WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceilings

  1. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  2. Diffuse ceiling ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is an innovative ventilation concept where the suspended ceiling serves as air diffuser to supply fresh air into the room. Compared with conventional ventilation systems, diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk due to the low...

  3. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role...

  4. Multiple Glass Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Giovanni; Hassink, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    Both vertical (between job levels) and horizontal (within job levels) mobility can be sources of wage growth. We find that the glass ceiling operates at both margins. The unexplained part of the wage gap grows across job levels (glass ceiling at the vertical margin) and across the deciles of the intra-job-level wage distribution (glass ceiling at the horizontal margin). This implies that women face many glass ceilings, one for each job level above the second, and that the glass ceiling is a p...

  5. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    cooling capacity, energy saving, low investment cost and low noise level; while the limitations include condensation risk and the limit on the room geometry. Furthermore, the crucial design parameters are summarized and their effects on the system performance are discussed. In addition to the stand...... is not well structured with this system. These become the motivations in developing the design guide. This design guide aims to establish a systematic understanding of diffuse ceiling ventilation and provide assistance in designing of such a system. The guide is targeted at design engineers, architects...... and manufacturers and the users of diffuse ceiling technology. The design guide introduces the principle and key characteristics of room air distribution with diffuse ceiling ventilation. It provides an overview of potential benefit and limitations of this technology. The benefits include high thermal comfort, high...

  6. Glass ceilings of professionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    The term glass ceiling is a political term often used to describe an unbreakable barrier that isnot visible with the human eye, but it keeps minorities from rising up i.e. it is a barrier to minoritygroups, in the past (and sometimes still) for women, that stops them from achieving theirtrue potential.

  7. What Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Post, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    A recent study drawing on data from the Census Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggests that the wage gap between men and women has virtually disappeared, and that the so-called "glass ceiling" results more from age and qualifications than from explicit discrimination. (SLD)

  8. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  9. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    with conventional ventilation systems (mixing or displacement ventilation), diffuse ceiling ventilation can significantly reduce or even eliminate draught risk in the occupied zone. Moreover, this ventilation system presents a promising opportunity for energy saving, because of the low pressure loss, extended free...

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=ceiling_fans.pr_crit_ceiling_fans

  11. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  13. Glass Ceiling : Women in management

    OpenAIRE

    Rantala, Virve

    2010-01-01

    This study has examined the phenomenon called Glass Ceiling. It has approached the phenomenon in two different views. One is career development and another one is women in management. Main purpose for this study was to inspect women working life and career opportunities. Why women’s career developments end in a certain level? What is glass ceiling and how to break it? Paper also investigates reasons behind the effect. Prejudices and biases are the worst enemies for women’s career. How to chan...

  14. Jagged Edges of the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Victoria L.

    2004-01-01

    Although many aspiring young women might believe the glass ceiling was shattered a decade ago, they still need to understand how that glass ceiling impacted an older generation of women in educational leadership. They also must be aware that some segments of the glass ceiling might still exist. This article provides a historical overview of the…

  15. Modeling of Ceiling Fire Spread and Thermal Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    under a PMMA ceiling and flame lengths under an inert ceiling are found to be in reasonable agreement with full-scale behavior. Although fire spread...5 3 Flame Lengths under Full-Scale Ceilings 12 4 Correlation of Flame Length under Inert Ceilings 16 5 Correlation of Flame Length under No 234 Model...Ceilings 17 6 Correlation of Flame Length under No B8811 Model Ceilings 18 7 Correlation of Flame Length under No. 223 Model Ceilings 19 8

  16. An Economic Theory of Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Grout; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2009-01-01

    In the 'glass ceiling' debate there appear to be two strongly held and opposing interpretations of the evidence, one suggesting it is really the result of gender differences and the other that there is discrimination by gender. This paper provides an economic theory of the glass ceiling and one of the main insights of our analysis is that in some real sense these two interpretations are not in conflict with each other. The glass ceiling emerges as an equilibrium phenomenon when firms compete ...

  17. The Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    While minorities and women have made considerable gains in entering the workforce in the last few decades, there remains a dearth of minorities and women at management levels. This phenomenon has come to be known as the "glass ceiling." The Department of Labor defines the glass ceiling as those artificial barriers based on attitudinal or…

  18. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  19. The glass ceiling in nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D I

    1993-01-01

    Women managers in business and health care have experienced discrimination related to advancement in management. Nurse executives must understand the strategies to overcome the barriers, the "glass ceiling," as well as implications for future practice. Women executives need an organized blueprint and the tools to dismantle the glass ceiling and overcome the political and discriminatory barriers to success.

  20. Women's Career Development at the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Pamela L.

    1998-01-01

    For women, success in shattering the glass ceiling lies not in adapting to a male workplace culture but in using career strategies such as self-knowledge, multiple mentors, integration of body and soul, and fluid, customized careers. (SK)

  1. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  2. An Economic Theory of the Glass Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Grout; In-Uck Park; Silvia Sonderegger

    2007-01-01

    The glass ceiling is one of the most controversial and emotive aspects of employment in organisations. This paper provides a model of the glass ceiling that exhibits the following features that are frequently thought to characterise the problem: (i) there is a lower number of female employees in higher positions, (ii) women have to work harder than men to obtain equivalent jobs, (iii) women are then paid less than men when promoted, and (iv) some organisations are more female friendly than ot...

  3. The perception of the glass ceiling phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Barriers that hinder career advancement of women are both complex and varied. They have become top priority for organizations and the government. The "glass ceiling" is a term that symbolizes a variety of barriers that prevent individuals from advancing up the corporate hierarchy. Although many women hold management positions, few have made the breakthrough to toplevel positions. To determine what conditions are required for women to break the glass ceiling and attain management pos...

  4. 48 CFR 452.216-74 - Ceiling Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling Price. 452.216-74... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.216-74 Ceiling Price. As prescribed in 416.670, insert the following clause: Ceiling Price (FEB 1988) The ceiling price of this...

  5. 16 CFR 305.13 - Labeling for ceiling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling for ceiling fans. 305.13 Section... Disclosures § 305.13 Labeling for ceiling fans. (a) Ceiling fans—(1) Content. Any covered product that is a ceiling fan shall be labeled clearly and conspicuously on the principal display panel with the following...

  6. The Real Glass Ceiling. Your Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    There is a powerful and common glass ceiling (barrier that prevents capable employees from being promoted) that affects men as much as women. Between middle management and the executive level, corporate culture shifts to one based on power and a worker must play by new rules even if these have never been explained. (JOW)

  7. Ouch! Or ESL and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliacci, Naomi

    The realities of the glass ceiling, which prevents qualified women, minorities, and many English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students from advancement and promotion, are rarely discussed in English for Special Purposes (ESP)/ESL programs and courses. This paper explores the barriers to success, focusing on the sociolinguistic factors of verbal and…

  8. Glass Ceiling for Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedler, Petra; Glastra, Folke; Hake, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the place of women in higher education in the Netherlands. Suggests that it is not a question of numbers but of orientation, field, and the glass ceiling. Asserts that despite some improvement, higher education may be one of the last bastions against the recognition of women's worth. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

  9. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan

    2017-01-01

    A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large ......-uniformity air distribution and further led to the draught problem in the occupied zone. This system was recommended to apply in the small offices instead of large, open spaces....

  10. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  11. 48 CFR 1352.216-77 - Ceiling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceiling price. 1352.216-77... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.216-77 Ceiling price. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1316.601-70 and 1316.602-70, insert the following clause: Ceiling Price (APR 2010) The...

  12. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation is a novel air distribution device that combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. A diffuse ceiling distributes the supply air above the acoustic tiles and has proven performance in laboratory experiments. To study the performance in real conditi...

  13. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  14. WOMEN WORKFORCE LOOKING THROUGH THE GLASS CEILING

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıçiçek, Reyhan; Çopuroğlu, Filiz; Aytekin, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Women have begun to take part in business lifeintensively in the last century. However, despite the rapid rise in the numberof women in business world, the proportion of women among senior managers andleaders has been very low. Research on the subject demonstrates that women facedifficulties called ‘Glass Ceiling’, which cannot be seen apparently and at thesame time which is hard to overcome in order to reach the senior executivepositions. Glass ceiling refers to the difficulties that take pl...

  15. Existence of Glass Ceiling in Public Universities of Lahore (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Asifa Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    Glass ceiling is a set of unseen factors which adversely affect females upward career growth and prevent them to get to top positions. This study is meant to explore existence of glass ceiling in public universities of Lahore (Pakistan); and factors responsible for creating this glass ceiling effect. The respondents of this study are females heading different departments in their respective universities. The results of this study show that different cultural and social, family and organizatio...

  16. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  17. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  18. METHOD FOR EVALUATING MOLD GROWTH ON CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method to extract mold spores from porous ceiling tiles was developed using a masticator blender. Ceiling tiles were inoculated and analyzed using four species of mold. Statistical analysis comparing results obtained by masticator extraction and the swab method was performed. T...

  19. 48 CFR 217.7404-2 - Price ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price ceiling. 217.7404-2 Section 217.7404-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Contract Actions 217.7404-2 Price ceiling. UCAs shall include a not-to-exceed price. ...

  20. 48 CFR 243.204-70-2 - Price ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price ceiling. 243.204-70..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.204-70-2 Price ceiling. Unpriced change orders shall include a not-to-exceed price. [75 FR 48277, Aug. 10, 2010] ...

  1. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given...

  2. Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Cheryl E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the existence of a glass ceiling effect within community colleges by examining faculty, staff and administrator's perceptions of a glass ceiling as it relates to the advancement of women at their institutions. This was done by using a cross-sectional survey administered electronically to faculty, staff…

  3. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  4. Women in boards: Dichotomising the glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krambia-Kapardis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies the reasons why glass ceiling and in the case of Cyprus “concrete ceiling” exists in both the private and public sectors despite enacted relevant legislation to ensure equality in work. Initially a qualitative research was carried out with the use of focus groups to identify the issues at hand. Following the results of the qualitative research, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the CEOs or the highest rank official of 120 organisations, 38% of those responded. This research, the first of its kind, addressed both the private and public sectors and confirms what has already been addressed in literature in other countries, namely that the main barrier hindering the career prospects of women is the family factor. In the public sector however where human intervention is eliminated women are better represented in the top-level positions.

  5. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  6. Parental leave and the glass ceiling in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, James; Skogman Thoursie, Peter; Vroman, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we update and extend "Is There a Glass Ceiling in Sweden?" (Albrecht et al. 2003) by documenting the extent to which the gender log wage gap across the distribution in Sweden has changed over the period 1998-2008. We then examine the Swedish glass ceiling in 2008 in more detail by documenting how it differs for white-collar versus blue-collar workers and for private- versus public-sector workers. We also examine when in the life cycle the glass ceiling effect arises and how thi...

  7. Control of the dew point for refreshing ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrach, R.; Nitz, T.

    1996-03-01

    The functioning of a refreshing ceiling, delivered in water, needs a global regulation which must take in consideration, the local, the building and its environment. Then efficiency and energy and investments economy are optimized. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O

    1985-01-01

    postoperatively with or without external heating from a heating ceiling. Central and peripheral temperatures, oxygen consumption, plasma catecholamines and shivering were measured. A method for continuous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during spontaneous breathing is described...

  9. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  10. Analisa Persepsi Glass Ceiling Pada Grup Hotel Accor Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hariono, Ardhi Ananta Kurnia; Theios, Jefson

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persepsi karyawan perempuan akan glass ceiling pada grup hotel Accor Surabaya melalui hambatan pribadi, hambatan situasional, dan hambatan sosial. Penelitian ini di fokuskan pada kelompok umur dan status pernikahan. Metode pengumpulan data menggunakan survei kepada 50 karyawan perempuan yang mejabat pada posisi manajerial di grup Hotel Accor Surabaya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan persepsi glass ceiling pada interval kecil. Untuk kelom...

  11. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  12. The glass ceiling: A biological phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulpen, Tom W J

    2017-09-01

    Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong. In humans hormonal and neuro-imaging studies show ample evidence for fundamental and long lasting pregnancy induced brain changes, not only in the limbic system, but also in the cortical networks like theory of mind and mirror neuron system. Recent research shows pronounced and long lasting brain changes in several of these areas. It can be concluded that there exists a maternal brain that drives mother's behaviour and priorities. Research in men shows that the more fathers are involved in raising their children, the more caring behaviour they develop. Structural anatomical changes are found in neural regions involved in parental motivation. These studies show that brain plasticity in fathers is experience dependent. In Nordic countries, a policy of paid paternal leave followed by a flexible shared parental leave, stimulates fatherly behaviour. This might reduce men's eagerness for top careers, thus creating better opportunities for women. Demolition of women's glass ceiling starts with the father. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Principle, function, experiences, hybrid chilled ceilings; Prinzip, Funktion, Erfahrungen. Hybrid-Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Uwe W. [Hochschule Luzern (Switzerland). Technik und Architektur

    2010-12-15

    Hybrid chilled ceilings combine a radiation chilled ceiling with thermal activations of a concrete ceiling. The activation permits the utilization of alternative and/or small cold generators for the efficient night cooling. The traditional chilled ceiling grants a speedy reaction to load variations as well as a reduction of the reverberation periods. In addition, the combination supplies a draught-free insertion of air. Beside established solutions, MWH Barcol-Air (Staefa, Switzerland) also offers project-specific hybrid chilled ceilings.

  14. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. Previous research was focused on combining PV with additional total volume air distribution, i.e. mixing ventilation or displacement ventilation......, the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher than...... temperature for chilled ceiling was 15,5/16,8°C at room air temperature of 26°C and 19,5/20,6°C at 28°C. During the experiment the subjects were performing typical office tasks at workstations with computers. Exposure included also increased activity level office work for a period of 25 min...

  15. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  16. Glass ceiling in SMEs? Women, managerialization and performance

    OpenAIRE

    L. Songini; L. Gnan

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the role of women in a sample of Italian small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), both non-family and family owned businesses. We assume that the existence of a glass ceiling implies that women are not in a position to exercise an active role in the company; ownership per se does not assure the elimination of the glass ceiling, while the broader involvement of women in governance and management roles, as we may suppose in family firms, may represent a better situation ...

  17. A Modest Manifesto for Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Debra E.; Fletcher, Joyce K.

    2000-01-01

    Approaches to the glass ceiling--encouraging women to adopt "masculine" attributes, accommodating women's unique needs, or celebrating women's differences--have shortcomings. A fourth approach links equity and effectiveness. "Small wins" recognizes that gender inequity is rooted in cultural patterns and uses small initiatives…

  18. Breaking the Educational Glass Ceiling: An Interview with Harry Lenderman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Harry; Sandelands, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Purpose - To examine the role that corporations can and are playing in removing restrictions to a college or university education for their employees - the educational glass ceiling. Design/methodology/approach - An interview format is used with an experienced academic, and learning and development practitioner, drawing upon experiences and…

  19. Managers' Beliefs about the Glass Ceiling: Interpersonal and Organizational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Tina C.; Beehr, Terry A.; Hansen, Curtiss P.; Webster, Jennica

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling refers to the difficulty of women trying to be promoted into the top management levels. The present study examined managers' potential explanations, implicit or explicit, for why women rarely reach the top hierarchical levels in their own organization. Among 685 managers at a large Midwestern insurance company, a model was…

  20. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  1. Breakthrough: The Career Woman's Guide to Shattering the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Margaret L.

    This practical guide for all working women shows the reader how to recognize the barriers likely to confront her and to find the most effective way of breaking through. Chapter 1 summarizes causes of the glass ceiling and provides pointers on recognizing which situations are likely to cause problems. Chapter 2 helps the reader to understand her…

  2. Smashing into the Glass Ceiling for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Camilla; Gold, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 10 women administrators in a British metropolitan district council revealed the glass ceiling to be a complex phenomenon reaching beyond the employment sphere. Their career progression was hindered by lack of career counseling, family-work conflicts, lack of management development for women, and particularly a managerial culture…

  3. Circumventing the Glass Ceiling: Women Executives in American State Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Angela M.; Wright, Deil S.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 1984 (n=489) and 1988 (n=658) surveys show that female executives in state government have progressed in top positions in certain types of agencies, but much progress has occurred by avoiding, not breaking, the glass ceiling. Most notable male-female differences are in party affiliation, age, interagency mobility, career progress, and…

  4. A diagnosis of discrimination. Women physicians and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, C

    1994-01-01

    Author Christy Sebastian writes about some of the limits facing women physicians, from the glass ceiling on down. She relates the limits faced by women physicians to the gender differences--both subtle and blatant--evident in society as a whole.

  5. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  6. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  7. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...

  8. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  9. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...

  10. Breaking through the glass ceiling: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, S K

    1996-11-01

    Many companies have recognized that the workforce of the future will be significantly more diverse than in the past. A substantial number of these new employees will be women. Industry must create an environment that attracts the best, brightest, and most talented women and provide an environment that empowers them to reach their full potential. Barriers to advancement, such as the real or perceived "glass ceiling," inhibit the individual and ultimately negatively affect the company. Successful companies will recognize that gender diversity is a critical business strategy and implement aggressive programs to assist women in breaking through the glass ceiling. Gender diversity initiatives should include examination of quality of life issues, training and development, organizational policies and practices, and management accountability. Mentoring programs clearly play an important role in gender diversity programs. Personal mentoring experiences in academic and corporate environments, as well as a pilot mentoring program at Land O'Lakes, will be discussed.

  11. Expatriate Glass Ceiling : The Perception of Malaysian Female Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Chandrika

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from research has repeatedly pointed to the small number of women managers sent on expatriation. The percentage of female expatriates during the 1990’s was as low as 14% of all expatriate managers (Windham/NFTC, 1997). Researchers found that, similar to the glass ceiling that prevents women from reaching top management levels, there seems to be another glass barrier that stops them from taking up international assignments. This subtle, invisible barrier has been referred to as the ex...

  12. Glass ceiling effects: the case of taiwanese top executives

    OpenAIRE

    Tzu-i Wang; Jennjou Chen

    2010-01-01

    Gender discrimination in labor markets has been an important issue in labor economics. The main purpose of this paper is to empirically study glass ceiling effects, and investigate whether female workers are indeed being discriminated against, particularly during the promotion process, in top management positions in Taiwan. This paper uses data from 4,485 large firms in Taiwan to study whether there are gender preferences when the chairperson of a company chooses a chief executive officer (CE...

  13. Rent sharing as a driver of the glass ceiling effect

    OpenAIRE

    Matano, Alessia; Naticchioni, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that rent sharing plays a role in accounting for the glass ceiling effect. We make use of a unique employer-employee panel database for Italy from 1996 to 2003, which allows controlling for observed individual and firm heterogeneity and for collective bargaining. Moreover, by means of IV quantile fixed effects estimates we can cope with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity. We then go on to discuss the possible related explanations.

  14. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  15. Evaluation of ceiling lifts in health care settings: patient outcome and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Yu, Shicheng; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Ceiling lifts have been introduced into health care settings to reduce manual patient lifting and thus occupational injuries. Although growing evidence supports the effectiveness of ceiling lifts, a paucity of research links indicators, such as quality of patient care or patient perceptions, to the use of these transfer devices. This study explored the relationship between ceiling lift coverage rates and measures of patient care quality (e.g., incidence of facility-acquired pressure ulcers, falls, urinary infections, urinary incontinence, and assaults [patient to staff] in acute and long-term care facilities), as well as patient perceptions of satisfaction with care received while using ceiling lifts in a complex care facility. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to generate data. A significant inverse relationship was found between pressure ulcer rates and ceiling lift coverage; however, this effect was attenuated by year. No significant relationships existed between ceiling lift coverage and patient outcome indicators after adding the "year" variable to the model. Patients generally approved of the use of ceiling lifts and recognized many of the benefits. Ceiling lifts are not detrimental to the quality of care received by patients, and patients prefer being transferred by ceiling lifts. The relationship between ceiling lift coverage and pressure ulcer rates warrants further investigation. Copyright (c) 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of thermally activated building construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    An integrated system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation with thermally activated building construction (TABS) was proposed recently. In this system, TABS is encapsulated by diffuse ceiling panel and cannot have directly heat exchange with the room. The aim of this study is to investigate...... the effect of diffuse ceiling panel on the energy performance of TABS in both heat and cooling mode. Experiments are carried out in a full-scale test facility with the integrated system, and the cases without diffuse ceiling are also measured as references. The results indicate that the diffuse ceiling has...... an opposite effect on the heating and cooling capacity of TABS. In addition, a numerical model is built and validated by the measured data. The validated model is further applied to conduct a paramedical study on the materials of the diffuse ceiling panel....

  17. The Perception of 'Glass Ceiling' and its Impact on Career Progression of Female Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The glass ceiling is a transparent barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy. Glass ceiling researchers have attempted to determine whether a glass ceiling exists by examining the actual promotion decision to top management, the percentage of management positions held by women in an organization, salary of male versus female managers, and ratings of potential promotion candidates to top management. The aim of this research is to investigate the vari...

  18. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling ....... The numerical results reveal that even distribution of heat sources gives a lower draught risk environment than centralized distribution. In addition, there is a significant increase on the draught risk with increase of room height....

  19. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonett, Jotham

    2015-01-01

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  20. Numerical Prediction of Airflow in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In ventilated rooms the air inlet device is often placed close to the ceiling. The air inlet will form a wall jet or a reattached wall jet. The wall jet may be disturbed by ceilingmounted obstacles such as light fittings or ceiling beams which, in some cases, can cause the air jet to be deflected...

  1. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  2. Do Asian American Faculty Face a Glass Ceiling in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the glass ceiling hypothesis in relation to Asian American faculty using data from the 1993 National Study of Post-Secondary Faculty for 1,019 Asian American faculty members. Data limitations prevent concluding that such faculty do or do not face a glass ceiling; however, baseline findings for future research are established. (SLD)

  3. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR.

  4. THE IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ON GLASS CEILING: AEGEAN REGION AGENCIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İNEL, Merve; GARAYEV, Vener; BAKAY, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between organizationalstructure (mechanistic/organic) and glass ceiling, the concept known asnegative discrimination against women in workplace. The data collected fromrandomly selected 81 organizations in Aegean Region of Turkey was analyzedthrough hierarchical stepwise multiple regression. The results of the finalregression model suggest that glass ceiling is not dependent on organizationalstructure, while the control variable gender has a negative relat...

  5. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 2 – Human response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Pastuszka, Zuzanna; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2016-01-01

    The response of 24 subjects to the local environment established by localized chilled beam combined with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) was studied and compared with response to the environment generated by mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV) at two temperature conditions of 26°C and...

  6. Pipelines of Progress: An Update on the Glass Ceiling Initiative. A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    The "glass ceiling" refers to those barriers that have prevented the advancement of women and minorities into the top levels of executive management in major U.S. corporations. In 1991, the U.S. Department of Labor released a report describing the Glass Ceiling Initiative. This document reports on what occurred in the year following the…

  7. Individually controlled localized chilled beam in conjunction with chilled ceiling: Part 1 – Physical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arghand, Taha; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kosonen, Risto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the indoor environment generated by localized chilled beam coupled with chilled ceiling (LCBCC) and compares it with the environment generated by mixing ventilation coupled with chilled ceiling (CCMV). The experiments were performed in a mock-up of single office (4.1 m × 4...

  8. Evaluation of ceiling lifts: transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Mechanical lifting devices have been developed to reduce healthcare worker injuries related to patient handling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ceiling lifts in comparison to floor lifts based on transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions in three long-term care facilities with varying ceiling lift coverage. The time required to transfer or reposition patients along with patient comfort levels were recorded for 119 transfers. Transfers performed with ceiling lifts required on average less time (bed to chair transfers: 156.9 seconds for ceiling lift, 273.6 seconds for floor lift) and were found to be more comfortable for patients. In the three facilities, 143 healthcare workers were surveyed on their perceptions of patient handling tasks and equipment. For both transferring and repositioning tasks, staff preferred to use ceiling lifts and also found them to be less physically demanding. Further investigation is needed on repositioning tasks to ensure safe practice.

  9. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to document and analyse performance of a new design of diffuse ceiling ventilation system in a typical office room. A full scale measurement is carried out in a climate chamber with an office setup at the Technical University of Denmark. Indoor air temperatures, air speeds, wall...... surface temperatures, pressure loss of the ceiling and ventilation effectiveness are measured for an air change rate of 3.5 h-1 and 5.1 h -1 respectively. A computational fluid dynamics model of the office with the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is built and validated by the full scale measurement....... The measurements of pressure loss across the ceiling show a low pressure drop between the plenum and the occupied zone. Ventilation effectiveness is measured to be close to 1 on average under the tested conditions. It is shown that the diffuse ceiling ventilation system is able to remove indoor pollutant...

  10. Thresholds and Glass Ceilings: Career Pattern of Women Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-05-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  11. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    . The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... with swirling flow generates a flow pattern in the room which is rather uninfluenced by the thermal load. The flow is highly mixed above the occupied zone and the air movement penetrates the occupied zone close to the walls. All systems are tested in the same room with the same heat load consisting of two...... manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room...

  12. Women's participation in parliament: 'Glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 'glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection on participation of women in parliament and other political institutions are examined in this article. 'Glass ceiling' syndrome, which means invisible, but almost impenetrable border that women face in professional life, keeping them away from positions of influence and progress in career, is the main reason for the small number of women involved in politics. According to the focus of the research, there are three groups of barriers to women's political participation. Most researchers examine the influence of the political system, institutional and legal mechanisms, the question of their transparency and functional improvement. Significantly less frequent approach came from authors who are concentrated on the social and economic barriers, financial conditions and the broader social context. The third group consists of those who are considering the ideological and psychological barriers, patriarchal cultural patterns, traditional gender roles, self-confidence, ambition and women's desire to be involved in politics. Political parties are key actors in the process of discrimination against women, because they do not allow them to be selected in a number of political functions. There are many factors that determine that the issue of gender equality is variously interpreted in political parties. The most present are contextual and ideological factors, referring to a different definition of the status of women on the political agenda, the social climate in terms of gender equality and respect for human rights, the level of social development and political freedom. Then come organizational factors pertaining to the structure of parties, the manner in which the leadership is elected, whether there are internal women's pressure groups and lobbying, and are women leaders are visible on high positions in decision-making process. Finally, there are institutional-legal factors, which include the type

  13. Studi Deskriptif Persepsi Karyawan Hotel Tentang Glass Ceiling Pada Wanita Dalam Pencapaian Jabatan Puncak Manajemen Hotel Di Kota Tanjung Selor

    OpenAIRE

    Merang, Merycona

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui persepsi karyawan hotel tentang glass ceiling pada wanita dalam pencapaian jabatan puncak manajemen hotel di kota Tanjung Selor. Glass ceiling memiliki enam variable yaitu diri sendiri, tingkat pendidikan, lingkungan keluarga, kesehatan, lingkungan sosial, dan lingkungan kerja.Teknik analisa yang digunakan adalah kuantitatif deskriptif, crosstab dan chi square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan, persepsi karyawan tentang glass ceil...

  14. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study is reported in this paper for a diffuse ceiling ventilation concept. The analyses were carried out with two different porous surfaces mounted in a suspended ceiling: perforated tiles of aluminium and of gypsum. Ventilation air was supplied above the suspended ceiling effecti...... surface which increases the potential and applicability of the concept. Risk of thermal discomfort was not disclosed but the study did show evidence of large fluctuating air movements which could stem from transient behaviour creating sensations of draught to the occupants....

  15. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  16. Analysis of Rapidly Developing Low Cloud Ceilings in a Stable Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Barrett, Joe H., III; Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Baggett, G. Wayne

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Space Meteorology Group (SMG) issue 30 to 90 minute forecasts for low cloud ceilings at the Space Shuttle Landing Facility (TTS) to support Space Shuttle landings. Mission verification statistics have shown ceilings to be the number one forecast challenge for SMG. More specifically, forecasters at SMG are concerned with any rapidly developing clouds/ceilings below 8000 ft in a stable, capped thermodynamic environment. Therefore, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to examine archived events of rapid stable cloud formation resulting in ceilings below 8000 ft, and document the atmospheric regimes favoring this type of cloud development. The AMU examined the cool season months of November to March during the years of 1993-2003 for days that had low-level inversions and rapid, stable low cloud formation that resulted in ceilings violating the Space Shuttle Flight Rules. The AMU wrote and modified existing code to identify inversions from the morning (-10 UTC) Cape Canaveral, FL rawinsonde (XMR) during the cool season and output pertinent sounding information. They parsed all days with cloud ceilings below 8000 ft at TTS, forming a database of possible rapidly-developing low ceiling events. Days with precipitation or noticeable fog burn-off situations were excluded from the database. In the first phase of this work, only the daytime hours were examined for possible ceiling development events since low clouds are easier to diagnose with visible satellite imagery. Phase II of this work includes expanding the database to include nighttime cases which is underway as this abstract is being written. For the nighttime cases, the AMU will analyze both the 00 UTC soundings and the 10 UTC soundings to examine those data for the presence of a low-level inversion. The 00 UTC soundings will probably not have a surface-based inversion, but the presence of inversions or "neutral" layers aloft and below 8,000 ft will most likely help define the stable

  17. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist?: A Cross-National Perspective on Gender Income Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane; Myeong-Su Yun

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross-National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. Conventional thinking about the glass ceiling highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a certain point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the...

  18. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Cross-National Perspective on

    OpenAIRE

    Gang, Ira N.; Landon-Lane, John S.; Yun, Myeong-Su

    2003-01-01

    We compare male and female upward labor income mobility in Germany and the United States using the GSOEP-PSID Cross National Equivalent File. Our main interest is to test whether a glass ceiling exists for women. The standard glass ceiling hypothesis highlights the belief that the playing field is level for women and men in the labor market up to a point, after which there is an effective limit on advancement for women. We examine the glass ceiling hypothesis by looking at the dynamics of the...

