WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceilings

  1. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  2. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... temperature as well as optimizing the radiant cooling potential by combining with thermal mass is conducted and gives a direction for further investigation....

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    and numerical studies on diffuse ceiling ventilation. Performance in terms of thermal comfort, air quality, pressure drop as well as radiant cooling potential are examined. Finally, a discussion on the proper design of the suspended ceiling and plenum to achieve a uniform air distribution and surface......As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... thermal comfort in the occupant zone. Another characteristic of this system is its lower pressure drop compared with conventional ventilation systems, which reduces the noise problem and, at the same time, the energy consumption of the fan can be reduced. This review is based on a number of experimental...

  4. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  5. What Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  6. Glass ceilings of professionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    The term glass ceiling is a political term often used to describe an unbreakable barrier that isnot visible with the human eye, but it keeps minorities from rising up i.e. it is a barrier to minoritygroups, in the past (and sometimes still) for women, that stops them from achieving theirtrue potential. PMID:27290754

  7. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  9. Glass Ceiling : Women in management

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Virve

    2010-01-01

    This study has examined the phenomenon called Glass Ceiling. It has approached the phenomenon in two different views. One is career development and another one is women in management. Main purpose for this study was to inspect women working life and career opportunities. Why women’s career developments end in a certain level? What is glass ceiling and how to break it? Paper also investigates reasons behind the effect. Prejudices and biases are the worst enemies for women’s career. How to chan...

  10. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  11. An Economic Theory of Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Grout, Paul A.; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2009-01-01

    In the 'glass ceiling' debate there appear to be two strongly held and opposing interpretations of the evidence, one suggesting it is really the result of gender differences and the other that there is discrimination by gender. This paper provides an economic theory of the glass ceiling and one of the main insights of our analysis is that in some real sense these two interpretations are not in conflict with each other. The glass ceiling emerges as an equilibrium phenomenon when firms compete ...

  12. Aggregate expenditure ceilings and allocative flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Robinson

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how to combine top-down budgeting – in the core sense of the establishment of a hard aggregate expenditure ceiling at the start of the budget preparation process – with flexibility in the allocation of the aggregate ceiling between spending ministries during budget preparation. It argues strongly against determining spending ministry shares of the aggregate expenditure ceiling without any prior opportunity for them to present formal new spending proposals. The keys to recon...

  13. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  14. The Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    While minorities and women have made considerable gains in entering the workforce in the last few decades, there remains a dearth of minorities and women at management levels. This phenomenon has come to be known as the "glass ceiling." The Department of Labor defines the glass ceiling as those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or…

  15. Women's Career Development at the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Pamela L.

    1998-01-01

    For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)

  16. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling. PMID:25306838

  17. An Economic Theory of the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Grout, Paul A.; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2007-01-01

    The glass ceiling is one of the most controversial and emotive aspects of employment in organisations. This paper provides a model of the glass ceiling that exhibits the following features that are frequently thought to characterise the problem: (i) there is a lower number of female employees in higher positions, (ii) women have to work harder than men to obtain equivalent jobs, (iii) women are then paid less than men when promoted, and (iv) some organisations are more female friendly than ot...

  18. Seismic considerations for suspended ceiling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is engaged in sophisticated research and development activities and its geographic location makes the laboratory subject to the effect of earthquakes, in October 1984, ED2 International Architects and Planners were commissioned by LLNL to provide a Survey of commercially available suspended ceiling systems. The Survey was to include all ceilings types, their relative costs, and recommendations for seismic design. This Survey is in the format of a handbook with seven major headings: generic types of suspended ceiling systems; functional comparative analysis of the various systems; relative costs of various ceiling systems; seismic considerations and recommendations; detailed drawings and suggested methods of assembly; code references; listing of material suppliers, representatives, and available product lines and selection check lists. This Survey of ceiling systems was intended to be used as a guide and a working document for the comparison of available systems. In addition, it was meant to serve as a valuable tool in establishing a definitive code with applicable standards and design criteria for suspended ceiling systems at the laboratory. The work in progress also has replication value to other DOE facilities

  19. The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

  20. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  1. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  2. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  3. Beyond the glass ceiling: Does gender matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ren??e; Funk, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The representation of women in top corporate officer positions is steadily increasing. However, little is known about the impact this will have. A large literature documents that women are different from men in their choices and in their preferences, but most of this literature relies on samples of college students or workers at lower levels in the corporate hierarchy. If women must be like men to break the glass ceiling, we might expect gender differences to disappear among top executives. I...

  4. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  5. Politics, Economics, and the Debt Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Talbot Jones; Cameron Visser

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Federal Government has chosen a self-imposed statutory limit on federal debt which has been increased, and occasionally reduced, in sporadic intervals. This paper uses a regression model to examine the time interval between changes in the statutory debt limit and whether the date of the next increase is pushed beyond the next national election. Results show the length of the extension and the likelihood that the ceiling limit lasts beyond the next election is...

  6. Existence of Glass Ceiling in Public Universities of Lahore (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Asifa Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceiling is a set of unseen factors which adversely affect females upward career growth and prevent them to get to top positions. This study is meant to explore existence of glass ceiling in public universities of Lahore (Pakistan); and factors responsible for creating this glass ceiling effect. The respondents of this study are females heading different departments in their respective universities. The results of this study show that different cultural and social, family and organizatio...

  7. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  8. Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James; Björklund, Anders; Vroman, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Using data from 1998, we show that the gender log wage gap in Sweden increases throughout the wage distribution and accelerates in the upper tail of the distribution, which we interpret as a glass ceiling effect. Using earlier data, we show that the same pattern held at the beginning of the 1990?s but not in the prior two decades. Further, we do not find this pattern either for the log wage gap between immigrants and non-immigrants in the Swedish labor market or for the gender gap in the U.S....

  9. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. 354.222 Section 354.222 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Facilities § 354.222 Floors, walls, ceilings, etc. (a) Floors. All floors in rooms where exposed products...

  10. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  11. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  12. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    , the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher...... than the recommended in the standards upper temperature limit of 26°C. In this paper response of 24 human subjects to a PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) is compared with the response to mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). Participants were provided with control of....../return water temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min. At...

  13. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2016-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large...... number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated......-uniformity air distribution and further led to the draught problem in the occupied zone. This system was recommended to apply in the small offices instead of large, open spaces....

  14. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  15. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James W.; Skogmann Thoursie, Peter; Susan B. Vroman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we update and extend "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?" (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how thi...

  16. Existence of Glass Ceiling in Public Universities of Lahore (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Ilyas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling is a set of unseen factors which adversely affect females upward career growth and prevent them to get to top positions. This study is meant to explore existence of glass ceiling in public universities of Lahore (Pakistan; and factors responsible for creating this glass ceiling effect. The respondents of this study are females heading different departments in their respective universities. The results of this study show that different cultural and social, family and organizational barriers adversely affect females’ career growth and make them work in lower subordinate positions despite having suitable qualifications and experiences. The significance of this study comes from the fact that it investigates this issue by taking empirical evidence of those females who personally faced glass ceiling and managed to make their ways to occupy top positions in their respective departments.

  17. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  18. The Glass Ceiling in Politics: Formalization and Empirical Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Folke, Olle; Rickne, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    There is a scarcity of women and minorities at the apex of political power. This paper formalizes the concept of the glass ceiling for political organizations and builds on previous research to suggest four testable criteria. A glass ceiling exists if women and/or racial minorities (1) are discriminated against in the organization's promotion process and (2) the discrimination increases in severity for the top levels of power and over an individual's career trajectory. We suggest a series of ...

  19. New peculiar cave ceiling forms from Carlsbad Caverns (New Mexico, USA): The zenithal ceiling tube-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaforra, Jose-Maria; De Waele, Jo

    2011-11-01

    During a trip to the Hall of the White Giant, Carlsbad Caverns (NM, USA) cigar-shaped vertically upward developing holes were observed on the ceiling at different heights of the passages. They have a circular cross-section with diameters of 1 to some centimetres and taper out towards their upper end. Their walls are smooth and their bottom edges are sharp, while their length can reach several decimetres. Sometimes gypsum can be found inside. They often occur randomly distributed in groups and their development is not necessarily controlled by fractures or other bedrock structures. We name these peculiar karren-like cave microforms “zenithal ceiling tube-holes” because of their origin by H2S environment corrosion processes and their vertical (zenithal) upward growth in ceilings. A comparison is made between zenithal ceiling tube-holes and other karstic or non karstic similar forms such as bell holes, oxidation vents, snailholes, Korrosionskolke (mixture-solution hollows) or pockets, röhrenkarren, light-oriented photokarren, borings of (often marine) organisms and negative stalactites. Zenithal ceiling tube-holes are created by the corrosive effect of sulphuric acid. H2S(g) dissolves in water giving rise to widespread sulphuric acid corrosion. When H2S bubbles are trapped underneath overhanging surfaces or ceilings and water level rises steadily the corrosive effect is concentrated vertically upwards, drilling vertical holes that can also completely pass overhanging rock ledges.

  20. Thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings; Thermisches Verhalten von Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C.

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings is so far described by characteristic equations in the form of q=C x {delta}{theta}{sup n}. In special cases these equations are extended by terms which take into account the radiation exchange between heat sink and space user (operational ambient temperature). This is insufficient. Therefore a model is presented, which describes more exactly the individual processes (radiation, convection) at the cooled surface. As a first step the ceiling area is divided into three ranges in which different phenomena are affecting the heat transfer considerably: 1. Range under the influence of free convection in the space. 2. Range with forced convection caused by a plume along the window. 3. Range with forced convection caused by air flow through supply air outlets. For each of these ranges the fundamentals of heat transfer are applied using the substantial variables. The results of these models are then compared in a second step with results from laboratory tests. This model is developed first for steady-state conditions. It is extended by a second model to describe the dynamic processes (storage). Finally, both steady-state and unsteady conditions are investigated systematically. Results are presented for the cooling rate effected by the temperature of cooling ceiling, ambient conditions, supply air flow rate, supply air temperature and type of the air outlet. The results computed indicate that the maximum total cooling rate is always gained by a combination of a cooling ceiling and a supply air with minimum permissible temperature. In these cases the cooling rate of the ceiling is lower than that without ventilation of the space. However, the additional cooling rate of the ventilation compensates this effect in all cases investigated. This is an important finding, since cooling ceilings usually must be combined with an HVAC system for reasons of dehumidifying. Dried, cooled supply air can thus be supplied to the space without

  1. Perceptions of Primary School Women Managers Toward Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    ÇETİN, Münevver; ATAN, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This research is conducted to defi ne the women school managers’ perceptions toward glass ceiling and the rise of position of the women managers in primary schools.And this research is held out according to the perceptions of women school managers in glass ceiling. Data have been taken from 120 women school managers who have attendedto the research via survey. In analysis of data, such techniques as Independent Samples t- test, Kruskal Wallis and Mann- Whitney U are used. In the end of this r...

  2. Experimental study and modeling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecuanica, AA. 97 Pereira (Colombia); Lebrun, Jean [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Andre, Philippe [Departement Sciences et Gestion de l' Environnement, University of Liege Belgium, 185, Avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the results of an experimental study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. The theoretical approach gives to the user an appropriate tool for preliminary calculation, design and diagnosis in commissioning processes in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. A series of experimental results got on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. (author)

  3. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  4. Smashing into the Glass Ceiling for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Camilla; Gold, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 10 women administrators in a British metropolitan district council revealed the glass ceiling to be a complex phenomenon reaching beyond the employment sphere. Their career progression was hindered by lack of career counseling, family-work conflicts, lack of management development for women, and particularly a managerial culture…

  5. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  6. A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Debra E.; Fletcher, Joyce K.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches to the glass ceiling--encouraging women to adopt "masculine" attributes, accommodating women's unique needs, or celebrating women's differences--have shortcomings. A fourth approach links equity and effectiveness. "Small wins" recognizes that gender inequity is rooted in cultural patterns and uses small initiatives to unearth and upend…

  7. Breaking through the glass ceiling : women in management

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Linda

    2001-01-01

    This book helps us to better understand the problems women face in rising through the ranks and securing top positions, and offers some useful strategies for shattering the glass ceiling. It examines current gender inequalities in the labour market and in political and social life.

  8. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  9. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  10. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  11. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  12. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  13. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided...

  14. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O;

    1985-01-01

    postoperatively with or without external heating from a heating ceiling. Central and peripheral temperatures, oxygen consumption, plasma catecholamines and shivering were measured. A method for continuous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during spontaneous breathing is described....... The results suggest that postoperative external heating decreases oxygen consumption, shivering and plasma catecholamine levels. At the same time, the comfort of the patient is increased considerably....

  15. Self-Positioning Robot Navigation Using Ceiling Image Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Facchinetti Claudio; Tièche, François; Hügli, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a vision-based homing behavior that provides self-positioning for a mobile robot using ceiling structures as landmarks. This new behavior enters the navigation approach we developed for mobile robots, which basic idea is to represent the robot spatial knowledge in a topological map, where nodes consist of self-positioning sites and edges may be any reactive behavior moving the robot between two nodes.

  16. Rent Sharing as a Driver of the Glass Ceiling Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show that rent sharing plays a role in accounting for the glass ceiling effect. We make use of a unique employer-employee panel database for Italy from 1996 to 2003, which allows controlling for observed individual and firm heterogeneity and for collective bargaining. Moreover, by means of IV quantile fixed effects estimates we can cope with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity. We then go on to discuss the possible related explanations.

  17. Is the glass ceiling cracking? A simple test

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Ting; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that there is dramatic increase of female workers into manager level jobs during last few decades in the US labor market. Using Standard & Poor’s Compustat ExecuComp database over 14 years (1992 - 2005), this paper examines whether the glass ceiling in the executive market has been substantially weakened measured by relative compensation by gender and female representation in the top rung of the executive market. Though the status of females in the executive market seems ...

  18. Glass ceiling effects: the case of taiwanese top executives

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-i Wang; Jennjou Chen

    2010-01-01

    Gender discrimination in labor markets has been an important issue in labor economics. The main purpose of this paper is to empirically study glass ceiling effects, and investigate whether female workers are indeed being discriminated against, particularly during the promotion process, in top management positions in Taiwan. This paper uses data from 4,485 large firms in Taiwan to study whether there are gender preferences when the chairperson of a company chooses a chief executive officer (CE...

  19. Expatriate Glass Ceiling : The Perception of Malaysian Female Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from research has repeatedly pointed to the small number of women managers sent on expatriation. The percentage of female expatriates during the 1990’s was as low as 14% of all expatriate managers (Windham/NFTC, 1997). Researchers found that, similar to the glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching top management levels, there seems to be another glass barrier that stops them from taking up international assignments. This subtle, invisible barrier has been referred to as the ex...

  20. Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Alexandros Polycarpou; Konstantinos Vrachimis

    2013-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 26 European countries, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries, definitions of the gap, and selection-correction mechanisms. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in a number of countries, the wage gap is wider at the top (‘glass ceilings...

  1. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund;

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling...... ventilation provides a satisfied thermal comfort level in the occupied zone even under a high ventilation rate and a high heat load condition. A design chart method is adopted to compare different diffuse ceiling configurations, and the results indicate that the system with a 18% diffuse ceiling opening area...... is able to handle the highest heat load without discomfort. On the other hand, a CFD model is built where the diffuse ceiling is simulated with a porous media zone. This model is validated by experimental results and further used to analyze the effect of heat load distribution and room height. The...

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter;

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb this...... flow and, in particular, certain dimensions and positions of the obstacles cause a downward deflection of the jets into the occupied zone resulting in reduced thermal comfort for the inhabitants....

  3. The Perception of 'Glass Ceiling' and its Impact on Career Progression of Female Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The glass ceiling is a transparent barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy. Glass ceiling researchers have attempted to determine whether a glass ceiling exists by examining the actual promotion decision to top management, the percentage of management positions held by women in an organization, salary of male versus female managers, and ratings of potential promotion candidates to top management. The aim of this research is to investigate the vari...

  4. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is a novel air distribution device that combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. A diffuse ceiling distributes the supply air above the acoustic tiles and has proven performance in both laboratory and class room experiments. This paper is a...... numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied with...

  5. Cliff notes: the effects of the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Ozdagli; Peek, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis on the Treasury bill market and possible spillovers to the commercial paper market and money market funds. We also compare this experience with the prior debt-ceiling crisis in 2011. We find that the 2013 debt-ceiling crisis reduced the demand for Treasury bills that were scheduled to mature right after the debt-ceiling deadline, but not for longer-term Treasury bills. Accordingly, we see that a hump formed at the shorter end of the t...

  6. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...... it actually function? Did the wave form have the claimed acoustical avantages or could the ceiling as well have been horisontal. Comprehensive acoustical investigations have been carried out including acoustical measurements in a 1:20 scale model and calculations in a 3D computer model of the lecture...

  7. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    Performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation with regard to thermal comfort and limits of the cooling capacity of the system was studied in a 97 m2-landscape office. Seven operation scenarios were tested: two for mixing ventilation with ceiling mounted fan coils and five with diffuse ceiling...... show that diffuse ceiling ventilation has substantial potential for landscape office applications because it can provide important cooling capacity while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the occupied zone. It does not generate draught in the occupied zone even at large temperature differences...

  8. Laminated primary ceiling barriers for medical accelerator rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the performance of a number of laminated shields used as the primary ceiling barrier for high-energy accelerator rooms was investigated. The neutron and photon dose equivalent rates were measured outside each shield. Based on the measured photon level and the calculated x-ray leakage level the dose equivalent rate due to photons produced by neutron interactions with the shield materials was estimated. Shielding parameters for polyethylene were established for photons and neutrons. It was found that the barriers designed using the techniques given in an NCRP report suffered from excessive radiation leakage. (author)

  9. Measurement results of PCM climate ceilings; Meetresultaten PCM-klimaatplafonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    The 'universal climate machine' is able to air-condition a building endlessly by itself through self-regulatory control. This is a PCM climate ceiling (PCM refers to Phase Change Materials) in which heat exchange takes place through radiation and free convection, but also through forced convection. [Dutch] De 'universele klimaatmachine' kan zelfregelend een gebouw eindeloos autarkisch klimatiseren. Het gaat hier om een PCM-klimaatplafond (PCM staat voor Phase Change Materials) waarbij de warmteoverdracht plaatsvindt door straling en vrije convectie, maar ook door gedwongen convectie.

  10. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...On March 15, 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice of public meeting and availability of the Framework Document regarding energy conservation standards for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document announces an extension of the public comment period for submitting comments on the Framework Document or any other aspect of......

  11. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  12. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR. Design/m

  13. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation uses perforations in the suspended ceiling to deliver air into the occupied zone. Due to the complex geometry of the diffuser, it is not possible to build an exact geometrical model in CFD simulation. Two numerical models are proposed in this study, one is a simplified...

  14. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  15. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  16. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages......, occupancy scenarios and ventilation rates. The gained results indicate that the heat capacity coefficient of the ceiling surface is reduced by around 30% when the suspended ceiling covering is 70% of the total ceiling area, and 45% when the covering area is up to 87%. The results also demonstrate...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout....

  17. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room. The...... and temperature conditions at the same and at slightly higher loads as can be obtained by a vertical ventilation system, a mixing ventilation system with wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low velocity wall-mounted diffuser. The comparison is extended by considering......Experiments with air distribution in rooms generated by a radial ceiling-mounted diffuser and a diffuser generating flow with swirl are compared with the air distribution obtained by mixing ventilation from a wall-mounted diffuser, vertical ventilation and displacement ventilation. The air...

  18. Climate ceilings in school buildings; Klimaatplafonds in scholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Genderen, A.W. [Beekink Installatieadviseurs, Nieuwerkerk aan den IJssel (Netherlands); Van de Nes, R. [ONE Simulations, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The NL Agency programme 'Frisse Scholen' (Fresh Schools) stimulates schools to minimize their energy consumption while upgrading the internal climate. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been used to investigate the expected internal climate inside a class room equipped with a Frisse Scholen 2.0 Easy-Klima cooling and heating ceiling. The CFD simulations demonstrated that the climate inside the class room obtained class A for each of the themes Ventilation capacity, Operative temperature, Local thermal discomfort and Vertical temperature gradient [Dutch] Het Frisse Scholenproject van Agentschap NL stimuleert scholen om minder energie te gebruiken en het binnenmilieu te verbeteren. De aandacht richt zich voor een groot gedeelte op ventilatie terwijl temperatuurbeheersing en thermisch comfort in algemeenheid meer aanleiding vormen voor klachten. Door middel van Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulaties is het te verwachten binnenklimaat onderzocht voor een klaslokaal voorzien van een Frisse Scholen 2.0 klimaatplafond.

  19. Thresholds and Glass Ceilings: Career Pattern of Women Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  20. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings....

  1. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  2. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to document and analyse performance of a new design of diffuse ceiling ventilation system in a typical office room. A full scale measurement is carried out in a climate chamber with an office setup at the Technical University of Denmark. Indoor air temperatures, air speeds, wall...... surface temperatures, pressure loss of the ceiling and ventilation effectiveness are measured for an air change rate of 3.5 h-1 and 5.1 h -1 respectively. A computational fluid dynamics model of the office with the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is built and validated by the full scale measurement...

  3. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John S. Landon-Lane; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...

  4. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John S. Landon-Lane; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...

  5. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air with...

  6. Evaluation of recycled tiles and OSB ceiling materials in closed broiler house prototypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JCM Cravo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the thermal performance of a modular ceiling system for poultry houses. The reduced- and distorted-scale prototypes used ceiling modules made of reforested wood and were covered with recycled long-life package tiles. The following parameters were measured for 21 days: tile internal surface temperature (ST, globe temperature and humidity index (WBGT, and radiant heat load (RHL. Measurements were made at times of highest heat load (11:00 am, 13:00 pm, and 03:00 pm. Collected data were analyzed by "R" statistics software. Means were compared by multiple comparison test (Tukey and linear regression was performed, both at 5% significance level. The results showed that the prototype with the ceiling was more efficient to reduce internal tile surface temperature; however, this was not sufficient to provide a comfortable environment for broilers during the growout. Therefore, other techniques to provide proper cooling are required in addition to the ceiling.

  7. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  8. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected to...... be not much influenced by the flow rate to the room but dependent on the heat load. Previous studies have shown that diffuse ceiling ventilation has an ability to remove large heat loads without compromising the indoor climate. However, recent experiments indicate that the maximum accepted heat load...... decreases with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  9. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions. (paper)

  10. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Florian; Grießhammer, Rainer; Speck, Thomas; Speck, Olga

    2014-03-01

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions. PMID:24503487

  11. The glass ceiling in China: 'it is a virtue for women to have no capability'

    OpenAIRE

    Pilbeam, Stephen; Huang, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This MSc Business and Management Dissertation research examined obstacles that women face in business and management, the reasons for the 'glass ceiling', the strategies being used to access senior positions and the HR strategies adopted by employers to address the 'glass ceiling'. Fundamentally, it is focused on the challenges faced by women in aspiring to senior management positions in a Chinese context. There is evidence to suggest that HR practice is being westernised, principally driven ...

  12. What Are the "Glass Ceiling" Barriers Effects on Women Career Progress in Jordan?

    OpenAIRE

    Excimirey Amer Al-Manasra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the glass ceiling barriers represented by the organizationalpractices and the existence of male culture, and the impact of family, social commitments on women careerprogress in Jordan.A sample of – working mid-level women managers in Jordan are selected to answer a questionnaire on glassceiling barriers and family and social commitments. The results showed that the impact of the glass ceiling ismore significant than the impact of family an...

  13. Prediction of Indoor Airflow Patterns in Livestock Buildings Ventilated through a Diffuse Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Morsing, S.

    2004-01-01

    The airflow conditions in an experimental pig housing unit are examined both experimentally and numerically (simulation) with particular focus on the airflow conditions in the occupational zone of the animals. Two heating setups are used, and the temperature is measured in a horizontal profile at...... the floor and at the ceiling. Good concordances between the measurements and the simulations are reached at the floor level. At the ceiling level, the conformity to the measuring results is unsatisfactory...

