WorldWideScience

Sample records for ceilings

  1. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    and numerical studies on diffuse ceiling ventilation. Performance in terms of thermal comfort, air quality, pressure drop as well as radiant cooling potential are examined. Finally, a discussion on the proper design of the suspended ceiling and plenum to achieve a uniform air distribution and surface......As a novel air distribution system, diffuse ceiling ventilation combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. Due to the low-impulse supply from the large ceiling area, the system does not generate draught when supplying cold air. However, heat sources play an important role on...... thermal comfort in the occupant zone. Another characteristic of this system is its lower pressure drop compared with conventional ventilation systems, which reduces the noise problem and, at the same time, the energy consumption of the fan can be reduced. This review is based on a number of experimental...

  2. Shattering the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ "Shattering the Glass Ceiling: the Myths, Opportunities and Chal lenges of Women in Corporate China" was the theme of CEIBS'first Women in Management Forum held on December l 1 on the school's main campus in Shanghai.

  3. Stars on the Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupp, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy and celestial imagery have been incorporated into architectural ceilings from antiquity to the present to reference the sky on behalf of a variety of agendas. Burial chambers in Egyptian pyramids and tombs, the Osiris chapel on the roof of Ptolemaic Egypt's Temple of Dendera, ancient Chinese tombs, painted rock shelters in California and the American Southwest, the cupola above a hot bath from medieval Jordan, elaborately illustrated ceilings in Italian cathedrals and palaces, the main concourse in New York's Grand Central Terminal, and a variety of other public buildings in America all brought the sky inside to convey relationships between the architecture, people, and the cosmos. In these interior environments, the symbolic function of the astronomical ceiling is driven by the thematic function of the building. At Griffith Observatory in Los Angeles three signature spaces are equipped with astronomically illustrated ceilings. In content and location, these prominent murals operate symbolically to convey meaning through public display and unexpectedly prompt people to think more expansively about the universe. This artwork is familiar in Los Angeles, but its use in a public observatory puts it outside the range of most commentaries on public art. Although experienced by more than seventy-six million persons over the last eighty years, Griffith Observatory's celestial murals are not well known. Their history, content, character, meaning, and purpose are detailed here.

  4. Glass ceilings of professionalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    The term glass ceiling is a political term often used to describe an unbreakable barrier that isnot visible with the human eye, but it keeps minorities from rising up i.e. it is a barrier to minoritygroups, in the past (and sometimes still) for women, that stops them from achieving theirtrue potential.

  5. ENERGY STAR Certified Ceiling Fans

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Ceiling Fans that are effective as of April 1,...

  6. Investigating Ceiling Effects in Longitudinal Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; McArdle, John J.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    Score limitation at the top of a scale is commonly termed "ceiling effect." Ceiling effects can lead to serious artifactual parameter estimates in most data analysis. This study examines the consequences of ceiling effects in longitudinal data analysis and investigates several methods of dealing with ceiling effects through Monte Carlo simulations…

  7. Passing through the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Robert L.

    This paper describes personal and professional networking, discusses data on women and networking skills, and argues that women should exercise these skills in their efforts to shatter the "glass ceiling" and achieve their career potential. An introductory discussion notes that women, though they do network, may develop ties primarily with other…

  8. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  9. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling.

  10. Diversity, culture and the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    A reference to the term, the glass ceiling, has come to embody more than gender equality among women and men. Today the term embraces the quest of all minorities and their journey towards equality in the workplace. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to the subject of diversity, culture, and the glass ceiling. The article will discuss the history of the glass ceiling and how its broadened meaning is relevant in today's workplace. It will also provide statistics showing how diversity and culture are lacking among the top echelon of today's executives, the barriers faced by minorities as they journey towards executive leadership, and how to overcome these barriers to truly shatter the glass ceiling. PMID:25306838

  11. Numerical analysis of diffuse ceiling ventilation and its integration with a radiant ceiling system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Chen, Qingyan;

    2016-01-01

    number of design parameters encountered in practice. This study aimed to develop a numerical model that can reliably predict the airflow and thermal performance of the integrated system during the design stage. The model was validated by experiments under different operating conditions. The validated......A novel system combining diffuse ceiling ventilation and radiant ceiling was proposed recently, with the aim of providing energy efficient and comfort environment to office buildings. Designing of such a system is challenging because of complex interactions between the two subsystems and a large...... model was further applied to evaluate the effects of different design parameters, including the U-value of the diffuse ceiling panel, plenum height, plenum depth, and inlet configuration. In the integrated system, diffuse ceiling separated the radiant ceiling from the rest of the room and consequently...

