WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceilings

  1. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    both thermal comfort and energy efficient aspects. The present study aims to characterize the air distribution and thermal comfort in the rooms with diffuse ceiling ventilation. Both the stand-alone ventilation system and its integration with a radiant ceiling system are investigated. This study also...

  2. Shattering the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "Shattering the Glass Ceiling: the Myths, Opportunities and Chal lenges of Women in Corporate China" was the theme of CEIBS'first Women in Management Forum held on December l 1 on the school's main campus in Shanghai.

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free......Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as an air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Due to the large opening area, air is delivered to the room with very low velocity and no fixed direction, therefore the name ‘diffuse’. Compared......-cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  4. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  5. Shattering women's glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Camilleri Podesta, Marie Therese; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The role of women in academia has always greatly interested me. Several years ago, when I was asked to become Gender Issues Committee chairperson at the University of Malta, I readily accepted. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/shattering-womens-glass-ceiling/

  6. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    -cooling period and night cooling potential. The investment cost of this ventilation system is about 5-10% lower than the conventional ones, because the acoustic ceiling could be directly applied as air diffuser and the use of plenum to distribute air reduces the cost of ductwork. There is a growing interest...

  7. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management.

  8. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  9. Passing through the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Robert L.

    This paper describes personal and professional networking, discusses data on women and networking skills, and argues that women should exercise these skills in their efforts to shatter the "glass ceiling" and achieve their career potential. An introductory discussion notes that women, though they do network, may develop ties primarily with other…

  10. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  11. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  12. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Views July–August 2013 Air & Space Power Journal | 101 The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Lt Col Lawrence Spinetta, PhD, USAF Those...number. 1. REPORT DATE AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling for Remotely...promotion to flag rank. By design or effect, a bottleneck exists that guarantees a glass ceiling (i.e., a barrier to advancement) for RPA officers. This

  13. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  14. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2016-01-01

    number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated......A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large...... model was further applied to evaluate the effects of different design parameters, including the U-value of the diffuse ceiling panel, plenum height, plenum depth, and inlet configuration. In the integrated system, diffuse ceiling separated the radiant ceiling from the rest of the room and consequently...

  15. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2017-01-01

    number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated...... model was further applied to evaluate the effects of different design parameters, including the U-value of the diffuse ceiling panel, plenum height, plenum depth, and inlet configuration. In the integrated system, diffuse ceiling separated the radiant ceiling from the rest of the room and consequently...

  16. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  17. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  18. The Glass Ceiling: Potential Causes and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Technical Report 993 The Glass Ceiling : Potential Causes 0• and Possible Solutions Beverly A. Dugan, Jessica L. Terner, Felicity A. Tagilarini, N- J...NUMBERS The Glass Ceiling : Potential Causes and Possible MDA903-87-C-0846 Solutions 63007A 792 6.AUTHOR(S) Dugan, Beverly A.; Terner, Jessica L.; 1112...advancement within the Army and highlights methods that might reduce such barriers. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER Of PAGES Army Glass ceiling 67 Civilian

  19. Expenditure Ceilings—A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gösta Ljungman

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the factors that have to be considered when designing an aggregate expenditure ceiling. It is argued that expenditure ceilings are effective in promoting fiscal discipline and sustainability, but that a number of trade-offs have to be made when setting up a fiscal framework that will survive in a politically charged environment. The paper illustrates the discussion with a case study of medium-term aggregate expenditure ceilings in three countries: Finland, the Netherlands ...

  20. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  1. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  2. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given ...

  3. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  4. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  5. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    conditions a classroom was retrofitted with mechanical ventilation and a diffuse ceiling. The employed ceiling comprises active panels penetrable to air and impenetrable passive panels. The performance was studied with regard to air movements, temperatures and air change efficiency at two different air...... changes. The experiments were carried out during class to obtain realistic conditions. At both airflows did the ceiling perform satisfactorily with air movements and temperatures within the requirements of indoor climate standards. The air change efficiency is comparable to conventional mixing ventilation....

  6. Smarandache Ceil 函数的均值研究%Reseach on the Mean Value of Smarandache Ceil Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许军保

    2014-01-01

    研究了Smarandache Ceil 函数的均值性质,并利用初等方法得到了该函数关于k次方幂数列均值的几个渐近公式。%The mean value properties of the Smarandache Ceil function were studied , and several asymp-totic formulas of this function was given by using the elementary and analytic methods .This shows that there exists better value distribution properties for the Smarandache Ceil function in some special se -quences .

  7. Renaissance of the ceiling heating?; Renaissance der Deckenheizung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Michael [Studienakademie Sachsen, Dresden (Germany). Heizungstechnik

    2010-03-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the substantial realizations to the ceiling heating. At the same time suggestions are supplied according to a more strongly dealing with the development of assembly-friendly systems.

  8. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  9. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  10. The Glass Ceiling Initiative: Implications for DOD in the Year 2000 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine information on the glass ceiling , and determine if a glass ceiling exists within the Department of Defense...the glass ceiling , addresses economic and demographic trends, and their impact on organizational culture, and finally shows the relevancy of the glass ... ceiling to DOD. In the final chapter, five specific recommendations are made for DOD that will be instrumental in breaking the glass ceiling .

  11. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  12. Thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings; Thermisches Verhalten von Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C.

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings is so far described by characteristic equations in the form of q=C x {delta}{theta}{sup n}. In special cases these equations are extended by terms which take into account the radiation exchange between heat sink and space user (operational ambient temperature). This is insufficient. Therefore a model is presented, which describes more exactly the individual processes (radiation, convection) at the cooled surface. As a first step the ceiling area is divided into three ranges in which different phenomena are affecting the heat transfer considerably: 1. Range under the influence of free convection in the space. 2. Range with forced convection caused by a plume along the window. 3. Range with forced convection caused by air flow through supply air outlets. For each of these ranges the fundamentals of heat transfer are applied using the substantial variables. The results of these models are then compared in a second step with results from laboratory tests. This model is developed first for steady-state conditions. It is extended by a second model to describe the dynamic processes (storage). Finally, both steady-state and unsteady conditions are investigated systematically. Results are presented for the cooling rate effected by the temperature of cooling ceiling, ambient conditions, supply air flow rate, supply air temperature and type of the air outlet. The results computed indicate that the maximum total cooling rate is always gained by a combination of a cooling ceiling and a supply air with minimum permissible temperature. In these cases the cooling rate of the ceiling is lower than that without ventilation of the space. However, the additional cooling rate of the ventilation compensates this effect in all cases investigated. This is an important finding, since cooling ceilings usually must be combined with an HVAC system for reasons of dehumidifying. Dried, cooled supply air can thus be supplied to the space without

  13. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  14. Experimental study and modeling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecuanica, AA. 97 Pereira (Colombia); Lebrun, Jean [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Andre, Philippe [Departement Sciences et Gestion de l' Environnement, University of Liege Belgium, 185, Avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the results of an experimental study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. The theoretical approach gives to the user an appropriate tool for preliminary calculation, design and diagnosis in commissioning processes in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. A series of experimental results got on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. (author)

  15. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  16. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  17. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  18. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  19. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  20. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  1. The effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of thermally activated building construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    the effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of TABS in both heat and cooling mode. Experiments are carried out in a full-scale test facility with the integrated system, and the cases without diffuse ceiling are also measured as references. The results indicate that the diffuse ceiling has...

  2. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    Performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation with regard to thermal comfort and limits of the cooling capacity of the system was studied in a 97 m2-landscape office. Seven operation scenarios were tested: two for mixing ventilation with ceiling mounted fan coils and five with diffuse ceiling ventil...

  3. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  4. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  5. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  6. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter;

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  7. Breaking through the glass ceiling: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, S K

    1996-11-01

    Many companies have recognized that the workforce of the future will be significantly more diverse than in the past. A substantial number of these new employees will be women. Industry must create an environment that attracts the best, brightest, and most talented women and provide an environment that empowers them to reach their full potential. Barriers to advancement, such as the real or perceived "glass ceiling," inhibit the individual and ultimately negatively affect the company. Successful companies will recognize that gender diversity is a critical business strategy and implement aggressive programs to assist women in breaking through the glass ceiling. Gender diversity initiatives should include examination of quality of life issues, training and development, organizational policies and practices, and management accountability. Mentoring programs clearly play an important role in gender diversity programs. Personal mentoring experiences in academic and corporate environments, as well as a pilot mentoring program at Land O'Lakes, will be discussed.

  8. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    Experiments with air distribution in rooms generated by a radial ceiling-mounted diffuser and a diffuser generating flow with swirl are compared with the air distribution obtained by mixing ventilation from a wall-mounted diffuser, vertical ventilation and displacement ventilation. The air....... The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... and temperature conditions at the same and at slightly higher loads as can be obtained by a vertical ventilation system, a mixing ventilation system with wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low velocity wall-mounted diffuser. The comparison is extended by considering both the local...

  9. Ceiling (attic) dust: a "museum" of contamination and potential hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey J; Gulson, Brian L

    2005-10-01

    Ceiling or attic dusts provide an indirect measure of air pollution integrated over varying time periods. We undertook an investigation into the particle-size distributions and sources and exposure pathways of metals in ceiling dusts from 38 houses in the city of Sydney, Australia. The houses ranged in age from 4 to 106 years and were grouped into three settings: industrial, semi-industrial, and non-industrial. The main roof types were terracotta tile (n=23), cement tile (n=8), and corrugated iron (n=4), with two slate and one asbestos. Soils and rocks from the Sydney area were also analyzed to provide "background" values and allow the estimation of enrichment factors. The bulk of the dusts contained particles derived from soil of crustal origin and organic plant material, with an anthropogenic component estimated at up to 25%. Particle sizes from selected dust samples showed a bimodal distribution, and the volumes of fine dusts were 50% terracotta tile, cement, and iron, median regression analyses showed that there were no significant effects with respect to age. Median regression analyses for terracotta tile, cement tile, and corrugated iron roofs showed a "roof" effect for Cu and V. Significant correlations (P0.03) were observed between most of the metals As-Cd-Cu-Pb-Sb-Zn, especially from the industrial settings. Pathways of dust exposure in this study are classified as being passive or active based upon the probable route of dust infiltration. Ceiling dusts pose a probable health hazard if the dust is disturbed and allowed to plume within the living areas of a dwelling, thereby exposing the occupants, especially children, to elevated levels of metals and fine particulates. Modeling shows that exposure to the elevated levels of Pb in dust could give rise to blood lead concentrations exceeding current guidelines for the industrial and semi-industrial areas.

  10. The Glass Ceiling - A Question of Joint Officer Development - Why Only Five USAF Geographic Combatant Commanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    26-07-2010 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 26-07-2010 to 17-06-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Glass Ceiling -- A...SCHOOL THE GLASS CEILING – A QUESTION OF JOINT OFFICER DEVELOPMENT – WHY ONLY FIVE USAF GEOGRAPHIC COMBATANT COMMANDERS? by David M...decision making skills to senior military and civilian leaders. In doing so, the USAF can finally shatter and eliminate the glass ceiling , that only

  11. Is there a 'glass ceiling' for female managers in Singapore organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Škerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singapore mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider their organizatio...

  12. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  13. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  14. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR. Design/m

  15. Numerical Prediction of Airflow in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In ventilated rooms the air inlet device is often placed close to the ceiling. The air inlet will form a wall jet or a reattached wall jet. The wall jet may be disturbed by ceilingmounted obstacles such as light fittings or ceiling beams which, in some cases, can cause the air jet to be deflected...

  16. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  17. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    . The measurements of pressure loss across the ceiling show a low pressure drop between the plenum and the occupied zone. Ventilation effectiveness is measured to be close to 1 on average under the tested conditions. It is shown that the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is able to remove indoor pollutant...

  18. Temperature reduction in attic and ceiling via insulation of several passive roof designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, K.S., E-mail: Ong.Kok.Seng@eng.monash.edu.m [Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway (Malaysia)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Six passive roof designs were tested simultaneously outdoors. {yields} Roof, attic and ceiling temperatures were determined. {yields} Solar collector roof design provided the coolest attic and ceiling. {yields} Placing insulation under roof is preferred to above ceiling. -- Abstract: High ambient temperatures coupled with high humidity lead to uncomfortable conditions that are non-conducive for human comfort and productivity. Heat transmission through the roof could be reduced by providing insulation in the attic under the roof or above the ceiling. A roof solar collector could provide both ventilation and cooling in the attic. Several laboratory sized units of passive roof designs were constructed and tested side-by-side under outdoor conditions to obtain temperature data of the roof, attic and ceiling in order to compare their performances.

  19. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling...... to sustain the pressure of the plenum and ensure uni-directional airflow through the ceiling. Consequently only reverse flow of insignificant magnitude was observed which has a positive impact on the hygiene of the plenum. Furthermore, the measurements documented that the ceiling acts as a radiant cooling...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  20. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund;

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling...... ventilation provides a satisfied thermal comfort level in the occupied zone even under a high ventilation rate and a high heat load condition. A design chart method is adopted to compare different diffuse ceiling configurations, and the results indicate that the system with a 18% diffuse ceiling opening area....... The numerical results reveal that even distribution of heat sources gives a lower draught risk environment than centralized distribution. In addition, there is a significant increase on the draught risk with increase of room height....

  1. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  2. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  3. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  4. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Florian; Grießhammer, Rainer; Speck, Thomas; Speck, Olga

    2014-03-01

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions.

  5. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  6. Parametric Study and Optimization of Ceiling Fan Blades for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Adeeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes parametric study and optimization of non-linear ceiling fan blades by combining the techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE, Response Surface Methods (RSM and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Specifically, the nonlinear (elliptical planform shape of ceiling fan blade is investigated in conjunction with blade tip width, root and tip angle of attack. Sixteen cases are designed for three blade ceiling fan using two level full factorial model. The flow field is modeled using Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes approach. The performance variables used to formulate a multi-objective optimization problem are volumetric flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. Response Surface Method is used to generate the optimized design for non-linear ceiling fan blade profile. The results reveal that the interactions between the design variables play a significant role in determining the performance. It is concluded that the nonlinear forward sweep has a moderate effect on response parameters.

  7. Monte Carlo Modeling of Computed Tomography Ceiling Scatter for Shielding Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen; Schick, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Radiation protection for clinical staff and members of the public is of paramount importance, particularly in occupied areas adjacent to computed tomography scanner suites. Increased patient workloads and the adoption of multi-slice scanning systems may make unshielded secondary scatter from ceiling surfaces a significant contributor to dose. The present paper expands upon an existing analytical model for calculating ceiling scatter accounting for variable room geometries and provides calibration data for a range of clinical beam qualities. The practical effect of gantry, false ceiling, and wall attenuation in limiting ceiling scatter is also explored and incorporated into the model. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calibrate the model for scatter from both concrete and lead surfaces. Gantry attenuation experimental data showed an effective blocking of scatter directed toward the ceiling at angles up to 20-30° from the vertical for the scanners examined. The contribution of ceiling scatter from computed tomography operation to the effective dose of individuals in areas surrounding the scanner suite could be significant and therefore should be considered in shielding design according to the proposed analytical model.

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  9. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    GPR applications in civil engineering are to date quite diversified. With respect to civil constructions and monumental buildings, detection of voids, cavities, layering in structural elements, variation of geometry, of moisture content, of materials, areas of decay, defects, cracks have been reported in timber, concrete and masonry elements. Nonetheless, many more fields of investigation remain unexplored. This contribution gives an account of a variety of examples of structural ceilings investigation by GPR radar in reflection mode, either as 2D or 3D data acquisition and visualisation. Ceilings have a pre-eminent role in buildings as they contribute to a good structural behaviour of the construction. Primarily, the following functions can be listed for ceilings: a) they carry vertical dead and live loads on floors and distribute such loads to the vertical walls; b) they oppose to external horizontal forces such as wind loads and earthquakes helping to transfer such forces from the loaded element to the other walls; c) they contribute to create the box skeleton and behaviour of a building, connecting the different load bearing walls and reducing the slenderness and flexural instability of such walls. Therefore, knowing how ceilings are made in specific buildings is of paramount importance for architects and structural engineers. According to the type of building and age of construction, ceilings may present very different solutions and materials. Moreover, in existing constructions, ceilings may have been substituted, modified or strengthened due to material decay or to change of use of the building. These alterations may often go unrecorded in technical documentation or technical drawings may be unavailable. In many cases, the position, orientation and number of the load carrying elements in ceilings may be hidden or not be in sight, due for example to the presence of false ceilings or to technical plants. GPR radar can constitute a very useful tool for

  10. Prototype Design and Experimental Test of a Rotorcraft Capable of Adhering to and Moving on the Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunaga Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype design and evaluation of a novel rotorcraft that can adhere to and move on the ceiling. It has four propellers for flying like conventional rotorcraft. In addition, a specialized guard frame and two active wheels are attached on its body frame for adhering to and moving on the ceiling. The propellers create negative pressure in the guard frame that acts as a suction cup for generating adhesion force. The active wheels are used for moving on the ceiling face. Experiments are carried out to show the feasibility of flying in the air, adhering to, and moving on the ceiling.

  11. Morphology and reaction force of toes of geckos freely moving on ceilings and walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional interactions between toes of a gecko and substrates (ceilings or walls) were measured when it moves on ceilings or walls by using a 3-dimensional force measuring array,and the correspondent morphology of the gecko toes was recorded by a high speed camera.The study aims to understand the relationship between adhesive and shear forces generated by the toes of the gecko and the locomotion behavior when it walks on walls and ceilings.Results showed that shear force is along the toe-only 12.6° and 3.1° away from the toe for wall-climbing and ceiling-crawling,respectively while the adhesion is big enough to balance the body weight and moment.The shear forces generated by the first and the fifth toes are in opposite directions;this redundant force increases the reliability of adhesion and stability of locomotion.The support angles of toes are equal approximately for ceiling-crawling and wall-climbing.The study greatly inspires the design of a gecko-like robot.

  12. Acoustic behavior of porous ceiling absorbers based on local and extended reaction (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdóttir, Kristrún; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Marbjerg, Gerd Høy

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of ceiling absorbers can be pre dicted under different surface reaction assump- tions: Local and extended reaction. This study aims to experimentally validate acoustic transfer func tions near a ceiling absorber in an anechoic chamber based on the two surface reaction models....... First, a ceiling absorber with two mounting conditions is mo deled by equivalent fluid models, such as Delany- Bazley’s, Miki’s, and Komatsu’s model, in various w ays: (1) Local vs extended reaction and (2) planewave vs spherical-wave in cidence. For a single absorber under an echoic conditions......, the acoustic transfer functions for four source-receiver pairs are simulated using a pressure-based image source model, and then compared with measurements. For a rigid ba cking condition, both the local and extended reaction models agree well with the measurement. For an absorber backed by an air cavity...

  13. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  14. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences......The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...

  15. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  16. Effect on health of man-made mineral fibres in kindergarten ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindel, A; Hugod, C; Bach, E; Breum, N O

    1989-01-01

    The relation between the presence of readily visible man-made mineral fibre (MMMF) products in the ceilings and the presence/frequency of symptoms and diseases, and the correlation between the presence/frequency of symptoms and diseases and the concentration of MMMF in the indoor environment was investigated in 24 kindergartens. A combination of traditional epidemiological techniques and a technical analysis of a number of indoor air parameters did not support the hypothesis that release of MMMF from readily visible MMMF products in the ceilings was mainly responsible for the occurrence of symptoms or diseases related to indoor exposure in kindergartens.

  17. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  18. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  19. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated different combinations of floor/ceiling heating with mixing/displacement ventilation and their impacts on the indoor air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. Measurements were performed in a room during heating season in December. The results show that indoor...... combined with floor/ceiling heating systems is approximately equal to 1.0, and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system combined with floor/ceiling heating systems ranges from 1.0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor...... air distribution but smaller ventilation effectiveness compared with the floor/ceiling heating systems combined with displacement ventilation system. With regard to the building heat loss increased by non-uniform indoor air distribution and small ventilation effectiveness, there should be an optimal...

  20. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  1. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  2. Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice,…

  3. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. The PV alone can be used for room ventilation when applied in conjunction with ceiling radiant cooling system, which removes sensible heat loads...

  4. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  5. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president.

  6. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector…

  7. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  8. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  9. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  10. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  11. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans... certain information to help inform its current rulemaking to consider setting energy conservation... INFORMATION: I. Introduction Title III, Part B \\1\\ of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA...

  12. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    -scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...

  13. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  14. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    geometrical model and the other is a porous media model. The numerical models are validated by the full-scale experimental studies in a climate chamber. The results indicate that porous media model performed better on predicting air flow characteristic below diffuse ceiling and air velocity near the floor...

  15. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  16. Prototype Design and Experimental Test of a Rotorcraft Capable of Adhering to and Moving on the Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Yasunaga Masaya; Lee Jae Hoon; Okamoto Shingo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype design and evaluation of a novel rotorcraft that can adhere to and move on the ceiling. It has four propellers for flying like conventional rotorcraft. In addition, a specialized guard frame and two active wheels are attached on its body frame for adhering to and moving on the ceiling. The propellers create negative pressure in the guard frame that acts as a suction cup for generating adhesion force. The active wheels are used for moving on the ceiling face. ...

  17. Low temperature ceiling heater of element construction. Niedertemperatur-Deckenheizung in Elementbauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treinies, N.

    1980-03-13

    The purpose of the invention is to create a ceiling heater, which can manage with as low a temperature of the heat medium as possible, so that it will match the use of solar collectors and heat pumps, where the emission of heat upwards is to be kept as small as possible, and where a smooth underside of the ceiling without gaps is to be achieved. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the individual elements consists of a lower flat through metal plate, a hard foam core and a top through cover sheet forming a sandwich, and that the hard foam core has cut-outs corresponding to the shape of the heating duct on the side towards the lower metal plate. (HWJ).

  18. Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, K S; Thompson, D E

    1997-06-01

    In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.

  19. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  20. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  1. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." This final rule will apply to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. This final rule sets forth the calculation of the 340B ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties (CMPs).

  2. Chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation system: Laboratory study with high cooling load

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, S.; Bauman, FS; Tully, B; Rimmer, J

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 ASHRAE.Radiant chilled ceilings with displacement ventilation represent a promising system that combines the energy efficiency of both subsystems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance. Laboratory experiments were conducted for an interior zone office with a very high cooling load (91.0 W/m2) and with two different heat source heights to investigate their influence on thermal stratification and air change effectiveness. The results showed that displacement ventilatio...

  3. Room air stratification in combined chilled ceiling and displacement ventilation systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Tully, Brad; Rimmer, Julian

    2012-01-01

    Radiant chilled ceilings (CC) with displacement ventilation (DV) represent a promising integrated system design that combines the energy efficiency of both sub-systems with the opportunity for improved ventilation performance resulting from the thermally stratified environment of DV systems. The purpose of this study was to conduct laboratory experiments for a typical U.S. interior zone office to investigate how room air stratification is affected by the ratio of cooling load removed by a chi...

  4. Performance of radiant cooling ceiling combined with personalized ventilation in an office room: identification of thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The paper compares thermal environment conditions created by four HVAC systems: mixing ventilation, chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and personalized ventilation, and chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation only. Measurements...... were performed in a test room arranged as an office with 2 workstations and 2 seating occupants resembled by thermal manikins. Heat gain of 66-72 W/m2 was simulated in the room (occupants, computers, lighting, solar gain). The air temperature in the chamber was maintained at 26°C and 28°C. Personalized...... ventilation supplied air at non-isothermal condition with temperature of 25°C. Results showed that the compared methods generated almost the same thermal environment in the occupied zone. However at the workstations the personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling provided more cooling and decreased...

  5. Mapping the Cosmos on a Ceiling: Reflection Sundials from the Seventeenth Century to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Ceiling reflection sundials employ a small horizontal mirror, say on a south-facing window sill, to cast a spot of sunlight to the ceiling and/or walls of a room or gallery. In this way the linear scale of the daily and annual motions of the sun are greatly amplified, allowing a plethora of information to be displayed and read. Besides the time of day and the date, typical quantities included the altitude and azimuth of the sun, the declination of the sun, the number of hours since sunrise, the length of daylight, the sign of the zodiac, the sidereal time, etc. The principles for planning and calculating these sundials were first laid out in detail in 17th century Italy by the Jesuit scholars Athanasius Kircher and Emmanuel Maignan: two reflection dials of the latter still survive today in Rome, at Trinità dei Monti (1637) and Palazzo Spada (1644). A third extant example can be found at the Lycée Stendhal in Grenoble, built by a Jesuit priest named Bonfa in 1673. This talk will describe and illustrate these complex sundials, as well as a recently completed ceiling dial, inspired by their example, in the New World (Seattle).

  6. Ceiling temperature and photothermalsensitivity of aqueous MSA-CdTe quantum dots thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinbing; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Ben Q.

    2017-02-01

    Ceiling temperature, photothermal sensitivity and size effects of aqueous mercaptosuccinic acid modified CdTe quantum dots (MSA-CdTe QDs) are determined from experimental measurements for temperature sensing applications. Measured data show that the ceiling temperature of MSA-CdTe prepared by the hydrothermal process is 60 °C, better than that of CdTe QDs modified by thioglycolic acid (TGA). Aqueous MSA-CdTe QDs exhibit a reversible PL spectral peak wavelength shift within the temperature range from room temperature up to the ceiling temperature 60 °C. With the size of the QDs increasing from 1.9 nm to 3.1 nm, the photothermal sensitivity remains unchanged and a stable linear correlation with a slope of 0.16 nm/ °C exists between the PL spectral peak wavelength position and the temperature. The morphology of QDs was examined under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The measured emission photoluminescence data by QDs further show that the thermal sensitivity is independent of the size of the QDs for the size range studied. Theoretical analysis is presented to substantiate the experiment results.

  7. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling.

  8. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  9. An acoustical analysis of a room with a concave dome ceiling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi S.

    2004-05-01

    Concave surfaces are often considered detrimental in room acoustics, especially because of the impact they have on the distribution of sound energy. This paper explores certain acoustical characteristics and anomalies found in spaces below concave dome ceiling elements. The architectural design of the Darusshollah mosque in East Java, Indonesia is used as a case study with specific spatial and functional concerns. Investigations of the mosque have been conducted through both a 1:12 scale model and a computer model that utilizes ray tracing and image source methods. Analysis techniques are discussed. Results are presented and compared to provide useful insights into the acoustics of such distinctive environments.

  10. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  11. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo;

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  12. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined....... The percentage of electrical energy use that could be covered from the PV/Ts on site was 71.5% for Case 1, 68.3% for Case 2 and 86.8% for Case 3. In any case, the PV/T panels proved to be an efficient solution for the production of electrical energy, heated and chilled water....

  13. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty......-two participants completed a single session of self-directed practice of the mastoidectomy procedure in a virtual reality simulator. Participants were randomised for additional simulator-integrated tutoring. Performances were assessed at 10-minute intervals using final-product analysis. RESULTS: In all, 45.5 per...

  14. Air distribution in a multi-occupant room with mixing or displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2015-01-01

    This study performed a comparative analysis of the air distribution in a multi-occupant room with mixing or displacement ventilation and the effect of adding floor or ceiling heating to each of them. The vertical distribution of indoor air temperature and velocity in the occupied zone......; the mean local turbulence intensity varied from 12.0% to 14.1% with mixing ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating, and the corresponding values were 1.5°C to 2.5°C and 7.3% to 9.8% with displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating. Mean air distribution effectiveness...... varied from 0.93 to 1.0 for mixing ventilation and from 1.06 to 1.14 for displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating. The results are relevant to the design and control of mixing and displacement ventilation with or without floor or ceiling heating in a multi-occupant room....

  15. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  16. Impact of the disease: acceptability, ceiling and floor effects and reliability of an instrument on heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey de Lima Lopes Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acceptability, ceiling/floor effects, and the reliability of the instrument for measuring the Impact of the Disease on the Daily Life of Patients with Valvular Disease (IDCV when applied to 135 patients with heart failure (HF. Acceptability was evaluated by the percentage of unanswered items and by the proportion of patients who responded to all items; the ceiling/floor effects by the percentage of patients who scored in the top of 10% best and worst results of the scale, respectively. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC. All patients responded to all items. Ceiling/floor effects evidenced were of moderate magnitude. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for the majority of the domains and ICC> 0.90 in all the domains. The IDCV proved to be an easy to understand questionnaire, with evidence of reliability in patients with HF.