  14. WOMEN, GLASS CEILING, AND PROFESSIONALIZATION IN FAMILY SMEs: A MISSED LINK

    OpenAIRE

    LUCREZIA SONGINI; LUCA GNAN

    2009-01-01

    Literature and practical evidence on the glass ceiling have showed that women's presence in ownership does not ensure that they can significantly influence firm decisional processes. Similarly women's presence in governance roles does not entail glass ceiling removal, even in family firms, which are expected to be a more favorable context.Moreover, literature on women's role in family firms has focused mostly on women's expectations, values, and objectives, on the decision-making processes le...

  15. MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATION IN SPECIAL ELEVATOR CAR ENGINEERING AND CONCEPT DESIGN FOR FIXING OF HEAVY LOWERED CEILINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hiep

    2014-01-01

    The thesis objectives comprise of two major parts; one is to present design guidelines for friendlier maintenance in elevator cars, the other is to intro-duce concept designs of fixing mechanism of the lowered ceiling in special elevator car. KONE Industrial Ltd. is the commissioning organization of the dissertation. The obtained results are expected to improve main-tainability in the design of the elevator car; on the other hand, new fixing solutions of the ceiling can meet requirements of ...

  16. Development of LED Ceiling Light%LED天花灯的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光熙; 朱月华; 杨宝东

    2011-01-01

    介绍LED天花灯的结构组成,通过对其主要配件进行测试和分析,提出如何提高LED天花灯性能的建议。%This article introduces the structure of LED ceiling light,and presents some suggestions for improving the performance of LED ceiling light based on the testing and analyses.

  17. THE GLASS CEILING: STRUCTURAL, CULTURAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER BARRIERS FOR FRENCH AND TURKISH WOMEN EXECUTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Cansu Akpinar-Sposito

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This study is particularly focused on the glass ceiling issues and the main career obstacles for female executives based on the findings of a cross-country comparative study between Turkey and France. Prior to collecting the required data, a review was carried out in both countries, the current available and attitudinal studies related to the concept of the 'glass ceiling'. A comparative descriptive analysis was conducted to show differences in career barriers for women between coun...

  18. Do female researchers face a glass ceiling in France? A hazard model of promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Mareva; Carrère, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...

  19. The Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural and Organizational Career Barriers for French and Turkish Women Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Sposito, Cansu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This study is particularly focused on the glass ceiling issues and the main career obstacles for female executives based on the findings of a cross-country comparative study between Turkey and France. Prior to collecting the required data, a review was carried out in both countries, the current available and attitudinal studies related to the concept of the 'glass ceiling'. A comparative descriptive analysis was conducted to show differences in career barriers for women between coun...

  20. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate ...

  1. Cooling ceilings: Five shape the market; Kuehldecken: Fuenf praegen den Markt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisering, F. [Kosmos Kommunikation und Marketing gGmbH (Germany); Lohmueller, S.; Koob, C. [zehnvier Marketingberatung (Switzerland)

    2007-10-15

    The German market for cooling ceilings as well as the current competitive situation are difficult to be understood. Thus, the consulting companies Kosmos Kommunikation und Marketing gGmbH' (Osnabrueck, Federal Republic of Germany) and zehnvier Marketingberatung (Zurich, Switzerland) have compiled a model in order to structure the competition landscape and the market system for cooling ceilings clearer. The contribution under consideration reports on the fundamental considerations according this model, on the assembly as well as utilization of this model.

  2. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    GPR applications in civil engineering are to date quite diversified. With respect to civil constructions and monumental buildings, detection of voids, cavities, layering in structural elements, variation of geometry, of moisture content, of materials, areas of decay, defects, cracks have been reported in timber, concrete and masonry elements. Nonetheless, many more fields of investigation remain unexplored. This contribution gives an account of a variety of examples of structural ceilings investigation by GPR radar in reflection mode, either as 2D or 3D data acquisition and visualisation. Ceilings have a pre-eminent role in buildings as they contribute to a good structural behaviour of the construction. Primarily, the following functions can be listed for ceilings: a) they carry vertical dead and live loads on floors and distribute such loads to the vertical walls; b) they oppose to external horizontal forces such as wind loads and earthquakes helping to transfer such forces from the loaded element to the other walls; c) they contribute to create the box skeleton and behaviour of a building, connecting the different load bearing walls and reducing the slenderness and flexural instability of such walls. Therefore, knowing how ceilings are made in specific buildings is of paramount importance for architects and structural engineers. According to the type of building and age of construction, ceilings may present very different solutions and materials. Moreover, in existing constructions, ceilings may have been substituted, modified or strengthened due to material decay or to change of use of the building. These alterations may often go unrecorded in technical documentation or technical drawings may be unavailable. In many cases, the position, orientation and number of the load carrying elements in ceilings may be hidden or not be in sight, due for example to the presence of false ceilings or to technical plants. GPR radar can constitute a very useful tool for

  3. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  4. Glass Ceiling in the Workplace: An Analysis within the Stated-owned Enterprises and Multi-national Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, although the increasingly number of women has gained leadership positions, the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists in China, especially in multi-national enterprise. In brief, the road to the upper rungs for female is still challenging and difficult. Due to the nature of the enterprises, the performance of glass ceiling is different. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss different performance and influence of glass ceiling in the context of the multi-national enterprises (MN...

  5. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the performance of an integrated system with diffuse ceiling ventilation and a thermally activated building construction. A full-scale experiment is carried out in a hot box with an office setup. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated under different...... boundary conditions, considering different weather conditions, internal heat loads, TABS activation modes and with/without diffuse ceiling. The measurement results indicate that the diffuse ceiling plays a beneficial role improving thermal comfort in the occupied zone. However, the diffuse ceiling has the...

  6. Effect of natural ventilation and wind direction on the thermal performance of a building ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz Ali, Ali [Banha Univ. (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering; Nabil Milad, Guirguis; Mahmoud Aly, Hassan [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Natural ventilation is rapidly becoming a significant part in the design strategy of buildings in situations where electricity is scare or non-existent and saving energy becomes highly important. The aim of present work is to reduce the ceiling temperature by natural ventilation through different opening locations (one window in the front facade and the other window in the rear wall) with sill height ratios of 0.27, 0.36, 0.45, 0.54, and 0.63. Wind tunnel and smoke tunnel were used to investigate the effect of opening locations on the temperature and heat transfer coefficient of a ceiling of a naturally-ventilated room. Here, the ANSYS CFD software was used to determine the flow characteristics in the ventilated room with different opening locations and wind direction. Better flow pattern and heat transfer from the heated ceiling are observed when the front and rear openings are located nearest to the ceiling and center, respectively. An experimental correlation was obtained to predict the influence of sill opening height ratio of front and rear walls on the average heat transfer coefficient ratio of ceiling (h{sub av} / h{sub o}) where (h{sub o}) is the heat transfer coefficient in case of no wind. (orig.)

  7. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  8. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  9. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    An integrated system is proposed in this study to combine diffuse ceiling ventilation with a thermally activated building construction (TABS), aiming to provide cooling/ heating and ventilation to an office room all year around. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated by full......-scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...... through diffuse ceiling is laminar. A thermal decay is found in the plenum air and the thermal performance of TABS may be influenced by water flow and air flow direction....

  10. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling...... effectively creating a plenum for air distribution. The experiments were carried out in a climatic chamber and documented an air change efficiency equal to fully mixed conditions with a pressure drop of 0.5–1.5Pa and with no evidence of thermal discomfort. The magnitude of the pressure drop was enough to...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  11. Validation of a numerical model of acoustic ceiling combined with TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    to understand to which extent a layer of hanging sound absorbers will impede the heating and cooling performance of the system, and how this translates on the thermal comfort for the occupants. In order to address these issues, this study focuses on validation of a new TRNSYS component (Type Ecophon Acoustic...... Elements) developed to simulate partially covered suspended ceilings such as hanging sound absorbers. The tool is validated by numerically modelling a set of similar experiments carried out in full-scale by a previous study. For this, a total of 12 scenarios from two case studies have been modelled......, with varying suspended ceiling coverage ratios, type of suspended ceilings, internal heat gains and TABS water supply temperatures. The results obtained from the simulations are very close to the experimental results. The first set of measurements analyzed the effect of the above-mentioned parameters...

  12. Separation of the Heat Transfer Components for Diffusion Flames Impinging onto Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Wasson, Rachel Ann

    2014-01-01

    Two series of experiments were performed to determine the flow characteristics and to quantify the heat transfer components from a propane diffusion flame impinging onto a ceiling. A 0.3 m square sand burner with propane as the fuel type provided a steady-state fire. In the first series of experiments, measurements of gas temperature and velocity were made at 76 mm vertical intervals above the burner up to the ceiling. Fire heat release rates (HRRs) of 50 kW and 90 kW with free flame lengt...

  13. Gender wage gap and the glass ceiling effect: a firm-level investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Barnet-Verzat; François-Charles Wolff

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the relevance of the glass ceiling effect, according to which the gender log wage gap accelerates in the upper tail of the wage distribution, at the firm level. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 4,654 employees, working in a French private company from the Defence and Aerospace sector. Quantile wage regressions were used to study whether a glass ceiling effect exits at the firm level. The difference be...

  14. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per;

    of thermal comfort and energy performance. 20 cases with different boundary conditions are conducted varying on climate condition heat load. TABS water temperature and flow rate with or without diffuse ceiling. The energy evaluation includes energy balance of test room and cooling or heating capacity...... of TABS. And the thermal comfort is analyzed by draught rate vertical temperature gradient and radiant temperature asymmetry. Finally the effect of plenum and diffuse ceiling is discussed. This report mainly focuses on the experiment results and discussions. Therefore, some details about the...

  15. The Performance of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and other Room Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jakubowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses different room air distribution systems, and describes a design chart which can be used for the evaluation of variables as air quality, air velocity and temperature gradient as a function of flow rate and temperature difference in the supply system. The design chart can also be...... ceiling-mounted diffuser with a swirling flow, displacement ventilation from a wall-mounted low velocity diffuser and vertical ventilation from a ceiling-mounted textile inlet. All these systems can be used in the case of cooling of the room....

  16. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  17. Mentoring Away the Glass Ceiling in Academia: A Cultured Critique edited by Brenda L. H. Marina

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Magali

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring Away the Glass Ceiling in Academia: A Cultured Critiqued (2015) edited by Brenda L. H. Marina, is a comprehensive examination of women’s experiences in various stages in academia and the way in which mentoring can serve as a tool to break the glass ceiling that keep many women from reaching high positions in academia.Over a qualitative approach this book brings together narratives and counternarratives of women in academia to explore the ways mentorship can help the diversity gap fo...

  18. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  19. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of ceiling amount. 1.501(h)-3 Section 1.501(h)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 501(h) for determining whether an organization that...

  20. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  1. Market chances for cooling ceilings in Germany. Competence counts; Marktchancen fuer Kuehldecken in Deutschland. Kompetenz der Akteure entscheidet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, S.; Goosmann, T.

    2005-11-01

    After the boom in cooling ceilings in the mid-nineties, interest went down. The market continued quietly, without current information on market volumes. Kosmos of Osnabrueck University made a current study on the German market for cooling ceilings. Excerpts are presented here. (orig.)

  2. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...... from the diffuse ceiling are characterized....

  3. Consequences of ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms. A tentative analysis of cost effects for EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To safeguard that domestic actions will be taken to meet commitments, the Kyoto Protocol suggests that domestic action should be the main means for reaching the reduction commitments. Imposing ceilings on the purchase of emission reductions is one of the ways to limit the net use of Kyoto mechanisms. Several kinds of ceilings have been suggested. This analysis gives some insight into the cost consequences for EU Member States that result from different types of ceilings for Kyoto mechanisms. The impacts of ceilings can be very large but the precise impact is difficult to estimate due to uncertainties about the price of emission reductions and the price elasticity of the supply of emission reduction. Consequently, decisions on ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms need to be taken with great care. 7 refs

  4. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  5. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  6. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  7. Giacomo Tencalla and ceiling painting in 17th century Bohemia and Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2008), s. 38-64. ISSN 0049-5123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/05/0753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque * fine arts * ceiling painting * architecture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.umeni-art.cz/cz/soubory/madl2.pdf

  8. Giuseppe Bragalli and Bolognese ceiling painting in the Czech Lands in the 17th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 350-379. ISSN 0049-5123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque art * painting * ceiling painting * architecture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Between Meditation and Propaganda. Explicit and Implicit Religious Imagery in Baroque Ceiling Painting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1/2 (2011), s. 11-28. ISSN 1408-0419 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque * ceiling painting * iconography * church Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. Study of insulator sleeve and ceiling effect in Mather type plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron emission from a small Mather-type Plasma Focus facility is studied. Specifically, the effects of insulator sleeve length and a ''ceiling'' introduced in front of the central electrode on the neutron yield and on the fluence anisotropy are investigated. 3 refs, 5 figs

  11. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  12. The Glass Ceiling for Women in Legal Education: Contract Positions and the Death of Tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Marina

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the glass ceiling for women in legal education first examines categories of law school personnel, especially the fast-growing category of legal-writing teachers, and then considers trends in law school hiring. Concludes that law school trends mirror those in college and university hiring generally, suggesting the weakening and…

  13. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president. PMID:23046772

  14. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  15. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector (in early years,…

  16. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  17. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...'' (Framework Document), with a public comment period running through April 29, 2013. 78 FR 16443. The Framework... on the Framework Document until June 14, 2013. 78 FR 25626. During the Framework Document comment... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling...

  18. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  19. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  20. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  1. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  2. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  3. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    , elevated air movement toward face and increased radiant cooling may have impact on the eye symptoms. Twenty four human subjects participated in experiments with PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) and with mixing ventilation (MV) combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). In the experiments with PV...... at workstations with computers. Exposure included also a higher activity level office work for a period of 25 min outside computer workstations. The influence of the environment on eye symptoms was assessed by subjective votes and objective measurements. Subjects reported on the eye irritation and the intensity...... of eye dryness 6 times throughout each experiment. Eye tear film samples were taken at the beginning and the end of the exposure. The blinking rate was analysed in the beginning and at the end of exposures. The preliminary results of the analyses reveal that the environment subjects were exposed to had...

  4. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  5. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Hyukdoo Choi; Ryunseok Kim; Euntai Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM) technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide ad...

  6. The Glass Ceiling and the Paper Floor: Gender Differences among Top Earners, 1981–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Guvenen; Greg Kaplan; Jae Song

    2014-01-01

    We analyze changes in the gender structure at the top of the earnings distribution in the United States over the last 30 years using a 10% sample of individual earnings histories from the Social Security Administration. Despite making large inroads, females still constitute a small proportion of the top percentiles: the glass ceiling, albeit a thinner one, remains. We measure the contribution of changes in labor force participation, changes in the persistence of top earnings, and changes in i...

  7. The Glass Ceiling in Europe: Why Are Women Doing Badly in the Labour Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    Average gender pay gaps have absorbed the interest of economists for many years. More recently studies have begun to explore the degree to which observed gender wage gaps might differ across the wages distribution. The stylised facts from these studies, summarised in the first part of the paper, are that the gender pay gap in Europe is typically increasing across the wages distribution. This finding - more pronounced in the private than the public sector - has been interpreted as a glass ceil...

  8. Dynamic structural analysis concerning integrity assessment of a reinforced concrete ceiling due to impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the activities concerning the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP) in Middle- and East Europe among others the behaviour of the reactor cavity bottom ceiling of a NPP of type WWER-1000 impinged by impact loads due to the postulated failure of the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV-LH) caused by an assumed core melt accident has been investigated. For the investigations of the structure dynamical behaviour of the reactor cavity ceiling the AUTODYN-Code was used. This code is using an explicit solver and is suitable particularly for the simulation of impact problems. For the investigations on the load bearing capacity of the cavity ceiling an axisymmetric Finite Element (FE) model of both the RPV-LH made of steel and the reactor cavity ceiling with detailed consideration of the reinforcement in the concrete was generated. The effects of the rebars were simulated by shell elements with adequate cross-sections based on the number of rebars. To represent the load and temperature dependent deformation of the heated RPV-LH during the impact phase the FE-model has steel layers of different temperature dependent material properties representing the assumed temperature distribution over the wall thickness at postulated failure. The assumed molten core material located above the inner surface of the RPV-LH is taken into account by adjusting the density of the lower head. In the dynamic calculations the internal pressure conditions at the time of failure and consequently the impact velocity were varied. The calculations show the damage of the concrete and the strains in the reinforcement were assessed by adequate failure criteria. (authors)

  9. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    As in many other countries in the world, Japan has witnessed an increased focus on low-energy buildings.For testing different engineering solutions for energy-efficient buildings, a low-energy building was builtat the University of Tokyo as an experimental pilot project. In this building, a radia...... environment wasobtained using the radiant ceiling heating/cooling system.© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Counting the Number of Site Swap Juggling Patterns with Respect to Particular Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Site swap is a mathematical notation used by jugglers to communicate, create and study complex juggling patterns. Determining the number of possible site swap juggling patterns with respect to certain limiting parameters such as number of balls etc., is a problem that has been much studied and solved by many mathematicians. However, when the patterns have a throw height restriction (ceiling) the problem becomes difficult and is in general still open. In this article we derive some formulae fo...

  11. Does Organizational Culture Affect the Perception Towards the Barriers of the Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Muruatetu, Ndunge

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of the glass ceilling in Africa; and to investigate whether organizational culture affected the perception towards the barriers of the glass ceiling. Design/Methodology : This research used a quatitative approach, based on a descriptive design. Data was gathered from surveys issued to employees at a Non-Governmental organization; with the participants based in the Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo offices. Fi...

  12. Evidence on the glass ceiling effect in France using matched worker-firm data

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe; Wolff, François charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we investigate the relevance of the glass ceiling hypothesis in France, according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution. Using a matched worker-firm data set of about 130,000 employees and 14,000 employers, we estimate quantile regressions and rely on a principal component analysis to summarize information specific to the firms. Our different results show that accounting for firm-related characteristics reduc...

  13. Book review: Shattered, cracked or firmly intact? Women and the executive glass ceiling worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Senia

    2013-01-01

    "Shattered, Cracked or Firmly Intact? Women and the Executive Glass Ceiling Worldwide." Farida Jalalzai. Oxford University Press. March 2013 --- In 1960, Sirimavo Bandaranaike of Sri Lanka made history when she was appointed the world’s first woman prime minister. In the half-century following her achievement, fewer than eighty women worldwide have attained the office of prime minister or president. In Shattered, Cracked, or Firmly Intact?, Farida Jalalzai aims to explain the mechanisms that ...

  14. Windows in the ceiling ... leadership advice and strategies from successful female executives

    OpenAIRE

    Setili, Colleen M.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis provides a framework for understanding specific strategies and personal characteristics women can utilize to enable them to reach the top levels of an organization. In order to do so, current literature was reviewed that was written primarily from a female perspective, and civilian women in high-grade positions working for the Army were interviewed to obtain their own personal strategies, personal characteristics, and opinions regarding the glass-ceiling concept and how to achieve...

  15. Experimental evaluation of a solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system is developed and tested. • The cooling and heating capacities and performance of the system are evaluated. • Its coefficient of performance could be comparable to those of conventional AC systems with ZT value of 2. • Typical application issues including condensation risk, coupling with a PV system, etc., are discussed. - Abstract: A novel solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system (STCC-DV) is proposed and investigated in this paper. In STCC-DV system, thermoelectric modules are employed as heating source instead of conventional hydronic pipe, and the combined system dehumidifies the fresh air using a thermoelectric dehumidified system. Both the cooled ceiling and dehumidified ventilation system are powered by PV system. At this stage of our study, we are developing a solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling (STCC) system by using commercially TE technologies. The experiments have been done in a test room using radiant panels whose dimension is 1800 × 600 mm. The results show that the total heat flux and COP of the panel are strongly influenced by operating voltage, ambient temperature and indoor temperature. The total heat flux of the STCC system in cooling mode is higher than 60 W/m2 and the system COP can reaches 0.9 under operating voltage 5 V. In heating mode, the total heat flux of the STCC system under operating voltage 4 V is higher than 110 W/m2 and the COP of the system can reaches 1.9. This simply and environmentally friendly system is promising and worthwhile being applied to for low carbon buildings climate control

  16. Sector Differences in Glass Ceiling in Sweden -Is It Tied to Occupational Segregation?

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores sector differences in how the gender wage gap varies across the wage distribution and the role of occupational segregation in explaining this variation for Sweden. Results indicate that the phenomenon known as the glass ceiling, i.e. larger gender wage differentials at the high end of the wage distribution is stronger in the public sector than the private. This difference is found to be due to occupational segregation and, to a large extent, pre-market educational choices....

  17. Design of walls and/or ceilings for radiation endangered or radiation exposed rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention has to do with wall or ceiling design for radiation endangered or radiation exposed rooms used for medical radiation therapy or industrial radiation applications (e.g. linear accelerators). The structure dispenses with moulds and reinforcement and consists of mountable precast concrete elements (bricks). Two elements form the structure's outer boundary surface. The interspace between them is filled with additional shielding materials like wet concrete, soil or other precast concrete elements

  18. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty-t...... instruction is important when using final-product analysis to assess novice mastoidectomy performance. Improved real-time feedback and tutoring could address the limitations of final product based assessment....

  19. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status...

  20. Glass Ceiling Converted Into Glass Transparency: A Study On The Factors Making Women Executives Successful In The Indian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Dr Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Economic reforms in the Indian economy along with gradual opening up of a conservative society to a modern society preceded breaking the glass ceiling or conversion Glass ceiling into a Glass Transparency in the Indian Banking Sector. This is backed by a recent study of 240 top Indian companies by EMA Partners, the global executive-search firm, which says more than a half of India's women chief executives are accounted for by the banking and financial services industry. This paper studie...

  1. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bombuwela P. M.; De Alwis A. Chamaru

    2013-01-01

    The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the...

  2. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling. PMID:21475000

  3. Bellholes: Ceiling Cavities Eroded By Bats in Caves of the Neotropical Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of symmetrical, vertical, bullet-shaped cavities known as bellholes are present in the ceilings of caves restricted to the tropical Americas. Most have circular diameters (rarely influenced by joints or bedding) of at least 30 cm, and may be several meters in height. They are often paired with bellbasins (shallow depressions located vertically beneath them that contain guano produced by bats). Members of the species Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican Fruit Bat) are almost exclusive users of these roosts. Brown streaks flowing down the sides of the bellholes and centimeters-thick rinds of the basins below are largely apatite minerals produced by the reaction of the host limestone with phosphoric acids in the guano.Many bellholes have developed in speleothem in the cave ceilings, disproving early theories that they are the result of solution by phreatic currents in flooded caves. A. jamaicensis roosts singly or in harem groups of 2-14 that commonly cluster in the bellholes and it is likely that these social habits of this species focus corrosion resulting from the transfer of feces to rock (producing altered rock then removed by claws) to create discretely-spaced upward-growing cavities. Fossil evidence from Jamaica supports an arrival there from the mainland in the past 12,000 years, suggesting bellholes and bellbasins are geologically recent features in the Caribbean islands. Their locations (not all cave passages have bellholes) can provide information on the hydrological history or microclimate of a cave, due to the absence of both bellholes and bats in some specific situations, e.g. where physical barriers exist such as sumps, small airspaces above streams or through rock collapses, or with increasing distance from an entrance.Smaller circular, increasingly-indented ceiling cavities demonstrate a sequence of bellhole development. Small (23 cm diameter, 9 cm high), circular, streaked cavities in a limestone drainage tunnel constructed in 1927 in

  4. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  5. An acoustical analysis of a room with a concave dome ceiling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi S.

    2001-05-01

    Concave surfaces are often considered detrimental in room acoustics, especially because of the impact they have on the distribution of sound energy. This paper explores certain acoustical characteristics and anomalies found in spaces below concave dome ceiling elements. The architectural design of the Darusshollah mosque in East Java, Indonesia is used as a case study with specific spatial and functional concerns. Investigations of the mosque have been conducted through both a 1:12 scale model and a computer model that utilizes ray tracing and image source methods. Analysis techniques are discussed. Results are presented and compared to provide useful insights into the acoustics of such distinctive environments.