  12. The Expert Ceiling in Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Paulsen and Wells (1998) stated that, "it seems unlikely that substantial differences in epistemological beliefs across domains would persist in studies of faculty or other more advanced experts," (p. 380). This statement implies the existence of an upper limit or ceiling effect in the epistemological beliefs among experts. Faculty members are…

  13. Politics, Economics, and the Debt Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Talbot Jones; Cameron Visser

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, the Federal Government has chosen a self-imposed statutory limit on federal debt which has been increased, and occasionally reduced, in sporadic intervals. This paper uses a regression model to examine the time interval between changes in the statutory debt limit and whether the date of the next increase is pushed beyond the next national election. Results show the length of the extension and the likelihood that the ceiling limit lasts beyond the next election is...

  14. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  15. Beyond the glass ceiling: Does gender matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Ren??e; Funk, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The representation of women in top corporate officer positions is steadily increasing. However, little is known about the impact this will have. A large literature documents that women are different from men in their choices and in their preferences, but most of this literature relies on samples of college students or workers at lower levels in the corporate hierarchy. If women must be like men to break the glass ceiling, we might expect gender differences to disappear among top executives. I...

  16. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    conditions a classroom was retrofitted with mechanical ventilation and a diffuse ceiling. The employed ceiling comprises active panels penetrable to air and impenetrable passive panels. The performance was studied with regard to air movements, temperatures and air change efficiency at two different air......Diffuse ceiling ventilation is a novel air distribution device that combines the suspended acoustic ceiling with ventilation supply. A diffuse ceiling distributes the supply air above the acoustic tiles and has proven performance in laboratory experiments. To study the performance in real...... changes. The experiments were carried out during class to obtain realistic conditions. At both airflows did the ceiling perform satisfactorily with air movements and temperatures within the requirements of indoor climate standards. The air change efficiency is comparable to conventional mixing ventilation....

  17. Seville City Hall Chapter Room ceiling decoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robador, M. D.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes a chemical and physical study of the colour, chemical composition and mineral phases of the decorative materials in the Seville City Hall Chapter House ceiling. The findings showed that the inner most layer of material, calcite, was covered with white lead, in turn concealed under a layer of gilded bole. The ceiling underwent re-gilding, also over bole, due in all likelihood to wear on the original gold leaf. In the nineteenth century, the entire ceiling with the exception of the inscriptions was whitewashed with calcite and white lead. Silver was employed on King John I’s sword (coffer 27. Gold leaf was used to adorn the royal attributes: crowns, belts, sceptres, swords and rosary beads. The high reliefs were likewise gilded. The pigments identified on the ceiling adornments included azurite, malachite, vermilion and gas black. A lime and ground dolomite mortar was used throughout.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de diferentes aspectos, como el color, la composición química y las fases mineralógicas presentes en los diferentes materiales que forman la ornamentación del techo de la Sala Capitular del Ayuntamiento de Sevilla, mediante métodos físicos y químicos. Nuestros resultados muestran que el dorado fue realizado sobre una capa de bol previamente depositada sobre una lámina de blanco de plomo que cubría un estrato de calcita. Posteriormente, y probablemente debido a alteraciones en el dorado original, el techo fue de nuevo dorado usando una técnica similar. En el siglo XIX, casi todo el techo, excepto las zonas con inscripciones, fue blanqueado usando una mezcla de calcita y blanco de plomo. Se empleó plata para cubrir la espada del rey Juan I (casetón 27. Finísimas láminas de oro se usaron para decorar los atributos reales: coronas, cinturones, cetros, espadas y rosarios. En diferentes partes de la decoración fueron detectados pigmentos como azurita, malaquita, bermellón y

  18. Expenditure Ceilings—A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gösta Ljungman

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks at the factors that have to be considered when designing an aggregate expenditure ceiling. It is argued that expenditure ceilings are effective in promoting fiscal discipline and sustainability, but that a number of trade-offs have to be made when setting up a fiscal framework that will survive in a politically charged environment. The paper illustrates the discussion with a case study of medium-term aggregate expenditure ceilings in three countries: Finland, the Netherlands ...