  19. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially...... between the tested systems. Chilled ceiling combined with personalized ventilation working as the only air supplying system may be optimal solution in many buildings.......In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...

  20. [Glass ceiling for women in academic medicine in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, C; Leger, A; Steichen, O

    2018-06-03

    To determine whether career development in academic medicine is more difficult for women than for men, and, if any, the nature and level of barriers to this progression. Extraction of full-time medical staff in a Parisian hospital group, through the SIGAPS platform; an online questionnaire survey of career choices and barriers experienced by full-time male and female physicians. The study population comprises 181 hospital practitioners and 141 academic physicians (49 associate professors and 92 full professors). Women represent 49% of the medical staff but 15% of full professors. This underrepresentation of women is more important among intensivists/anesthesiologists than technique-based specialists (such as radiologists, biologists…). There is no difference in scientific output, marital status and parenthood between women and men. On the other hand, there is a difference in attitudes highlighted by the EVAR risk-taking scale as well as in the burden of familial involvement and the prejudices felt by women during the academic selection process. The glass ceiling exists in one of the largest French hospital group. Career development principles promote merit, but should decrease the benefit of "masculine" attitudes in the competition for academic positions. Academic selection criteria should evolve to limit the disadvantage of women related to deeper familial involvement and less competitive strategies and risk-taking attitudes. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  2. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, Florian; Speck, Thomas; Speck, Olga; Grießhammer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions. (paper)

  3. The glass ceiling in Irish healthcare: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore from the perspectives of top-level nurses holding the formal position of director of nursing their perceptions and interpretations of their experiences in the Irish healthcare system. This paper presents some findings from a nation-wide study, which is qualitative in approach using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 directors of nursing representing general and psychiatric nursing. The study in this paper was conducted in the context of a changing healthcare system, which emphasises the flattening of organisational pyramids. However, this study's findings indicate that, while structures might be changing, behaviours remain unaltered. In particular, the medicine nursing power base remains unchanged, while the power shift between nursing and general management continues to widen in favour of general management. Research in this paper shows that directors of nursing who chose to participate in this study may have different perceptions of experiences from those who chose not to participate. In the paper the reality is neither medicine nor general management, individually or collectively, are going to share or devolve power and influence to nursing. This study's findings indicate that nursing needs to confront this power imbalance. Nursing needs to take the first steps towards shattering the glass ceiling by really examining its own behaviours, in maintaining the status quo, in the traditional balance of power.

  4. Analyzing the glass ceiling effect among radiologic technologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Susan B; Blagg, James D

    2011-01-01

    The literature has suggested that advancement within politics, academia and the health professions is influenced by gender. Purpose The authors conducted a survey to determine whether advancement was equal by gender in the radiologic science disciplines of nuclear medicine technology, radiation therapy and radiography. The survey was mailed to 900 subjects, 300 from each discipline. The discipline groups were further stratified by initial year of American Registry of Radiologic Technology certification; the authors selected 100 subjects from each discipline who initially were certified in 1978, 100 in 1988 and 100 in 1998. Approximately 33% of those selected responded. The findings of the study provided no evidence that men are promoted differentially than women. Women perceived that men were paid more for the same work. It appears that gender bias is pervasive outside of promotion decisions and, indeed, that some illegal actions (eg, sexual harassment, inappropriate gender-related interview questions) take place in radiologic science clinical settings. It is hoped that this study will set a baseline for future research on whether there is a glass ceiling effect in radiologic clinical practice and stimulate discussion of the importance of equal opportunity regardless of gender.

  5. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... to be not much influenced by the flow rate to the room but dependent on the heat load. Previous studies have shown that diffuse ceiling ventilation has an ability to remove large heat loads without compromising the indoor climate. However, recent experiments indicate that the maximum accepted heat load decreases...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  6. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  7. A Research on Glass Ceiling Syndrome Career Barriers of Women Academics

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar Öge; Alpay Karasoy; Özlem Kara

    2014-01-01

    Although women have merit in their jobs, they still are located very few in the top management in many sectors. There are many causes of such situation. Such a situation creates obstacles; especially invisible ones are called “glass ceiling syndrome”. Also, studies which handle this subject in academic community are very few. The aim of this research is to reach the results about glass ceiling obstacles in terms of female teaching staff (academics) working in higher educa...

  8. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    OpenAIRE

    Naide Jahangirov; Guler Saglam Ari; Seymur Jahangirov; Nuray Guneri Tosunoglu

    2015-01-01

    Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate ...

  9. Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatier, Mareva

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  11. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    GPR applications in civil engineering are to date quite diversified. With respect to civil constructions and monumental buildings, detection of voids, cavities, layering in structural elements, variation of geometry, of moisture content, of materials, areas of decay, defects, cracks have been reported in timber, concrete and masonry elements. Nonetheless, many more fields of investigation remain unexplored. This contribution gives an account of a variety of examples of structural ceilings investigation by GPR radar in reflection mode, either as 2D or 3D data acquisition and visualisation. Ceilings have a pre-eminent role in buildings as they contribute to a good structural behaviour of the construction. Primarily, the following functions can be listed for ceilings: a) they carry vertical dead and live loads on floors and distribute such loads to the vertical walls; b) they oppose to external horizontal forces such as wind loads and earthquakes helping to transfer such forces from the loaded element to the other walls; c) they contribute to create the box skeleton and behaviour of a building, connecting the different load bearing walls and reducing the slenderness and flexural instability of such walls. Therefore, knowing how ceilings are made in specific buildings is of paramount importance for architects and structural engineers. According to the type of building and age of construction, ceilings may present very different solutions and materials. Moreover, in existing constructions, ceilings may have been substituted, modified or strengthened due to material decay or to change of use of the building. These alterations may often go unrecorded in technical documentation or technical drawings may be unavailable. In many cases, the position, orientation and number of the load carrying elements in ceilings may be hidden or not be in sight, due for example to the presence of false ceilings or to technical plants. GPR radar can constitute a very useful tool for

  12. Comparative Analysis Of Mid-Level Women Managers Perception Of The Existence Of Glass Ceiling In Singaporean And Malaysian Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporean and Malaysian mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider t...

  13. Glass Ceiling in the Workplace: An Analysis within the Stated-owned Enterprises and Multi-national Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, although the increasingly number of women has gained leadership positions, the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists in China, especially in multi-national enterprise. In brief, the road to the upper rungs for female is still challenging and difficult. Due to the nature of the enterprises, the performance of glass ceiling is different. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss different performance and influence of glass ceiling in the context of the multi-national enterprises (MN...

  14. Graphite-modified cooling ceiling. A comparative evaluation of the performance; Graphitmodifizierte Kuehldecken. Eine vergleichende Bewertung zur Leistungsfaehigkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, Gerd [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik, Stuttgart (Germany); Hausladen, Gerhard [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Jacobsen, Cornelia; Hutter, Christina; Hanusch, Christoph [Ingenieurbuero Hausladen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schlitzberger, Stephan [Ingenieurbuero fuer Bauphysik Prof. Dr. Hauser GmbH, Kassel (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    In most cases, the utilization of graphite-modified building materials enhances their thermal conductivity. Thus, chilled ceiling systems achieve an enhanced thermal absorption in comparison to commercial chilled ceiling systems. For this, a simulation for the estimation of the thermal comfort as well as for the quantification of the impacts on the demand of electricity for the refrigeration is performed. The enhanced cooling capacity of the graphite-modified cooling ceiling 'Ecophit' affects the operation positively.

  15. The Impact of Roof Pitch and Ceiling Insulation on Cooling Load of Naturally-Ventilated Attics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxia Gu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2D unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is employed to simulate buoyancy-driven turbulent ventilation in attics with different pitch values and ceiling insulation levels under summer conditions. The impacts of roof pitch and ceiling insulation on the cooling load of gable-roof residential buildings are investigated based on the simulation of turbulent air flow and natural convection heat transfer in attic spaces with roof pitches from 3/12 to 18/12 combined with ceiling insulation levels from R-1.2 to R-40. The modeling results show that the air flows in the attics are steady and exhibit a general streamline pattern that is qualitatively insensitive to the investigated variations of roof pitch and ceiling insulation. Furthermore, it is predicted that the ceiling insulation plays a control role on the attic cooling load and that an increase of roof pitch from 3/12 to 8/12 results in a decrease in the cooling load by around 9% in the investigated cases. The results suggest that the increase of roof pitch alone, without changing other design parameters, has limited impact on attics cooling load and airflow pattern. The research results also suggest both the predicted ventilating mass flow rate and attic cooling load can be satisfactorily correlated by simple relationships in terms of appropriately defined Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers.

  16. The effect of low ceiling on the external combustion of the cabin fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shichuan; Chen, Changyun; Wang, Liang; Wei, Chengyin; Cui, Haibing; Guo, Chengyu

    2018-06-01

    External combustion is a phenomenon where the flame flares out of the window and burns outside. Because of the particularity of the ship's cabin structure, there is a great danger in the external combustion. In this paper, the numerical calculation and analysis of three kinds of low ceiling ship cabin fire are analyzed based on the large eddy numerical simulation technique. Through the analysis of temperature, flue gas velocity, heat flux density and so on, the external combustion phenomenon of fire development is calculated. The results show that when external combustion occurs, the amount of fuel escaping decreases with the roof height. The temperature above the window increases with the height of the ceiling. The heat flux density in the external combustion flame is mainly provided by radiation, and convection is only a small part; In the plume area there is a time period, in this time period, the convective heat flux density is greater than the radiation heat flux, this time with the ceiling height increases. No matter which ceiling height, the external combustion will seriously damage the structure of the ship after a certain period of time. The velocity distribution of the three roof is similar, but with the height of the ceiling, the area size is also increasing.

  17. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    buildings to cover acoustic requirements hinders the use of TABS. To measure the reduction of the heat capacity, several experiments are performed in a room equipped with TABS in the upper deck and mixing ventilation. The heat transfer is measured for different suspended ceiling covering percentages...... that the ventilation rate has a high influence on the convective heat capacity. When the ventilation rate is increased from 1.7 h-1 to 2.9 h-1, the heat transfer coefficient increases up to 16% for the same occupancy and suspended ceiling layout.......Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  18. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  19. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  20. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor 'simultaneous localization and mapping‘ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  1. Investigation of floor Nusselt number in floor heating system for insulated ceiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, Refet; Teke, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    In this study, in a floor heated room, natural convection heat transfer over the floor is analysed numerically for different thermal conditions. An equation relevant to Nusselt number over the floor has been obtained by using the numerical data. Different equations are given in the literature. They consider the effect of floor Rayleigh number while neglecting the effect of wall and ceiling thermal conditions. Numerical data obtained in this study show that the Nusselt number over the floor depends on not only the floor Rayleigh number but also the wall Rayleigh number (for insulated ceiling conditions). The equations given in the literature are different from each other due to their not considering the effect of wall and ceiling Rayleigh numbers. This difference between the equations may be eliminated by obtaining an equation containing the effect of floor, wall and ceiling Rayleigh numbers. In this new approach, an equation relevant to the floor Nusselt number that depends on the floor and wall Rayleigh numbers has been obtained in the floor heating system for insulated ceiling conditions. The equation obtained in this study has been compared with the equations given in the literature. It has been seen that the equation obtained in this study matches the numerical values under more extensive thermal conditions than the equations given in the literature. The maximum deviation for the equations given in the literature is 35%, but in the current study, the maximum deviation has been found to be 10%. As a result, it is more convenient to use the equation found in the new approach as a function of Rayleigh number over the floor and wall for insulated ceiling conditions

  2. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  3. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) improves inhaled air quality, because it provides fresh air to each workstation and directly to occupant’s breathing zone. The PV alone can be used for room ventilation when applied in conjunction with ceiling radiant cooling system, which removes sensible heat loads...... from the space. Combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at air temperature higher than the recommended in the standards upper limit of 26°C (category II), because the operative temperature will be lower. However, combination of high air temperature...

  4. Leco. Thermo-active Ceilings & Free Cooling. Using free cooling in combination with thermo-active ceilings for integrated heating and cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mark Allen

    2010-01-01

    The largest potential for decreasing green house gas emissions, and therewith mitigating the effects of global climate change, comes from improving energy efficiency. Through the integration of heating and cooling systems into building elements, such as the thermo-active ceiling, improvements in energy efficiency can be achieved. Utilizing thermal mass to buffer temperature variations and to level out peak loads reduces the instantaneous power demands and enables traditional cooling e...

  5. Leco. Thermo-active Ceilings & Free Cooling. Using free cooling in combination with thermo-active ceilings for integrated heating and cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Mark Allen

    2010-01-01

    - The largest potential for decreasing green house gas emissions, and therewith mitigating the effects of global climate change, comes from improving energy efficiency. Through the integration of heating and cooling systems into building elements, such as the thermo-active ceiling, improvements in energy efficiency can be achieved. Utilizing thermal mass to buffer temperature variations and to level out peak loads reduces the instantaneous power demands and enables traditional cool...

  6. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excess of ceiling amount. 1.501(h)-3 Section 1.501(h)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 501(h) for determining whether an organization that has...

  7. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  8. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  9. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    vertical air temperature differences and air velocities for different hybrid systems are less than 3 C and 0.2 m/s when supply air temperature is 19 C, air change rate is 4.2 h-1, and heated surface temperature of floor/ceiling heating system is 25 C. Ventilation effectiveness of mixing ventilation system...... combined with floor/ceiling heating systems is approximately equal to 1.0, and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system combined with floor/ceiling heating systems ranges from 1.0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor...... air distribution but smaller ventilation effectiveness compared with the floor/ceiling heating systems combined with displacement ventilation system. With regard to the building heat loss increased by non-uniform indoor air distribution and small ventilation effectiveness, there should be an optimal...

  10. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  11. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... specified by the Commandant; or (2) Listed by Underwriters Laboratories, does not exceed 2 millimeters (.075...) or UL 723 by an independent laboratory. (c) Bulkheads, linings, and ceilings in high risk... reasonable number of coats of paint or with a marine finish meeting the requirements of § 164.012 in...

  12. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... October 1, 2002, is the percentage increase projected by the hospital market basket index. (4) Target... target amount for the previous cost reporting period, updated by the market basket percentage increase... each cost reporting period, the ceiling is determined by multiplying the updated target amount, as...

  13. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... consumers' decisions about purchasing air conditioning equipment. For example: How much more or less likely are consumers to own or purchase an air conditioner if they already have a ceiling fan? How much more... and to facilitate this process, DOE has identified several related issues in this RFI on which DOE...

  14. Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice,…

  15. Giuseppe Bragalli and Bolognese ceiling painting in the Czech Lands in the 17th century

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2011), s. 350-379 ISSN 0049-5123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque art * painting * ceiling painting * architecture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Making Sense of the Glass Ceiling in Schools: An Exploration of Women Teachers' Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Osgood, Jayne; Halsall, Anna

    2007-01-01

    There is extensive evidence of a "glass ceiling" for women across the labour market. Though schools have widely been described as "feminized" work environments, the under-representation of women at school management level is well established. Based on a study of women teachers' careers and promotion in the English school sector…

  17. Comments by ABCT's first female president on overcoming the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2012-12-01

    At the annual convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies in New York City in November 2009, a most interesting panel discussion occurred: Overcoming the Glass Ceiling: A Conversation With the Trailblazers. This article is a written version of my oral presentation at this panel discussion in my role as ABCT's first female president. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The Glass Ceiling for Women in Legal Education: Contract Positions and the Death of Tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Marina

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the glass ceiling for women in legal education first examines categories of law school personnel, especially the fast-growing category of legal-writing teachers, and then considers trends in law school hiring. Concludes that law school trends mirror those in college and university hiring generally, suggesting the weakening and…

  19. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  20. Field measurements of moisture variation in cold ventilated attics with different ceiling constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Møller, Eva B.

    2017-01-01

    Adding insulation material on ceilings against cold ventilated attics is one of the most straightforward tasks of adding insulation. Theoretically, a higher amount of insulation in the attic decreases the temperature and consequently the capability of removing infiltrated indoor humid air. Field...

  1. Working beyond the Glass Ceiling: Women Managers in Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Recently in England, women have been successful in obtaining managerial responsibilities in the field of teacher training. In this setting at least, it could be argued that the glass ceiling that has kept women in lower-paid and lower status posts has been shattered. In order to explore this proposition from the perspective of those who work as…

  2. Complete Model-Based Equivalence Class Testing for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Huang, Wen-ling

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a new test model written in SysML and an associated blackbox test suite for the Ceiling Speed Monitor (CSM) of the European Train Control System (ETCS). The model is publicly available and intended to serve as a novel benchmark for investigating new testing theories...

  3. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  4. Collusion through Price Ceilings? In Search of a Focal-Point Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, D.; Müller, W.

    2008-01-01

    With this study we resume the search for a collusive focal-point effect of price ceilings in laboratory markets. We argue that market conditions in previous studies were unfavorable for collusion which may have been responsible for not finding such a focal-point effect. Our design aims at maximizing

  5. Collusion through price ceilings? In search of a focal-point effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelmann, D.; Müller, W.

    2011-01-01

    We resume the search for a collusive focal-point effect of price ceilings in laboratory markets. We argue that market conditions in previous studies were unfavorable for collusion which may have been responsible for not finding such a focal-point effect. Our design aims at maximizing the likelihood

  6. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    -scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...

  7. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor

  8. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  9. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  10. Numerical investigation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in an office under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Petersen, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    is a numerical study of the performance of a six person office equipped with diffuse ventilation ceiling. In total six extreme, yet realistic, operation scenarios were simulated to study the performance including different occupancy, ventilation rates and supply air temperatures. The performance was studied...

  11. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2015-01-01

    geometrical model and the other is a porous media model. The numerical models are validated by the full-scale experimental studies in a climate chamber. The results indicate that porous media model performed better on predicting air flow characteristic below diffuse ceiling and air velocity near the floor...

  12. You Can't Get There from Here: Working Women and the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Over the past two decades women and minorities have made unprecedented strides into the work force, yet discrimination due to gender and race is still a problem. The dearth of women in management is due to the "glass ceiling" phenomenon--the organizational, attitudinal, and societal barriers that effectively keep women and minorities…

  13. Female healthcare managers and the glass ceiling. The obstacles and opportunities for women in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, C

    1991-01-01

    Despite the large number of women in the healthcare field, healthcare management resembles other industries in its severe lack of women in upper-management positions and in the "glass ceiling" that contributes to this dearth. Although not enough has been specifically written on women healthcare managers, the author reviews what is available, along with some of the general management literature.

  14. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per

    . And the thermal comfort is analyzed by draught rate vertical temperature gradient and radiant temperature asymmetry. Finally the effect of plenum and diffuse ceiling is discussed. This report mainly focuses on the experiment results and discussions. Therefore, some details about the measurement are not presented...

  15. Between Meditation and Propaganda. Explicit and Implicit Religious Imagery in Baroque Ceiling Painting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mádl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, 1/2 (2011), s. 11-28 ISSN 1408-0419 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA408/08/0745 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : baroque * ceiling painting * iconography * church Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Piercing the sovereign ceiling: Issues in oil and gas project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    In the oil and gas sector, corporations and governments face huge capital spending requirements in order to transform large resource discoveries into producing, cash-generating assets. A significant portion of this funding is expected to be done on a project finance basis, where bank lenders or bond investors take a secured position in financing a discrete project, with the expectation of being paid back by the cash flows from that project after completion. This trend is increasing demand for crediting rating services to provide credit ratings for these project financings. A key challenge is to analyze and rate credit-worthy projects in countries that have relatively low foreign currency sovereign ceilings due to economic, political, and financial risks. In most cases, the credit ratings for projects financed in currencies outside the host country are capped at the country''s foreign currency ceiling. However, in a few instances, mainly in the oil and gas sector, Moody''s has pierced the foreign currency ceiling or rated certain projects above the sovereign ratings of the countries where they are domiciled. The purpose of this article is to briefly explain some of the qualitative factors and considerations that have allowed Moody''s to pierce the ceiling in the oil and gas sector, with a focus on two recent and noteworthy projects: Ras Laffan Liquefied Natural Gas in Qatar and Petrozuata in Venezuela

  17. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  18. [Impact of passing items above the ceiling on the assessment results of Peabody developmental motor scales].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gai; Bian, Yang; Li, Ming

    2013-12-18

    To analyze the impact of passing items above the roof level in the gross motor subtest of Peabody development motor scales (PDMS-2) on its assessment results. In the subtests of PDMS-2, 124 children from 1.2 to 71 months were administered. Except for the original scoring method, a new scoring method which includes passing items above the ceiling were developed. The standard scores and quotients of the two scoring methods were compared using the independent-samples t test. Only one child could pass the items above the ceiling in the stationary subtest, 19 children in the locomotion subtest, and 17 children in the visual-motor integration subtest. When the scores of these passing items were included in the raw scores, the total raw scores got the added points of 1-12, the standard scores added 0-1 points and the motor quotients added 0-3 points. The diagnostic classification was changed only in two children. There was no significant difference between those two methods about motor quotients or standard scores in the specific subtest (P>0.05). The passing items above a ceiling of PDMS-2 isn't a rare situation. It usually takes place in the locomotion subtest and visual-motor integration subtest. Including these passing items into the scoring system will not make significant difference in the standard scores of the subtests or the developmental motor quotients (DMQ), which supports the original setting of a ceiling established by upassing 3 items in a row. However, putting the passing items above the ceiling into the raw score will improve tracking of children's developmental trajectory and intervention effects.

  19. Demonstration of an advanced solar garden with a water ceiling. Final technical report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, R.; Riseng, C.; Thomas, G.; Mandeville, M.

    1980-09-01

    A history of the solar garden with the addition of the transparent water ceiling is presented, and a statement of the overall goals of the program is given. The objectives of the water ceiling grant are detailed. The rationale of the transparent water ceiling is developed and its implementation in the solar garden is described. The experimental procedures for evaluating the water ceiling as an integral part of an ongoing garden agricultural experiment are discussed and the results presented. The water ceiling has proven useful in providing extra thermal capacity to the solar garden. It provides heat at night after the water has been warmed during the day and retards overheating in the daytime by absorbing infrared energy into the water. In growing non-flowering plants, such as lettuce and Chinese cabbage, the water ceiling showed no noticeable degradation in yield or maturation rate. In flowering plants, such as tomatoes, the reduced light levels delayed yields by a couple of weeks but the total yield was only slightly diminished. In geographic areas where there is less cloud cover than in Michigan the water ceiling could be much more effective.

  20. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  1. Hydro turbine governor’s power control of hydroelectric unit with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liang; Wu, Changli; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-01

    The primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under the power mode of hydropower unit with sloping ceiling tailrace are analysed by field test and numerical simulation in this paper. A simulation method based on “three-zone model” to simulate small fluctuation transient process of the sloping ceiling tailrace is proposed. The simulation model of hydraulic turbine governor power mode is established by governor’s PLC program identification and parameter measurement, and the simulation model is verified by the test. The slow-fast-slow “three-stage regulation” method which can improve the dynamic quality of hydro turbine governor power mode is proposed. The power regulation strategy and parameters are optimized by numerical simulation, the performance of primary frequency regulation and load regulation transient process when the hydro turbine governor is under power mode are improved significantly.

  2. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  3. Above the glass ceiling? A comparison of matched samples of female and male executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, K S; Thompson, D E

    1997-06-01

    In this study the authors compare career and work experiences of executive women and men. Female (n = 51) and male (n = 56) financial services executives in comparable jobs were studied through archival information on organizational outcomes and career histories, and survey measures of work experiences. Similarities were found in several organizational outcomes, such as compensation, and many work attitudes. Important differences were found, however, with women having less authority, receiving fewer stock options, and having less international mobility than men. Women at the highest executive levels reported more obstacles than lower level women. The gender differences coupled with women's lower satisfaction with future career opportunities raise questions about whether women are truly above the glass ceiling or have come up against a 2nd, higher ceiling.

  4. Raising the "glass ceiling" for ethnic minority women in health care management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Johnston, G

    1999-01-01

    Ethnic minority women are well represented in the work force and in the health care system in general, but do not have a similar level of representation in the management sector. This paper explores three strategies for schools of health administration to consider to lessen the effect of a "glass ceiling" that may be encountered by ethnic minority women aspiring to positions of leadership in health services agencies. These strategies are advancing affirmative action, valuing ethnic women in health administration education, and investigating diversity management. Inherent in each of the three strategies is the need for acknowledgment and more open discussion of the "glass ceiling." Problem-solving in relation to the potential for systemic discrimination adversely affecting ethnic minority women in senior health care management positions, and greater study of the three strategies using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies is also needed.

  5. Ceiling of care decisions at an older person's mental health unit in Gloucestershire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Philip; Rose, Anneka

    2015-01-01

    This quality improvement project was inspired as an answer to a problem that many fellow psychiatric trainees had been struggling with while on-call covering the old age mental health hospital which includes a specialist dementia ward. The issue was that decisions around ceilings of care for patients were often not discussed or at least recorded in the electronic notes and as a result when reviewing deteriorating patients out of hours trainees would find themselves without any guidance on the treating medics opinion on what was in the best interests of the patient. This led to situations where unnecessary transfers to the acute hospital would occur overnight which could have been avoided with more consistent planning. Prior to initiating the changes it was recorded that nine out of 47 inpatients had documented decisions on ceiling of care of treatment in the consultant's ward round entries. Next policies from acute hospitals were reviewed, opinions were discussed in departmental meetings, and eventually there was agreed a change in procedure with the consultant on the dementia ward around resuscitation and ceiling of care status and consistent recording of this. Following the intervention there was seen an improvement in the recording of decisions around treatment and transfer of patients on the dementia ward of 80% (4/5) fully compliant with new criteria and then 71% (5/7) in successive cycles. Further communication both with relevant professionals on the old age ward and with the trainees on the on-call rota will be necessary to sustain any change but the centralised recording of resuscitation status and ceiling of care in the ward round entries have provided much more guidance than was previously available. In the future it may be possible to spread this policy throughout the entire old age mental health unit.

  6. The glass ceiling and women in management in the Middle East: Myth or reality

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Although globalization and equal employment have created opportunities for female managers, they are still underrepresented in the corporate ladder. Gender and gender role stereotypes are persistent in organizations that operate in the Middle East, challenging women’s employment and showing evidence of the glass ceiling in management. This paper explores the position of women in management in the Kingdom of Bahrain, as well as the barriers they face in climbing the career ladder. The findings...

  7. Does Organizational Culture Affect the Perception Towards the Barriers of the Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Muruatetu, Ndunge

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of the glass ceilling in Africa; and to investigate whether organizational culture affected the perception towards the barriers of the glass ceiling. Design/Methodology : This research used a quatitative approach, based on a descriptive design. Data was gathered from surveys issued to employees at a Non-Governmental organization; with the participants based in the Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo offices. Fi...

  8. Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Szewieczek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary research on the glass ceiling phenomenon in accounting and financial audit practice in Poland The paper analyzes the glass ceiling phenomenon in the accounting practice in Poland. The essence and characteristics of this phenomenon are presented in relation to the accounting profession and statutory auditors. Research on the ‘glass ceiling’ carried out in various countries, with a particular reference to the profession of a statutory auditor, was reviewed. The paper presents results of the research on the phenomenon conducted among a selected sample of audit firms in Poland. The results of the study confirmed the occurrence of this phenomenon in Poland with greater intensity in larger entities. The large scale of the glass ceiling phenomenon in the professional life of women in accounting is reflected by a high percentage of women in the profession of statutory auditor contrasted by the very low participation in senior managerial positions, e.g. partners in auditing companies. The paper uses the method of critical analysis of the literature and empirical data. Moreover, qualitative analysis was used for the data reported by audit firms

  9. Does drywall installers' innovative idea reduce the ergonomic exposures of ceiling installation: A field case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Priyadarshini Sengupta; Punnett, Laura; Moir, Susan; Kuhn, Sarah; Buchholz, Bryan

    2016-07-01

    The study was conducted to assess an intervention suggested by the workers to reduce the physical or ergonomic exposures of the drywall installation task. The drywall installers were asked to brainstorm on innovative ideas that could reduce their ergonomic exposures during the drywall installation work. The workers proposed the idea of using a 'deadman' (narrow panel piece) to hold the panels to the ceiling while installing them. The researcher collected quantitative exposure data (PATH, 3DSSPP) at the baseline and intervention phases and compared the phases to find out any change in the exposure while using the 'deadman'. Results showed that ergonomic exposures (such as overhead arm and awkward trunk postures and heavy load handling) were reduced at the intervention phase while using the 'deadman' with an electrically operated lift. The concept of the 'deadman', which was shown to help reduce musculoskeletal exposures during ceiling installation, can be used to fabricate a permanent ergonomic tool to support the ceiling drywall panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Glass Ceiling Converted Into Glass Transparency: A Study On The Factors Making Women Executives Successful In The Indian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Dr Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Economic reforms in the Indian economy along with gradual opening up of a conservative society to a modern society preceded breaking the glass ceiling or conversion Glass ceiling into a Glass Transparency in the Indian Banking Sector. This is backed by a recent study of 240 top Indian companies by EMA Partners, the global executive-search firm, which says more than a half of India's women chief executives are accounted for by the banking and financial services industry. This paper studie...

  11. Has the Copayment Ceiling Improved Financial Protection in the Korean National Health Insurance System? Evidence From the 2009 Policy Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Jin Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To relieve the financial burden faced by households, the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI system introduced a “copayment ceiling,” which evolved into a differential ceiling in 2009, with the copayment ceiling depending on patients’ income. This study aimed to examine the effect of the differential copayment ceiling on financial protection and healthcare utilization, particularly focusing on whether its effects varied across different income groups. Methods This study obtained data from the Korea Health Panel. The number of households included in the analysis was 6555 in 2008, 5859 in 2009, 5539 in 2010, and 5372 in 2011. To assess the effects of the differential copayment ceiling on utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP payments, and catastrophic payments, various random-effects models were applied. Utilization was measured as treatment days, while catastrophic payments were defined as OOP payments exceeding 10% of household income. Among the right-hand side variables were the interaction terms of the new policy with income levels, as well as a set of household characteristics. Results The differential copayment ceiling contributed to increased utilization regardless of income levels both in all patients and in cancer patients. However, the new policy did not seem to reduce significantly the incidence of catastrophic payments among cancer patients, and even increased the incidence among all patients. Conclusions The limited effect of the differential ceiling can be attributed to a high proportion of direct payments for services not covered by the NHI, as well as the relatively small number of households benefiting from the differential ceilings; these considerations warrant a better policy design.