  17. Derivation of factors for estimating the scatter of diagnostic x-rays from walls and ceiling slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C J; Sutton, D G; Magee, J; McVey, S; Williams, J R; Peet, D

    2012-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning rooms and interventional x-ray facilities with heavy workloads may require the installation of shielding to protect against radiation scattered from walls or ceiling slabs. This is particularly important for the protection of those operating x-ray equipment from within control cubicles who may be exposed to radiation scattered from the ceiling over the top of the protective barrier and round the side if a cubicle door is not included. Data available on the magnitude of this tertiary scatter from concrete slabs are limited. Moreover, there is no way in which tertiary scatter levels can be estimated easily for specific facilities. There is a need for a suitable method for quantification of tertiary scatter because of the increases in workloads of complex x-ray facilities. In this study diagnostic x-ray air kerma levels scattered from concrete and brick walls have been measured to verify scatter factors. The results have been used in a simulation of tertiary scatter for x-ray facilities involving summation of scatter contributions from elements across concrete ceiling slabs. The majority of the ceiling scatter air kerma to which staff behind a barrier will be exposed arises from the area between the patient/x-ray tube and the staff. The level depends primarily on the heights of the ceiling and protective barrier. A method has been developed to allow tertiary scatter levels to be calculated using a simple equation based on a standard arrangement for rooms with different ceiling and barrier heights. Coefficients have been derived for a CT facility and an interventional suite to predict tertiary scatter levels from the workload, so that consideration can be given to the protection options available.

  18. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    of PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  20. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad...

  1. The hidden symbols of the female anatomy in Michelangelo Buonarroti's ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Deivis; Malysz, Tais; Bonatto-Costa, João Antonio; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; de Oliveira Junior, Lino Pinto; Wichmann, Jéssica Francine; Goulart, Guilherme Reghelin; Stefani, Marco Antonio; da Rocha, Andrea Oxley

    2016-10-01

    A number of published articles have suggested that each element of Renaissance art contains an inner meaning. Some of these elements include the choice of theme and protagonists, faces selected for the characters, colors used, species of flowers and trees chosen, animals depicted, positions of the elements, posture of the characters and their gestures, juxtapositions in the scenes, and even the very scenario or landscape. All of these elements are thought to have hidden meanings. In this context, this manuscript presents a new hypothesis suggesting that Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) may have concealed symbols associated with female anatomy in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (painted 1508-1512) in Rome. Thus, this paper is useful to better understand the history of anatomy and corroborates recent descriptions that have suggested the possible existence of anatomic figures concealed in many of Michelangelo's works. Clin. Anat. 29:911-916, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new test model written in SysML and an associated blackbox test suite for the Ceiling Speed Monitor (CSM) of the European Train Control System (ETCS). The model is publicly available and intended to serve as a novel benchmark for investigating new testing theories......_nite cardinality of the input domains { is capable to produce _nite test suites that are complete (i.e. sound and exhaustive) for a given fault model. In this paper, an overview of the model and the equivalence class testing strategy is given, and tool-based evaluation results are presented. For the technical...... and comparing the capabilities of modelbased test automation tools. The CSM application inputs velocity values from a domain which could not be completely enumerated for test purposes with reasonable e_ort. We therefore apply a novel method for equivalence class testing that { despite the conceptually in...

  3. Mixed air ceilings for surgical rooms with recirculating blowers; Mischluftdecke fuer OP-Raeume mit Umluftventilatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-07-01

    Ceilings of modern surgery rooms must have a size of about 3,200 x 3,200 mm for a laminar displacement flow of 0.18 - 0.25 m/s. air volume flows of more than 9,000 cubic metres per hour are required. Not all surgical wards have the capacity for sufficiently large air ducts for central air supply. [German] Die moderne Chirurgie verlangt OP-Zuluftdecken mit Groessen von etwa 3 200 x 3 200 mm, die eine laminare Verdraengungsstroemung im Geschwindigkeitsbereich von etwa 0,18 bis 0,25 m/s sichern. Hierbei werden Zuluft-Volumenstroeme bis ueber 9 000 m{sup 3}/h erforderlich. Nicht alle OP-Abteilungen lassen die Verlegung der entsprechend grossen Luftleitungen fuer zentrale Luftversorgung zu. (orig.)

  4. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling.

  5. Characterization of the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor Sacristhi of Seville's Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios, J.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we expose the technics used to characterize the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor sacristy of Seville's Cathedral and the causes of the loosening of mortar and stone fragments, we also expose some ways to overcome this fact.

    En este artículo se da cuenta de los estudios realizados y técnicas empleadas para determinar las características de los materiales (que se han seleccionado de la cúpula de la Sacristía Mayor de la Santa Iglesia Catedral de Sevilla, así como de las causas que han producido el desprendimiento de fragmentos de mortero y piedras. Por último, se proponen una serie de medidas para solucionar este problema

  6. The White ceiling heuristic and the underestimation of Asian-American income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C Martin

    Full Text Available The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.

  7. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate.

  8. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D.; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5–10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate. PMID:27186890

  9. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  10. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope... in § 56.4911-7(e)) either normally makes lobbying expenditures in excess of its lobbying...

  11. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    the opposite effect on energy performance when TABS is activated in heating or cooling mode. Finally, the air temperature distribution in the plenum and the surface temperature distribution of the diffuse ceiling point out that the air does not perfectly mix in the plenum, the air is not evenly distributed...

  12. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  13. Exergy analysis in a space with ceiling shield; Analisis exegetico en un espacio con techo escudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The Solar Laboratory of Energy (LES) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) was designed to be comfortable in spite of the extreme climate where it was built. One of the novel characteristics was the shield type ceiling used in cubicles. In order to compare the effect that had had with respect to the environmental conditions, one had to resort to an exergy analysis, since exergy is a measurement of the capacity of the energy to carry out a work. As a first system the data of the national meteorological system as initial conditions were used. The comparative system used as initial conditions the temperature and relative humidity measurements obtained in 1992 in a cubicle of the LES. Both systems were taken as open. The final conditions were settled at 25 Celsius degrees and 50% of relative humidity in a first case and variables (with respect to the perimeter a comfort zone) in a second case. The saving obtained was of 69% and 33% respectively. Although it is not possible to determine what percentage corresponds to the exclusive saving of the ceiling shield, we see that the cover all altogether, presents a significant exergy saving in respect to modifying the environmental conditions directly. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) fue disenado para ser confortable a pesar del clima extremoso donde fue construido. Una de las caracteristicas novedosas fue el uso de techo tipo escudo en cubiculo. Para comparar el efecto que se tuvo respecto a las condiciones ambientales, se recurrio a un analisis exergetico, ya que la exergia es una medida de la capacidad de la energia para realizar un trabajo. Como un primer sistema se utilizaron los datos del sistema meteorologico nacional como condiciones iniciales. El sistema comparativo utilizo como condiciones iniciales las mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativas obtenidas en 1992 en un cubiculo del LES. Ambos sistemas fueron tomados como abiertos

  14. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  15. New design options with gypsum-based cooling ceilings; Neue Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten mit Gipskuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Sulzer administrative building at Winterthur, Switzerland, was constructed in 1928/'29 by the architect Lebrecht Voelkli. It was now modernized by the Zuerich architects, Marianne Burkhalter and Christian Sumi. The technical facilities, with a traditional heating system and modern air conditioning, was planned and constructed by Axima. As new elements, there are gypsum-based cooling ceilings which have the advantages of easy integration in the building design, high economic efficiency, and user-friendliness. The emphasis during modernisation was on architectural aspects, i.e. modern interior design, colour schemes, acoustics and flexible use of rooms. [German] 1928/29 erstellte der Architekt Lebrecht Voelkli einen Neubau fuer die Sulzer-Konzernleitung in Winterthur (Schweiz) in Gestalt eines neoklassischen Wuerfels mit vier oberirdischen Geschossen. Dessen komplette Sanierung realisierten die Zuercher Architekten Marianne Burkhalter und Christian Sumi. Die von Axima geplante und ausgefuehrte Gebaeudetechnik mit traditioneller Heizung und modernen Luftaufbereitungsanlagen weist als Novum neu konzipierte Gipskuehldecken auf. Sie erfuellen die Architektenansprueche in Bezug auf unauffaellige Integration, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Benutzerfreundlichkeit, denn im Vordergrund standen Forderungen nach moderner Innenraumgestaltung, akzentuierter Farbgebung, guter Akustik und flexibler Flaechennutzung. (orig.)

  16. Tracking the Origins of an Ancient Star Scene on a Nova Scotian Chancel Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David G.

    2015-01-01

    The recent reconstruction of St. John's Church in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, a World Heritage Site, following a disastrous 2001 fire, led to the 2004 discovery that the chancel ceiling star pattern emplaced in 1870-72 was designed to replicate the sky seen locally at the traditional beginning of the first Christmas. The resulting media blitz following the discovery generated several unanswered questions: who designed the original pattern?, who was the artist responsible for the work?, and why was such a scene used at St. John's? Further research into such questions has made little progress, mainly because there is no direct archival evidence related to the events of 1870-72. Indirect archival clues are more revealing, however, and lead to a likely scenario that explains all available evidence, including why Lunenburg residents referred to the original star pattern as 'the Mariner's Sky.' The original work appears to have been completed under the guise of a Canadian Confederation project, and provides graphic evidence for more extensive astronomical expertise in Nova Scotia in that era than previously believed.

  17. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  18. Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn C; Reiss, Patricia L

    2004-01-01

    Women have had their share of difficulties climbing the corporate ladder in their chosen professional roles. Excellent role models exist for nurses to look up to as role models for leadership and executive level positions. Nurses and women must strive to achieve their goals of attaining executive/management level positions in their respective organizations. The glass ceiling still exists; however, women are slowly eroding that glass barrier and reaching their professional goals. In reviewing the struggles that men in nursing have encountered in a predominantly female profession, one realizes that stereotypical attitudes do cross gender lines. The authors conclude that executive level positions need to be opened more to women, just as the nursing profession must be more welcoming to men. The profession of nursing will only become stronger with gender diversity. Women encounter barriers when aspiring to executive level positions. In the next issue of SCI Nursing, the authors will report on what the evidence says about women in leadership roles, and the challenges they have and will continue to face.

  19. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  20. Cognitive screening for children and adolescents: general limits or ceiling effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornholt, Laurel J; Ajersch, Susan; Fisher, Ian H; Markham, Roslyn H; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2010-05-01

    Cognitive screening tools designed for children can also be used with adolescents. However, early studies suggest that scores can approach a maximum at about age 10 or 11 years. The initial hypothesis was this apparent ''ceiling effect'' is due to limits in the materials, where items can be insufficiently challenging for some adolescents. The alternative hypothesis is that general cognitive screening has a true limit by early adolescence. Participants (N = 85) were 10 to 15-year-old girls and boys, with a database (N = 1249) of 4 to 12-year-old children. The School-Years Screening Test for the Evaluation of Mental Status (SYSTEMS) cognitive screening was extended by more difficult items. Results show that scores increase rapidly for young children and tend toward a maximum in early adolescence. This characteristic asymptotic curve explained a substantial proportion of the variance. We can conclude that, although specific functions continue to develop, there is an upper limit in early adolescence for such general cognitive functioning. The findings support cognitive screening across a broad age range and suggest worthwhile research and clinical applications.

  1. Reduction of musculoskeletal injuries in intensive care nurses using ceiling-mounted patient lifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Shirley; Haddock, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    The musculoskeletal injury (MSI) rate in the Richmond Hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU) increased significantly in 2000 and 2001 by 130%. As part of a quality initiative program, the problem was identified, assessed, and a plan was developed that involved the installation of ceiling-mounted patient lifts (CMPL) and the incorporation of a patient positioning sling. The evaluation process included a survey given to the ICU nursing staff prior to the implementation of the CMPL and repeated three, six, and 18 months after implementation. The survey included questions about discomfort, fatigue, and frustration levels before and after a 12-hour shift, as well as any medical interventions such as use of medications, physician visits, physiotherapy, and massage therapy for work-related issues. The use of the lifts contributed to lower scores in fatigue, pain and frustration in addition to a reduction in medical visits. The results also demonstrated a significant reduction in work-related time loss claims while promoting a positive workplace environment.

  2. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  3. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  4. Parametric analysis of the operation of nocturnal radiative cooling panels coupled with in room PCM ceiling panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Péan, T.Q.;

    2017-01-01

    The scope of this parametric simulation study was to identify the optimal combination of set-points for different parameters of a radiant PCM ceiling panels cooling system that will result in the best indoor thermal environment with the least possible energy use. The results showed that for each ...... and the temperature in the middle of the storage tanks of 5 K, 9°F....

  5. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery with Autogenous Bone Grafts as Ceiling: A Pilot Study and Test of Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J A; Telleman, Gerdien; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane might suffice to allow for bone formation indicating the additional use of augmentation materials to be redundant. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether elevation of the sinus mucosal lining combined with applying an autologous bone graft as a ceiling and placement of a short implant would allow for bone formation around the implant thus surpassing the need for applying augmentation...

  6. The controllability of climate ceilings in insulated buildings. A chaotic measurement and control illusion; Een chaotische meet- en regelillusie. Klimaatplafonds in geisoleerde gebouwen nauwelijks regelbaar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H.

    2012-01-15

    Dimensioning traditional climate ceilings is not an easy task. Various parameters need to be calculated according to various different methods. This is the second article on climate ceilings, addressing the chaotic measurement and control illusion in more detail. [Dutch] Dimensioneren van traditionele klimaatplafonds is geen sinecure. Verschillende parameters moeten volgens evenzoveel verschillende methoden worden berekend. Dit tweede deel over klimaatplafonds gaat dan ook dieper in op de 'chaotische meet- en regelillusie'.

  7. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-04-07

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  8. In search of the glass ceiling: gender and recruitment to management in Norway's state bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvik, Aagoth Elise; Schøne, Pål

    2008-12-01

    There are still fewer female than male managers in Norway's state bureaucracy. This article asks if there are organizational barriers which prevent women from entering these positions. Is there really a glass ceiling, or must one look outside the organizational environment to find an explanation? Is it rather the case that the scarcity of female managers is caused by women's own preferences or their life situations outside work? Or do both contribute to the situation? The study shows that female managers are treated just as well as male managers in central parts of the state bureaucracy. Employers give equal shares of respect and attention to both genders. Female managers are encouraged to apply for the same number of jobs as men and are offered an equal number of jobs as men when they apply; in fact, women are offered more jobs than men, when one controls for the number of job applications. This indicates that organizational barriers are not the problem. The study also shows that there are no differences in work orientation between male and female managers. Female managers are just as ambitious as male managers. Nor do female managers find it more difficult than male managers to combine work and family life. So, how can one explain the low number of female managers? The study shows that one reason can be that female managers apply for management jobs less often than their male colleagues. The cause of this seems to be anticipated discrimination rather than lack of ambition or self-confidence. However, this slows down women's movement into higher management positions in the state bureaucracy.

  9. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  10. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rituerto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1 tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2 geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  11. Chilled ceiling displacement ventilation design charts correlations to employ in optimized system operation for feasible load ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keblawi, A.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Jensen, L. [Department of Building Services Engineering, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    2009-11-15

    This paper expands Ghaddar et al. [N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, R. Saadeh, A. Keblawi, Design charts for combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system (1438-RP), ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 574-587] design charts of combined chilled ceiling (CC) displacement ventilation (DV) system to operating sensible load ranges from 40 W/m{sup 2} to 100 W/m{sup 2}. It develops a global correlation of system load and operational parameters, with comfort measured by vertical temperature gradient and indoor air quality measured by the stratification height. The correlations are used for a known transient load profile in generating optimal settings of the CC/DV system operational parameters and associated energy consumption. An example is illustrated to show how the correlation could be used to size the system and to provide optimized control of the CC/DV system operation at low computational cost. Results of the current model are compared to the published case study of an optimized operation based on transient simulations of the space thermal model to achieve minimum operation cost [M. Mossolly, N. Ghaddar, K. Ghali, L. Jensen, Optimized operation of combined chilled ceiling displacement ventilation system using genetic algorithm, ASHRAE Transactions, 143 (2) (2008) 541-554]. The design correlations resulted in good agreement with published data (within 3% error in energy consumption and average 6% error in predictions of comfort and stratification height) at 1/4 of the computational time. The presented methodology provides an alternative for using the correlation for supervisory online controllers for the CC/DV system based on physically derived correlations. (author)

  12. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...

  13. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3...... (ventilation effectiveness of 0.4) and the air flow rate had to be above minimum to safeguard the indoor air quality. The radial swirl jet of chilled beam also was not capable of creating complete mixing at high and concentrated heat load (ventilation effectiveness of 0.7)....

  14. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang,Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zhao, Jianing

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated different combinations of floor/ceiling heating with mixing/displacement ventilation and their impacts on the indoor air distribution and ventilation effectiveness. Measurements were performed in a room during heating season in December. The results show that indoor vertical air temperature differences and air velocities for different hybrid systems are less than 3 C and 0.2 m/s when supply air temperature is 19 C, air change rate is 4.2 h-1, and heated surface ...

  15. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  16. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik;

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the complex acoustic behaviour of lightweight building structures both experimental and theoretical approaches are necessary. Within the theoretical approach developing theoretical models is of great importance. The aim here is to further develop an existing method to predict...... the impact sound pressure level in a receiving room for a coupled floor structure where floor and ceiling are rigidly connected by beams. A theoretical model for predicting the impact sound level for a decoupled floor structure, which has no rigid mechanical connections between the floor and the ceiling...

  17. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  18. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    on gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow......Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...

  19. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The functional independence measure (FIM is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI.

  20. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). (a) Election—(1) In general....

  1. Operator Radiation and the Efficacy of Ceiling-Suspended Lead Screen Shielding during Coronary Angiography: An Anthropomorphic Phantom Study Using Real-Time Dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Qianjun; Chen, Ziman; Jiang, Xianxian; Zhao, Zhenjun; Huang, Meiping; Li, Jiahua; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Xiaoqing; Hu, Tianyu; Liang, Wensheng

    2017-02-01

    Operator radiation and the radiation protection efficacy of a ceiling-suspended lead screen were assessed during coronary angiography (CA) in a catheterization laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom was placed under the X-ray beam to simulate patient attenuation in eight CA projections. Using real-time dosimeters, radiation dose rates were measured on models mimicking a primary operator (PO) and an assistant. Subsequently, a ceiling-suspended lead screen was placed in three commonly used positions to compare the radiation protection efficacy. The radiation exposure to the PO was 2.3 to 227.9 (mean: 67.2 ± 49.0) μSv/min, with the left anterior oblique (LAO) 45°/cranial 25° and cranial 25° projections causing the highest and the lowest dose rates, respectively. The assistant experienced significantly less radiation overall (mean: 20.1 ± 19.6 μSv/min, P shielding, the ceiling-suspended lead screen reduced the radiation to the PO by 76.8%, 81.9% and 93.5% when placed close to the patient phantom, at the left side and close to the PO, respectively, and reduced the radiation to the assistant by 70.3%, 76.7% and 90.0%, respectively. When placed close to the PO, a ceiling-suspended lead screen provides substantial radiation protection during CA.

  2. A tick-borne encephalitis ceiling in Central Europe has moved upwards during the last 30 years: possible impact of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, Petr; Bene, Cestmir

    2004-04-01

    The geographic/temporal pattern of cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) registered in the Czech Republic since 1970 was analysed to verify the surmise of a global warming effect. Using a geographic information system, over 8,700 notified places of infection were pin-pointed on a map and overlaid with a digital elevation model to estimate the vertical distribution of the cases. Series of yearly disease ceilings (assessed alternatively as the respective maximum altitude or mean altitudes of the upper 5 or 10 cases) were tested against the null hypothesis of random elevation course and analysed for correlation with concomitant factors (yearly TBE incidence rate, mean yearly temperature, population density of small rodents and roe deer). Statistical tests proved that the TBE ceiling has gradually moved upwards in the course of the last three decades. The average rate of ascension within this period was approx. 5.4 +/- 1.7 m yearly, which corresponds well with concurrent mean temperature rising of approx. 0.036 +/- 0.007 degrees C yearly, and the vertical temperature gradient of 0.0065 +/- 0.0004 degrees C m(-1). The TBE-ceiling estimates significantly correlated with TBE-incidence data and the mean yearly temperature recorded 1-2 years earlier. Although TBE incidence correlated with rodent population density that was observed 1-2 years earlier, the TBE ceiling does not seem to be influenced by rodent population dynamics nor did the population dynamics correlate with mean yearly temperatures. TBE incidence as well as mean altitudes of the upper 10 cases also correlated with official data on harvested roe deer. Overall, the fluctuations of TBE incidence and TBE ceiling proved to be synchronous processes that correspond with temperature changes. Although the dependence of TBE on temperature is not a direct one and various factors could be involved, an impact of climate warming on the vertical disease distribution in Central Europe is evident.

  3. Prediction of CO Concentration and Maximum Smoke Temperature beneath Ceiling in Tunnel Fire with Different Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gannouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tunnel fire, the production of smoke and toxic gases remains the principal prejudicial factors to users. The heat is not considered as a major direct danger to users since temperatures up to man level do not reach tenable situations that after a relatively long time except near the fire source. However, the temperatures under ceiling can exceed the thresholds conditions and can thus cause structural collapse of infrastructure. This paper presents a numerical analysis of smoke hazard in tunnel fires with different aspect ratio by large eddy simulation. Results show that the CO concentration increases as the aspect ratio decreases and decreases with the longitudinal ventilation velocity. CFD predicted maximum smoke temperatures are compared to the calculated values using the model of Li et al. and then compared with those given by the empirical equation proposed by kurioka et al. A reasonable good agreement has been obtained. The backlayering length decreases as the ventilation velocity increases and this decrease fell into good exponential decay. The dimensionless interface height and the region of bad visibility increases with the aspect ratio of the tunnel cross-sectional geometry.

  4. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  5. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  6. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  7. Fever's glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, P A; Boulant, J A

    1996-03-01

    The importance of an upper limit of the febrile response has been recognized since the time of Hippocrates. Although the precise temperature defining this limit varies according to the site at which body temperature is measured, human core temperature is almost never permitted to rise above 41 degrees C-42 degrees C during fever. There are compelling physiological reasons for such an upper limit of regulated body temperature. The mechanisms by which the limit is maintained are most likely complex and involve special properties of thermoregulatory neurons themselves, circulating endogenous antipyretics (such as arginine vasopressin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone), and soluble receptors for the (pyrogenic) cytokine mediators of the febrile response.

  8. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Snowflakes were dancing in Beijing.Several women.dressed in colorful clothes,appeared overly jovial for the wintry weather.They were women deputies on their Wav to the Third Session of the llth National People's Congress(NPC) on the moming of March 8.2010.They had dressed up to celebrate the 100th anniver sary of the International Women's Day.

  9. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Women play an important role in legislative work and the administration of other state and social affairs snowflakes were dancing in Beijing. Several women, dressed in colorful clothes, appeared overly jovial for the wintry weather. They were women deputies on their way to the Third Session of

  10. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Marianne; Black, Sandra; Jensen, Sissel; Lleras-Muney, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In late 2003, Norway passed a law mandating 40 percent of each gender on the board of publicly limited liability companies. The primary objective of this reform was to increase representation of women in top positions in the corporate sector and decrease gender disparity in earning within that sector. We document that the newly (post-reform) appointed female board members were observably more qualified than their female predecessors, and that the gender gap in earnings within boards fell subs...

  11. The glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    O'connor, Pat

    1997-01-01

    peer-reviewed An tSileail Ghloine is an E.U. project funded under the ADAPT programme. It is concerned with the position of women within a changing organisational context. The project as a whole has involved a wide variety of activities. This report is only one element in the wider project and is seen as contributing to the diagnostic phase of the project. Using documentary evidence and qualitative material from focus groups, it presents a picture of the current position of women within th...

  12. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  13. Celestial Phenomena and Royal Glory: The Painted Ceiling in Ehrenstrahlsalongen by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl at Drottningholm Palace in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, I. E.

    2011-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship of astronomical phenomena and the painted ceiling The Glorious Deeds of Swedish Kings executed around 1694-1696 by the Swedish court painter David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl in the Royal manor Drottningholm, outside Stockholm. The central theme of the painting is how "Reputation" brings the renown of the valour of the Swedish kings to the stars. When Galileo dedicated the moons of Jupiter to the Medici's he used an already established tradition of likening prominent people to celestial phenomena. This paper explores why motifs related to the stars and heavens was considered to be so suitable in the court context in early modern Europe.

  14. Ceiling-mounted radiator panels are become established in sports centres and multi-function halls; Deckenstrahlplatten etablieren sich in Sport- und Mehrzweckhallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmann, R.

    2005-07-01

    This short article examines the use of ceiling-mounted radiator panels to provide space heating in sports centres and multi-function halls. The overhead-mounted radiators are quoted as being economical and flexible in their use. The functioning of the panels is described and their ease of integration in the halls is discussed. Their principles of operation are described and options for their use in summer for cooling purposes are also discussed. Illustrations of the use of these panels are provided.

  15. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  16. Integrated sound absorption in thermally activated concrete ceilings - acoustic and thermal effectiveness of sound-absorber strips spaced at intervals; Integrierte Schallabsorption in thermisch aktivierten Betondecken - akustische und thermische Wirksamkeit periodischer Schallabsorberstreifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drotleff, Horst; Wack, Roman; Leistner, Philip; Holm, Andreas; Ziegler, Matthias; Sedlbauer, Klaus [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik IBP, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    From the perspectives of energy as well as indoor climate, thermally activated concrete ceilings make sense. Used in office buildings, however, their drawback becomes apparent: they are acoustically reflective. The conventional approaches use sound-absorbing suspended sails and absorber baffles or heat-conducting sound absorbers embedded in large areas of the concrete. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented and is evaluated acoustically and thermally. A few strips of sound absorber, arranged at intervals, are mounted flush into the concrete ceiling. To calculate the sound-absorption spectrum, an already widely publicised model (the Rayleigh approach) is used. It predicts the sound-absorption spectrum for normal sound incidence very well. For diffuse sound incidence, the difference to reverberation chamber measurements is greater, presumably because of the edge effect. The sound- absorption coefficient of the design can be tuned by skilful choice of the strip geometry, and it is significantly higher than the expected average value for the surface. On the one hand, the thermal efficiency of the components is determined by comparing the heat fluxes in the ceilings with absorber strips to an untreated reference ceiling. On the other hand, the indoor climate is investigated using a room model for office rooms of both solid and lightweight constructions. The influence of the strips (proportion of absorber area 20 %) on the thermal efficiency and indoor climate is low. Two absorber materials are examined in the strip approach: open-cell foam glass and a micro-perforated metallic absorber. While the metallic absorber displays thermal advantages, its sound absorption spectrum - even at high surface-coverage proportions - exhibits a much lower absorption coefficient than, for example, open-cell foam glass strips with only 20 % ceiling coverage. A demonstration in situ shows the potential of the absorber strips spaced at intervals. However, the method chosen in

  17. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  18. 煤炭生产和消费环境天花板之探究%Study on Coal Production and Consumption Environmental Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田山岗; 严群; 王猛; 孙杰

    2015-01-01

    煤炭生产和消费的过程必然对大气、水、土造成污染和消耗,环境天花板是煤炭生产和消费数量的约束边界。我国煤炭生产的环境天花板约为41~43亿t,消费约为34~38亿t。随着经济结构和能源结构的调整以及生态环境的约束,预测煤炭需求总量大约在2020~2025年达到40亿t左右的峰值。生态文明战略是新阶段社会经济发展对煤炭生产和消费的必然要求,其包含“生态优先”原则、煤炭“三清洁”发展策略、生产和消费生态环境成本内部化措施、后找煤时期煤田地质勘查工作的结构调整。煤可以清洁利用,但不能低碳化利用。煤炭的低速增长或负增长已经成为煤炭工业发展的新常态。%The process of coal production and consumption will inevitably bring on pollution and expenditure of atmospheric air, water and soil, while the environmental ceiling is the constraint boundary of coal production and consumption amount. Environmental ceiling of coal production in the country is about 4.1~4.3 billion tons, coal consumption about 3.4~3.8 billion tons. Along with economic, ener⁃gy source structural regulations and entironment constraint, predicted total amount of coal demand during 2020~2025 would hit about 4 billion tons peak. The ecological civilization strategy is the certain claim of social and economic development in the new period on coal production and consumption. It comprises“ecological priorities”principle, coal“three cleanliness”development tactics (it means min⁃ing clean coal, cleanly mining coal and cleanly use coal), production and consumption entironment cost internalized measures, posterior coal prospecting period coal exploration works structural readjustment. Coal can be cleanly used, but cannot be less carbon-intensively used. Low speed growth or negative growth of coal has become the new normal of coal industry development.