  6. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of...... occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation and...

  7. Reconstruction of a Baroque Open Beam Ceiling based on Material Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloiber, Michal; Válek, Jan; Bláha, Jiří; Čechová, J.

    Vol. 688. Stafa-Zürich: Trans Tech Publications, 2013 - (Drochytka, R.; Vaněrek, J.), s. 10-19 ISBN 978-3-03785-679-6. ISSN 1022-6680. [Conference on the Rehabilitation and reconstruction of buildings /14./. Brno (CZ), 06.11.2012-07.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001 Keywords : roof * ceiling * reconstruction * lime coating Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.scientific.net/AMR.688.10

  8. Reconstruction of a Baroque Open Beam Ceiling Based on Material Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloiber, Michal; Válek, Jan; Bláha, Jiří; Čechová, J.

    Uherské Hradiště: Vědeckotechnická společnost pro sanace staveb a péči o památky - WTA CZ, 2012 ISBN 978-82-02-02414-9. [Conference on the Rehabilitation and reconstruction of building /14./. Brno (CZ), 06.11.2012-07.11.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV001; GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV010 Keywords : ceiling * lime coating * reconstruction * roof Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  9. Assessment of GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of a GEC Apollo X-ray tube ceiling suspension with GEC sectograph tomographic attachments was assessed in detail at the King's Centre for the Assessment of Radiological Equipment (KCARE). Particulars of the assessment and operational features of the equipment are described. The report indicates that the equipment is robustly and safely constructed and it has a versatility which enables it to be used for all the applications currently foreseen for such units. The use of the Apollo in conjunction with sectograph tomographic attachments can provide linear tomographs comparable in excellence with those produced on dedicated units. (U.K.)

  10. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it is twice as high at the top. At the same time, the share of women in top positions appears to be twice as high as at the middle ranks. Hence, it seems that in the context of a very patriarchal cult...

  11. In Search of the Glass Ceiling: The Career Trajectories of Immigrant and Native-born Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Waldinger, Roger; Bozorgmehr, Mehdi; Lim, Nelson; Finkel, Lucila

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on an effort designed to search for the glass ceiling, through a study of the career trajectories of native white and Asian immigrant engineers. Using data drawn from a survey of the M.S. graduates of the engineering school at "Southern California U," we find that some form of labor market segmentation, so common at lower levels of the economy, is also restricting the mobility of highly skilled foreign-born engineers. Our key finding shows that immigrants receive a signific...

  12. Social impact of air pollution abatement. Societal cost benefit analysis of possible National Emission Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the European Commission will launch new proposals for revision of the NEC guideline (2001/81/EG) in which new emission ceilings are proposed for the year 2020. In order to determine which stand the Netherlands should take during the negotiations, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (also on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality) asked CE Delft and Ecorys to conduct a societal cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Environmental Assessment Agency. This report describes the results of the analysis of two alternative NEC targets for 2020. [mk

  13. Dropped Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  14. Impact of the disease: acceptability, ceiling and floor effects and reliability of an instrument on heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey de Lima Lopes Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acceptability, ceiling/floor effects, and the reliability of the instrument for measuring the Impact of the Disease on the Daily Life of Patients with Valvular Disease (IDCV when applied to 135 patients with heart failure (HF. Acceptability was evaluated by the percentage of unanswered items and by the proportion of patients who responded to all items; the ceiling/floor effects by the percentage of patients who scored in the top of 10% best and worst results of the scale, respectively. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC. All patients responded to all items. Ceiling/floor effects evidenced were of moderate magnitude. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for the majority of the domains and ICC> 0.90 in all the domains. The IDCV proved to be an easy to understand questionnaire, with evidence of reliability in patients with HF.

  15. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H*(10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  16. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  17. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  18. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health. PMID:18954235

  19. Derivation of factors for estimating the scatter of diagnostic x-rays from walls and ceiling slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning rooms and interventional x-ray facilities with heavy workloads may require the installation of shielding to protect against radiation scattered from walls or ceiling slabs. This is particularly important for the protection of those operating x-ray equipment from within control cubicles who may be exposed to radiation scattered from the ceiling over the top of the protective barrier and round the side if a cubicle door is not included. Data available on the magnitude of this tertiary scatter from concrete slabs are limited. Moreover, there is no way in which tertiary scatter levels can be estimated easily for specific facilities. There is a need for a suitable method for quantification of tertiary scatter because of the increases in workloads of complex x-ray facilities. In this study diagnostic x-ray air kerma levels scattered from concrete and brick walls have been measured to verify scatter factors. The results have been used in a simulation of tertiary scatter for x-ray facilities involving summation of scatter contributions from elements across concrete ceiling slabs. The majority of the ceiling scatter air kerma to which staff behind a barrier will be exposed arises from the area between the patient/x-ray tube and the staff. The level depends primarily on the heights of the ceiling and protective barrier. A method has been developed to allow tertiary scatter levels to be calculated using a simple equation based on a standard arrangement for rooms with different ceiling and barrier heights. Coefficients have been derived for a CT facility and an interventional suite to predict tertiary scatter levels from the workload, so that consideration can be given to the protection options available. (paper)

  20. From the glass door to the glass ceiling: An analysis of the gender wage gap by age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dalla Chiara; Eleonora Matteazzi; Ilaria Petrarca

    2014-01-01

    Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and B...

  1. Career barriers for women executives and the Glass Ceiling Syndrome: the case study comparison between French and Turkish women executives.

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar, Cansu

    2012-01-01

    The situation where gender pay gaps are typically wider at the top of the wage distribution is known as the 'glass ceiling'. It is one of the most compelling metaphors recently used for analyzing inequality between men and women in the workplace, in order to describe a barrier to further advancement once women have attained a certain level. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up levels of authority hierarchi...

  2. Career barriers for women executives and the Glass Ceiling Syndrome : the case study comparison between French and Turkish women executives.

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Sposito, Cansu

    2012-01-01

    The situation where gender pay gaps are typically wider at the top of the wage distribution is known as the 'glass ceiling'. It is one of the most compelling metaphors recently used for analyzing inequality between men and women in the workplace, in order to describea barrier to further advancement once women have attained a certain level. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that notonly is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up levels of authority hierarchies...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  4. Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdeněk Roth as author of the concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 139-144. ISSN 0583-6050 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ceiling channel * paragenesis * antigravitative erosion * definition * Zdeněk Roth * Domica Cave * Slovak Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2014

  5. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole...

  6. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zhao, Jianing

    The present study investigated different combinations of floor/ceiling heating with mixing/displacement ventilation and their impacts on the indoor air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. Measurements were performed in a room during heating season in December. The results show that indoor...

  7. Academe's Glass Ceiling: Societal, Professional-Organizational, and Institutional Barriers to the Career Advancement of Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olga; Cummings, William

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 10 national systems of higher education found that less than 10 percent of professors were women, and the proportion of female professors was negatively related to institutional prestige. This academic "glass ceiling" was related to women's shorter careers, tenure issues during hard times, and women's lower level of academic…

  8. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  9. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Longitudinal Study of Women’s Progress on French Corporate Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Dang; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Linh-Chi Vo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we conduct a longitudinal study of women’s progress on French corporate boards of directors. We particularly focus on the extent to which women directors have circumvented the glass ceiling. Using a sample of SBF 120 companies over a 10

  10. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  11. Hierarchical rank and women's organizational mobility: glass ceilings in corporate law firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Elizabeth H; Kmec, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    This article revives the debate over whether women's upward mobility prospects decline as they climb organizational hierarchies. Although this proposition is a core element of the "glass ceiling" metaphor, it has failed to gain strong support in previous research. The article establishes a firm theoretical foundation for expecting an increasing female disadvantage, with an eye toward defining the scope conditions and extending the model to upper-level external hires. The approach is illustrated in an empirical setting that meets the proposed scope conditions: corporate law firms in the United States. Results confirm that in this setting, the female mobility disadvantage is greater at higher organizational levels in the case of internal promotions, but not in the case of external hires. PMID:19824313

  12. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. PMID:24571660

  13. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate. PMID:27186890

  14. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  15. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  16. Zenithal ceiling tubes, a peculiar karst corrosion form in Carlsbad Caverns (New Mexico, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaforra, José Maria; de Waele, Jo

    2010-05-01

    Carlsbad Caverns is a world renown show cave located in the Guadalupe Mountains (Chihuahuan desert, New Mexico) and managed by the United States National Park Service. The cave is hosted in the Permian Capitan Reef limestones that border the Delaware basin. It consists of elongated passages connecting wide rooms that extend to a depth of almost 300 m beneath the natural cave entrance, almost 200 m below the floor of nearby Walnut Canyon. As most caves of the Guadalupe mountains it has formed by rising hydrogen sulphide deriving from underlying oil and gas deposits, producing sulphuric acid by mixing with fresh water which corroded the limestone into unusually large chambers. This H2SO4 speleogenesis has produced gypsum that is present under various forms. Carlsbad Caverns has been widely studied by generations of cave scientists, and research has especially focalised on speleothems, mineralogy, speleogenesis, cave fauna and, mostly in the last decennia, microbiology. This has resulted in a large number of publications in many scientific journals, making Carlsbad Caverns one of the best studied caves of the world. During a trip to the Hall of the White Giant, in the squeezing crawlways that connect the main Corridor to the Sand Passage, several cylindrical vertical upward developing holes were observed on the ceiling at several heights. They have a circular cross-section with diameters of 1 to some centimetres and taper out towards their upper end. Their walls are smooth and their edges sharp. Their length can reach several decimetres. Sometimes gypsum can be found inside. They often occur randomly distributed in groups and their development is not necessarily controlled by fractures or other bedrock structures. These holes are similar in shape to the bellholes described from many tropical caves, but are much smaller. They also look like the holes described by Stanton (1986) from caves in the Mendip Hills. This author believed they formed by activity of snails (they

  17. Exergy analysis in a space with ceiling shield; Analisis exegetico en un espacio con techo escudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The Solar Laboratory of Energy (LES) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) was designed to be comfortable in spite of the extreme climate where it was built. One of the novel characteristics was the shield type ceiling used in cubicles. In order to compare the effect that had had with respect to the environmental conditions, one had to resort to an exergy analysis, since exergy is a measurement of the capacity of the energy to carry out a work. As a first system the data of the national meteorological system as initial conditions were used. The comparative system used as initial conditions the temperature and relative humidity measurements obtained in 1992 in a cubicle of the LES. Both systems were taken as open. The final conditions were settled at 25 Celsius degrees and 50% of relative humidity in a first case and variables (with respect to the perimeter a comfort zone) in a second case. The saving obtained was of 69% and 33% respectively. Although it is not possible to determine what percentage corresponds to the exclusive saving of the ceiling shield, we see that the cover all altogether, presents a significant exergy saving in respect to modifying the environmental conditions directly. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) fue disenado para ser confortable a pesar del clima extremoso donde fue construido. Una de las caracteristicas novedosas fue el uso de techo tipo escudo en cubiculo. Para comparar el efecto que se tuvo respecto a las condiciones ambientales, se recurrio a un analisis exergetico, ya que la exergia es una medida de la capacidad de la energia para realizar un trabajo. Como un primer sistema se utilizaron los datos del sistema meteorologico nacional como condiciones iniciales. El sistema comparativo utilizo como condiciones iniciales las mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativas obtenidas en 1992 en un cubiculo del LES. Ambos sistemas fueron tomados como abiertos

  18. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  19. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  20. The Effect of Gender on Perception of Glass Ceiling, Mediated by SRO and Attitude toward Women as Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Maithani; Manisha Misra; Saaylee Potnis; Shringar Bhuwania

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to determine the effect of Gender on Perception of Glass Ceiling, mediated by Sex Role Orientation and Attitude towards Women as Managers.Design/methodology/approach: An online survey was floated to 189 B-School students via email and social networking sights, out of which a total of 153 responses were collected and analyzed. The respondents were surveyed on their Sex Role Orientation, Attitude towards Women as Managers and Perception of Glass Ce...

  1. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  2. In Search of the Glass Ceiling: Gender and Earnings Growth among U.S. College Graduates in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Gender-typical educational choices and the glass ceiling are widely believed to explain why older women earn far less than observably similar men. Using large panels drawn from the National Science Foundation's (NSF) National Survey of College Graduates and other data representative of U.S. college graduates from the 1990s, the author documents the small role of personal choices and finds evidence contrary to the predictions of both human capital and discrimination models. Rather than the dif...

  3. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  4. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  5. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive 137Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L-1 at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  6. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  7. GIS approach to the definition of capacity and generation ceilings of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no discrepancies about the advantages of achieving a sustainable energy system based on locally available natural resources. However, supporters of green energy generation system were lacking some scientific and consistent study to defend their proposals. In order to have such a study, Greenpeace commissioned Technology Research Institute at the Pontificia Comillas University to carry out a study to assess ceilings for the potential and generation of renewable technologies in Spain. It demonstrates firstly a far greater renewable potential than the targets set by long term policies, and secondly, the viability of meeting the entire electricity demand projected for 2050. GIS was used to add the geographical dimension to the original project in order to generate a technical analysis linked to the specific constrictions imposed by territory (natural and anthropogenic) and not just designed to cover a certain demand. Therefore, GIS spatial analysis took into account local conditions producing a more accurate assessment than evaluations made upon 'virtual' electrical spaces. This approach could be applied to other small scale general studies in order to assess the maximum contribution of renewable energy sources to particular energy generation mix and to help set development policies supporting high participation of renewable technologies

  8. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  9. Modelling of cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems: Influences on indoor environment and energy consumption. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, J.

    1994-06-14

    The contents presented in this thesis consist of four principal parts: (1) the critical review of turbulence CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques and their application in building air flow study, and the experimental evaluation of the widely used k-epsilon turbulence model for in-room air flow situations; (2) the development of a thermodynamic mathematical model for cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems, and the enhancement of an existing computer code ACCURACY, and the experimental validation of the convective parameters involved in the models; (3) the combined use of building dynamic simulation and CFD technique for the investigation of thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness performance of three typical air-conditioning systems, the air-panel type cooled-ceiling (ACC) system, and the water-panel type cooled ceiling (CC) system; and (4) the use of the dynamic model coupled with air-handling-unit (AHU) and primary equipment models to simulate the annual energy consumption of CC systems and all-air systems and to estimate thermal performances of some passive cooling schemes, especially the evaporative free-cooling scheme. The review of the state-of-the-art of turbulence modeling shows that the k-epsilon turbulence model still remains the most-widely used engineering model.

  10. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rituerto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1 tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2 geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  11. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  12. In search of the glass ceiling: gender and recruitment to management in Norway's state bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvik, Aagoth Elise; Schøne, Pål

    2008-12-01

    There are still fewer female than male managers in Norway's state bureaucracy. This article asks if there are organizational barriers which prevent women from entering these positions. Is there really a glass ceiling, or must one look outside the organizational environment to find an explanation? Is it rather the case that the scarcity of female managers is caused by women's own preferences or their life situations outside work? Or do both contribute to the situation? The study shows that female managers are treated just as well as male managers in central parts of the state bureaucracy. Employers give equal shares of respect and attention to both genders. Female managers are encouraged to apply for the same number of jobs as men and are offered an equal number of jobs as men when they apply; in fact, women are offered more jobs than men, when one controls for the number of job applications. This indicates that organizational barriers are not the problem. The study also shows that there are no differences in work orientation between male and female managers. Female managers are just as ambitious as male managers. Nor do female managers find it more difficult than male managers to combine work and family life. So, how can one explain the low number of female managers? The study shows that one reason can be that female managers apply for management jobs less often than their male colleagues. The cause of this seems to be anticipated discrimination rather than lack of ambition or self-confidence. However, this slows down women's movement into higher management positions in the state bureaucracy. PMID:19035920

  13. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  14. Research paper no. 18. Trading rules for CO2 emission permits systems. A proposal for ceilings on quantities and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tradable emission permit (TEP) systems for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as they could develop following the Kyoto Protocol - that is if they are limited to Annex B countries and are not bound by exchange regulations) - do not appear to be greatly acceptable today, either to the United States or to the European Union. The problem of the uncertainty related to the cost of reducing emissions is strongly highlighted in the United States: in fact, the approach adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that of quantitative emissions targets, leaves the question of the reduction programme costs wide open. For the European Union, the unregulated TEP system is hardly acceptable because it would not guarantee that the principle of 'supplementarity' adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the fact that the purchase of permits should be in addition to action taken within each of the Annex B countries. The section two of this paper is an in-depth economic analysis of the european proposal for ''concrete ceilings''. The alternative proposals, formulated in the United States and relating more to permit price ceilings or''trigger price'', are examined in Section 3. After showing that each of the foregoing proposals could have consequences unacceptable to some or others of the parties to the Protocol, Section 4 offers the proposal of a hybrid formula for regulating the rights market. In fact, the main aim of this paper is to show that the implementation of a 'hybrid solution', consisting of limiting the volume of exchanges while at the same time introducing a TEP price ceiling, could provide a market regulation framework effect allowing the benefits of most of the economic advantages to be enjoyed and also having characteristics acceptable to the various parties from an environmental as well as from an international fairness point of view. (A.L.B.)

  15. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  16. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow...

  17. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3...... (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....

  18. Performance of radiant cooling ceiling combined with personalized ventilation in an office room: identification of thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    were performed in a test room arranged as an office with 2 workstations and 2 seating occupants resembled by thermal manikins. Heat gain of 66-72 W/m2 was simulated in the room (occupants, computers, lighting, solar gain). The air temperature in the chamber was maintained at 26°C and 28°C. Personalized...... ventilation supplied air at non-isothermal condition with temperature of 25°C. Results showed that the compared methods generated almost the same thermal environment in the occupied zone. However at the workstations the personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling provided more cooling and decreased...

  19. Setting limits: The development and use of factor-ceiling distributions for an urban assessment using macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.L.; Fend, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    Lotic habitats in urban settings are often more modified than in other anthropogenically influenced areas. The extent, degree, and permanency of these modifications compromise the use of traditional reference-based study designs to evaluate the level of lotic impairment and establish restoration goals. Directly relating biological responses to the combined effects of urbanization is further complicated by the nonlinear response often observed in common metrics (e.g., Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera [EPT] species richness) to measures of human influence (e.g., percentage urban land cover). A characteristic polygonal biological response often arises from the presence of a generalized limiting factor (i.e., urban land use) plus the influence of multiple additional stressors that are nonuniformly distributed throughout the urban environment. Benthic macroinvertebrates, on-site physical habitat and chemistry, and geographical information systems-derived land cover data for 85 sites were collected within the 1,600-km2 Santa Clara Valley (SCV), California urban area. A biological indicator value was derived from EPT richness and percentage EPT. Partitioned regression was used to define reference conditions and estimate the degree of site impairment. We propose that an upper-boundary condition (factor-ceiling) modeled by partitioned regression using ordinary least squares represents an attainable upper limit for biological condition in the SCV area. Indicator values greater than the factor-ceiling, which is monotonically related to existing land use, are considered representative of reference conditions under the current habitat conditions imposed by existing land cover and land use.

  20. Coupling ant colony and the degraded ceiling algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem of series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions

  1. Investigation of the Thermal Insulation Properties of Selected Ceiling Materials used in Makurdi Metropolis (Benue StateNigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa, F. Newton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the thermal insulation properties of three selected materials namely: Plaster of Paris (P.o.P, Plywood and Isorel (Masonite used as ceiling boards in Makurdi, Benue state-Nigeria have been investigated. The selection of these insulation materials is based upon their predominant usage as padding materials in the tropical Makurdi metropolis. To achieve this, the steady-state method using Lee-Charton’s apparatus was adopted to analyze the thermal conductivities of the chosen materials. The results obtained show that, P.o.P exhibits the best insulation property followed by Plywood then Isorel ceiling board with thermal conductivities of 0.1185w/mk, 0.1768w/mk and 0.4498w/mk respectively. Their corresponding thermal resistivities are 8.4388mk/w, 5.6561mk/w and 2.2232mk/w. From the results, P.o.P is recommended for its best insulation property. The research therefore provides a guide to intending builders and civil Engineers for selecting of housing insulation materials in Makurdi metropolis as well as other humid zones of tropical Africa.

  2. Labor and net energy effects of a national ceiling insulation program. Final report. [Energy and labor requirements of cellulose-insulation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.

    1978-09-01

    Improving the thermal efficiency of homes has been widely publicized as an important energy saver. This study examines the energy and labor implications of retrofitting single-family detached homes with ceiling insulation. Calculations are made of the energy savings which would be realized if all ceilings which are now underinsulated were retrofitted to meet each of two sets of current recommendations. A maximum feasible implementation level of 70% is proposed, and the resulting effects on labor demands and energy use in the insulation industries and throughout the economy are then analyzed. A hybrid analysis is performed to determine the energy and labor requirements of the relatively new cellulose-insulation industry.

  3. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). (a) Election—(1) In general....

  4. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling." The cases…

  5. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Sajjad; Dehnadi Moghadam, Anoush; Khodadadi, Naeima; Rahmatpour, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    Background: The functional independence measure (FIM) is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables) and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht) using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results: The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI) = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions: Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence) has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI. PMID:26848469

  6. Investigation of wall and ceiling coatings with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the WAK processing building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plant WAK shut down in 1991. The operative deconstruction started in 1995. The wall and ceiling coatings of the buildings were investigated with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB was used in technical facilities due to their thermal and chemical resistance and low conductivity. During the construction of WAK PCB containing coatings were used. Waste materials with PCB contents above a limit of 50 mg/kg are hazardous materials. For the waste disposal the wastes have to be tested with respect to the PCB content. Scrape tests have shown that 67% of the samples have PCB contents above the limit. Core hole drilling samples showed that the PCB content decreases with depth. Further depth profile analyses are necessary to determine the coating thickness to be removed.

  7. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  8. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy....... Both steady-state and dynamic measurements are carried out in the experimental chamber to investigate the energy performance of the system and the thermal comfort in the test room. Overall, this integrated system has high energy saving potential without any compromise of thermal comfort even in extreme......As a response to new stringent energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need in both summer and winter. This study proposes a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and...

  9. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4...... simulate direct solar load on the floor (270 W). The total heat load in the room was 56 W/m2. The air temperature around the workstation by the window was kept either 26 or 28 oC. The supplied air by the overhead mixing ventilation and the primary supply air of the localised chilled beam was kept at 13 L....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  10. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of...... PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were...... performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient...

  11. Considerable savings with PCM climate concepts. Part 2. Innovative ceiling induction convectors; Forse besparing met PCM-klimaatconcepten. Deel 2. Innovatieve plafondinductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2011-06-15

    Two articles are dedicated to comparing traditional induction convectors with innovative PCM (phase change materials) induction convectors. The first one addresses the traditional ceiling induction convectors and its corresponding performance criteria, cooling and heating load calculation, the physical behavior of heat exchangers and the controllability of the feedback control circuit. This second article examines innovative ceiling induction convectors with coolant PCM and a central change-over control of the indoor temperature instead of a decentralized control system. [Dutch] In twee artikelen worden traditionele inductieconvectoren en innovatieve PCM (phase change materials) inductieconvectoren met elkaar vergeleken. Het eerste deel gaat in op traditionele plafondinductieconvectoren en de bijbehorende prestatiecriteria, koel- en warmtelastberekening, het fysische gedrag van warmtewisselaars en de regelbaarheid van de 'feed back'-regelkring. In dit tweede deel wordt aandacht geschonken aan innovatieve plafondinductieconvectoren met het koudemiddel PCM en -in plaats van een decentrale - een centrale change-overregeling van de binnentemperatuur.

  12. Book Review: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000). Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002).

    OpenAIRE

    Ballance, Virginia C.

    2005-01-01

    Review of two books: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000). Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002).

  13. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei; Dehnadi Moghadam; Khodadadi; Rahmatpour

    2015-01-01

    Background The functional independence measure (FIM) is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent va...