  12. Has the Copayment Ceiling Improved Financial Protection in the Korean National Health Insurance System? Evidence From the 2009 Policy Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Jin; Cheong, Chelim

    2017-11-01

    To relieve the financial burden faced by households, the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system introduced a "copayment ceiling," which evolved into a differential ceiling in 2009, with the copayment ceiling depending on patients' income. This study aimed to examine the effect of the differential copayment ceiling on financial protection and healthcare utilization, particularly focusing on whether its effects varied across different income groups. This study obtained data from the Korea Health Panel. The number of households included in the analysis was 6555 in 2008, 5859 in 2009, 5539 in 2010, and 5372 in 2011. To assess the effects of the differential copayment ceiling on utilization, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, and catastrophic payments, various random-effects models were applied. Utilization was measured as treatment days, while catastrophic payments were defined as OOP payments exceeding 10% of household income. Among the right-hand side variables were the interaction terms of the new policy with income levels, as well as a set of household characteristics. The differential copayment ceiling contributed to increased utilization regardless of income levels both in all patients and in cancer patients. However, the new policy did not seem to reduce significantly the incidence of catastrophic payments among cancer patients, and even increased the incidence among all patients. The limited effect of the differential ceiling can be attributed to a high proportion of direct payments for services not covered by the NHI, as well as the relatively small number of households benefiting from the differential ceilings; these considerations warrant a better policy design.

  13. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Bombuwela P. M.; De Alwis A. Chamaru

    2013-01-01

    The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the...

  14. Effect of a ceiling fan ventilation system on finishing young bulls' health, behaviour and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, L; Brscic, M; Lora, I; Rumor, C; Tondello, L; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2017-06-01

    This research aimed at assessing the effects of a ceiling fan ventilation system on health, feeding, social behaviour and growth response of finishing young bulls fattened indoors during a mild summer season. A total of 69 Charolais young bulls were housed in six pens without any mechanical ventilation system (Control) and in six pens equipped with ceiling fans. The experimental period lasted 98 days from June until mid-September 2014. Four experimental days were considered in order to assess the effect of the ventilation system under two different microclimatic conditions: 2 alert days at monthly interval with temperature humidity index (THI) between 75 and 78, and 2 normal days with THI⩽74. Health and behaviour of the bulls were evaluated through 8-h observation sessions starting after morning feed delivery. The study was carried out during a rather cool summer with a climate average THI of 68.9 and 4 days with average THI>75. Despite these mild climate conditions, ceiling fans lowered litter moisture and acted as a preventive measure for bulls' dirtiness (odd ratio=47.9; 95% CI 19.6 to 117.4). The risk of abnormal breathing was increased for Control bulls (odd ratio=40.7; 95% CI 5.4 to 304.2). When exposed to alert THI conditions, respiration rate and panting scores increased and rumination duration dropped in Control bulls compared with bulls provided with a ceiling fan. During observations under alert THI, bulls spent less time eating, more time being inactive and consumed more water compared with normal THI conditions. Bulls' daily dry matter intake measured during the observation sessions decreased on alert compared with normal THI days (Pbehaviour (rumination, lying down and drinking water) and respiration rate, however. The lack of a significant improvement of bulls' growth response should not discourage beef farmers from using ceiling fans in indoor systems, considering the likely increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in the planet

  15. Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for train fire at subway station: Reduced-scale experiments and correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Na; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Zhaoxia; Li, Xiao; Yang, He

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced-scale experiments on train fire at subway station. • Smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling measured and correlated. • Effect of platform-tunnel conjunction door type on smoke temperature is clarified. - Abstract: This paper is to investigate the smoke flow temperature beneath tunnel ceiling for a train on fire stopping besides a subway station. Experiments were carried out in a reduced-scale (1:10) subway station model to study the maximum smoke temperature and the longitudinal temperature distribution beneath the tunnel ceiling by considering platform-tunnel conjunction doors of two types: the full-seal platform screen door (PSD) and the full-height safety door. For the maximum temperature beneath the tunnel ceiling, it is found to be well correlated non-dimensionally with heat release rate by a 3.65 and a 2.92 power law function for the full-seal platform screen door and the full-height safety door, respectively. For the longitudinal temperature distribution along the tunnel ceiling, it can be well correlated by an exponential function for both types of platform-tunnel conjunction doors. Concerning the effect of the door type, the maximum temperature is lower and the longitudinal temperature decays faster for full-height safety door than that for full-seal PSD. This is due to that with the full-height safety door, the effective width of the tunnel ceiling is widened, which results in more heat losses from the smoke flow to the ceiling.

  16. Dropped Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  17. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling.

  18. Breaking through the uncertainty ceiling in LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstwood, M.

    2016-12-01

    Sources of systematic uncertainty associated with session-to-session bias are the dominant contributor to the 2% (2s) uncertainty ceiling that currently limits the accuracy of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology. Sources include differential downhole fractionation (LIEF), `matrix effects' and ablation volume differences, which result in irreproducibility of the same reference material across sessions. Current mitigation methods include correcting for LIEF mathematically, using matrix-matched reference materials, annealing material to reduce or eliminate radiation damage effects and tuning for robust plasma conditions. Reducing the depth and volume of ablation can also mitigate these problems and should contribute to the reduction of the uncertainty ceiling. Reducing analysed volume leads to increased detection efficiency, reduced matrix-effects, eliminates LIEF, obviates ablation rate differences and reduces the likelihood of intercepting complex growth zones with depth, thereby apparently improving material homogeneity. High detection efficiencies (% level) and low sampling volumes (20um box, 1-2um deep) can now be achieved using MC-ICP-MS such that low volume ablations should be considered part of the toolbox of methods targeted at improving the reproducibility of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology. In combination with other strategies these improvements should be feasible on any ICP platform. However, reducing the volume of analysis reduces detected counts and requires a change of analytical approach in order to mitigate this. Appropriate strategies may include the use of high efficiency cell and torch technologies and the optimisation of acquisition protocols and data handling techniques such as condensing signal peaks, using log ratios and total signal integration. The tools required to break the 2% (2s) uncertainty ceiling in LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology are likely now known but require a coherent strategy and change of approach to combine their implementation and realise

  19. Women and work : an exploratory study on problems and perspectives relating to the apparent inability of women teachers to break through the glass ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. The aim of this research is to determine whether a glass ceiling does exist in education, and if so, possible reasons why women teachers fail to break through the so-called "glass ceiling". Objectives The objectives identified include the following: To determine historical perspectives on women and work To explore the incidence of glass ceilings To ascertain the value the Department of Education places on women teachers To determine by means of questionnaires whether there is a 'gla...

  20. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  1. Social impact of air pollution abatement. Societal cost benefit analysis of possible National Emission Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenszelmann, C.E.P.; De Bruyn, S.M.; Korteland, M.H.; De Jong, F.; Sevenster, M.N.; Briene, M.; Wienhoven, M.; Bovens, J.

    2008-07-01

    In 2008, the European Commission will launch new proposals for revision of the NEC guideline (2001/81/EG) in which new emission ceilings are proposed for the year 2020. In order to determine which stand the Netherlands should take during the negotiations, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (also on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality) asked CE Delft and Ecorys to conduct a societal cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Environmental Assessment Agency. This report describes the results of the analysis of two alternative NEC targets for 2020. [mk] [nl

  2. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  3. Maximizing the lightshelf performance by interaction between lightshelf geometries and a curved ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freewan, Ahmed A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between different lightshelf geometries combined with a curved ceiling was investigated using radiance to maximize the daylight performance of a lightshelf. Two main performance parameters were investigated; illuminance level and distribution uniformity in a large space located in a sub-tropical climate region like Jordan. It was found that a curved lightshelf could improve the daylight level by 10% compared to a horizontal lightshelf. A curved lightshelf help to bounce more daylight deep into a space thus improve the illuminance level and uniformity level. The best lightshelf shapes found are curved and chamfered lightshelves compared to horizontal lightshelves. (author)

  4. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...... manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance...

  5. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene

    2016-01-01

    show that diffuse ceiling ventilation has substantial potential for landscape office applications because it can provide important cooling capacity while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the occupied zone. It does not generate draught in the occupied zone even at large temperature differences...... between supply and exhaust and great air change rates, while the same design parameters caused risk of draught in many points in the case with mixing ventilation. Good mixing in the occupied zone in case of both systems resulted in only small vertical temperature gradients. The results from the study...

  6. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty......-two participants completed a single session of self-directed practice of the mastoidectomy procedure in a virtual reality simulator. Participants were randomised for additional simulator-integrated tutoring. Performances were assessed at 10-minute intervals using final-product analysis. RESULTS: In all, 45.5 per...

  7. The Relationship between Glass Ceiling Barriers to Woman and Perceived Organizational Justice in Working Life

    OpenAIRE

    Özyer, Kubilay; Azizoğlu, Öznur

    2014-01-01

    Women are participating more and more to the working life nowadays. But they couldn’t adequately take part in high management positions. There are too many reasons which effect this case. Especially; in some research it suggested that women couldn’t go beyond to a barrier, “glass ceiling”, which is an invisible obstacle for women, and they have to work under it. For these reason; in this study firstly, the terms of glass ceiling obstacle to women and perceived organizational justice and the i...

  8. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it is twice as high at the top. At the same time, the share of women in top positions appears to be twice as high as at the middle ranks. Hence, it seems that in the context of a very patriarchal cult...

  9. Women's health and women's leadership in academic medicine: hitting the same glass ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Molly; Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-11-01

    The term "glass ceiling" refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond "fixing the women" to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health.

  10. Influence of Ceiling Suspended Screen Positioning to the Scatter Radiation Levels in Interventional Cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arandjic, D.; Bozovic, P.; Ciraj-Bjelac, O.; Antic, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effects of the ceiling suspended screen position to the scatter radiation levels in the interventional cardiology. The scatter radiation in terms of ambient dose equivalent H * (10) was measured for various positions of protective screen in the positions of the first operator, nurse and radiographer, at elevations 100-190 cm and in four different angulations of the x-ray tube. To assess the effectiveness of the protective screen, the scattered dose was also measured in the absence of any protection in all four angulations and elevations. To simulate real clinical situation the measurements were performed in the presence of 30 cm PMMA phantom using standard clinical protocol. The utility of protective screen varied for different positions and angulations. Scatter radiation levels varied in the range 70 - 3400 μSv/h for the first operator, 140 - 3200 μSv/h for the nurse and 50 - 560 μSv/h for radiographer. Ceiling suspended screens can provide a substantial level of protection (up to factor 18) in interventional cardiology, but they have to be properly managed and positioned to achieve sufficient level of protection. The guidance for optimal protection is provided in the paper.(author)

  11. An Integrated Numerical and Experimental Analysis for Enhancing the Performance of the Hidden Ceiling Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheam-Chyun Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the inlet and outlet of hidden ceiling fan are almost located at the same Plane; thus, an improper housing may cause inhale-return phenomenon which significantly affects its power consumption and performance. In this study, a comprehensive investigation by numerical and experimental techniques was used to predict and identify the flow pattern, airflow rate, efficiency, and noise for ceiling fans with different design parameters. The results showed that the unique inhale-return phenomenon happens for an inappropriate housing. Several key parameters, such as fan guard, housing ring, inlet-to-outlet area ratio, and blockage height, are evaluated for finding out the criterion to avoid the inhale-return flow. Consequently the study finds that fan guard changes the airflow to a wider distribution with a lower velocity. A minimum blockage distance and a maximum height of ring-plate are set at 80 mm and 30 mm, respectively. Also, it is suggested that the inlet area must be bigger than the outlet area. Moreover, all the parameters show the same trend under various rotational speeds. In conclusion, this systematic investigation not only provides the fan engineer's design ability to avoid the inhale-return phenomenon, but also the predicting capability on its aerodynamic and acoustic performances.

  12. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, I.; Correlje, A.; Huerta, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  13. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  14. Proposal for the award of an industrial support contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the firm PREZIOSO (FR), the lowest bidder, for the provision of paintwork, false ceilings, plasterwork and false floors at CERN for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 538 419 euros (830 381 Swiss francs), not subject to revision for the first two years. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial threeyear period.

  15. Career Barriers for Women Executives and the Glass Ceiling Syndrome: The Case Study Comparison between French and Turkish Women Executives

    OpenAIRE

    Akpinar-Sposito, Cansu

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The situation where gender pay gaps are typically wider at the top of the wage distribution is known as the 'glass ceiling'. It is one of the most compelling metaphors recently used for analyzing inequality between men and women in the workplace, in order to describe a barrier to further advancement once women have attained a certain level. The general-case glass ceiling hypothesis states that not only is it more difficult for women than for men to be promoted up level...

  16. From the glass door to the glass ceiling: An analysis of the gender wage gap by age groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Dalla Chiara; Eleonora Matteazzi; Ilaria Petrarca

    2014-01-01

    Using 2009 EU-SILC data for France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, we decompose the gender wage gap for prime age workers. We adopt an age group approach to identify when and how the glass door and the glass ceiling effects arise and their persistency over time. The empirical results verify that the raw gender wage gap increases with age. In all considered countries, the glass ceiling effect is completely realized by the age of 30 and increases over time. French, Italian and B...

  17. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad, and in...

  18. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate ceiling and... § 107.855 Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money... weighted average interest rate you pay on your “qualified borrowings”. “Qualified borrowings” means your...

  19. Exergy characteristics of a ceiling-type residential air conditioning system operating under different climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbek, Arif [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ceyhan Engineering Faculty, Cukurova University, Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2016-11-15

    In this study an energy and exergy analysis of a Ceiling-type residential air conditioning (CTRAC) system operating under different climatic conditions have been investigated for provinces within the different geographic regions of Turkey. Primarily, the hourly cooling load capacities of a sample building (Q{sub evap}) during the months of April, May, June, July, August and September were determined. The hourly total heat gain of the sample building was determined using the Hourly analysis program (HAP). The Coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficiency (η) and exergy destruction (Ex{sub dest}) values for the whole system and for each component were obtained. The results showed that lower atmospheric temperature (T{sub atm}) influenced the performance of the system and each of its components.

  20. Sealing, especially of dropped ceiling of cubide where main circulating pump of nuclear reactor is installed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paucek, V.

    1980-01-01

    The sealing of the dropped ceiling of the cubicle for main circulating pump installation consists of a reinforcing ring in the space of the pump installation and the top annulus of biological shielding whose inner diameter is smaller than the outer diameter of the bottom biological shielding annulus mounted onto the pump body. The sealing comprises a vertically slidable support ring provided on its underside with an outer ring insert and an outer splice bar for functional gap formation. Slidably mounted in the gap is a guide annular plate tightly attached by means of an inner splice bar and bolts to the bottom biological shielding annulus. Spacers are provided between the reinforcing ring underside and the support ring top surface. (B.S.)

  1. Breaking the glass ceiling: an interview with Dr. Shirley Graves, a pioneering woman in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Mai, Christine L; Elder, Badrea; Rodriguez, Samuel; Yaster, Myron

    2014-04-01

    Shirley Graves M.D., D.Sc. (honorary) (1936), Professor Emeritus of Anesthesiology and Pediatrics at the University of Florida, was one of the most influential women in medicine in the 1960 and 1970s, a time when the medical profession was overwhelmingly male-dominated. In today's society, it is hard to believe that only 50 years ago, women were scarce in the field of medicine. Yet Dr. Graves was a pioneer in the fields of pediatric anesthesia and pediatric critical care medicine. She identifies her development of the pediatric intensive care unit and her leadership in the Division of Pediatric Anesthesia at the University of Florida as her defining contributions. Through her journal articles, book chapters, national and international lectures, and leadership in the American Society of Anesthesiology and the Florida Society of Anesthesiology, she inspired a generation of men and women physicians to conquer the unthinkable and break through the glass ceiling. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Do emission ceilings ruin coal-fired power plants?; Emissieplafonds nekken kolencentrales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmenga, J. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The case of the new coal-fired power plants has already racked the brains of many. The advice offered to the court by the attorney-general constitutes the next step in this process. A temporary solution has been found for the coal-fired plants, but one question remains unanswered so far: how should an emission ceiling be used as a test instrument for permits? This article provides a direction in which a solution can be found. [Dutch] De zaak betreffende de nieuwe kolencentrales heeft al tot heel wat hoofdbrekens geleid. Het advies dat de advocaat-generaal heeft uitgebracht aan het hof is een volgende stap in dit proces. Voor de kolencentrales is een tijdelijke oplossing gevonden, maar de vraag is nog niet beantwoord hoe een emissieplafond moet worden gebruikt als toetsinstrument voor vergunningen. In dit artikel wordt aangegeven in welke richting een oplossing kan worden gezocht.

  3. The hidden symbols of the female anatomy in Michelangelo Buonarroti's ceiling in the Sistine Chapel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Deivis; Malysz, Tais; Bonatto-Costa, João Antonio; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; de Oliveira Junior, Lino Pinto; Wichmann, Jéssica Francine; Goulart, Guilherme Reghelin; Stefani, Marco Antonio; da Rocha, Andrea Oxley

    2016-10-01

    A number of published articles have suggested that each element of Renaissance art contains an inner meaning. Some of these elements include the choice of theme and protagonists, faces selected for the characters, colors used, species of flowers and trees chosen, animals depicted, positions of the elements, posture of the characters and their gestures, juxtapositions in the scenes, and even the very scenario or landscape. All of these elements are thought to have hidden meanings. In this context, this manuscript presents a new hypothesis suggesting that Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) may have concealed symbols associated with female anatomy in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (painted 1508-1512) in Rome. Thus, this paper is useful to better understand the history of anatomy and corroborates recent descriptions that have suggested the possible existence of anatomic figures concealed in many of Michelangelo's works. Clin. Anat. 29:911-916, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    PhotoVoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) panels were used for cooling water through the principle of nocturnal radiative cooling. This water was utilised for discharging Phase Change Material (PCM) which was embedded in ceiling panels in a climate chamber. Three different sets of flow rates were examined...... for the solar and the PCM loops, for five days each. The highest examined water flow rate (210 l/h) in the PCM loop provided the best thermal environment in the climate chamber, namely 92% of the occupancy time was within the range of Category III of Standard EN 15251. Although the lowest examined water flow...... rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate...

  5. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    ). The room air temperature was kept at 21 °C. Tracer gas was used to simulate pollution from floor and desk. The experimental conditions comprised: 1) night time without heat sources in the room; the room air conditioning system was used to heat up the room; 2) heat load generated by an occupant (simulated...... by dressed thermal manikin) and a laptop; 3) heating by convectors positioned under the window (convectors used alone and convector used together with CSW supplying isothermal air for ventilation). The heat distribution provided by the systems was not effective compare to the distribution provided......The performance of diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with swirl jet (CSW) in heating mode (winter situation) was studied and compared with regard to the generated indoor environment. An office mock-up with one occupant was simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3 (L x W x H...

  6. Constitutional guarantees gender equality and the reality of the 'glass ceiling' for women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bernardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an assessment of the distinction between the sexes and the preponderance of the male role in the labor market throughout history. It analyzes the existing legal framework before the promulgation of the Constitution of 1988 and after editing the adoption of measures coibitivas to gender discrimination, specifically on discrimination against women in the workplace. Seeking to understand the various forms of discrimination and analyzes equality to be achieved today. representative numbers of labor market behavior for women in IBGE statistics are presented. These data serve to corroborate the existence of the phenomenon of the "glass ceiling", ie the imaginary line that prevents the rise of women to senior positions, and economically hierarchical command positions. The conclusion, finally, the need to break these limits by adopting measures that restrict employers to keep promotions designed to gender criteria.

  7. The White ceiling heuristic and the underestimation of Asian-American income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris C; Nezlek, John B

    2014-01-01

    The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.

  8. Hierarchical rank and women's organizational mobility: glass ceilings in corporate law firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Elizabeth H; Kmec, Julie A

    2009-03-01

    This article revives the debate over whether women's upward mobility prospects decline as they climb organizational hierarchies. Although this proposition is a core element of the "glass ceiling" metaphor, it has failed to gain strong support in previous research. The article establishes a firm theoretical foundation for expecting an increasing female disadvantage, with an eye toward defining the scope conditions and extending the model to upper-level external hires. The approach is illustrated in an empirical setting that meets the proposed scope conditions: corporate law firms in the United States. Results confirm that in this setting, the female mobility disadvantage is greater at higher organizational levels in the case of internal promotions, but not in the case of external hires.

  9. De Soweto à Ceilândia: siglas de segregação racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oliveira Lemos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposta desse trabalho é pensar relações comuns ou, pelo menos, aproximadas sobre os processos e os instrumentos de segregação urbana racial, generificada e social nas cidades de Soweto (Joanesburgo - África do Sul e Ceilândia (Distrito Federal - Brasil durante as décadas de 1950 e 1970. Para tanto, comparamos os dois processos de remoção das populações dos centros para as periferias e a (reinvenção dos tipos corpóreos (“candango”, “black”, “african”, “coloured” destinados a ocupar os limites da não-vida, ou seja, as  chamadas cidades satélites. Metodologicamente a pesquisa, de caráter inicial, fez-se através da análise indiciaria e comparativa de documentos oficiais, relatos orais e bibliografias referentes às duas cidades. A aproximação analítica/histórica entre esses casos se tornou possível através do conceito de necropolítica e da correlação entre escravidão, colonialismo e apartheid: três eventos imaginados historiograficamente como distintos, mas onde a dissociação do ser ao direito de sua própria vida rompem as barreiras do tempo e, no caso Soweto-Ceilândia, as fronteiras do Atlântico.

  10. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  11. Academe's Glass Ceiling: Societal, Professional-Organizational, and Institutional Barriers to the Career Advancement of Academic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Olga; Cummings, William

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 10 national systems of higher education found that less than 10 percent of professors were women, and the proportion of female professors was negatively related to institutional prestige. This academic "glass ceiling" was related to women's shorter careers, tenure issues during hard times, and women's lower level of academic…

  12. Review Symposium; Dancing on the Ceiling: A Study of Women Managers in Education, by Valerie Hall. London: Paul Chapman, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Valerie; Gronn, Peter; Jenkin, Mazda; Power, Sally; Reynolds, Cecilia

    1999-01-01

    Hall and four colleagues review "Dancing on the Ceiling: A Study of Women Managers in Education" (Paul Chapman, 1996). Reviewers agree that Hall's profiles of six British elementary and secondary women headteachers should improve readers' understanding of female managers' development and their preference for "soft,"…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole number...

  14. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    the opposite effect on energy performance when TABS is activated in heating or cooling mode. Finally, the air temperature distribution in the plenum and the surface temperature distribution of the diffuse ceiling point out that the air does not perfectly mix in the plenum, the air is not evenly distributed...

  15. Ceiling erosion in caves: early studies and Zdeněk Roth as author of the concept

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bella, P.; Bosák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2015), s. 139-144 ISSN 0583-6050 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : ceiling channel * paragenesis * antigravitative erosion * definition * Zdeněk Roth * Domica Cave * Slovak Karst Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2015

  16. Application of a permanent magnet biased E-Core reluctance actuator in a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overboom, T.T.; Jansen, J.W.; Lomonova, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the paper a novel actuator is presented for a magnetically suspended ceiling actuator. The actuator consists of several stator segments which contain the coils and the magnets. The armature, therefore, has a totally passive design. Because of its salient structure, a translational force can be

  17. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Longitudinal Study of Women’s Progress on French Corporate Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Dang; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Linh-Chi Vo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we conduct a longitudinal study of women’s progress on French corporate boards of directors. We particularly focus on the extent to which women directors have circumvented the glass ceiling. Using a sample of SBF 120 companies over a 10

  18. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  19. Numerical investigation of upper-room UVGI disinfection efficacy in an environmental chamber with a ceiling fan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengwei; Srebric, Jelena; Rudnick, Stephen N; Vincent, Richard L; Nardell, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the disinfection efficacy of the upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UR-UVGI) system with ceiling fans. The investigation used the steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to solve the rotation of ceiling fan with a rotating reference frame. Two ambient air exchange rates, 2 and 6 air changes per hour (ACH), and four downward fan rotational speeds, 0, 80, 150 and 235 rpm were considered. In addition, the passive scalar concentration simulations incorporated ultraviolet (UV) dose by two methods: one based on the total exposure time and average UV fluence rate, and another based on SVE3* (New Scale for Ventilation Efficiency 3), originally defined to evaluate the mean age of the air from an air supply opening. Overall, the CFD results enabled the evaluation of UR-UVGI disinfection efficacy using different indices, including the fraction of remaining microorganisms, equivalent air exchange rate, UR-UVGI effectiveness and tuberculosis infection probability by the Wells-Riley equation. The results indicated that air exchange rate was the decisive factor for determining UR-UVGI performance in disinfecting indoor air. Using a ceiling fan could also improve the performance in general. Furthermore, the results clarified the mechanism for the ceiling fan to influence UR-UVGI disinfection efficacy. © 2013 The Authors Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  20. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development in Private Sector Organizations – Case of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombuwela P. M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was entirely designed by centering the focal problem of the effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development. The overall study was structure based on the conceptual framework built up using the information of literature survey. The study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the following objective. That is “To find out the Effect of Glass Ceiling on Women Career Development with regard to female executive level employees who are working in privatesector organizations.” At the same time, hypotheses are developed to find out whether there is a significant effect of Individual Factors, Family Factors, Organizational Factors and Cultural Factors on Women Career development. Merely this study has been completed with an empirical survey which was thoroughly conducted using a self-administered questionnaire and the sample consisted of 150 women executives. For presenting and analyzing the data both descriptive andinferential statistics were used. The findings reveal that the Glass Ceiling and Women Career Development have a moderate negative relationship, and also show that Individual Factors, OrganizationalFactors and Cultural Factors have a significant effect on Women Career Development whereas Family Factor has effects on the Glass Ceiling. Following the study results, a conclusion was eventually made that there are significant effects of the Glass Ceiling on WomenCareer Development of Executive level female employees working in private sector organizations in Sri Lanka. By taking all these facts into consideration, better recommendations have been made in this study. Finally, the most valuable suggestions for further studies and limitations of the study have been outlined.

  2. Exergy analysis in a space with ceiling shield; Analisis exegetico en un espacio con techo escudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The Solar Laboratory of Energy (LES) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) was designed to be comfortable in spite of the extreme climate where it was built. One of the novel characteristics was the shield type ceiling used in cubicles. In order to compare the effect that had had with respect to the environmental conditions, one had to resort to an exergy analysis, since exergy is a measurement of the capacity of the energy to carry out a work. As a first system the data of the national meteorological system as initial conditions were used. The comparative system used as initial conditions the temperature and relative humidity measurements obtained in 1992 in a cubicle of the LES. Both systems were taken as open. The final conditions were settled at 25 Celsius degrees and 50% of relative humidity in a first case and variables (with respect to the perimeter a comfort zone) in a second case. The saving obtained was of 69% and 33% respectively. Although it is not possible to determine what percentage corresponds to the exclusive saving of the ceiling shield, we see that the cover all altogether, presents a significant exergy saving in respect to modifying the environmental conditions directly. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) fue disenado para ser confortable a pesar del clima extremoso donde fue construido. Una de las caracteristicas novedosas fue el uso de techo tipo escudo en cubiculo. Para comparar el efecto que se tuvo respecto a las condiciones ambientales, se recurrio a un analisis exergetico, ya que la exergia es una medida de la capacidad de la energia para realizar un trabajo. Como un primer sistema se utilizaron los datos del sistema meteorologico nacional como condiciones iniciales. El sistema comparativo utilizo como condiciones iniciales las mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativas obtenidas en 1992 en un cubiculo del LES. Ambos sistemas fueron tomados como abiertos

  3. Thou shalt not pass?: Examining the existence of an immigrant glass ceiling in Sweden, 1970-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Helgertz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies a sample of natives and 18 immigrant nationalities in the Swedish labor market between 1970 and 1990. The purpose is examining the existence of an immigrant specific glass ceiling. Results suggest a considerable overall advantage in terms of the probability of experiencing upward occupational mobility for native Swedish males. Despite this, the pattern does not correspond to the theoretical expectations of a glass ceiling. Using the ISEI classification of occupational status, the advantage experienced by Swedish males is consistent in the private manufacturing and private service sectors, compared to the experience of immigrants and women. The public sector generally suggests a similar pattern according to linguistic background. In this sector, certain groups of women are, however, observed to experience an advantage from low occupational status origins.

  4. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  5. A Simulation Study on the Performance of Radiant Ceilings Combined with Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Domínguez, L. Marcos; Rage, Niels

    2018-01-01

    using TABS, most building simulation models assume an uncovered ceiling; however, this might not be the case in practice, due to the use of free-hanging horizontal (or vertical) sound absorbers for the control of room acoustic conditions. The use of sound absorbers will decrease the performance...... of radiant ceiling cooling systems. Therefore, the quantification of the effects during the design phase is important for predicting the resulting thermal indoor environment and for system dimensioning. In this study, a two-person office room equipped with TABS was simulated using a commercially available...... simulation software with a recently developed plug-in that allows simulating the effects of horizontal sound absorbers on the performance of TABS and on the thermal indoor environment. The change in thermal indoor environment and in performance of TABS were quantified, and the simulation results were...