  19. Integrated geological and geophisycal methods for the evaluation of the ceiling collapse hazard of the Poesia Cave in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Rose, M.; Leucci, G.; Quarta, G.

    2012-04-01

    tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), seismic tomography, stability models to evaluation of ceiling caves. The research allows to define the geometrical caves shape (span, length and thickness of the crown pillars) which related to the geological features and physics properties of the rocks, determine the instability of the ceiling caves and, as a consequence, the sinkhole hazard.

  20. The vocational training of occupational therapists and the Undergraduate Course at the University of Brasília, Ceilândia College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Giovana Furlan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Health training has been discussed in the educational field, guiding curriculum changes for undergraduate courses according to the current public policies, mainly the National Health System and the new Curriculum Guidelines. Professional formation based on the active pursuit of knowledge, ensuring integrality and humanization of health care, is objectified. In this perspective, this article presents a literature review on the scientific production related to health training, specifically the training of occupational therapists, and examines how the political pedagogical project of the occupational therapy undergraduate course of the University of Brasília – Ceilândia College (UnB-FCE contemplates and prioritizes vocational training guided by current trends. We found 14 scientific articles addressing the reformulation of the curricula of undergraduate courses, favoring interdisciplinarity and practical activities in social infrastructure. The teaching practice and the student body posture interfere in the educational process, with the challenge of developing communicative, affective and relational skills in contrast with the current teaching model. The undergraduate program in occupational therapy of UnB-FCE is recent, and it aims at vocational training under the new proposed model. It is organized in relation to the fields of professional practice and human functionality, and it prioritizes the local community development through teaching, research, and extension projects associated with the health services of the Federal District.

  1. Simulation Research on Thermal Performance of Radiant Cooling Ceiling with Phase Change Material for Thermal Storage%相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷系统热性能模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张群力; 狄洪发

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a radiant cooling ceiling for thermal storage was presented, in which the capillary grid with phase change material was buried. Firstly,the mathematical model for the thermal performance of such ceiling under interval cooling conditions was set up. Secondly,the influences of various thermal property factors of phase change material on the average heat flux and energy storage ratio were analyzed, and the main influence factors were determined based on the sensitivity analysis. Thirdly, the thermal performance differences between the phase change material ceiling and the concrete ceiling were analyzed. The results indicated that the energy storage ratio of the former one was lager than that of the latter one.%本文将单位体积蓄能密度较大的相变材料与毛细管网格栅埋入到建筑吊顶中,设计出了一种相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷末端形式,建立了分析该吊顶在间歇运行工况下热性能的数学模型,利用该模型可以分析不同相变材料物性对该相变材料蓄能式吊顶的表面平均热流密度和蓄能比的影响.通过对影响因素的敏感性分析,得出了影响吊顶热性能的主要因素.此外,对比分析了相变材料蓄能式吊顶与混凝土蓄能式吊顶热性能的差异,指出相变材料蓄能式吊顶辐射供冷方式具有蓄能比更高的特点.

  2. 限制性价格管制、经济福利和基本药物制度的帕累托改进%Ceiling Price, Economic Welfare and Pareto Improvement of Essential Drug System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    新一轮医药卫生体制改革对基本药物实施限制性价格管制措施.在完全竞争市场条件下政府对基本药物的限制性价格管制,把部分生产者剩余,转化为消费者剩余,导致了经济福利的净损失.现实世界中对基本药物实施限制性价格管制,是为了应对一定程度的基本药物市场失灵和政府对基本药物消费者剩余的评价高于对生产者剩余的评价.限制性价格管制对降低基本药物价格和增加其有效需求起到了积极作用,同时也凸显出基本药物供给短缺压力和加强公共财政责任的必要性.在实施限制性价格管制的前提下,基本药物制度应该在不断总结试点经验的基础上实施帕累托改进.%Ceiling price regulating measure to essential drugs has been implemented in the new round health system reform. Under the perfect competition market, the ceiling price of government regulating measure to essential drugs will transfer the part producer surplus to consumer surplus, leading to the net loss of economic welfare. The reasons that implementing the ceiling price to essential drugs in the real world are on the one side to response the market failure of essential drugs caused by some market monopoly, information asymmetry and positive externality, and on the other side to give consumer surplus of essential drugs the higher evaluation than to give producer surplus of essential drags. Ceiling price played the positive role to decrease the price of essential drugs and to increase the effective demand, and to stand out the shortage pressure of essential drags supply and the necessity to strengthen the public financial responsibility. Under the condition of ceiling price, essential drug system should implement the Pareto improvement based on summing up the pilot experience.

  3. The interpretation of the figure of the prophet Jonah by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the sistine chapel: anatomical urological vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:A detailed analysis in the iconography and pictorial appearance of the scene of the "Prophet Jonah" painted by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel between the years 1508 and 1512. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Literature review on the Italian Renaissance period and the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti and analysis of historical aspects of the evolution of studies of human anatomy in this period and the works of the artist. RESULTS:A comparative analysis of the representation of the figure of the fish on the left thigh of "Jonah" with a cross section of penis shows a curious similarity. The pictorial and iconographic analysis reveals an intensity of light on the pubic area and the position of the prophet with the legs spread apart and left hand placed on this region. A tube-shaped cloth covers the region and the angel at the side seems to be looking at this anatomical region of "Jonah". In fact, sets of iconographic and pictorial relate to the deciphered code. CONCLUSIONS: This description helps to confirm the relationship of the Renaissance art with the human anatomy; science has been much studied in this period. The design of a cross section of the penis is revealed with the two cavernous bodies with the septum between them and the spongy body. Considering the circumstances in which Michelangelo had painted, subjectivity was fundamental due to religious motivations added to the vigorous implications of a limited scientific knowledge typical of that era.

  4. Cortex shatters the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Edmund; Fishell, Gord

    2008-11-06

    Recreating developmental structures in vitro has been a primary challenge for stem cell biologists. Recent studies in Cell Stem Cell (Eiraku et al., 2008) and Nature (Gaspard et al., 2008) demonstrate that embryonic stem cells can recapitulate early cortical development, enabling them to generate specific cortical subtypes.

  5. Breaking Public Relations' Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that public relations practitioners, especially women practitioners, ought to incorporate program research into daily practice. Considers the shift in public relations from a male-majority to female-majority and the challenges which this shift poses for all public relations practitioners and educators. (MS)

  6. 基于MATLAB的仿壁虎机器人天花板粘附运动仿真%Locomotion Simulation of Gecko Robot Moving on the Ceiling Based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建敏; 俞志伟; 戴振东

    2011-01-01

    Geckos have the dry adhesive feet that can provide the Vander Waals force, but it is quite difficult for gecko robot to move on the ceiling. Dynamic model of gecko robot is created with MATLAB/SimMechanic. A elastic damping model of the directional adhesive material on robot's foot is built. The crawling behavior of the robot on the ceiling is simulated with planned gait. The experiment results show that the robot can move we expected and the main perturbation in locomotion is induced by the change of alternation between the foot' s stance period and swing period. It provides references for the future experiment of gecko robot moving on the ceiling.%壁虎脚掌具有“范德华力”的干粘附特性,而实现仿壁虎机器人在负表面(如天花板)运动具有极高的难度,基于MATLAB/SimMechanic建立了仿壁虎机器人动力学模型.采用变弹性阻尼模型构建粘附力模型,模拟脚掌的粘附力各向异性.利用规划的负表面步态进行天花板粘附运动仿真,仿真表明仿壁虎机器人能按照预定的步态实现天花板的粘附运动,而天花板的非稳定性扰动来自脚掌粘附支撑相和脱附摆动相的交替处,为未来仿壁虎机器人天花板爬行实验提供仿真参考数据.

  7. 基于辐射供冷的太阳能吸收式空调试验研究%Investigation of solar absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 翟晓强; 尹亚领; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    对基于辐射供玲的太阳能吸收式空调系统进行了试验.该系统采用96 m2的U型管式真空管太阳能集热器驱动额定制冷量为8 kW的吸收式制冷机组,吸收式制冷机产生的冷冻水被输送到辐射吊顶中,为50 m2的实验室提供夏季空调.吸收式制冷机运行在度季晴朗天气时,平均制冷量为4.5 kW.辅助独立除湿机组与辐射吊顶联合运行.试验房间的热舒适指标PMV为-0.29~0.32,可满足热舒适要求.%Experiments were carried out to study a solar powered absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling. The 96 m2 U-type vacuum tube collectors were employed to drive the absorption chiller with nominal refrigeration capacity of 8 kW. The chilled water from the absorption chiller was delivered to cooling ceiling, providing cooling capacity to the 50 m2 test room. Under sunshiny weather conditions, the average cooling output was 4.5 kW. An independent dehumidification unit was installed to work together with cooling ceiling. The PMV inside the test room ranged from -0.29 to 0.32, which met the indoor thermal comfort.

  8. Conventional ceiling versus PCM induction convectors. Part 1. Performance criteria, calculations, physical behavior and controllability; Prestatiecriteria, berekeningen, fysisch gedrag en regelbaarheid. Deel 1. Traditionele plafond-versus PCM-inductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [Autarkis, Almere (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Two articles compare the traditional induction convector and the innovative PCM induction convectors with each other. Part 1 addressed the traditional ceiling induction convectors and corresponding performance criteria, cooling and heat load calculation, the physical behavior of heat exchangers and the adjustability of the feed-back control loop. [Dutch] In twee artikelen worden traditionele inductieconvectoren en innovatieve PCM-inductieconvectoren met elkaar vergeleken. Dit eerste deel gaat in op traditionele plafondinductieconvectoren en de bijbehorende prestatiecriteria, koel- en warmtelastberekening, het fysische gedrag van warmtewisselaars en de regelbaarheid van de 'feed back'-regelkring.

  9. Calculation of illuminance distribution and its coefficient of variation in infinitely long interior with luminous surface ceiling by Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation ni yoru tenjomen kogen wo motsu mugencho shitsunal no shodo bunpu to hendo keisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, M. (The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))

    1991-01-15

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was applied to the estimation of illuminance distribution in infinitely long interiors which had visual obstructions and luminous surface ceilings, and its coefficient of variation (percentage of standard deviation to average value) was studied. The illuminance distributions obtained by MCS were compared with those calculated by theoretical equations hased on teh contour integration method, and the conservation law of photon bundles was also investigated. As a result, it was concluded that MCS results of direct illuminance distributions agree with those obtained by contour integration method in infinitely long concave interiors which have luminous surface ceilings of various shapes and four visual obstructions. The coefficient of variation varies noteworthily when visual obstructions are located in asymmetrical positions. The uniformity in illuminance distributions is improved by transparent visual obstructions. The conservation law of photon bundles holds well in the concave interiors with transparent visual obstructions. Therefore, it seems that MCS technique for illuminance calculation is a very powerful tool in infinite long concave interior spaces. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Burning behavior of compartment pool fires with different ceiling vents%顶部不同开口尺寸腔室中油池火灾的发展过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈兵; 陆守香; 李强; 黎昌海; 袁满

    2011-01-01

    在项部开口腔室内开展庚烷油池火的燃烧实验,研究了开口尺寸对火灾发展过程的影响.实验使用了2种直径的油池和6种大小的水平开口,并测量了燃料质量损失速率、腔室内的气体温度分布以及火源根部附近的气体浓度变化过程.结果表明,根据火焰熄灭的原因,燃烧可分为缺氧熄灭模式和燃料耗尽熄灭模式.在缺氧熄灭模式下,顶部开口尺寸对燃料消耗率、质量损失速率和气体温度分布的影响较小;火灾进入燃料耗尽熄灭模式后,质量损失速率以及气体温度均随开口尺寸增大而增大.同时,随着开口的增大,火焰熄灭时的氧气浓度变大.在项部开口腔室火灾中,燃烧开始后,烟气在腔室内迅速沉降并充满整个腔室,“双区模型”不再适用.%Heptane pool fires were conducted in a compartment with a ceiling vent, and the effect of the ceiling vent size on fire development was investigated, in which two pool fires of different diameters and six vents of varying sizes were used. The fuel mass loss rate, gas temperature distributions at different locations and the gas concentration at the base of the fire were measured during the experiments. Results show that the oxygen-lack regime and fuel-exhaust regime are defined due to the cause of the flame extinction. In the oxygen-lack regime, the vent size has a small influence on the fuel consumption rate, fuel mass loss rate and gas temperature, while it has an increasing impact on them in the fuel-exhaust regime. Moreover, the oxygen concentration at extinction time increases with the increase in vent size. Smoke descends quickly to the floor and the compartment is filled almost completely with smoke, rendering so the "two-zone" model invalid for the fires in compartment with a ceiling vent.

  11. 纵向风对隧道火灾拱顶最高温度及其位置的影响%Effects of longitudinal ventilation on maximum ceiling temperature and its position in tunnel fire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 周晓峰; 胡隆华; 刘帅

    2012-01-01

    Experimental study of temperature distribution along tunnel ceiling with different longitudinal ventilation velocities and different typical fire sizes was conducted in a combustion wind tunnel with length of 20 m. Both square and rectangular pool fires were used as fire sources for longitudinal ventilation velocities ranged in 0 - 3 m/s. The smoke temperatures below the ceiling were recorded by K type thermocouple for near fire region and by thermal resistors for that relative far away from the fire source. The results indicate that longitudinal ventilation velocity and fire size have a great influence on temperature distribution. The variation of ceiling temperature distribution with the increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity was shown to be different for a small fire fromthat for a large fire. For small scale fires, temperature of tunnel ceiling reduced to a stable value with gradual increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity. However, for big scale fire, the temperature increased first, and then decreased. The position of maximum temperature rise point firstly moved downstream horizontally with the increase of the wind speed. When the wind speed reached a certain value, the maximum temperature rise point returned back to an upstream position, and then moved downstream again. This is due to the change of dominant heating mechanism with the increase of longitudinal ventilation velocity. When the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative small, both convection from hot smoke and radiation from the flame provide considerable contribution. However , when the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative large, radiation is dominant. The influence of the length of windward side of rectangular pool fire was also discussed. It was shown that when the longitudinal ventilation velocity is relative smaller (0.5 - 1.5 m/s), the maximum temperature is higher when the longer side is parallel to the wind direction than that under perpendicular condition. However

  12. 深圳总额控制下复合式医疗保险支付制度的实践%Practice of the compound medical insurance payment system under a ceiling control in Shenzhen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈华亮

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarized the compound medical insurance payment system under a ceiling control with Shenzhen characteristics.This practice features "ceiling control,prepaid at year beginning,multiple payment methods,monthly payment,year-end closing,and reward" for surplus.The following measures have been implemented,namely controlling the total amount,compound payment mode,setting up the scientific and reasonable payment standards and establishing a perfect supervision system.This reform has achieved such outcomes as accessibility of the insured people to primary medical insurance,balance for the medical insurance fund,curbing of rapid rise of medical expenses,progress in the policy of first contact in the community health organization,promoting the development of the health system and raising satisfaction among the insured people year by year.%介绍了深圳市医疗保险的支付方式,概括为“总额控制、年初预付、方式多样、按月支付、年终总算、结余有奖”.通过加强付费总额控制、采用复合式支付方式、科学合理确定付费标准、建立完善监控体系等,深圳医保支付制度改革取得了明显的效果:参保人享受到基本医疗保障、医保基金收支平衡、医疗费用过快增长得到遏制、推进了“社区首诊制”、促进了医疗卫生事业发展以及参保人满意度逐年提高.

  13. 高净空场所洒水喷头动作性能的数值研究%Numerical study of actuation performance of sprinkler for protection of high ceiling clearance occupancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 李毅; 田立伟; 杨丙杰

    2012-01-01

    Nmerical study was applied to analyze full scale fire tests with high ceiling clearance. Development of fire plume field was analyzed. Under the condition of specific ceiling height, sprinkler system parameter and fire development, numerical calculation was carried out to research the actuation performance of the automatic sprinkler based on sprinkler thermal response theory. The results showed that; calculation value of convective heat release rate and sprinkler actuation time is basically in agreement with experiment value, which means calculation model is reasonable and reliable. But empirical constant need to be modified concerning about different fire models.%采用数学计算的方法对高净空场所实体火灾羽流流场进行定量分析.在确定空间高度、灭火系统参数以及火灾发展过程的条件下,基于喷头热响应性能理论,通过数值计算研究高净空场所自动喷水灭火系统第一只喷头的动作性能.结果表明:流场对流热释放速率和喷头动作时间的计算值与试验值基本一致,计算模型合理可靠,但针对不同火灾模型计算模型中的经验参数仍有待进一步修正.

  14. 中国存款准备金率理论上限测算及应用研究——基于货币政策使用空间的视角%The Measurement and Practical Research of the Theoretical Ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios of China: From the Perspective of the Space for Monetary Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高谦; 何蓉

    2012-01-01

    在货币紧缩过程中,使用准备金率工具关键在于把握好尺度,降低政策超调风险,为此必须研究存款准备金率上限。本文依据国民经济收入流量循环模型,在分析货币经济中“漏出”问题解决方式和货币控制的基础上,以存款准备金率来统一度量货币政策空间,建立起一个分析框架,得出一个基于宏观调控考虑的、用以衡量货币政策空间的存款准备金率理论上限公式,测算了1993年以来各年的上限值,并结合货币政策使用力度进行实证研究。研究结论为,存款准备金率理论上限客观存在,在引入菲利普斯曲线之后,发现在经济处于不同状态、各种因素持续变动时,准备金率理论上限是动态变化的。对准备金率理论上限与货币政策力度的格兰杰因果关系检验表明,从宏观调控层面看,准备金率理论上限能够为货币当局把握政策方向和政策力度提供数量化依据,从而可以降低“超调”、“硬着陆”的风险。%In the period of monetary tightening, the key in using the tool of Reserve Requirement Ratios is to grasp a proper scale so as to reduce the risk of overshooting. Hence, it is essential to study the ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. On the basis of Circular Flow of Income Model of national economy, this paper analyses the solutions of the withdraw and monetary control in monetary economy, which lay the foundation for this paper' s theoretical framework, where Reserve Requirement Ratios is used as the uniform measure of the space for monetary policy. This theoretical framework gets a formula to calculate the theoretical ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. The formula takes macroeconomic controls into consideration and can be used to measure the space for monetary policy. The ceilings of Reserve Requirement Ratios since 1993 are clear according to this formula. Empirical research on the ceilings, combining

  15. Heat transfer characteristics of concrete radiant heating ceiling in winter%冬季供暖工况下混凝土辐射顶板传热特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬; 李念平; 孙亚芬; 苏林; 张絮涵

    2016-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model was established to calculate the heating transfer capacity through MATLAB program.Compared with the results of thermal performance test,the mathematical model was reasonable with a maximum error less than 5.15%.According to the results of model and experiment,in the constant flow condition, heating capacity of the ceiling increases as the temperature increases, meanwhile heating capacity decreases as the heat exchange coil spacing increases.%针对冬季供暖工况下混凝土辐射顶板的传热问题,建立顶板辐射供暖的简化数学模型,利用MATLAB软件计算其供热量,并通过该顶板辐射供暖的热工特性实验验证模型的合理性。研究表明:顶板温度计算值与实验结果的误差在5.01%以内,供热量计算值与实验结果的误差在5.15%左右。通过对实验和计算结果的分析发现:在定流量稳态工况下,顶板温度随供水温度的增大呈指数性增大,随换热盘管间距的增大而减小。

  16. 两种慈竹装饰天花板的设计与制造%Design and manufacturing technology of two kinds of bamboo decorative ceiling of Sinocalamus affinis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文金; 姚文亮; 陈新义; 郝睿敏

    2013-01-01

    Based on the scale feature of Sinocalamus affinis,all of the possible dissection units such as bamboo-culm,bamboo-chip,bamboo-split and bamboo filament and their morphological characteristics had been researched.According to the pattern construction theory of plasticism,the combining methods and their feature of single and assembly unit of the bamboo wood had been discussed.The strategic design ideas were put forward.The products having three dimensional structure feature are shaped by using bamboo-culm,and the other bamboo units more fit to used to shape products having plane composition feature.On the basis of requirements for application of interior design,two bamboo ceiling products that have standardized characteristics and with special transmiting light effect were designed,and their manufacturing technology had been introduced.%依据慈竹的尺度特征,分析了慈竹利用过程中可能的原竹、竹片、竹篾、竹丝等解剖单元,并分析各单元的基本形态特征.依据造型学中的形态构成原理,分析慈竹解剖单元间可能的组合形式及其组合形态特征.提出了原竹利用适合塑造具有体构成特点的制品,竹片、竹篾和竹丝组合利用适合塑造具有面构成特点的制品的设计观点.在分析室内装饰应用要求的基础上,设计了具有标准化特征的和具有特殊透光效果的两种吊顶装饰板,并介绍了它们的制造方法.

  17. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitulete Andrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: their transformation into the most dynamic factor and, in this context, the more and more active presence of women in management positions in SMEs. In Romania, The National Agency for SMEs has implemented for the first time a promotion program for entrepreneurship among women managers of the SMEs sector. The program enjoyed a great success and resulted in a big impact in the business community. The program stimulates the growth of women entrepreneur within the business community, the development of the skill and entrepreneur spirit among women and efficient use of the human capital formed by potential women entrepreneur, improving the economical performances of existing enterprises, led by women through the growth of the training of their employees. Other aims are equal access to the knowledge based economy, experience sharing among business women, establishing partnerships and encouraging the will to represent personal interests in the civil society.

  18. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  19. Harvard and the Academic Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Drew Gilpin Faust was recently appointed president of Harvard University, and is the first female to hold the position. Women now lead half of the eight institutions that make up the Ivy League. But focusing on highly accomplished women such as Faust misses a larger point. Women may be taking faculty positions in record numbers, but most of those…

  20. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING - FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ghitulete Andrada; Muscalu Emanoil; Todericiu Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: ...

  1. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-01-01

    The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several auth...

  2. Research on ceiling-based visual location method of mobile robot%基于天花板的移动机器人视觉定位方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹莹; 谢明; 王德明; 梅磊; 邓歆

    2016-01-01

    为了实现室内移动机器人的自定位,考虑到室内的复杂程度和环境特色,设计一种基于单目视觉的移动机器人定位系统。机器人在室内带有天花板路标信息的环境下,以颜色和形状结合的路标作为特征,通过机器人头顶与天花板垂直的摄像机,运用彩色图像分割轮廓矩匹配的方法识别路标,解析路标携带的世界坐标信息,从而计算出机器人的全局位置和航向角。该方法大大提高了图像处理和特征提取的速度,通过实验验证,其满足定位系统的实时性和鲁棒性要求。%In order to realize the self⁃location of the indoor mobile robot,a mobile robot location system based on monocu⁃lar vision was designed in consideration of the indoor complexity and environment feature. The landmark combining color and shape is taken as the robot feature in the indoor environment with the ceiling landmark information. The color image segmenta⁃tion and contour matching method is used to recognize the landmark by means of the camera whose head is vertical to the cei⁃ling,so as to analyze the world coordinate information of the landmark,and calculate the global position and azimuth angle of the robot. This method can improve the speed of image processing and feature extraction greatly. The experimental results show this method can satisfy the requirements of system real⁃time performance and robustness.

  3. Device for radiological shielding of wall and ceiling penetrations through which cables or pipes are taken, elastically supported and connected to a shielding body. Vorrichtung einer radiologischen Abschirmung von Wand- und Deckendurchbruechen, durch die Kabel oder Rohre elastisch gelagert und mit einem Abschirmkoerper verbunden gefuehrt sind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, E.

    1984-09-06

    The shielding body is made as a plate-shaped section from an elastic support material such as polyurethane, silicone rubber etc. and has lead balls in it. Fins are formed on one flat side of the plate-shaped section which are parallel to each other and at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the section, which also contain lead balls. The section is wound around the cable taken through the wall or ceiling penetrations in such a way that the fins are turned towards the cable or pipe and are arranged spirally around it.

  4. 用于外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚补充节能的轻质石膏砂浆%Lightweight gypsum plaster used on exterior wall, party wall and ceiling for additional energy conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蓓红; 施嘉霖; 谈晓青; 曹禹

    2011-01-01

    轻质石膏砂浆作为粉刷石膏的一个新品种,主要用于墙面的找平层,同时对外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚具有补充节能的作用.配制时宜选择表面玻化率高、密度小的玻化微珠作为轻骨料,其掺量为石膏量的20%~35%;当采用膨胀珍珠岩作为轻骨料时,其掺量为石膏量的15%~25%;纤维素醚掺量一般为石膏量的0.2%~0.4%;引气剂的掺量为粉料总量的0.6%~1.2%.按m(石膏):m(玻化微珠):m(纤维素醚):m(引气剂):m (SC缓凝剂)=770.0:215.0:4.1:5.0:2.3制备的轻质石膏砂浆导热系数为0.12 W/(m·K),通过计算,采用20 mm厚轻质石膏砂浆代替传统水泥砂浆,对200 mm厚混凝土隔墙进行双面抹灰后,保温效果提高38%.%As a new species of plaster, lightweight gypsum plaster is mainly used for wall leveling layer,meanwhile it has additional energy conservation effect when applied on the inside surface of external wall,party wall and ceiling. During preparation,glass beads with high surface vitrify rate and low density are selected as lightweight aggregate,and its dosage is 20%~35% of the gypsum amount;when expanded perlite is as lightweight aggregate,its dosage is 15%~25% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of cellulose ether is generally 0.22%~0.4% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of air-entraining agent (AEA) is 0.6%~1.2% of the total powder quantity. When m (gypsum) ∶m (glass beads) ∶m (cellulose ethers) ∶m (AEA) ∶m (SC retarder) =770.0∶215.0∶4.1∶5,0∶2.3, the prepared lightweight gypsum plaster has thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/(m·K). The calculation results show that the insulating effect will be increased by 38% if 20 mm-thick this type of plaster instead of the ordinary cement mortar is applied on both sides of the 200 mm-thick concrete wall.