  14. Numerical evaluation of inclined ceiling diffuser on ‎buoyancy and airflow patterns in an enclosed space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan GhoshMoulic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effectiveness of an air-conditioning system depends on the airflow pattern inside the room. Expansions in the air conditioning systems by increasing air conditioning capacity or increasing the number of inlets were not an efficient way to achieve comfortable environment. The ideal cooling arrangement usually comes from minimizing the temperature of the air in the mixing zone and then removing the mixed air through the outlet. In the present study, the effect of inlet-outlet configuration on the airflow patterns in a room equipped with a ceiling diffuser was studied. The variation in the direction of incoming air from inlet port was analyzed. A comparison of the various cases showed that the inclination at inlet could be an essential part for the optimum configuration, as the temperature distribution in the occupied zone had least variation. The velocity distribution was almost uniform in most of the occupied zone.

  15. Did it Really Happen? Memory, History and Myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the Ceiling and the Sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  16. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  17. Experimental study of the operation of the bolt joint of a bearerwith a column in precast-monolithic ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyankin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Precast-monolithic construction is becoming an increasingly popular form of housing. The wide distribution of this type of construction is explained by the possibility to successfully combine the advantages of precast and monolithic construction, at the same time reducing their disadvantages. Though there is a significant lack of data, including experimental data, for objective assessment of the stress-strain state of precast-monolithic floor structures. In order to investigate the structural reliability of the bolt joint of a bearer with a column in a precast-monolithic building a series of experimental investigations were carried out in the laboratory of testing the building structures of the Siberian Federal University.One of the main conclusions is that the bolt joint of a bearer with a column is characterized by sufficient rigidity, crack resistance and bearing capacity. The results of the given work have proved the data obtained in previously conducted investigations on a fragment of a precast-monolithic ceiling.

  18. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  19. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  20. Effects of ceiling-mounted HEPA-UV air filters on airborne bacteria concentrations in an indoor therapy pool building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzic, Elmira; Zander, David A; Hernandez, Mark; Angenent, Largus T; Henderson, David E; Miller, Shelly L

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a new generation of high-volume, ceiling-mounted high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-ultraviolet (UV) air filters (HUVAFs) for their ability to remove or inactivate bacterial aerosol. In an environmentally controlled full-scale laboratory chamber (87 m3), and an indoor therapy pool building, the mitigation ability of air filters was assessed by comparing concentrations of total bacteria, culturable bacteria, and airborne endotoxin with and without the air filters operating under otherwise similar conditions. Controlled chamber tests with pure cultures of aerosolized Mycobacterium parafortuitum cells showed that the HUVAF unit tested provided an equivalent air-exchange rate of 11 hr(-1). Using this equivalent air-exchange rate as a design basis, three HUVAFs were installed in an indoor therapy pool building for bioaerosol mitigation, and their effectiveness was studied over a 2-year period. The HUVAFs reduced concentrations of culturable bacteria by 69 and 80% during monitoring periods executed in respective years. The HUVAFs reduced concentrations of total bacteria by 12 and 76% during the same monitoring period, respectively. Airborne endotoxin concentrations were not affected by the HUVAF operation. PMID:15796111

  1. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    -weighted result of area and yield contributions for each country, at each time-step. As part of our research we will generate historic figures and tabular data for every country-crop combination. Phase 3: In the final phase of our research, we attempt to demonstrate how different yield performers (for example, those growing crops at the yield floor vs. the yield ceiling) have utilized different area/yield strategies to increase agricultural production. To group individual pixels into performance quintiles, we utilize binning strategies from previous spatial yield-gap assessments. The results from this step will illustrate how the yield ceiling has improved over time vis-à-vis improvements in the yield floor. As we look forward to a more sustainable and productive agricultural future, we hope the results of this global analysis of our agricultural past can be utilized to identify both optimal and adverse strategies for agricultural growth.

  2. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building integrated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new concept of heat storage in ventilation ducts is described. • Ceiling panel as a part of ventilation system is made of a composite with PCM. • A set-up for experimental investigation of heat storage unit was built. • Numerical model of heat transfer in the storage unit was developed. • Numerical code was validated on the base of experimental measurements. - Abstract: Objective: The paper presents a new concept of building integrated thermal energy storage unit and novel mathematical and numerical models of its operation. This building element is made of gypsum based composite with microencapsulated PCM. The proposed heat storage unit has a form of a ceiling panel with internal channels and is, by assumption, incorporated in a ventilation system. Its task is to reduce daily variations of ambient air temperature through the absorption (and subsequent release) of heat in PCM, without additional consumption of energy. Methods: The operation of the ceiling panel was investigated experimentally on a special set-up equipped with temperature sensors, air flow meter and air temperature control system. Mathematical and numerical models of heat transfer and fluid flow in the panel account for air flow in the panel as well as real thermal properties of the PCM composite, i.e.: thermal conductivity variation with temperature and hysteresis of enthalpy vs. temperature curves for heating and cooling. Proposed novel numerical simulator consists of two strongly coupled sub models: the first one – 1D – which deals with air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the second one – 3D – which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. Results: Spatial and temporal air temperature variations, measured on the experimental set-up, were used to validate numerical model as well as to get knowledge of thermal performance of the panel operating in different conditions. Conclusion: Preliminary results of experimental tests confirmed the ability of

  3. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  4. On the mean value problem of the Smarandache Ceil function%关于Smarandache Ceil函数的一类均值问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕二兵

    2013-01-01

    The mean value distribution problem of Smarandache Ceil function and product of prime divisor function U(n) is studied.By using the analytic methods,an asymptotic formula of (Sk (n)-U(n))2 is given,with k≥2,n is any natural number.%研究了Smarandache Ceil函数与素因子积函数U(n)的均方值的分布问题.利用解析方法给出了(Sk (n)-U(n))2的一个有趣的渐近公式,其中k≥2,n为自然数.

  5. Bric, Ceiling and base

    OpenAIRE

    Roda Jean-Marc; Noor Aini Zakaria; Lim Hin Fui; Ismariah Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The acronym of BRIC is becoming widely-known as its use by the media increases. BRIC stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and it is the acronym that captures the new importance and effect of these new big engines of globalisation. These giant countries with their dynamics, thirst of resources and industrial development are now reshaping the international trade. The BRIC dynamics now creates major ripple effects in all economic sectors. The exponential growth of BRIC economic activities hav...

  6. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  7. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  8. Dealing with ceiling baseline treatment satisfaction level in patients with diabetes under flexible, functional insulin treatment: assessment of improvements in treatment satisfaction with a new insulin analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howorka, K; Pumprla, J; Schlusche, C; Wagner-Nosiska, D; Schabmann, A; Bradley, C

    2000-01-01

    Even a small improvement in satisfaction with treatment for a chronic disease can be valuable. However, sensitive measurements instruments are needed to assess the effects of treatment changes in patients already well satisfied with baseline treatment. Such instruments were thought to be necessary to deal with ceiling effects in scores of satisfaction with functional insulin treatment (FIT) accommodating full flexibility of food intake and lifestyle in diabetes by manipulation of insulin (FIT; Howorka et al. 2000). The Status(S) version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ, Bradley 1994) was extended with items measuring specific components of FIT and its psychometric properties investigated in a validation study with 171 FIT patients with diabetes. A new Change(C) version of DTSQ extended for FIT was used together with the DTSQ(S) by 52 participants in a subsequent randomised cross-over study involving new fast-acting lispro vs. regular insulin, where treatment satisfaction was the primary outcome variable. Insulin lispro use improved satisfaction (p satisfaction. However, the DTSQ(C) augmented the effects of lispro (p = 0.0001) apparent on DTSQ(S) scores and revealed significant treatment effects (p satisfaction with treatment was more apparent with DTSQ(C) than DTSQ(S) in patients who at baseline were at or near ceiling for treatment satisfaction. PMID:11284211

  9. Book Review: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000. Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballance, Virginia C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of two books: Breaking the Glass Ceiling: the Stories of Three Caribbean Nurses by Jocelyn Hezekiah. (University of the West Indies Press, 2000. Trailblazers in Nursing Education: a Caribbean Perspective by Hermi Hyacinth Hewitt (Canoe Press, 2002.

  10. Dynamic structural analysis concerning integrity assessment of a reactor cavity ceiling of type VVER-1000 due to postulated failure of the reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisert, P.; Bachmann, P.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the activities concerning the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP) in Middle- and East Europe the behaviour of the reactor cavity bottom ceiling of a NPP of type WER-1000 stressed by loads of postulated failure of the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV-LH) caused by an assumed core melt accident has been investigated. The investigations are performed in the framework of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and include the effects of small leaks in the RPV-LH caused by molten material as well as the total separation of the RPV-LH. The corresponding thermal and mechanical loads are based on results of thermal hydraulic investigations. (orig.)

  11. The vocational training of occupational therapists and the Undergraduate Course at the University of Brasília, Ceilândia College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Giovana Furlan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Health training has been discussed in the educational field, guiding curriculum changes for undergraduate courses according to the current public policies, mainly the National Health System and the new Curriculum Guidelines. Professional formation based on the active pursuit of knowledge, ensuring integrality and humanization of health care, is objectified. In this perspective, this article presents a literature review on the scientific production related to health training, specifically the training of occupational therapists, and examines how the political pedagogical project of the occupational therapy undergraduate course of the University of Brasília – Ceilândia College (UnB-FCE contemplates and prioritizes vocational training guided by current trends. We found 14 scientific articles addressing the reformulation of the curricula of undergraduate courses, favoring interdisciplinarity and practical activities in social infrastructure. The teaching practice and the student body posture interfere in the educational process, with the challenge of developing communicative, affective and relational skills in contrast with the current teaching model. The undergraduate program in occupational therapy of UnB-FCE is recent, and it aims at vocational training under the new proposed model. It is organized in relation to the fields of professional practice and human functionality, and it prioritizes the local community development through teaching, research, and extension projects associated with the health services of the Federal District.

  12. 限制性价格管制、经济福利和基本药物制度的帕累托改进%Ceiling Price, Economic Welfare and Pareto Improvement of Essential Drug System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    新一轮医药卫生体制改革对基本药物实施限制性价格管制措施.在完全竞争市场条件下政府对基本药物的限制性价格管制,把部分生产者剩余,转化为消费者剩余,导致了经济福利的净损失.现实世界中对基本药物实施限制性价格管制,是为了应对一定程度的基本药物市场失灵和政府对基本药物消费者剩余的评价高于对生产者剩余的评价.限制性价格管制对降低基本药物价格和增加其有效需求起到了积极作用,同时也凸显出基本药物供给短缺压力和加强公共财政责任的必要性.在实施限制性价格管制的前提下,基本药物制度应该在不断总结试点经验的基础上实施帕累托改进.%Ceiling price regulating measure to essential drugs has been implemented in the new round health system reform. Under the perfect competition market, the ceiling price of government regulating measure to essential drugs will transfer the part producer surplus to consumer surplus, leading to the net loss of economic welfare. The reasons that implementing the ceiling price to essential drugs in the real world are on the one side to response the market failure of essential drugs caused by some market monopoly, information asymmetry and positive externality, and on the other side to give consumer surplus of essential drugs the higher evaluation than to give producer surplus of essential drags. Ceiling price played the positive role to decrease the price of essential drugs and to increase the effective demand, and to stand out the shortage pressure of essential drags supply and the necessity to strengthen the public financial responsibility. Under the condition of ceiling price, essential drug system should implement the Pareto improvement based on summing up the pilot experience.

  13. The interpretation of the figure of the prophet Jonah by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the sistine chapel: anatomical urological vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:A detailed analysis in the iconography and pictorial appearance of the scene of the "Prophet Jonah" painted by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel between the years 1508 and 1512. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Literature review on the Italian Renaissance period and the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti and analysis of historical aspects of the evolution of studies of human anatomy in this period and the works of the artist. RESULTS:A comparative analysis of the representation of the figure of the fish on the left thigh of "Jonah" with a cross section of penis shows a curious similarity. The pictorial and iconographic analysis reveals an intensity of light on the pubic area and the position of the prophet with the legs spread apart and left hand placed on this region. A tube-shaped cloth covers the region and the angel at the side seems to be looking at this anatomical region of "Jonah". In fact, sets of iconographic and pictorial relate to the deciphered code. CONCLUSIONS: This description helps to confirm the relationship of the Renaissance art with the human anatomy; science has been much studied in this period. The design of a cross section of the penis is revealed with the two cavernous bodies with the septum between them and the spongy body. Considering the circumstances in which Michelangelo had painted, subjectivity was fundamental due to religious motivations added to the vigorous implications of a limited scientific knowledge typical of that era.

  14. 基于辐射供冷的太阳能吸收式空调试验研究%Investigation of solar absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 翟晓强; 尹亚领; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    对基于辐射供玲的太阳能吸收式空调系统进行了试验.该系统采用96 m2的U型管式真空管太阳能集热器驱动额定制冷量为8 kW的吸收式制冷机组,吸收式制冷机产生的冷冻水被输送到辐射吊顶中,为50 m2的实验室提供夏季空调.吸收式制冷机运行在度季晴朗天气时,平均制冷量为4.5 kW.辅助独立除湿机组与辐射吊顶联合运行.试验房间的热舒适指标PMV为-0.29~0.32,可满足热舒适要求.%Experiments were carried out to study a solar powered absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling. The 96 m2 U-type vacuum tube collectors were employed to drive the absorption chiller with nominal refrigeration capacity of 8 kW. The chilled water from the absorption chiller was delivered to cooling ceiling, providing cooling capacity to the 50 m2 test room. Under sunshiny weather conditions, the average cooling output was 4.5 kW. An independent dehumidification unit was installed to work together with cooling ceiling. The PMV inside the test room ranged from -0.29 to 0.32, which met the indoor thermal comfort.

  15. Conventional ceiling versus PCM induction convectors. Part 1. Performance criteria, calculations, physical behavior and controllability; Prestatiecriteria, berekeningen, fysisch gedrag en regelbaarheid. Deel 1. Traditionele plafond-versus PCM-inductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Two articles compare the traditional induction convector and the innovative PCM induction convectors with each other. Part 1 addressed the traditional ceiling induction convectors and corresponding performance criteria, cooling and heat load calculation, the physical behavior of heat exchangers and the adjustability of the feed-back control loop. [Dutch] In twee artikelen worden traditionele inductieconvectoren en innovatieve PCM-inductieconvectoren met elkaar vergeleken. Dit eerste deel gaat in op traditionele plafondinductieconvectoren en de bijbehorende prestatiecriteria, koel- en warmtelastberekening, het fysische gedrag van warmtewisselaars en de regelbaarheid van de 'feed back'-regelkring.

  16. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m3. Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ with

  17. Cortex shatters the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Edmund; Fishell, Gord

    2008-11-01

    Recreating developmental structures in vitro has been a primary challenge for stem cell biologists. Recent studies in Cell Stem Cell (Eiraku et al., 2008) and Nature (Gaspard et al., 2008) demonstrate that embryonic stem cells can recapitulate early cortical development, enabling them to generate specific cortical subtypes. PMID:18983961

  18. 地铁车站隧道轨顶排热风口设置形式研究%Study on the Arrangement of the Ceiling Exhaust Air Outlets of Subway Station Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝盛

    2011-01-01

    Heat extraction in subway tunnels is important in system design. Different heat extractions have important effects on the air temperature field in the tunnel. This paper numerically analyzed the effects of the different ceiling exhaust outlets and the layout of the condensers of the train on the air temperature field of the tunnel. The results is a good reference for the optimal design of the ceiling exhaust outlets of the subway station tunnel.%车站隧道排热是系统设计时需要考虑的重要问题。不同排热方式对隧道内的温度分布有重要影响。本文通过数值模拟,计算分析了在不同排热风口形式、列车顶部冷凝器布置对车站隧道温度的影响。模拟计算结果可为车站隧道轨顶排热风口的优化设计提供重要参考。

  19. 中国存款准备金率理论上限测算及应用研究——基于货币政策使用空间的视角%The Measurement and Practical Research of the Theoretical Ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios of China: From the Perspective of the Space for Monetary Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高谦; 何蓉

    2012-01-01

    在货币紧缩过程中,使用准备金率工具关键在于把握好尺度,降低政策超调风险,为此必须研究存款准备金率上限。本文依据国民经济收入流量循环模型,在分析货币经济中“漏出”问题解决方式和货币控制的基础上,以存款准备金率来统一度量货币政策空间,建立起一个分析框架,得出一个基于宏观调控考虑的、用以衡量货币政策空间的存款准备金率理论上限公式,测算了1993年以来各年的上限值,并结合货币政策使用力度进行实证研究。研究结论为,存款准备金率理论上限客观存在,在引入菲利普斯曲线之后,发现在经济处于不同状态、各种因素持续变动时,准备金率理论上限是动态变化的。对准备金率理论上限与货币政策力度的格兰杰因果关系检验表明,从宏观调控层面看,准备金率理论上限能够为货币当局把握政策方向和政策力度提供数量化依据,从而可以降低“超调”、“硬着陆”的风险。%In the period of monetary tightening, the key in using the tool of Reserve Requirement Ratios is to grasp a proper scale so as to reduce the risk of overshooting. Hence, it is essential to study the ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. On the basis of Circular Flow of Income Model of national economy, this paper analyses the solutions of the withdraw and monetary control in monetary economy, which lay the foundation for this paper' s theoretical framework, where Reserve Requirement Ratios is used as the uniform measure of the space for monetary policy. This theoretical framework gets a formula to calculate the theoretical ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. The formula takes macroeconomic controls into consideration and can be used to measure the space for monetary policy. The ceilings of Reserve Requirement Ratios since 1993 are clear according to this formula. Empirical research on the ceilings, combining

  20. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  1. Shattering the Glass Ceiling: Blacks in Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Fitzgerald

    2004-01-01

    During the 2003 football season, African Americans were employed as head coaches at five of the 117 NCAA Division I-A colleges and universities. At the conclusion of the 2003 season, there were 13 head coaching vacancies at Division I-A football programs; one African American was hired. Today, five African Americans have the responsibility of…

  2. Harvard and the Academic Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Drew Gilpin Faust was recently appointed president of Harvard University, and is the first female to hold the position. Women now lead half of the eight institutions that make up the Ivy League. But focusing on highly accomplished women such as Faust misses a larger point. Women may be taking faculty positions in record numbers, but most of those…

  3. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitulete Andrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: their transformation into the most dynamic factor and, in this context, the more and more active presence of women in management positions in SMEs. In Romania, The National Agency for SMEs has implemented for the first time a promotion program for entrepreneurship among women managers of the SMEs sector. The program enjoyed a great success and resulted in a big impact in the business community. The program stimulates the growth of women entrepreneur within the business community, the development of the skill and entrepreneur spirit among women and efficient use of the human capital formed by potential women entrepreneur, improving the economical performances of existing enterprises, led by women through the growth of the training of their employees. Other aims are equal access to the knowledge based economy, experience sharing among business women, establishing partnerships and encouraging the will to represent personal interests in the civil society.

  4. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING - FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ghitulete Andrada; Muscalu Emanoil; Todericiu Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: ...

  5. Using Humor to Crack the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    1994-01-01

    Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…

  6. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in France under the Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution and the European directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR and NEC, March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplies emissions data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and by the directive on national emission ceilings (NEC). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). Parties to the Convention have to report emissions of these substances annually. Since the edition of march 2010, results are reported in the format UNECE/NFR in accordance with the new specifications set out in the guidelines (ECE/EB.AIR/97 adopted in December 2008) defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The results are presented at the national level of aggregation with the NFR nomenclature using 6 sectors and 109 sub-sectors. Conversely, the nomenclature used in the national inventory system to conduct inventories is the CORINAIR/ SNAP 97c nomenclature. A table of correspondence NFR/SNAP 97c is included in this report (cf. annex 10). For the entire period (going back as far as 1980) concerning each substance, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge and possible changes in methodology. Emission trends between the reference year and 2009 show a decline for most substances: - a very sharp decrease (at least 50%) for hexachlorobenzene (99%), lead (98%), dioxins and furans (95%), chromium (94%), zinc (92%), sulphur oxides (90%), cadmium

  7. "No Ceiling on Achievement": Breaking the Glass Ceiling or Hitting a Steel Plate in Urban Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Ben; Melia, Victoria; Bergan, Dave; Whitby, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article, written by a team of research-active teachers who are also senior leaders in a large, urban, comprehensive high school in the North of England, reports on their joint teacher inquiry project. This work has school-wide significance, given recent history, progressing from being graded as a "failing" school by the Office for…

  8. New Construction Technology of Large Span Eggshell Shaped and Cornice Planed Ceiling in Xinzheng International Airport Terminal T2%新郑国际机场T2航站楼大跨度蛋壳形鱼鳞面吊顶新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell shaped and hyperboloid grid frame structure roof is designed for Xinzheng International Airport terminal T2 with large span and space reversible cornice planed ceiling indoors in the main building area. It can flip over along the roof, taking self⁃diagonal as the axis to meet the requirement of the indoor natural lighting. In addition, with the green energy⁃saving, environmental protecting and novel form, it is the first domestic innovation in China. This large⁃area surface modeling of ceiling system is complex and difficult to build. The rotating unit has 28 kinds of angle from 7°~38°. Through optimization of the designs,3D modeling, strict measurement and calculation, using bolting connection technology and professional customization of turning shaft for regulating the angle, it gains the cornice planed impression effect. With the characteristics of firm structure, resisting seismic and wind, convenient to install and dismantle, the whole system can adjust to the deformation of the grid roof, greatly shorten the construction period and keep the project costs down.%新郑国际机场T2航站楼主楼屋面为蛋壳形双曲面网架结构,主楼区域室内为大跨度高大空间可翻转式鱼鳞面大吊顶,以自身对角线为轴沿屋面进行转动以满足室内自然采光的要求,绿色节能环保,形式新颖,为国内首创。吊顶系统曲面造型复杂,面积大、施工难度高,旋转单元有7°~38°共28种角度。通过设计方案优化、三维模拟以及严格的测量计算,采用螺栓栓接工艺,通过专业定制翻转轴调节角度以达到鱼鳞面观感效果,整套系统结构牢固,抗震、抗风及安装、拆卸方便,能适应网架屋面变形,较大地缩短施工工期,降低工程成本。

  9. Immunosuppressive treatment for aplastic anemia: are we hitting the ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Passweg, Jakob R; Tichelli, André

    2009-01-01

    The combination of antithymocyte globulin of horse origin and cyclosporine A is the standard treatment for aplastic anemia in patients not eligible for bone marrow transplantation. In this perspective article, Drs. Passweg and Tichelli discuss the current immunosuppressive therapy of aplastic anemia. See related article on page 348.

  10. Glass ceiling and belief flipping : theory and evidence from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kandil, Lamia

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic statistical-discrimination model of job assignment and promotion which takes into account the endogeneity of human-capital investment and where the employer’s prior beliefs are self-fulfilling in equilibrium. The model shows that the equilibrium results from standard statistical-discrimination models may change when we account for discrimination/self-selection in hiring via the employer’s beliefs about worker expected quit rates and ability. The model is estimate...

  11. GLASS CEILING SYNDROME IN CAREER MANAGEMENT AND WOMEN MANAGERS DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    ALI GANIYUSUFOGLU

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world, more women than ever are entering the labour force but the majority of top management positions in almost all countries are primarily held by men. Female managers generally tend to be concentrated in lower management positions and have less authority than men. (Catalyst, 1991). The recent research studies show that there is an increase of woman participation in business life, but this participation generally is not seen in senior-level management but generally seen in in low...

  12. Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

  13. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  14. Lift the Ceiling: Increase Rigor with Critical Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Karen; Sayler, Micheal F.