  6. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  7. Broadcast of four HD videos with LED ceiling lighting: optical-wireless MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Porcon, Pascal; Gueutier, Eric

    2011-09-01

    The European project "hOME Gigabit Access Network" (OMEGA) targeted various wireless and wired solutions for 1 Gbit/s connectivity in Home Area Networks (HANs). One objective was to evaluate the suitability of optical wireless technologies in two spectral regions: visible light (visible-light communications - VLC) and near infrared (infrared communications - IRC). Several demonstrators have been built, all of them largely relying on overthe- shelf components. The demonstrators included a "wide-area" VLC broadcast link based on LED ceiling lighting and a laser-based high-data-rate "wide-area" IRC prototype. In this paper we discuss an adapted optical-wireless media-access-control (OWMAC) sublayer, which was developed and implemented during the project. It is suitable for both IRC and VLC. The VLC prototype is based on DMT signal processing and provides broadcasting at { 100 Mbit/s over an area of approximately 5 m2. The IRC prototype provides {300 Mbit/s half-duplex communication over an area of approximately 30 m2. The IRC mesh network, composed of one base station and two terminals, is based on OOK modulation, multi-sector transceivers, and an ultra-fast sector switch. After a brief discussion about the design of the optical-wireless data link layer and the optical-wireless switch (OWS) card, we address the card development and implementation. We also present applications for the VLC and IRC prototypes and measurement results regarding the MAC layer.

  8. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf; Volchek, Konstantin; Kuang, Wenxing; Tezel, F Handan

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive (137)Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L(-1) at room temperature (21°C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  10. Protection of High Ceiling Nuclear Facilities Using Photoelectric Sensors and Infrared Fire Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadoud, A.A.; El Eissawi, H.M.; Saleh, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of different security systems and components are commercially available and widely used. Before implementing a security system, it is important to understand the characteristics and requirements of the facility area to be protected. Technology and manufacturers of security devices are rapidly changing. It is necessary to use optimal security equipment suitable for the surrounding environment of the facility to be protected. Several security sensors can be used to protect the nuclear facilities, such as passive infrared detectors and glass breakage sensors, vibration detectors, and microwave sensors. This work introduces technical specifications, operation and method of installation for these detectors in nuclear facilities. Also a comparative study of different security sensors or equipment is provided. The photoelectric detectors and infrared fire beam smoke detectors are reliable, suitable and advanced security equipment. They can be used in special cases because of their advantages, this includes their long ranges and accuracy in performance. This paper presents a new concept for adapting the use infrared optical fire beam smoke detector as intrusion detection equipment in high ceiling buildings or towering height facilities. This is in addition to their main function, namely fire detection.The paper also provides a study for their types and installation method. Focus is made on the installation and operation method for two advanced security systems, and wireless control circuit for the overall system operation

  11. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210 This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  12. Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn C; Reiss, Patricia L

    2004-01-01

    Women have had their share of difficulties climbing the corporate ladder in their chosen professional roles. Excellent role models exist for nurses to look up to as role models for leadership and executive level positions. Nurses and women must strive to achieve their goals of attaining executive/management level positions in their respective organizations. The glass ceiling still exists; however, women are slowly eroding that glass barrier and reaching their professional goals. In reviewing the struggles that men in nursing have encountered in a predominantly female profession, one realizes that stereotypical attitudes do cross gender lines. The authors conclude that executive level positions need to be opened more to women, just as the nursing profession must be more welcoming to men. The profession of nursing will only become stronger with gender diversity. Women encounter barriers when aspiring to executive level positions. In the next issue of SCI Nursing, the authors will report on what the evidence says about women in leadership roles, and the challenges they have and will continue to face.

  13. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  14. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Ceiling Fan Dusts Sampled at Schools Around Serdang Area, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.K.; Krishnan, T.; Chew, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, ceiling fan dust samples were collected from three schools in the district of Serdang Selangor, Malaysia. The sampled dust were analysed for the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. The heavy metal ranges found in all the schools were 2.96-7.74 μg/ g dry weight for Cd, 75-442 μg/ g dry weight for Cu, 3445-3852 μg/ g dry weight for Fe, 24-66 μg/ g dry weight for Ni, 140-734 μg/ g dry weight for Pb and 439-880 μg/ g dry weight for Zn. SMK Seri Serdang School was found to have elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn which indicated the anthropogenic sources of the study sites. In comparison to other reported studies in the literature, the maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were comparable or higher to those cities reported. Therefore, more monitoring studies should be conducted in future since dusts could be related to human health hazards and the dusts can be used as a potential monitoring tool for heavy metal pollution in the atmosphere. (author)

  15. GIS approach to the definition of capacity and generation ceilings of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Bravo, Javier; Garcia Casals, Xavier; Pinedo Pascua, Irene

    2007-01-01

    There are no discrepancies about the advantages of achieving a sustainable energy system based on locally available natural resources. However, supporters of green energy generation system were lacking some scientific and consistent study to defend their proposals. In order to have such a study, Greenpeace commissioned Technology Research Institute at the Pontificia Comillas University to carry out a study to assess ceilings for the potential and generation of renewable technologies in Spain. It demonstrates firstly a far greater renewable potential than the targets set by long term policies, and secondly, the viability of meeting the entire electricity demand projected for 2050. GIS was used to add the geographical dimension to the original project in order to generate a technical analysis linked to the specific constrictions imposed by territory (natural and anthropogenic) and not just designed to cover a certain demand. Therefore, GIS spatial analysis took into account local conditions producing a more accurate assessment than evaluations made upon 'virtual' electrical spaces. This approach could be applied to other small scale general studies in order to assess the maximum contribution of renewable energy sources to particular energy generation mix and to help set development policies supporting high participation of renewable technologies

  16. Fresh-air cooling ceilings in an administration building; Frischluft-Kuehldecken in einem Verwaltungsgebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1995-06-01

    In the construction of the new building of the Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim much importance was attached to aesthetics and functionality. If the employees are enthusiastic after one year of operation this is mainly due to the ideal climatic conditions: Glazings with insulating glass (k=1,4 W/m{sup 2}k), high-quality thermal insulation of the breasts shading system with motor-driven screen at the outside, radiators with thermostatic valves and a fresh air cooling ceiling. The article describes the course of construction of the total air-conditioning and ventilation technique. (orig.) [Deutsch] Beim Neubau der DIG Deutsche Innenbau GmbH in Muelheim an der Ruhr legte man grossen Wert auf Aesthetik und Funktionalitaet. Wenn die Mitarbeiter nach einem Jahr Betrieb begeistert sind, so liegt dies grossenteils an idealen klimatechnischen Voraussetzungen: Verglasung mit Waermeschutzglas (K=1,4 W/m{sup 2}K), hochwertige Waermedaemmung der Bruestungen, aussenliegender Sonnenschutz mit motorbetaetigten Raffstoren, Radiatoren mit Thermostatventilen und einem Frischluft-Kuehldecken-System. Dieser Beitrag beschreibt die Vorgehensweise beim Bau der gesamten Klima- und Lueftungstechnik. (orig.)

  17. Advance care planning: the impact of Ceiling of Treatment plans in patients with Coordinate My Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Helen Lucy; Droney, Joanne; Callender, Tom; Shaw, Amanda; Riley, Julia

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this evaluation is to describe the components and results of urgent care planning in Coordinate My Care (CMC), a digital clinical service for patients with life-limiting illness, for use if a patient is unable to make or express choices. Ceiling of treatment (CoT) plans were created detailing where the patient would like to receive their care and how aggressive medical interventions should be. A retrospective service evaluation was completed of all CMC records created between December 2015 and September 2016 (n=6854). CMC records were divided into two cohorts: those with a CoT plan and those without. The factors associated with these cohorts were reviewed including age, diagnosis, resuscitation status and preferences for place of death (PPD). Analysis of the non-mandatory free text section was carried out. Two-thirds of patients had recorded decisions about CoT. Regardless of which CoT option was chosen, for most patients, PPD was home or care home. Patients with a CoT plan were more likely to have a documented resuscitation status.Patients with a CoT were more likely to die in their PPD (82%vs71%, OR 1.79, pcare planning. Three facets of urgent care planning identified include PPD, CoT and resuscitation status. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Women's Health and Women's Leadership in Academic Medicine: Hitting the Same Glass Ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Claudia; Geller, Stacie E.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The term “glass ceiling” refers to women's lack of advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers. The term has been applied to academic medicine for over a decade but has not previously been applied to the advancement of women's health. This paper discusses (1) the historical linking of the advances in women's health with women's leadership in academic medicine, (2) the slow progress of women into leadership in academic medicine, and (3) indicators that the advancement of women's health has stalled. We make the case that deeply embedded unconscious gender-based biases and assumptions underpin the stalled advancement of women on both fronts. We conclude with recommendations to promote progress beyond the apparent glass ceiling that is preventing further advancement of women's health and women leaders. We emphasize the need to move beyond “fixing the women” to a systemic, institutional approach that acknowledges and addresses the impact of unconscious, gender-linked biases that devalue and marginalize women and issues associated with women, such as their health. PMID:18954235

  19. Women in hospital medicine in the United Kingdom: glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Sproston, K A

    2000-01-01

    To assess from official statistics whether there is evidence that the careers of women doctors in hospitals do not progress in the same way as those of men. The proportions of female hospital doctors overall (1963-96), and in the specialties of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, pathology, radiology/radiotherapy, anaesthetics and psychiatry (1974-1996) were examined. Additionally data were examined on career preferences and intentions from pre-registration house officers, final year medical students, and medical school applicants (1966-1991). Data were analysed according to cohort of entry to medical school to assess the extent of disproportionate promotion. The proportion of women in hospital career posts was largely explained by the rapidly increasing proportion of women entering medical school during the past three decades. In general there was little evidence for disproportionate promotion of women in hospital careers, although in surgery, hospital medicine and obstetrics and gynaecology, fewer women seemed to progress beyond the SHO grade, and in anaesthetics there were deficits of women at each career stage. Analyses of career preferences and intentions suggest that disproportionate promotion cannot readily be explained as differential choice by women. Although there is no evidence as such of a "glass ceiling" for women doctors in hospital careers, and the current paucity of women consultants primarily reflects historical trends in the numbers of women entering medical school, there is evidence in some cases of disproportionate promotion that is best interpreted as direct or indirect discrimination.

  20. Experimental research on the indoor temperature and humidity fields in radiant ceiling air-conditioning system under natural ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Xiang, Yutong; Wang, Yonghong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, the indoor temperature and humidity fields of the air in a metal ceiling radiant panel air conditioning system with fresh air under natural ventilation were researched. The temperature and humidity distributions at different height and different position were compared. Through the computation analysis of partial pressure of water vapor, the self-recovery characteristics of humidity after the natural ventilation was discussed.

  1. Experimental study on the dynamic performance of a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Dynamic experiments are performed to study energy performance of a new HVAC system. • Designed control strategies show good utilization of natural ventilation cooling. • TABS work well with the diffuse ceiling in the dynamic measurements. • No local thermal comfort problem is found...... even in the extreme winter case. • Designed control strategies can be used in the future application of this system....

  2. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenye; Ma, Zhenjun; Sohel, M. Imroz; Cooper, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  3. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.103(n)-7T Election to allocate State ceiling to... amount that would have been New York's State ceiling (as defined in section 103(n)(4) and A-1 of § 1.103...

  4. Cooling ceilings: Silent, comfortable and productive. Percentage of sickness absenteeism. Kuehldecken eroeffnen neue Moeglichkeiten: Still, behaglich und produktiv. Krankenstand von 11,8 auf 3,8% reduziert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laege, F.K.

    1992-07-01

    This article is a report about the second symposium on cooling ceilings held in Essen, which had been organized by the technical institute for building ventilation. On the one hand the topic was the state of technology as well as the standardization have been treated, on the other hand, user experiences of non technicians have been reported. It was ascertained that the variety of references convinced the auditors. Germany has obviously the leading position for the construction of cooling ceilings. (BWI).

  5. Nonlinear modeling and stability analysis of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel under load disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong; Wang, Mingjiang; Lai, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel nonlinear mathematical model of hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. • Hopf bifurcation analysis on the governing system is conducted. • Stability of the system under load disturbance is studied. • Influence of four factors on stability is analyzed. • Optimization methods of improving system stability are put forward. - Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of nonlinear dynamics of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, which is caused by the interface movement of the free surface-pressurized flow in the tailrace tunnel, and the difficulty of analyzing the stability of system, this paper uses the Hopf bifurcation theory to study the stability of hydro-turbine governing system of hydropower station with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. Firstly, a novel and rational nonlinear mathematical model of the hydro-turbine governing system is proposed. This model contains the dynamic equation of pipeline system which can accurately describe the motion characteristics of the interface of free surface-pressurized flow in sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel. According to the nonlinear mathematical model, the existence and direction of Hopf bifurcation of the nonlinear dynamic system are analyzed. Furthermore, the algebraic criterion of the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation is derived. Then the stability domain and bifurcation diagram of hydro-turbine governing system are drawn by the algebraic criterion, and the characteristics of stability under different state parameters are investigated. Finally, the influence of step load value, ceiling slope angle and section form of tailrace tunnel and water depth at the interface in tailrace tunnel on stability are analyzed based on stable domain. The results indicate that: The Hopf bifurcation of hydro-turbine governing system with sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is supercritical. The phase space trajectories of characteristic variables stabilize at the equilibrium points

  6. Women in hospital medicine in the United Kingdom: glass ceiling, preference, prejudice or cohort effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I; Sproston, K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess from official statistics whether there is evidence that the careers of women doctors in hospitals do not progress in the same way as those of men.
DESIGN—The proportions of female hospital doctors overall (1963-96), and in the specialties of medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, pathology, radiology/radiotherapy, anaesthetics and psychiatry (1974-1996) were examined. Additionally data were examined on career preferences and intentions from pre-registration house officers, final year medical students, and medical school applicants (1966-1991).
ANALYSIS—Data were analysed according to cohort of entry to medical school to assess the extent of disproportionate promotion.
RESULTS—The proportion of women in hospital career posts was largely explained by the rapidly increasing proportion of women entering medical school during the past three decades. In general there was little evidence for disproportionate promotion of women in hospital careers, although in surgery, hospital medicine and obstetrics and gynaecology, fewer women seemed to progress beyond the SHO grade, and in anaesthetics there were deficits of women at each career stage. Analyses of career preferences and intentions suggest that disproportionate promotion cannot readily be explained as differential choice by women.
CONCLUSIONS—Although there is no evidence as such of a "glass ceiling" for women doctors in hospital careers, and the current paucity of women consultants primarily reflects historical trends in the numbers of women entering medical school, there is evidence in some cases of disproportionate promotion that is best interpreted as direct or indirect discrimination.

 PMID:10692956

  7. The status of women at one academic medical center. Breaking through the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, K G; Bennett, N M; Estes, D; Shea, S

    1990-10-10

    Despite recent gains in admission to medical school and in obtaining junior faculty positions, women remain underrepresented at senior academic ranks and in leadership positions in medicine. This discrepancy has been interpreted as evidence of a "glass ceiling" that prevents all but a few exceptional women from gaining access to leadership positions. We analyzed data from Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, NY, for all faculty hired from 1969 through 1988 and found that the likelihood of promotion on the tenure track was 0.40 for women and 0.48 for men (ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 1.20); on the clinical track the likelihood of promotion was 0.75 for women and 0.72 for men (ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.56 to 1.94). Additional analysis of current faculty showed that in the academic year 1988-1989 the proportion of women at each tenure track rank at the College of Physicians & Surgeons equaled or exceeded the national proportion of women graduating from medical school, once allowance was made for the average time lag necessary to attain each rank. On the clinical track women were somewhat overrepresented, particularly at the junior rank. National data that describe medical school faculty, which combine tenure and clinical tracks, showed that in 1988 women were proportionately represented at each rank once the lead time from graduation was considered. We conclude that objective evidence shows that women can succeed and are succeeding in gaining promotions in academic medicine.

  8. In search of the glass ceiling: gender and recruitment to management in Norway's state bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvik, Aagoth Elise; Schøne, Pål

    2008-12-01

    There are still fewer female than male managers in Norway's state bureaucracy. This article asks if there are organizational barriers which prevent women from entering these positions. Is there really a glass ceiling, or must one look outside the organizational environment to find an explanation? Is it rather the case that the scarcity of female managers is caused by women's own preferences or their life situations outside work? Or do both contribute to the situation? The study shows that female managers are treated just as well as male managers in central parts of the state bureaucracy. Employers give equal shares of respect and attention to both genders. Female managers are encouraged to apply for the same number of jobs as men and are offered an equal number of jobs as men when they apply; in fact, women are offered more jobs than men, when one controls for the number of job applications. This indicates that organizational barriers are not the problem. The study also shows that there are no differences in work orientation between male and female managers. Female managers are just as ambitious as male managers. Nor do female managers find it more difficult than male managers to combine work and family life. So, how can one explain the low number of female managers? The study shows that one reason can be that female managers apply for management jobs less often than their male colleagues. The cause of this seems to be anticipated discrimination rather than lack of ambition or self-confidence. However, this slows down women's movement into higher management positions in the state bureaucracy.

  9. Research paper no. 18. Trading rules for CO2 emission permits systems. A proposal for ceilings on quantities and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, P.; Viguier, L.

    2000-01-01

    Tradable emission permit (TEP) systems for greenhouse gases (GHGs) as they could develop following the Kyoto Protocol - that is if they are limited to Annex B countries and are not bound by exchange regulations) - do not appear to be greatly acceptable today, either to the United States or to the European Union. The problem of the uncertainty related to the cost of reducing emissions is strongly highlighted in the United States: in fact, the approach adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that of quantitative emissions targets, leaves the question of the reduction programme costs wide open. For the European Union, the unregulated TEP system is hardly acceptable because it would not guarantee that the principle of 'supplementarity' adopted in the Kyoto Protocol, that is, the fact that the purchase of permits should be in addition to action taken within each of the Annex B countries. The section two of this paper is an in-depth economic analysis of the european proposal for ''concrete ceilings''. The alternative proposals, formulated in the United States and relating more to permit price ceilings or''trigger price'', are examined in Section 3. After showing that each of the foregoing proposals could have consequences unacceptable to some or others of the parties to the Protocol, Section 4 offers the proposal of a hybrid formula for regulating the rights market. In fact, the main aim of this paper is to show that the implementation of a 'hybrid solution', consisting of limiting the volume of exchanges while at the same time introducing a TEP price ceiling, could provide a market regulation framework effect allowing the benefits of most of the economic advantages to be enjoyed and also having characteristics acceptable to the various parties from an environmental as well as from an international fairness point of view. (A.L.B.)

  10. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Lagos, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  11. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Ganiyu; Akintunde Oluwafemi; Afolabi Ademola; Okikiola Olatunji

    2018-01-01

    Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to th...

  12. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Spaces with high occupant densities result in high heat gains and need for relatively high air change rate.By means of traditional mechanical ventilation diffusers it becomes a challenge to supply large amountsof fresh air into the space without creating a local discomfort for occupants. One...... comfort numerically. Results of our investigations have shown that diffuse ceiling inlet is a suitable solution for the spaceswith high density occupancy. The results have shown that transient calculations using Large Eddy Simulation models can predict well temperatures and velocity magnitude of air flow...

  13. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s and 16 0C. The localised chilled beam was installed over the workstation placed by the simulated window. During the experiment the subjects were delegated control over the primary flow rate supplied by the localised chilled beam. The whole exposure lasted 2 hours with 30 min of acclimatisation before...

  14. Coupling ant colony and the degraded ceiling algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem of series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahas, Nabil; Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2007-01-01

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions

  15. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3......) and Category B thermal environment in the meeting room at high heat load of 94 W∙m−2. The air distribution pattern was influenced by the convective flows from the heat sources. The maximum local velocity in the occupied zone was 0.23–0.26 m∙s−1. The diffuse ceiling supply did not ensure complete mixing...... temperature was controlled at 24 °C. The quality of the generated indoor environment as defined in ISO standard 7730 (2005) was assessed based on comprehensive physical measurements. The systems created Category A thermal environment in cooling situations at heat load of 50 W∙m−2 and 78 W∙m−2 (office room...

  16. Simulation Study of Active Ceilings with Phase Change Material in Office Buildings for Different National Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farhan, Hajan; Stefansen, Casper; Bourdakis, Eleftherios

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of phase change material (PCM) in active ceilings for an office room under different Danish building regulations for both heating and cooling purposes. A model of a two-person office room was simulated with the only heating and cooling source...... being radiant ceiling panels containing PCM. The target was to reduce energy use for the simulation models and still meet the recommended criteria of Category II for the European Standard EN 15251:2007 namely, 23°C – 26°C (73.4°F – 78.8°F) during summer and between 20°C – 24°C (68.0°F – 73.4°F) during...... winter. The office model was simulated for a whole year and analyzed for three Danish building regulations BR10 (2010), BR15 (2015) and BR20 (2020). The results show that the indoor environment was within the desired Category II, according to EN 15251 for the whole occupancy period. The predicted...

  17. Combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on dynamic performance of turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear mathematical model and Hopf bifurcation analysis of turbine regulating system are presented. • Dynamic performance of turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area is analyzed and a novel dynamic performance is revealed. • Relationship between two bifurcation lines and wave superposition is studied. • Combined effect mechanisms of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on stability are revealed and optimization methods are proposed. - Abstract: Based on the nonlinear mathematical model of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant with upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel and the Hopf bifurcation theory, this paper firstly studies the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area of surge chamber, and reveals a novel dynamic performance. Then, the relationship between the two bifurcation lines and the wave superposition of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is analyzed. Finally, the effect mechanisms of the wave superposition on the system stability are investigated, and the methods to improve the system stability are proposed. The results indicate that: Under the combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant shows an obvious difference on the two sides of the critical sectional area of surge chamber. There are two bifurcation lines for the condition of 0.5 times Thoma sectional area, i.e. Bifurcation line 1 and Bifurcation line 2, which represent the stability characteristics of the flow oscillation of “penstock-sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel” and the water-level fluctuation in upstream surge chamber, respectively. The stable domain of the system is determined by Bifurcation line 2. The effect of upstream surge chamber mainly depends on its sectional area, while the

  18. Daytime space cooling with phase change material ceiling panels discharged using rooftop photovoltaic/thermal panels and night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Pean, Thibault Quentin; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The possibility of using photovoltaic/thermal panels for producing cold water through the process of night-time radiative cooling was experimentally examined. The cold water was used to discharge phase change material in ceiling panels in a climatic chamber. Both night-time radiative cooling...... the photovoltaic/thermal varied from 56% to 122%. The phase change material ceiling panels were thus, capable of providing an acceptable thermal environment and the photovoltaic/thermal panels were able to provide most of the required electricity and cold water needed for cooling....

  19. Numerical analysis of the potential of using light radiant ceilings in combination with diffuse ventilation to achieve thermal comfort in NZEB buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusaa, Marie Rugholm; Hviid, Christian Anker; Kolarik, Jakub

    ceiling panels. These panels make it possible to combine the heating/cooling ceiling with the diffuse ventilation method. The diffuse ventilation method or leak ventilation use larger surfaces to provide air into the room instead of diffusers. An office building is investigated an analysed on an annual...... basis in the dynamic building simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). The office building contains both offices and meeting rooms. Worst-case scenarios are investigated in the office building considering heat gains, solar gains and the temperature offset between supply water temperature...

  20. Review and investigations of oscillatory flow behaviour of a horizontal ceiling opening for nuclear containment and fire safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.

    2011-05-15

    In the thermal hydraulics codes developed for fire safety analysis and for containment thermal hydraulic analysis, junctions in the multi-compartment geometries is often modeled as uni-directional junctions. However, ceiling junctions are known to depict unstable/oscillatory bi-directional flow behavior. Detailed investigations have been carried out to understand the unstable flow behaviour of a junction by analyzing an earlier reported experiment and its subsequent two dimensional numerical RANS based study of fire in an enclosure. The authors attempt more realistic and desired three dimensional and inherently transient large eddy simulations using a computer code Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). The paper presents the details of the analysis, the results obtained and further studies required to be conducted so that the findings can be applied to the fire/containment thermal hydraulics analysis codes successfully. (orig.)

  1. Efficiency of overhead ceiling lifts in reducing musculoskeletal injury among carers working in long-term care institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Fast, Catherine; Hennessy, Stephanie; Kidd, Catherine; Yassi, Annalee

    2008-05-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted in three long-term care facilities to evaluate the effectiveness and cost benefit of overhead lifts in reducing the risk of musculoskeletal injury among healthcare workers. Analysis of injury trends spanning 6 years before intervention (1996-2001) and 4 years after intervention (2002-2005) found a significant and sustained decrease in workers' compensation claims per number of beds and in working days lost per bed. The payback period was estimated under various assumptions and varied from 6.3 to 6.2 years if only direct claim-cost savings were included, and from 2.06 to 3.20 years when indirect savings were added. The significant reductions in injury rates and compensation claims support intervention with overhead ceiling lifts. A more comprehensive evaluation of such programmes should incorporate in the analysis important variables such as staffing ratios, job stresses, injury reporting systems and compensation policies during the study period.

  2. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RULES IN FIVE LEADING STANDARDS FOR SMOKE DETECTORS SITING IN THE PRESENCE OF A CEILING IRREGULARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan BLAGOJEVIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Subdividing elements and different structures on the ceiling like beams or similar, significantly affect the location of the smoke detector, because they change the flow of combustion products. From point of view of fire detection system, designers it is very interesting how to arrange and distribute smoke detectors in applications when beams are formed structure like a “honeycomb” The European norm 54-14 is mandatory, but in practice, a main question appears: “Do we have the explanations detailed enough for all of the situations that could occur related to length, width and depth of honeycomb cells”? The main goal of this paper is to show the differences between the rules and the instructions in five standards: EN 54-14, VDE 0833-2, BS 5839-1, NPB 88, NFPA 72, and to find the best solution for various situations in practice.

  4. Photocatalytic disinfection of surfaces with copper doped Ti02 nanotube coatings illuminated by ceiling mounted fluorescent light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koklic, Tilen; Pintarič, Štefan; Zdovc, Irena; Golob, Majda; Umek, Polona; Mehle, Alma; Dobeic, Martin; Štrancar, Janez

    2018-01-01

    High economic burden is associated with foodborne illnesses. Different disinfection methods are therefore employed in food processing industry; such as use of ultraviolet light or usage of surfaces with copper-containing alloys. However, all the disinfection methods currently in use have some shortcomings. In this work we show that copper doped TiO2 nanotubes deposited on existing surfaces and illuminated with ceiling mounted fluorescent lights can retard the growth of Listeria Innocua by 80% in seven hours of exposure to the fluorescent lights at different places in a food processing plant or in the laboratory conditions with daily reinocuation and washing. The disinfection properties of the surfaces seem to depend mainly on the temperature difference of the surface and the dew point, where for the maximum effectiveness the difference should be about 3 degrees celsius. The TiO2 nanotubes have a potential to be employed for an economical and continuous disinfection of surfaces. PMID:29768464

  5. Parametric analysis of the operation of nocturnal radiative cooling panels coupled with in room PCM ceiling panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Péan, T.Q.

    2017-01-01

    03:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 21°C, 69.8°F, activate the heat pump no earlier than 05:00 and get activated when the temperature in the storage tank was below 15°C, 59°F, and lastly have a temperature difference between the output of the solar panels......The scope of this parametric simulation study was to identify the optimal combination of set-points for different parameters of a radiant PCM ceiling panels cooling system that will result in the best indoor thermal environment with the least possible energy use. The results showed that for each...

  6. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  7. Review of proton pump inhibitors for the initial treatment of heartburn: is there a dose ceiling effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Pamela R; Peura, David A

    2011-05-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in clinical practice. However, concerns have been expressed about their long-term use, particularly with regard to bone health, Clostridium difficile infections, and drug interactions with platelet aggregation inhibitors. There has been limited guidance for clinicians concerning appropriate dose selection of PPIs for the initial treatment of heartburn. This review explored whether published clinical trials provide evidence of a ceiling above which higher PPI doses do not provide additional clinical benefit over the lowest approved dose. All articles of randomized, controlled clinical trials in nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in which the effects of two or more doses of the same PPI on symptomatic relief of heartburn were quantified as a study endpoint were identified and analyzed through PubMed searches up to the end of September 2010. The majority of trials evaluated provided no evidence that higher PPI doses were superior to the lowest approved dose for the initial treatment of heartburn. There were no clinically relevant findings with respect to dose dependence and safety outcomes in these studies. Efficacy outcomes from the trials suggest there may be a dose ceiling effect and highlight the need for further research on the use of the lowest effective PPI doses as an appropriate strategy in the initial treatment of uncomplicated heartburn. Observational studies and some meta-analyses have suggested that long-term PPI pharmacotherapy might be associated with safety concerns, which necessitate the periodic evaluation of therapeutic benefit in terms of symptom resolution and regimen tolerability. However, evidence to date suggests that use of the lowest effective dose for the indication is not associated with significant adverse events, particularly in the short term. Clinical practice suggests that patients requiring long-term treatment should be maintained on the lowest dose necessary to control

  8. Reduced energy reqirement for air conditioning by using air diffusion with air flow from floor to ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, H; Dittes, W; Mangelsdorf, R; Detzer, R; Jungbaeck, E; Fitzner, K; Radtke, W; Soethout, F

    1982-02-01

    The condition of the air in the occupied zone in airconditioned rooms is influenced by the mixing of supply air with room air. When supplying air from the ceiling there is a mixing all over the room, when supplying from the floor or from desks there is a mixing region only in the lower area. Above this their is warm air from which the return air is drawn. For air supply from below the cooling load can be decreased. In combination with the possible enthalpy difference between room air and supply air this decrease of the cooling load influences the necessary air rate. The interdependence of various air conditioning systems and various air temperatures is shown with a computer program. The load factor for various air distribution system at various cooling loads have been measured in a room of (8 x 5)m/sup 2/ x 3m. Experiments in a smaller model room (scale 1:3) showed how the heat was transported from the mixing region to the stratification region. The theoretically gained influence of the supply air jets of the height of the mixing region and on the load rate could be verified by the experiments. For the design of the fresh air rate, experience has been gained by measurements with tracegas (N/sub 2/O) in a third room. In comparing calculations the annual energy consumption has been computed for a building assuming various air conditioning systems and typical operation data. From experience with the existing systems the conclusions have been drawn how air distribution from floor to ceiling can be installed and operated.