  5. "No Ceiling on Achievement": Breaking the Glass Ceiling or Hitting a Steel Plate in Urban Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Ben; Melia, Victoria; Bergan, Dave; Whitby, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article, written by a team of research-active teachers who are also senior leaders in a large, urban, comprehensive high school in the North of England, reports on their joint teacher inquiry project. This work has school-wide significance, given recent history, progressing from being graded as a "failing" school by the Office for…

  6. Analysis of Expression Patterns of Key Genes During the Pig(Sus scrofa)Mature Adipocyte Dedifferentiation Based on a Novel Ceiling Culture Model%基于一种新的天花板培养方法分析猪成熟脂肪细胞去分化过程中关键基因表达模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋子仪; 史新娥; 杨浩; 高倩; 赵丽丽; 杨公社

    2013-01-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to a more primitive phenotype and gain cell proliferative ability. We refer to these cells as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Because of those cells possessing multilineage differentiation potential, dedifferentiation has become a significant research topic in recent years. Here we firstly isolated pig mature adipocytes and indentified them by GENMED staining.Then, in order to clarify the mechanism of mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, a novel ceiling culture model was developed and the mRNA expression of marker genes during dedifferentiation couse was analysized using Real-time PCR. Finally, we assessed the effect of 1 μmol/L rosiglitazone on mature adipocyte dedifferentiation. The results showed that 98.7% of isolated cells were mononuclear mature adipocytes and these adipocytes could efficiently dedifferentiate into DFAT cells under a novel ceiling culture model. During the course of dedifferentiation, the mRNA levels of adipogenic marker peroxisome proliferator activated receptor y (PPARy), adipocyte- type fatty acid- binding protein (aP2) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were up- regulated by 8, 3 and 7.5 folds, respectively. While the lipolytic marker hormone- sensitive lipase (HSL) and Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) were increased about 40 and 10 folds in mRNA level, respectively. In addition, the dedifferentiation was remarkably suppressed by treatment with 1 μmol/mL rosiglitazone. These results indicate that it is mainly a lipolytic course companying with little ability of adipogenesis that mature adipocytes dedifferentiate into DFAT cells, and this will provide new theoretical reference for future research.%成熟脂肪细胞在天花板培养(ceiling culture)条件下可自发去分化为不含脂滴的成纤维细胞(dedifferentiated fat cell,DFAT),这种细胞体外可向多个谱系分化,因此近年

  7. The optimal radiation protective protocol of ceiling-suspended lead shield for interventional radiolo-gists:a phantom study%悬吊防护屏对介入医师最佳防护方案的体模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子满; 黄美萍; 罗纯; 黄斯凡; 谈文开; 刘勇东; 胡天宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the radiation protective efficacy of different types and the positions of ceiling-suspended lead shield to the principal and assistant interventional operators in order to provide a scientific basis for the selection of optimal scheme in using ceiling-suspended lead shield. Methods At the principal and assistant interventional operators’ standing places the personal dose-measuring instruments were set up, which were placed at the height of 20 cm to 180 cm above the ground with an interval distance of 20 cm between each other. The postero-anterior (PA) projection and left lateral projection were used. The ceiling-suspended protection lead shields included lead glass (glass type) and lead glass with connected lead flexible stripe below (mixed type). The placed sites of the protection lead-shields were close to the principal operator, away from the principal operator, on the left side of the principal operator and close to the X-ray tube respectively. The radiation doses of PA projection and left lateral projection were determined. The real-time radiation dose rate and dose shielding rate at the nine measuring positions for the principal operator and assistant operator were separately calculated. The results were analyzed. Results The radiation protection of the glass type was slightly superior to that of the mixed type , but the difference was not significant. The principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned close to him in the PA projection , and for left lateral projection the principal operator was best protected when the shield was positioned on his left side. For the assistant operator, the optimal protection was obtained when the shield was positioned close to him in both PA and left lateral projection . In the optimal position of ceiling-suspended lead shield , the highest radiation dose rate (0.71 mSv/h in glass group and 1.07 mSv/h in mixed group) was recorded on the principal operator at the height of 120 cm

  8. 悬吊防护屏对介入医师最佳防护方案的体模研究%The optimal radiation protective protocol of ceiling-suspended lead shield for interventional radiolo-gists:a phantom study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈子满; 黄美萍; 罗纯; 黄斯凡; 谈文开; 刘勇东; 胡天宇

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨悬吊防护屏规格及摆放位置对介入手术中第一及第二术者辐射防护效果,为选择悬吊防护屏最佳辐射防护方案提供科学依据。方法在第一及第二术者站位,从地面20 cm至180 cm处,每隔20 cm放置一个个人计量仪。投照体位选择正位与左侧位。悬吊防护屏为铅玻璃(简称玻璃式)与铅玻璃下接铅橡胶皮(简称混搭式)两种。防护屏摆位分别为靠近术者、远离术者、在术者左侧及贴近球管4种。测量2种投照体位下,不同防护屏规格与摆位在第一及第二术者位9个高度的实时辐射剂量率,计算剂量屏蔽率。结果两种防护屏防护效果接近,以玻璃式略优。对于第一术者,正位投照时以近术者摆位的防护效果最佳,侧位投照则以术者左侧摆位的防护效果最好;对于第二术者,正及侧位投照均以近术者摆位防护效果最优。在最佳摆位情况下:正位投照时第一术者在120 cm高度、侧位投照时第一及第二术者各高度仍可检测到较高的辐射剂量率;第一与第二术者总体接受的辐射剂量接近;第一术者的剂量屏蔽率除正位120 cm高度稍低(玻璃式为60.11%,混搭式为39.89%)外,其余各点均高达93%以上,第二术者剂量屏蔽率为57%~97%;侧位屏蔽率整体略高于正位屏蔽率。结论两种防护屏防护效果接近,均能取得较好的防护效果,但正位投照时第一术者的120 cm高度及侧位投照时2位术者的各高度辐射剂量率仍相对较高,需加强对120 cm高度的辐射防护,并尽量少用侧位投照。%Objective To evaluate the radiation protective efficacy of different types and the positions of ceiling-suspended lead shield to the principal and assistant interventional operators in order to provide a scientific basis for the selection of optimal scheme in using ceiling-suspended lead shield.Methods At the principal and assistant

  9. Key players must help shatter the glass ceiling, say experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, P

    1991-10-01

    Women are continuing to move up through the management pipeline in hospitals across the country; but is top management prepared? Although many women are aiming for the highest levels in management, a recent survey of female and male health care executives indicates that critical changes must be made by top management and boards of hospitals before those women can continue to advance accordingly. Meanwhile, women's experience as senior executives has been quite different from men's, the survey also shows.

  10. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  11. Oral Comprehension Sets the Ceiling on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    To succeed at reading, children must be able to identify or "read" printed words and understand the story or text composed of those words. For many children, increasing reading and school success will involve increasing oral language competence in the elementary years. Lack of appropriate vocabulary knowledge can result in academic failure. (SM)

  12. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess if there were any perceptual differences between gender groups regarding employment equity practices. A sample of 4729 participants from different companies and industries completed the Employment Equity Questionnaire. Results from an ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but only a small portion of the variance was explained by perceptual differences on employment equity practices. The instrument thus possesses some discriminant validity. Further analyses on an item level indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but these differences were not attributable to gender stereotypes. Specific employment equity practices were identified that need closer attention from management’s side to address gender discrimination. OpsommingDie primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  13. Female Principals in Education: Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.

  14. Will women ever break the glass ceiling in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Edgar

    2008-07-01

    Increased attention is being paid to women's working conditions in medicine. Few data are available regarding gender disparity in gastroenterology. It seems, however, that in general women are paid less than men and that their progress in academic practice tends to be slow. The GI community needs to recognize that gender disparity is not an imaginary issue and that action is necessary to attract women to gastroenterology by providing equal opportunities.

  15. The glass ceiling in academe: health administration is no exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoskopf, C H; Xirasagar, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews gender issues in academe and presents findings of a limited survey of ACEHSA-accredited health administration graduate programs. The survey shows gender ratios adverse to women at the full, associate, and assistant professor levels. Men to women ratio among faculty was 1.98, among full-time faculty it was 2.24, and among tenured/tenure-track faculty it was 2.69, despite an excess of female students over male students in graduate programs, and despite equal proportions of women and men faculty holding doctoral degrees. Distribution by rank showed 48.5 percent full professors, 27.8 percent associate professors, and, 20.1 percent assistant professors among men, vs. 27.4 percent, 41.1 percent, and 31.5 percent respectively among women. In other academic fields similar gender ratios prevail, and many researchers have documented evidence of continuing gender inequities in tenure, promotion and salary, given comparable performance, despite the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Gender disparities are rooted in a complex web of gender-specific constraints interwoven with secular human capital and structural variables, and confounded by sexist discriminatory factors. In light of these issues, recommendations are made toward creating an equitable academic climate without compromising the ideal of meritocracy, through gender-sensitive initiatives and vigilance mechanisms to bring policies to fruition.

  16. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.

  17. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  18. The Cracked Glass Ceiling: Equal Work but Unequal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of gender equity in universities continues to warrant attention. Globally, universities have much work ahead of them if they are to redress the gender imbalance in senior positions and remuneration rates. To examine this issue, multiple sources of evidence were used to observe teaching and research workload of academic staff…

  19. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  20. Circumventing the Imposed Ceiling: Art Education as Resistance Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolling, James Haywood, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article stems from a story of arts education advocacy in the midst of a bureaucracy that misunderstood the purpose of art education at the launch of a new elementary school. Contemporary visual arts education practices overlap a unique period of change in neighboring social science disciplines, a turn of the tide that involves the embrace of…

  1. 46 CFR 391.2 - Ceiling on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fishing vessels, charters for commercial fishing, and insurance or indemnity net proceeds relating to the loss of income attributable to such agreement vessels. (c) Revenues from the rental lease, or use by... agreement vessel. (4) Net operating and capital loss deductions. The taxable income of a party...

  2. 26 CFR 3.2 - Ceiling on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fishing vessels, charters for commercial fishing, and insurance or indemnity net proceeds relating to the loss of income attributable to such agreement vessels. (c) Revenues from the rental, lease, or use by... agreement vessel. (4) Net operating and capital loss deductions. The taxable income of a party...

  3. 9 CFR 354.222 - Floors, walls, ceilings, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Buildings and Plant... prepared or handled shall be constructed of or finished with materials impervious to moisture, so they can... prepared or handled shall be smooth and constructed of materials impervious to moisture to a height of...

  4. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  5. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling Book cover Career, Daily Life, and Partnership: Structures and Implications of the Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.This book illuminates the structural and external factors confronting women in executive positions and examines their living conditions in comparison to their male colleagues. The book sketches concepts for political change with respect to the continuing differences that have been documented as harming women.

  6. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the articles defining th

  7. Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations by Propoxur in Mouse Bone Marrow Ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. C. AGRAWAL

    1999-01-01

    Propoxur is a widely used dithiocarbamate insecticide. In this study, the clastogenic effect of propoxur has been evaluated using chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow cells. Singlei. p. administration of propoxur, at 25 nag/kg b.wt., a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and 12.5mg/kg b.wt (50% of MTD) have significantly induced different types of aberrations after 24 h of treatment. The aberrations were dose and time dependent and reached a maximum after 24 h of exposure. The sresult suggest a genotoxic potential of propoxur.

  8. The Performance of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and other Room Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jakubowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses different room air distribution systems, and describes a design chart which can be used for the evaluation of variables as air quality, air velocity and temperature gradient as a function of flow rate and temperature difference in the supply system. The design chart can also be...

  9. Field Marshal William J. Slim: The Great General and the Breaking of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-12

    As these operations progressed, a sea and airborne assault (code name ’ DRACULA ’) to seize Rangoon some time before the 1945 monsoon, i.e. about...operations. CAPITAL and DRACULA were chosen mostly because they could be supported with the resources on hand. Mountbatten sought to press the Japanese...reaction to Leese’s overbearing ways. Leese’s next incident was with Mountbatten. As originally intended, Operation DRACULA was the plan for the amphibious

  10. Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bossoreille de Ribou, Stève; Douam, Florian; Hamant, Olivier; Frohlich, Michael W; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2013-09-01

    Trends in conventional plant breeding and in biotechnology research are analyzed with a focus on production and productivity of individual organisms. Our growing understanding of the productive/adaptive potential of (crop) plants is a prerequisite to increasing this potential and also its expression under environmental constraints. This review concentrates on growth rate, ribosome activity, and photosynthetic rate to link these key cellular processes to plant productivity. Examples of how they may be integrated in heterosis, organ growth control, and responses to abiotic stresses are presented. The yield components in rice are presented as a model. The ultimate goal of research programs, that concentrate on yield and productivity and integrating the panoply of systems biology tools, is to achieve "low input, high output" agriculture, i.e. shifting from a conventional "productivist" agriculture to an efficient sustainable agriculture. This is of critical, strategic importance, because the extent to which we, both locally and globally, secure and manage the long-term productive potential of plant resources will determine the future of humanity.

  11. Indoor Environmental Quality Audit and Investigation of Ceiling Fans in an Aged Care Facility

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis project involved research into the thermal comfort of the occupants and staff at the Warrigal aged care facility at Warilla, NSW, Australia. An Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Audit has been completed with a focus on parameters of luminance, noise levels, concentrations of CO2, NO2, formaldehyde and CO, and air velocity. An extensive investigation of the distribution of indoor air temperature and relative humidity has been performed. Small sensors called ‘iButtons’ were install...

  12. The problem of noise in weaving mills. [considering sound absorbing ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, T.; Harastaseanu, E.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    In weaving mill departments equipped with shuttle looms there exists a high noise level that has a noxious effect on the human organism, a fact which affects a very great number of employees and has negative repercussions on productivity. Measurements were conducted in different weaving mills to determine the noise level as well as the influence of some factors that depend on the type of construction, the type, number and manner of operation of the looms, etc. Solutions for noise reduction were established that were applied experimentally in some weaving mills, and the results obtained are discussed.

  13. Prediction of Indoor Airflow Patterns in Livestock Buildings Ventilated through a Diffuse Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Morsing, S.

    2004-01-01

    The airflow conditions in an experimental pig housing unit are examined both experimentally and numerically (simulation) with particular focus on the airflow conditions in the occupational zone of the animals. Two heating setups are used, and the temperature is measured in a horizontal profile at...

  14. A SysML Test Model and Test Suite for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe;

    2014-01-01

    System specification. The model is provided in SysML, and it is equipped with a formal semantics that is consistent with the (semi formal) SysML standard published by the Object Management Group (OMG). The model and its description are publicly available on http://www.mbt-benchmarks.de, a website...

  15. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  16. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rate-of-increase percentage. The update factor is the value by which a hospital's target amount for the... section, each hospital or unit under present or previous ownership that received payment under section... change in accounting cycle, as specified in § 413.24(f)(3). (c) Costs subject to the...

  17. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health.

  18. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women's Career Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people's perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find meaning in their work and have a sense of control over their lives. Overall, common workplace challenges included a lack of social capital and limited degrees of freedom. Implications for organizational policy and future research are discussed.

  19. Blank Canvas and Glass Ceiling: Using Visual Metaphors and Narratives to Examine Preservice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Colette; Meixner, Emily

    2015-01-01

    When preparing college-age teacher candidates to teach in diverse contexts, knowing how they reconcile knowledge, self-author, and negotiate social relationships can enhance pedagogy and inform program design. In this article, the authors use a developmental framework they created to examine how teacher candidates' visual metaphors about White…

  20. Why Is There a Glass Ceiling for Threading Based Protein Structure Prediction Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Zhou, Hongyi

    2016-10-26

    Despite their different implementations, comparison of the best threading approaches to the prediction of evolutionary distant protein structures reveals that they tend to succeed or fail on the same protein targets. This is true despite the fact that the structural template library has good templates for all cases. Thus, a key question is why are certain protein structures threadable while others are not. Comparison with threading results on a set of artificial sequences selected for stability further argues that the failure of threading is due to the nature of the protein structures themselves. Using a new contact map based alignment algorithm, we demonstrate that certain folds are highly degenerate in that they can have very similar coarse grained fractions of native contacts aligned and yet differ significantly from the native structure. For threadable proteins, this is not the case. Thus, contemporary threading approaches appear to have reached a plateau, and new approaches to structure prediction are required.

  1. Management of organizational communication in The Netherlands: glass ceiling and encroachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; de Lange, R.; Schorr, A.; Campbell, W.; Schenk, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the practical and theoretical literature a new field is apparently emerging, focusing on the co-ordination and steering of all marketing communications, public relations, and internal communications at a strategic level known as Management of (Organizational/Corporate) Communication. These variou

  2. Some Take the Glass Escalator, Some Hit the Glass Ceiling? Career Consequences of Occupational Sex Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Mia

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Swedish longitudinal data (1,535 men, 1,584 women) showed that men in female-dominated occupations have substantially better internal promotion opportunities than equally qualified women. In male-dominated occupations, men and women have equal internal promotion chances. Results suggest a "glass escalator" advantage for men…

  3. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities.

  4. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  5. The glass ceiling is not fragile: A response to Odum (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, F K; Swindell, S

    2001-01-01

    Odum (2000) criticized our recent conclusions about the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior (McSweeney & Swindell, 1998). We address her criticisms here. We argue against the need for statistical tests. We show that our conclusions still apply to all journals except the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior even when we include the senior editorial staff along with members of the editorial board. We argue that the data that Odum provides to show gender equity are limited, inconsistent with past findings, and hard to interpret in the absence of other data. Finally, we argue that Odum failed to address our most convincing argument for gender inequity and misinterpreted our suggestions for improvements.

  6. Reflections on the glass ceiling: women in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, A L

    2000-01-01

    McSweeney and Swindell (1998) sought to determine whether men and women are treated equitably in the experimental analysis of behavior. They purported to show that women participate less in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior than in similar journals and that the participation of women decreases with increases in selectivity. Their data were difficult to interpret, however, because they did not present the variability in the mean data drawn from different individuals over time. My analyses were not in accord with their conclusions. When the percentage of associate editors who are women was considered along with the mean percentages McSweeney and Swindell reported for other measures, participation did not systematically decrease with increases in selectivity in recent years. As quantified in terms of their number of publications in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, women who were editorial board members and associate editors were not more highly selected than their male counterparts. Finally, in the recent period from 1996 to 1998, although women submitted fewer manuscripts to the journal, rejection ratios did not differ for men and women. Efforts to increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior may best be directed toward recruitment and retention rather than some of the suggestions proposed by McSweeney and Swindell (1998), which could inadvertently create different standards for women's work.

  7. Is the "glass ceiling" a real problem for women physicists in Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechero, Marisa A.; Amador, Ana; Pastor, Antonio J. Ramirez; Tamarit, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the distribution of female physicists in the Argentinean workforce, analyzing the distribution of women at different levels of education and research using several indicators. Although important imbalances still occur, our findings are encouraging and the distribution of female physicists seems to be changing for the better.

  8. Reel Royal Diversity? The Glass Ceiling in Disney’s Mulan and Princess and the Frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dundes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in Mulan and Princess and the Frog, Disney eschews a traditional fairytale ending involving palatial opulence by substituting an alternative narrative for women of color. Mulan disguises herself as a male soldier in order to serve in her father’s place. After sharing victory with male companions, she willingly returns home to domesticity and the confines imposed by her gender. Tiana spends two thirds of the movie as a frog, substantially limiting her on-screen time as an African American female. Like Mulan, she is driven to please her father. She fulfills his dream of owning a high-end restaurant, ironically named Tiana’s Palace, the closest she comes to a royal lifestyle. Although protagonists with more realistic lives could potentially enhance viewers’ connection with them and model a work ethic or commitment to home life, the standard and more financially successful Disney narrative immerses viewers in a fantasy world of endless prospects including a life of royalty. These nonwhite heroines instead display a willingness to settle for more modest aspirations in stories replete with stereotypical gender and race-bound tropes. This divergent narrative suggests that protagonists of color are not entitled to a life of leisure and privilege that white Disney princesses enjoy.

  9. Smesh the Glass Ceiling%冲破玻璃天花板

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊杰

    2002-01-01

    @@ 新近发生的一件事情让人们又关注起"玻璃天花板".今年10月份,美国友邦保险中国大陆的公司新总裁上任前后,包括本土人才中级别最高的助理副总裁在内的几位本土的中高层相继离去.

  10. Overcoming the glass ceiling: views from the cellar and the roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Women's experiences as professionals and behavior therapists have changed considerably in the past 40 years. The author describes early challenges and experiences of discrimination as a young female professional. Although women's opportunities have improved considerably, women still experience unique career challenges and choices. The author provides some suggestions for women's career development.

  11. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  12. Hitting our Heads on the Glass Ceiling: Women and Leadership in Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins by describing the present situation at the madrasah level in areas that participate in LAPIS-ELOIS activities and identifies the personal, cultural, and religious factors that contribute to women's under-representation in leadership and decision-making roles. Women's participation in leadership and decision making in Islamic universities involved in LAPIS-PGMI is discussed using data from consortium institutions. The range of factors contributing to the imbalance are discussed before turning to the policy issues that continue to contribute to gender disparity in leadership and decision making. The paper concludes by identifying some directions for action.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v17i2.460

  13. To shatter the glass ceiling in healthcare management: who supports affirmative action and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Peter A; Mattis, Mary C

    2003-11-01

    We examined the findings of a recent national survey of healthcare executives that showed 90% of women but only 53% of men favoured efforts to increase the proportion of women in senior healthcare management positions. Using the theories of relative deprivation and social identity, we tested hypotheses to suggest the background, work characteristics and attitudes about existing discriminatory practices in their own organizations that correlate with respondents' views about affirmative action for women. Some support is evidenced for the two theories and explanations are suggested to account for apparent anomalies.

  14. Validation of a numerical model of acoustic ceiling combined with TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally-Active Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient and economical cooling and heating solution for commercial buildings. However, acoustic comfort is often jeopardized in such buildings, due to the thermal requirements of the system. More knowledge is required to under...

  15. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca;

    for the solar and the PCM loops, for five days each. The highest examined water flow rate (210 l/h) in the PCM loop provided the best thermal environment in the climate chamber, namely 92% of the occupancy time was within the range of Category III of Standard EN 15251. Although the lowest examined water flow...... rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate....... The percentage of electrical energy use that could be covered from the PV/Ts on site was 71.5% for Case 1, 68.3% for Case 2 and 86.8% for Case 3. In any case, the PV/T panels proved to be an efficient solution for the production of electrical energy, heated and chilled water....

  16. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  17. Latino Workers Hitting a Blue-Collar Ceiling. New Journalism on Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; McElmurry, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Chicago has a dynamic history of embracing change, evolving from an agricultural and commercial hub to the steel powerhouse that would undergird America's industrial revolution. The "City of Big Shoulders" now bears a sizeable burden, one that again requires it to embrace change. The metro area must shift to an economy built on knowledge…

  18. Clearance capacity of the atmosphere: the reason that the number of haze days reaches a ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Xu, Hua

    2016-04-01

    China has experienced rapid development in the past 30 years but, alongside and associated with this growth, increased levels of pollution too. However, despite the continued increase in emissions of haze-forming aerosols in the twenty-first century, the annual number of haze days in some megacities has not risen in tandem. Various mechanisms have been proposed for "city dimming", but the cause of the hiatus remains unclear. We found that the number of haze days in Taiyuan experienced a sharp increase during 1980-1998, with a growth rate 51.6 days/10a, and then exhibited fluctuating variation around a stable high level from 1998 to 2014, while at the same time the average visibility during haze days started to decrease. We present a novel method to explain the long-term variation in the number of haze days via a temporal-piecewise function of human activities and atmospheric cleaning processes: the number of haze days increases with the level of human activity before reaching the upper limit and then remains at a high level due to the restriction of a relatively stable number of strong cleaning days.

  19. The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark - glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    2011-01-01

    effects on the compensation and careers of all women, irrespective of whether they become mothers or not. Especially for those women aiming to reach the top of the organization, these effects may be important because potential career interruptions are expected to be more severe for this group. Originality...... compensation gap is larger than the raw gender compensation gap. We interpret this result as an indication that the very few females who reach top positions in private firms are a highly selected sample who on average deviates from their male colleagues with respect to unobserved factors as motivation...

  20. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-level managerial positions.

  1. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... and invite comments on the Framework Document regarding energy conservation standards for...

  2. Chipping Away at the Glass Ceiling: Gender Spillovers in Corporate Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Matsa, David A.; Amalia R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of women helping women in corporate America. Using a merged panel of directors and executives for large U.S. corporations between 1997 and 2009, the authors find a positive association between the female share of the board of directors in the previous year and the female share among current top executives. The relationship's timing suggests that causality runs from boards to managers and not the reverse. This pattern of women helping women at the highest levels of...

  3. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    , functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points...

  4. Evaluation of progress under the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Progress towards EU air quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report was to assess to what extent the NEC Directive's environmental and health objectives concerning acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone exposure for the year 2010 have been achieved. The main basis for the assessment is the emission inventory data officially reported by Member States. The analysis was conducted by using the same scientific methods of 2001 (original knowledge) and 2010 (present knowledge) that support European air pollution abatement policies. The original knowledge consisted of modelling concentrations and exposure using the older Lagrangian EMEP model (utilising a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of grid-average S and N depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, together with the 1998 European critical load database for assessing the risk of acidification and eutrophication). The assessment performed on the basis of present knowledge used the current Eulerian EMEP model on a 50 x 50 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of ecosystem-specific depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, in combination with the 2008 European critical loads database. When assessing progress using original knowledge, the NEC Directive's interim environmental acidification objective has been met in almost all grid cells, while the eutrophication objective - provided in a footnote within the NEC Directive and which was formulated on the European Union area as a whole - has been met both for the EU-15 and the EU-27 regions as a whole. If, in contrast, the eutrophication objective had been required to be met in individual grid cells (as for acidification) or in individual Member States, it would be exceeded in many grid cells and in 11 Member States. While acidification has been markedly reduced, eutrophication is now recognised as a major environmental problem in Europe, especially in the context of its potential adverse impacts on biodiversity. An assessment using present knowledge indicates that neither the acidification nor eutrophication objective have been met. The health- and vegetation-related interim environmental ozone objectives have been achieved using present knowledge, across most of the EU.27 area. For forests, however, the objective of no exceedance of the critical limit has been violated in most Member States. This analysis also shows that model results are more optimistic than the observations about the achieved reductions in ozone concentrations between 1990 and 2010. (LN)

  5. 45 CFR 1611.5 - Authorized exceptions to the annual income ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance to maintain benefits provided by a governmental program for low income individuals or families; or...) The applicant's income does not exceed 200% of the applicable Federal Poverty Guidelines amount and: (i) The applicant is seeking legal assistance to obtain governmental benefits for low...

  6. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings : towards an ecology of physiological restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative term

  7. Revisiting the Glass Ceiling: Career Progression for Women in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ho, Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of women who enter the hospitality industry, there are relatively few hotel general managers who are female. Why? An ongoing project is exploring this topic through interviews of female hotel managers. This article provides representative excerpts from a few of the early interviews in Boston, which provide some understanding about the attitudes of such women toward their professional environment.

  8. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... to the docket Web page can be found at: www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO... light kits in the CFR at 10 CFR 430.32(s). 70 FR 60407, 60413. An additional final rule technical... sockets other than medium-screw base or pin-based fluorescent lamps in the CFR. 72 FR 1270. In a...

  9. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women’s Career Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people’s perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find meaning in their work and have a sense of control over their lives. Overall, common workplace challenges included a lack of social capital and limited degrees of freedom. Implications for organizational policy and future research are discussed. PMID:28265251

  10. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.

    2016-01-01

    demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels....... Apart from cold water for space cooling, the installation was capable of providing domestic hot water from both types of panels and electricity from the PV/Ts. This system was simulated for the period from 1st of May until 30th of September, under the weather conditions of Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan...

  11. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Teija, Aho; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 degrees C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and disp...

  12. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  13. Performance of low pressure mechanical ventilation concept with diffuse ceiling inlet for renovation of school classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    In a great portion of Danish primary schools the mechanical ventilation systems is outdated or simply rely on opening of windows to ventilate the classrooms. This leads to high energy consumption for fans and/or ventilation heat losses and poor indoor environment, as the ventilation systems cannot...... provide a sufficient ventilation rate. A recent study with 750 Danish classrooms show that 56 % had CO2-concentrations over a 1000 ppm, which is the recommended limit by the Danish working environment authority and this adversely affects the performance and well being of the pupils. This paper describes...... a mechanical ventilation concept to lower energy consumption and improve the indoor environment, developed for refurbishment of school classrooms. The performance of the concept is investigated through computer simulations and measurements of energy consumption and indoor environment. The measurements are made...

  14. Mejora de las condiciones de habitabilidad y del cambio climático a partir de ecotechos extensivos. Estudio de caso: barrio La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Improving the housing conditions and climate change on the basis on extensive eco-ceilings. Case study: La Isla neighborhood, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Melhoramento das condições de habitabilidade e mudança climática a partir de ecotetos extensivos. Estudo de caso: Bairro La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Forero Cortés

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático generado por la expansión del área urbana incide en el aumento de temperatura por las propiedades térmicas de los materiales de construcción. La escasez de áreas verdes (que aumenta las superficies impermeables provoca desequilibrios climáticos que deterioran la calidad habitacional en el interior de la vivienda. En este sentido, este artículo se propone estimar y comparar la atenuación térmica y la captura de CO2 en viviendas de interés prioritario ubicadas en Altos de Cazucá, que utilizaron cultivos de hortalizas como ecotechos. El diseño experimental requirió desarrollos tecnológicos como un sistema de riego que optimiza el agua de precipitación y contenedores independientes para el sustrato y las plantas. Los cultivos están divididos en: 1 lechuga y rábano; 2 cebolla larga, cilantro y lechuga, y 3 espinaca y perejil.Se estudió también una vivienda testigo sin ecotecho. Luego, se cuantificaron las variables térmicas dentro de la vivienda y el carbono capturado. Los resultados son una atenuación térmica del techo (4 °C y del ambiente (3 °C, un aumento de la humedad relativa del 10% y un total de CO2capturado de 16,1 kg, 38,6 kg y 8,3 kg, anualmente. Climate change generated by the expansion of the urban area affects the temperature rise by the thermal properties of the materials of construction. The shortage of green areas (which increases impervious surfaces causes climatic imbalances that diminish quality within the housing. In this sense, this paper aims to estimate and compare the thermal attenuation and CO2 capture in priority interest housing located in Altos de Cazucá, who used eco ceilings as vegetable crops. The experimental design required technological developments such as an irrigation system that optimizes the rushing water and separate containers for the substrate and plants. Crops are divided into: 1 lettuce and radish, 2 green onions, coriander and lettuce, and 3 Spinach and parsley

  15. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    .2 m x 5.4 m x 3.1 m) equipped as an office with two workstations. One of the workstations (with a laptop) was by the window and the other in the opposite side of the room. Five heated radiant water panels were used to simulate direct solar gains from windows (404 W). Five electrical foils were used...