    2010-01-01

    The optimal school learning environment for gifted students is one where scholastic rigor is the standard. This rigor is needed both to stimulate the students intellectually and enhance their academic growth. The integration of critical thinking skills into the daily content and lessons is essential for achieving this rigor. This infusion, along…

  15. The Cracked Glass Ceiling: Equal Work but Unequal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of gender equity in universities continues to warrant attention. Globally, universities have much work ahead of them if they are to redress the gender imbalance in senior positions and remuneration rates. To examine this issue, multiple sources of evidence were used to observe teaching and research workload of academic staff…

  16. Will women ever break the glass ceiling in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Edgar

    2008-07-01

    Increased attention is being paid to women's working conditions in medicine. Few data are available regarding gender disparity in gastroenterology. It seems, however, that in general women are paid less than men and that their progress in academic practice tends to be slow. The GI community needs to recognize that gender disparity is not an imaginary issue and that action is necessary to attract women to gastroenterology by providing equal opportunities. PMID:18691186

  17. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  18. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  19. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  20. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess if there were any perceptual differences between gender groups regarding employment equity practices. A sample of 4729 participants from different companies and industries completed the Employment Equity Questionnaire. Results from an ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but only a small portion of the variance was explained by perceptual differences on employment equity practices. The instrument thus possesses some discriminant validity. Further analyses on an item level indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but these differences were not attributable to gender stereotypes. Specific employment equity practices were identified that need closer attention from management’s side to address gender discrimination. OpsommingDie primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  1. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.

  2. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling Book cover Career, Daily Life, and Partnership: Structures and Implications of the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.This book illuminates the structural and external factors confronting women in executive positions and examines their living condit...

  3. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling Book cover Career, Daily Life, and Partnership: Structures and Implications of the Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.This book illuminates the structural and external factors confronting women in executive positions and examines their living conditions in comparison to their male colleagues. The book sketches concepts for political change with respect to the continuing differences that have been documented as harming women.

  4. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in France under the Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution and the European directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR and NEC, March 2011; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontaliere a longue distance et de la directive Europeenne relative aux plafonds d'emissions nationaux (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR et NEC, mars 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Etienne; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Nadine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Andre, Jean-Marc; Joya, Romain; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Martinet, Yann; Druart, Ariane; Nicco, Laetitia; Gavel, Antoine; Prouteau, Emilie; Gueguen, Celine; Serveau, Laetitia; Jabot, Julien; Vincent, Julien

    2011-03-15

    This report supplies emissions data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and by the directive on national emission ceilings (NEC). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). Parties to the Convention have to report emissions of these substances annually. Since the edition of march 2010, results are reported in the format UNECE/NFR in accordance with the new specifications set out in the guidelines (ECE/EB.AIR/97 adopted in December 2008) defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The results are presented at the national level of aggregation with the NFR nomenclature using 6 sectors and 109 sub-sectors. Conversely, the nomenclature used in the national inventory system to conduct inventories is the CORINAIR/ SNAP 97c nomenclature. A table of correspondence NFR/SNAP 97c is included in this report (cf. annex 10). For the entire period (going back as far as 1980) concerning each substance, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge and possible changes in methodology. Emission trends between the reference year and 2009 show a decline for most substances: - a very sharp decrease (at least 50%) for hexachlorobenzene (99%), lead (98%), dioxins and furans (95%), chromium (94%), zinc (92

  5. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-01-01

    The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-...

  6. Characterisation of damages of ceiling joists caused by wood-damaging fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankl, Jiří

    Porto, Portugal: FEUP Edicoes, Coleccao. Colectaneas 20,, 2011 - (Peixoto de Freitas, V.; Corvacho, H.; Lacasse, M.), s. 641-647 ISBN 978-972-752-132-6. [International conf. on Durability of building materials and components /12./. Porto (PT), 12.04.2011-15.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LA09008; GA ČR(CZ) GPP105/11/P628 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : timber * wood-damaging fungi * degradation profiles Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  7. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran; Homa Alizadeh; Behrang Esmaeeli

    2015-01-01

    Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute mana...

  8. Women's Health and Women's Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E.

    2008-01-01

    The term “glass ceiling” refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of ...

  9. Government policy on science education in Uganda: a glass ceiling for women's access to higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Namatende Sakwa, Lydia; Longman, Chia

    2013-01-01

    The paper assesses the Ugandan policy on science education and its implications for girls’ access to higher education. The rationale behind this policy was to build capacity in the field of science in Uganda. Consequently, science subjects were made compulsory in schools, and 75% of the Government scholarships to public universities made science based. We demonstrate that this has created a “glass ceiling”: it has put girls at a disadvantage by reinstating the former status quo, where access...

  10. Breaking the ‘class’ ceiling?: social mobility into Britain's elite occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel; Miles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use the unusually large sample size of the Great British Class Survey to compare rates of social mobility into different elite occupations. We find a distinction between ‘traditional’ professions, such as law, medicine and finance, which are dominated by the children of higher managers and professionals, and technical or emerging high-status occupations, particularly those related to IT, that appear to recruit more widely. Second, we find that even when the upwardly mobile ar...

  11. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s) Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1). Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger ...

  12. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...) life-cycle cost and payback period; (5) national impacts; (6) manufacturer impacts; (7) utility impacts... to the docket Web page can be found at: www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO... light kits in the CFR at 10 CFR 430.32(s). 70 FR 60407, 60413. An additional final rule...

  13. A SysML Test Model and Test Suite for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe;

    2014-01-01

    System specification. The model is provided in SysML, and it is equipped with a formal semantics that is consistent with the (semi formal) SysML standard published by the Object Management Group (OMG). The model and its description are publicly available on http://www.mbt-benchmarks.de, a website...

  14. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the articles defining th

  15. Collusion through price ceilings? In search of a focal-point effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Müller, W.

    -, 2008-036 (2008), s. 1-28. ISSN 1572-4042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : collusion * competition policy * experimental economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ssrn.com/abstract=1281450

  16. The glass ceiling for rewards : how important is gender in explaining differences in earnings ?

    OpenAIRE

    Gevers, A; Sels, Luc; Overlaet, Robrecht

    2001-01-01

    Women have made enormous gains in the past few decades, both in education and in the workplace. More women are attending and graduating from university than in the past. They are also moving into professions traditionally dominated by men. However, a gender earnings gap is still evident. Several studies have demonstrated the existence of gender wage differentials that can or cannot be explained either by productivity-related characteristics, job and/or organization characteristics. The limita...

  17. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-level managerial positions.

  18. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille; Martinussen, Torben; Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was to describe four-year change in functional ability among older persons and the relationship to sex, age, and other background factors. The baseline study, performed in 1986, is based on a random sample of older persons (n=1261). Follow-up data were collected four-years later (n=912......). The analyses of change in functional ability were based on the assumption that the categories reflected an underlying latent continuous dimension. The change in functional ability, DeltaFA, was calculated by a logistic model for paired observations and applied in parallel analyses with and without...... inclusion of the dead to deal with the attrition problem. Fifty percent had no change in functional ability, 37% had declined and 13% improved. Models including the dead showed more functional decline with increasing age but this was not the case when the dead were excluded. Functional change was not...

  19. Evaluation of progress under the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Progress towards EU air quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report was to assess to what extent the NEC Directive's environmental and health objectives concerning acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone exposure for the year 2010 have been achieved. The main basis for the assessment is the emission inventory data officially reported by Member States. The analysis was conducted by using the same scientific methods of 2001 (original knowledge) and 2010 (present knowledge) that support European air pollution abatement policies. The original knowledge consisted of modelling concentrations and exposure using the older Lagrangian EMEP model (utilising a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of grid-average S and N depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, together with the 1998 European critical load database for assessing the risk of acidification and eutrophication). The assessment performed on the basis of present knowledge used the current Eulerian EMEP model on a 50 x 50 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of ecosystem-specific depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, in combination with the 2008 European critical loads database. When assessing progress using original knowledge, the NEC Directive's interim environmental acidification objective has been met in almost all grid cells, while the eutrophication objective - provided in a footnote within the NEC Directive and which was formulated on the European Union area as a whole - has been met both for the EU-15 and the EU-27 regions as a whole. If, in contrast, the eutrophication objective had been required to be met in individual grid cells (as for acidification) or in individual Member States, it would be exceeded in many grid cells and in 11 Member States. While acidification has been markedly reduced, eutrophication is now recognised as a major environmental problem in Europe, especially in the context of its potential adverse impacts on biodiversity. An assessment using present knowledge indicates that neither the acidification nor eutrophication objective have been met. The health- and vegetation-related interim environmental ozone objectives have been achieved using present knowledge, across most of the EU.27 area. For forests, however, the objective of no exceedance of the critical limit has been violated in most Member States. This analysis also shows that model results are more optimistic than the observations about the achieved reductions in ozone concentrations between 1990 and 2010. (LN)

  20. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi;

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been manufa...

  1. Glass slippers and glass ceilings: A positive analysis of gender inequality and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarey, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the combined effect of marriage and gender wage discrimination on female education and labour market participation. Given wage discrimination, marriage increases the proportion of time women spend in housework, biasing their education downwards. The bias is not just relative to men, but also relative to single women and is discontinuous in the gender wage gap. Furthermore, consensual marriages might restrict female labour force participation and education more than non-cons...

  2. The glass ceiling: cracked but not broken? evidence from a study of chartered accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Monks, Kathy; Barker, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the second stage of research into the career progression of chartered accountants which is focusing in particular on the careers experienced by women. The paper includes a description of hours of work, remuneration and perceived success factors in accountancy, before considering the impact of domestic responsibilities on the work/home interface. Finally, the qualities considered important by chartered accountants in their profession are evalu...

  3. Performance of low pressure mechanical ventilation concept with diffuse ceiling inlet for renovation of school classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    mechanical ventilation concept to lower energy consumption and improve the indoor environment, developed for refurbishment of school classrooms. The performance of the concept is investigated through computer simulations and measurements of energy consumption and indoor environment. The measurements are made...... demand. The measurements and simulation results show that the indoor environment fulfils indoor environment category II in EN 15251 and the CO2-concentration is kept below 800 ppm. The heat recovery efficiency is 85 % and the SFP-value of the system is measured to 495 J/m3 at the design flow rate, lower...... than 1/4 of the maximum requirement in the Danish building code. This result in a yearly fan power consumption of 4.0 kWh/m2, included a primary energy factor of 2.5. The results show that the indoor environment is improved to an acceptable level with little energy use, making the concept applicable...

  4. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V<0.3 m...

  5. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  6. Melting the Plastic Ceiling: Overcoming Obstacles to Foster Leadership in Women Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda K; Preminger, Aviva; Slezak, Sheri; Phillips, Linda G; Johnson, Debra J

    2016-09-01

    The underrepresentation of women leaders in plastic surgery echoes a phenomenon throughout society. The importance of female leadership is presented, and barriers to gender equality in plastic surgery, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are discussed. Strategies for fostering women in leadership on an individual level and for the specialty of plastic surgery are presented. PMID:27556609

  7. Efficiency as a foraging currency in animals attaining a gain below the energetic ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has found that efficiency, or, more precisely, the foraging gain ratio (FGR), is a valid currency in foraging theory when (1) there is a limit to the energy that can be assimilated by the forager and (2) a forager is trying to meet an energy requirement. The FGR is b/ (c — cr), whe

  8. The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark - glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    2011-01-01

    effects on the compensation and careers of all women, irrespective of whether they become mothers or not. Especially for those women aiming to reach the top of the organization, these effects may be important because potential career interruptions are expected to be more severe for this group. Originality/value...

  9. Descriptive Statistics for Modern Test Score Distributions: Skewness, Kurtosis, Discreteness, and Ceiling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew D.; Yu, Carol C.

    2015-01-01

    Many statistical analyses benefit from the assumption that unconditional or conditional distributions are continuous and normal. More than 50 years ago in this journal, Lord and Cook chronicled departures from normality in educational tests, and Micerri similarly showed that the normality assumption is met rarely in educational and psychological…

  10. Collusion through price ceilings? In search of a focal-point effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Müller, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2011), s. 291-302. ISSN 0167-2681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : collusion * competition policy * experimental economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2011

  11. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  12. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... described in § 413.130, the costs of approved medical education programs as described in §§ 413.75 through... five cost reports, update the operating costs per case by the applicable update factors up to the... operating costs per case for the hospital's base period increased by the update factor for the...

  13. Management of organizational communication in The Netherlands: glass ceiling and encroachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. van Ruler; R. de Lange

    2003-01-01

    In the practical and theoretical literature a new field is apparently emerging, focusing on the co-ordination and steering of all marketing communications, public relations, and internal communications at a strategic level known as Management of (Organizational/Corporate) Communication. These variou

  14. Chipping Away at the Glass Ceiling: Gender Spillovers in Corporate Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Matsa; Amalia R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of women helping women in corporate America. Using a merged panel of directors and executives for large U.S. corporations between 1997 and 2009, the authors find a positive association between the female share of the board of directors in the previous year and the female share among current top executives. The relationship's timing suggests that causality runs from boards to managers and not the reverse. This pattern of women helping women at the highest levels of...

  15. Breaking through the central tolerance ceiling to unleash anticancer immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Maureen A.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Central thymic tolerance mechanisms create a formidable barrier against the generation of self-reactive T cells. While preventing autoimmunity, this barrier also limits an effective antitumor immunological response. We recently reported that anti-RANKL blocking antibody breaches this central tolerance barrier, thus increasing the repertoire of melanoma reactive T cells. Thus, central tolerance blockade may be an effective therapeutic strategy to enhance anticancer immunity.

  16. Microfinance and Gender: Is There a Glass Ceiling on Loan Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Agier; Ariane Szafarz

    2013-01-01

    Most of the customers of microfinance institutions are female. But do men and women benefit from the same credit conditions? We investigate this issue by presenting an original model and testing its predictions on an exceptional database comprising 34,000 loan applications from a Brazilian microfinance institution. The model determines the optimal loan size fixed by a gender-biased lender, depending on the borrower’s creditworthiness and the intensity of the lender’s bias. The empirical analy...

  17. Under-achievement and the glass ceiling: Evidence from a TV game show

    OpenAIRE

    Hogarth, Robin; Karelaia, Natalia; Trujillo, Carlos Andr??s

    2009-01-01

    We use a Colombian TV game show to test gender differences in competitive behavior where there is no opportunity for discrimination and females face no genderspecific external constraints. Each game started with six contestants who had to answer general knowledge questions in private. There were five rounds of questions and, at the end of each, one participant was eliminated. Despite equality in starting numbers, women earn less than men and exit the game at a faster rate. In p...

  18. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  19. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities. PMID:20686108

  20. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  1. Women in the World of Corporate Business: Looking at the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla; Franks, Tommy J.

    2010-01-01

    From a review of some of the literature and a brief compiling of statistics on women in positions of leadership and power, and with a quick look at the life and work of some contemporary women who have thought about and lived the life of corporate leadership, it is clear that women have made small progress into positions of power and influence.…

  2. Some Take the Glass Escalator, Some Hit the Glass Ceiling? Career Consequences of Occupational Sex Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Mia

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Swedish longitudinal data (1,535 men, 1,584 women) showed that men in female-dominated occupations have substantially better internal promotion opportunities than equally qualified women. In male-dominated occupations, men and women have equal internal promotion chances. Results suggest a "glass escalator" advantage for men but not a…

  3. Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? Exploring the gender pay gap across the wages distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L; Bryan, Mark L.

    2005-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  4. Breaking through the union glass ceiling in France: between organizational opportunities and individual resources

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume, Cécile; Pochic, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    In France, as in many other countries, women have great difficulties in achieving positional power within union structures, even when equality policies have been implemented, as in the case of CFDT (Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail) since 1981. Following recent developments that put emphasis on women's agency in the union context, this paper explores the structural, organizational and individual factors that have allowed few women to become union leaders. More specifically we w...

  5. Female Representation but Male Rule? Party Competition and the Political Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Folke, Olle; Rickne, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    A large literature has studied the context that affects women’s numerical representation, but few have moved beyond numbers to study the drivers of a gender gap in political influence among elected politicians. Using panel data for the careers of 35.000 Swedish municipal politicians over six election cycles we first document the said gender gap. Women are substantially less likely to be re-elected for office, which is the most important pre-condition for obtaining influential appointments. Tu...

  6. A "glass-ceiling" effect for immigrants in the Italian labour market?

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aringa, Carlo; Lucifora, Claudio; Pagani, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates earnings differentials between immigrants and natives. We focus on returns and on the (imperfect) international transferability of human capital. Data are drawn from the 2009 Italian Labour Force Survey (LFS). We show that returns to human capital are considerably lower for immigrants as compared to natives and that there is no return to pre-immigration work experience, suggesting imperfect transferability of human capital. We also explored the role of human capital, f...

  7. Overcoming the glass ceiling: views from the cellar and the roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Women's experiences as professionals and behavior therapists have changed considerably in the past 40 years. The author describes early challenges and experiences of discrimination as a young female professional. Although women's opportunities have improved considerably, women still experience unique career challenges and choices. The author provides some suggestions for women's career development. PMID:23213676

  8. Breaking the glass ceiling? : the effect of board quotas on female labor market outcomes in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Marianne; Black, Sandra E.; Jensen, Sissel; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent representation of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase the representation of women in top positions in the corporate sector and decrease gender disparity in earnings within that sector. We document that the newly (post-reform) appointed female board members were observably more qualified than their female predecessors, and that the gender gap in earnings wit...

  9. Microfinance and Gender: Is There a Glass Ceiling in Loan Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Agier, Isabelle; Szafarz, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Microfinance institutions serve a majority of female borrowers. But do men and women benefit from same credit conditions? This paper investigates this issue by presenting an original model and testing its predictions on an exceptional database including 34,000 loan applications from a Brazilian microfinance institution over an eleven-year period. The model considers a lender that offers standardized loan contracts with a fixed interest rate, which is common practice in microfinance. It demons...

  10. Blank Canvas and Glass Ceiling: Using Visual Metaphors and Narratives to Examine Preservice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Colette; Meixner, Emily

    2015-01-01

    When preparing college-age teacher candidates to teach in diverse contexts, knowing how they reconcile knowledge, self-author, and negotiate social relationships can enhance pedagogy and inform program design. In this article, the authors use a developmental framework they created to examine how teacher candidates' visual metaphors about White…

  11. "The Glass Ceiling Is Kind of a Bummer": Women's Reflections on a Gender Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Elizabeth A.; SoRelle-Miner, Danielle; Bermudez, Judith M.; Walker, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women students' experiences and reactions to a core Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) class cross-listed with Women's Studies (WS). Using 6 focus groups with 22 women, we found that the course increased "awareness of gender" (Theme A) but was limited partially because of patriarchical beliefs,…

  12. Glass ceiling effect and earnings: the gender pay gap in managerial positions in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Anne; Holst, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Although there are a variety of studies on the gender pay gap, only a few relate to managerial positions. The present study attempts to fill this gap. Managers in private companies in Germany are a highly selective group of women and men, who differ only marginally in their human capital endowments. The Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition shows that the gender pay gap in the gross monthly salary can hardly be explained using the human capital approach. Adding variables on gender-specific labor marke...

  13. Is the "glass ceiling" a real problem for women physicists in Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechero, Marisa A.; Amador, Ana; Pastor, Antonio J. Ramirez; Tamarit, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the distribution of female physicists in the Argentinean workforce, analyzing the distribution of women at different levels of education and research using several indicators. Although important imbalances still occur, our findings are encouraging and the distribution of female physicists seems to be changing for the better.

  14. Speech recognition materials and ceiling effects: considerations for cochlear implant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, René H; Shallop, Jon K; Peterson, Anna Mary

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear implant recipients have demonstrated remarkable increases in speech perception since US FDA approval was granted in 1984. Improved performance is due to a number of factors including improved cochlear implant technology, evolving speech coding strategies, and individuals with increasingly more residual hearing receiving implants. Despite this evolution, the same recommendations for pre- and postimplant speech recognition testing have been in place for over 10 years in the United States. To determine whether new recommendations are warranted, speech perception performance was assessed for 156 adult, postlingually deafened implant recipients as well as 50 hearing aid users on monosyllabic word recognition (CNC) and sentence recognition in quiet (HINT and AzBio sentences) and in noise (BKB-SIN). Results demonstrated that for HINT sentences in quiet, 28% of the subjects tested achieved maximum performance of 100% correct and that scores did not agree well with monosyllables (CNC) or sentence recognition in noise (BKB-SIN). For a more difficult sentence recognition material (AzBio), only 0.7% of the subjects achieved 100% performance and scores were in much better agreement with monosyllables and sentence recognition in noise. These results suggest that more difficult materials are needed to assess speech perception performance of postimplant patients - and perhaps also for determining implant candidacy. PMID:18212519

  15. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.;

    2016-01-01

    cooling demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV...... area provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan...... and Athens it was 380 and 439 kWh, respectively. It was concluded that the nighttime radiative cooling can be a satisfying solution for providing space cooling to office buildings. The performance of the installation could be improved by implementing a solar shading system and a more precise control...

  16. Mothers´ quest for Job Protection: Building the nest of breaking the gall ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL FERNANDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that temporary contracts delay marriage and fertility in Spain. Using newly released administrative data we have studied the motivations behind the fertility delay that is associated with job protection. We have found that during the first five years after the birth of the first child, mothers in protected jobs were promoted less and their wages grew less (16 per cent) compared to those of mothers that had a fixed-term contract at the time of childbirth. The poor a...

  17. Reinforcing the glass ceiling: The consequences of hostile sexism for female managerial candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Masser, Barbara; Abrams, Dominic

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has established that benevolent sexism is related to the negative evaluation of women who violate specific norms for behavior. Research has yet to document the causal impact of hostile sexism on evaluations of individual targets. Correlational evidence and ambivalent sexism theory led us to predict that hostile sexism would be associated with negative evaluations of a female candidate for a masculine-typed occupational role. Participants completed the ASI (P. ...

  18. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  19. The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Louis N. Christofides; Polycarpou, Alexandros; Vrachimis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 24 EU member states, all of which share the objective of gender equality, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries and selection corrections affect the offered gap, sometimes substantially. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in most cou...

  20. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the Articles defining the three flexibility mechanisms carries wording that the use of the mechanism must be supplemental to domestic actions, the supplementarity provisions have been the focus of the international climat...

  1. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling; Hübner, Felix; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe; Vu, Linh Hong

    comparing the capabilities of modelbased test automation tools. The CSM application inputs velocity values from a domain which could not be completely enumerated for test purposes with reasonable e_ort. We therefore apply a novel method for equivalence class testing that { despite the conceptually in...

  2. Hitting our Heads on the Glass Ceiling: Women and Leadership in Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins by describing the present situation at the madrasah level in areas that participate in LAPIS-ELOIS activities and identifies the personal, cultural, and religious factors that contribute to women's under-representation in leadership and decision-making roles. Women's participation in leadership and decision making in Islamic universities involved in LAPIS-PGMI is discussed using data from consortium institutions. The range of factors contributing to the imbalance are discussed before turning to the policy issues that continue to contribute to gender disparity in leadership and decision making. The paper concludes by identifying some directions for action.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v17i2.460

  3. Mejora de las condiciones de habitabilidad y del cambio climático a partir de ecotechos extensivos. Estudio de caso: barrio La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Improving the housing conditions and climate change on the basis on extensive eco-ceilings. Case study: La Isla neighborhood, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Melhoramento das condições de habitabilidade e mudança climática a partir de ecotetos extensivos. Estudo de caso: Bairro La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Forero Cortés

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático generado por la expansión del área urbana incide en el aumento de temperatura por las propiedades térmicas de los materiales de construcción. La escasez de áreas verdes (que aumenta las superficies impermeables provoca desequilibrios climáticos que deterioran la calidad habitacional en el interior de la vivienda. En este sentido, este artículo se propone estimar y comparar la atenuación térmica y la captura de CO2 en viviendas de interés prioritario ubicadas en Altos de Cazucá, que utilizaron cultivos de hortalizas como ecotechos. El diseño experimental requirió desarrollos tecnológicos como un sistema de riego que optimiza el agua de precipitación y contenedores independientes para el sustrato y las plantas. Los cultivos están divididos en: 1 lechuga y rábano; 2 cebolla larga, cilantro y lechuga, y 3 espinaca y perejil.Se estudió también una vivienda testigo sin ecotecho. Luego, se cuantificaron las variables térmicas dentro de la vivienda y el carbono capturado. Los resultados son una atenuación térmica del techo (4 °C y del ambiente (3 °C, un aumento de la humedad relativa del 10% y un total de CO2capturado de 16,1 kg, 38,6 kg y 8,3 kg, anualmente. Climate change generated by the expansion of the urban area affects the temperature rise by the thermal properties of the materials of construction. The shortage of green areas (which increases impervious surfaces causes climatic imbalances that diminish quality within the housing. In this sense, this paper aims to estimate and compare the thermal attenuation and CO2 capture in priority interest housing located in Altos de Cazucá, who used eco ceilings as vegetable crops. The experimental design required technological developments such as an irrigation system that optimizes the rushing water and separate containers for the substrate and plants. Crops are divided into: 1 lettuce and radish, 2 green onions, coriander and lettuce, and 3 Spinach and parsley

  4. Ceiling painting around 1700: Public and private devotion in the towns of Central Europe and North Italy, Ljubljana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobalová, Sylva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2008), s. 24-25. ISSN 0862-612X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : conference review * baroque * wall painting Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.dejinyumeni.cz/bulletin/UHS_2_2008.pdf

  5. Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Examining the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution in Urban China, 1987-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Using 1987, 1996, and 2004 data, we show that the gender pay gap in the Chinese urban labor market has increased across the wage distribution, and the increase was greater at the lower quantiles. We interpret this as evidence of the “sticky floor” effect.We use the reweighting and recentered influence function projection method proposed by Firpo, Fortin, Lemieux (2005) to decompose gender pay differentials across the wage distribution. We find that the gender differences in the return to labo...