  19. Diffuse Ceiling Inlet Systems and the Room Air Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    A diffuse ceiling inlet system is an air distribution system which is supplying the air through the whole ceiling. The system can remove a large heat load without creating draught in the room. The paper describes measurements in the case of both cooling and heating, and CFD predictions are given ...

  20. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  1. Women and Politics – The Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zamfirache

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of women in modern politics is a subject that needs further insight, considering the growthin number of women that nowadays have relevant political positions on the international stage.There are studies today that emphasize the equality issue and all that is gender role related, but ourinterest is to analyze the women representation in power related positions. Due to the fastmodernization of the political environment and the rapid spreading of the feminist way of thought,several authors took interest in the gender differences in politics. The article follows some keydimensions in understanding the gender-role in politics: the glass ceiling, the role of the media indrawing the image of the woman politician, the gender affinity effect. In the end we would like topoint out the differences for men and women in exploiting the opportunities and securing the positions of power.

  2. Existence of Glass Ceiling in Public Universities of Lahore (Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Ilyas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling is a set of unseen factors which adversely affect females upward career growth and prevent them to get to top positions. This study is meant to explore existence of glass ceiling in public universities of Lahore (Pakistan; and factors responsible for creating this glass ceiling effect. The respondents of this study are females heading different departments in their respective universities. The results of this study show that different cultural and social, family and organizational barriers adversely affect females’ career growth and make them work in lower subordinate positions despite having suitable qualifications and experiences. The significance of this study comes from the fact that it investigates this issue by taking empirical evidence of those females who personally faced glass ceiling and managed to make their ways to occupy top positions in their respective departments.

  3. Renaissance of the ceiling heating?; Renaissance der Deckenheizung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Michael [Studienakademie Sachsen, Dresden (Germany). Heizungstechnik

    2010-03-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the substantial realizations to the ceiling heating. At the same time suggestions are supplied according to a more strongly dealing with the development of assembly-friendly systems.

  4. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  5. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  6. Thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings; Thermisches Verhalten von Kuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C.

    2002-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of cooling ceilings is so far described by characteristic equations in the form of q=C x {delta}{theta}{sup n}. In special cases these equations are extended by terms which take into account the radiation exchange between heat sink and space user (operational ambient temperature). This is insufficient. Therefore a model is presented, which describes more exactly the individual processes (radiation, convection) at the cooled surface. As a first step the ceiling area is divided into three ranges in which different phenomena are affecting the heat transfer considerably: 1. Range under the influence of free convection in the space. 2. Range with forced convection caused by a plume along the window. 3. Range with forced convection caused by air flow through supply air outlets. For each of these ranges the fundamentals of heat transfer are applied using the substantial variables. The results of these models are then compared in a second step with results from laboratory tests. This model is developed first for steady-state conditions. It is extended by a second model to describe the dynamic processes (storage). Finally, both steady-state and unsteady conditions are investigated systematically. Results are presented for the cooling rate effected by the temperature of cooling ceiling, ambient conditions, supply air flow rate, supply air temperature and type of the air outlet. The results computed indicate that the maximum total cooling rate is always gained by a combination of a cooling ceiling and a supply air with minimum permissible temperature. In these cases the cooling rate of the ceiling is lower than that without ventilation of the space. However, the additional cooling rate of the ventilation compensates this effect in all cases investigated. This is an important finding, since cooling ceilings usually must be combined with an HVAC system for reasons of dehumidifying. Dried, cooled supply air can thus be supplied to the space without

  7. Human Response to Personalized Ventilation Combined with Chilled Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Marcol, Bartosz;

    2014-01-01

    , the use of radiant ceiling cooling will provide operative temperature lower than the air temperature and will improve further occupants’ thermal comfort at warm environment. Therefore combining PV with chilled ceiling may be an effective way to provide thermal comfort in rooms at temperature higher than...... period subjects’ thermal sensation ranged between warm and hot. After returning to the workstations the use of PV helped subjects to improve their thermal sensation much faster (5 min) compared to the CCMV (30 min). Air at workstation was perceived as more fresh with CCPV than with CCMV. Percentage...