  9. Shattering the Glass Ceiling. Issues and Solutions in Promoting the Advancement of Women and Minorities to Executive Management in Corporate America. White Paper 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microquest Corp., San Rafael, CA.

    Despite their progress in the workplace in recent years, women and minorities still remain greatly underrepresented in executive roles in major U.S. companies. The barriers, attitudes, and practices that deter the advancement of women and minorities into executive ranks collectively result in the phenomenon known as the "Glass Ceiling."…

  10. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan... the final energy consumption value to a whole number as follows: (i) A fractional number at or above...

  11. Flow characteristics in occupied zone – An experimental study with symmetrically located thermal plumes and low-momentum diffuse ceiling air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lestinen, Sami; Kilpeläinen, Simo; Kosonen, Risto

    2018-01-01

    and turbulent mixing that can further yield a draught discomfort in an occupied zone. The main objective was to investigate large-scale airflow patterns and fluctuations as a result of interaction of buoyancy flows and diffuse ceiling flow. Experiments were performed in a test room of 5.5 m (length) x 3.8 m...

  12. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to the ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: Axisymmetric impinging and far regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Amin, M.F.; Kanayama, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    As hydrogen leaks into a partially open space with a ceiling wall, a boundary layer of hydrogen can be constructed under that wall due to the impingement on the wall and the buoyancy force. The resulting boundary layer can be divided into two regions, namely the stagnation-point region and the far region. When the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is circular, such as a pinhole or an o-ring, the behavior of leakage flow will be axisymmetric due to the resulting radial jet. In contrast, when the geometry of the source of the hydrogen leak is planar, such as a crack, the behavior of leakage flow will be planar due to the resulting planar jet. Previously, we studied the planar case in the context of both the stagnation-point flow region [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00] and the far region [El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7]. This paper is concerned with both the stagnation-point flow region and the far region of the axisymmetric concentration boundary layer adjacent to a ceiling wall. Flow in the stagnation-point region is treated as Hiemenz flow, while it is treated as Blasius flow in the far region. The current results are compared with the planar cases [El-Amin MF, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall at impinging region of a hydrogen leakage. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(21): 6393-00; El-Amin MF, Inoue M, Kanayama H. Boundary layer theory approach to the concentration layer adjacent to a ceiling wall of a hydrogen leakage: far region. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2008; 33(24):7642-7] for both stagnation-point flow and far regions. Both momentum and concentration boundary layer

  13. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    the impact sound pressure level in a receiving room for a coupled floor structure where floor and ceiling are rigidly connected by beams. A theoretical model for predicting the impact sound level for a decoupled floor structure, which has no rigid mechanical connections between the floor and the ceiling......, is developed. An analytical method has been implemented, where a spatial Fourier transform method as well as the Poisson’s sum formula is applied to model transformed plate displacements. Radiated sound power was calculated from these displacements and normalized sound pressure levels were calculated in one...... and is found to be dependent on frequency, showing significant improvement in predicting impact sound level at high frequency region....

  14. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  15. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  16. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of the external walls and roof (ceiling) for Turkey's different degree-day regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Nuri; Kahya, Emin; Aras, Nil; Aras, Haydar

    2007-01-01

    The external walls and roof of a building are the interface between its interior and the outdoor environment. Insulation of the external walls and roof is the most cost-effective way of controlling the outside elements to make homes more comfortable. Although insulation is generally accepted as a factor increasing the building costs, with the calculations we have shown that this is not the case. Fuel consumption and operational costs are reduced by increasing the thickness of the external walls and roof (ceiling), despite an increase in the investment costs. According to Turkish Standard Number 825 (TS 825), there are four different degree-day (DD) regions, and the required heat loads for the buildings in these regions exhibit large differences. Therefore, a method based on costs is needed for the determination of optimum insulation thicknesses of different DD regions. In this study, optimum insulation thicknesses for different DD regions of Turkey, namely, Izmir (DD: 1450), Bursa (DD: 2203), Eskisehir (DD: 3215) and Erzurum (DD: 4856), have been determined for a lifetime of N years, maximizing the present worth value of annual energy savings for insulated external walls

  17. Dental Stem Cell Migration on Pulp Ceiling Cavities Filled with MTA, Dentin Chips, or Bio-Oss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Lymperi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MTA, Bio-Oss, and dentin chips have been successfully used in endodontics. The aim of this study was to assess the adhesion and migration of dental stem cells on human pulp ceiling cavities filled with these endodontic materials in an experimental model, which mimics the clinical conditions of regenerative endodontics. Cavities were formed, by a homemade mold, on untouched third molars, filled with endodontic materials, and observed with electron microscopy. Cells were seeded on cavities’ surface and their morphology and number were analysed. The phenomenon of tropism was assessed in a migration assay. All three materials demonstrated appropriate microstructures for cell attachment. Cells grew on all reagents, but they showed a differential morphology. Moreover, variations were observed when comparing cells numbers on cavity’s filling versus the surrounding dentine disc. The highest number of cells was recorded on dentin chips whereas the opposite was true for Bio-Oss. This was confirmed in the migration assay where a statistically significant lower number of cells migrated towards Bio-Oss as compared to MTA and dentin chips. This study highlights that MTA and dentin chips have a greater potential compared to Bio-Oss regarding the attraction of dental stem cells and are good candidates for bioengineered pulp regeneration.

  18. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  19. Evaluation of base, optimum and ceiling temperature for (Kochia scoparia L. Schard with application of Five-Parameters-Beta Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabouri Rad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schard is an annual, halophyte and drought resistant plant, that it can be irrigated with saline water and a valuable source for forage under drought and saline ecosystems. In order to evaluate germination characteristics of kochia, an experiment was conducted at Physiology laboratory of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2009. This experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications. Germination was evaluated at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C under dark germinator with 50-60 percentage relative humidity. The results showed that the highest germination percentage was obtained at 20-30°C and the lowest obtained at 40°C. The longest and the shortest period to 20 and 50 germination percentage were recorded to 5-10°C and 20-30°C, respectively. The longest and the shortest period to 80 percentage germination were belonging to 15 and 30°C, respectively. Based on Five Parameters Beta model, base, optimum and ceiling temperatures for kochia estimated 3.4, 25 and 43.3°C, respectively. However, seed of this plant is able to germinate in wide temperature range.

  20. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  1. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system--a human response study in hot and humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Sekhar, S C; Melikov, A K

    2010-08-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient temperatures of 26 and 23.5 degrees C and PV air temperatures of 26, 23.5, and 21 degrees C were employed. The local and whole body thermal sensations were reduced when PV airflow rates were increased. Inhaled air temperature was perceived cooler and perceived air quality and air freshness improved when PV airflow rate was increased or temperature was reduced. The newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system offers a practical solution to the integration of PV air terminal devices (ATDs) in the vicinity of the workstation. By remotely locating the PV ATDs on the ceiling directly above the occupants and under their control, the conditioned outdoor air is now provided to the occupants through the downward momentum of the air. A secondary air-conditioning and air distribution system offers additional cooling in the room and maintains a higher ambient temperature, thus offering significant benefits in conserving energy. The results of this study provide designers and consultants with needed knowledge for design of PV systems.

  2. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    -weighted result of area and yield contributions for each country, at each time-step. As part of our research we will generate historic figures and tabular data for every country-crop combination. Phase 3: In the final phase of our research, we attempt to demonstrate how different yield performers (for example, those growing crops at the yield floor vs. the yield ceiling) have utilized different area/yield strategies to increase agricultural production. To group individual pixels into performance quintiles, we utilize binning strategies from previous spatial yield-gap assessments. The results from this step will illustrate how the yield ceiling has improved over time vis-à-vis improvements in the yield floor. As we look forward to a more sustainable and productive agricultural future, we hope the results of this global analysis of our agricultural past can be utilized to identify both optimal and adverse strategies for agricultural growth.

  3. Gender-gaps and glass ceilings: A survey of gender-specific publication trends in Psychiatry between 1994 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süßenbacher, S; Amering, M; Gmeiner, A; Schrank, B

    2017-07-01

    Within academic psychiatry, women are underrepresented in the higher academic ranks. However, basic determinants of women's lack of academic advancement such as publication activity are poorly understood. The present study examines women's publication activity in high-impact psychiatry journals over two decades and reports developments in the numbers of male and female authorship over time and across cultural areas. We conducted a retrospective bibliometric review of all articles published in 2004 and 2014 in three high-ranking general psychiatry journals. Statistical comparisons were made between the two years and with results from a baseline assessment in 1994. The overall percentage of female authors increased from 24.6% in 1994 to 33.2% in 2004 to 38.9% in 2014. Though increases in female authorship were statistically significant for both decades, there was less difference between 2004 and 2014, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Rates of female first authors increased between 1994 and 2014, though to a lesser degree between 2004 and 2014. Numbers of female corresponding authors plateaued between 2004 and 2014. Within Europe, Scandinavia displayed the most balanced gender-wise first author ratios. Western European and Central European countries increased their rates of female first authors substantially between 2004 and 2014. Despite gains in some areas, our study reveals considerable deficits in the diversity of the current academic psychiatric landscape. Ongoing efforts and interventions to enhance the participation of underrepresented groups on institutional, political and editorial levels are necessary to diversify psychiatric research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural analysis of a rehabilitative training system based on a ceiling rail for safety of hemiplegia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong; Song, Won Kyung; Chong, Woo Suk; Yu, Chang Ho

    2018-04-17

    The body-weight support (BWS) function, which helps to decrease load stresses on a user, is an effective tool for gait and balance rehabilitation training for elderly people with weakened lower-extremity muscular strength, hemiplegic patients, etc. This study conducts structural analysis to secure user safety in order to develop a rail-type gait and balance rehabilitation training system (RRTS). The RRTS comprises a rail, trolley, and brain-machine interface. The rail (platform) is connected to the ceiling structure, bearing the loads of the RRTS and of the user and allowing locomobility. The trolley consists of a smart drive unit (SDU) that assists the user with forward and backward mobility and a body-weight support (BWS) unit that helps the user to control his/her body-weight load, depending on the severity of his/her hemiplegia. The brain-machine interface estimates and measures on a real-time basis the body-weight (load) of the user and the intended direction of his/her movement. Considering the weight of the system and the user, the mechanical safety performance of the system frame under an applied 250-kg static load is verified through structural analysis using ABAQUS (6.14-3) software. The maximum stresses applied on the rail and trolley under the given gravity load of 250 kg, respectively, are 18.52 MPa and 48.44 MPa. The respective safety factors are computed to be 7.83 and 5.26, confirming the RRTS's mechanical safety. An RRTS with verified structural safety could be utilized for gait movement and balance rehabilitation and training for patients with hemiplegia.

  5. The Glass Ceiling Conundrum: Illusory belief or Barriers that impede Women’s Career Advancement in the Workplace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ganiyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the preponderance of women in the workforce, it remained a puzzle why the entry of women into higher managerial positions remains restricted and why the syndrome of ‘think manager think male is growing progressively? The objective of this paper is to examine the glass ceiling conundrum with a view of ascertain how it limits women’s career advancement in the workplace. Extensive review of literature was presented and discussed. The paper revealed that women are not making it to the very top of their career not as a result of lack of requisite qualifications, and experience etc.; but as a result of factors that are rooted in cultural, societal, organizational, individual and psychological factors that inhibit women career advancement.  Against the aforementioned background, the paper concludes that women advance marginally to certain level in corporate executive cadre, before they experience ‘glass ceiling’ that impedes their prospect of attaining senior executive position. Accordingly, women compared to men represent an insignificant fraction of those in managerial positions due to cultural prejudice, religion convictions, family related issues, individual and organizational influences. Similarly, inadequate opportunity to networks and seek sponsorship limits women progression to top managerial hierarchy. The study recommends the need to articulate policy frameworks that promote strong organizational culture and a more helpful and supportive environment to develop women leadership skills.  Similarly, there is need to promote sponsorship for women in a way and manner that safeguard the relationships between sponsors and protégés.

  6. Armored glass university ceilings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guil Bozal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The barriers that women face to occupy the highest professional positions are well studied, yet they persist. The employment situation of women has improved, but the positions of power are still predominantly in male hands, as if men continually seek new mechanisms to keep, like viruses that change every year to survive the way vaccines. Barriers persist, although in recent decades women have managed to overcome in quantity and quality to men among university students. Women are still unable to access the best academic positions. Among university faculty only reach 40% and full professor position remain masculinized, having managed to reach the women -after many efforts and some policies- measures only 20%, which is seen clearly insufficient given their greater training. Against this background, the future is difficult, unless the university decided to endorse the cause of equality, going to assume its role of reference for the new generations and to other organizations and society in general.

  7. Bric, Ceiling and base

    OpenAIRE

    Roda Jean-Marc; Noor Aini Zakaria; Lim Hin Fui; Ismariah Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The acronym of BRIC is becoming widely-known as its use by the media increases. BRIC stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and it is the acronym that captures the new importance and effect of these new big engines of globalisation. These giant countries with their dynamics, thirst of resources and industrial development are now reshaping the international trade. The BRIC dynamics now creates major ripple effects in all economic sectors. The exponential growth of BRIC economic activities hav...

  8. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  9. Numerical modelling and experimental studies of thermal behaviour of building integrated thermal energy storage unit in a form of a ceiling panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, Maciej; Łapka, Piotr; Furmański, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept of heat storage in ventilation ducts is described. • Ceiling panel as a part of ventilation system is made of a composite with PCM. • A set-up for experimental investigation of heat storage unit was built. • Numerical model of heat transfer in the storage unit was developed. • Numerical code was validated on the base of experimental measurements. - Abstract: Objective: The paper presents a new concept of building integrated thermal energy storage unit and novel mathematical and numerical models of its operation. This building element is made of gypsum based composite with microencapsulated PCM. The proposed heat storage unit has a form of a ceiling panel with internal channels and is, by assumption, incorporated in a ventilation system. Its task is to reduce daily variations of ambient air temperature through the absorption (and subsequent release) of heat in PCM, without additional consumption of energy. Methods: The operation of the ceiling panel was investigated experimentally on a special set-up equipped with temperature sensors, air flow meter and air temperature control system. Mathematical and numerical models of heat transfer and fluid flow in the panel account for air flow in the panel as well as real thermal properties of the PCM composite, i.e.: thermal conductivity variation with temperature and hysteresis of enthalpy vs. temperature curves for heating and cooling. Proposed novel numerical simulator consists of two strongly coupled sub models: the first one – 1D – which deals with air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the second one – 3D – which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. Results: Spatial and temporal air temperature variations, measured on the experimental set-up, were used to validate numerical model as well as to get knowledge of thermal performance of the panel operating in different conditions. Conclusion: Preliminary results of experimental tests confirmed the ability of

  10. Postoperative Perfection: Ceiling Effects and Lack of Discrimination With Both SRS-22 and -24 Outcomes Instruments in Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrom, Tracey P; Bartley, Carrie; Marks, Michelle C; Yaszay, Burt; Newton, Peter O

    2015-12-01

    Review of a prospective database registry. To compare the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 and SRS-24 outcomes instruments in terms of scores, rate of ceiling effects, and discriminant ability in patients with pre- and postoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Despite improvements noted with the SRS-22, the SRS-24 is still occasionally used prospectively and for comparisons with previous studies reporting SRS-24 scores. Previous work has demonstrated that postoperative scores from the 2 versions are not interchangeable. A multicenter prospective registry of patients who underwent surgical correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried for preoperative and 2-year postoperative SRS-22 and SRS-24 scores. Scores were compared between versions and ceiling effects were identified. Groups of deformity severity were created to evaluate discriminant ability. 829 patients were identified. The SRS-22 scores for pain and general function were significantly greater than SRS-24 scores (P self-image (P self-image domain was able to discriminate between large (29°+) and small (≤11°) residual curves (P < 0.05). Scores obtained by the SRS-22 and the SRS-24 are not translatable despite shared domains. Whereas both versions demonstrated preoperative discriminant ability, postoperative discrimination of residual deformity is lacking in both. Patient-reported outcomes of treatment are crucial in advancing treatment, and improvement in the ability to assess subjective outcomes is essential. 3.

  11. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Naoki; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe; Kuroda, Masayuki; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Bujo, Hideaki; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-01-01

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  12. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  13. Integrated sound absorption in thermally activated concrete ceilings - acoustic and thermal effectiveness of sound-absorber strips spaced at intervals; Integrierte Schallabsorption in thermisch aktivierten Betondecken - akustische und thermische Wirksamkeit periodischer Schallabsorberstreifen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drotleff, Horst; Wack, Roman; Leistner, Philip; Holm, Andreas; Ziegler, Matthias; Sedlbauer, Klaus [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Bauphysik IBP, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    From the perspectives of energy as well as indoor climate, thermally activated concrete ceilings make sense. Used in office buildings, however, their drawback becomes apparent: they are acoustically reflective. The conventional approaches use sound-absorbing suspended sails and absorber baffles or heat-conducting sound absorbers embedded in large areas of the concrete. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented and is evaluated acoustically and thermally. A few strips of sound absorber, arranged at intervals, are mounted flush into the concrete ceiling. To calculate the sound-absorption spectrum, an already widely publicised model (the Rayleigh approach) is used. It predicts the sound-absorption spectrum for normal sound incidence very well. For diffuse sound incidence, the difference to reverberation chamber measurements is greater, presumably because of the edge effect. The sound- absorption coefficient of the design can be tuned by skilful choice of the strip geometry, and it is significantly higher than the expected average value for the surface. On the one hand, the thermal efficiency of the components is determined by comparing the heat fluxes in the ceilings with absorber strips to an untreated reference ceiling. On the other hand, the indoor climate is investigated using a room model for office rooms of both solid and lightweight constructions. The influence of the strips (proportion of absorber area 20 %) on the thermal efficiency and indoor climate is low. Two absorber materials are examined in the strip approach: open-cell foam glass and a micro-perforated metallic absorber. While the metallic absorber displays thermal advantages, its sound absorption spectrum - even at high surface-coverage proportions - exhibits a much lower absorption coefficient than, for example, open-cell foam glass strips with only 20 % ceiling coverage. A demonstration in situ shows the potential of the absorber strips spaced at intervals. However, the method chosen in

  14. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  15. Ceiling personalized ventilation combined with desk fans for reduced direct and indirect cross-contamination and efficient use of office space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habchi, Carine; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Chakroun, Walid; Alotaibi, Sorour

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Cross-infection occurs by direct inhalation and contact of contaminated surfaces. • Mixing ventilation performance is degraded at reduced distance between occupants. • Ceiling personalized ventilation reduces significantly cross-contamination. • The optimized system induces large energy savings compared to mixing ventilation. • The optimized system improves the occupation density from 12 to 8 m 2 per occupant. - Abstract: Crowded offices with short distances separating workers’ stations increase the probability of respiratory cross-infection via two different paths. One path is the contaminant transmission through air by direct inhalation and the other is through the body contact of contaminated surfaces and walls. Mixed ventilation principles used today reduces the probability of cross contamination by increasing the distance between the stations challenging the efficient use of the space or by supplying more fresh air in the space which is energy inefficient. In this work, new cooling and ventilation configuration is studied by modeling using computational fluid dynamics with consideration of space occupancy density while providing good indoor air quality. The configuration considers a ceiling personalized ventilation system equipped with desk fans. The ability of the computational fluid dynamics model in computing the thermal, velocity and concentration fields was validated by experiments and published data. The main objective of the performed experiments was to ensure that the developed computational fluid dynamics model can capture the effect of the desk fan flow rate on particle behavior. The studied system is found to provide acceptable indoor air quality at shorter distance between the occupants compared to the mixing system at considerable energy savings. By optimizing the design of the proposed personalized ventilation system, the occupancy density in an office is enhanced to 8 m 2 per occupant compared to 12 m 2 per occupant for

  16. Women and the Workplace: The Glass Ceiling. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment and Productivity of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (October 23, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These proceedings are from a hearing that addressed the so-called "glass ceiling"--the dearth of women in mid- and upper-management level positions in corporations and other organizations. Statements of the following persons are included: Senator Paul Simon; Elsie Vartanian, Director of the Women's Bureau; Senator Robert Dole; Lynn…

  17. Limitations and ceiling effects with circumferential minimally invasive correction techniques for adult scoliosis: analysis of radiological outcomes over a 7-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Neel; Baron, Eli M; Khandehroo, Babak

    2014-05-01

    Minimally invasive correction of adult scoliosis is a surgical method increasing in popularity. Limited data exist, however, as to how effective these methodologies are in achieving coronal plane and sagittal plane correction in addition to improving spinopelvic parameters. This study serves to quantify how much correction is possible with present circumferential minimally invasive surgical (cMIS) methods. Ninety patients were selected from a database of 187 patients who underwent cMIS scoliosis correction. All patients had a Cobb angle greater than 15°, 3 or more levels fused, and availability of preoperative and postoperative 36-inch standing radiographs. The mean duration of follow-up was 37 months. Preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), coronal balance, lumbar lordosis (LL), and pelvic incidence (PI) were measured. Scatter plots were performed comparing the pre- and postoperative radiological parameters to calculate ceiling effects for SVA correction, Cobb angle correction, and PI-LL mismatch correction. The mean preoperative SVA value was 60 mm (range 11.5-151 mm); the mean postoperative value was 31 mm (range 0-84 mm). The maximum SVA correction achieved with cMIS techniques in any of the cases was 89 mm. In terms of coronal Cobb angle, a mean correction of 61% was noted, with a mean preoperative value of 35.8° (range 15°-74.7°) and a mean postoperative value of 13.9° (range 0°-32.5°). A ceiling effect for Cobb angle correction was noted at 42°. The ability to correct the PI-LL mismatch to 10° was limited to cases in which the preoperative PI-LL mismatch was 38° or less. Circumferential MIS techniques as currently used for the treatment of adult scoliosis have limitations in terms of their ability to achieve SVA correction and lumbar lordosis. When the preoperative SVA is greater than 100 mm and a substantial amount of lumbar lordosis is needed, as determined by spinopelvic parameter calculations, surgeons should

  18. Verification of the Seismic Performance of a Rigidly Connected Modular System Depending on the Shape and Size of the Ceiling Bracket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungjae Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modular systems have been mostly researched in relatively low-rise structures but, lately, their applications to mid- to high-rise structures began to be reviewed, and research interest in new modularization subjects has increased. The application of modular systems to mid- to high-rise structures requires the structural stability of the frame and connections that consist of units, and the evaluation of the stiffness of structures that are combined in units. However, the combination of general units causes loss of the cross-section of columns or beams, resulting in low seismic performance and hindering installation works in the field. In addition, the evaluation of a frame considering such a cross-sectional loss is not easy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a joint that is stable and easy to install. In the study, a rigidly connected modular system was proposed as a moment-resisting frame for a unit modular system, and their joints were developed and their performances were compared. The proposed system changed the ceiling beam into a bracket type to fasten bolts. It can be merged with other seismic force-resisting systems. To verify the seismic performance of the proposed system, a cyclic loading test was conducted, and the rigidly connected joint performance and integrated behavior at the joint of modular units were investigated. From the experimental results, the maximum resisting force of the proposed connection exceeded the theoretical parameters, indicating that a rigid joint structural performance could be secured.

  19. The interpretation of the figure of the prophet Jonah by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel: anatomical urological vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Zani, Emerson Luis; Alonso, Joao Carlos; Simoes, Fabiano Andre; Rejowski, Ronald Finamore; Barreto, Gilson

    2012-01-01

    A detailed analysis in the iconography and pictorial appearance of the scene of the "Prophet Jonah" painted by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel between the years 1508 and 1512. Literature review on the Italian Renaissance period and the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti and analysis of historical aspects of the evolution of studies of human anatomy in this period and the works of the artist. A comparative analysis of the representation of the figure of the fish on the left thigh of "Jonah " with a cross section of penis shows a curious similarity. The pictorial and iconographic analysis reveals an intensity of light on the pubic area and the position of the prophet with the legs spread apart and left hand placed on this region. A tube-shaped cloth covers the region and the angel at the side seems to be looking at this anatomical region of "Jonah". In fact, sets of iconographic and pictorial relate to the deciphered code. This description helps to confirm the relationship of the Renaissance art with the human anatomy; science has been much studied in this period. The design of a cross section of the penis is revealed with the two cavernous bodies with the septum between them and the spongy body. Considering the circumstances in which Michelangelo had painted, subjectivity was fundamental due to religious motivations added to the vigorous implications of a limited scientific knowledge typical of that era.

  20. How to ask about patient satisfaction? The visual analogue scale is less vulnerable to confounding factors and ceiling effect than a symmetric Likert scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Ari; Pitkäaho, Taina; Kvist, Tarja; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri

    2016-04-01

    To study the effects of scale type (visual analogue scale vs. Likert), item order (systematic vs. random), item non-response and patient-related characteristics (age, gender, subjective health, need for assistance with filling out the questionnaire and length of stay) on the results of patient satisfaction surveys. Although patient satisfaction is one of the most intensely studied issues in the health sciences, research information about the effects of possible instrument-related confounding factors on patient satisfaction surveys is scant. A quasi-experimental design was employed. A non-randomized sample of 150 surgical patients was gathered to minimize possible alterations in care quality. Data were collected in May-September 2014 from one tertiary hospital in Finland using the Revised Humane Caring Scale instrument. New versions of the instrument were created for the present purposes. In these versions, items were either in a visual analogue format or Likert-scaled, in systematic or random order. The data were analysed using an analysis of covariance and a paired samples t-test. The visual analogue scale items were less vulnerable to bias from confounding factors than were the Likert-scaled items. The visual analogue scale also avoided the ceiling effect better than Likert and the time needed to complete the visual analogue scale questionnaire was 28% shorter than that needed to complete the Likert-scaled questionnaire. The present results supported the use of visual analogue scale rather than Likert scaling in patient satisfaction surveys and stressed the need to account for as many potential confounding factors as possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The interpretation of the figure of the prophet Jonah by Michelangelo on the ceiling of the sistine chapel: anatomical urological vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:A detailed analysis in the iconography and pictorial appearance of the scene of the "Prophet Jonah" painted by the artist Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel between the years 1508 and 1512. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Literature review on the Italian Renaissance period and the life of Michelangelo Buonarroti and analysis of historical aspects of the evolution of studies of human anatomy in this period and the works of the artist. RESULTS:A comparative analysis of the representation of the figure of the fish on the left thigh of "Jonah" with a cross section of penis shows a curious similarity. The pictorial and iconographic analysis reveals an intensity of light on the pubic area and the position of the prophet with the legs spread apart and left hand placed on this region. A tube-shaped cloth covers the region and the angel at the side seems to be looking at this anatomical region of "Jonah". In fact, sets of iconographic and pictorial relate to the deciphered code. CONCLUSIONS: This description helps to confirm the relationship of the Renaissance art with the human anatomy; science has been much studied in this period. The design of a cross section of the penis is revealed with the two cavernous bodies with the septum between them and the spongy body. Considering the circumstances in which Michelangelo had painted, subjectivity was fundamental due to religious motivations added to the vigorous implications of a limited scientific knowledge typical of that era.

  2. Cortex shatters the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Edmund; Fishell, Gord

    2008-11-06

    Recreating developmental structures in vitro has been a primary challenge for stem cell biologists. Recent studies in Cell Stem Cell (Eiraku et al., 2008) and Nature (Gaspard et al., 2008) demonstrate that embryonic stem cells can recapitulate early cortical development, enabling them to generate specific cortical subtypes.

  3. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  4. Influence of ceiling systems on room temperature and energy efficiency in steel sheet deckings; Einfluss von Deckensystemen auf Raumtemperatur und Energieeffizienz im Stahlgeschossbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, Bernd

    2008-07-01

    the thermal capacity of light-weight deck systems, but a proper design concerning the quantity of PCM and the possibility for night-time cooling is required. - The system using ducts for passing cold air during the night has advantages concerning the operation (for example, windows can be closed and supercooling can be avoided), but the stored heat is slightly below a conventional concrete slab. - All thermo-active systems show acceptable performance data. The results for the thermo-active steel deck panel is able to reach a cooling capability close to that of high-grade cooled ceilings. (orig.)

  5. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaan, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Araj, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO 2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m 3 . Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m 3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ

  6. [Attempt to reduce the formaldehyde concentration by blowing cooled fresh air down in to the breathing zone of medical students from an admission port on the ceiling during gross anatomy class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Masaaki; Sakai, Makoto; Ishikawa, Youichi; Murakami, Kunio; Kimura, Akihiko; Kakuta, Sachiko; Sato, Fumi

    2008-09-01

    Cadavers in gross anatomy laboratories at most medical schools are conventionally embalmed in formaldehyde solution, which is carcinogenic to humans. Medical students and instructors are thus exposed to formaldehyde vapors emitted from cadavers during dissection. To reduce high formaldehyde concentrations in the breathing zone above cadavers being examined by anatomy medical students provisionally, dissection beds were located under existing admission ports on the ceiling to supply cooled fresh air from the admission port blowing downward on to the cadaver. In all cases, compared to normal condition, the downward flow of cooled fresh air from an admission port reduced formaldehyde concentrations by 0.09-0.98 ppm and reduced to 12.6-65.4% in the air above a cadaver in the breathing zone of students. The formaldehyde concentrations above cadavers under admission ports were not more than the formaldehyde concentrations between beds representing the indoor formaldehyde concentrations. Although the application of an existing admission port on the ceiling in this study did not remove formaldehyde, the downflow of cooled fresh air using this system reduced the formaldehyde concentration in the air above cadavers being attended by anatomy students during dissections. These results suggest the need for reducing formaldehyde levels in gross anatomy laboratories using fundamental countermeasures in order to satisfy the guidelines of 0.08 ppm established by the World Health Organization and the Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.