  16. Effects of Multiglycoside of Tripterygium Wilfordii (GTW) on Spermatogenic Ceils and Enzymatic Activities in Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 周孝瑚

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe consecutively the morphology of testis and epididymis and the changes of enzymatic activities of AKP, ACP, 3β-HSD and LDH-C4 in male rats treated with GTW 30 to 80 days. In addition, male antifertility effect and its possible reversibility were also observed. The results showed that GTW is a potential testicular toxicant in the animals. It can cause damage of the sperm cells with close relation to the treated time and dosage, Sloughing of sperm cells and many multinucleated giant cells in the seminiferous tubules were found on day 40 and 50 after the treatment. The tubules were hyperatrophic and the sperm cells were almost absent at the end of the study(80 days), No obvious morphological alteration was observed in the epididymal epithelial tissue, But changes of quality and number df the spermatozoa in epididymides were found prior to those of testes. Reduced number and abnormal cauda sperm were observed 30 days after the treatment, The ACP activity of Sertoli cells increased slightly, whereas the activities of ACP and LDH-C4 decreased gradually as the treated time prolonged. The 3β-HSD of Leydig cells was changed or subtle by m-phase or treatment and dramatically decreased at the end of treatment, The infertility caused by GTW was reversible 8 weeks after cessation of the treatment.

  17. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Collaborative Leadership Theory as a Model for Women in Theological Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions within business, politics, and higher education. The reality, however, is that while women make up slightly more than 50% of the population, we are under-represented in these institutions. There are fewer than 20 female CEOs of the…

  18. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  19. 击破市场化天花板%Breaking the Glass Ceiling of the Employment Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振山

    2009-01-01

    国务院总理温家宝在与网民进行在线文字与视频交流时表示:“无论是农民工就业,还是大学生就业.以及城镇零就业家庭就业,都时刻摆在我心里。因为我认为就业不仅关系一个人的生计.而且关系一个人的尊严。”

  20. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  1. Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Recent Experimental Approaches to Probe the Properties of Supercooled Liquids near the Glass Transition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

    2012-03-15

    Experimental measurements of the properties supercooled liquids at temperatures near their respective glass transition temperatures, Tg, are requisite for understanding the behavior of glasses and amorphous solids. Unfortunately, many supercooled molecular liquids rapidly crystallize at temperatures far above their Tg making such measurements difficult to nearly impossible. In this perspective we discuss some recent alternative approaches to obtain experimental data in the temperature regime near Tg. These new approaches may yield the additional experimental data necessary to test current theoretical models of the dynamical slowdown that occurs in supercooled liquids approaching the glass transition.

  2. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

  3. Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. Shattering Expectations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Typically, achievement gaps between groups of students are measured as either differences in average scores or differences in proficiency rates. But, practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have long recognized that these approaches don't tell the whole story. Average scores, for example, are good at summarizing trends but can mask real…

  4. Job show:who is born glass ceiling?%工作秀:谁为"天花板"而生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹铭

    2002-01-01

    @@ "最好不要显露你是多才多艺的."这是供职于某外资银行的李芳小姐给新来的师妹的忠告.由于业务部门人才济济,机会大都给了男性.她只能看着领导随手把项目方案交给已经很忙的男同事来做,而自己只有在信用证上闲闲地填着格子.

  5. Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Recent Experimental Approaches to Probe the Properties of Supercooled Liquids near the Glass Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2012-03-15

    Experimental measurements of the properties of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their glass transition temperatures, Tg, are requisite for understanding the behavior of glasses and amorphous solids. Unfortunately, many supercooled molecular liquids rapidly crystallize at temperatures far above their Tg, making such measurements difficult to nearly impossible. In this Perspective, we discuss some recent alternative approaches to obtain experimental data in the temperature regime near Tg. These new approaches may yield the additional experimental data necessary to test current theoretical models of the dynamical slowdown that occurs in supercooled liquids approaching the glass transition.

  6. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling; L'europe et le petrole: attention au plafond de verre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, B. [ASPO France et de SLC France (France)

    2011-01-15

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  7. Improved outcomes for newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis over the years 2000-2014: cracking the glass ceiling of early death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, Eli; Gertz, Morie A; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Buadi, Francis K; Grogan, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Fonder, Amie; Hobbs, Miriam; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Gonsalves, Wilson; Warsame, Rahma; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Go, Ronald S; Zeldenrust, Steven; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2017-01-26

    In light of major advances, we evaluated the trends in presentation, management and outcome among 1551 newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients seen in our institution from 2000-2014. As compared to the two intervals 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, patients diagnosed in 2010-2014 were less likely to have >2 involved organs. Utilization of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was similar across all periods, about one-third of patients, but there was an increase in the use of pre-ASCT bortezomib induction and of unattenuated melphalan conditioning in 2010-2014 compared to earlier periods. Non-ASCT first-line regimen changed with 65% of patients in 2010-2014 received bortezomib-based therapy, 79% of patients in 2005-2009 received melphalan-dexamethasone and 64% of patients in 2000-2004 received melphalan-prednisone. The rate of ≥VGPR was higher in more recent periods (66% vs 58% vs 51%, P=0.001), a change largely driven by improved VGPR rates in the non-ASCT population. Overall survival (OS) has improved, with inflection points for improvement differing for the ASCT and non-ASCT groups. In the ASCT population, the greatest gains were after 2010 (4-year OS 91% compared to 73% and 65%). In the non-ASCT group, greatest gains were after 2005 (4-year OS 38%, 32%, and 16%). Fewer patients died within 6 months of diagnosis in the two later periods (24% vs 25% vs 37%; P<0.001). Overall, outcomes among patients with AL amyloidosis have improved with earlier diagnosis, higher rates of VGPR, lower early mortality and improved OS.

  8. Through the Glass Ceiling? Influences on and Challenges Faced by Female Partners in Big-4 Accounting Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Niamh; Millar, Claire

    2014-01-01

    What are the personal factors that affect female partners in Big-4 accounting firms? That was the question explored last summer in a series of semi-structured interviews with eight female partners at Ireland’s Big-4 firms. Interviews took place in June, July and August 2013.

  9. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  10. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.

    1992-12-31

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  11. Emergency Cabin Lighting Installations: An Analysis of Ceiling-versus Lower Cabin-Mounted Lighting during Evacuation Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    A, Technical Report Documentation Page 1. Report No. 2 Government Accessron No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. FAA-AM-81- Il.. .e,. 4. Title and...near floor level prvide.s fassorkler twareness, exit location information, and cabin illuminati , n Fot a ]onc;,.r letiod of time than ceilirig or

  12. Maxillary Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery with Autogenous Bone Grafts as Ceiling : A Pilot Study and Test of Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Telleman, Gerdien; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies have pointed out that the mere elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane might suffice to allow for bone formation indicating the additional use of augmentation materials to be redundant. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess whether elevation of the sinus mucosal lini

  13. Effects of cloned tumstatin-related and angiogenesis-inhibitory peptides on proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-mei; ZHANG Ying-mei; FU Song-bin; LIU Xing-han; FU Xue; YU Yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumstatin is a recently developed endogenous vascular endothelial growth inhibitor that can be applied as an anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic agent.The study aimed to design and synthesize the small molecular angiogenesis inhibition-related peptide (peptide 21),to replicate the structural and functional features of the active zone of angiogenesis inhibition using tumstatin and to prove that synthesized peptide 21 has a similar activity:specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis like tumstatin.Methods Peptide 21 was designed and synthesized using biological engineering technology.To determine its biological action,the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304,the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 and the mouse embryo-derived NIH3T3 fibroblasts were used in in vitro experiments to determine the effect of peptide 21 on proliferation of the three cell lines using the MTT test and growth curves.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were applied to analyze the peptide 21-induced apoptosis of the three cell lines qualitatively and quantitatively.In animal experiments,tumor models in nude mice subcutaneously grafted with SKOV-3 were used to observe the effects of peptide 21 on tumor weight,size and microvessel density (MVD).To initially investigate the role of peptide 21,the effect of peptide 21 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) by tumor tissue was semi-quantitatively analyzed.Results The in vitro MTT test and growth curves all indicated that cloned peptide 21 could specifically inhibit ECV304 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.01);TEM and FCM showed that peptide 21 could specifically induce ECV304 apoptosis (P <0.01).Results of in vivo experiments showed that tumors in the peptide 21 group grew more slowly.The weight and size of the tumors after 21 days of treatment were smaller than those in the control group (P <0.05),with a mean tumor inhibition rate of 67.86%;MVD of the tumor tissue in the peptide 21 group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05);the number of cells positive for VEGF in the peptide 21 group was significantly fewer than in the control group (P <0.01).Conclusions Similar to the activity of tumstatin in specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis,peptide 21 may specifically inhibit tumor endothelial cell proliferation and induce their apoptosis,thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and indirectly inhibit the growth,infiltration and metastasis of tumors.Peptide 21 may exert its effect through down-regulating the VEGF expression of tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells.

  14. Bayesian fusion of ceiling mounted camera and laser range finder on a mobile robot for people detection and localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Robust people detection and localization is a prerequisite for many applications where service robots interact with humans. Future robots will not be stand-alone any more but will operate in smart environments that are equipped with sensor systems for context awareness and activity recognition. This

  15. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  16. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    saving potential and the steady-state and dynamic energy performance of this system. The presented work utilizes building simulation method to investigate the energy saving potential of this novel system. Afterwards, an experimental set-up is built in the laboratory to simulate a real office environment....... Both steady-state and dynamic measurements are carried out in the experimental chamber to investigate the energy performance of the system and the thermal comfort in the test room. Overall, this integrated system has high energy saving potential without any compromise of thermal comfort even in extreme...... winter period. Since natural ventilation is of great importance in the system, this system is recommended for use in a temperate climate with high natural ventilation potential....

  17. Evaluation of the Acoustic Measurement Capability of the NASA Langley V/STOL Wind Tunnel Open Test Section with Acoustically Absorbent Ceiling and Floor Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The single source location used for helicopter model studies was utilized in a study to determine the distances and directions upstream of the model accurate at which measurements of the direct acoustic field could be obtained. The method used was to measure the decrease of sound pressure levels with distance from a noise source and thereby determine the Hall radius as a function of frequency and direction. Test arrangements and procedures are described. Graphs show the normalized sound pressure level versus distance curves for the glass fiber floor treatment and for the foam floor treatment.

  18. The Selection of Wallpanel & Ceiling in Cleanroom Construction%洁净手术室墙、顶建材的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣

    2007-01-01

    介绍常用于洁净手术室墙体和屋顶的建筑材料,包括各种不同的金属和非金属材料的特性要求;比较各种材料的施工安装方法,用户可根据实际需求进行合理的选择.

  19. Authority, subjectivity and power: data devolution at a primary care unit in Guariroba (Ceilândia/Federal District/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Soraya

    2015-09-01

    Devolution, restitution or sharing can mean, within other possibilities, to offer products to participants of a research or an extension project. Far from a new practice in Anthropology, returning results is still unusual, little organized and valued. This paper presents and discusses a devolution experience by an extension project in Anthropology that was developed in a primary care unit in the outskirts of Distrito Federal (Brazil). Local reactions were very different from what was expected by the project's staff, but still permitted dialogue with the health professionals and, more important, deepened our knowledge about work relations in this health institution. Even though IRB approval has been granted, negotiations about starting and continuing academic projects have to be negotiated continuously. Subjectivity, power and authority permeate any anthropological initiative from its beginning and much after it supposedly has been concluded.

  20. 阻碍女性职业发展的因素分析%Glass Ceiling Factor Analysis of Baffling Occupational Women Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧军

    2006-01-01

    本文从性别平等的视角,对国内外关于职业女性发展问题的研究进行综述,从女性个人特质、组织雇佣和社会文化三个层面分析阻碍女性在组织中晋升和发展的障碍,指出正确对待女性发展问题、更好地创造开发女性人力资源潜力的社会与组织环境的理论与实际意义.

  1. 玻璃天棚渗漏水技术处理与改进%The technical management and improvement of glass ceiling water penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许静奋

    2008-01-01

    结合工程实际,对玻璃天棚中产生的渗漏水问题进行了详细的分析和阐述,提出了处理与改进措施,经雨季考验,其处理效果显著,为玻璃天棚的广泛使用打下了技术基础.

  2. [Glass ceiling and slippery stairs? Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer Revuelta, C; Peiró Pérez, R

    2002-01-01

    In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration) where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been promoted to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  3. Beyond the glass ceiling. The top 25 women in Healthcare honorees take on key roles as significant change in the industry unfolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Landen, Rachel; Zigmond, Jessica

    2013-04-08

    At a time when a national conversation is focused on the gender imbalance atop most professions, healthcare can boast of having women in some of the most important policy and executive positions. Those honored in ourTop 25 Women in Healthcare program have a few lessons to share. "Be willing to take the job that everyone else isn't migrating to and make it work for you," says Marilyn Tavenner, acting CMS administrator.

  4. Through the glass ceiling - and back again: the experiences of two of the first non-medical directors of public health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Adams, Lee

    2007-06-01

    In 2001, the English Department of Health announced a radical re-organisation of the NHS under the banner of 'shifting the balance of power'. As part of this re-organisation health authorities were abolished and the main NHS public health responsibilities devolved to the new primary care trusts (PCTs) from April 2002. Following several years of campaigning by the Multidisciplinary Public Health Forum (MPHF), in November 2001 the Acting Minister for Public Health, Lord Hunt, announced that PCT director of public health (DPH) posts would be open to 'suitably qualified' candidates from any discipline. From April 2002 a number of new DsPH from backgrounds other than medicine were appointed. This paper reports on the experiences of two such DsPH who shared a commitment to multidisciplinary public health, but who did not wholly share the objectives of the MPHF. We place the opening of PCT DPH posts in the context of tensions within NHS public health between a focus on health services versus the wider determinants of health, and the development of multidisciplinary public health. The paper reflects on both the degree of change this opening represented and the limitations and tensions such appointments exposed.

  5. We'll never get past the glass ceiling! Meta-stereotyping, world-views and perceived relative group-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuamalam, Chuma; Zagefka, Hanna

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the implications of perceived negativity from members of a dominant outgroup on the world views and perceived relative group worth of members of disadvantaged groups. We hypothesized that concerns about the negative opinions a dominant outgroup is perceived to hold of the ingroup (i.e., meta-stereotypes) would undermine group members' views about societal fairness. We expected this trend to be mediated by recall of previous personal experiences of discrimination. We further hypothesized that members' views about societal fairness would predict their perception of the ingroup's worth relative to the outgroup - such that undermined views about societal fairness would be associated with lower perceived ingroup worth relative to the outgroup. Taken jointly, results from two studies using two real intergroup contexts support these hypotheses and are discussed in terms of their implications for the social mobility of members of disadvantaged groups.

  6. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF SUPPORTING STEEL STRUCTURE OF A PARK GLASS CEILING%某公园玻璃顶棚支承钢结构优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会; 吴晓芸

    2012-01-01

    以某公园玻璃顶棚支承钢结构工程为基础,重点介绍了减少一排钢柱后结构的优化设计.本工程原结构采用6根钢柱及周边混凝±柱进行支承,钢拄柱距8 m,后因门厅使用功能要求,抽去中间2根柱,柱距变为16 m.采用SAP2000计算程序对结构进行了重新设计,对16 m跨钢梁施加了体外预应力,使得钢梁截面高度大为降低,结构更加美观和实用.

  7. 温控物流设备行业的玻璃天花板%The Glass Ceiling of Temperature Controlling Logistics Equipment Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚方鸿

    2006-01-01

    “雾里看花,这个行业越来越看不懂。冷藏车改装归属汽车行业,还是物流行业,还是食品行业,还是制冷行业?制造企业看不懂;运什么东西该用冷藏车,同是生鲜食品哪些该用保温汽车,哪些该用冷藏汽车,哪些该用保鲜汽车?用户看不懂;冷藏运输至今没有一个全国统一的标准,鸡肉的温度应该控制在多少度,猪肉应该控制在多少度,各种蔬果分别应该控制在多少度?消费者看不懂:在食品安全越来越被重视的今天,市场需求并没有出现应有的扩大,僧多粥少,恶性竞争,整个行业都处于亏损的边缘……”

  8. 女性经理:不做"天花板"建筑师%Female managers:don't make glass ceiling yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹东

    2002-01-01

    @@ 从内心深处来讲,大多数女性经理人很怕在生活中把自己放在主语的位置上,而习惯把自己放在一个被动的位置上,我们常听到一些女性经理人的感叹:工作使我们疲于奔命、爱情使我们伤痕累累…….

  9. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: The Correlation Between the Self-Diffusivity in and Krypton Permeation through Deeply Supercooled Liquid Nanoscale Methanol Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2010-03-28

    Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures near (100-115 K) the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited ontop of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

  10. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.

  11. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  12. Breaking through the glass ceiling: The correlation between the self-diffusivity in and krypton permeation through deeply supercooled liquid nanoscale methanol films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2010-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures (100-115 K) near the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited on top of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare-gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

  13. IS THERE A METALLICITY CEILING TO FORM CARBON STARS?-A NOVEL TECHNIQUE REVEALS A SCARCITY OF C STARS IN THE INNER M31 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Girardi, L. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova-INAF, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Marigo, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy G. Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Williams, B. F.; Rosenfield, P.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Weisz, D. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Aringer, B.; Nowotny, W. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dorman, C. E.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Melbourne, J. L. [Caltech Optical Observatories, Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Mail Stop 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Olsen, K. A. G., E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we find a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the findings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We find only one candidate C star (plus up to six additional, less certain C star candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C/M= (3.3{sup +20}{sub -0.1}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}) that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints to evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is a metallicity threshold above which M stars are unable to make the transition to C stars, dramatically affecting AGB mass loss and dust production and, consequently, the observed global properties of metal-rich galaxies.

  14. Is there a metallicity ceiling to form carbon stars? - A novel technique reveals a scarcity of C stars in the inner M31 disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; Marigo, P; Williams, B F; Aringer, B; Nowotny, W; Rosenfield, P; Dorman, C E; Guhathakurta, P; Dalcanton, J J; Melbourne, J L; Olsen, K A G; Weisz, D R

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we find a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the findings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We find only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C/M = (3.3(+20,-0.1))x10^-4) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is ...

  15. Is There a Metallicity Ceiling to Form Carbon Stars? - A Novel Technique Reveals a Scarcity of C-Stars in the Inner M31 Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Girardi, L.; Marigo, P.; Williams, B. F.; Aringer, B.; Nowotny, W.; Rosenfield, P.; Dorman, C. E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Melbourne, J. L.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Weisz, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguish- ing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we nd a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the ndings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We nd only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C=M = (3.3(sup +20)(sub - 0.1) x 10(sup -4)) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints to evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is a metallicity threshold above which M stars are unable to make the transition to C stars, dramatically affecting AGB mass loss and dust production and, consequently, the observed global properties of metal-rich galaxies.

  16. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by... amortization of loan fees. For the purposes of this paragraph (d)(4): (i) Interest expense on...

  17. Ceiling and floor effects on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test in patients with alcohol-related memory disorders and healthy participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Leenders, P.; Egger, J.I.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a widely used measure of everyday memory performance. In the most recent revision of this test (RBMT-3) some important changes have been made compared with the RBMT. This study examines whether this revision has improved the quality of the c

  18. Ceiling and floor effects on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test in patients with alcohol-related memory disorders and healthy participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, A.J.; Leenders, P.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) is a widely used measure of everyday memory performance. In the most recent revision of this test (RBMT-3) some important changes have been made compared with the RBMT. This study examines whether this revision has improved the quality of the c

  19. Breakthrough of Hidden Champion's Ceiling from View of "Ansoff Matrix"%从“安索夫矩阵”看隐形冠军天花板的突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚林

    2012-01-01

    隐形冠军企业在成立初期凭借精准的市场定位和高度专业化在某一细分市场中占有绝对的优势地位.但随着行业竞争的加剧,市场透明度的提高,产品生命周期的缩短,隐形冠军生存发展空间受到压制.依据“安索夫矩阵”的多元化思想,隐形冠军凭借自身核心能力,选择市场前景广阔的行业,执行行业跨度小的相关多元化战略,才能实现成功突围.

  20. Prevention and Control of the Roof Accidents of Working Faces with Compound Ceiling%浅谈复合顶板工作面顶板事故的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晓英; 李俊斌; 盖军

    1999-01-01

    通过对一起典型案例的分析,初步建立起围岩与支架相互作用的力学模型,并对复合顶板冒顶的机理和前提条件进行了阐述,提出了防治顶板事故的十项措施,促进煤矿安全生产.

  1. Cytotoxity of HIV-1 gp120 protein on human blood-retinal barrier ceils%HIV-1 gp120蛋白对人血-视网膜屏障细胞的毒性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林浩添; 张振平; 余秋蓉; 晏丕松; 汪琪璘; 柏凌

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of human blood-retina barrier (BRB) destroyed by HIV- 1 gp120 protein. Methods Human blood-retina barrier cells (HBRBCs) including human retina capillary endothelial cells (HRCECs), human retina capillary perieytes (HRCPCs), human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE) were primarily cultured. Culture media were regarded as eontrol. MTT method was used to observe the inhibition effect of HIV-1 gp120 protein on eell viability at 7 different concentrations (0.01 to 0.15 mg/L) for 24 h, and at a fixed concentration(0.08 mg/L) for different times (4-72 h). After 0.08, 0.1, 0.12 and 0.15 mg/L HIV- 1 gp120 protein were applied in those cells for 24 h, cell apoptotie rates and membrane potential of mitochondria (△ψm) were measured by flow eytometry. Activation of Cleaved caspase-9 was detected by Western blot. Change of cell mierostructure with 0.08mg/L HIV-1 gp120 protein before and after 24 h was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Concentration of HIV-1 gp120 protein less than 0.08 mg/L did not influence cell viability at 24 h. But at the concentration of more than 0.08 mg/L, HIV-1 gp120 protein could obviously inhibit HBRBCs proliferation with a concentration-dependent manner(HRCECs: r=-0.763, P<0.01 ; HRCPCs: r=-0.804, P<0.01 ; HRPE: r=-0.698, P<0.01). HIV-1 gp120 protein(0.08 mg/L) significantly inhibited cells proliferation at 12 h, and this inhibition effect was more stronger at 24,48,72 h with a time-dependent increase (HRCECs: r=-0.833, P<0.01 ; HRCPCs: r=-0.784, P<0.01 ; HRPE: r=-0.701, P<0.01). The relative growth rates were HRCECs: 84%, 70%, 41%, 22% ; HRCPCs: 80%, 69%, 38%, 18% ; HRPE: 86%, 73%, 45%, 26% respectively. Compared with control group, the ratio of apoptotic cells of HBRBCs and expression level of Cleaved caspase-9 protein increased but △ψm decreased at different concentrations with HIV-1 gp120 protein treatment for 24 h. The changes of these indexes were all concentration-dependent manner. Early apoptotic changes of HBRBCs such as mitochondrial swelling and lysosome increase were observed by TEM after treatment of 0.08 mg/L HIV- 1 gp120 protein for 24 h. Conclusion HIV-1 gp120 protein can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of HBRBCs. The mechanism is probably associted with the structure and function destruction of mitochondiral.%目的 探索HIV-1 gp120蛋白侵犯人血.视网膜屏障的机制.方法 原代培养人血-视网膜屏障细胞(HBRBC),包括人视网膜微血管内皮细胞(HRCEC)、人视网膜微血管周细胞(HRCPC)、人视网膜色素上皮细胞(HRPE),以培养基作为对照.用MTT法观察7种不同浓度(0.01~0.15 mg/L)的HIV-1 gp120蛋白作用24 h和0.08 mg/L HIV-1 gp120蛋白作用不同时间(4~72 h)对3种细胞的生长抑制作用.0.08、0.1、0.12、0.15 mg/L的HIV-1 gp120蛋白作用24 h后,用流式细胞仪检测其对3种细胞凋亡率和线粒体膜电位(△ψm)的影响;用Western免疫印迹检测Cleaved cagpase-9蛋白的活化情况.用透射电镜观察经0.08 mg/L HIV-1 gp120蛋白处理24 h前后3种细胞超微结构的变化.结果 HIV-1gp120蛋白作用24 h,低浓度(<0.08mg/L)对3种细胞的活性均没有明显影响,而当浓度超过0.08mg/L时,对细胞的增殖活性有明显的抑制作用,呈浓度依赖性(HRCEC:r=-0.763,P<0.01;HRCPC:r=-0.804,P<0.01;HRPE:r=-0.698,P<0.01).HIV-1 gp120蛋白(0.08mg/L)作用12 h即可显著抑制细胞的增殖活性.24、48和72 h抑制效应更明显,相对增殖率分别为HRCEC:84%、70%、41%、22%,HRCPC:80%、69%、38%、18%,HRPE:86%、73%、45%、26%,抑制效应呈时间依赖性(HRCEC:r=0.833.P<0.01;HRCPC:r=-0.784,P<0.01;HRPE:r=-0.701,P<0.01).HIV-1 gp120蛋白作用24 h后与对照组相比,各浓度组3种细胞凋亡率增加、△ψm明显降低以及Cleaved cagpase-9蛋白表达增强,均呈浓度依赖性.透射电镜示0.08mg/LHIV-1 gp120蛋白处理24h后,3种细胞均出现了线粒体肿胀、溶酶体增多等早期凋亡的微观改变.结论 HIV-1 gp120蛋白能够抑制人血-视网膜屏障细胞的增殖并具有诱导凋亡的作用,破坏线粒体的结构和功能是其可能的机制.

  2. The Influence of Visibility, Cloud Ceiling, Financial Incentive, and Personality Factors on General Aviation Pilots’ Willingness to Take Off Into Marginal Weather, Part 1: The Data and Preliminary Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    National transportation statistics, 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation. Eysenck , H.J., & Eysenck , S.B.G. (1964). Eysenck Per...sonality Inventory. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service. Eysenck , H.J., & Eysenck , M.W. (1985). Personality and individual...differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum. Eysenck , H.J., & Eysenck , S.B.G. (1975). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire

  3. Construction Monitoring of Prestressed Suspended-cable-systen for Front Square Glass Ceiling of Guangzhou Zhongzhou Center%广州中洲中心前庭光棚预应力悬索体系施工监控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关云峰; 曹锐强

    2006-01-01

    辐射式预应力双层悬索结构属于一种自平衡结构体系,广州中洲中心工程前庭顶光棚采用该结构建成迄今国内覆盖面积最大的结构新颖的玻璃光棚,文中简述玻璃光棚预应力悬索体系施工的监控方法.

  4. 试析中国女性职业发展中的"玻璃天花板效应"%"Glass Ceiling Effect" Analysis on the Gender Inequality in Female Employment Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张营

    2009-01-01

    玻璃天花板作为当前社会客观存在的现象,阻碍了女性职业发展的道路,这不仅与社会现代化不相符,更不利于社会和谐.要突破玻璃天花板的阻隔,需要女性自身、企业和政府的共同努力:女性自身需克服弱点,发挥出自身优势;企业应更新观念;政府要制定相应的促进性别平等发展的政策法规.