  6. Do women want to break the glass ceiling? A study of their career orientations and gender identity in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Schruijer, Sandra G. L.

    2006-01-01

    Career orientations, career success and perceived self-efficacy of women employees in relation to their gender identity were studied. It was hypothesized that gender identity is related to career orientations such that women with a masculine gender identity strive for more upward mobility as compared to women with a feminine gender identity, whereas the latter strive more for balancing work and private life. A masculine gender identity was furthermore predicted to be positively related to car...

  7. Cracking the Lavender Ceiling: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Student Affairs Professionals and Their Personal Perspectives on Career Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Capshaw

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, the people working in student affairs are as diverse as the students who are served by these professionals. Those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are often faced with challenges to moving up the career ladder. Many who seek senior-level administrative positions, such as director, dean of students, vice president or…

  8. Floors and ceilings. Insulating with PUR rigid foam. 2. ed.; Fussboden und Decke. Daemmen mit PUR-Hartschaum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Ecobalances for building insulation PUR rigid foam is presented. These include the whole life of the PUR material, from raw materials, expense of rigid foam production and of laminated foam plates, and fuel conservation as well recycling or energetic exploitation of post-user PUR foams.

  9. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  10. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Merida L.

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behaviora...

  11. Effects of cloned tumstatin-related and angiogenesis-inhibitory peptides on proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-mei; ZHANG Ying-mei; FU Song-bin; LIU Xing-han; FU Xue; YU Yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumstatin is a recently developed endogenous vascular endothelial growth inhibitor that can be applied as an anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic agent.The study aimed to design and synthesize the small molecular angiogenesis inhibition-related peptide (peptide 21),to replicate the structural and functional features of the active zone of angiogenesis inhibition using tumstatin and to prove that synthesized peptide 21 has a similar activity:specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis like tumstatin.Methods Peptide 21 was designed and synthesized using biological engineering technology.To determine its biological action,the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304,the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 and the mouse embryo-derived NIH3T3 fibroblasts were used in in vitro experiments to determine the effect of peptide 21 on proliferation of the three cell lines using the MTT test and growth curves.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were applied to analyze the peptide 21-induced apoptosis of the three cell lines qualitatively and quantitatively.In animal experiments,tumor models in nude mice subcutaneously grafted with SKOV-3 were used to observe the effects of peptide 21 on tumor weight,size and microvessel density (MVD).To initially investigate the role of peptide 21,the effect of peptide 21 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) by tumor tissue was semi-quantitatively analyzed.Results The in vitro MTT test and growth curves all indicated that cloned peptide 21 could specifically inhibit ECV304 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.01);TEM and FCM showed that peptide 21 could specifically induce ECV304 apoptosis (P <0.01).Results of in vivo experiments showed that tumors in the peptide 21 group grew more slowly.The weight and size of the tumors after 21 days of treatment were smaller than those in the control group (P <0.05),with a mean tumor inhibition rate of 67.86%;MVD of the tumor tissue in the peptide 21 group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05);the number of cells positive for VEGF in the peptide 21 group was significantly fewer than in the control group (P <0.01).Conclusions Similar to the activity of tumstatin in specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis,peptide 21 may specifically inhibit tumor endothelial cell proliferation and induce their apoptosis,thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and indirectly inhibit the growth,infiltration and metastasis of tumors.Peptide 21 may exert its effect through down-regulating the VEGF expression of tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells.

  12. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Collaborative Leadership Theory as a Model for Women in Theological Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions within business, politics, and higher education. The reality, however, is that while women make up slightly more than 50% of the population, we are under-represented in these institutions. There are fewer than 20 female CEOs of the…

  13. Through the Glass Ceiling? Influences on and Challenges Faced by Female Partners in Big-4 Accounting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Millar, Claire

    2014-01-01

    What are the personal factors that affect female partners in Big-4 accounting firms? That was the question explored last summer in a series of semi-structured interviews with eight female partners at Ireland’s Big-4 firms. Interviews took place in June, July and August 2013.

  14. Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Recent Experimental Approaches to Probe the Properties of Supercooled Liquids near the Glass Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2012-03-15

    Experimental measurements of the properties of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their glass transition temperatures, Tg, are requisite for understanding the behavior of glasses and amorphous solids. Unfortunately, many supercooled molecular liquids rapidly crystallize at temperatures far above their Tg, making such measurements difficult to nearly impossible. In this Perspective, we discuss some recent alternative approaches to obtain experimental data in the temperature regime near Tg. These new approaches may yield the additional experimental data necessary to test current theoretical models of the dynamical slowdown that occurs in supercooled liquids approaching the glass transition. PMID:26286280

  15. Do Workers Who Experience Conflict between the Work and Family Domains Hit a "Glass Ceiling?": A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Jenny M.; Hu, Jia; Wilson, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Based in Conservation of Resources (COR; Hobfoll, 1989) and self-verification (Swann, 1987) theories, we argue that when workers experience conflict between the work and family domains, this should have implications for evaluations of their work performance and ultimately affect more "objective" career outcomes such as salary and hierarchical…

  16. Gender-specific occupational segregation, glass ceiling effects, and earnings in managerial positions: Results of a fixed effects model

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Anne; Holst, Elke

    2011-01-01

    The study analyses the gender pay gap in private-sector management positions in Germany based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) for the years 2001-2008. It focuses in particular on gender segregation in the labor market, that is, on the unequal distribution of women and men across different occupations and on the effects of this inequality on earnings levels and gender wage differentials in management positions. Our paper is, to our knowledge, the first in Germany to u...

  17. Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. Shattering Expectations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Typically, achievement gaps between groups of students are measured as either differences in average scores or differences in proficiency rates. But, practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have long recognized that these approaches don't tell the whole story. Average scores, for example, are good at summarizing trends but can mask real…

  18. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  19. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  20. The Glass Ceiling Is Made of Concrete: The Barriers to Promotion and Tenure of Women in American Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Mary; Andel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to survey the literature in American higher education on the tenure and promotion of women and to suggest future problems that women may encounter as the American population grays. Anecdotally, women are not tenured and promoted in the same percentages of men in similar fields. In the social and natural sciences,…

  1. Effects of Multiglycoside of Tripterygium Wilfordii (GTW) on Spermatogenic Ceils and Enzymatic Activities in Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 周孝瑚

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe consecutively the morphology of testis and epididymis and the changes of enzymatic activities of AKP, ACP, 3β-HSD and LDH-C4 in male rats treated with GTW 30 to 80 days. In addition, male antifertility effect and its possible reversibility were also observed. The results showed that GTW is a potential testicular toxicant in the animals. It can cause damage of the sperm cells with close relation to the treated time and dosage, Sloughing of sperm cells and many multinucleated giant cells in the seminiferous tubules were found on day 40 and 50 after the treatment. The tubules were hyperatrophic and the sperm cells were almost absent at the end of the study(80 days), No obvious morphological alteration was observed in the epididymal epithelial tissue, But changes of quality and number df the spermatozoa in epididymides were found prior to those of testes. Reduced number and abnormal cauda sperm were observed 30 days after the treatment, The ACP activity of Sertoli cells increased slightly, whereas the activities of ACP and LDH-C4 decreased gradually as the treated time prolonged. The 3β-HSD of Leydig cells was changed or subtle by m-phase or treatment and dramatically decreased at the end of treatment, The infertility caused by GTW was reversible 8 weeks after cessation of the treatment.

  2. Global emission ceiling versus international cap and trade: What is the most efficient system when countries act non-cooperatively?

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Jacqueline; Prieur, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    We model climate negotiations as a two-stage game. In the first stage of the game, players have to agree on a global emission cap (GEC). In the second stage, they non-cooperatively choose either their emission level or their emission quota, depending on whether emission trading is allowed, under the cap that potentially binds them together. A three heterogenous player quadratic game serves as a base for the analysis. In this framework, when the cap is non-binding, there exists a unique Nash e...

  3. Bayesian fusion of ceiling mounted camera and laser range finder on a mobile robot for people detection and localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B.J.A. Kröse

    2012-01-01

    Robust people detection and localization is a prerequisite for many applications where service robots interact with humans. Future robots will not be stand-alone any more but will operate in smart environments that are equipped with sensor systems for context awareness and activity recognition. This

  4. Measurement, control and energy illusions. Conventional active ceiling induction convectors; Meet-, regel- en energie-illusies. Aan de hand van traditionele actieve plafondinductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Orange Climate Group OCG Autarkis, Holten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Attention is paid to the revised standard NEN-EN 15251 (Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics) [Dutch] Aandacht wordt besteed aan de herziene norm NEN-EN 15251 (Binnenmilieu gerelateerde input parameters voor ontwerp en beoordeling van energieprestatie van gebouwen voor de kwaliteit van binnenlucht, het thermisch comfort, de verlichting en akoestiek)

  5. Safe ducts through walls and ceilings. Fire protection, acoustic insulation and thermal insulation of pipe ducts; Sicher durch Wand und Decke. Brand-, Schall- und Waermeschutz von Rohrleitungsdurchfuehrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, B.; Mai, H.J. [Missel, Fellbach/Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Fire protection of technical facilities can be difficult and costly. The contribution shows how multiple, mixed installations may reduce the cost. (orig.) [German] Um Brandschutz-Anforderungen bei haustechnischen Installationen einzuhalten, muessen oftmals knifflige und damit kostspielige Probleme geloest werden. Der nachfolgende Beitrag beschreibt Moeglichkeiten, die eine mehrfache, aber dennoch brandschutztechnisch sichere Mischinstallation ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  6. Is there a metallicity ceiling to form carbon stars? - A novel technique reveals a scarcity of C stars in the inner M31 disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; Marigo, P; Williams, B F; Aringer, B; Nowotny, W; Rosenfield, P; Dorman, C E; Guhathakurta, P; Dalcanton, J J; Melbourne, J L; Olsen, K A G; Weisz, D R

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we find a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the findings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We find only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C/M = (3.3(+20,-0.1))x10^-4) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is ...

  7. Is There a Metallicity Ceiling to Form Carbon Stars? - A Novel Technique Reveals a Scarcity of C-Stars in the Inner M31 Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Girardi, L.; Marigo, P.; Williams, B. F.; Aringer, B.; Nowotny, W.; Rosenfield, P.; Dorman, C. E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Melbourne, J. L.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Weisz, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguish- ing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we nd a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the ndings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We nd only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C=M = (3.3(sup +20)(sub - 0.1) x 10(sup -4)) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints to evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is a metallicity threshold above which M stars are unable to make the transition to C stars, dramatically affecting AGB mass loss and dust production and, consequently, the observed global properties of metal-rich galaxies.

  8. A Question of Equity: Women and the Glass Ceiling in the Federal Government. A Special Study. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merit Systems Protection Board, Washington, DC.

    An investigation of the process for career progression in the federal white-collar work force examined the nature and extent of any barriers women may confront in that process. It included data from three sources: U.S. Office of Personnel Management's Central Personnel Data File; 19 focus groups with 144 senior level and senior executive men and…

  9. Green Cushioning Material Applied in Ceiling Light Packaging%环保型缓冲材料在吸顶灯包装设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若梅; 李敏; 肖颖喆

    2006-01-01

    对纸浆模塑和瓦楞纸板的吸顶灯缓冲包装进行了分析比较,通过物流过程模拟,分别对两种包装方案做了跌落试验.并从环保、降低成本以及保护产品的角度出发,采用纸浆模塑对吸顶灯的包装进行了改进设计,其包装方案经过试验测评证明是可行的,成功的.

  10. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing... section applies to all Loans and Debt Securities. As required by § 107.800(b), you must include as...

  11. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  12. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health. PMID:25256222

  13. Through the glass ceiling - and back again: the experiences of two of the first non-medical directors of public health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Adams, Lee

    2007-06-01

    In 2001, the English Department of Health announced a radical re-organisation of the NHS under the banner of 'shifting the balance of power'. As part of this re-organisation health authorities were abolished and the main NHS public health responsibilities devolved to the new primary care trusts (PCTs) from April 2002. Following several years of campaigning by the Multidisciplinary Public Health Forum (MPHF), in November 2001 the Acting Minister for Public Health, Lord Hunt, announced that PCT director of public health (DPH) posts would be open to 'suitably qualified' candidates from any discipline. From April 2002 a number of new DsPH from backgrounds other than medicine were appointed. This paper reports on the experiences of two such DsPH who shared a commitment to multidisciplinary public health, but who did not wholly share the objectives of the MPHF. We place the opening of PCT DPH posts in the context of tensions within NHS public health between a focus on health services versus the wider determinants of health, and the development of multidisciplinary public health. The paper reflects on both the degree of change this opening represented and the limitations and tensions such appointments exposed. PMID:17451762

  14. We'll never get past the glass ceiling! Meta-stereotyping, world-views and perceived relative group-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuamalam, Chuma; Zagefka, Hanna

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the implications of perceived negativity from members of a dominant outgroup on the world views and perceived relative group worth of members of disadvantaged groups. We hypothesized that concerns about the negative opinions a dominant outgroup is perceived to hold of the ingroup (i.e., meta-stereotypes) would undermine group members' views about societal fairness. We expected this trend to be mediated by recall of previous personal experiences of discrimination. We further hypothesized that members' views about societal fairness would predict their perception of the ingroup's worth relative to the outgroup - such that undermined views about societal fairness would be associated with lower perceived ingroup worth relative to the outgroup. Taken jointly, results from two studies using two real intergroup contexts support these hypotheses and are discussed in terms of their implications for the social mobility of members of disadvantaged groups. PMID:24094283

  15. Breaking through the glass ceiling: The correlation between the self-diffusivity in and krypton permeation through deeply supercooled liquid nanoscale methanol films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2010-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures (100-115 K) near the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited on top of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare-gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

  16. Beyond the glass ceiling. The top 25 women in Healthcare honorees take on key roles as significant change in the industry unfolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Landen, Rachel; Zigmond, Jessica

    2013-04-01

    At a time when a national conversation is focused on the gender imbalance atop most professions, healthcare can boast of having women in some of the most important policy and executive positions. Those honored in ourTop 25 Women in Healthcare program have a few lessons to share. "Be willing to take the job that everyone else isn't migrating to and make it work for you," says Marilyn Tavenner, acting CMS administrator. PMID:24010155

  17. Machismo and the Glass Ceiling: A Comparative Cultural Study on the Role of Gender in the Presidential Elections of Hillary Clinton and Michelle Bachelet

    OpenAIRE

    Woodring, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    During her bid for president, Hillary Clinton was often questioned about allegations of sexism in media coverage surrounding her campaign. She once responded: "It's been deeply offensive to millions of women. I believe this campaign has been a groundbreaker in a lot of ways. But it certainly has been challenging given some of the attitudes in the press.” Were media mentalities and reporting really as biased toward Clinton’s gender as has been asserted? This study seeks to answer not only that...

  18. A New Look through the Glass Ceiling: Where Are the Women? The Status of Women in Management in Ten Selected Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingell, John D.; Maloney, Carolyn B.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) analyzed Current Population Survey (CPS) data for 1995-2000 to assess the situation of women managers in 10 industries that employ over 70 percent of women workers. Despite a sense of continued progress toward gender equality in the workplace, in the 10 industries employing 71 percent of United States (US) women…

  19. IS THERE A METALLICITY CEILING TO FORM CARBON STARS?—A NOVEL TECHNIQUE REVEALS A SCARCITY OF C STARS IN THE INNER M31 DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we find a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the findings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We find only one candidate C star (plus up to six additional, less certain C star candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C/M= (3.3+20-0.1)×10-4) that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints to evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is a metallicity threshold above which M stars are unable to make the transition to C stars, dramatically affecting AGB mass loss and dust production and, consequently, the observed global properties of metal-rich galaxies

  20. 西门子Artis Zee Ceiling数字减影血管造影机性能分析及故障维修%Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting of Siemens Artis Zee Ceiling Digital Suboraction Angiography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓虎

    2016-01-01

    本文对西门子Artis zee系列数字减影血管造影(DSA)机的系统设计、操作界面、安全防护及图像处理等方面的优势和特点进行了分析,并对典型的维修案例进行了介绍。

  1. 放宽经常项目账户限额提高企业外汇自主权%Relaxed Restriction on Balance Ceiling of Foreign Exchange Account under Current Account Enlarges the Decision-Making Power of Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奇; 董英

    2005-01-01

    8月2日.国家外汇管理局发布《关于放宽境内机构保留经常项目外汇收入有关问题的通知》,将境内机构经常项目外汇账户可保留现汇的比例.由现行的30%或50%调高到50%或80%。

  2. Research on Capillary Radiant Ceiling Cooling System Couplingwith Air Conditioning System%毛细管网吊顶辐射空调与新风耦合的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志浩; 金梧凤; 刘艳超

    2013-01-01

    对毛细管网结构研发及供冷性能进行测试,并应用 Fluent数值模拟,对毛细管辐射供冷末端与置换通风和贴附射流两种通风方式加以耦合,通过实验验证了其模拟模型对该实验系统具有相关适用性,并应用了该相关模型。结果表明:两种不同的送风方式下,房间的三度均能满足舒适性要求,当热湿负荷突然增加时,如不采取相应的响应动作,毛细管辐射板表面将会有结露现象发生,置换通风较为严重,相同的新风条件下,贴附射流的通风方式,对于消除辐射板结露效果明显。%Thisarticle tests the capillary net cooling performanceand usesFluent softwareto establish the corre-sponding numerical calculation modelbycombining the terminal capillary radiant cooling with displacement ventilation andwall attachment jet .The results show that under the two kinds of different air distribution modes ,three degrees of temperature ,humidity and relative humidity parameters all can satisfy the require-ments of comfort .When heat and moisture load suddenly increases ,capillary radiation plate surface dewing phenomenon will happen without taking the action accordingly and displacement ventilation is more serious . Besides ,under the same air condition ,it is obvious to eliminate the dew formationattaching with a jet ventila-tion way .

  3. 试析中国女性职业发展中的"玻璃天花板效应"%"Glass Ceiling Effect" Analysis on the Gender Inequality in Female Employment Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张营

    2009-01-01

    玻璃天花板作为当前社会客观存在的现象,阻碍了女性职业发展的道路,这不仅与社会现代化不相符,更不利于社会和谐.要突破玻璃天花板的阻隔,需要女性自身、企业和政府的共同努力:女性自身需克服弱点,发挥出自身优势;企业应更新观念;政府要制定相应的促进性别平等发展的政策法规.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis of stricter emission ceilings for air pollutants. National evaluation for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol; Kosten en baten van strengere emissieplafonds voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nationale evaluatie voor de herziening van het Gothenburg Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, W.

    2012-06-15

    The Netherlands experiences high benefits of strict European emission targets for air pollutants. The Dutch live longer and are healthier because of extra emission reductions. In addition, damage to nature decreases. This emerges from a cost-benefit analysis of a number of possible variants for tightening emission targets by 2020 in the context of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol [Dutch] Nederland ondervindt hoge baten van strenge Europese emissiedoelen voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nederlanders leven langer en gezonder door extra emissiereducties. Daarnaast neemt de schade aan de natuur af. Dit blijkt uit een kosten-batenanalyse van een aantal mogelijke varianten voor aanscherping van emissiedoelen per 2020 in het kader van de herziening van het Gothenburg protocol.

  5. Use of PCM as a cooling and heating system. PCM ceiling induction units as cooling and heating generators; Toepassing PCM als koel- en verwarmingsinstallatie. PCM-plafondinductieunits als koude- en warmteopwekker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagoeni, V.; Pinas, E. [Technisch Adviesbureau Sanes, Almere (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    The deployment of PCM ('phase change materials') is one of the most promising future techniques for sustainable energy concepts for limiting installations, reaching a high comfort level and energy saving. However, the application is not (yet) appreciated in the current starting points of design technology or in common regulations. The performances need to be underpinned by proving and demonstrating quality. [Dutch] De toepassing van PCM ('phase change materials') is een van de veelbelovende toekomstige technieken voor duurzame energieconcepten in het kader van het beperken van installaties, bereiken van een hoog comfortniveau en energiebesparing. De toepassing wordt echter (nog) niet gewaardeerd in de huidige ontwerptechnische uitgangspunten of de reguliere r egelgeving. Prestaties moeten dus worden onderbouwd op basis van gelijkwaardigheid en/of worden bepaald en aangetoond.

  6. Rotating shielded crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  7. 48 CFR 16.205-2 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing period should be at least 12 months. (b) The contract may provide for a ceiling price based on evaluation of the uncertainties involved in performance and their possible cost impact. This ceiling...

  8. Rotating shielded crane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotating, radiation-shielded crane system is described comprising: a generally cylindrical, radiation-shielding wall, the top of the wall forming a first annular ledge; a second annular ledge integrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall; a generally cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material, the ceiling including a flange portion on the top thereof and a body portion, the flange portion associated with the second annular ledge such that the ceiling is supported thereby, the volume inside the wall and the ceiling forming a test cell; a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling such that the crane is outside of the test cell; removable access means in the ceiling for allowing the crane to access the inside of the test cell from the top of the ceiling; means for sealing the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling

  9. Aiming high but keeping costs low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Steve; Nicholls, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Steve Hough, national sales manager, CEP Claddings, and Andrew Nicholls, sales director, CEP Ceilings, explain how modern cladding and ceiling materials can enhance the appearance of modern hospital buildings while offering practical, cost-saving, and environmental advantages. PMID:20446486

  10. 76 FR 15302 - Nationwide Categorical Waivers Under Section 1605 (Buy American) of the American Recovery and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Chandelier Light Fixture; Linear Fluorescent Ceiling Lighting Fixture (48'' Lensed Fluorescent w/Dimming... Insulators; \\3/4\\'' Collated Screws, Shank 10; 3'';Bolt Guy Clamp; Ceiling Fan; Ceiling Fan w/Light Kit; Door Hinge Pin Stops; Exterior Wall Mount Two Head Flood Light w/270 Degree Motion Sensor & Brushed...

  11. Navigating the Labyrinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H.; Carli, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling has shattered. The metaphor of a glass ceiling, an absolute barrier to women's advancement, is seriously outdated. Some women do make it to high positions as big-city superintendents of schools, governors, secretaries of state and, even occasionally, as Fortune 500 CEOs. The glass ceiling metaphor has great appeal but is…

  12. Power plant construction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each building is covered at upper than the position of a ceiling crane, each of the ceiling crane always disposed for every building is moved to an optional building to treat equipments and building materials by each of the ceiling crane. A plurality of ceiling cranes are used for transporting one large and heavy weighted equipment or each ceiling crane is used also individually to transport equipments to each building, construction operations are thus conducted using a plurality of ceiling cranes in one identical building or in each of buildings in a state undergoing no influences of the outer circumstance by covering the roofs. Large sized or heavy weighted equipments can be carried in, to proceed the construction smoothly, and in addition, since the construction can be performed in a state scarcely undergoing influence of outer circumstance, the period of time required for the construction can be shortened. (N.H.)