  8. EVALUATION OF FUNGAL GROWTH (PENICILLIUM GLABRUM) ON A CEILING TILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a study employing static chambers to study the impact of different equilibrium relative humidities (RHs) and moisture conditions on the ability of a new ceiling tile to support fungal growth. Amplification of the mold, Penicillium glabrum, occurred at R...

  9. "Training Floors" and "Training Ceilings": Metonyms for Understanding Training Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felstead, Alan; Jewson, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines a conceptual framework for mapping and understanding training trends. It uses the metonyms of floors and ceilings to distinguish between different types of training configurations. The argument is made that the ups and downs of employer reports of training activity are a crude basis on which to make judgements about the…

  10. Development of the damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Atsumi; Nishitani, Akira; Wakatabe, Morimasa; Inai, Shinsuke; Ohdomari, Iwao; Tsutsumi, Hiroki

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of a damage assessment methodology for ceiling elements with the aid of smart sensor board and inspection robot. In this proposed system, the distributed smart sensor boards firstly detect the fact of damage occurrence. Next, the robot inspects the damage location and captures the photographic image of damage condition. The smart sensor board for the proposed system mainly consists of microcontroller, strain gage and LAN module. The inspection robot integrated into the proposed system has a wireless camera and wireless LAN device for receiving signal to manipulate itself. At first, the effectiveness of the smart sensor board and inspection robot is tested by experiments of a full-scale suspended ceiling utilizing shaking table facilities. The model ceiling is subjected to several levels of excitations and thus various levels of damages are caused. Next, this robot inspection scheme is applied to the ceiling of a real structure damaged by the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The obtained results indicate that the proposed system can detect the location and condition of the damage.

  11. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.

    2013-01-01

    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  12. Experimental study and modeling of cooling ceiling systems using steady-state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecuanica, AA. 97 Pereira (Colombia); Lebrun, Jean [Thermodynamic Laboratory, University of Liege Belgium, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Andre, Philippe [Departement Sciences et Gestion de l' Environnement, University of Liege Belgium, 185, Avenue de Longwy, B-6700 Arlon (Belgium)

    2010-06-15

    This article presents the results of an experimental study performed to develop a computational model of cooling ceiling systems. The model considers the cooling ceiling as a fin. Only the dry regime is considered. From ceiling and room dimensions, material description of the cooling ceiling and measurement of supply water mass flow rate and air and water temperatures, the model calculates the cooling ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature and water exhaust temperature. Fin efficiency, mixed convection close to the cooling ceiling (generated by the ventilation system) and panel perforations influence are studied. The theoretical approach gives to the user an appropriate tool for preliminary calculation, design and diagnosis in commissioning processes in order to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling mode. A series of experimental results got on four types of cooling ceilings are used in order to validate the model. (author)

  13. Glass Ceiling in Academic Administration in Turkey: 1990s versus 2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses the glass ceiling for academics in the Turkish universities with reference to top administration positions: rectors and deans. Glass ceiling indicators show that the glass ceiling thickened from the 1990s to late 2000s. The findings are discussed against the background of the transformation in the Turkish universities in the…

  14. Measurements on Buoyant Jet Flows from a Ceiling-Mounted Slot Diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Möller, Åke T. A.

    Ceiling-mounted slot diffusers in ventilated rooms will often generate a flow of the wall jet type. The jet follows the ceiling, entrains air from the occupied zone and generates a recirculating flow in the whole room. This paper will deal with the flow in the ceiling region. The wall jet flow...

  15. GROWTH EVALUATION OF FUNGI (PENICILLIUM AND ASPERGILLUS SPP.) ON CEILING TILES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the potential for fungal growth on four different ceiling tiles in static chambers. It was found that even new ceiling tiles supported fungal growth under favorable conditions. Used ceiling tiles appeared to be more susceptible to funga...

  16. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided...