  5. The "Glass Ceiling" Effect: An Empirical Analysis of Gender Differences in Career Advancement among Chinese Women%“玻璃天花板”效应:职业晋升中的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存同; 余姣

    2013-01-01

    利用2006年中国综合调查(CGSS)数据,采用社会定量模型,对中国从业者职业晋升情况的性别差异进行实证研究,考察女性在职业晋升中的“玻璃天花板”效应是否真实存在及其程度大小.结果表明,性别歧视可能是导致中国现存劳动力市场男女晋升机会不均等的重要原因之一,且女性职业晋升中的“玻璃天花板”效应依然存在.

  6. The Triple-Layer Glass Ceiling Blocked Women from Top Management and the Breakthrough Model%女性高管成长中的三重玻璃天花板及其突破路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志鹏; 闫淑敏

    2014-01-01

    本文通过对企业中高层女性管理者的深入访谈和编码分析发现,女性职业发展过程中并非只有中级向高级管理层晋升的玻璃天花板一层障碍,而是在不同职业阶段分别表现为心理天花板、角色天花板、组织天花板三重障碍,以此为基础构建了三重玻璃天花板的突破路径,同时探索出女性独特的职业发展曲线.

  7. Beyond the Glass Ceiling: Case Study of the Female Presidents of American Universities%超越"玻璃顶":美国大学女校长案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立莹

    2008-01-01

    从女性参与社会高层管理不足的事实出发,揭示了阻隔女性进入社会高层的"玻璃顸"现象.对美国北科罗拉多大学女校长进行了访谈和案例研究,描述了她的校长之路,治理环境及应对策略.并通过案例分析,得出以下结论:家庭和社会环境是点燃女性梦想的火种,女性自身的觉醒和努力是成功的关键,超然的心态和执著的追求是克服障碍的良策,男性的理解和帮助是女性发展的最大支持.

  8. 从教师结构看女性教师职业发展中的"玻璃天花板"%"Glass Ceilings" in Professional Development of Female Faculty Viewed from Analysis of the Faculty Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    生云龙

    2009-01-01

    在社会中,存在着一些影响女性职业发展的因素,即女性职业发展的"玻璃天花板".研究表明,在大学女性教师的职业发展过程中,也面临着一种"玻璃天花板".本文通过对教师结构的数据分析,探讨了在高等教育领域特别是高等学校中女性教师职业发展中的"玻璃天花板"问题,并从性别视角进行分析.

  9. 西门子Artis Zee Ceiling数字减影血管造影机性能分析及故障维修%Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting of Siemens Artis Zee Ceiling Digital Suboraction Angiography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓虎

    2016-01-01

    本文对西门子Artis zee系列数字减影血管造影(DSA)机的系统设计、操作界面、安全防护及图像处理等方面的优势和特点进行了分析,并对典型的维修案例进行了介绍。

  10. Performance and Thermal Comfort of Chilled Ceiling System in Heating Mode%冷却顶板系统的供热性能及热舒适效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田喆; 王硕; 朱能; 张诚

    2010-01-01

    冷却顶板供热可能对人员整体和局部热舒适产生影响.通过搭建全尺寸冷却顶板实验系统,以Fanger热舒适模型和ASHRAE 55-2004等标准为依据,对冷却顸板供热房间的热环境和热舒适效果进行了全面测评,着重分析了供热量与局部热不舒适之间的关系和变化规律.研究表明,冷却顶板供热可以满足相关标准对整体热舒适的要求,但由于垂直温差和辐射不对称温度的作用,供热量超过限定值时会引起局部热不舒适,建议冷却顶板供热量不宜超过117 W/m2.

  11. Regulation of Mesenchymal Stem Ceils Osteogenic Differentiation and Its Effect on Osteoporosis%间充质干细胞的成骨分化及对骨质疏松的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡维望; 王世立

    2012-01-01

    The research of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) used to regenerative medicine was spectacular field of study, which will certainly be applied more broadly in biomedicine with the development of research. Some results and new metheds about MSCs therapy for osteoporosis were reviewed and dynamic data and new idea for osteoporosis treatment were provided.%间充质干细胞用于再生医学的研究已经成为最引人瞩目的方向,随着研究的深入,必将在医学领域得到广泛的应用.主要综述了近年来通过干细胞治疗骨质疏松相关的一些成果,重点阐明了干细胞在骨质疏松研究方面的新方法,为骨质疏松治疗提供一些动态资料和新的思路.

  12. Injection of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem ceils into the vitreous of rabbits%人脐带间充质干细胞兔眼玻璃体腔注射的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国玲; 汪建涛; 孟恒星; 吴建国; 李筱荣

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察人脐带间充质干细胞(hUC-MSCs)兔眼玻璃体腔注射后的生存情况及安全性.方法 27只青紫蓝兔随机分为玻璃体腔注射1、2、4周组,每组9只兔.右眼为hUC-MSCs玻璃体腔注射组(实验组),左眼为培养液玻璃体腔注射组(对照组).注射前后分别采用裂隙灯显微镜进行眼前节检查,间接检眼镜、眼底照相、荧光素眼底血管造影(FFA)进行眼底检查,Tono-pen眼压计测量眼压.体外碳花氰荧光染料CM-Dil荧光标记hUC-MSCs.兔眼玻璃体腔hUC-MSCs注射后4周,共聚焦荧光显微镜下观察hUC-MSCs在体内的存活情况,然后摘除眼球行光学显微镜和透射电子显微镜检查.结果 hUc-MSCs玻璃体腔注射后4周.大量hUC-MSCs仍旧存活于玻璃体腔,结构完整.兔全身情况良好;裂隙灯显微镜检查显示眼前节无明显改变;间接检眼镜和眼底照相检查显示实验眼和对照眼视网膜无明显改变;FFA检查显示注射后1、2、4周视网膜血管无异常荧光和荧光渗漏;注射前后各时间点眼压差异无统计学意义(t=0.125,P>0.05);光学显微镜和透射电子显微镜检查显示兔眼角膜、房角、晶状体、视网膜结构无明显变化.结论 hUC-MSCs在玻璃体腔注射后4周仍存活于体内;hUC-MSCs玻璃体腔注射安全可行.%Objective To observe the survival of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) after injection into the vitreous of rabbits,and the animal safety under those procedures.Methods Twenty-seven pigmented rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (intravitreal injection 1 week group,2 weeks group and 4 weeks group),each with 9 rabbits.For each animal the right eye was the experimental eye receiving hUC-MSCs injection,while the left eye was the control eye receiving cuhure medium.The rabbit eyes were examined by slit-lamp microscope,indirect ophthalmoscopy,fundus photography,fundus fluorescence angiography(FFA)and Tono-pen tonometer before and after injection.hUC-MSCs were labeled by CM-Dil in vitro,and their survival status was measured by eonfocal fluorescence microscopy,light microscope and transmission electron microscope at 4 weeks after injection.Results Four weeks after injection,a large number of the hUC-MSCs were still alive in the vitreous cavity.The overall condition of those rabbits was good.The anterior segment and retina of experimental eyes were normal,without hyperfluorescence,hypofluorescenee and leakage in the retina at 1,2 and 4 weeks after injection.There was no significant difference on lOP before and after injection at different time points (P>0.05),and no obvious changes at cornea,anterior chamber angle,lens,retinal structure by.light microscope and transmission electron microscope examination.Conclusion hUC-MSCs can survive in the rabbit vitreous for four weeks;intravitreal injection of hUC-MSCs was safe and feasible.

  13. Simulation on the thermal performance of chilled ceiling panel using encapsulated Phase Change Material%采用封装式相变材料的冷吊顶热工特性模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君瑛; 吴喜平; 于树轩; 冯玉伟; 章学来

    2010-01-01

    为促进冷吊顶技术的应用,开发采用封装式相变材料(Phase Change Material,PCM)的冷却吊顶,对其热工性能和传热机理进行分析研究.建立考虑接触热阻和导热形状因子影响的冷却室系统数学模型,通过仿真评价热工性能.结果表明,当铝板和PCM接触面间存在空气间隙时,传热效率大大降低,整个冷却室的稳定控制温度和控制时间受到影响;由导热形状因子构成的热负荷是总负荷的重要部分.根据单因素影响分析和多因素影响的正交分析,当冷室结构确定后,制冷剂温度、环境温度和气流速度对PCM吊顶的性能有影响,但影响程度不一.与实验结果对比,仿真结果对PCM冷吊顶热工性能具有较高准确度的趋势判断.

  14. Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Oklahoma Higher Education: A Case Study of Kate Galt Zaneis, the First Woman President of a Public Four-Year College or University in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Debbie L.

    2011-01-01

    Women's leadership within higher education continues to be the focus of research and essays. A look into the lives of past women leaders in higher education can provide a potential "road-map" for aspiring women to follow as they develop their leadership style to aid in their upward mobility. The study of the first woman to lead a public…

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of stricter emission ceilings for air pollutants. National evaluation for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol; Kosten en baten van strengere emissieplafonds voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nationale evaluatie voor de herziening van het Gothenburg Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, W.

    2012-06-15

    The Netherlands experiences high benefits of strict European emission targets for air pollutants. The Dutch live longer and are healthier because of extra emission reductions. In addition, damage to nature decreases. This emerges from a cost-benefit analysis of a number of possible variants for tightening emission targets by 2020 in the context of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol [Dutch] Nederland ondervindt hoge baten van strenge Europese emissiedoelen voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nederlanders leven langer en gezonder door extra emissiereducties. Daarnaast neemt de schade aan de natuur af. Dit blijkt uit een kosten-batenanalyse van een aantal mogelijke varianten voor aanscherping van emissiedoelen per 2020 in het kader van de herziening van het Gothenburg protocol.

  16. Use of PCM as a cooling and heating system. PCM ceiling induction units as cooling and heating generators; Toepassing PCM als koel- en verwarmingsinstallatie. PCM-plafondinductieunits als koude- en warmteopwekker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagoeni, V.; Pinas, E. [Technisch Adviesbureau Sanes, Almere (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    The deployment of PCM ('phase change materials') is one of the most promising future techniques for sustainable energy concepts for limiting installations, reaching a high comfort level and energy saving. However, the application is not (yet) appreciated in the current starting points of design technology or in common regulations. The performances need to be underpinned by proving and demonstrating quality. [Dutch] De toepassing van PCM ('phase change materials') is een van de veelbelovende toekomstige technieken voor duurzame energieconcepten in het kader van het beperken van installaties, bereiken van een hoog comfortniveau en energiebesparing. De toepassing wordt echter (nog) niet gewaardeerd in de huidige ontwerptechnische uitgangspunten of de reguliere r egelgeving. Prestaties moeten dus worden onderbouwd op basis van gelijkwaardigheid en/of worden bepaald en aangetoond.

  17. Family Housing Metering Test. A Test Program to Determine the Feasibility of Installing Utility Meters in Military Family Housing, Developing Energy Ceilings, and Operating a Penalty Billing System for Occupants Who Overconsume Energy. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    0026 RALW (30., M 1900)) IY, DDUlA( 1) 4002? IF( IY RIE. IMRE) GO TO 1050 00028 ICVE I 90029 Z CWLE I 00030 I-(DDUPI( 1) .EQ. UI’) ICqE z 90031 GO TO 9990...Govermnent Cost Above Energy Norm 12. This Is A Test. Do Not Pay. )Q MOCK UTILITY BILL Name John R. Smith Date of Current Reading 15 Feb 78 - Address 13

  18. 银行承兑汇票:定价管制、利率传导与市场波动%Banker's Acceptance:Price Ceiling,Interest Rate Influence and Market Fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓青

    2009-01-01

    在货币市场利率和管制性贷款利率的利差波动的情况下,银票成为企业替代贷款、进行利差套利的主要工具,其结果就是银票功能融资化、银票市场波动性大.实现银票市场的平稳发展,一方面要逐步放松银票的管制性定价,赋予商业银行银票定价权,加快商业信用评级市场发展;另一方面要组合实施货币政策工具,合理管理利率体系.

  19. 24 CFR 3280.511 - Comfort cooling certificate and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection... U Ceilings and roofs of dark color U Floors U Air ducts in floor U Air ducts in ceiling U Air...

  20. Development and Implementation of GPS Correlator Structures in MATLAB and Simulink with Focus on SDR Applications: Implementation of a Standard GPS Correlator Architecture (Baseline) Implementation of the MIT Quicksynch Sparse Algorithm Development and Implementation of Parallel Circular Correlator Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    in Electrotechnical Engineering,” no. April, 2011. C. Jeffrey, An Introduction to GNSS. 2010, p. 96. F. Principe, G. Bacci, F. Giannetti, and M...downsampling unit as n/p according to the papers annotations ceil_floor = 0; %determine operation 0 = floor, 1 = ceil if(B*p == ntemp...according to the papers annotations ceil_floor = 0; %determine operation 0 = floor, 1 = ceil if(B*p == ntemp) n=ntemp

  1. Sustainable Contingency Base Camp Operations and Management: Observations in Afghanistan 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Concrete roof slab prep Ceiling /roofing tiles BUILDING STRONG® Interior finishes Interior electrical BUILDING STRONG® CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES: Good...climate  Structures are culturally suitable for turnover of base BUILDING STRONG® Finished structures BUILDING STRONG® Concrete column prep Installing...roof beams BUILDING STRONG® Interior view Roof/ ceiling construction Steel tile channelsCeiling tiles BUILDING STRONG® Exterior masonry BUILDING STRONG

  2. Protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T ceils from vitiligo patients%茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 吴纪龙; 周妙妮; 付丽芳; 许爱娥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells from vitiligo patients.Methods Skin tissue was resected from the margin of vitiligo lesions followed by the isolation and culture of CD8+ T lymphocytes,and from the normal skin of vitiligo patients followed by the isolation and culture of melanocytes.Flow cytometry was carried out to evaluate the purity of CD8+ T cells.The melanocytes were cocultured with the CD8 + T cells at different ratios followed by the evaluation of killing effect of CD8+ T cells.Various concentrations (200 and 400 μg/ml) of tea polyphenols were added into the co-culture system of CD8+ T cells and melanocytes at a ratio of 5 ∶ 1 followed by an additional culture of 48 hours.Then,flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis in melanocytes in the coculture system.Results CD8+ T lymphocytes were successfully obtained from the marginal area of vitiligo lesions with a purity of more than 90%,which highly expressed the antigens CD137 and CD69.The coculture with CD8+ T cells markedly accelerated the apoptosis in melanocytes,while the accelerative effect was inhibited by tea polyphenols of 200 and 400 μg/ml.Conclusions The CD8+ T cells infiltrating the edge of vitiligo lesions display a potential destructive effect on autologous melanocytes from vitiligo patients,and tea polyphenols have a protective effect against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells.%目的 探讨茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用.方法 取白癜风患者白斑边缘处皮片组织,培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,细胞纯度用流式细胞仪进行鉴定,通过和黑素细胞共培养验证其针对黑素细胞的杀伤作用.将不同浓度茶多酚加入CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养的体系,用流式细胞仪检测黑素细胞的凋亡.结果 取白癜风皮损边缘表皮组织中成功培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,纯度达90%以上,高表达活化抗原CD137和CD69.CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养后,可明显诱导黑素细胞凋亡.200 μg/ml和400 μg/ml浓度茶多酚处理均可以降低黑素细胞的凋亡率.结论 白癜风皮损边缘组织来源的CD8+T细胞对白癜风患者黑素细胞有明显杀伤作用.茶多酚对抗CD8+T细胞杀伤黑素细胞,从而对黑素细胞有一定的保护作用.

  3. 太白银莲花皂苷-A诱导人胶质瘤U87细胞凋亡及其机制研究%A novel triterpenoid taipaienoside A induces human glioma U87ceils apoptosis and the mechanism research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 程光; 汤海峰; 费舟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨太白银莲花皂苷A诱导胶质瘤U87细胞株细胞凋亡作用及机制.方法 以四甲基偶氮唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测太白银莲花皂苷A对U87细胞和VEC304细胞存活率的影响;Hoechst 33342核染色后荧光显微镜下观察细胞核形态学变化;透射电子显微镜观察太白银莲花皂苷A处理后U87细胞超微结构;流式细胞仪AnnexinV/IP双染检测太白银莲花皂苷A处理后U87细胞凋亡比率;免疫印迹法(Western blot)检测致凋亡分子Fas、Fas-L、Pro-Caspase8、Pro-Caspase3、Bcl-2、Bax等表达情况.结果 板低浓度(<5 rmg/L)下太白银莲花皂苷A处理后U87细胞生存率明显下降,同比正常EVC304细胞生存率影响不显著;Hoechst 33342核染色及透射电镜下均可见典型细胞凋亡形态学变化;流式细胞仪分析显示低浓度太白银莲花皂苷A(1.75 mg/L IC50)处理后U87细胞系早期凋亡细胞比率随时间递增,呈明显时间依赖性;免疫印迹实验发现太白银莲花皂苷A处理U87细胞6,12,24h后细胞Fas及Fas-L表达递增,Pro-Casosse8、ProCaspase3递减,活化Caspase-3片段12h达到峰值,Bcl-2表达差别不显著,Bax表达未测出.结论 太白银莲花皂苷A能够诱导U87细胞凋亡,并且其机制与Fas介导的表面受体凋亡通路有关.%Objective It is to investigate the potential apoptosis-inducing effect and the mechanisms of a novel triterpe-noid-taipaienoside A on human glioma U87 cell lines. Methods The viability of U87 and VEC304 cells treated by taipaienoside A was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium ( MIT) chromatometry; Cytomorphology changes was observed on fluorescence microscope after staining cell chromosome by Hoechst33342. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was also applied to reveal infrastructure of U87 cells treated by taipaienoside A. The proportions of apoptotic cells were evaluated by flow cyto-metric Annexin V/IP staining analysis. To probe the apoptotic mechanisms induced by taipaienoside A, expressions of Fas, Fas - L, Pro - caspase8, Pro - caspase3, Bel - 2, and Bax in U87 cells were examined via Western Blot analysis. Results The viability of U87 cells declined significantly after treated with taipaienoside A at extremely low concentrations ( <5 mg/L) , and normal cells VEC304 were not influenced significantly in compare; Typical apoptosis morphology changes were observed both in Hoechst33342 staining assay and TEM; The proportions of apoptosis in U87 cells at early stage increased time-depend-ently after treated with taipaienoside A (1.75 mg/L) for indicate time in Annexin V/PI staining assay; Fas and Fas - L expression was up-regulated in U87 cells after treated with taipaienoside A for 6,12 or 24h, accompanied with Pro-caspase8 and Pro - caspase3 decline, cleaved caspase3 peaking at 12h, Bel -2 expressing no significant difference, Bax undetectable in western blot assays. Conclusion Taipaienoside A possesses potent ability of inducing U87 cells apoptosis, and the mechanisms was at least involved by Fas/FasL-associated cascade-dependent apoptotic mechanisms.

  4. 敦煌壁画中的经架——兼议莫高窟第156窟前室室顶南侧壁画题材%The Sutra Stand in the Dunhuang Murals and the Subject Matter of the Southern Ceiling Mural of Cave 156

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊叶

    2011-01-01

    In some murals of the Dunhuang Grottoes, eminent monks or laymen are shown reading or preaching sutras from a small shelf-like stand. This stand has not come to the attention of earlier studies. Based on her analysis of sutras, Dunhuang documents and murals, and a the collections of the Shoso-in in Japan, the author suggests this object should be called a "sutra stand," and discusses its use and development. Based on this research, she also looked through all the different scenes and motifs of the sutra stand in the Mogao Grottoes. This study is valuable for judging the age and motif of Dunhuang murals.%一经架考辨 在敦煌莫高窟的一些表现高僧或俗人读经、讲经的壁画中,佛经有时被安置在一个架子形的小件器物上。此种器具应当称为经架,在前贤的研究中尚未对其有所关注。 《全唐诗》第554卷载有唐人项斯的一首五言律诗《寄坐夏僧》:“坐夏日偏长,知师在律堂。多因束带热,更忆剃头凉。苔色侵经架,松阴到簟床。

  5. Relationship between genetic susceptibility of non-small ceil lung cancer and the TGF-βRI gene%非小细胞肺癌的遗传易感性与转化生长因子-β受体Ⅰ基因的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹; 郑世营; 赵军; 孙楠; 刘顺寿

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨转化生长因子-β受体Ⅰ(TGF-βRI)基因与非小细胞肺癌(NSCLC)遗传易感性的关系.方法 采用单链构象多态性分析(SSCP)和DNA测序方法,观察53例原发性NSCLC组织的TGF-βRI基因的整个密码区域以及旁侧内含子序列的改变.结果 未见任何体细胞水平的突变,但在TGF-βRI基因中发现了两个沉默突变和一个多态性位点.两个沉默突变分别位于密码子的344位(由ATT突变成AAC)和密码子的406位(由TTA突变成CTA).多态性位点位于该基因的第7号内含子中的第24位核苷酸处(由G突变成A).根据病例组和对照组分析,可见纯合基因型A/A携带者患非小细胞肺癌的风险比野生基因型G/G的携带者高出3倍以上.结论 TGF-βRI基因虽然不是自发突变失活的频繁位点,但是此处研究的多态性可能具有NSCLC的遗传易感性.%Objective To investigate whether the transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I (TGF-βRI) gene is associated with genetic predisposition of primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The entire coding region of TGF-βRI and flanking intron sequences from 53 NSCLC tissues were examined for alterations using SSCP and direct sequencing. Results No somatic point muta-tions other than two silent mutations and a polymorphism were found in the TGF-βRI gene. The two silent mutations located at codon 544 (AAT to AAC) and codon 406 (TrA to CTA) ,respectively,and the poly-morphism was at 24 th base of intron7 (G to A). Interestingly,we found that the subjects with homozygous genotype A/A displayed more than threefold increased risk of developing NSCLC than the common wild genotype G/G. Conclusion As the first report,this study showed that TGF-βRI gene is not a frequent site of spontaneous mutational inactivation while the detected polymorphism could be a susceptibility allele that predisposes to carcinogenesis of NSCLC.

  6. 玻璃天花板下的守望——A大学女教师工作满意度研究%Expectation under the Glass Ceiling: A Study on the Job Satisfaction Degree of the Women Faculty in a Research-oriented University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵叶珠

    2011-01-01

    从社会性别视角切入,通过对研究型大学367名专任女教师的工作满意度进行了问卷调查,结果显示教师工作满意度存在一定性别差异,表现在女性对校园学术环境、国际化、人际关系等方面较男性满意,但在课题经费的获得、课题的获批、接触学术前沿等研究资源获得方面远不如男性教师.此研究表明缺乏学术资源是女性职业生涯发展中"玻璃天花板"的构成之一.

  7. 中国大学毕业生性别工资差距分布特征研究——“天花板效应”还是“粘地板效应”?%Distribution Characteristics of Gender Wage Gap for Graduates in China:"Glass Ceiling Effect"or"Sticky Floor Effect" ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭远发

    2012-01-01

    文章基于“中国大学毕业生求职与工作能力调查”数据,研究大学毕业生性别工资差距及分布特征.Quantile回归分解显示,男生毕业半年后的月工资高于女生约9%~20%,性别工资差距随分位点升高而扩大.这表明大学毕业生性别工资差距中存在“天花板效应”而非“粘地板效应”.性别工资差距中绝大部分(90%左右)归于歧视,工资分布顶端约30%的女生群体所受歧视更大,她们更应受到反歧视政策的关注.分行业和职业对性别工资的Quantile回归分解显示,行业性别隔离和职业性别隔离现象并存.此外,工作能力对缩小性别工资差距和歧视有积极作用,“211”重点大学、本科学历、具有实习经验(与专业相关和无关实习兼有)的男生工作能力更强.

  8. ¿Techos de cristal y escaleras resbaladizas?: Desigualdades de género y estrategias de cambio en SESPAS Glass ceiling and slippery stairs?: Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Colomer Revuelta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades científicas, como en otros espacios públicos, la presencia de las mujeres en la toma de decisiones es menor que la de los varones. Describimos la situación en la Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria (SESPAS donde, a pesar de existir un 40% de socias, las mujeres han estado escasamente representadas en los puestos donde se toman las decisiones y en los de reconocimiento profesional. Se explica el proceso de cambio que se ha impulsado en los últimos años y algunos de los efectos de las acciones emprendidas. Visualizar las desigualdades de género existentes provocó el debate y el interés por la acción. Se ha establecido un grupo de trabajo de género y salud pública. En los dos últimos años se han incorporado más mujeres a los puestos de poder y de reconocimiento profesional en SESPAS.In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Helath and Health Services Administration where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been prometed to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  9. 领导对“玻璃天花板”的认知对女性下属职业生涯发展的影响%Supervisors' Acceptance of "Glass Ceiling" and Its Influence on the Career Development of Female Subordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世敏; 刘淼

    2014-01-01

    文章对103对领导-女性下属配对问卷的数据分析显示,领导对“玻璃天花板”持顺应态度和否认态度对女性下属职业生涯发展有积极影响;领导对“玻璃天花板”持放弃态度和接受态度对女性下属职业生涯发展有消极影响.

  10. Cam Tavan Sendromu ve Kadınların Üst Düzey Yönetici Pozisyonuna Yükselmelerindeki Engeller: Balıkesir İli Örneği(Glass Ceiling Syndrome and the Obstacles Facing Women’s Advancement to Senior Management Positions: Evidence From Balikesir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip ÖRÜCÜ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the reasons why women’s presentation in senior management levels and strategically important positions is lower compared to men constitutes the aim of this study. Conducting a literature survey, the concept of “Glass Ceiling” has been explained and the obstacles confronting women in preferment to senior management positions have been presented depending on the related studies held in Turkey and other countries. In the application part of the study, under the light of the findings from the literature, a survey covering 200 employees, of whom 103 male and 97 female, has been conducted in order to find out about the opinions of employees in Balıkesir on the obstacles in question. The findings have revealed that the limited horizon of leadership and managerial capability, excessive familial responsibilities, and the “queen bee” syndrome are the main obstacles that hamper women in the progress towards senior level managerial positions.

  11. 超越天花板的女性——我国“985”高校中的女性高层领导群像%Women above Glass Ceiling: Images of Group of Women in High-Level Leadership of "985 Project" Universities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王饮寒; 喻恺; 岳启

    2014-01-01

    女性担任大学校长及高层领导已屡见不鲜,许多女性走进大学的领导层,肩负起管理大学、促进大学建设与发展的重任.对我国“985计划”的39所高校的调查发现,在2013年,这些高校中共有42名女性高层领导.通过对其履历进行研究,总结出了我国“985”高校女性高层领导年龄偏大、学历与学术背景高、占领导人数比例低、以副职居多、以党委领导居多和以内部晋升为主的整体群像.继而在此基础上讨论了在高等教育领域中女性领导的作用,并分析了其处境的相关原因.

  12. Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor: To Investigate the Distribution and Cause of Gender Wage Gap among State and Non-state Sector%"天花板效应"还是"地板效应"——探讨国有与非国有部门性别工资差异的分布与成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓寿伟; 刘智强

    2009-01-01

    本研究实证探讨了我国国有部门和非国有部门的性别工资差异.分位数回归结果发现,性别工资差异存在"地板效应"而非普遍认为的"天花板效应",且国有部门的性别工资差异明显低于非国有部门.在对收入差异进行分解后发现,男性和女性劳动力的性别工资差异主要来自于系数差异(即歧视),人力资源禀赋所造成的差异很小.因此,消除对女性的性别歧视,特别是非国有部门中存在的歧视,是缩小收入性别差异的重要途径.