  13. Evaluation of Acoustic parameters of Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Vodopija, Janko; Fajt, Sinisa; Krhen, Miljenko

    2010-01-01

    National audience The purpose of this paper is to give an evaluation of subjective and objective acoustic parameters in two architecturally different churches in Zagreb, Croatia. These churches have completely different architectural parameters due to different style, shape and volume. The influence of high vaulted ceiling in one church is compared to the lower flat ceiling of the other. The influence of large high ceiling lateral aisles and the lateral galleries to both binaural and monau...

  14. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Škerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singapore mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider their organizatio...

  15. 78 FR 77668 - Certification Reports, Compliance Statements, Application for a Test Procedure Waiver, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... fans; (19) Ceiling fan light kits; (20) Torchieres; (21) Compact fluorescent lamps; (22) Dehumidifiers...) Fluorescent lamp ballasts; (13) General service fluorescent lamps, general service incandescent lamps,...

  16. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  17. 14 CFR 331.17 - How will the Department verify and audit claims under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF... Department of Justice. If an audit is necessary, a ceiling amount reached, and the audit does not support...

  18. Cam Tavan Sendromu ve Kadınların Üst Düzey Yönetici Pozisyonuna Yükselmelerindeki Engeller: Balıkesir İli Örneği(Glass Ceiling Syndrome and the Obstacles Facing Women’s Advancement to Senior Management Positions: Evidence From Balikesir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip ÖRÜCÜ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the reasons why women’s presentation in senior management levels and strategically important positions is lower compared to men constitutes the aim of this study. Conducting a literature survey, the concept of “Glass Ceiling” has been explained and the obstacles confronting women in preferment to senior management positions have been presented depending on the related studies held in Turkey and other countries. In the application part of the study, under the light of the findings from the literature, a survey covering 200 employees, of whom 103 male and 97 female, has been conducted in order to find out about the opinions of employees in Balıkesir on the obstacles in question. The findings have revealed that the limited horizon of leadership and managerial capability, excessive familial responsibilities, and the “queen bee” syndrome are the main obstacles that hamper women in the progress towards senior level managerial positions.

  19. Pérez, Pablo. La inserción ocupacional de los jóvenes en un contexto de desempleo masivo. El caso argentino entre 1995 y 2003 : Editorial Miño y Dávila, CEIL-PIETTE/ Trabajo y Sociedad, Buenos Aires, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Adamini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Con una formación de economista, Pérez se desvía en este trabajo de la mirada más clásica de su formación para permitirse articular con perspectivas propias de la sociología y la educación. El autor señala que es la complejidad del problema de estudio la que le exige una mirada multidimensional. Desde esta mirada holística tiende puentes entre un estudio macroeconómico de las reformas ocurridas en Argentina en el periodo de estudio con preguntas acerca de los condicionamientos educacionale...

  20. The use of high induction air dispersion tubing for fresh air supply in high-ceiling factories or buildings; Utilisation des tubes de dispersion d'air a haute induction en situation d'apport d'air neuf ou autre dans les usines ou batiments en hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, A. [Nad Klima, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This article described a new air distribution system that was installed at the Transcontinental printing plant in Boucherville, Quebec to replace an inefficient system that required 8 coolers, 11 ventilators, 10 pumps and 4 air cooled condensers. The new NAD tube system operates on the principle of air injection, whereby a jet of air emerging from a nozzle creates a zone of depression to move large masses of air in any desired direction via small airflow jets. The objective of the retrofit was to reduce maintenance and HVAC energy costs and to resolve the problems of negative pressure in the building. With the new NAD tube system, all the equipment is grouped into one room. Exothermic cycles are used to heat or cool the air in the building for free using absorption coolers. The high induction air dispersing tube has several nozzles calibrated by software to move air at a very high speed. This creates turbulence to facilitate air exchange. The system has operated successfully, even on very cold days of -28 degrees C, without any condensation in the tube. The NAD tube system provides increased comfort for employees and does not require the use of fans. The payback period is 3.2 years without funding or 2.4 years with funding. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  1. Effect of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NPRL2 on the biological characteristics of human gastric cancer ceils%重组质粒pEGFP-N1-NPRL2对人胃癌细胞生物学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡在敏; 王川; 季文; 刘波; 蔡璨; 姜政

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体对SGC-7901胃癌细胞体外增殖、细胞周期、凋亡、侵袭及迁移的影响.方法:构建pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体,并进行酶切及测序鉴定.脂质体介导转染入SGC-7901胃癌细胞,应用荧光显微镜、RT-PCR、Western blot法检测NPRL2的基因及蛋白水平情况,CCK8法检测细胞增殖的变化,流式细胞仪分析细胞周期和凋亡率的变化,Transwell实验检测NPRL2对细胞迁移及侵袭能力的影响.结果:成功构建了pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体.重组质粒转染SGC-7901细胞后,通过荧光显微镜观察到绿色荧光的表达,RT-PCR和Westernblot法检测到NPRL2 mRNA及蛋白的表达,CCK8法检测发现NPRL2能够明显抑制肿瘤细胞增殖(P<0.05),细胞周期分析显示NPRL2使细胞停在G0 ~ G1期(P<0.05),细胞凋亡结果显示NPRL2能抑制细胞凋亡(P<0.05),TransweU侵袭和迁移实验显示NPRL2使细胞侵袭迁移能力均降低(P<0.05).结论:NPRL2可抑制肿瘤细胞的增殖、周期、侵袭及迁移,并促进凋亡.%AIM: To investigate the effect of eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro. METHODS; The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 was constructed and confirmed by enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis. Then, it was transfected into SGC-7901 cells via the liposome. The expression of NPRL2 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR, fluorescent microscopy and Western blotting, respectively. The proliferation of SGC-7901 was tested by CCK8, the cell cycle and apoptosis rate by flow cytometry and the effects of NPRL2 on the cell invasion and migration by Transwell (Boyden Chamber) assay. RESULTS; The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 was constructed successfully and transfected into SGC-7901 cells. The expression of green fluorescent protein was observed using a fluorescence microscope and both mRNA and protein of NPRL2 was detectable by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CCK8 revealed that the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells were significantly inhibited by NPRU (P<0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that the cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) and cell apoptosis was evidently inhibited (P<0.05). Transwell chamber experiments showed that the abilities of both invasion and migration of the cells decreased by NPRL2 ( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: The NPRL3 inhibits the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells, arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, decreases the abilities of invasion and migration and promotes apoptosis.

  2. Protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T ceils from vitiligo patients%茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 吴纪龙; 周妙妮; 付丽芳; 许爱娥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells from vitiligo patients.Methods Skin tissue was resected from the margin of vitiligo lesions followed by the isolation and culture of CD8+ T lymphocytes,and from the normal skin of vitiligo patients followed by the isolation and culture of melanocytes.Flow cytometry was carried out to evaluate the purity of CD8+ T cells.The melanocytes were cocultured with the CD8 + T cells at different ratios followed by the evaluation of killing effect of CD8+ T cells.Various concentrations (200 and 400 μg/ml) of tea polyphenols were added into the co-culture system of CD8+ T cells and melanocytes at a ratio of 5 ∶ 1 followed by an additional culture of 48 hours.Then,flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis in melanocytes in the coculture system.Results CD8+ T lymphocytes were successfully obtained from the marginal area of vitiligo lesions with a purity of more than 90%,which highly expressed the antigens CD137 and CD69.The coculture with CD8+ T cells markedly accelerated the apoptosis in melanocytes,while the accelerative effect was inhibited by tea polyphenols of 200 and 400 μg/ml.Conclusions The CD8+ T cells infiltrating the edge of vitiligo lesions display a potential destructive effect on autologous melanocytes from vitiligo patients,and tea polyphenols have a protective effect against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells.%目的 探讨茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用.方法 取白癜风患者白斑边缘处皮片组织,培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,细胞纯度用流式细胞仪进行鉴定,通过和黑素细胞共培养验证其针对黑素细胞的杀伤作用.将不同浓度茶多酚加入CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养的体系,用流式细胞仪检测黑素细胞的凋亡.结果 取白癜风皮损边缘表皮组织中成功培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,纯度达90%以上,高表达活化抗原CD137和CD69.CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养后,可明显诱导黑素细胞凋亡.200 μg/ml和400 μg/ml浓度茶多酚处理均可以降低黑素细胞的凋亡率.结论 白癜风皮损边缘组织来源的CD8+T细胞对白癜风患者黑素细胞有明显杀伤作用.茶多酚对抗CD8+T细胞杀伤黑素细胞,从而对黑素细胞有一定的保护作用.

  3. ¿Techos de cristal y escaleras resbaladizas?: Desigualdades de género y estrategias de cambio en SESPAS Glass ceiling and slippery stairs?: Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Colomer Revuelta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades científicas, como en otros espacios públicos, la presencia de las mujeres en la toma de decisiones es menor que la de los varones. Describimos la situación en la Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria (SESPAS donde, a pesar de existir un 40% de socias, las mujeres han estado escasamente representadas en los puestos donde se toman las decisiones y en los de reconocimiento profesional. Se explica el proceso de cambio que se ha impulsado en los últimos años y algunos de los efectos de las acciones emprendidas. Visualizar las desigualdades de género existentes provocó el debate y el interés por la acción. Se ha establecido un grupo de trabajo de género y salud pública. En los dos últimos años se han incorporado más mujeres a los puestos de poder y de reconocimiento profesional en SESPAS.In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Helath and Health Services Administration where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been prometed to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  4. 乌司他丁对糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤的影响:离体实验%Effect of ulinastatin on oxidative stress injury to myocardial ceils in diabetic rats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳惠碧; 屠伟峰; 苏玲; 陈茜; 郄文斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价乌司他丁对糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤的影响.方法 H9c2细胞株,于DMEM培养基培养至对数生长期时,分别接种于96孔板(细胞密度1×104个/ml,200μl/孔)或6孔板(细胞密度1×105个/ml,2ml/孔)中,采用随机数字表法,将培养孔分为4组(n=18):正常对照组(C组)、高糖组(HG组)、高糖+氧化应激组(HG+OS组)和乌司他丁+高糖+氧化应激组(U+HG+OS组).HG组以高糖DMEM培养基(糖浓度25.O mmol/L)孵育细胞48 h,HG+OS组和U+HG+OS组以高糖DMEM培养基孵育24 h时加入500 μmol/L H2O2继续孵育24 h;U+HG+OS组高糖DMEM培养基中加入400 U/ml乌司他丁.收集细胞,测定细胞活力、细胞凋亡情况、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,收集细胞培养液上清,测定乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性.结果 与C组比较,其它3组细胞活力和SOD活性降低,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性升高(P<0.05);与HG组比较,HG+OS组和U+HG+OS组细胞活力和SOD活性降低,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性升高(P<0.05);与HG+OS组比较,U+HG+OS组细胞活力和SOD活性升高,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性降低(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁可减轻糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤,其机制与抑制细胞凋亡有关.%Objective To evaluate the effect of ulinastatin on oxidative stress injury to myocardial cells in diabetic rats in vitro.Methods The H9c2 cells were cultured in DMEM culture medium and the cells at the logarithmic growth phase were seeded in 96-well plates (density 1 × 104 cells/ml,200 μl/well) or in 6-well plates (density 1× 105 cells/m1,2 ml/well).The cells were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=18 each) using a random number table:normal control group (group C),high-glucose group (group HG),high-glucose + oxidative stress group (group HG+OS),ulinastatin +high-glucose+oxidative stress group (group U+HG+OS).The cells were cultured in high-glucose DMEM culture medium (25.0 mmol/L) for 48 h in group HG.After the cells were cultured in high-glucose DMEM culture medium for 24 h,H2O2 with the final concentration of 500 μmol/L was added to the high-glucose culture medium,and the cells were continuously cultured for 24 h in HG+OS and U+HG+OS groups.In group U+HG+OS,ulinastatin 400 U/ml was added to the high-glucose culture medium.The cells were collected for determination of cell viability,H9c2 apoptosis,activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and contents of malonadehyde (MDA).Apoptosis rate was calculated.The cell culture supernatant was collected for detection of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity.Results Compared with group C,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly decreased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were increased in the other groups.Compared with HG group,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly decreased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were increased in HG+OS and U+HG+OS groups.Compared with group HG+OS,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly increased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were decreased in group U + HG+ OS.Conclusion Ulinastatin can mitigate oxidative stress injury to myocardial cells in diabetic rats,and inhibited cell apoptosis is involved in the mechanism.

  5. Dynamic Measurements of a Novel System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    In the PSO project 345-061, a novel system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated building systems (TABS) has been proposed for cooling and ventilation in Danish office buildings. Due to the application of diffuse ceiling inlet, cold outdoor air...

  6. 75 FR 32185 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Canopy for Reducing Noise Transmitted Through Suspended Ceilings Description of Invention: Available for... property rights covering a sound attenuation canopy for reducing noise transmitted through suspended... effectively reduce the direct path of sound travelling within open plenum suspended ceilings like those...

  7. Drug: D07697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AZIDES C03BX Other low-ceiling diuretics C03BX03 Cicletanine D07697 Cicletanine h...ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03B LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, EXCL. THI

  8. Career Development of Latinas in Mid-Level Community College Administration: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-De Jesus, Naydeen Tyffane

    2012-01-01

    Glass ceilings have been identified by scholars throughout the past 20 years as barriers to the upward career mobility of women and of people of color. There is an indication that glass ceiling barriers exist in the higher education sector. Latinas, as a subgroup of women of color, occupy many of the mid-level administrative positions in community…

  9. 76 FR 57677 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Increase the Use of Fixed-Price Incentive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... the Federal Register on March 2, 2011 (76 FR 11410). The proposed rule required that contracting... attention to share line and ceiling prices for fixed-price incentive (firm target) contracts, with 120... additional guidance on establishing the target cost, share lines, and ceiling price. This regulation is not...

  10. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile...... terminals mounted in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling...

  11. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: njfonseca@doct.ulg.ac.b [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, AA 97 Pereira (Colombia); Cuevas, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Casilla 160c Concepcion (Chile)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  12. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  13. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Møller, Eva B.

    In most Nordic homes the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings have some kind of surface treatment for aesthetical reasons. The treatments can for example be glass felt or glass fibre cloth which are painted afterwards. To evaluate the hygrothermal performance of walls and ceilings it is...... a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier...... directly on the ceiling e.g. as an ordinary paint. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the water vapour resistance of surface treatments which are commonly used in-door. The water vapour resistance was measured by the cup method. Aerated concrete was investigated with and without various...

  14. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers inorganizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporemid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existenceof a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategicrecommendations with regard to what corporations could do toremove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates howwomen in middle management perceive their career advancementopportunities and what they consider their organizations tobe doing to support their advancement. Glass ceiling and informalstructures in the organizations will be analyzed from the aspectsof corporate climate, corporate practices, and corporate culture.The relevant questions are derived from the model developed byBergman and Hallberg (2002. This study aims to answer whetherthere is a glass ceiling present in Singapore companies. The studybegins with an introduction of the concept of a glass ceiling thatprevents women from advancing, and then continues with previousstudies on corporate climate, corporate practices and corporateculture, and data analysis of samples from Singapore organizations.The findings show that women middle managers inSingapore organizations face a glass ceiling in their working environmentwhich, for example, inhibits the promotion of femalemanagers, and entails a barrier to the career development opportunitiesof women presents that women do not have enough organizationalsupport, including networking, mentoring, and familyfriendly initiatives.

  15. Immunology Mechanism of CD4+ CD25 T Regulatory Cells Acting on Effector T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGNing-han; WUHong-fei; WUJun; ZHANGWei; SUIYuan-gen; HEHou-guang; ZHANGChun-lei; ZHENGJun-song

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To detect the inhibiting co-stimulating molecule CTLA4 and cytokines secreted by Treg cells, and explore the immunology mechanism of T regulatory cells acting on effector T cells in co-cultured system(CCS) and separating-cultured system(SCS). Methods: Detecting the percentage of CTLA4 and CD28 expressed on the Treg ceils and effector T ceils, and then adding Treg cells to mixed lymphocyte reaction(MLR) system in CCS and TransWeil Milliceil-PCF SCS, at the same time, adding or not adding anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF.II1 to the reacting systems, examining the inhibitory capacity of Treg ceils exerting on the MLR. Results: Compared with effector T cells, Treg cells expressed higher level CTLA4 and secreted much more IL-10 and TGF-β(P<0.01). The inhibitory capacity of Treg cells co-cultured with effector T ceils is much stronger than that in separating cultured group(P<0.01). Moreover, the inhibiting rate of Treg ceils exerting on effector T ceils through secretin_g IL-10 was more powerful than that through secreting TGF-β1 (P<0.01). Coaclusion: Both ceil-to-ceil contact and cytokines secretion mechanisms are involved in CD4+ CD25+ Treg ceils operating function. However, the former is more important. Intresfingly, we for the first time pointfound that IL-10 plays more powerful roles than TGF-β1 in the cytokines secretion mechanism.

  16. Microbiological study of the dripping waters in Altamira cave (Santillana del Mar, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, L; Groth, I; Gonzalez, I; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    The culturable microbial populations in dripping waters from Altamira cave were studied and compared with those of the ceiling rock. Water communities have low proportions of gram-positive bacteria, and are mainly composed of gram-negative rods and cocci (Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae), while those of ceiling rocks are mainly Streptomyces spp. The community differences are probably related to environmental cave conditions: high humidity, relatively low and stable temperature, water pH close to neutrality and nature of the organic matter. All these factors seem to favor colonization and long-term growth of actinomycetes over other heterotrophic bacteria on ceiling rocks. PMID:10353807

  17. Research or Carbon Capture and Storage – How to limit climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Kollenbach, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of the 2° C climate target and the implicitly imposed ceiling on CO2 have been analyzed in several studies. We use an endogenous rowth model with a ceiling and a carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to study the effect of the ceiling on the allocation of limited funds for R&D, CCS and capital accumulation. It turns out that the advantagenousness of CCS investments rise with the CO2 stock. If the gains of CCS, in terms of lower energy costs, outweigh the gains of R&D an...

  18. An Overview of Normative Documents on Taxation Issues for October-November 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lyudmila Anisimova

    2012-01-01

    The law on the federal budget for 2013 and the planning period 2014–2015 was approved by the RF State Duma in the third reading on 23 November 2012[1]. The domestic debt ceiling is set at the level of 10% GDP, the foreign debt ceiling – at about Rb 2.1 trillion. There figures are above the budget liquidity ceiling recommended by international organizations (10%). We believe this index to be very important, because it describes the ratio between the size of expenditure on debt servicing and re...

  19. The Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti at High Elevation in México

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Hayden, Mary H.; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Uejio, Christopher K.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Monache, Luca Delle; Monaghan, Andrew J; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Eisen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    México has cities (e.g., México City and Puebla City) located at elevations > 2,000 m and above the elevation ceiling below which local climates allow the dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to proliferate. Climate warming could raise this ceiling and place high-elevation cities at risk for dengue virus transmission. To assess the elevation ceiling for Ae. aegypti and determine the potential for using weather/climate parameters to predict mosquito abundance, we surveyed 12 communities ...

  20. Mesothelioma - malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factor. Asbestos was once commonly found in insulation, ceiling and roofing vinyls, cement, and automotive brake ... MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  1. (Ne)rovnost mužů a žen v práci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, Alena

    č. 9 (2003), s. 24-25 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : gender inequality * glass ceiling * gender stereotyping Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  2. Taper Hip Prosthesis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... simply aim our screw port directly toward the ceiling. Alignment of the patient on the table is ... plus zero head. And let’s go with a glass head on this gentleman, okay. So your implant ...

  3. 47 CFR 15.503 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... imaging system. This category of equipment does not include products such as “stud locators” that are... as a wall or a ceiling. This category of equipment may include products such as “stud locators”...

  4. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  5. Taper Hip Prosthesis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an angle, or we can simply aim our screw port directly toward the ceiling. Alignment of the ... that seats nice and tightly like this, a screw is probably superfluous, however it’s become my habit ...

  6. Drug: D10271 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available COMBINATION C03EA Low-ceiling diuretics and potassium-sparing agents C03EA01 Hydrochlorothiazide and potass...ARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03E DIURETICS AND POTASSIUM-SPARING AGENTS IN

  7. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...

  8. Lead Paint Exposure Assessment in High Bays of Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanch, Penney; Plaza, Angel; Keprta, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to assess the possibility of lead paint exposure in the high bays of some of the Johnson Space Center buildings. Some of the buildings in the Manned Space Flight Center (MSC) were built in 1962 and predate any considerations to reduce lead in paints and coatings. There are many of these older buildings that contain open shops and work areas that have open ceilings, These shops include those that had operations that use leaded gasoline, batteries, and lead based paints. Test were planned to be conducted in three phases: (1) Surface Dust sampling, (2) personal exposure montioring, and (3) Ceiling paint Sampling. The results of the first two phases were reviewed. After considering the results of the first two phases, and the problems associated with the retrieval of samples from high ceilings, it was determined that the evaluation of ceiling coatings would be done on a project by project and in response to a complaint.

  9. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure...

  10. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  11. Nástěnná malba v kontextu barokní architektury

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    Praha: Karolinum, 2015 - (Macek, P.; Biegel, R.; Bachtík, J.), s. 653-675 ISBN 978-80-246-2736-6 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Baroque * architecture * ceiling painting Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture , Cultural Heritage

  12. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali

    2009-01-01

    unit-gain compensation ceil and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor.Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  13. Bankart Repair to Correct Shoulder Instability

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facing up towards the ceiling. So the patient's lying down on his right side inside the operating ... to do it open. And there's still nothing wrong with doing the surgery through an open procedure. ...

  14. "... mio capital nemico a causa della professione". Mathey´s not altogether friendly encounter in Prague with Domenico Egidio Rossi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    -, č. 2 (2014), s. 139-147. ISSN 1805-3742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP409/12/2568 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Baroque * architecture * ceiling painting Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Species Production and Heat Release Rates in Two-Layered Natural Gas Fires

    OpenAIRE

    Zukoski, E. E.; Morehart, J. H.; Kubota, T.; Toner, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    A fire burning in an enclosure with restricted ventilation will result in the accumulation of a layer of warm products of combustion mixed with entrained air adjacent to the ceiling. For many conditions, the depth of this layer will extend to occupy a significant fraction of the volume of the room. Eventually, the interface between this vitiated ceiling layer and the uncontaminated environment below will position itself so that a large portion of the combustion processes occur in this vitiate...

  16. Differences in Wage Distributions between Natives, Non-Refugees, and Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This study examines differences in wage distributions between natives, non-refugees, and refugees in Sweden. We find that the wage differentials between natives and non-refugee immigrants decrease across the distribution, while those between natives and refugee immigrants increase. There is evidence of a glass ceiling effect for refugee males in Sweden, and we also find evidence of a glass ceiling effect for native-born women and non-refugee women in the Swedish labor market in comparison wit...

  17. Bias and Systematic Change in the Parameter Estimates of Macro-Level Diffusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Van den Bulte; Lilien, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    Studies estimating the Bass model and other macro-level diffusion models with an unknown ceiling feature three curious empirical regularities: (i) the estimated ceiling is often close to the cumulative number of adopters in the last observation period, (ii) the estimated coefficient of social contagion or imitation tends to decrease as one adds later observations to the data set, and (iii) the estimated coefficient of social contagion or imitation tends to decrease systematically as the estim...

  18. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 2. Modelling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Steven D. Sandbach and Gregory F. Lane-Serff

    2011-01-01

    A new mathematical model for buoyancy-driven ventilation [Sandbach SD, Lane-Serif GF. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 1. Modelling advection. Building and Environment, 2011] is modified to include heat transfer at the boundaries. Heat transfers at the ceiling and floor are included, using Newton's law of cooling to model convective heat transfer between the air and the solid boundaries, Fourier's law to model conductive heat transfer through the floor and ceiling, and a linear ver...