  17. Gender Wage Gaps, 'Sticky Floors' and 'Glass Ceilings' in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N.; Alexandros Polycarpou; Konstantinos Vrachimis

    2013-01-01

    We consider and attempt to understand the gender wage gap across 26 European countries, using 2007 data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions. The size of the gender wage gap varies considerably across countries, definitions of the gap, and selection-correction mechanisms. Most of the gap cannot be explained by the characteristics available in this data set. Quantile regressions show that, in a number of countries, the wage gap is wider at the top (‘glass ceilings...

  18. Self-Positioning Robot Navigation Using Ceiling Image Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Facchinetti Claudio; Tièche, François; Hügli, Heinz

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a vision-based homing behavior that provides self-positioning for a mobile robot using ceiling structures as landmarks. This new behavior enters the navigation approach we developed for mobile robots, which basic idea is to represent the robot spatial knowledge in a topological map, where nodes consist of self-positioning sites and edges may be any reactive behavior moving the robot between two nodes.

  19. Effects of a thermal ceiling on postoperative hypothermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Eklund, A; Joachimsson, P O;

    1985-01-01

    postoperatively with or without external heating from a heating ceiling. Central and peripheral temperatures, oxygen consumption, plasma catecholamines and shivering were measured. A method for continuous measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during spontaneous breathing is described....... The results suggest that postoperative external heating decreases oxygen consumption, shivering and plasma catecholamine levels. At the same time, the comfort of the patient is increased considerably....

  20. Parametrical analysis on the diffuse ceiling ventilation by experimental and numerical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Sølund;

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a classroom. An experimental study is carried out in a test chamber to examine the impact of diffuse ceiling opening area on the system cooling capacity and thermal comfort. The results indicate that diffuse ceiling...... ventilation provides a satisfied thermal comfort level in the occupied zone even under a high ventilation rate and a high heat load condition. A design chart method is adopted to compare different diffuse ceiling configurations, and the results indicate that the system with a 18% diffuse ceiling opening area...... is able to handle the highest heat load without discomfort. On the other hand, a CFD model is built where the diffuse ceiling is simulated with a porous media zone. This model is validated by experimental results and further used to analyze the effect of heat load distribution and room height. The...

  1. The Perception of 'Glass Ceiling' and its Impact on Career Progression of Female Managers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The glass ceiling is a transparent barrier that prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy. Glass ceiling researchers have attempted to determine whether a glass ceiling exists by examining the actual promotion decision to top management, the percentage of management positions held by women in an organization, salary of male versus female managers, and ratings of potential promotion candidates to top management. The aim of this research is to investigate the vari...

  2. Air Distribution in Rooms with Ceiling-mounted Obstacles and Three-Dimensional Isothermal Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Evensen, Louis; Grabau, Peter;

    The air supply openings in ventilated rooms are often placed close to the ceiling. A recirculating flow is generated in the room, and the region between the ceiling and the occupied zone serves as an entrainment and velocity decay area for the wall jets. Ceiling-mounted obstacles may disturb...... this flow and, in particular, certain dimensions and positions of the obstacles cause a downward deflection of the jets into the occupied zone resulting in reduced thermal comfort for the inhabitants....

  3. An acoustical research of the undulating wooden ceiling in the Vyborg Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about the Undulating Ceiling at the lecture hall of the Vyborg Library. Alvar Aalto himself claimed the ceiling to be "ninety-nine per cent acoustically perfect" and the sketches showing the acoustical considerations behind the ceiling-design is often reproduced. But how did...... it actually function? Did the wave form have the claimed acoustical avantages or could the ceiling as well have been horisontal. Comprehensive acoustical investigations have been carried out including acoustical measurements in a 1:20 scale model and calculations in a 3D computer model of the lecture...

  4. The glass ceiling of corporate social responsibility : Consequences of a business case approach towards CSR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.H.J.; Jeurissen, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to clarify that corporate social responsibility (CSR) has come a long way by the prevailing business case approach, but increasingly hits a glass ceiling. The glass ceiling metaphor refers to the inherent limitations created by a business case approach towards CSR. Design/m

  5. Experimental study of perforated suspended ceilings as diffuse ventilation air inlets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to sustain the pressure of the plenum and ensure uni-directional airflow through the ceiling. Consequently only reverse flow of insignificant magnitude was observed which has a positive impact on the hygiene of the plenum. Furthermore, the measurements documented that the ceiling acts as a radiant cooling...