  7. Component for the manufacture of sound and thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors. Baueelement fuer die Herstellung einer schall- und/oder waermedaemmenden Vorsatzschale fuer Waende, Decken und Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehldorfer, H

    1977-07-04

    The invention concerns a component for the manufacture of a sound and/or thermally insulating shell for walls, ceilings or floors, which can be connected to these and is used directly to carry the cover plates or the plaster as an ouside shell. The problem is solved by having the component consisting of two spring loaded connected profiles, whose free ends, as seen in cross section, overlap with play in the operating position. There is a pin to connect the two profiles, which passes through openings in the free ends of the profiles and is elastically supported in them. The profiles may be made of metal, wood or plastic material. Compared with the well known ''swinging timbers'', the component is distinguished by the fact that the whole cladding can be covered with fibrous feld, instead of the strips of fibrous felt between the rows of swinging timbers, and the component can therefore be fixed to the wall.

  8. The Glass Ceiling for Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    who by valorous ways become princes , like these men, acquire a prin- cipality with difficulty, but they keep it with ease. —Niccolò Machiavelli , 1513...Though written 500 years ago, Machiavelli’s The Prince remains a seminal treatise on the art of acquiring and maintaining politi-cal power. The book

  9. Harvard and the Academic Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Drew Gilpin Faust was recently appointed president of Harvard University, and is the first female to hold the position. Women now lead half of the eight institutions that make up the Ivy League. But focusing on highly accomplished women such as Faust misses a larger point. Women may be taking faculty positions in record numbers, but most of those…

  10. Helping women break through the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Harjinder

    2009-03-10

    IN THE 1980s, a Department of Health (DH) nurse recruitment poster showed a picture of a schoolgirl in a nurse's uniform with the words: 'The best nurses have the essential qualifications before they go to school' ( Innes 1995 ). The image and the text together perpetuated a sexual stereotype, that the ideal nurse is a woman, and that the idea that nursing is an innate predisposition rather than a career requiring specific skills and education.

  11. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitulete Andrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: their transformation into the most dynamic factor and, in this context, the more and more active presence of women in management positions in SMEs. In Romania, The National Agency for SMEs has implemented for the first time a promotion program for entrepreneurship among women managers of the SMEs sector. The program enjoyed a great success and resulted in a big impact in the business community. The program stimulates the growth of women entrepreneur within the business community, the development of the skill and entrepreneur spirit among women and efficient use of the human capital formed by potential women entrepreneur, improving the economical performances of existing enterprises, led by women through the growth of the training of their employees. Other aims are equal access to the knowledge based economy, experience sharing among business women, establishing partnerships and encouraging the will to represent personal interests in the civil society.

  12. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  13. The Ivory Ceiling of Service Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Joya; Lundquist, Jennifer Hickes; Holmes, Elissa; Agiomavritis, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    How does a successful associate professor with a distinguished publication record, a visible leadership role among women scientists on campus, and prestigious grant funding for interdisciplinary initiatives in graduate and undergraduate training as well as research feel about seeking promotion to full professor? In the course of the authors'…

  14. "No Ceiling on Achievement": Breaking the Glass Ceiling or Hitting a Steel Plate in Urban Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Ben; Melia, Victoria; Bergan, Dave; Whitby, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article, written by a team of research-active teachers who are also senior leaders in a large, urban, comprehensive high school in the North of England, reports on their joint teacher inquiry project. This work has school-wide significance, given recent history, progressing from being graded as a "failing" school by the Office for…

  15. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in France under the Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution and the European directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR and NEC, March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Etienne; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Nadine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Andre, Jean-Marc; Joya, Romain; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Martinet, Yann; Druart, Ariane; Nicco, Laetitia; Gavel, Antoine; Prouteau, Emilie; Gueguen, Celine; Serveau, Laetitia; Jabot, Julien; Vincent, Julien

    2011-03-01

    This report supplies emissions data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and by the directive on national emission ceilings (NEC). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM 10 and PM 2.5 ), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). Parties to the Convention have to report emissions of these substances annually. Since the edition of march 2010, results are reported in the format UNECE/NFR in accordance with the new specifications set out in the guidelines (ECE/EB.AIR/97 adopted in December 2008) defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The results are presented at the national level of aggregation with the NFR nomenclature using 6 sectors and 109 sub-sectors. Conversely, the nomenclature used in the national inventory system to conduct inventories is the CORINAIR/ SNAP 97c nomenclature. A table of correspondence NFR/SNAP 97c is included in this report (cf. annex 10). For the entire period (going back as far as 1980) concerning each substance, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge and possible changes in methodology. Emission trends between the reference year and 2009 show a decline for most substances: - a very sharp decrease (at least 50%) for hexachlorobenzene (99%), lead (98%), dioxins and furans (95%), chromium (94%), zinc (92%), sulphur oxides (90

  16. Immunosuppressive treatment for aplastic anemia: are we hitting the ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Passweg, Jakob R.; Tichelli, André

    2009-01-01

    The combination of antithymocyte globulin of horse origin and cyclosporine A is the standard treatment for aplastic anemia in patients not eligible for bone marrow transplantation. In this perspective article, Drs. Passweg and Tichelli discuss the current immunosuppressive therapy of aplastic anemia. See related article on page 348.

  17. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, B.

    2011-01-01

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  18. The Cracked Glass Ceiling: Equal Work but Unequal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of gender equity in universities continues to warrant attention. Globally, universities have much work ahead of them if they are to redress the gender imbalance in senior positions and remuneration rates. To examine this issue, multiple sources of evidence were used to observe teaching and research workload of academic staff…

  19. Will women ever break the glass ceiling in medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achkar, Edgar

    2008-07-01

    Increased attention is being paid to women's working conditions in medicine. Few data are available regarding gender disparity in gastroenterology. It seems, however, that in general women are paid less than men and that their progress in academic practice tends to be slow. The GI community needs to recognize that gender disparity is not an imaginary issue and that action is necessary to attract women to gastroenterology by providing equal opportunities.

  20. Breaking the glass ceiling: hollow OmniGuide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Ibanescu, Mihai; Skorobogatiy, Maksim A.; Weisberg, Ori; Engeness, Torkel D.; Soljacic, Marin; Jacobs, Steven A.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Fink, Yoel

    2002-04-01

    We argue that OmniGuide fibers, which guide light within a hollow core by concentric multilayer films having the property of omnidirectional reflection, have the potential to lift several physical limitations of silica fibers. We show how the strong confinement in OmniGuide fibers greatly suppresses the properties of the cladding materials: even if highly lossy and nonlinear materials are employed, both the intrinsic losses and nonlinearities of silica fibers can be surpassed by orders of magnitude. This feat, impossible to duplicate in an index-guided fiber with existing materials, would open up new regimes for long-distance propagation and dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM). The OmniGuide-fiber modes bear a strong analogy to those of hollow metallic waveguides; from this analogy, we are able to derive several general scaling laws with core radius. Moreover, there is strong loss discrimination between guided modes, depending upon their degree of confinement in the hollow core: this allows large, ostensibly multi-mode cores to be used, with the lowest-loss TE01 mode propagating in an effectively single-mode fashion. Finally, because this TE01 mode is a cylindrically symmetrical ('azimuthally' polarized) singlet state, it is immune to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), unlike the doubly-degenerate linearly-polarized modes in silica fibers that are vulnerable to birefringence.

  1. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.

  2. Teacher Diversity in Canada: Leaky Pipelines, Bottlenecks, and Glass Ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James; Pollock, Katina; Antonelli, Fab

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the racial diversity of the teacher population in Canada. In particular, we compare the number of teachers of colour in Canadian elementary and secondary schools from the 2001 and 2006 Census data with the diversity of the student and general populations. We also explore ways to understand the gap between the proportion of…

  3. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  4. The Glass Ceiling: Potential Causes and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    diversity in the workplace . Public Personnel Management, 12(3), 305-319. Fiske, S. T., Bersoff, D. N., Borgida, E., Deaux, K...diversity as a strategic imperative. In S. E. Jackson & Associates (Eds.), Diversity in the Workplace : Human Resources Initiatives (13-29). New York: The...Jackson & Associates (Eds.), Diversity in the Workplace : Human Resources Initiatives (306-317). New York: The Guilford Press. U.S. Department of

  5. OPEC production ceilings and quotas: an analytical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1992-01-01

    After the onset of Gulf hostilities in August 1990, oil production, equivalent to some five million barrels per day, dried up. With two major exporters, Iraq and Kuwait, out of contention, other OPEC Members were suddenly free to produce and export at will. For the rest of 1990 and the whole of 1991, the issue of quotas was put on the backburner. Hence, the present analytical paper on past OPEC production quota agreements has been prepared. It is an attempt to correlate individual OPEC quotas with meaningful and tangible variables, using a curve-fitting computer programme. The main endeavour in this project is to find either a theoretical or an empirical basis for the generation of OPEC quotas. (author)

  6. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O

    1985-01-01

    Moderate per- and postoperative hypothermia initiates an increased metabolism in the postoperative period. The subsequent demands on oxygen transport may be critical in poor risk patients. Nineteen healthy young women with moderate hypothermia after abdominal surgery were studied for 2 h...

  7. Asian Women in Management, cracking the glass ceiling ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, So Won

    2007-01-01

    Research on the corporate Asian woman has been limited as most studies on women in management have focused within the Anglo-Saxon and European contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a general overview of Asian female managers and compare it to their western counterparts. Similar individual, organizational and institutional career barriers have been found in the Asian context. However, the institutional perspective seems to play a larger role in the representation of Asia...

  8. Rotating shield ceiling for the compact ignition tokamak test cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    For the next phase of the United States fusion program, a compact, high-field, toroidal ignition machine with liquid nitrogen cooled copper coils, designated the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), is proposed. The CIT machine will be housed in a test cell with design features developed during preconceptual design. Configured as a right cylinder, the selected test cell design features: a test cell and basement with thick concrete shielding walls, and floor; leak tight tritium seals; and operational characteristics well suited to the circular CIT machine configuration and radially oriented ancillary equipment and systems

  9. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Die primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  10. Shattering the Glass Ceiling: Women in School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean A.

    Consistent with national trends, white males hold the majority of public school administrator positions in North Carolina. This paper examines the barriers and underlying assumptions that have prevented women and minorities from gaining access to high-level positions in educational administration. These include: (1) the assumption that leadership…

  11. The glass ceiling in academe: health administration is no exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoskopf, C H; Xirasagar, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews gender issues in academe and presents findings of a limited survey of ACEHSA-accredited health administration graduate programs. The survey shows gender ratios adverse to women at the full, associate, and assistant professor levels. Men to women ratio among faculty was 1.98, among full-time faculty it was 2.24, and among tenured/tenure-track faculty it was 2.69, despite an excess of female students over male students in graduate programs, and despite equal proportions of women and men faculty holding doctoral degrees. Distribution by rank showed 48.5 percent full professors, 27.8 percent associate professors, and, 20.1 percent assistant professors among men, vs. 27.4 percent, 41.1 percent, and 31.5 percent respectively among women. In other academic fields similar gender ratios prevail, and many researchers have documented evidence of continuing gender inequities in tenure, promotion and salary, given comparable performance, despite the enactment of Title IX in 1972. Gender disparities are rooted in a complex web of gender-specific constraints interwoven with secular human capital and structural variables, and confounded by sexist discriminatory factors. In light of these issues, recommendations are made toward creating an equitable academic climate without compromising the ideal of meritocracy, through gender-sensitive initiatives and vigilance mechanisms to bring policies to fruition.

  12. Key players must help shatter the glass ceiling, say experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, P

    1991-10-05

    Women are continuing to move up through the management pipeline in hospitals across the country; but is top management prepared? Although many women are aiming for the highest levels in management, a recent survey of female and male health care executives indicates that critical changes must be made by top management and boards of hospitals before those women can continue to advance accordingly. Meanwhile, women's experience as senior executives has been quite different from men's, the survey also shows.

  13. A Glass Ceiling Survey: Benchmarking Barriers and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ann M.; And Others

    This handbook presents findings of a survey that asked human-resources managers to identify current barriers preventing women and people of color from reaching senior management. The survey was sent to 902 human-resources managers at various organizations. A total of 304 surveys were returned, a 34 percent response rate. The managers gave support…

  14. Female Principals in Education: Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Javier Diez Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Abstract Spanish schools are characterised by having a high proportion of female staff. However, statistics show that a proportionately higher number of men hold leadership positions. The aim of this study was to analyse the reasons why this is so, and to determine the motivations and barriers that women encounter in attaining and exercising these positions of greater responsibility and power. Questionnaires were administered to 2,022 female teachers, 430 female principals and 322 male principals. In addition, semi-structured interviews were held with 60 female principals, 14 focus group discussions were held with female principals and 16 autobiographical narratives were compiled with female principals and school inspectors. The reasons identified were related to structural aspects linked to the patriarchal worldview that is still dominant in our society and culture. Nevertheless, we also found motivations among women for attaining and exercising leadership roles.

  15. Female Administrators: A Crack in the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Susan Bon; Young, I. Phillip; Jury, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Studied the effects of evaluator gender, applicant gender, and gender of the reference source on the screening of applicants for assistant-principal positions. Responses of 150 high school principals suggest that hypothetical female candidates were evaluated more highly than male applicants and were more likely to be interviewed. (SLD)

  16. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling Book cover Career, Daily Life, and Partnership: Structures and Implications of the Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.This book illuminates the structural and external factors confronting women in executive positions and examines their living conditions in comparison to their male colleagues. The book sketches concepts for political change with respect to the continuing differences that have been documented as harming women.

  17. A Question of Equity: Women and the Glass Ceiling in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    availability is only considered as a of programs which help employees to balance criterion where it is indeed necessary for successful work and family...a focused way. " "Averting Career Damage From Family Policies," Wall Street Journal, June 24, 1992. " U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, " Balancing ...which each applies to you. Please use the followng worklife in the Federal Government. Based on your scale for each item experience in your current

  18. Territorial Indicative Budget Ceilings (PIK as Instrument of Technocracy of Regional Development Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarjiyanto Sarjiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at analyzing the local government policy related to the local budget posture in the each territorial. There are uncertainty methods in dividing and formulating the local budget posture in each territorial in Indonesia. It is not depend on the actual economic variables of each territorial. This study uses the literature studies to collect the data of planning and budgeting. The content analysis of this local government economic policy is based on of the planning and budgeting process itself. The detailed information is found by observations and in-depth interview with the informants about the planning and budgeting process in Rembang. The result shows the variables that can determine the fair instrument in formulating the local budget posture some of which are: the number of population, the number of drop out (DO, the illiteracy (IR, the infant mortality rate (IMR, the malnutrition data, the number of poor (HCI, the economic growth, the damaged road infrastructure, the damaged irrigation system, the damaged schools, the land building tax, and the amount of retribution.

  19. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women?s Career Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Amon, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspect...

  20. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women’s Career Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J.

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women’s perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women’s experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people’s perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find meaning in their work and have a sense of control over their lives. Overall, common workplace challenges included a lack of social capital and limited degrees of freedom. Implications for organizational policy and future research are discussed. PMID:28265251

  1. Looking through the Glass Ceiling: A Qualitative Study of STEM Women's Career Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Mary J

    2017-01-01

    Although efforts have been directed toward the advancement of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) positions, little research has directly examined women's perspectives and bottom-up strategies for advancing in male-stereotyped disciplines. The present study utilized Photovoice, a Participatory Action Research method, to identify themes that underlie women's experiences in traditionally male-dominated fields. Photovoice enables participants to convey unique aspects of their experiences via photographs and their in-depth knowledge of a community through personal narrative. Forty-six STEM women graduate students and postdoctoral fellows completed a Photovoice activity in small groups. They presented photographs that described their experiences pursuing leadership positions in STEM fields. Three types of narratives were discovered and classified: career strategies, barriers to achievement, and buffering strategies or methods for managing barriers. Participants described three common types of career strategies and motivational factors, including professional development, collaboration, and social impact. Moreover, the lack of rewards for these workplace activities was seen as limiting professional effectiveness. In terms of barriers to achievement, women indicated they were not recognized as authority figures and often worked to build legitimacy by fostering positive relationships. Women were vigilant to other people's perspectives, which was costly in terms of time and energy. To manage role expectations, including those related to gender, participants engaged in numerous role transitions throughout their day to accommodate workplace demands. To buffer barriers to achievement, participants found resiliency in feelings of accomplishment and recognition. Social support, particularly from mentors, helped participants cope with negative experiences and to envision their future within the field. Work-life balance also helped participants find meaning in their work and have a sense of control over their lives. Overall, common workplace challenges included a lack of social capital and limited degrees of freedom. Implications for organizational policy and future research are discussed.

  2. Of yield gaps and yield ceilings: Making plants grow in particular places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glover, D.

    2014-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and rice genetic improvement are proposed as two approaches to improving and increasing rice production. In recent exchanges, they have been represented by their respective supporters as starkly contrasting, almost mutually incompatible alternatives. However,

  3. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  4. Performance of low pressure mechanical ventilation concept with diffuse ceiling inlet for renovation of school classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    In a great portion of Danish primary schools the mechanical ventilation systems is outdated or simply rely on opening of windows to ventilate the classrooms. This leads to high energy consumption for fans and/or ventilation heat losses and poor indoor environment, as the ventilation systems cannot...... provide a sufficient ventilation rate. A recent study with 750 Danish classrooms show that 56 % had CO2-concentrations over a 1000 ppm, which is the recommended limit by the Danish working environment authority and this adversely affects the performance and well being of the pupils. This paper describes...... a mechanical ventilation concept to lower energy consumption and improve the indoor environment, developed for refurbishment of school classrooms. The performance of the concept is investigated through computer simulations and measurements of energy consumption and indoor environment. The measurements are made...

  5. Effects of acoustic ceiling units on the cooling performance of thermally activated building systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Rage, Niels; Kazanci, Ongun Berk

    2017-01-01

    Europe, with a building stock responsible for about 40% of the total energy use, needs to reduce the primary energy use in buildings in order to meet the 2020 energy targets of the European Union. High temperature cooling and low temperature heating systems, and as an example, Thermally Activated...

  6. Revisiting the Glass Ceiling: Career Progression for Women in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ho, Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of women who enter the hospitality industry, there are relatively few hotel general managers who are female. Why? An ongoing project is exploring this topic through interviews of female hotel managers. This article provides representative excerpts from a few of the early interviews in Boston, which provide some understanding about the attitudes of such women toward their professional environment.

  7. Perceptions of a Glass Ceiling: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Mexican and American Employees

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley J. Bennington; George R. Wagman; Michelle N. Stallone

    2011-01-01

    This study asks employees in the United States and Mexico if they believe there is workplace discrimination based on gender, age, or ethnicity. As members of international organizations, the United States and Mexico have agreed to strive for the elimination of employment discrimination. Hypotheses based on Hofstedes Power Distance Index (PDI) predicted cultural differences in the two countries would result in a higher perception of workplace discrimination from employees in the United States ...

  8. Up Against the Glass Ceiling: Culture and Gender in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Paula A.

    1997-01-01

    Uses a cultural map exercise to show how culture affects educators' perspectives of gender issues in school administration. Discusses individual cultural identity and the influences of educators' societal/national, regional/linguistic or racial/ethnic, and individual belief cultures. Feminist theory and its premises can help everyone understand…

  9. Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids that break the glass ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic; Charbonneau, Patrick; Coslovich, Daniele; Ninarello, Andrea; Ozawa, Misaki; Yaida, Sho

    2017-10-01

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, because of the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally relevant timescales. In this work, we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently confirm that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is also found in simulations, even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus extend the observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation.

  10. Blank Canvas and Glass Ceiling: Using Visual Metaphors and Narratives to Examine Preservice Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Colette; Meixner, Emily

    2015-01-01

    When preparing college-age teacher candidates to teach in diverse contexts, knowing how they reconcile knowledge, self-author, and negotiate social relationships can enhance pedagogy and inform program design. In this article, the authors use a developmental framework they created to examine how teacher candidates' visual metaphors about White…

  11. Theory in social simulation: Status-Power theory, national culture and emergence of the glass ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    This is a conceptual exploration of the work of some
    eminent social scientists thought to be amenable to agent-based
    modelling of social reality. Kemper’s status-power theory and
    Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the central
    theories. The article reviews empirical work on

  12. Nothing Changes, Really: Why Women Who Break Through the Glass Ceiling End Up Reinforcing It

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faniko, Klea; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio

    Two correlational studies conducted in Switzerland (N = 222) and Albania (N = 156) explained the opposition of female managers to gender quotas by examining the origins and consequences of the “Queen Bee (QB)-phenomenon,” whereby women who have been successful in male-dominated organizations do not

  13. Some Take the Glass Escalator, Some Hit the Glass Ceiling? Career Consequences of Occupational Sex Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Mia

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Swedish longitudinal data (1,535 men, 1,584 women) showed that men in female-dominated occupations have substantially better internal promotion opportunities than equally qualified women. In male-dominated occupations, men and women have equal internal promotion chances. Results suggest a "glass escalator" advantage for men…

  14. The glass ceiling is not fragile: A response to Odum (2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, F K; Swindell, S

    2001-01-01

    Odum (2000) criticized our recent conclusions about the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior (McSweeney & Swindell, 1998). We address her criticisms here. We argue against the need for statistical tests. We show that our conclusions still apply to all journals except the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior even when we include the senior editorial staff along with members of the editorial board. We argue that the data that Odum provides to show gender equity are limited, inconsistent with past findings, and hard to interpret in the absence of other data. Finally, we argue that Odum failed to address our most convincing argument for gender inequity and misinterpreted our suggestions for improvements.

  15. Reel Royal Diversity? The Glass Ceiling in Disney’s Mulan and Princess and the Frog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Dundes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Both in Mulan and Princess and the Frog, Disney eschews a traditional fairytale ending involving palatial opulence by substituting an alternative narrative for women of color. Mulan disguises herself as a male soldier in order to serve in her father’s place. After sharing victory with male companions, she willingly returns home to domesticity and the confines imposed by her gender. Tiana spends two thirds of the movie as a frog, substantially limiting her on-screen time as an African American female. Like Mulan, she is driven to please her father. She fulfills his dream of owning a high-end restaurant, ironically named Tiana’s Palace, the closest she comes to a royal lifestyle. Although protagonists with more realistic lives could potentially enhance viewers’ connection with them and model a work ethic or commitment to home life, the standard and more financially successful Disney narrative immerses viewers in a fantasy world of endless prospects including a life of royalty. These nonwhite heroines instead display a willingness to settle for more modest aspirations in stories replete with stereotypical gender and race-bound tropes. This divergent narrative suggests that protagonists of color are not entitled to a life of leisure and privilege that white Disney princesses enjoy.

  16. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  17. Realtime ultrasound guided percutaneous tracheostomy in emergency setting: the glass ceiling has been broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Parli Raghavan; Vijai, M N; Shouche, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    In recent years ultrasound guided percutaneous tracheostomy (USPCT) has become a routine practice in critical care units. Its safety and superiority over conventional percutaneous tracheostomy and bronchoscopic guided PCT is proven to be non-inferior in elective cases. However its role in emergency percutaneous tracheostomy has never been studied, since percutaneous tracheostomy itself remains an enigma in accessing emergency airway. There is no report of use of ultrasound guided percutaneous tracheostomy in emergency setting so far in the literature. We report our early experience with USPCT in emergency setting. Sixteen adult patients who required access to an emergency surgical airway after failure to accomplish emergency oro-tracheal intubation were the study population. Their airway was accessed by USPCT. Recorded data included clinical and demographic data including time taken to perform the procedure and complications. Short term and long term follow ups for a period of 2 years were done for the survivors. Twelve male and four female patients underwent the procedure and the average time of the procedure was 3.6 min with no failures nor conversions to surgical tracheostomy and no complications. The average oxygen saturation was 86% and average Glasgow coma scale was 8.4. This time period included the oxygen insufflation time. 10 patients were decannulated while six patients died due to the pathology of the disease itself. There were no complications in either short term or long term follow up. USPCT has a definitive role in emergency both in trauma and non-trauma setting. It is safe, feasible and faster in experienced hands. Use of USPCT in emergency setting has further narrowed the list of contraindications of percutaneous tracheostomy.

  18. Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Consumers in Mental Health Organisations' Hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for consumers to be engaged in all levels of mental health service planning, implementation, and delivery. Critical approaches to traditional healthcare hierarchies can effectively challenge barriers to better engagement with consumers in mental health organisations. This qualitative exploratory study analyses how particular strategies for consumer leadership facilitate or hinder relationships between consumers and mental health services, and how these strategies influence hierarchical structures. Fourteen participants from a range of mental health organisations were interviewed. These interviews were analysed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. The findings highlight several benefits of having consumers within mental health organisational hierarchies, and elaborate on ways that employees within mental health services can support integration of consumers into existing hierarchies. Specific barriers to consumers in hierarchies are discussed, including a lack of clarity of structures and roles within hierarchies, and resistance to consumers reaching the highest levels of leadership within organisations. Alternative hierarchical models which privilege consumers' control over resources and power are also discussed. Mental health organisations are encouraged to integrate consumer leaders into their hierarchical structures to improve their organisational offerings, their reputation, and their service innovation.

  19. To shatter the glass ceiling in healthcare management: who supports affirmative action and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Peter A; Mattis, Mary C

    2003-11-01

    We examined the findings of a recent national survey of healthcare executives that showed 90% of women but only 53% of men favoured efforts to increase the proportion of women in senior healthcare management positions. Using the theories of relative deprivation and social identity, we tested hypotheses to suggest the background, work characteristics and attitudes about existing discriminatory practices in their own organizations that correlate with respondents' views about affirmative action for women. Some support is evidenced for the two theories and explanations are suggested to account for apparent anomalies.

  20. Is there a glass ceiling for highly cited scientists at the top of research universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-12-01

    University leaders aim to protect, shape, and promote the missions of their institutions. I evaluated whether top highly cited scientists are likely to occupy these positions. Of the current leaders of 96 U.S. high research activity universities, only 6 presidents or chancellors were found among the 4009 U.S. scientists listed in the ISIHighlyCited.com database. Of the current leaders of 77 UK universities, only 2 vice-chancellors were found among the 483 UK scientists listed in the same database. In a sample of 100 top-cited clinical medicine scientists and 100 top-cited biology and biochemistry scientists, only 1 and 1, respectively, had served at any time as president of a university. Among the leaders of 25 U.S. universities with the highest citation volumes, only 12 had doctoral degrees in life, natural, physical or computer sciences, and 5 of these 12 had a Hirsch citation index m < 1.0. The participation of highly cited scientists in the top leadership of universities is limited. This could have consequences for the research and overall mission of universities.

  1. Overcoming the glass ceiling: views from the cellar and the roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-12-01

    Women's experiences as professionals and behavior therapists have changed considerably in the past 40 years. The author describes early challenges and experiences of discrimination as a young female professional. Although women's opportunities have improved considerably, women still experience unique career challenges and choices. The author provides some suggestions for women's career development.

  2. Breaking the glass ceiling: Configurational entropy measurements in extremely supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Ludovic

    Liquids relax extremely slowly on approaching the glass state. One explanation is that an entropy crisis, due to the rarefaction of available states, makes it increasingly arduous to reach equilibrium in that regime. Validating this scenario is challenging, because experiments offer limited resolution, while numerical studies lag more than eight orders of magnitude behind experimentally-relevant timescales. In this work we not only close the colossal gap between experiments and simulations but manage to create in-silico configurations that have no experimental analog yet. Deploying a range of computational tools, we obtain four independent estimates of their configurational entropy. These measurements consistently indicate that the steep entropy decrease observed in experiments is found in simulations even beyond the experimental glass transition. Our numerical results thus open a new observational window into the physics of glasses and reinforce the relevance of an entropy crisis for understanding their formation.

  3. Why Is There a Glass Ceiling for Threading Based Protein Structure Prediction Methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Jeffrey; Zhou, Hongyi

    2017-04-20

    Despite their different implementations, comparison of the best threading approaches to the prediction of evolutionary distant protein structures reveals that they tend to succeed or fail on the same protein targets. This is true despite the fact that the structural template library has good templates for all cases. Thus, a key question is why are certain protein structures threadable while others are not. Comparison with threading results on a set of artificial sequences selected for stability further argues that the failure of threading is due to the nature of the protein structures themselves. Using a new contact map based alignment algorithm, we demonstrate that certain folds are highly degenerate in that they can have very similar coarse grained fractions of native contacts aligned and yet differ significantly from the native structure. For threadable proteins, this is not the case. Thus, contemporary threading approaches appear to have reached a plateau, and new approaches to structure prediction are required.

  4. Transition Communities and the Glass Ceiling of Environmental Sustainability Policies at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardellas Santiago, Miguel; Meira Cartea, Pablo; Iglesias da Cunha, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper deals with the experiences of three European universities that have implemented transition initiatives, using the Transition Network's methodology to promote their sustainability plans. The Transition Communities' model for change is presented from a socio-educational perspective as an effective methodology for encouraging…

  5. Nothing Changes, Really: Why Women Who Break Through the Glass Ceiling End Up Reinforcing It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniko, Klea; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    Two correlational studies conducted in Switzerland ( N = 222) and Albania ( N = 156) explained the opposition of female managers to gender quotas by examining the origins and consequences of the "Queen Bee (QB)-phenomenon," whereby women who have been successful in male-dominated organizations do not support the advancement of junior women. Results disconfirm previous accounts of the QB-phenomenon as indicating competitiveness among women. Instead, the tendency of women managers to consider themselves as different from other women, and their opposition to gender quotas, emerged when junior women were addressed but not when they considered their direct competitors, other women managers. Personal sacrifices women managers reported having made for career success predicted self-distancing from junior women and opposition to gender quotas targeting these women. We provide a more nuanced picture of what the QB-response is really about, explaining why women managers oppose quotas for junior women, while supporting quotas for women in the same rank.