  19. Fossil Fuel Extraction Under Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some main studies on fossil fuel extraction under climate issues and studies a theoretical model of monopoly extraction under pollution stock ceiling constraint. We show that under constant elasticity demand and zero extraction cost, the monopolist will behave exactly the same as in the competitive case, and the existence of the ceiling constraint will initially push the extraction to grow at a rate higher than the interest rate in both monopoly and competitive case; With a...

  20. Developmental Networks, Black Feminist Thought, and Black Women Federal Senior Executives: A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Brian Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Private and public sector organizations have become increasingly interested in promoting diversity. Due to barriers attributed to race and gender, women and minorities often find it hard to break through the glass ceiling. Mentoring is a tool to assist with breaking through the glass ceiling. This interest has led to extensive growth in mentoring research and the design of a more expanded concept, developmental networks. Little empirical research informs our understanding of B...

  1. Financing Hierarchy, Financial Market Constraints, Leverage and Investment Financing in a Low-Income Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Omotunde E G

    1992-01-01

    A debt-service constraint and co-financing requirement for outside equity financing are incorporated into a financing hierarchy framework in which firms behave as if they prefer inside to outside financing and debt to equity when they use outside financing. The constraints place both a floor and a ceiling on the ratios of debt to outside financing and a ceiling on the ration of outside equity to outside finance. If creditors and outside investor act in concert, under certain conditions, they ...

  2. Computer Simulation of Fire Dynamics in Industrial Hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, computer simulation of smoke spread dynamics in industrial hall is investigated. A set of simulations of fire in three industrial halls with the same geometry varying in the height of ceiling is realized using the FDS fire simulator, version 6. The obtained simulation results are described focusing on the impact of the ceiling height and fire barriers on the fire course and smoke spread dynamics

  3. Nuclear plant with a transportable wash and decontamination device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozzlesystems for the washing liquid and a splash guard coat form a clock body that is opened at the bottom. This clock body can be put over the transport containers by means of a lifting appliance in the reprocessing plant. The lifting appliance is located in a room above the transport plain and is separated from it by a concrete ceiling. The lifting appliance grips through an opening of the ceiling. (DG)

  4. Quantification of the effect of both technical and non-technical measures from road transport on Spain's emissions projections

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, José Maria; Lumbreras Martin, Julio; Guijarro Lomeña, Alberto; Rodriguez Hurtado, Encarnación

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric emissions from road transport have increased all around the world since 1990 more rapidly than from other pollution sources. Moreover, they contribute to more than 25% of total emissions in the majority of the European Countries. This situation confirms the importance of road transport when complying with emission ceilings (e.g. Kyoto Protocol and National Emissions Ceilings Directive). A methodology has been developed to evaluate the effect of transport measures on atmospheric em...

  5. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Møller, Eva B.

    2014-01-01

    In most Nordic homes the interior surfaces of walls and ceilings have some kind of surface treatment for aesthetical reasons. The treatments can for example be glass felt or glass fibre cloth which are painted afterwards. To evaluate the hygrothermal performance of walls and ceilings it is essential to know how much influence a surface treatment has on the water vapour transport. Traditionally, there has been most focus on paints that affect the permeability as little as possible. However, so...

  6. Thou shalt not pass?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status...

  7. Dynamic Thermal Modeling of a Radiant Panel System and its Environment for Commissioning: Application to a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor; Bertagnolio, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a commissioning study, the cooling ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the cooling ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a dynamic thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the radiant panels as a dynamic-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped d...

  8. A study of the utility of heat collectors in reducing the response time of automatic fire sprinklers located in production modules of Building 707

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several of the ten production Modules in Building 707 at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant recently underwent an alteration which can adversely affect the performance of the installed automatic fire sprinkler systems. The Modules have an approximate floor to ceiling height of 17.5 ft. The alterations involved removing the drop ceilings in the Modules which had been at a height of 12 ft above the floor. The sprinkler systems were originally installed with the sprinkler heads located below the drop ceiling in accordance with the nationally recognized NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Automatic Sprinkler Systems. The ceiling removal affects the sprinkler's response time and also violates NFPA 13. The scope of this study included evaluation of the feasibility of utilizing heat collectors to reduce the delays in sprinkler response created by the removal of the drop ceilings. The study also includes evaluation of substituting quick response sprinklers for the standard sprinklers currently in place, in combination with a heat collector

  9. Mejora de las condiciones de habitabilidad y del cambio climático a partir de ecotechos extensivos. Estudio de caso: barrio La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca
    Improving the housing conditions and climate change on the basis on extensive eco-ceilings. Case study: La Isla neighborhood, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca
    Melhoramento das condições de habitabilidade e mudança climática a partir de ecotetos extensivos. Estudo de caso: Bairro La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Forero Cortés; Carlos Alfonso Devia Castillo

    2011-01-01

    El cambio climático generado por la expansión del área urbana incide en el aumento de temperatura por las propiedades térmicas de los materiales de construcción. La escasez de áreas verdes (que aumenta las superficies impermeables) provoca desequilibrios climáticos que deterioran la calidad habitacional en el interior de la vivienda. En este sentido, este artículo se propone estimar y comparar la atenuación térmica y la captura de CO2 en viviendas de interés prioritario ubicadas en Altos de C...

  10. Symmetry or asymmetry -- Comfort is the question. (A study of the second floor of the west office wing of the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.F.; Gaba, P.; Kowitanupong, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article explores the effects of an asymmetric distribution of building components, and their relation to human comfort. The studied building was the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon. This project, designed by the Miller/Hull Partnership, provides the perfect conditions to do such a study since it has very different ceiling heights within the same space, and an asymmetric distribution of the fenestration as well. Findings show that: (a) Variable ceiling heights affect the quantity of daylight received, and also affect the quality and distribution of electric light; (b) An asymmetric distribution of the fenestration creates very different conditions in both the luminous and thermal environments; and (c) The design of lighting and HVAC systems must take into consideration variations in ceiling height and the position of the fenestration into the space.

  11. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  12. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  13. The public sector on the PETROBRAS performance: analysis using ratings; A importancia do setor publico brasileiro na performance da PETROBRAS: analise usando ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial]. E-mails: rosebone@ind.ufrj.br; rosebone@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Rating agencies have strong influence on the international financial market for both public and private debt. Host countries also have due influence on local enterprises, by means of the macro economic policy. In the case of default of sovereign debt or capital controls, domestic firms may have serious difficulties in meeting their obligations in foreign currency. This explained the so called sovereign ceiling to the corporate ratings. This explicit ceiling has been abandoned by the main rating agencies, as some corporations may have more means to meet their debt than sovereigns. Oil companies are a good example. This paper aims to explain the variables that help explain the Brazilian sovereign ratings and PETROBRAS ratings, using the ordered logit method, with emphasis on the factors that influenced the piercing of the severing ceiling by PETROBRAS in 2001. (author)

  14. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  15. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  16. The market equilibrium of OPEC's pricing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At least twice a year, oil ministers of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meet in Vienna or Geneva to adjust the group's output ceiling to eliminate discrepancies between the market price and the target price. If the market imbalances are persistent, then the target price is also adjusted. Often, OPEC's members differ in their assessment of future market demand for their oil and, thus, present different views on the need to adjust the output celing and the target price. During periods of downward pressures on oil prices, the high absorbers of capital (i.e., oil revenues) prefer a speedy downward adjustment to the celing, while the low absorbers are slow to react. However, in the event of tightening markets, the low absorbers usually respond by exceeding their quotas before agreeing on a ceiling adjustment. Therefore, OPEC nations have different desirable speeds of adjustment. This paper specifies and examines the stability of OPEC's pricing mechanism. It presents a strategy which would enable the organization to achieve a target price-based market equilibrium with increased rapidity through the appropriate manipulation of the speed of output ceiling adjustment. This strategy is applied using data on market and target prices, actual output, and output ceilings for the first quarter of 1991. The main finding is that, given the target price, OPEC's equilibrium market demand is significantly lower than the assigned output ceiling. Production should have been reduced by at least 3 million barrels a day for OPEC to realize the $21 per barrel target price in the first quarter of 1991. Seasonal factors can cause slight variations in this output but would not bring out compatibility between the target price and the output ceiling within a reasonable period of time unless OPEC follows an activist policy of output adjustment. 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Investigation of 360-degree instrumentation effects: application of the Rasch rating scale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulas, John T; Hannum, Kelly M

    2007-01-01

    Performance appraisals have been frequently investigated for inaccuracies attributable to raters. In addition to rater contributions, problems in measurement can arise from properties of instrumentation. If administered items do not parallel the full range of employee performance, a restriction of range can occur. Here employees are rated similarly (no distinction made) not because of rater error, but because of an instrument floor or ceiling effect. A RASCH measurement procedure was applied to a 360-degree dataset in order to uncover potential instrumentation effects. A similar magnitude ceiling effect was found across rater categories. It is recommended that performance appraisal practitioners consider including items of greater difficulty in their criterion measures. PMID:18250526

  18. BAYBURT DAĞÇATI KÖYÜ CAMİİ VE ÇEŞMESİ / Bayburt Dağçatı Village Mosque and the Fountain

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Haldun

    2014-01-01

    Da ğçatı Village mosque is one of the mosques of the Ottoman period that has the traditional features. It was built in 1806 at the beginning of XIX. century. It is one of the examples in the country of the traditional wooden architecture. The ceiling of the mosque that has a square planned wooden ceiling rests on the walls on all sides. The mosque has a great importance due to the features of the hand-drown ornament at the indoor. The flowers and branches, “C” and “S” shaped ornaments, symbol...

  19. Credit trading and the danger of institutional lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the ways the Kyoto Protocol offers to the industrialized countries to reduce the costs of achieving their greenhouse gas emission targets is emission trading. There are different types of emissions trading: permit trading under emissions ceilings (also known as allowance trading) is more efficient and effective than credit trading without emissions ceilings (also known as performance standard rate trading). Nevertheless, certain officials and politicians are tempted to opt for the last option. In this article a new argument is used to warn them that opting for credit trading can result in an institutional lock-in from which it will be difficult for future policy makers to escape

  20. Softness, Polynomial Boundedness and Amplitudes' Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the connection between infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors of scattering amplitudes of massless channels by exploiting dispersion relations and positivity bounds. Given forward scattering amplitudes which scale as $\\mathcal{A}(s)\\sim s^M$ in the IR ($s\\to0$) and could be embedded into UV completions satisfying unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry and polynomial boundedness $|\\mathcal{A}(s)|< c\\, |s|^N$ ($|s|\\to\\infty$), with $M$ and $N$ integers, we show that the inequality $2\\ceil*{\\frac{N}{2}}\\ge M \\ge 0$ must hold, where $\\ceil*{x}$ is the smallest integer greater than or equal to $x$.

  1. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.

  2. Beginnings

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Casey Tyler

    1999-01-01

    abstractThis book is a beginning. It begins to explore three conditions. First is the idea of the boundary - not simply the boundary as something that fixes limits, but as something that defines the spatial qualities of architecture. For example, a space that has four opaque walls, a dark floor and a heavy ceiling will feel like a closed cell. But what if the ceiling doesn't quite complete the boundary of the box, and instead it pulls away from the walls to let in traces of daylight. T...

  3. The intelligibility of interrupted speech depends upon its uninterrupted intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoint, Marine; Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Recognition of sentences containing periodic, 5-Hz, silent interruptions of differing duty cycles was assessed for three types of processed speech. Processing conditions employed different combinations of spectral resolution and the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information, chosen to yield similar, below-ceiling performance for uninterrupted speech. Performance declined with decreasing duty cycle similarly for each processing condition, suggesting that, at least for certain forms of speech processing and interruption rates, performance with interrupted speech may reflect that obtained with uninterrupted speech. This highlights the difficulty in interpreting differences in interrupted speech performance across conditions for which uninterrupted performance is at ceiling. PMID:25324110

  4. Patoka Nature Center: a direct gain, passive solar building in southern Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller Moore, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Nature Center is a 3200 sq. ft. public building presently under construction and scheduled for completion in May 1979. The building's design includes an A-frame type roof with the south 1530 sq. ft. 60/sup 0/ roof slope double glazed with movable Beadwall insulation. This slope is fabricated using standard greenhouse components to form the Beadwall envelope. A commercially available acoustical tile, (with mirror-finish aluminized polyester film), is used on the north ceiling slope to reflect insolation to the thermal floor mass, minimizing diffuse ceiling reflection back through the south glass. Interior partitions formed by rows of fiberglass provide additional insolation thermal storage.

  5. Optimal timing of carbon sequestration policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lafforgue, Gilles; MOREAUX Michel

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the most promising abatement options to curb CO2 emissions of the energy sector. Usually, in models where the atmospheric carbon stock is constrained to not exceed a given ceiling and under constant average costs, it is never optimal to deploy CCS before the time at which this ceiling is reached. In this paper, we show that, when the CCS technology is submitted to decreasing returns to scale, abatement activities must begin earlier, i.e. before the c...

  6. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  7. Comparing a phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method with other simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;

    2015-01-01

    and diffuse reflections when simulating the acoustics of small rooms with non-diffuse sound fields, since scattering from walls add to the diffuseness in the room. This room type is often seen in class rooms and offices, as they are often small rectangular rooms with most of the absorption placed...... on the ceiling. Here, PARISM is used for comparisons with other simulation tools and measurements. An empty, rectangular room with a suspended absorbing ceiling is used for the comparisons. It was found that including the phase information in simulations increases the spatial standard deviation, even if only...

  8. Cracked but Not Broken: The Continued Gender Gap in Senior Administrative Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the glass ceiling and pay differentials in higher and further education (HE, FE) for women academics (McTavish and Miller 2009, Rees 2007) but very little about discrepancies for women "professional managers" within UK higher education. Professional managers as a term needs to be defined as universities call their…

  9. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M;

    2009-01-01

    -articular hyaluronic acid injection, using standardized response mean (SRM) and effect-size (ES). RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and 50 hip OA patients were included. The KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS scores were obtained for all patients as there were no missing items. Neither a floor nor a ceiling effect was...

  10. Morocco : Financial Sector Strategy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The report presents an overview of financial sector reforms in Morocco, between 1990-1998, a period notable for liberalization. Reforms targeted the banking sector, development of the capital market, and liberalization of the financial sector, with recent reform efforts focused on savings institutions (insurance and pension funds). Included were the elimination of credit ceilings, interest...

  11. A modified critical velocity for road tunnel fire smoke management with dedicated smoke extraction configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-10-01

    It is concluded that the smoke extraction performance is similar whether using ceiling dampers or vertical wall-mounted dampers for smoke capture to maintain tunnel tenability. However, tunnel gradients play a major role on the modified critical velocity for a nominated design fire and the required smoke extraction rate.

  12. 现在完成进行时阅读园地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩萍

    2005-01-01

    Mr and Mrs Banks have been having a lot of problems in their apartment recently. For several weeks their bedroom ceiling has been leaking,their fridge hasn' t been working, and the paint in their hallway has been peeling. In addition, they have been taking cold showers since last week because their water heater hasn't been working,

  13. Monastic Musings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco; Little

    2015-01-01

    My eyes kept being drawn to the cartoon cutout characters on the bobbing bus ceiling. Mickey Mouse and Pluto werepasted in between metallic paper roses, hearts and butterflies. It all seemed incongruous hovering over an eclectic collection of rural pas- sengers, jabbering in a jarring dialect, crammed into a bus chugging its way into the mountains high above Xining.

  14. A new cytotoxic caged polyprenylated xanthone from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li Wang; Zhan Lin Li; Yong Peng Xu; Xiao Qiu Liu; Yue Hu Pei; Yong Kui Jing; Hui Ming Hua

    2008-01-01

    A new caged polyprenylated xanthone,gambogic aldehyde(1),was isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR data.In addition.the antiproliferative ability of compound 1 was determined in mouse leukemia P388 and P388/ADR ceils.

  15. Radiant Professionals Alliance guidelines 2010

    CERN Document Server

    IAPMO

    2010-01-01

    RPA Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Radiant Panel Heating and Snow/Ice Melt Systems. Intended for reference use by code officials, designers and installers. Deals with both hydronic and electric floor, wall and limited ceiling applications. Includes sample schematics and industry recommendations.

  16. A new chalcone from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xu; Xiang Min Wang; Xing Wei; Jing Yuan Li; Ke Liu

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid with chalcone skeleton was isolated from the dried aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including ID and 2D NMR.The new compound showed weak inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity against K562 and PC3 ceils.

  17. Naised teaduses = Women in research / Aavo Heinlo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinlo, Aavo

    2006-01-01

    Naiste osa teadus- ja arendustegevuses. Naised ja mehed akadeemilise karjääri tüüpilistel astmetel Euroopa Liidus ja Eestis. Naiste karjäär ja klaaslae indeks (Glass Ceiling Index), sooline palgalõhe. Tabelid, diagrammid

  18. Lnáře (okr. Strakonice). Zámek Tomáše Zachea Černína z Chudenic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    Praha : Artefactum, 2013 - (Mádl, M.), s. 445-460 ISBN 978-80-86890-60-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/09/0949 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : ceiling paintings * Lnáře * Giacomo Tencalla Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. Lnáře. Zámek Tomáše Zachea Černína z Chudenic. Katalog nástěnných maleb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin; Miltová, Radka

    Praha : Artefactum, 2013 - (Mádl, M.), s. 461-476 ISBN 978-80-86890-60-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/09/0949 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : ceiling paintings * Lnáře * Giacomo Tencalla Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  1. 48 CFR 16.603-2 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal, required certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data; and... based on price competition, the contracting officer shall include an overall price ceiling in the letter... funds before definitization. However, it shall not exceed 50 percent of the estimated cost of...

  2. WAYS WOMEN LEAD

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Cebuc

    2009-01-01

    Women managers who have broken the glass ceiling in medium-sized, nontraditional organizations have proven that effective leaders don't come from one mold. They have demonstrated that using the command-and-control style of managing others, a style generally associated with men in large, traditional organizations, is not the only way to succed.

  3. Leading the Way: 25 Women Making a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to leadership, women are now taking on long overdue roles. This article presents 25 dynamic women in the world of higher education and beyond. They lead some of the most demanding and consequential organizations and programs on the planet. No longer sitting on the decision-making sidelines, they have shattered the glass ceiling and,…

  4. Ženy ve vědě jako "předmět" výzkumu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 4, 3-4 (2003), s. 17-18. ISSN 1213-0028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : career ladder * glass ceiling * models of career Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  5. 76 FR 30898 - Disadvantaged Business Enterprise: Program Improvements for Airport Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... circumstances and avoid the `glass ceiling' effect of an across-the-board PNW standard about which commenters... Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or you may visit...) for financial assistance programs (76 FR 5083). This NPRM proposes conforming amendments to...

  6. A Woman with a Plan: Recognizing Competencies for Ascent to Administration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paaige K.; Norwood, Kristen; Noe, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Despite progress, women are still disproportionally underrepresented in leadership positions in higher education. Women must contend with a glass ceiling, which we argue is constituted by discourses of impossibility and femininity. These discourses discourage women from recognizing their qualifications, continuing to develop skills, and making a…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Commission on the Status of Women Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Commission on the Status of Women Division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "Relationship Content in Four Men's and Women's Magazines" (Alexis Zachary and Bryan Denham); "Mind the Gender Gap: Gender Differences in Motivation to Contribute Online Content" (Cindy Royal); "Peering through the Glass Ceiling of the Boys' Club:…

  8. Performing an action one cannot do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    of a routine in which a physiotherapist assists a client living with acquired brain injury to perform an activity the client cannot perform for herself: turning from lying face-down to facing the ceiling. The analysis highlights the situated multimodal and embodied practices of scaffolding whereby both parties...

  9. UA2 finds its way to ECX4

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    The streamer chamber of UA5 installed in the beam in September was moved back to the 'garage' ECA4 and lifted up to the ceiling so that UA2 assembly on its air cushions could slide under it into the beam (Annual Report 1981 p.125, Fig. 9).

  10. 36 CFR 1234.4 - What definitions are used in this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions are used in this part? The following definitions apply to this part: Auxiliary spaces mean non... September 27, 2005, and that has stored records continuously since that date. Fire barrier wall means a wall... four fire barrier walls, the floor, and the ceiling. Records storage facility has the meaning...

  11. 软骨样副脊索瘤(附病例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚庆端; 王敏; 李培峰; 曲美婷

    2004-01-01

    To study the clinical pathological characteristics and differentiation diagnosis of the chondroid parachordoma from primary tumors or metastatic to ulna, femur and radius. Methods Three cases of primary chondroid parachordoma of the ulma, femur and radius were studied by histopathological observation and immunohisto chemical staining and by pathological consultation. Results The histological features of tumor were composed of two the chordoma ceils subtotal and the chondrosareoma ceils of small - portio. The tumor was arranged vary in sizes of lobular and brink of lobular were seplum small girder of chondroid, or the tissue fiber. The tumor cells were distributed sheet, trabecula with or island -like in the intralobular, and the tumor ceils were vary in size and the karyon heterotypic were no patent and the cytoplasm of rich shows large vacuole. The chondroidosarcomas intra - lobular were viewed ceils both nucleus and uninuclear of chondrolacunae and the stroma were hyaling cartilage with or blennoid in the mesenchyma, and that picture of typical chondrosarcoma. EMA, CK, Vimentin, S - 100 protein, NSE with immunohistochemical method (ABC) staining were positive and Desmin, CD34 negative in the all of tumor cells. The chondroid parachodoma was diagnosed in the pathological read- section- conference and consulation. Conclusion Primary ulna, femur and radius chondroid parachordoma is a rare in rate of neoplasm and is diagnosed diflqculdy. Immunohistochemical method would be helpful to diagnosis.

  12. 5 CFR 340.101 - Principal statutory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... turnover rates and absenteeism, offering management more flexibility in meeting work requirements, and... employment. “§ 3403.Limitations “(a) An agency shall not abolish any position occupied by an employee in... administering any personnel ceiling applicable to an agency (or unit therein), an employee employed by...

  13. Svatý Kopeček u Olomouce. Poutní kostel Navštívení Panny Marie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    Praha: Artefactum, 2013 - (Mádl, M.), s. 195-240 ISBN 978-80-86890-60-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/09/0949 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : ceiling paintings * Martin Antonín Lublinský * Giacomo Tencalla * Johann Steger Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Psychometric properties of two questionnaires in the context of total wrist arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Merser, Søren

    2014-01-01

    evaluated the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation. RESULTS: Internal consistency and reproducibility were very high (Cronbach's alpha 0.96/0.97; Spearman's rho 0.90/ 0.91; intraclass coefficient 0.91/0.92), and there were no floor or ceiling effects. The responsiveness of the QuickDASH was high (standardised...

  15. Synergie Klimaat- en NOx-beleid: Een kostenevaluatie tot 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets WLM; Hoen A; Wijngaart RA van den; LED

    2005-01-01

    The acquisition of relative cheap CO2 emission rights from foreign countries may mean missing synergistic side-effects on the domestic emissions of air-polluting substances. Extra costs will be necessary if the emission ceilings for NOx, SO2, and NMVOS are to be realised. These factors have, to date

  16. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  17. 76 FR 47835 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility Prospective Payment System for Federal Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    .... Accounting Statement 7. Conclusion B. Regulatory Flexibility Act Analysis C. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act.... Analysis and Responses to Public Comments IV. Update to the Case-Mix Group (CMG) Relative Weights and... Outlier Threshold Amount for FY 2012 B. Update to the IRF Cost-to-Charge Ratio Ceilings VIII. Impact...

  18. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  19. Náměšť nad Oslavou. Zámek: sala terrena. Katalog nástěnných maleb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin; Miltová, Radka; Zapletalová, Jana

    Praha: Artefactum, 2013 - (Mádl, M.), s. 39-92 ISBN 978-80-86890-60-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/09/0949 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Carpoforo Tencalla * ceiling paintings * legend of Cupid and Psyche Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  20. Náměšť nad Oslavou (okr. Třebíč). Zámek Ferdinanda z Verdenberka: sala terrena

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    Praha: Artefactum, 2013 - (Mádl, M.), s. 19-38 ISBN 978-80-86890-60-9 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/09/0949 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Carpoforo Tencalla * ceiling paintings * legend of Cupid and Psyche Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage