes for individual fabrication steps of a solar cell. A technological overview and suggestions about where future work will be focused on are also provided. The great variety of the investigated processes highlights the ability of the inkjet technology to find its way into many other areas of functional printing and printed electronics.

  5. Advancing colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs are attractive materials for solar cells due to their low cost, ease of fabrication and spectral tunability. Progress in CQD photovoltaic technology over the past decade has resulted in power conversion efficiencies approaching 10%. In this review, we give an overview of this progress, and discuss limiting mechanisms and paths for future improvement in CQD solar cell technology.We briefly summarize nanoparticle synthesis and film processing methods and evaluate the optoelectronic properties of CQD films, including the crucial role that surface ligands play in materials performance. We give an overview of device architecture engineering in CQD solar cells. The compromise between carrier extraction and photon absorption in CQD photovoltaics is analyzed along with different strategies for overcoming this trade-off. We then focus on recent advances in absorption enhancement through innovative device design and the use of nanophotonics. Several light-trapping schemes, which have resulted in large increases in cell photocurrent, are described in detail. In particular, integrating plasmonic elements into CQD devices has emerged as a promising approach to enhance photon absorption through both near-field coupling and far-field scattering effects. We also discuss strategies for overcoming the single junction efficiency limits in CQD solar cells, including tandem architectures, multiple exciton generation and hybrid materials schemes. Finally, we offer a perspective on future directions for the field and the most promising paths for achieving higher device efficiencies.

  6. Perspectives on organolead halide perovskite photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Alex

    2016-07-01

    A number of photovoltaic technologies have been developed for large-scale solar-power production. The single-crystal first-generation photovoltaic devices were followed by thin-film semiconductor absorber layers layered between two charge-selective contacts, and more recently, by nanostructured or mesostructured solar cells that utilize a distributed heterojunction to generate charge carriers and to transport holes and electrons in spatially separated conduits. Even though a number of materials have been trialed in nanostructured devices, the aim of achieving high-efficiency thin-film solar cells in such a manner as to rival the silicon technology has yet to be attained. Organolead halide perovskites have recently emerged as a promising material for high-efficiency nanoinfiltrated devices. An examination of the efficiency evolution curve reveals that interfaces play a paramount role in emerging organic electronic applications. To optimize and control the performance in these devices, a comprehensive understanding of the contacts is essential. However, despite the apparent advances made, a fundamental theoretical analysis of the physical processes taking place at the contacts is still lacking. However, experimental ideas, such as the use of interlayer films, are forging marked improvements in efficiencies of perovskite-based solar cells. Furthermore, issues of long-term stability and large-area manufacturing have some way to go before full commercialization is possible.

  7. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC, Broomfield, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-02-24

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection to the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.

  8. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  9. Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

  10. Combined solar-thermal/photovoltaic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, Stefan; Schroer, Sandra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. Fotovoltaico]. E-mail: krauter@coe.ufrj.br; Salhi, Mohammed J. [Solon AG fuer Solartechnik, Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail: solonag@solonag.com; Hanitsch, Rolf [Berlin Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Inst. for Electrical Energy Systems]. E-mail: rolf.hanitsch@iee.TU-Berlin.de

    2000-07-01

    Combination of photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal elements allows to generate electricity and heat at reduced costs. The substitution of conventional facade elements (includes the thermal insulation of building) increases the benefit. Conventional photovoltaic are built as curtain facades in front of thermally insulated buildings with air ducts in between. This causes additional costs for support structures and installation, while heat dissipation from the solar cells is often not optimal. Measurements carried out are facing both concerns: integration of a thermal insulation layer (which meets the latest german heat preserving regulation WSW 95) into the P V facade allows a reduction of cell operating temperature of 18 K, resulting in a 8 % increase in electrical output at an air velocity of about 2 m/s. Cell temperatures increase by 20.7 K at thermal insulating P V facade elements (TIPVE) without cooling, which causes a 9.3 % loss of electrical yield, but installation costs can be reduced by 20 % (all related to a conventional P V curtain plus a heat insulating facade at a building). HYTIPVE, a hybrid thermal insulating P V facade element combined with a water cooling system, which could also serve for hot water heating, lowers operating cells temperature by 20 K and increases electrical yield by 9 % (referred to conventional curtain P V facades). Further economic investigations of each HYTIPVE including its operational costs and substitution effect related to the electrical and thermal yield are on the way. (author)

  11. Analysis of Photovoltaic Maximum Power Point Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerachary, Mummadi

    The photovoltaic generator exhibits a non-linear i-v characteristic and its maximum power point (MPP) varies with solar insolation. An intermediate switch-mode dc-dc converter is required to extract maximum power from the photovoltaic array. In this paper buck, boost and buck-boost topologies are considered and a detailed mathematical analysis, both for continuous and discontinuous inductor current operation, is given for MPP operation. The conditions on the connected load values and duty ratio are derived for achieving the satisfactory maximum power point operation. Further, it is shown that certain load values, falling out of the optimal range, will drive the operating point away from the true maximum power point. Detailed comparison of various topologies for MPPT is given. Selection of the converter topology for a given loading is discussed. Detailed discussion on circuit-oriented model development is given and then MPPT effectiveness of various converter systems is verified through simulations. Proposed theory and analysis is validated through experimental investigations.

  12. Dyes and Materials for Sensitised Electrochemical Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirnasr, M.; Brooks, K. G.; McEvoy, A. J.; Nazeeruddin, M. K.; Pechy, P.; Thampi, K. R.; Grätzel, M.

    2001-11-01

    The present concepts evolved in the context of research and development of artificial photosynthetic systems. Our biosphere depends totally on the action of a porphyrin dye, chlorophyll, for its continued existance, since all food resources find their origin in photosynthesis. Equally, for much of our energy resources we rely on the same process, present or past, as stored in fossil fuels. Naturally, therefore, when it comes to the molecular design of dyes for solar photochemical applications the reference to the porphyrins and similar organometallic complexes based on nitrogen ring structures as prototypes is obvious. However, although nature confines itself to magnesium and iron for its principal pigments, chlorophyll and haemoglobin respectively, the synthetic chemist can access the whole range of metallic elements. The use of ruthenium pyridyl complexes has almost thirty years of development history, and although other compounds have been assessed, such as zinc porphyrins and even prussian-blue analogues, the most suitable dyes today are still modifications of the ruthenium-based pyridyl complexes. The molecular engineering of dyes extends the visible spectrum response, enhances stability and promotes chemisorption to oxide semiconductor substrates while maintaining the energetics and kinetics for efficient charge transfer to function in sensitised electrochemical photovoltaic devices. There is also an overview of the present status of the technology, the materials incorporated in current devices, and their reliability in practical applications especially in situations of thermal stress. The conclusion will present the case for ongoing development of dye-sensitised systems in photovoltaic technology.

  13. Acetylene-Based Materials in Organic Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silvestri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel alternatives, such as solar energy, are moving to the forefront in a variety of research fields. Organic photovoltaic systems hold the promise of a lightweight, flexible, cost-effective solar energy conversion platform, which could benefit from simple solution-processing of the active layer. The discovery of semiconductive polyacetylene by Heeger et al. in the late 1970s was a milestone towards the use of organic materials in electronics; the development of efficient protocols for the palladium catalyzed alkynylation reactions and the new conception of steric and conformational advantages of acetylenes have been recently focused the attention on conjugated triple-bond containing systems as a promising class of semiconductors for OPVs applications. We review here the most important and representative (polyarylacetylenes that have been used in the field. A general introduction to (polyarylacetylenes, and the most common synthetic approaches directed toward making these materials will be firstly given. After a brief discussion on working principles and critical parameters of OPVs, we will focus on molecular arylacetylenes, (copolymers containing triple bonds, and metallopolyyne polymers as p-type semiconductor materials. The last section will deal with hybrids in which oligomeric/polymeric structures incorporating acetylenic linkages such as phenylene ethynylenes have been attached onto C60, and their use as the active materials in photovoltaic devices.

  14. Perovskite solar cells: an emerging photovoltaic technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Gyu Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells based on organometal halides represent an emerging photovoltaic technology. Perovskite solar cells stem from dye-sensitized solar cells. In a liquid-based dye-sensitized solar cell structure, the adsorption of methylammonium lead halide perovskite on a nanocrystalline TiO2 surface produces a photocurrent with a power conversion efficiency (PCE of around 3–4%, as first discovered in 2009. The PCE was doubled after 2 years by optimizing the perovskite coating conditions. However, the liquid-based perovskite solar cell receives little attention because of its stability issues, including instant dissolution of the perovskite in a liquid electrolyte. A long-term, stable, and high efficiency (∼10% perovskite solar cell was developed in 2012 by substituting the solid hole conductor with a liquid electrolyte. Efficiencies have quickly risen to 18% in just 2 years. Since PCE values over 20% are realistically anticipated with the use of cheap organometal halide perovskite materials, perovskite solar cells are a promising photovoltaic technology. In this review, the opto-electronic properties of perovskite materials and recent progresses in perovskite solar cells are described. In addition, comments on the issues to current and future challenges are mentioned.

  15. Fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Dongbo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hee Un; Xu, Fei; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Energy is currently one of the most important problems humankind faces. Depletion of traditional energy sources such as coal and oil results in the need to develop new ways to create, transport, and store electricity. In this regard, the sun, which can be considered as a giant nuclear fusion reactor, represents the most powerful source of energy available in our solar system. For photovoltaic cells to gain widespread acceptance as a source of clean and renewable energy, the cost per watt of solar energy must be decreased. Organic photovoltaic cells, developed in the past two decades, have potential as alternatives to traditional inorganic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, which suffer from high environmental pollution and energy consumption during production. Organic photovoltaic cells are composed of a blended film of a conjugated-polymer donor and a soluble fullerene-derivative acceptor sandwiched between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated indium tin oxide positive electrode and a low-work-function metal negative electrode. Considerable research efforts aim at designing and synthesizing novel fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors with up-raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, better light-harvesting properties, higher electron mobility, and better miscibility with the polymer donor for improving the power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we systematically review novel fullerene acceptors synthesized through chemical modification for enhancing the photovoltaic performance by increasing open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor, which determine the performance of organic photovoltaic cells.

  16. Fabrication and life cycle assessment of organic photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anctil, Annick

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demand for renewable energy has resulted in a new interest for alternative technologies such as organic photovoltaics. With efficiencies exceeding 8% for both polymer and small molecule photovoltaics, organic photovoltaics are now being commercialized due to their flexibility and low weight which allow for their adoption in new applications such as portable electronics, smart fabrics, and building-integrated photovoltaics. To date, most research efforts have been focused on increasing power efficiency with little assessment of potential negative impacts associated with their large scale production. It is generally assumed that organic photovoltaics have low environmental impacts and are by nature inexpensive to produce since they are often solution processed. In the present work, a comprehensive analysis of the life cycle embodied energy for C60 and C70 fullerenes which are the most common acceptor molecules in organic photovoltaics, has been performed from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes. The embodied energy of all fullerenes was calculated to be an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals. These results have enabled the life cycle impact associated with the production of various types of organic photovoltaics to be calculated, including polymer, small molecule and multi-junction devices. An outcome of the life cycle assessment for organic photovoltaics shows that small molecule devices require significant fabrication energy from high vacuum processing and their efficiency is limited by poor absorption in the near-infrared (NIR). Therefore, a solution processing approach with novel NIR absorbing molecules in multi-junction devices has been developed in order to minimize the total cumulative energy. The combined efforts have led to the first demonstration of a spray-coated small molecule photovoltaic NIR device, using a combination of ZnPc and Al

  17. 1990 DOE/SANDIA crystalline photovoltaic technology project review meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruby, D.S. (ed.)

    1990-07-01

    This document serves as the proceedings for the annual project review meeting held by Sandia's Photovoltaic Cell Research Division and Photovoltaic Technology Division. It contains information supplied by each organization making a presentation at the meeting, which was held August 7 through 9, 1990 at the Sheraton Hotel in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Sessions were held to discuss national photovoltaic programs, one-sun crystalline silicon cell research, concentrator silicon cell research, concentrator 3-5 cell research, and concentrating collector development.

  18. Photovoltaics for professionals solar electric systems marketing, design and installation

    CERN Document Server

    Falk, Antony; Remmers, Karl-Heinz

    2007-01-01

    For the building industry, the installation of photovoltaic systems has become a new field of activity. Interest in solar energy is growing and future business prospects are excellent. Photovoltaics for Professionals describes the practicalities of marketing, designing and installing photovoltaic systems, both grid-tied and stand-alone. It has been written for electricians, technicians, builders, architects and building engineers who want to get involved in this expanding industry. It answers all the beginner's questions as well as serving as a textbook and work of reference

  19. Behavior of Photovoltaic during the Partial Solar Eclipse in Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Rusli, A.; Purnamasari, A.; Abdullah, A. G.; Riza, L. S.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavior of photovoltaic system during the partial solar eclipse phenomenon of 9 March 2016 in Bandung, Indonesia. In the experimental method, we monitored the impact of the solar eclipse on the photovoltaic system in solar cell system. To qualitatively explain the experimental observations, we compared the behavior of photovoltaic system in the solar eclipse day (9 March 2016) with the two sunny days (8 and 10 March 2016). The experimental results showed that the intensity and electricity power increased along with the solar light irradiation time. However, when there is a solar eclipse phenomenon, the intensity and electricity power is suddenly down.

  20. Band gap tuning of nickelates for photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Wang, Le; You, Lu; Zhou, Yang; Fang, Liang; Wang, Shiwei; Wang, Junling

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid perovskites have achieved tremendous success as a light absorber in solar cells during the past few years. However, the stability issue casts shadow on their practical applications. Perovskite oxides may offer an alternative. In this study, the metal-insulator transition in perovskite neodymium nickelates (NdNiO3) is systematically tuned by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure during film growth. Room temperature insulating films with different band gaps are obtained. Testing photovoltaic cells have been prepared by combining the nickelates with Nb-doped SrTiO3, and photovoltaic performance has been optimized. Our study offers a new route for designing novel photovoltaic materials.