  6. Is the "glass ceiling" a real problem for women physicists in Argentina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechero, Marisa A.; Amador, Ana; Pastor, Antonio J. Ramirez; Tamarit, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    We evaluate the distribution of female physicists in the Argentinean workforce, analyzing the distribution of women at different levels of education and research using several indicators. Although important imbalances still occur, our findings are encouraging and the distribution of female physicists seems to be changing for the better.

  7. Women in the World of Corporate Business: Looking at the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Priscilla; Franks, Tommy J.

    2010-01-01

    From a review of some of the literature and a brief compiling of statistics on women in positions of leadership and power, and with a quick look at the life and work of some contemporary women who have thought about and lived the life of corporate leadership, it is clear that women have made small progress into positions of power and influence.…

  8. The Celluloid Ceiling: Women Academics, Social Expectations, and Narrative in 1940s American Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Pauline J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the portrayal of women university academics in American films from the 1940s. It applies analytical tools from a critical methodology to access the socio-cultural ideas and values attributed to the female professoriate during what is a period of great change for women in American society. This analysis reveals that the values…

  9. Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? : Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wages Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Arulampalam, Wiji; Booth, Alison L.; Bryan, Mark L.

    2004-01-01

    Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns bet...

  10. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  11. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.

    2016-01-01

    demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels...... provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan...... and increase use of renewable energy sources. The aim is that by 2020 all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings. A solution that could contribute to this is the combination of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity and phase change material (PCM) for the reduction of peak cooling...

  12. Contamination of a church ceiling due to the burning of candles in combination with floor heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, H.L.; Deelman, J.; Aarle, van M.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    An air heating system originally heated St. Martinus’ church in Weert. Together with a large restoration in 1984 a floor heating system replaced this heating system. After this major renovation a number of problems arose: due to the floor heating system and massive granite floor the church could

  13. Contamination of a church ceiling due to the burning of candles in combination with floor heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellen, H.L.; Aarle, van M.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    An air heating system originally heated St. Martin's church in Weert. Together with an extensive restoration in 1984 a floor heating system replaced this heating system. After this major renovation a number of problems arose: due to the floor heating System and massive granite floor the church could

  14. Wind - Ceiling - Visibility Data at Selected Airports. Volume VIII. Northwest Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    od C0.o.d DOT/Federal Aviation Administration FnlRpr Office of Aviation Policy and Plans FnlRpr 800 Independence Avenue, S.W. 14. $pnwn Agency Code...0000000000000000 0 :D m lCD o~ O) 0000000000000000 a CDCL a: CD CE cnCD 7 co . LUJ 0000000000000000o 0 Cr)- M O, - - MI0 z 7 0000 0000000000o 0.0 - ID Li 0 M

  15. Wind - Ceiling - Visibility Data at Selected Airports. Volume X. Part B. Alaskan and Pacific Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Aviation Administration Final Report office of Aviation Policy and Plans_______________ 800 Independence Avenue, S.W. 14. $gronsoei Aenc Ced* Washington...D0C> 00 0 0 0 - - Q cO O O Q Q O -0 LiL LiO Li CL CDC 7DK cnCD - .~ .z .~u . . . . . . . inn AD Ln co . . . . . . . ... .- .7i - C; CCD 0 C; C0 T CC C

  16. Wind - Ceiling - Visibility Data at Selected Airports. Volume I. New England Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Address DOT/Federal Aviation Administration Final Report Office of Aviation Policy and Plans Fina__Repor_ 800 Independence Avenue, S .11. 14. Spoor.ng...LJ ( () Z LflL -z ---[ I - I - I I - oI o 0 0 0 0 o a 0 LO CE . . .l . .i . . . . .i . . .i . . .i Cl- cnCD ...... . . . . . . . U - C; Lii C-); C

  17. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  18. The Joint Campaign Glass Ceiling - Successfully Breaking the Transition Phase Barrier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apland, Steven

    2002-01-01

    ...., meeting the political end state) remains the key barrier to the joint campaign. Toward the end of decisive military operations, nonmilitary instruments of power become the leading effort in the operational arena...

  19. Depot Maintenance Air Force Faces Challenges in Managing to 50-50 Ceiling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    2000-01-01

    ... that is being moved from the closing Sacramento, California, and San Antonio, Texas, depots to other military depots or private sector sources. As you requested, my testimony today focuses on the basis for the waiver and the likelihood that the Air Force will need additional waivers in the future.

  20. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings: towards an ecology of physiological restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative

  1. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran; Homa Alizadeh; Behrang Esmaeeli

    2015-01-01

    Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute mana...

  2. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-01-01

    The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-...

  3. The Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Polycarpou, Alexandros; Vrachimis, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 24 EU member states, all of which share the objective of gender equality, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries and selection corrections affect the offered gap, sometimes substantially. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in most cou...

  4. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    , functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points...

  5. DNA Statistical Evidence and the Ceiling Principle: Science or Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    of one race, religion , or ethnicity tend to marry others with a common background. It is likely that the * major population groups will exhibit some...defined Frye such that it applies only to " pseudoscience , or equated general acceptance with reliability.𔃽 1 Frye is also misused to exclude relevant

  6. Solar assisted conditioning of residences with floor heating and ceiling cooling: review and simulation results

    OpenAIRE

    Egrican, Nilufer; Korkmaz, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Solar or solar assisted heating and cooling systems are becoming widespread to reduce CO2 emissions. Efficient radiant space heating and cooling systems can be used to decrease the energy bills and improve occupant thermal comfort in buildings. This study uses the TRNSYS program, for the modeling and simulation of solar assisted radiant heating and cooling of a building with the domestic hot water supply, to examine the effects of various parameters on energy consumption. Calculations are per...

  7. The Harris hip score: Do ceiling effects limit its usefulness in orthopedics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamper, K.E.; Sierevelt, I.N.; Poolman, R.W.; Bhandari, M.; Haverkamp, D.

    2010-01-01

    The Harris hip score (HHS), a disease-specific health status scale that is frequently used to measure the outcome of total hip arthroplasty, has never been validated properly. A questionnaire is suitable only when all 5 psychometric properties are of sufficient quality. We questioned the usefulness

  8. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  9. Collusion through price ceilings? In search of a focal-point effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Müller, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 3 (2011), s. 291-302 ISSN 0167-2681 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : collusion * competition policy * experimental economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2011

  10. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  11. Experimental study of discharging PCM ceiling panels through nocturnal radiative cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Péan, Thibault Q.; Gennari, Luca

    2016-01-01

    rate (96 l/h) in the solar loop provided the highest average cooling power, due to the significant variations in the weather conditions during the three experimental cases, made it impossible to determine to which extent the difference in the cooling power is due to the different water flow rate....... The percentage of electrical energy use that could be covered from the PV/Ts on site was 71.5% for Case 1, 68.3% for Case 2 and 86.8% for Case 3. In any case, the PV/T panels proved to be an efficient solution for the production of electrical energy, heated and chilled water....

  12. Promotion of women physicians in academic medicine. Glass ceiling or sticky floor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, B J; Wood, H M; Helwig, A L; Nattinger, A B

    1995-04-05

    To assess possible explanations for the finding that the percentage of women medical school faculty members holding associate or full professor rank remains well below the percentage of men. Cross-sectional survey of physician faculty of US medical schools using the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) database. Surveyed were 153 women and 263 men first appointed between 1979 and 1981, matched for institutions of original faculty appointment. Academic rank achieved, career preparation, academic resources at first appointment, familial responsibilities, and academic productivity. After a mean of 11 years on a medical school faculty, 59% of women compared with 83% of men had achieved associate or full professor rank, and 5% of women compared with 23% of men had achieved full professor rank. Women and men reported similar preparation for an academic career, but women began their careers with fewer academic resources. The number of children was not associated with rank achieved. Women worked about 10% fewer hours per week and had authored fewer publications. After adjustment for productivity factors, women remained less likely to be associate or full professors (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21 to 0.66) or to achieve full professor rank (adjusted OR = 0.27; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.63). Based on the AAMC database, 50% of both women and men originally appointed as faculty members between 1979 and 1981 had left academic medicine by 1991. Women physician medical school faculty are promoted more slowly than men. Gender differences in rank achieved are not explained by productivity or by differential attrition from academic medicine.

  13. "The Glass Ceiling Is Kind of a Bummer": Women's Reflections on a Gender Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Elizabeth A.; SoRelle-Miner, Danielle; Bermudez, Judith M.; Walker, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women students' experiences and reactions to a core Human Development and Family Studies (HDFS) class cross-listed with Women's Studies (WS). Using 6 focus groups with 22 women, we found that the course increased "awareness of gender" (Theme A) but was limited partially because of patriarchical beliefs,…

  14. Reflections on the glass ceiling: women in the experimental analysis of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, A L

    2000-01-01

    McSweeney and Swindell (1998) sought to determine whether men and women are treated equitably in the experimental analysis of behavior. They purported to show that women participate less in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior than in similar journals and that the participation of women decreases with increases in selectivity. Their data were difficult to interpret, however, because they did not present the variability in the mean data drawn from different individuals over time. My analyses were not in accord with their conclusions. When the percentage of associate editors who are women was considered along with the mean percentages McSweeney and Swindell reported for other measures, participation did not systematically decrease with increases in selectivity in recent years. As quantified in terms of their number of publications in the Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, women who were editorial board members and associate editors were not more highly selected than their male counterparts. Finally, in the recent period from 1996 to 1998, although women submitted fewer manuscripts to the journal, rejection ratios did not differ for men and women. Efforts to increase the participation of women in the experimental analysis of behavior may best be directed toward recruitment and retention rather than some of the suggestions proposed by McSweeney and Swindell (1998), which could inadvertently create different standards for women's work.

  15. Leadership at the Glass Ceiling: Women's Experience of Mid-Management Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. Carolyn; Carafella, Rosemary S.; Ingram, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how women in mid-level leadership positions understand themselves as leaders. Explores the women's perceptions of how they function as leaders, and compares them to the generic notions of leadership, shaped by male experience, found in the current literature. (MKA)

  16. The Performance of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and other Room Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jakubowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses different room air distribution systems, and describes a design chart which can be used for the evaluation of variables as air quality, air velocity and temperature gradient as a function of flow rate and temperature difference in the supply system. The design chart can also be...

  17. A SysML Test Model and Test Suite for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    System specification. The model is provided in SysML, and it is equipped with a formal semantics that is consistent with the (semi formal) SysML standard published by the Object Management Group (OMG). The model and its description are publicly available on http://www.mbt-benchmarks.de, a website...

  18. Evaluation of progress under the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Progress towards EU air quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report was to assess to what extent the NEC Directive's environmental and health objectives concerning acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone exposure for the year 2010 have been achieved. The main basis for the assessment is the emission inventory data officially reported by Member States. The analysis was conducted by using the same scientific methods of 2001 (original knowledge) and 2010 (present knowledge) that support European air pollution abatement policies. The original knowledge consisted of modelling concentrations and exposure using the older Lagrangian EMEP model (utilising a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of grid-average S and N depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, together with the 1998 European critical load database for assessing the risk of acidification and eutrophication). The assessment performed on the basis of present knowledge used the current Eulerian EMEP model on a 50 x 50 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of ecosystem-specific depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, in combination with the 2008 European critical loads database. When assessing progress using original knowledge, the NEC Directive's interim environmental acidification objective has been met in almost all grid cells, while the eutrophication objective - provided in a footnote within the NEC Directive and which was formulated on the European Union area as a whole - has been met both for the EU-15 and the EU-27 regions as a whole. If, in contrast, the eutrophication objective had been required to be met in individual grid cells (as for acidification) or in individual Member States, it would be exceeded in many grid cells and in 11 Member States. While acidification has been markedly reduced, eutrophication is now recognised as a major environmental problem in Europe, especially in the context of its potential adverse impacts on biodiversity. An assessment using present knowledge indicates that neither the acidification nor eutrophication objective have been met. The health- and vegetation-related interim environmental ozone objectives have been achieved using present knowledge, across most of the EU.27 area. For forests, however, the objective of no exceedance of the critical limit has been violated in most Member States. This analysis also shows that model results are more optimistic than the observations about the achieved reductions in ozone concentrations between 1990 and 2010. (LN)

  19. Nothing Changes, Really: Why Women Who Break Through the Glass Ceiling End Up Reinforcing It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniko, Klea; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Lorenzi-Cioldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Two correlational studies conducted in Switzerland (N = 222) and Albania (N = 156) explained the opposition of female managers to gender quotas by examining the origins and consequences of the “Queen Bee (QB)-phenomenon,” whereby women who have been successful in male-dominated organizations do not support the advancement of junior women. Results disconfirm previous accounts of the QB-phenomenon as indicating competitiveness among women. Instead, the tendency of women managers to consider themselves as different from other women, and their opposition to gender quotas, emerged when junior women were addressed but not when they considered their direct competitors, other women managers. Personal sacrifices women managers reported having made for career success predicted self-distancing from junior women and opposition to gender quotas targeting these women. We provide a more nuanced picture of what the QB-response is really about, explaining why women managers oppose quotas for junior women, while supporting quotas for women in the same rank. PMID:28903635

  20. Birds through a ceiling of alabast: genderproblematiek in de romans van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Lech, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the novels of Hugo Claus in which an "impossible love" is an important issue, we find, almost without exception, characters having characteristics that are typical for members of the opposite sex. (Latent) homosexuality plays an important role. The androgyny theme is the main theme in most of Claus' novels. There are two sources to be designated for this theme. In the first place, that is Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis. The other source is the ancient belief that man is an androgynou...

  1. Birds through a ceiling of alabast : genderproblematiek in de romans van Hugo Claus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lech, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the novels of Hugo Claus in which an "impossible love" is an important issue, we find, almost without exception, characters having characteristics that are typical for members of the opposite sex. (Latent) homosexuality plays an important role. The androgyny theme is the main theme in most of

  2. A fixed energetic ceiling to parental effort in the great tit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Verhulst, S.

    1. To elucidate the links between avian brood size, parental effort and parental investment, we measured daily energy expenditure (DEEfem), condition (residuals of mass on tarsus) and feeding rate in female great tits Parus major L. rearing broods in which the number of young was either reduced,

  3. A fixed energetic ceiling to parental effort in the great tit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinbergen, J.M.; Verhulst, S.

    2000-01-01

    1. To elucidate the links between avian brood size, parental effort and parental investment, we measured daily energy expenditure (DEEfem), condition (residuals of mass on tarsus) and feeding rate in female great tits Parus major L. rearing broods in which the number of young was either reduced,

  4. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings : Towards an ecology of physiological restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative

  5. Latino Workers Hitting a Blue-Collar Ceiling. New Journalism on Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; McElmurry, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Chicago has a dynamic history of embracing change, evolving from an agricultural and commercial hub to the steel powerhouse that would undergird America's industrial revolution. The "City of Big Shoulders" now bears a sizeable burden, one that again requires it to embrace change. The metro area must shift to an economy built on knowledge…

  6. Melting the Plastic Ceiling: Overcoming Obstacles to Foster Leadership in Women Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda K; Preminger, Aviva; Slezak, Sheri; Phillips, Linda G; Johnson, Debra J

    2016-09-01

    The underrepresentation of women leaders in plastic surgery echoes a phenomenon throughout society. The importance of female leadership is presented, and barriers to gender equality in plastic surgery, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are discussed. Strategies for fostering women in leadership on an individual level and for the specialty of plastic surgery are presented.

  7. Microfinance and Gender: Is There a Glass Ceiling in Loan Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Agier, Isabelle; Szafarz, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    Microfinance institutions serve a majority of female borrowers. But do men and women benefit from same credit conditions? This paper investigates this issue by presenting an original model and testing its predictions on an exceptional database including 34,000 loan applications from a Brazilian microfinance institution over an eleven-year period. The model considers a lender that offers standardized loan contracts with a fixed interest rate, which is common practice in microfinance. It demons...

  8. Management of organizational communication in The Netherlands: glass ceiling and encroachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruler, A.A.; de Lange, R.; Schorr, A.; Campbell, W.; Schenk, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the practical and theoretical literature a new field is apparently emerging, focusing on the co-ordination and steering of all marketing communications, public relations, and internal communications at a strategic level known as Management of (Organizational/Corporate) Communication. These

  9. The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark - glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    2011-01-01

    effects on the compensation and careers of all women, irrespective of whether they become mothers or not. Especially for those women aiming to reach the top of the organization, these effects may be important because potential career interruptions are expected to be more severe for this group. Originality...

  10. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  11. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  12. Improved outcomes for newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis between 2000 and 2014: cracking the glass ceiling of early death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchtar, Eli; Gertz, Morie A; Kumar, Shaji K; Lacy, Martha Q; Dingli, David; Buadi, Francis K; Grogan, Martha; Hayman, Suzanne R; Kapoor, Prashant; Leung, Nelson; Fonder, Amie; Hobbs, Miriam; Hwa, Yi Lisa; Gonsalves, Wilson; Warsame, Rahma; Kourelis, Taxiarchis V; Russell, Stephen; Lust, John A; Lin, Yi; Go, Ronald S; Zeldenrust, Steven; Kyle, Robert A; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela

    2017-04-13

    In light of major advances in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis, we evaluated the trends in presentation, management, and outcome among 1551 newly diagnosed AL amyloidosis patients seen in our institution from 2000 to 2014. As compared with the 2 intervals 2000-2004 and 2005-2009, patients diagnosed in 2010-2014 were less likely to have >2 involved organs. Utilization of autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) was similar across all periods, about one-third of patients, but there was an increase in the use of pre-ASCT bortezomib induction and of unattenuated melphalan conditioning in 2010-2014 compared with earlier periods. Non-ASCT first-line regimen changed with 65% of patients in 2010-2014 received bortezomib-based therapy, 79% of patients in 2005-2009 received melphalan-dexamethasone, and 64% of patients in 2000-2004 received melphalan-prednisone. The rate of better than very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in more recent periods (66% vs 58% vs 51%; P = .001), a change largely driven by improved VGPR rates in the non-ASCT population. Overall survival (OS) has improved, with inflection points for improvement differing for the ASCT and non-ASCT groups. In the ASCT population, the greatest gains were after 2010 (4-year OS, 91% compared with 73% and 65%). In the non-ASCT group, greatest gains were after 2005 (4-year OS, 38%, 32%, and 16%). Fewer patients died within 6 months of diagnosis in the 2 later periods (24% vs 25% vs 37%; P < .001). Overall, outcomes among patients with AL amyloidosis have improved with earlier diagnosis, higher rates of VGPR, lower early mortality, and improved OS. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Breaking through the glass ceiling: a survey of promotion rates of graduates of a primary care Faculty Development Fellowship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mindy A; Barry, Henry C; Dunn, Ruth Ann; Keefe, Carole; Weismantel, David

    2006-01-01

    Academic promotion has been difficult for women and faculty of minority race. We investigated whether completion of a faculty development fellowship would equalize promotion rates of female and minority graduates to those of male and white graduates. All graduates of the Michigan State University Primary Care Faculty Development Fellowship Program from 1989-1998 were sent a survey in 1999, which included questions about academic status and appointment. We compared application and follow-up survey data by gender and race/ethnicity. Telephone calls were made to nonrespondents. A total of 175 (88%) graduating fellows responded to the follow-up survey. Information on academic rank at entry and follow-up was obtained from 28 of 48 fellows with missing information on promotion. Male and female graduates achieved similar academic promotion at follow-up, but there was a trend toward lower promotion rates for minority faculty graduates compared to white graduates. In the multivariate analysis, however, only age, years in rank, initial rank, and type of appointment (academic versus clinical) were significant factors for promotion. Academic advancement is multifactorial and appears most related to time in rank, stage of life, and career choice. Faculty development programs may be most useful in providing skill development and career counseling.

  14. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Collaborative Leadership Theory as a Model for Women in Theological Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions within business, politics, and higher education. The reality, however, is that while women make up slightly more than 50% of the population, we are under-represented in these institutions. There are fewer than 20 female CEOs of the…

  15. Breaking the Glass Ceiling of Achievement for Low-Income Students and Students of Color. Shattering Expectations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Marni; Theokas, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Typically, achievement gaps between groups of students are measured as either differences in average scores or differences in proficiency rates. But, practitioners, policymakers, and researchers have long recognized that these approaches don't tell the whole story. Average scores, for example, are good at summarizing trends but can mask real…

  16. Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling: Recent Experimental Approaches to Probe the Properties of Supercooled Liquids near the Glass Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R Scott; Kay, Bruce D

    2012-03-15

    Experimental measurements of the properties of supercooled liquids at temperatures near their glass transition temperatures, Tg, are requisite for understanding the behavior of glasses and amorphous solids. Unfortunately, many supercooled molecular liquids rapidly crystallize at temperatures far above their Tg, making such measurements difficult to nearly impossible. In this Perspective, we discuss some recent alternative approaches to obtain experimental data in the temperature regime near Tg. These new approaches may yield the additional experimental data necessary to test current theoretical models of the dynamical slowdown that occurs in supercooled liquids approaching the glass transition.

  17. Beyond the Fourth Grade Glass Ceiling: Understanding Reading Comprehension among Bilingual/Bimodal Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica Armytage

    2015-01-01

    Research has found that, on average, deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) students graduate from high school reading at the fourth grade level (Allen, 1986). Additionally, DHH children of deaf parents (Charrow & Fletcher, 1974) and those with strong American Sign Language (ASL) proficiency (Strong & Prinz, 1997) tend to outperform DHH students…

  18. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  19. The Glass Ceiling for Women: Things That Don't Cause It and Things That Won't Break It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Three misconceptions about working women are (1) they have lower self-confidence and organizational commitment; (2) they choose family over career; and (3) they do not have the same leadership skills as men. Changes that will not work to alter sex segregation are affirmative action, gender training, and seeding. (SK)

  20. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Johns, Merida L.

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behaviora...

  1. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

  2. Quantile regression and the gender wage gap: Is there a glass ceiling in the Turkish labor market?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Ezgi

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies from different countries suggest that the gender gap is not constant across the wage distribution and the average wage gap provides limited information on women’s relative position in the labour market. Using micro level data from official statistics, this study explores the gender wage‐gap in Turkey across the wage distribution. The quantile regression and counterfactual decomposition analysis results reveal three striking features of the Turkish labour market. The first is th...

  3. Do Workers Who Experience Conflict between the Work and Family Domains Hit a "Glass Ceiling?": A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoobler, Jenny M.; Hu, Jia; Wilson, Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Based in Conservation of Resources (COR; Hobfoll, 1989) and self-verification (Swann, 1987) theories, we argue that when workers experience conflict between the work and family domains, this should have implications for evaluations of their work performance and ultimately affect more "objective" career outcomes such as salary and hierarchical…

  4. Glass Ceiling or Sticky Floor? Examining the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution in Urban China, 1987-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Wei; Li, Bo

    2007-01-01

    Using 1987, 1996, and 2004 data, we show that the gender pay gap in the Chinese urban labor market has increased across the wage distribution, and the increase was greater at the lower quantiles. We interpret this as evidence of the “sticky floor” effect.We use the reweighting and recentered influence function projection method proposed by Firpo, Fortin, Lemieux (2005) to decompose gender pay differentials across the wage distribution. We find that the gender differences in the return to labo...

  5. Europe and oil: beware of the glass ceiling; L'europe et le petrole: attention au plafond de verre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, B. [ASPO France et de SLC France (France)

    2011-01-15

    Because current oil exporting countries consume an increasing share of their production and will shortly be producing less and less, available amounts of oil for the international market will decrease faster than world production, in spite of the emergence of new exporting countries such as Brazil or Kazakhstan. Owing to expanding consumption of major emerging countries, the share le for developed countries will drop rapidly, by approximately one third in the coming fifteen years. Europe, whose oil reserves will soon be exhausted, will almost entirely depend on outside sources. If it does not adjust through massive and swift consumption reduction, its material growth will be durably jeopardized due to substantial oil price increases. The adjustment requires strong and urgent measures to reduce the consumption of oil-based fuel in transportation, as well as of fuel oil by the residential and tertiary sectors. A selection of measures is set out. (author)

  6. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  7. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Timothy CY; Chau, Wai Wang; Yuen, Kenneth SL; Wong, Anita YM; Li, Jessie CY; Shiu, Rebecca YY; Ho, Florence KY

    2011-01-01

    Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstr...

  8. Performance of radiant cooling ceiling combined with personalized ventilation in an office room: identification of thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    were performed in a test room arranged as an office with 2 workstations and 2 seating occupants resembled by thermal manikins. Heat gain of 66-72 W/m2 was simulated in the room (occupants, computers, lighting, solar gain). The air temperature in the chamber was maintained at 26°C and 28°C. Personalized...

  9. The Glass Ceiling Is Made of Concrete: The Barriers to Promotion and Tenure of Women in American Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Mary; Andel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to survey the literature in American higher education on the tenure and promotion of women and to suggest future problems that women may encounter as the American population grays. Anecdotally, women are not tenured and promoted in the same percentages of men in similar fields. In the social and natural sciences,…

  10. Do not let the Netherlands down. Cleaner air for health and nature by a new National Emission Ceiling guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    An overview is provided of the seriousness of air pollution in various European countries and the hazardous effects on public health and nature. The facts and data in this publication are based on studies from authoritative research institutes in Europe. [mk] [nl

  11. Michelangelo Buonarroti: Restoration of the Frescoes on the Vaulted Ceiling and the Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Colalucci

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The last restoration of Michelangelo’s frescoes in the Sistine Chapel was directed and conducted by the internal staff of the Vatican Museums, in the period from June 1980 to April 1994. The historical importance of this restoration is found in the recovery of the unexpected chromatic tones used by Michelangelo and hidden for centuries by the dust, black smoke and grease produced by candles and braziers, and by the animal glue, gum resin and ox bile used by restorers in the past to revive the colors. The important result was obtained without any risk, thanks to developments in the field of methods and materials, the progress made in diagnostics, and the elaboration of a theory of restoration (Brandi C. 1950 which still acts as a support to the scientific and technical guidelines used in restoration today. The good preservation of the frescoes in the Chapel is entrusted to a filter and air conditioning system which was renewed and upgraded in 2015, and to modern LED lighting installed in the same year. The cleaning of the frescoes, which were almost perfectly preserved thanks to Michelangelo’s technique, allowed us to study the artist’s painting technique and to learn that some of the techniques he employed in marble sculpting were applied to his painting, and that he introduced novel methods, such as the technique used to give three-dimensionality to figures or his particular brushstrokes, which anticipated divisionism and pointillism.

  12. Simulation Study of Performance of Active Ceilings with Phase Change Material in Office Buildings under Extreme Climate Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefansen, Casper; Farhan, Hajan; Bourdakis, Eleftherios

    2018-01-01

    simulations were run with a building simulation software for eight climates. The chosen climates were Dubai –UAE, Istanbul – Turkey, Lima – Peru, Moscow – Russia, Nuuk – Greenland, Salvador – Brazil, Tokyo – Japan and Tromsø – Norway. Two models of a two-person office were made for each climate; one model...

  13. Analysis of the effectiveness of various cross-sections in large-span post-tensioned ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, K.

    2018-03-01

    The correct construction of large span, slim post-tensioned concrete slabs is conditioned by an appropriate cross-section selection. It is generally accepted that the thinnest slab can be constructed using the full cross-section as the largest compression stress storage. However, completely different cross-sections may help to overcome large spans. The paper presents the results of the computational analysis of several types of cross-sections (full, with internal relieving inserts and ribbed) in the application to a post-tensioned slab with a span of 15.0m. Based on the results presented, appropriate conclusions were drawn.

  14. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    and thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy...

  15. Modelling of a thermally activated building system (TABS) combined with free-hanging acoustic ceiling units using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacarte, Luis Marcos Domínguez; Fan, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    . The active surfaces of TABS need to be as exposed as possible, but exposing bare concrete surfaces has a negative impact on the acoustic quality in the premises. Acoustic solutions capable of providing optimal acoustic comfort while allowing the heat exchange between the TABS and the room are desirable...... of the heat exchange between the TABS and the room and the occupants. The simulations are validated by comparison with full scale measurements in laboratory conditions. The study shows that for equivalent sound absorption levels, free-hanging vertical sound absorbers have a lower impact on the heat exchange......Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to achieve optimal indoor thermal environment in buildings. This solution uses the building mass to store heat and by means of water pipes embedded in the concrete slabs adjust the temperature in the premises...

  16. The climb to break the glass ceiling in surgery: trends in women progressing from medical school to surgical training and academic leadership from 1994 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Chartrand, Genevieve; Moo, Tracy-Ann; Moore, Maureen; Yeo, Heather

    2016-10-01

    There have been many efforts to increase the number of women surgeons. We provide an update of women surgeon representation along the pathway to surgical academia. Data was extracted from Association of American Medical Colleges FACTS and Faculty Administrative Management Online User System as well as GME annual reports starting in 1994 until the last year available for each. The proportion of graduating women medical students has increased on average .5% per year from 1994 to 2014. Women general surgery trainees have more than doubled in number over the same period but represented 38.3% of all general surgery trainees in 2014. Women Full Professors increased on average .3% from 1994 to 2015 but still make up less than 10% of all Full Professors. Despite improvements over the past 20 years, there are still large gender gaps in surgery for trainees and academic leadership. At the current rate of increase, women Full Professors will not achieve gender parity until in 2136. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Ability-Track Glass Ceiling of Israeli Schooling: Lessons from a Comparative Analysis of Israeli and Australian PISA 2012 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Mittelberg, David; Ayalon, Snait

    2018-01-01

    Israeli students ranked in the bottom third of the countries surveyed by PISA 2012 in mathematical literacy, while the gap between the highest and lowest scores was the second largest in the OECD. This paper explores which variables led to disparities in mathematical literacy between different socioeconomic levels and between Israeli Arabs and…

  18. Beyond the glass ceiling. The top 25 women in Healthcare honorees take on key roles as significant change in the industry unfolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth; Landen, Rachel; Zigmond, Jessica

    2013-04-08

    At a time when a national conversation is focused on the gender imbalance atop most professions, healthcare can boast of having women in some of the most important policy and executive positions. Those honored in ourTop 25 Women in Healthcare program have a few lessons to share. "Be willing to take the job that everyone else isn't migrating to and make it work for you," says Marilyn Tavenner, acting CMS administrator.