  13. Influence of adenosine preconditioning on glial ceil-derived neurotrophic factor in oxygen-glucose deprivation astrocyte%腺苷预处理对氧糖剥夺星形胶质细胞的胶质源性神经营养因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世江; 韩艳艳; 尉娜; 谭军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨腺苷预处理对氧糖剥夺星形胶质细胞的胶质源性神经营养因子(GDNF)的影响.方法 体外培养SD大鼠大脑皮层星形胶质细胞,将培养至第3代或第4代的星形胶质细胞传代至96孔板内,细胞贴壁并长出突起后,随机分为正常对照组、氧糖剥夺组和腺苷预处理组.观察氧糖剥夺8h复氧糖24h后星形胶质细胞形态,检测细胞培养液中GDNF水平.结果 氧糖剥夺组GDNF水平显著高于对照组(P<0.05);腺苷预处理组GDNF水平显著高于氧糖剥夺组(P<0.05).结论 腺苷预处理能进一步增强缺氧缺糖后GDNF的表达,GDNF的表达上调可能是腺苷预处理诱导缺血耐受,产生神经保护作用的分子机制之一.%Objective To explore the effect of adenosine preconditioning on glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor(GDNF) in oxygen-glucose deprivation astrocyte.Methods Astrocytes of pallium in SD rats were cultured in vitro,the third or fourth generation of astrocytes were passaged to 96 pore plate.After adherence and evection,they were divided into normal control group,oxygen-glucose deprivation group and adenosine preconditioning group randomly.The shape of astrocytes were observed and contents of GDNF in cell culture fluid were detected at the time of 8 hours after oxygen-glucose deprivation and 24 hours after reoxygenation.Results The levels of GDNF in oxygen-glucose deprivation group were obviously higher than those in normal control group(P <0.05).The levels of GDNF in adenosine preconditioning group were obviously higher than those in oxygen-glucose deprivation group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Adenosine preconditioning can increase the expression of GDNF after oxygen-glucose deprivation.The up regulation of GDNF expression may be one of the molecular mechanism in cerebral ischemia tolerance induced by adenosine preconditioning and neural protection.

  14. 基质细胞衍生因子-1α对大脑皮质局灶性梗死成年大鼠血管发生的影响%Effect of stromal ceil-derived factor-1α on angiogenesis in focal infarct in the cerebral cortex in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌莉; 张素平; 吉章阁; 黄惠鸿; 王慕真; 何锐; 邓婉青

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨外源性基质细胞衍生因子-1α(stromal cell-derived factor-1α,SDF-1 α)对大脑皮质局灶性梗死成年大鼠梗死灶周围血管发生的影响及其可能机制.方法 24只雄性成年Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为假手术组、SDF-1α治疗组、溶剂对照组和SDF-1α+ CXCR4拮抗剂组,每组6只.采用右侧大脑中动脉皮质支永久闭塞+双侧颈总动脉暂时夹闭法制作大脑皮质局灶性梗死模型.SDF-1α治疗组和溶剂对照组分别自右侧大脑中动脉皮质支闭塞后1h起经侧脑室注射SDF-1α(1μg/d)或等体积生理盐水,连续6d;SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组自SDF-1α注射前皮下注射CXCR4拮抗剂AMD3100(1 mg/d),连续6d.所有大鼠处死前经腹腔注射5-溴脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine,BrdU)标记新增殖细胞.在模型制作后7d时行神经功能评分后处死各组大鼠,利用免疫荧光染色法检测梗死灶周围或假手术灶周围的血管密度、新生血管内皮细胞数目及CXCR4+细胞表达情况.结果 在造模后7d时,SDF-1α治疗组神经功能评分较溶剂对照组和SDF-1α+ CXCR4拮抗剂组显著改善(P均<0.01).假手术组、溶剂对照组、SDF-1α组和SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组大鼠梗死灶周围血管密度分别为2.1±0.3%、7.0±0.3%、10.0±0.9%和7.1±0.3%(F=232.469,P<0.001),假手术组显著性低于SDF-1α组(P<0.001),SDF-1α组显著性高于溶剂对照组(P =0.002)和SDF-1α+ CXCR4拮抗剂组(P=0.001).假手术组、溶剂对照组、SDF-1α组和SDF-1 α+CXCR4拮抗剂组大鼠梗死灶周围BrdU+/层黏蛋白+细胞数量分别为21.7±3.1、79.7±6.0、176.0± 12.5和90.3±6.9(F=391.550,P<0.001),假手术组显著性少于SDF-1α组(P<0.001),SDF-1α组显著性多于溶剂对照组和SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组(P均<0.001).溶剂对照组、SDF-1α组和SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组大鼠梗死灶周围CXCR4+细胞数量分别为59.3±4.5、120.3 ±13.9和62.9±5.9(F=85.052,P<0.001),SDF-1α组显著性多于溶剂对照组和SDF-1α+CXCR4拮抗剂组(P均<0.001).结论 SDF-1α治疗可改善成年大鼠脑梗死后的神经功能,并促进梗死灶周围的血管发生,SDF-1/CXCR4信号通路可能在脑梗死后血管发生过程中起重要的调控作用.%Objective To investigate the effect of exogenous stromal cell-derived factor-1 α (SDF-1 α) on angiogenesis peri-infarct region in cerebral cortex in adult rats and its possible mechanisms.Methods Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups:sham operation,solvent control,SDF-1α treatment,and SDF-1α + CXCR4 antagonist (n =6 in each group).A model of focal infarct in the cerebral cortex was induced by permanent ligation of the cortical branch of the right middle cerebral artery with temporary clip occlusion of both common carotid arteries.At 1 h after cortical branch occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery,SDF-1 α (1 μg/d) or equal volume of normal saline were injected via the lateral ventricle in the SDF-1α treatment group and solvent control group,and continued for 6 days.CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 (1 mg/d) was injected subcutaneously before injecting SDF-1 α in the SDF-1 α + CXCR4 antagonists group,and continued for 6 days.Before all the rats were sacrificed,5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected intraperitoneally and their newly proliferated cells were labeled.At day 7 after modeling,the rats were sacrificed after neurological scores.Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the vascular density,the numbers of neovasculature endothelial cells and the CXCR4 + cells in the peri-infarct regions or sham operation regions.Results At 7 d after modeling,the neurological function of the SDF-1α treatment group was improved significantly compared with those of the solvent control group and the SDF-1α + CXCR4 antagonist group (all P< 0.01).The vascular densities in the peri-infarct or sham operation regions in the groups of sham operation,solvent control,SDF-1α treatment,and SDF-1α+ CXCR4 antagonist were 2.1±0.3%,7.0±0.3%,10.0 ±0.9% and 7.1 ±0.3%,respectively (F=232.469,P<0.001),and that in the sham operation was significantly lower than that in the SDF-1α group (P <0.001),SDF-1 α group significantly higher than both groups of solvent control (P =0.002) and SDF-1oα + CXCR4 antagonist (P =0.001).The numbers of BrdU+/laminin+ cells in the peri-infarct regions in the groups of sham operation,solvent control,SDF-1α treatment,and SDF-1α + CXCR4 antagonist were 21.7 ± 3.1,79.7 ± 6.0,176.0 ± 12.5 and 90.3 ± 6.9,respectively (F=391.550,P<0.001),and that in the sham operation was significantly less than that in the SDF-1 α group (P < 0.001),SDF-1 α group was significantly more than both groups of solvent control and SDF-1 oα + CXCR4 antagonist (all P <0.001).The numbers of CXCR4 + cells in the peri-infarct regions in the groups of solvent control,SDF-1α treatment,and SDF-1α+ CXCR4 antagonist were 59.3± 4.5,120.3 ± 13.9 and 62.9 ± 5.9,respectively (F =85.052,P < 0.001),and that in SDF-1α group was significantly more than those in the both groups of solvent control and SDF-1 α + CXCR4 antagonist (all P < 0.001).Conclusions SDF-1α treatment may improve the neurological function after focal infarction in the cerebral cortex in adult rats and promote angiogenesis in peri-infarct region.The SDF-1/CXCR4 signal pathway may play an important regulatory role in the process of angiogenesis after cerebral infarction.

  15. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus me-diate the adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial ceils%SLE患者外周血单一核细胞介导T淋巴细胞对血管内皮细胞黏附的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骥; 储以微; 李明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨活动期SLE患者外周血单一核细胞(PBMC)是否介导了T淋巴细胞对血管内皮细胞的黏附.方法 体外培养人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC),活动期SLE PBMC培养上清液预刺激48 h,通过RT-PCR检测PBMC培养上清液诱导HUVEC黏附分子的表达;划痕实验检测PBMC培养上清液诱导内皮细胞运动迁移能力的改变;HUVEC与T细胞共培养,研究PBMC培养上清液预刺激是否影响T细胞对HUVEC的黏附.结果 HUVEC经过活动期SLE PBMC培养上清刺激后,内皮细胞黏附分子ICAM-1mRNA,VCAM-1 mRNA和E-钙黏蛋白mRNA表达明显增加,而IL-17抗体能明显抑制黏附分子的表达.黏附分子表达增加介导了内皮细胞运动能力增加,介导T细胞对内皮细胞的黏附,而IL-17中和抗体能抑制T细胞对内皮细胞的黏附和抑制内皮细胞的运动迁移.结论 活动期SLE PBMC培养上清液可以通过诱导血管内皮细胞黏附分子表达,黏附T细胞,介导狼疮血管炎的发生.%Objective To observe whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can induce the adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial cells. Methods Sera and PBMCs were obtained from patients with active SLE and normal human controls. PBMCs were cultivated and culture supematants were harvested. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro with or without the presence of the sera or culture super-natants of PBMCs. Some cells were pretreated with the antibody to IL-17 before the treatment with the sera or supematants. After another 48-hour culture, RT-PCR and real-time PCR were used to detect the mRNA expressions of adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion moleeule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-cadherin in HUVECs, wound healing assay to estimate the motility of HUVECs. Additionally, T lymphocytes were added to HUVECs 48 hours after stimulation with the sera or supematants, the adhering of T lymphocytes to HUVECs was observed by microscopy. Results After stimulation with supematants of PBMCs from patients with active SLE, the mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-cadherin were significantly increased in HUVEC, while the increase could be inhibited by the antibody to IL-17. The elevation of adhesion molecule expression subsequently promoted the motility of HUVEC, mediated the adhesion of T lymphocytes to HUVEC, and the antibody to IL-17 could suppress the adhesion of T lymphocytes and motility of HUVEC. Conclusion The culture supematants of PBMCs from patients with active SLE can induce the expression of vascular cell adherin molecules and promote the adherin of T lymphocytes, which may in turn mediate the development of lupus vasculitis.

  16. 3D Coordinate Close-range Photogrammetry Technology for Lower Boom Ball of Integrated Ceiling Construction of Ultra-large Hyperboloid Net Brace%超大型双曲面网架吊顶下弦球三维坐标近景摄影测量技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝建勋

    2007-01-01

    在首都国际机场T3B新航站楼超大型双曲面网架下弦吊顶工程中,采用全新的近景摄影测量技术进行网架下弦球三维坐标的测量.现场只需布设少量控制点拍摄像片即可,充分发挥了近景摄影测量现场观测时间短、采集信息量大等技术优势,缩短了测量时间.

  17. 14 CFR 29.853 - Compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable: (1) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large cabinet walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other...

  18. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Interior ceiling panels, interior wall panels, partitions, galley structure, large cabinet walls, structural flooring, and materials used in the construction of stowage compartments (other than...

  19. Alternative Inspection Methods for Single Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Timothy J.; Alzheimer, James M.; Hurley, David E.

    2010-01-19

    This document was prepared to provide evaluations and recommendations regarding nondestructive evaluation methods that might be used to determine cracks and bowing in the ceiling of waste storage tanks on the Hanford site. The goal was to determine cracks as small as 1/16 in. wide in the ceiling, and bowing as small as 0.25 in. This report describes digital video camera methods that can be used to detect a crack in the ceiling of the dome, and methods for determining the surface topography of the ceiling in the waste storage tanks to detect localized movements in the surface. A literature search, combined with laboratory testing, comprised this study.

  20. Debts and Downgrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the context of the U.S. debt ceiling debate helps put the crisis into perspective The months-long debt ceiling debate in the United States has affected the global financial market,and its impact may further spread to the real economy and even change

  1. Not "Just Another Brick in the Wall"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolkower, Betina A.; Rubel, Laurie H.

    2015-01-01

    "Low threshold, high ceiling" tasks are accessible to diverse learners; invite a wide range of approaches; and hold the potential to further challenge, strengthen, and extend everyone's mathematical reasoning. In this article, the authors present a family of Brick Pyramid problems as examples of "low threshold, high ceiling"…

  2. CAREER PROS:The Story of the Carpenter%我们需要什么样的职业观?——由一则木匠的故事所想到的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lona O'Connor; 王海强

    2006-01-01

    @@ Afriend and I were recently talking about careers (what a surprise! ) and what it takes2 to be successful. As always,our conversation took twists and turns3,but eventually a couple of key observations were brought up about glass ceilings,mirrored ceilings,and the stow of the carpenter.

  3. 我们需要什么样的职业观?——由一则木匠的故事所想到的

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lona; O'Connor; 王海强

    2006-01-01

    Afriend and I were recently talking about careers (what a surprise! ) and what it takes2 to be successful. As always,our conversation took twists and turns3,but eventually a couple of key observations were brought up about glass ceilings,mirrored ceilings,and the stow of the carpenter.……

  4. Thoughts on Career%漫谈职业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lona O'Connor; 王海强

    2006-01-01

    @@ Afriend and I were recently talking about careers and what it takes to be successful. As always, our conversation took twists and turns1,but eventually2 a couple of key observations3 were brought up about glass ceilings, mirrored ceilings, and the story of the carpenter.

  5. Projection Models 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Mikkelsen, M. H

    to achieve the emission ceilings given in the Gothenburg Protocol and the EU directive on national emission ceilings in 2010. In addition to the basis scenario, 8 emission reduction scenarios for different sectors have been analysed in order to estimate the emission saving potential and financial and welfare-economic...

  6. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    220 Figure 140. Water-cooled chilled water plant with primary/secondary...enough to buffer the space by carrying away solar loads in unoccupied volumes, such as ceiling plenums. For rooftop installations, where ceiling...and are significant for the three-month period and generally exceed 68%. Larger chilled water plants with water-cooled condensers can operate with

  7. Drug: D07697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AZIDES C03BX Other low-ceiling diuretics C03BX03 Cicletanine D07697 Cicletanine h...ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03B LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, EXCL. THI

  8. 7 CFR 3560.103 - Maintaining housing projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., where appropriate for climatic conditions, that are securely attached, clean, and finished or painted..., and seams that are secure. (xvi) Walls, floors, and ceilings. The housing project must have walls, floors, and ceilings that are free of holes, evidence of current water leaks, and free of material...

  9. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: njfonseca@doct.ulg.ac.b [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, AA 97 Pereira (Colombia); Cuevas, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Casilla 160c Concepcion (Chile)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  10. Influence of overexpression of miR-181b in expressions of MT1-MMP and TIMP3 protein and invasive ability in glioma U87 ceils%miR-181b过表达对胶质瘤U87细胞中MT1-MMP和TIMP3蛋白表达和细胞侵袭能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕴潜; 赵丽艳; 石艳; 刘辉; 苗春生; 许万振; 杨志青

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨微小RNA-181b (miR-181b)过表达对人胶质瘤细胞中膜型基质金属蛋白酶1(MT1-MMP)和金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂3(TIMP3)表达的调控作用及对细胞侵袭能力的影响.方法:将培养于DMEM培养基的人胶质瘤U87细胞分为阴性对照组(不做任何处理)、空载组(转染Lipofetamine 2000)、乱序组(转染乱序has-miR-181b寡核苷酸)和miR-181b组(转染has-miR-181b寡核苷酸).qRT-PCR法检测各组细胞中miR-181b基因表达水平,Western blotting法检测各组细胞中MT1-MMP和TIMP3蛋白的相对表达水平,基质胶侵袭试验检测各组细胞的侵袭能力,测定各组细胞的趋化运动抑制率、迁移率和细胞黏附率;生物信息学数据库预测miR-181b的侯选靶基因.结果:miR-181b组U87细胞中miR-181b基因表达水平明显高于其他各组(P<0.01),呈过表达.miR-181b组U87细胞中MT1-MMP蛋白表达水平低于其他各组(P<0.01),miR-181b与MT1-MMP蛋白表达水平呈负相关关系(r=-0.787,P<0.05);miR-181b组U87细胞中TIMP3蛋白表达水平高于其他各组(P<0.01),miR-181b与TIMP3蛋白表达水平呈正相关关系(r=0.801,P<0.05).基质胶侵袭试验中miR-181b组穿膜细胞数明显低于其他各组(P<0.05).与其他3组比较,miR-181b组U87细胞的趋化运动抑制率升高、迁移率和细胞黏附率降低(P<0.05).生物信息学数据库预测,在MT1-MMP的3'非翻译区(3'UTR)有1个与miR-181b的结合位点,在TIMP3的3'UTR有2个与miR-181b的结合位点.结论:miR-181b过表达可下调MT1-MMP和上调TIMP3蛋白的表达,从而抑制胶质瘤细胞的侵袭能力;miR-181b作为关键性调节miR,可能成为胶质瘤治疗的重要靶标.

  11. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers inorganizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporemid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existenceof a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategicrecommendations with regard to what corporations could do toremove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates howwomen in middle management perceive their career advancementopportunities and what they consider their organizations tobe doing to support their advancement. Glass ceiling and informalstructures in the organizations will be analyzed from the aspectsof corporate climate, corporate practices, and corporate culture.The relevant questions are derived from the model developed byBergman and Hallberg (2002. This study aims to answer whetherthere is a glass ceiling present in Singapore companies. The studybegins with an introduction of the concept of a glass ceiling thatprevents women from advancing, and then continues with previousstudies on corporate climate, corporate practices and corporateculture, and data analysis of samples from Singapore organizations.The findings show that women middle managers inSingapore organizations face a glass ceiling in their working environmentwhich, for example, inhibits the promotion of femalemanagers, and entails a barrier to the career development opportunitiesof women presents that women do not have enough organizationalsupport, including networking, mentoring, and familyfriendly initiatives.

  12. Immunology Mechanism of CD4+ CD25 T Regulatory Cells Acting on Effector T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGNing-han; WUHong-fei; WUJun; ZHANGWei; SUIYuan-gen; HEHou-guang; ZHANGChun-lei; ZHENGJun-song

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To detect the inhibiting co-stimulating molecule CTLA4 and cytokines secreted by Treg cells, and explore the immunology mechanism of T regulatory cells acting on effector T cells in co-cultured system(CCS) and separating-cultured system(SCS). Methods: Detecting the percentage of CTLA4 and CD28 expressed on the Treg ceils and effector T ceils, and then adding Treg cells to mixed lymphocyte reaction(MLR) system in CCS and TransWeil Milliceil-PCF SCS, at the same time, adding or not adding anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF.II1 to the reacting systems, examining the inhibitory capacity of Treg ceils exerting on the MLR. Results: Compared with effector T cells, Treg cells expressed higher level CTLA4 and secreted much more IL-10 and TGF-β(P<0.01). The inhibitory capacity of Treg cells co-cultured with effector T ceils is much stronger than that in separating cultured group(P<0.01). Moreover, the inhibiting rate of Treg ceils exerting on effector T ceils through secretin_g IL-10 was more powerful than that through secreting TGF-β1 (P<0.01). Coaclusion: Both ceil-to-ceil contact and cytokines secretion mechanisms are involved in CD4+ CD25+ Treg ceils operating function. However, the former is more important. Intresfingly, we for the first time pointfound that IL-10 plays more powerful roles than TGF-β1 in the cytokines secretion mechanism.

  13. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS), Midway Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    7Ld VARK 1I.1 21 .. 4-." . ’. _ _. _ __ __ I -.- inZ. TOTAL. NUIt Of OI ONS ’ NWs....L ..... n. a ___ ____ ____ ____ ___ ANL...CEILING VISIBILITY (STATUTE MilLES ) -CEILING _____7__6.293 . -r -s,.77 (P"? ’, .) I ~ ~~ ",,. 1,. ?46, . ., .. .I , , o. 1 49 &1 4. ,,, 1 ?8;oz 𔃻...CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY ST ti ~flH Ig11 V.A.. nuIT . PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE . 9 (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) CE N VISISILITY (STATUTE MILES

  14. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  15. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  16. Lead Paint Exposure Assessment in High Bays of Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanch, Penney; Plaza, Angel; Keprta, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to assess the possibility of lead paint exposure in the high bays of some of the Johnson Space Center buildings. Some of the buildings in the Manned Space Flight Center (MSC) were built in 1962 and predate any considerations to reduce lead in paints and coatings. There are many of these older buildings that contain open shops and work areas that have open ceilings, These shops include those that had operations that use leaded gasoline, batteries, and lead based paints. Test were planned to be conducted in three phases: (1) Surface Dust sampling, (2) personal exposure montioring, and (3) Ceiling paint Sampling. The results of the first two phases were reviewed. After considering the results of the first two phases, and the problems associated with the retrieval of samples from high ceilings, it was determined that the evaluation of ceiling coatings would be done on a project by project and in response to a complaint.

  17. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  18. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ..., phase 3. Security system construction. Terminal lighting and ceiling rehabilitation. Terminal boiler.../rehabilitation. Terminal passenger services area improvements. Terminal Americans with Disabilities Act improvements. Install runway guard lights. North quadrant general aviation ramp. Taxiway G widening and...

  19. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  20. Drug: D10271 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available COMBINATION C03EA Low-ceiling diuretics and potassium-sparing agents C03EA01 Hydrochlorothiazide and potass...ARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03E DIURETICS AND POTASSIUM-SPARING AGENTS IN

  1. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali

    2009-01-01

    unit-gain compensation ceil and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor.Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  2. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration...-to-ceiling and wall-to-floor connections shall be caulked or otherwise sealed. When walls...

  3. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...

  4. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes...

  5. HEADROOM APPROACH TO DEVICE DEVELOPMENT: CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Girling, A; Lilford, R; Cole, A; Young, T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The headroom approach to medical device development relies on the estimation of a value-based price ceiling at different stages of the development cycle. Such price-ceilings delineate the commercial opportunities for new products in many healthcare systems. We apply a simple model to obtain critical business information as the product proceeds along a development pathway, and indicate some future directions for the development of the approach. METHODS: Health economic modelling in...

  6. Study of the Light Utility Helicopter (LUH) Acquisition Program as a Model for Defense Acquisition of Nondevelopmental Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    82  a.  Installation of a Wall-mounted MEDEVAC Equipment Rack and FAA-Approved Ceiling Rails in Each...certification. Also, the cabin size was small, and “it appeared that medical equipment stowage could interfere with litter loading” (GAO Decision B...MEDEVAC Equipment Rack and FAA- Approved Ceiling Rails in Each MEDEVAC Helicopter This modification provided soldiers better access to medical gear than

  7. A chronological overview of legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area

    OpenAIRE

    Zih, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In graduation thesis I described the legislation about energy efficiency in buildings in our area from 1875 to 2010. I showed the changes in legislation through time in order to provide energy efficiency. Lowering thermal transmittance through time is shown by graphs: • outer wall • roof • ceiling between floors (unheated attic) • underground wall • floor above ground • floor on the ground. I wrote construction examples for outer wall, ceiling between floors and roof. Con...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit D to Subpart A of... - Thermal Performance Construction Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construction—Maximum U Values for Ceiling, Wall And Floor Section of Various Construction Winter degree days 1 Ceilings 2 Walls Floors 3 Glazing 4 Doors 5 1000 or less 0.05 0.08 0.08 1.13 1001 to 2500 .04 .07 .07 .69...; the “NAHB Insulation Manual for Homes/Apartments”; local utilities; and the National Climatic...

  9. Sustained metabolic scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C C; Nagy, K A; Diamond, J

    1990-03-01

    Sustained metabolic rates (SusMR) are time-averaged metabolic rates that are measured in free-ranging animals maintaining constant body mass over periods long enough that metabolism is fueled by food intake rather than by transient depletion of energy reserves. Many authors have suggested that SusMR of various wild animal species are only a few times resting (basal or standard) metabolic rates (RMR). We test this conclusion by analyzing all 37 species (humans, 31 other endothermic vertebrates, and 5 ectothermic vertebrates) for which SusMR and RMR had both been measured. For all species, the ratio of SusMR to RMR, which we term sustained metabolic scope, is less than 7; most values fall between 1.5 and 5. Some of these values, such as those for Tour de France cyclists and breeding birds, are surely close to sustainable metabolic ceilings for the species studied. That is, metabolic rates higher than 7 times RMR apparently cannot be sustained indefinitely. These observations pose several questions: whether the proximate physiological causes of metabolic ceilings reside in the digestive tract's ability to process food or in each tissue's metabolic capacity; whether ceiling values are independent of the mode of energy expenditure; whether ceilings are set by single limiting physiological capacities or by coadjusted clusters of capacities (symmorphosis); what the ultimate evolutionary causes of metabolic ceilings are; and how metabolic ceilings may limit animals' reproductive effort, foraging behavior, and geographic distribution.

  10. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi Yaghin, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    . We investigated the validity and reliability of the FJS. Patients and methods - A Danish version of the FJS questionnaire was created according to internationally accepted standards. 360 participants who underwent primary TKA were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 315 were included...... in a validity study and 150 in a reliability study. Correlation between the Oxford knee score (OKS) and the FJS was examined and test-retest evaluation was performed. A ceiling effect was defined as participants reaching a score within 15% of the maximum achievable score. Results - The validity study revealed...... of the FJS (ICC? 0.79). We found a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's? = 0.96). The ceiling effect for the FJS was 16%, as compared to 37% for the OKS. Interpretation - The FJS showed good construct validity and test-retest reliability. It had a lower ceiling effect than the OKS. The FJS appears...

  11. Airborne Contamination Control through Directed Airflow in the Exam Room: A Pilot Study Using a Membrane Diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Pati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne infections have been documented as a major source of hospital acquired infection - one of the major concerns in healthcare delivery. An important factor contributing to airborne infection is cross contamination through air particulate dispersion as affected by the ventilation system design. Clean room technology (with membrane ceiling has been successfully used in technology and pharmaceutical industries to control airborne contamination. This study examined the performance of membrane ceiling technology in controlling air particulate dispersion in a mock-up exam room. It included both performance tests in a mock-up room and a simulation study of six different ventilation system designs using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD analysis. Findings suggest that a membrane diffuser directed airflow ventilation strategy occupying approximately 20% to 30% of the ceiling surface and placed over the patient in a contemporary sized exam room provides a less turbulent airflow pattern and less mixing of the air between the patient and others in the room.

  12. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  13. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  14. The public sector on the PETROBRAS performance: analysis using ratings; A importancia do setor publico brasileiro na performance da PETROBRAS: analise usando ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial]. E-mails: rosebone@ind.ufrj.br; rosebone@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Rating agencies have strong influence on the international financial market for both public and private debt. Host countries also have due influence on local enterprises, by means of the macro economic policy. In the case of default of sovereign debt or capital controls, domestic firms may have serious difficulties in meeting their obligations in foreign currency. This explained the so called sovereign ceiling to the corporate ratings. This explicit ceiling has been abandoned by the main rating agencies, as some corporations may have more means to meet their debt than sovereigns. Oil companies are a good example. This paper aims to explain the variables that help explain the Brazilian sovereign ratings and PETROBRAS ratings, using the ordered logit method, with emphasis on the factors that influenced the piercing of the severing ceiling by PETROBRAS in 2001. (author)

  15. A GROWTH INHIBITOR SECRETED FROM CULTURED RABBIT SMOOTHMUSCLE CELLS IS DISTINCT FROM TGF-β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether the growth inhibitor in conditioned medium from cultured rabbit arte rial cells is distinct from TGF-β. Methods Rabbit aortic smooth muscle ceils were grown from explained segments of the aorta. Conditioned medium from cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle ceils and anti-TGF-β were employed in this study. Smooth muscle cell proliferation was measured by XTT detection (Boehringer Mannheim). Results Acidified conditioned medium from smooth muscle ceils had significantly stronger effects of growth inhibition than controls, and anti-TGF-β did not affect the growth inhibitory effect of conditioned medium from cultured rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells. Conclusion The growth inhibiting substance in conditioned medium from cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells is distinct from TGF-β.

  16. Detailed measurements and modelling of thermo active components using a room size test facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of thermo active components based on prefabricated hollow core concrete decks. Recent years have given an increased awareness of the use of thermo active components as an alternative to mechanical cooling systems in office buildings. The investigation covers...... measurements in an office sized test facility with thermo active ceiling and floor as well as modelling of similar conditions in a computer program designed for analysis of building integrated heating and cooling systems. A method for characterizing the cooling capacity of thermo active components is described...... based on measurements of the energy balance of the thermo active deck. A cooling capacity of around 60W/m² at a temperature difference of 10K between room and fluid temperature has been found. It is also shown, that installing a lowered acoustic ceiling covering around 50% of the ceiling surface area...