  19. What Are the Primary Limitations in B-Cell Affinity Maturation, and How Much Affinity Maturation Can We Drive with Vaccination? Breaking through Immunity's Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsoe, Garnett; Haynes, Barton F

    2018-05-01

    A key goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeted to the vulnerable regions of the HIV envelope. BnAbs develop over time in ∼50% of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, to date, no vaccines have induced bnAbs and few or none of these vaccine-elicited HIV-1 antibodies carry the high frequencies of V(D)J mutations characteristic of bnAbs. Do the high frequencies of mutations characteristic of naturally induced bnAbs represent a fundamental barrier to the induction of bnAbs by vaccines? Recent studies suggest that high frequencies of V(D)J mutations can be achieved by serial vaccination strategies. Rather, it appears that, in the absence of HIV-1 infection, physiologic immune tolerance controls, including a germinal center process termed affinity reversion, may limit vaccine-driven bnAb development by clonal elimination or selecting for mutations incompatible with bnAb activity. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. We'll never get past the glass ceiling! Meta-stereotyping, world-views and perceived relative group-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuamalam, Chuma; Zagefka, Hanna

    2013-11-01

    This article examines the implications of perceived negativity from members of a dominant outgroup on the world views and perceived relative group worth of members of disadvantaged groups. We hypothesized that concerns about the negative opinions a dominant outgroup is perceived to hold of the ingroup (i.e., meta-stereotypes) would undermine group members' views about societal fairness. We expected this trend to be mediated by recall of previous personal experiences of discrimination. We further hypothesized that members' views about societal fairness would predict their perception of the ingroup's worth relative to the outgroup - such that undermined views about societal fairness would be associated with lower perceived ingroup worth relative to the outgroup. Taken jointly, results from two studies using two real intergroup contexts support these hypotheses and are discussed in terms of their implications for the social mobility of members of disadvantaged groups. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Increasing the Meaningful Involvement of Women Living With HIV/AIDS (MIWA) in the Design and Delivery of HIV/AIDS Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Allison; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; O'Brien, Nadia; Sanchez, Margarite; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Loutfy, Mona; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The meaningful involvement of women living with HIV/AIDS (MIWA) is a key feature of women-centred HIV care, yet little is known about transforming MIWA from principle to practice. Drawing on focus group data from the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), we explored HIV-positive women's meaningful involvement in the design and delivery of HIV/AIDS services in British Columbia, Canada. In this article, we highlight the benefits and tensions that emerge as women traverse multiple roles as service users and service providers within their care communities, and the impact this has on their access to care and overall health.

  2. Breaking through the glass ceiling: The correlation between the self-diffusivity in and krypton permeation through deeply supercooled liquid nanoscale methanol films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

    2010-03-01

    Molecular beam techniques, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) are used to explore the relationship between krypton permeation through and the self-diffusivity of supercooled liquid methanol at temperatures (100-115 K) near the glass transition temperature, Tg (103 K). Layered films, consisting of CH3OH and CD3OH, are deposited on top of a monolayer of Kr on a graphene covered Pt(111) substrate at 25 K. Concurrent Kr TPD and RAIRS spectra are acquired during the heating of the composite film to temperatures above Tg. The CO vibrational stretch is sensitive to the local molecular environment and is used to determine the supercooled liquid diffusivity from the intermixing of the isotopic layers. We find that the Kr permeation and the diffusivity of the supercooled liquid are directly and quantitatively correlated. These results validate the rare-gas permeation technique as a tool for probing the diffusivity of supercooled liquids.

  3. Through the glass ceiling - and back again: the experiences of two of the first non-medical directors of public health in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Adams, Lee

    2007-06-01

    In 2001, the English Department of Health announced a radical re-organisation of the NHS under the banner of 'shifting the balance of power'. As part of this re-organisation health authorities were abolished and the main NHS public health responsibilities devolved to the new primary care trusts (PCTs) from April 2002. Following several years of campaigning by the Multidisciplinary Public Health Forum (MPHF), in November 2001 the Acting Minister for Public Health, Lord Hunt, announced that PCT director of public health (DPH) posts would be open to 'suitably qualified' candidates from any discipline. From April 2002 a number of new DsPH from backgrounds other than medicine were appointed. This paper reports on the experiences of two such DsPH who shared a commitment to multidisciplinary public health, but who did not wholly share the objectives of the MPHF. We place the opening of PCT DPH posts in the context of tensions within NHS public health between a focus on health services versus the wider determinants of health, and the development of multidisciplinary public health. The paper reflects on both the degree of change this opening represented and the limitations and tensions such appointments exposed.

  4. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  5. [Glass ceiling and slippery stairs? Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomer Revuelta, C; Peiró Pérez, R

    2002-01-01

    In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration) where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been promoted to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  6. The effects of mixing air distribution and heat load arrangement on the performance of ceiling radiant panels under cooling mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    arrangement and air distribution generated in a room by linear slot diffuser, radial multi-nozzle diffuser and radial swirl induction unit on the cooling power of radiant panels was compared. The impact on the thermal environment was also studied. Measurements were carried out without and with supply air...

  7. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration...... performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient...

  8. A New Look through the Glass Ceiling: Where Are the Women? The Status of Women in Management in Ten Selected Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingell, John D.; Maloney, Carolyn B.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) analyzed Current Population Survey (CPS) data for 1995-2000 to assess the situation of women managers in 10 industries that employ over 70 percent of women workers. Despite a sense of continued progress toward gender equality in the workplace, in the 10 industries employing 71 percent of United States (US) women…

  9. Beyond Wage Bill Ceilings : The Impact of Government Fiscal and Human Resource Management Policies on the Health Workforce in Developing Countries, Background Country Study for Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    One of the main explanations put forth on why access to health workers is so low in developing countries is that there are insufficient resources within the public sector to pay the wage bill - the salary and allowance payments - of an expanded health workforce. In turn, the lack of wage bill resources for the health sector is thought to be a direct result of restrictive macroeconomic poli...

  10. Concept for clean air school buildings. Sufficient and draught-free ventilation through the ceiling; Concept voor frisse scholen. Voldoende en tochtvrij ventileren via het plafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, P.; Van Oeffelen, L.; Knoll, B. [TNO Bouw en Ondergrond, Delft (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    Many Dutch schools have poor air quality due to drafts during the heating season, while there is overheating in the other seasons. In this article a new air distribution concept is described, capable of solving both these problems. The research organization TNO Delft in the Netherlands presented what it calls the 'Fresh School' (Frisse Scholen) concept to the educational sector in four sessions held in a temporary classroom. A brief overview is given of the performance data from bench-scale experiments and from a field test. Also three design examples illustrate ways of integrating this distribution concept into existing schools. [Dutch] In een groot deel van de Nederlandse scholen is tocht de oorzaak van slechte luchtkwaliteit in het stookseizoen, terwijl in de rest van het jaar het risico op oververhilting bestaat vanwege de hoge interne warmtelast. Dit artikel beschrijft een nieuw luchtdistributieconcept dat deze twee problemen kan oplossen. Dit zogenaamde 'Frisse Scholen' concept is vorig jaar tijdens een viertal sessies in een tijdelijk klaslokaal bij TNO in Delft aan de onderwijswereld gepresenteerd. Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de laboratorium resultaten en de prestaties in een praktijktest. Vervolgens wordt met een drietal voorbeeldontwerpen ingegaan op hoe dit distributieconcept op een duurzame wijze in bestaande scholen is te integreren.

  11. The Glass Ceiling Effect and Its Impact on Mid-Level Female Military Officer Career Progression in the United States Marine Corps and Air Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evertson, Adrienne

    2004-01-01

    ...%), while the Marine Corps has the smallest proportion (6%). Multiple Defense organizations have expressed concern about the progression of women officers into senior leadership positions and if they face barriers to their continued success in the military...

  12. Shattering the glass ceiling in academia : a comparative study of the differences in how women advance and reach leadership positions in the academic world in Sweden versus women in the US.

    OpenAIRE

    Kadhem, Meis; Khalili, Mahzad

    2013-01-01

    This study tried to emphasize the differences between Sweden and the US when it comes to women’s career advancement to leading positions within the academic world. The differences between the countries were examined by studying women in leadership positions in universities in both countries. The three main research questions that this study was supposed to answer were: -          What are the different barriers women in leadership positions in the academic world encounter when advancing in Sw...

  13. Family Housing Metering Test. A Test Program to Determine the Feasibility of Installing Utility Meters in Military Family Housing, Developing Energy Ceilings, and Operating a Penalty Billing System for Occupants Who Overconsume Energy. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    implementation. 5.2 NORM PAMPHLET The norm pamphlet is a short, picture-oriented brochure to introduce military housing occupants to the use of the energy...tne final version of the pamplet , feedbaci roejrdiag the. draf t version sill be solicited from the fiefl test par- ticipants. rhe followlag is a rouga

  14. Breaking the Glass Ceiling in Oklahoma Higher Education: A Case Study of Kate Galt Zaneis, the First Woman President of a Public Four-Year College or University in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarr, Debbie L.

    2011-01-01

    Women's leadership within higher education continues to be the focus of research and essays. A look into the lives of past women leaders in higher education can provide a potential "road-map" for aspiring women to follow as they develop their leadership style to aid in their upward mobility. The study of the first woman to lead a public…

  15. Thermal construction unit activation with supply air gains significance. Ceilings cooling - supply air heating - more than 50 % energy conservation; Thermische Bauteilaktivierung mit Zuluft gewinnt an Bedeutung. Decke kuehlen - Zuluft erwaermen - mehr als 50% Energie einsparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Wolfgang

    2009-05-15

    In the year 2001, in Stuttgart (Federal Republic of Germany) the first office building was established which uses a thermal construction unit activation with air as cooling agent. Today, the system ''Concret-cool'' already is installed in more than 40 buildings. Computations show that due to the room heating by means of internally finned ventilation pipes embedded in concrete more than 50 % less energy in comparison to comparable systems can be used. In his Green Building project ''Skyline Tower'' in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), also star architect Helmut Jahn uses the know-how of the manufacturer of ventilation systems from Stuttgart. As one of the first multi-storied buildings in Munich, ''Skyline Tower'' with its 23 floors was prized with the pre-certificate of the German quality seal ''sustainable building ''in gold.

  16. Cost-benefit analysis of stricter emission ceilings for air pollutants. National evaluation for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol; Kosten en baten van strengere emissieplafonds voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nationale evaluatie voor de herziening van het Gothenburg Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, W.

    2012-06-15

    The Netherlands experiences high benefits of strict European emission targets for air pollutants. The Dutch live longer and are healthier because of extra emission reductions. In addition, damage to nature decreases. This emerges from a cost-benefit analysis of a number of possible variants for tightening emission targets by 2020 in the context of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol [Dutch] Nederland ondervindt hoge baten van strenge Europese emissiedoelen voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nederlanders leven langer en gezonder door extra emissiereducties. Daarnaast neemt de schade aan de natuur af. Dit blijkt uit een kosten-batenanalyse van een aantal mogelijke varianten voor aanscherping van emissiedoelen per 2020 in het kader van de herziening van het Gothenburg protocol.

  17. Afghan Ministry of Defense Headquarters: $154.7 Million Building Appears Well Built, but Has Several Construction Issues that Should Be Assessed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    drop ceiling is a secondary ceiling , hung below the main structural ceiling . Failure of these components in an earthquake has the potential to cause ...complete breaks in the floors, walls, and ceilings that divide the building into discrete sections. The objectives of this inspection were to...deficiencies, including the need to install a fire- rated glass entry door. An AFCEC official told us that all three deficiencies have since been corrected

  18. Bearing capacity check of aluminum profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Grigoraşenco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of suspended ceiling options to be customizable they are the choice for implementation in spaces like offices buildings, schools, hospitals and commercial premises. Recent problems with suspended gypsum ceilings falling in some commercial premises led to verification by tensile test and flexural bearing capacity of 5 types of aluminum elements used to suspend the ceilings.

  19. Navigating the Labyrinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H.; Carli, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    The glass ceiling has shattered. The metaphor of a glass ceiling, an absolute barrier to women's advancement, is seriously outdated. Some women do make it to high positions as big-city superintendents of schools, governors, secretaries of state and, even occasionally, as Fortune 500 CEOs. The glass ceiling metaphor has great appeal but is…

  20. A case for the introduction of numerical fiscal rules in the Serbian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begović Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recommendation of numerical fiscal rules in Serbia, presented in this paper, is based on the inherent bias of fiscal policy towards expenditure, and consequently continuous fiscal deficit and excessive sovereign debt. It is recommended that simple and straightforward numeric fiscal rules should be introduced into the Serbian Constitution. There should be two cumulative numerical fiscal rules, the first regarding the ceiling on sovereign debt and the second regarding the ceiling on net new borrowing. Neither of the rules may be violated. The ceiling on the debt level should be prescribed by the Constitution. The ceiling on new net borrowing should depend on the distance of the sovereign debt from the debt ceiling. An illustrative example is provided, with a debt ceiling of 60%. However, the Fiscal Council should specify a specific sovereign debt ceiling as part of the proposed constitutional amendment.

  1. Cam Tavan Sendromu ve Kadınların Üst Düzey Yönetici Pozisyonuna Yükselmelerindeki Engeller: Balıkesir İli Örneği(Glass Ceiling Syndrome and the Obstacles Facing Women’s Advancement to Senior Management Positions: Evidence From Balikesir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip ÖRÜCÜ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the reasons why women’s presentation in senior management levels and strategically important positions is lower compared to men constitutes the aim of this study. Conducting a literature survey, the concept of “Glass Ceiling” has been explained and the obstacles confronting women in preferment to senior management positions have been presented depending on the related studies held in Turkey and other countries. In the application part of the study, under the light of the findings from the literature, a survey covering 200 employees, of whom 103 male and 97 female, has been conducted in order to find out about the opinions of employees in Balıkesir on the obstacles in question. The findings have revealed that the limited horizon of leadership and managerial capability, excessive familial responsibilities, and the “queen bee” syndrome are the main obstacles that hamper women in the progress towards senior level managerial positions.

  2. ¿Techos de cristal y escaleras resbaladizas?: Desigualdades de género y estrategias de cambio en SESPAS Glass ceiling and slippery stairs?: Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Colomer Revuelta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades científicas, como en otros espacios públicos, la presencia de las mujeres en la toma de decisiones es menor que la de los varones. Describimos la situación en la Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria (SESPAS donde, a pesar de existir un 40% de socias, las mujeres han estado escasamente representadas en los puestos donde se toman las decisiones y en los de reconocimiento profesional. Se explica el proceso de cambio que se ha impulsado en los últimos años y algunos de los efectos de las acciones emprendidas. Visualizar las desigualdades de género existentes provocó el debate y el interés por la acción. Se ha establecido un grupo de trabajo de género y salud pública. En los dos últimos años se han incorporado más mujeres a los puestos de poder y de reconocimiento profesional en SESPAS.In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Helath and Health Services Administration where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been prometed to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  3. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    OpenAIRE

    Vlado Dimovski; Miha Skerlavaj; Mandy Mok Kim Man

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers in organizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singapore mid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existence of a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategic recommendations with regard to what corporations could do to remove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates how women in middle management perceive their career advancement opportunities and what they consider their organizatio...

  4. Thermal simulation of different construction types in six climatic regions on heating and cooling loads

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reduces its heating and cooling loads the most. 3. Applying both roof and ceiling insulation should always be avoided. 4. Building insulation is an effective intervention in all climatic regions. 5. Slightly increasing the thermal mass of a wall... were designed to evaluate the following: ? Case A ? base case ? Case B ? insulated walls ? Case C ? insulated walls and insulated ceiling ? Case D ? insulated walls, insulated ceiling and roof ? Case E ? increased thermal mass wall and insulated...

  5. Character-Defining Features of Contributing Buildings and Structures in the Fort Gordon, Georgia, Signal School Campus Historic District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    aluminum and plate- glass doors, sidelights, and transoms [right] (ERDC-CERL, 2015). .................. 178 Figure 243. Ceiling -mounted light fixture...Light pattern” effect on wall The typical Signal School building is of cast-in-place concrete columns with a waffle floor/ ceiling structure. The...would have a significant effect on the character-defining feature of the classroom hall- ways as would installing a dropped ceiling to cover the

  6. Characteristics and performance of thin LaBr3(Ce) crystal for hard X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a new detector using thin lanthanum bromide crystal (32 × 3 mm) for use in X-ray astronomy. The instrument was launched in high altitude balloon flight on two different occasions, December 21, 2007, which reached a ceiling altitude of 4.3 mbs and April 25, 2008 reaching a ceiling altitude 2.8 mbs. The observed background counting rate at the ceiling altitude of 4 mbs was ˜4 × 10-3 ct cm-2 s-1 keV-1 sr-1. This paper describes the details of the experiment, the detector characteristics, and the background behaviour at the ceiling altitude.

  7. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... lighting and ceiling rehabilitation. Terminal boiler plant renovation. Upgrade terminal fire alarm system...\\ rehabilitation. Decision Date: May 31, 2011. For Further Information Contact: Chad Oliver, Chicago Airports...

  8. WOMEN IN SCIENCE & EDUCATION IN TURKEY Hayrunnisa Bolay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    GLASS CEILING EFFECT IN ACADEMIC CAREER. Professor. Associate. Prof .... NEUROBIOLOGY: COGNITIVE PERFORMANCES. Women favors. Men favors ... (responsible for problem- solving, planning, decision- making), and the limbic.

  9. Career Development of Latinas in Mid-Level Community College Administration: A Phenomenological Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-De Jesus, Naydeen Tyffane

    2012-01-01

    Glass ceilings have been identified by scholars throughout the past 20 years as barriers to the upward career mobility of women and of people of color. There is an indication that glass ceiling barriers exist in the higher education sector. Latinas, as a subgroup of women of color, occupy many of the mid-level administrative positions in community…

  10. Experimental study of the heat transfers and passive cooling potential of a ventilated plenum designed for uniform air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Lessing, Julian

    2016-01-01

    suspended ceiling to uniformly distribute the supply air to the occupied zone. This, in effect, increases the thermal mass of the room because the upper slab of the room no longer is isolated from the occupied zone. In this study, the cooling potential of a diffuse ceiling ventilation system is i...

  11. 76 FR 21579 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ...-in: the wall and ceiling panels (hereafter referred to as non-floor panels); floor panels; the... requirements for wall, ceiling, door, and floor insulation panels used in walk-ins. See 42 U.S.C. 6313(f... entirely or partially comprised of glass, a transparent material, or both and is used for display purposes...

  12. 75 FR 9114 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Additional Requirements Applicable to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Council, Crystal Square 4, Suite 200A, 241 18th Street, Arlington, VA 22202-3402. Comments received.... (ix) In the case of a contract with a cancellation ceiling in excess of $100 million, if the budget... cancellation ceiling established in the contract-- (A) The head of the agency shall, as part of this...

  13. Air Commando Intel: Optimizing Specialization Training for Air Force Special Operations Command Intelligence Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    15 2. Managing Careers by Core Competencies ......................................15 D. GLASS CEILINGS ...Transforming the Force: Past, Present & Future,” Slide presentation, Washington, D.C., October 28, 2002, 5. 38 Ibid. 17 D. GLASS CEILINGS Getting AF...Agency Support to PR MSN Mission Planning SOF Mission Planning Exercise/Organization, Case Studies (Somalia/ Lebanon ), HUMINT case study SYS Systems

  14. 75 FR 81422 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 767 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... at both ends and damage to hinge stock; a detailed inspection of the ceiling area for any visible... and causing damage. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct improperly crimped hinge pins, which... at both ends and damage to hinge stock; a detailed inspection of the ceiling area for any visible...

  15. Dynamic Measurements of a Novel System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    In the PSO project 345-061, a novel system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated building systems (TABS) has been proposed for cooling and ventilation in Danish office buildings. Due to the application of diffuse ceiling inlet, cold outdoor air ...

  16. "I Got to Where I Am by My Own Strength": Women in Hong Kong Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Presents case studies of 11 academic women in senior positions at four universities in Hong Kong. Investigates women's perceptions and experiences of "glass ceiling" factors. Argues that concepts like "glass ceiling" politics cannot be used as universal explanations of women's career trajectories, but must include examinations…

  17. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...... in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser...

  18. Peer coaching and mentoring: a new model of educational intervention for safe patient handling in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Drebit, Sharla; Li, Helen Guiyun; Kidd, Catherine; Tam, Helen; Fast, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    To reduce the risk of patient handling-related musculoskeletal injury, overhead ceiling lifts have been installed in health care facilities. To increase ceiling lift usage for a variety of patient handling tasks, a peer coaching and mentoring program was implemented among the direct care staff in the long-term care subsector in British Columbia, Canada. They received a 4-day training program on body mechanics, ergonomics, patient-handling techniques, ceiling lift usage, in addition to coaching skills. A questionnaire was administered among staff before and after the intervention to evaluate the program's effectiveness. There were 403 and 200 respondents to the pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. In general, staff perceived the peer-coaching program to be effective. The number of staff who reported to be using ceiling lifts "often and always" went higher from 64.5% to 80.5% (<0.001) after coaching program implementation. Furthermore, staff reported that they were using the ceiling lifts for more types of tasks post-intervention. Staff reported that the peer coaching program has increased their safety awareness at work and confidence in using the ceiling lifts. The findings suggest that this educational model can increase the uptake of mechanical interventions for occupational health and safety initiatives. It appears that the training led to a greater awareness of the availability of or increased perceptions of the number of ceiling lifts, presumably through coaches advocating their use. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers inorganizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporemid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existenceof a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategicrecommendations with regard to what corporations could do toremove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates howwomen in middle management perceive their career advancementopportunities and what they consider their organizations tobe doing to support their advancement. Glass ceiling and informalstructures in the organizations will be analyzed from the aspectsof corporate climate, corporate practices, and corporate culture.The relevant questions are derived from the model developed byBergman and Hallberg (2002. This study aims to answer whetherthere is a glass ceiling present in Singapore companies. The studybegins with an introduction of the concept of a glass ceiling thatprevents women from advancing, and then continues with previousstudies on corporate climate, corporate practices and corporateculture, and data analysis of samples from Singapore organizations.The findings show that women middle managers inSingapore organizations face a glass ceiling in their working environmentwhich, for example, inhibits the promotion of femalemanagers, and entails a barrier to the career development opportunitiesof women presents that women do not have enough organizationalsupport, including networking, mentoring, and familyfriendly initiatives.

  20. Modification method for increasing inner capacity of PWR type reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, Shiro; Matsumoto, Mitsutaka

    1998-01-01

    A reactor container has a cylindrical wall portion and a dome-like ceiling portion. The upper portion of the cylindrical wall portion where the cross section is gradually reduced is cut off to from a circular step portion. A steel plate having an arcuate cross section having an inner surface being in contact with the outer circumferential surface of the ceiling portion is placed on the annular step portion, joined by welding to form a raised cylindrical portion. A raised ceiling portion having the same shape as the ceiling portion is constituted by weld-assembling of steel plates on the upper portion of the raised cylindrical portion. Through holes for air ventilation are perforated on the ceiling portion, and concrete is placed on the outer sides of the cylindrical wall portion, the raised cylindrical portion and the raised ceiling portion to form a concrete layer. Since the raised cylindrical portion and the raised ceiling portion can thus be constituted with no access to the inside of an existent reactor container, radiation exposure can be avoided. (I.N.)

  1. Carbon Capture Methods and Relative Competitiveness of Primary Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Lafforgue, Gilles; Moreaux, Michel

    2016-01-01

    We characterise the optimal exploitation paths of two primary energies (coal and solar) that supply the energy needs of two sectors. Sector 1 can reduce its carbon emissions at a reasonable cost thanks to a CCS device. Sector 2 has access only to air capture technology, but at a significantly higher cost. We assume that the atmospheric carbon stock cannot exceed a given ceiling. We show that the optimal approach consists in, first, fully capturing sector-1 emissions before the ceiling is reached and, second, deploying air capture to partially abate sector-2 emissions. The optimal carbon tax should increase in the pre-ceiling phase then decline in stages to zero

  2. Real-time modeling of heat distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Li, Hongfei; Yarlanki, Srinivas

    2018-01-02

    Techniques for real-time modeling temperature distributions based on streaming sensor data are provided. In one aspect, a method for creating a three-dimensional temperature distribution model for a room having a floor and a ceiling is provided. The method includes the following steps. A ceiling temperature distribution in the room is determined. A floor temperature distribution in the room is determined. An interpolation between the ceiling temperature distribution and the floor temperature distribution is used to obtain the three-dimensional temperature distribution model for the room.

  3. 18 CFR 367.57 - Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... piers and foundations that are designed to be as permanent as the buildings that house the equipment, or... walls, ceilings or floors or without in some way impairing the building, must be included in the...

  4. Effects of long-term salinity on the growth of the halophyte Spartina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... randomized design in a glass-covered greenhouse with natural temperature and light. The interior of the greenhouse ceiling was draped with 30% shade ... Scientific, Great Amwell, Herts, UK) in the growth chamber. Statistical ...

  5. Creating Library Interiors: Planning and Design Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Plummer Alston, Jr.; Barton, Phillip K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines design considerations for public library interiors: access; acoustical treatment; assignable and nonassignable space; building interiors: ceilings, clocks, color, control, drinking fountains; exhibit space: slotwall display, floor coverings, floor loading, furniture, lighting, mechanical systems, public address, copying machines,…

  6. Friction, Fretting and Wear: Emerging Materials and Technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    across smooth walls and high ceilings while intelligent humans continue to slip and .... mance of internal combustion engines, artificial hip and knee implants and ... the intrinsic advantages of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) strengthening steel ...

  7. Multiplexing of spatial modes in the mid-IR region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gailele, Lucas M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ceiling in the near future. Communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying modes offers in finite dimensional states, providing means to increase link capacity by multiplexing spatially overlapping modes in both the azimuthal and radial...

  8. Gender, community affairs and public relations practice in Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the field being feminized faces the realities of gender-bias, glass ceiling effects, ... Results further indicate that culture, customs and traditions temper the ... diversity management and gender equity in Ghanaian mining environments.

  9. Building thermal loads: A case study for David Hellen Petta public secondary school

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter assesses the impact of appropriate passive interventions on building thermal loads. The passive interventions investigated are ceiling insulation, wall insulation, attic ventilation, natural ventilation and roof absorptance and also...

  10. (Ne)rovnost mužů a žen v práci

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, Alena

    č. 9 (2003), s. 24-25 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS7028002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7028912 Keywords : gender inequality * glass ceiling * gender stereotyping Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. K.JANKEE PG 9-28

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    expertise to deal with the market environment and the response of economic ... liberalisation of the exchange and trade system, privatisation of some state enter .... The next major reform was the complete abolition of credit ceilings as from July.

  12. Women and work: a ten year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    A look back, after a decade, at the issues surrounding women and work. Work options, childcare and family concerns, the glass ceiling, sexual harassment, women entrepreneurs, race and poverty, unpaid work, and women with disabilities are discussed.

  13. Modeling long-term yield trends of Miscanthusxgiganteus using experimental data from across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesur, Claire; Jeuffroy, Marie-Hélène; Makowski, David

    2013-01-01

    and the ceiling phases and (ii) to determine whether M. giganteus ceiling phase is followed by a decline phase where yields decrease across years. Data were analyzed through comparisons between a set of statistical growth models. The model that best fitted the experimental data included a decline phase....... The decline intensity and the value of several other model parameters, such as the maximum yield reached during the ceiling phase or the duration of the establishment phase, were highly variable. The highest maximum yields were obtained in the experiments located in the southern part of the studied area....... giganteus is known to have an establishment phase during which annual yields increased as a function of crop age, followed by a ceiling phase, the duration of which is unknown. We built a database including 16 European long-term experiments (i) to describe the yield evolution during the establishment...

  14. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  15. A Multiscale Approach to Magnesium Intercalation Batteries: Safer, Lighter, and Longer-Lasting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lithium-ion batteries are the gold-standard for electrochemical energy storage; however, the ceiling for their storage potential is constrained by the most...

  16. Getting to the "C suite". What will it take to see diversity across health care leadership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Laurie

    2006-03-01

    Although diversity in health care leadership has improved greatly over the past 40 years, midcareer minorities still encounter a "glass ceiling" between director-level jobs and the top four or five "chief" executive positions.

  17. 77 FR 40255 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels. Discussion The... monitor screens such as liquid crystal display (LCD) or plasma displays. These glass items may be...

  18. 77 FR 28533 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 737-800; Large Non-Structural Glass in the Passenger Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... following items: Glass partitions. Glass attached to the ceiling. Wall/door mounted mirrors/glass panels... indicator protective transparencies, or monitor screens such as liquid crystal display (LCD) or plasma...

  19. Home Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the ceiling. Before opening a door, feel the doorknob and ... automatically if the heater falls over. Only use crystal clear K-1 kerosene in kerosene heaters. Never ...

  20. 76 FR 42654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Petition To List Grand Canyon Cave Pseudoscorpion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... from 1977 to 1978. Eight caves were examined including Babylon Cave, Crystal Forest Cave, Land's End...) describes examining the walls, ceilings, and floors for animals and invertebrates. He identified 12...