  17. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  18. Numerical simulation of the effects of hanging sound absorbers on TABS cooling performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    to a degradation of the room acoustic comfort. Therefore, challenges arise when this system has to be combined with acoustic requirements. Soffit-hanging sound absorbers embody a promising solution. This study focuses on quantifying their impact on the cooling performance of TABS, assessed by means of the cooling...... simulating a two-person office of 20 m2, with a typical cooling load of 42 W/m2. The results show that covering 60% of the ceiling surface with sound absorbers hanging at 300 mm from the ceiling active deck is expected to reduce the cooling capacity coefficient of TABS by 15.8%. This drops to 25...

  19. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.

  20. Enhanced Spin Depolarization and Storage Time in a Rb Vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yue-Rong; GAO Hong; ZHANG Shou-Gang

    2009-01-01

    The experiment of measuring the spin depolarized time and light storage time in a Rb vapor under different conditions is performed. Typically, these measurements are accomplished in three different containers: atoms in a bare glass ceil, atoms in a buffer gas cell, and atoms in a tetracontane (C40H82) coating cell. The increasing depolarization and storage times are observed in both the buffer gas ceil and the tetracontane coating cell. In the latter case, a storage time greater than 400 μs is obtained.

  1. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate true treatment effect measured by clinicians using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescent (HoNOSCA) corrected for regression to the mean (RTM), and for ceiling and floor effects. The present study was based on routine clinical...... that if these corrections are implemented in routine outcome measurement of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), the estimate of change in total HoNOSCA score after adjustment is clearly smaller in absolute value than the absolute difference estimate. If RTM and the ceiling/floor effect is ignored...

  2. Monte Carlo Modeling of the Initial Radiation Emitted by a Nuclear Device in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    frame wood building, The ceilings are not shown. The exterior walls represent wood, 1.27 cm thick, with glass windows, 0.5 cm thick. A slab , 29.4 cm...thick, with a bulk density to approximate air and wood represents the ceilings and floors. A room with no exterior walls has four doorways, 1 m wide...Light Frame Glass=0.5 cm W2 5 Wood, Commercial and Industrial Glass=0.5 cm S1L,S1M,S1H 6 Steel Moment Frame Concrete floors=8 in, Steel Columns =10

  3. 梦无止境%THIS IS A DREAM THAT NEVER ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athena Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    @@ I woke up to a cold and empty room full of nothing but wood and artistic drawings of people I didn't know. The room was gigantic, the ceilings must have been 150 feet up.There was a chandelier (树枝形的装饰灯) over my head that looked massive and heavy, the only window in the room went from the floor up half way towards the ceiling. It had a balcony (阳台) the size of the bathroom which was also extremely gigantic.

  4. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin;

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... ventilation (MVRC) under summer (cooling) condition was compared. MVRC system was measured only for the office room case. CB provided convective cooling while the remaining three systems (CBR, CCMV and MVRC) provided combined radiant and convective cooling. Solar radiation, office equipment, lighting...

  5. Ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the la......The NEC (National Emission Ceiling) directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries...

  6. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    it is essential to know how much influence a surface treatment has on the water vapour transport. Traditionally, there has been most focus on paints that affect the permeability as little as possible. However, sometimes water vapour resistance is desirable. Especially, this is relevant in existing buildings...... with a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier directly...

  7. Energy flow and thermal comfort in buildings: Comparison of radiant and air-based heating & cooling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dréau, Jérôme

    , radiant floor, wall and ceiling) have been compared for a typical office room, both numerically and experimentally. From the steady-state numerical analysis and the full-scale experiments, it has been observed that the difference between the two types of terminals is mainly due to changes...... not achieve the same uniformity in space. The active chilled beam theoretically achieves the most uniform comfort conditions (when disregarding the risk of draught), followed by the radiant ceiling. The least uniform conditions were obtained with the cooled floor due to large differences between the sitting...

  8. The effects of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators on airflow in a livestock test room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B.; Svidt, Kjeld; Zhang, G.

    2000-01-01

    partitions which divided the room into four equal-sized pens. The guiding plates beneath the ceiling were efficient in creating two-dimensional how in the occupied zone, but they increased the differences between measured and simulated air velocity close to the ceiling and close to the floor. Both...... measurements and CFD simulations showed that the introduction of pen partitions and thermal pig simulators reduced the air velocities in the occupied zone of the test room. Detailed geometric modelling of the animals might often be unnecessary for simulation of airflow in livestock rooms. This will especially...

  9. Bangor International/Dow AFB, Maine. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-06

    valid observations reported but no occurrences, zeros are given in the tables as follows: EXTREME DAILY PRECIPITATION ".00" equals none for the month...ceiling from zero to equal to or greater than 20,000 feet and as a separate class "no ceiling", versus visibility in 16 classes from zero t- equal to or...JAN STATION STATION NAME VEA.S C T . PAGE 1 120O-14G3 HOrAS , S. T.’ T .p. WET BULB TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION (F) TOTAL _ TOTAL (F) 0 1 3- -4 56 7 8 9- 10

  10. Radiant Professionals Alliance guidelines 2010

    CERN Document Server

    IAPMO

    2010-01-01

    RPA Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Radiant Panel Heating and Snow/Ice Melt Systems. Intended for reference use by code officials, designers and installers. Deals with both hydronic and electric floor, wall and limited ceiling applications. Includes sample schematics and industry recommendations.

  11. 45 CFR 400.60 - Payment levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash... resettlement agencies contracted or awarded grants to administer the RCA program must make monthly cash... elect to exceed monthly payment ceilings in order to provide employment incentives must budget...

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Commission on the Status of Women Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Commission on the Status of Women Division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "Relationship Content in Four Men's and Women's Magazines" (Alexis Zachary and Bryan Denham); "Mind the Gender Gap: Gender Differences in Motivation to Contribute Online Content" (Cindy Royal); "Peering through the Glass Ceiling of the Boys' Club:…

  13. Does monetary unification lead to excessive debt accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    If discretionary monetary policy implies an inflation bias, monetary unification boosts the accumulation of public debt. The additional debt accumulation is welfare reducing only if governments are sufficiently myopic. In the presence of myopic governments, debt ceilings play a useful role in avoidi

  14. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  15. Membrane-based air conditioning. Decentral desiccant cooling; Membranbasierte Raumklimatisierung. Dezentrale sorptionsgestuetzte Klimatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbaum, Hannes [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik gGmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Semipermeable membranes have a considerable potential use in air conditioning systems due to their properties. As water resistant but water vapor permeable functional separation layers, they allow desiccant air-conditioning processes in decentral air conditioning systems and a condensate-free air dehumidification at cooling ceiling elements. (orig.)

  16. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  17. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture...

  18. 77 FR 40255 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels... faces) or the location is such that injury due to failure of the glass is unlikely (e.g., mirrors in..., heat release and smoke density testing should not result in fragmentation of the component. For...

  19. 77 FR 28533 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels... instrument faces) or the location is such that injury due to failure of the glass is unlikely (e.g., mirrors... provided below. For example, heat release and smoke density testing should not result in fragmentation...

  20. New Engineering Principles in Atrium Smoke Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valkvist, Morten Birk Sabroe

    A typical atrium smoke management setup was divided into characteristic flow regions; axisymmetric plume, ceiling jet/approach flow, rotation region and spill plume. A grid convergence study was conducted on each of the flow regions in order to determine the non-dimensional grid resolution required...

  1. Thermal insulation made to measure. Buildings made of concrete. Planning documentation, construction information, calculation examples. 6. ed. Waermeschutz nach Mass. Hochbauten aus Beton. Planungsgrundlagen, Konstruktionshinweise, Rechenbeispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Krieger, R.; Moritz, H.

    1990-01-01

    The brochure contains hints, working aids and proposed solutions; it addresses, preferably, all those who are projecting new buildings. Apart from thermal insulation, it also goes into moisture-proofing, sound abatement, and fire protection. There are tables presenting the physical characteristics of all standard walls, roofs, and ceilings accepted by the building authorities. (BWI).

  2. 48 CFR 3046.790-2 - Definitions (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions (USCG). 3046... Definitions (USCG). As used in this part: At no additional cost to the Government means without an increase in price for firm-fixed-price contracts, without an increase in target or ceiling price for fixed...

  3. 48 CFR 52.216-5 - Price Redetermination-Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed any ceiling price included in the contract. (b) Definition. Costs, as used in this clause, means... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Redetermination....216-5 Price Redetermination—Prospective. As prescribed in 16.205-4, insert the following clause:...

  4. 48 CFR 1246.101-70 - Additional definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or ceiling price for fixed price incentive contracts (see (FAR) 48 CFR 46.707), or at no increase in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional definitions... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1246.101-70 Additional definitions. At no additional cost...

  5. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, Guus J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental hea

  6. Performing an action one cannot do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    of a routine in which a physiotherapist assists a client living with acquired brain injury to perform an activity the client cannot perform for herself: turning from lying face-down to facing the ceiling. The analysis highlights the situated multimodal and embodied practices of scaffolding whereby both parties...

  7. Housekeeping. An Approach to Housekeeping Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This booklet examines the training required by staff employed in housekeeping departments in the hotel and catering industry. It details specifications of particular tasks--baths/cloakrooms; service pantries and utility rooms; beds; furniture/fittings; floors/walls and ceilings; carpets/upholstery/soft furnishings; linen handling; linen room work;…

  8. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  9. Topology optimization for acoustic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a method to control acoustic properties in a room with topology optimization is presented. It is shown how the squared sound pressure amplitude in a certain part of a room can be minimized by distribution of material in a design domain along the ceiling in 2D and 3D. Nice 0-1 design...

  10. A Systems Approach to Military Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    supplied con’.tioned air through the suspended finished ceiling into the inhabited space. a. Air supply must be dispersed throughout the habitable...floors -- 20 percent. 4) Lamp Lumen Depreciation (LLD): 0.87. 5) Luminaire Dust Depreciation ( LDD ): 0.82 (if baffled, 0.92). 6) Assume 2-1/2 percent

  11. 40 CFR 763.83 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ceiling and the floor or roof deck above), such as classroom(s), a cafeteria, gymnasium, hallway(s), designated by a person accredited to prepare management plans, design abatement projects, or conduct response... means a program of work practices to maintain friable ACBM in good condition, ensure clean up...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1628 - Design, installation, and operation of production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... production systems. 250.1628 Section 250.1628 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Analysis Checklists are included in API RP 14C, you must use the analysis technique and documentation..., ceiling, walls (e.g., grating or solid), and firewalls; and (iii) Elementary electrical schematic of...

  13. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997 allows emission trade between countries that have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. This paper considers two schemes of emission trading: trade between governments and trade between emission sources. The two schemes are analyzed and the strengths...

  14. The Revised Direct Assessment of Functional Status for Independent Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Vaughan, Phillip W.; Acee, Taylor W.; Delville, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The original version of the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS), a measure of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), was found to have a ceiling effect in older adults living independently in the community. This suggested that the tasks measured, although relevant, do not require full use of this population's…

  15. A Homey Place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Warm autumn sunlight slanted into the Globe Café of Mercure Wanshang Beijing hotel through its floor-to-ceiling windows. Sitting at a table overlooking a large garden, Mary Goh, the hotel’s general manager, talked about her hotel.

  16. Artificial Intelligence: Expert Systems for Corps Tactical Planning and Other Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    and visibility Fog Temperature Winds (Surface and Aloft) humidity Weather forecast (same information as above). The effects of weather on each...Identificstion Of areu not to attack - Idenification ofm ares d support nmaver, or Avenues of Approach. - Identification of anmount of forces tha...Ceilings and visibility. - Fog . -Temperadure. Winds (surface and aloft). -Humidity. -- weather forecast. - Thea Forces. -Range of echelons from army

  17. Counterintuitive Behavior in Mechanical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarah; Vondracek, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Almost all introductory physics classes will, at some point, include springs and elastic forces. When studying such topics, it is interesting to consider the spring system shown in Fig. 1. In this system, two identical springs are arranged with the top of one spring anchored to the ceiling and the bottom of the second spring attached to a hanging…

  18. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  19. Rhein-Main Apt, Germany/Franfurt. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    DATA PROCESSING BRANCH usAF E’ C CEILING, VERSUS VISIBILITY AIR WEATHER SERVICE/MAC 0 RHEINMAIN APT GERMANY/FRAtKFURT...SERVICE/MAC RHEINMAIN APT GENMANY/FRANKFURT 67-7o OEZ U. PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE 0000-.)200 , (FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS) o , - VISIBILITY

  20. Synergie Klimaat- en NOx-beleid: Een kostenevaluatie tot 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets WLM; Hoen A; Wijngaart RA van den; LED

    2005-01-01

    The acquisition of relative cheap CO2 emission rights from foreign countries may mean missing synergistic side-effects on the domestic emissions of air-polluting substances. Extra costs will be necessary if the emission ceilings for NOx, SO2, and NMVOS are to be realised. These factors have, to date

  1. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H

    2014-01-01

    occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results...

  2. Drug: D00657 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03A LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, THIAZIDES C03AA Thiazides, pla...in C03AA05 Polythiazide D00657 Polythiazide (JAN/USAN/IN

  3. Drug: D04161 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04161 Drug Fenquizone (USAN/INN) C14H12ClN3O3S 337.0288 337.7814 D04161.gif Diuret...EM C03 DIURETICS C03B LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, EXCL. THIAZIDES C03BA Sulfonamides, plain C03BA13 Fenquizone D04161 Fenquiz

  4. Predicting and auralizing acoustics in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    Although classrooms have fairly simple geometries, this type of room is known to cause problems when trying to predict their acoustics using room acoustics computer modeling. Some typical features from a room acoustics point of view are: Parallel walls, low ceilings (the rooms are flat), uneven...

  5. Cross Infection in Hospital Wards with Downward Ventilation - Different Locations of Return Openings without and with Partitions between Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Buus, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    A two-bed hospital ward with one standing healthcare assistant and a ceiling-mounted low-impulse semicircular inlet diffuser is simulated in a full-scale room. Tracer gas is used for simulating gaseous contaminants, and the concentration is measured at different air change rates and different pos...

  6. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT T.TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    @@ Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situations. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is" being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language.

  7. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT; T.; TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situa-tions. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language. Even at a glance, this setup is screwy for

  8. Characteristic Analysis of Fire Modeling Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hoon [Kyeongmin College, Ujeongbu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-15

    This report documents and compares key features of four zone models: CFAST, COMPBRN IIIE, MAGIC and the Fire Induced Vulnerability Evaluation (FIVE) methodology. CFAST and MAGIC handle multi-compartment, multi-fire problems, using many equations; COMPBRN and FIVE handle single compartment, single fire source problems, using simpler equation. The increased rigor of the formulation of CFAST and MAGIC does not mean that these codes are more accurate in every domain; for instance, the FIVE methodology uses a single zone approximation with a plume/ceiling jet sublayer, while the other models use a two-zone treatment without a plume/ceiling jet sublayer. Comparisons with enclosure fire data indicate that inclusion of plume/ceiling jet sublayer temperatures is more conservative, and generally more accurate than neglecting them. Adding a plume/ceiling jet sublayer to the two-zone models should be relatively straightforward, but it has not been done yet for any of the two-zone models. Such an improvement is in progress for MAGIC.

  9. Achieving Zero Net Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Unemployment in the United States can only be made worse by continued high levels of legal immigration. Especially serious is the threat from Latin America. We must help developing countries halt their population growth and impose a ceiling of 100,000 a year for total immigration to the United States. (RM)

  10. 77 FR 19345 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... prime interest rate published in the Wall Street Journal with a floor of 5.15% and a ceiling of not more... interest rate is a variable, per diem rate equal to the prime interest rate published in the Wall Street... law) or (b) the rate of interest per annum quoted in the ``money Rates'' section of The Wall...

  11. EU legislation in progress: Reform of the European Small Claims Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.

    2015-01-01

    On 23 June 2015, the European Parliament and the Council agreed on a compromise regarding the reform of the European Small Claims Procedure (ESCP). The compromise, which still requires to be formally adopted by the two co-legislators in the coming months, provides that the ceiling for claims will be

  12. Locker Rooms: The Durable Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Roy; Coons, John

    1997-01-01

    Offers advice on heavy-use locker-room design that provides easier maintenance and vandal resistance. Design features and materials used for flooring, ceilings, and walls are addressed as are built-in systems and equipment, toilet and shower fixtures and partitions, lockers, and mechanical and electrical systems. (GR)

  13. Safeguards against Takeover after Volkswagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the significance of the European Court's decision on the effects of the rules on the free movement of capital on the takeover safeguards in Volkswagen AG for restrictions on the right to vote, ownership ceilings, division into A and B share classes, increased majority...

  14. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs...

  15. To Climb or Not to Climb: The Probing of Self-Imposed Barriers that Delay or Deny Career Aspirations to be an Administrator in a Public School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history, women have faced numerous career barriers. Although significant progress has made it possible to break through the "glass ceiling," there remains a disproportionate percentage of women at the higher educational administrative positions, specifically the superintendent and high school principal roles. This study will…

  16. An evaluation of fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.T.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the testing and evaluation of four commercially available fiber optic intrusion detection systems. The systems were tested under carpet-type matting and in a vaulted ceiling application. This report will focus on nuisance alarm data and intrusion detection results. Tests were conducted in a mobile office building and in a bunker.

  17. An Australian Evaluation of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, B. C.; Neidhart, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using 463 fifteen year old girls from five girls' schools in the metropolitan area of Sydney, this study examines four aspects of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory that has been subject to criticism, namely the terminology used in certain JEPI items, item response rate ceilings, factorial structure of the inventory, and the relationship…

  18. 78 FR 46117 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... demonstrate long-term accountability and accomplishment. To meet the needs of this management approach, the... ceilings in the D Street portal tunnels, the anchor creep that led to this accident would likely have been... border. Tests of 26 tunnels in 13 European countries in 2010 by the European Tunnel Assessment...

  19. Theoretical Framework of A Computational Model of Auditory Memory for Music Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caetano, Marcelo; Wiering, Frans

    2014-01-01

    The bag of frames (BOF) approach commonly used in music emotion recognition (MER) has several limitations. The semantic gap is believed to be responsible for the glass ceiling on the performance of BOF MER systems. However, there are hardly any alternative proposals to address it. In this article, w

  20. Mathematical modeling of the radiation dose received from photons passing over and through shielding walls in a PET/CT suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Lotte S; Cormack, John

    2010-01-01

    Given that the financial cost of shielding PET/CT suites can be substantial, it has become increasingly important to be able to accurately assess the thickness of shielding required for barriers and whether it is necessary to extend such shielding all the way to the ceiling. The overall shielding...

  1. Decomposing wage distributions on a large data set - a quantile regression analysis of the gender wage gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; Brink Thomsen, Lars

    in this paper. Decompositions show that most of the glass ceiling is related to segregation in the form of either composition effects or different returns to males and females. A counterfactual wage distribution without differences in the constant terms (or ‘discrimination’) implies substantial changes...

  2. The impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages, and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    -friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression...

  3. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  4. Barsten in het glazen plafond : Opgeleide vrouwen op de curaçaose arbeidsmarkt: Mogelijkheden, barrières en strategieën

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibbelaar, P.M.E.

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the experiences of women, as regards their opportunities for advancing to executive positions within the Curaçao community and its organisations. The term ´glass ceiling´ has a central place in this. To begin, the research backgrounds will be stated, after which the goals wi

  5. Global Jobs%全球招聘新闻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A postdoctoral position is sought to study the ceils nuclear architecture in development, ageing and disease. The focus of the research will centre on how mutations within the lamins and other nuclear envelope proteins result in disease, including muscular dystrophy, cardiac conduction defects, lipodystrophy and ageing.

  6. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  7. 77 FR 37265 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... measure of potential future exposure (PFE). Under the interim final rule, the ``current credit exposure... as that included in the capital rules at 12 CFR part 3, Appendix A, Sec. 3(b)(7)(A). PFE, on the... market factors. The PFE, when added to the MTM amount, can be viewed as the anticipated ceiling of...

  8. Computer program for calculating the daylight level in a room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaans, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program has been developed that calculates the total quantity of daylight provided to an arbitrary place in a room by direct incident daylight, by reflected daylight from opposite buildings and ground, and by interreflected daylight from walls, ceilings and floors. Input data include the

  9. 俚语和成语.让你走出英语学习的黑暗%Without Slang and ldioms,Students are in the Dark!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Burke

    2007-01-01

    @@ We don't use that much slang…or do we? When I was working out at the gym with a French friend of mine, Pascale, a friend of his came up and enthusiastically inquired, "What's up?"Pascale paused a moment, took a step backward and looked up, checking out the ceiling.

  10. High-throughput amplicon sequencing reveals distinct communities within a corroding concrete sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayford, Barry I; Dennis, Paul G; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2012-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is an important problem in sewers. Here, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to characterize MICC communities. Microbial community composition differed between wall- and ceiling-associated MICC layers. Acidithiobacillus spp. were present at low abundances, and the communities were dominated by other sulfur-oxidizing-associated lineages.

  11. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  12. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  13. The Community College Presidency: An Asian Pacific American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, M. Jack

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes the status of Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) in higher education compared to their representation in chief executive positions, describing a glass ceiling effect and common stereotypes regarding APAs. Reviews characteristics of chief executive officers in California community colleges. Provides strategies for increasing APA representation…

  14. 俚语和成语.让你走出英语学习的黑暗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Burke

    2007-01-01

    We don't use that much slang…or do we?  When I was working out at the gym with a French friend of mine, Pascale, a friend of his came up and enthusiastically inquired, "What's up?"Pascale paused a moment, took a step backward and looked up, checking out the ceiling.……

  15. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  16. Effects of folic acid on in vitro astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells from neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xumei Zhang; Guowei Huang; Zhihong Tian; Guanglei Wang; Dalin Ren

    2009-01-01

    ary acidic protein/BrdU-positive ceils (P<0.05), and significantly decreased Ngn1 protein expression (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Folic acid promotes astrocytic differentiation of NSCs, which might be related to downregulation of Ngnl protein expression.

  17. One Team, One Fight: The Need for Security Assistance Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    architecture throughout the Cold War utilized security assistance funding to bolster the defenses of regional allies against the spread of fascism and...ceiling on sales that must be approved by Congress, currently at $14 million for major defense articles for nations besides Japan , Australia, New Zealand

  18. Experimental results obtained in the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Boudenot, Jean-Claude; Etten, van Wim

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been performed in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber (VIRC). This chamber has varying angles between wall, floor and ceiling. Inside the VIRC a diffuse, statistically uniform electromagnetic field is created without the use of a mechanical rotating mode stirrer. In compari

  19. 7 CFR 58.126 - Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staffed with qualified and trained personnel for quality control and analytical testing. The laboratory... walls, ceilings, partitions, and posts of rooms in which milk, or dairy products are processed... storage rooms. (c) Floors. The floors of all rooms in which milk, or dairy products are...

  20. 脑筋急转弯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Two cops walked into a room with no windows and found a dead man who obviously hung himself from the ceiling, though they couldn't figure out how.2 There was no chair beneath him that he might have jumped off of, or a table. Just a puddle of water. How'd he do it?

  1. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Habitat for Humanity South Sarasota County, Nokomis, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder won an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for this super-insulated home that features a 5.5-inch-thick layer of open-cell spray foam on the inside of the attic ceiling, providing an R-20-insulated, cool, conditioned space for the home’s high-efficiency SEER 15 heat pumps.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Manz, H.

    2010-01-01

    is the heat transfer at the internal room surfaces. Increased convection is expected due to high air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. In order to improve the predictability, heat transfer during night...

  3. A Phenomenon of Overqualification in Personnel Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Saul; Nevo, Baruch

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of overqualification as a phenomenon of nonlinearity in the upper deciles of the ability-performance relationship. In three job contexts (military, academic, and industrial), the ability-performance relationship is characterized by a strong linear component below the mean and a ceiling effect at various points above…

  4. 76 FR 65945 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Seattle, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... ceiling. Over fifty percent of the inbound IFR traffic to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport comes from... regulation only upon a reasoned determination that the benefits of the intended regulation justify its costs... Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-4) requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the costs,...

  5. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... ceiling for STS loans, provided FCUs made the loans within the requirements of the rule. 75 FR 2447 (May 5... help reduce the chance of a borrower defaulting on an STS loan. While the final rule imposes a minimum... of Management and Budget. Executive Order 13132 Executive Order 13132 encourages...

  6. The DoDDS (Department of Defense Dependents Schools) Class of 1982: Characteristics of Students Remaining in the Same High School, 1980-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    as would be expected, P and that there is no evidence of floor or ceiling effects. The reliabilities are adequate for making mean comparisons...Waiter or waitress , bus boy, or cook 13.3 9.2 Babysitting or child care 4.0 24.5 Farm or agricultural work .... Factory work (un- or semi-skilled

  7. Low temperature heating and high temperature cooling embedded water based surface heating and cooling systems

    CERN Document Server

    Babiak, Jan; Petras, Dusan

    2009-01-01

    This Guidebook describes the systems that use water as heat-carrier and when the heat exchange within the conditioned space is more than 50% radiant. Embedded systems insulated from the main building structure (floor, wall and ceiling) are used in all types of buildings and work with heat carriers at low temperatures for heating and relatively high temperature for cooling.

  8. All about Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  9. Women and Entrepreneurship. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerka, Sandra

    The spectrum of women-owned businesses ranges from full corporations to microenterprises. Women business owners share many characteristics and motivations of business owners generally; other factors are dissatisfaction with "glass ceiling" limits, desire for job flexibility, and age discrimination. Women entrepreneurs often face barriers…

  10. The Razor’s Edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. economy faces deeper problems, though immediate danger subsided As if watching a replay of the fight over the U.S. national debt ceiling in 2011, the crisis billed as the "fiscal cliff" ended up with a last-minute compromise between thetwo major political parties of the United States.

  11. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Carpentry. Course: Rough-In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Lyle

    One of two individualized courses included in a carpentry curriculum, this course includes those skills and knowledge related to and included in the carpentry tasks of structure framing and forming. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Excavation Layout--Concrete and Forms, (2) Floor and Wall Framing, (3) Ceiling Framing, and (4) Roof. Each…

  12. Sign of the Times: American Sign Language in Contour Line Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin de Poinsot, Nan

    2009-01-01

    There is no denying that human hands throughout art history have been alluring subjects for artists. Think of Michelangelo's portrayal of God and Adam's graceful hands on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, reaching out longingly to each other. In German Expressionist artist Egon Schiele's portraits, the long, bony fingers of his models' hands seem to…

  13. Perovskites in the comb roof base of hornets : Their possible function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Joseph, Z; Galushko, D; Ermakov, N; Bergman, DJ; Barkay, Z; Stokroos, [No Value; Van der Want, J

    2005-01-01

    On the ceiling of the Oriental hornet comb cell, there are mineral granules of poly-crystalline material known to belong to the group of perovskites. In a comb cell intended to house a worker hornet, the roof base usually carries one or several such perovskite granules containing titanium (Ti), wher

  14. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  15. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: Normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Montagne, B.; Hendriks, A.W.; Perret, D.I.; de Haan, E.H.F.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognitio

  16. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Montagne, B.; Hendriks, A.W.; Perrett, D.I.; Haan, E.H. de

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognitio

  17. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: Normative data from healthy participants aged

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Montagne, B.; Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Perrett, D.I.; Haan, E.H.F. de

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognitio

  18. 77 FR 37793 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...-124-AD; Amendment 39-17099; AD 2012-12-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain the Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, and -300ER... ceiling support structure of Section 41, in airplanes incorporating the overhead space utilization...

  19. Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership : A Selected Bibliogrpahy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Scott, Brian C. Broadening Army Leaders for the Volatile , Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous Environment. Strategy Research Project. Carlisle Barracks...Chipping Away at the Glass Ceiling: Gender Spillovers in Corporate Leadership. Santa Monica: RAND, 2011. 13pp. http://www.rand.org/pubs/ working_papers

  20. 75 FR 32185 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... of present invention has been employed in the targeted discovery of G protein-independent receptor-based pharmacotherapeutics. These discoveries represent an entirely new GPCR-based G protein... and dust which may be located in the plenum and potentially fall when ceiling suspended...