  6. Impact of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling on eye irritation symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Marcol, Bartosz; Kaczmarczyk, Jan;

    2014-01-01

    , elevated air movement toward face and increased radiant cooling may have impact on the eye symptoms. Twenty four human subjects participated in experiments with PV combined with chilled ceiling system (CCPV) and with mixing ventilation (MV) combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV). In the experiments with PV...... an impact on their subjective and physiological response....

  7. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department

  8. Airflow Pattern and Performance Analysis of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation in an Office Room using CFD Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Chen, Qingyan; Heiselberg, Per Kvols;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling ventilation uses perforations in the suspended ceiling to deliver air into the occupied zone. Due to the complex geometry of the diffuser, it is not possible to build an exact geometrical model in CFD simulation. Two numerical models are proposed in this study, one is a simplified...

  9. Ceiling art in a radiation therapy department: its effect on patient treatment experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonett, Jotham [Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, Melbourne, Vic. (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    A new initiative has been implemented at the Sunshine Hospital Radiation Therapy Centre, to provide a calming and comforting environment for patients attending radiation therapy treatment. As part of this initiative, the department's computed tomography (CT) room and radiation therapy bunkers were designed to incorporate ceiling art that replicates a number of different visual scenes. The study was undertaken to determine if ceiling art in the radiation therapy treatment CT and treatment bunkers had an effect on a patient's experience during treatment at the department. Additionally, the study aimed to identify which of the visuals in the ceiling art were most preferred by patients. Patients were requested to complete a 12-question survey. The survey solicited a patient's opinion/perception on the unit's unique ceiling display with emphasis on aesthetic appeal, patient treatment experience and the patient's engagement due to the ceiling display. The responses were dichotomised to ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Every sixth patient who completed the survey was invited to have a general face-to-face discussion to provide further information about their thoughts on the displays. The results demonstrate that the ceiling artwork solicited a positive reaction in 89.8% of patients surveyed. This score indicates that ceiling artwork contributed positively to patients’ experiences during radiation therapy treatment. The study suggests that ceiling artwork in the department has a positive effect on patient experience during their radiation therapy treatment at the department.

  10. Air Distribution in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Heby, Thomas; Moeller-Jensen, Bertil

    2006-01-01

    manikins, each sitting at a desk, two pc's and two desk lamps producing a total heat load of 480 W. The design of the air distribution system is in all five cases based on flow elements from the diffuser, a maximum velocity assumption and a critical vertical temperature gradient in the room....... The characteristics of the air distribution systems are addressed by analysing the acceptable conditions for the supply flow rate and the temperature difference for the different systems. The paper shows that an air distribution system with ceiling-mounted air terminal units is able to generate comfortable velocity...... and temperature conditions at the same and at slightly higher loads as can be obtained by a vertical ventilation system, a mixing ventilation system with wall-mounted diffuser and a displacement ventilation system with a low velocity wall-mounted diffuser. The comparison is extended by considering both the local...

  11. Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and the Influence of Room Height and Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Vilsbøll, Rasmus W; Liu, Li;

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse ceiling (inlet) ventilation is an air distribution system that supplies air from the entire ceiling surface, giving a low supply velocity. The flow pattern in the room is controlled by the heat sources. The system generates high mixing flow and the air velocities in the room are expected...... with a large room height and it decreases in connection with certain heat load distributions. Room geometries and heat load distributions that are optimal for diffuse ceiling ventilation are discussed. A simplified design procedure is introduced....

  12. Hardware Locks with Priority Ceiling Emulation for a Java Chip-Multiprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    According to the safety-critical Java specification, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations, as it has preferable properties, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free on uni-core systems. In this paper we explore our hardware supported implementation...... of priority ceiling emulation on the multicore Java optimized processor, and compare it to the existing hardware locks on the Java optimized processor. We find that the additional overhead for priority ceiling emulation on a multicore processor is several times higher than simpler, non-premptive locks, mainly...

  13. Air Distribution and Ventilation Effectiveness in a room with Floor/Ceiling Heating and Mixing/Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.;

    2014-01-01

    combined with floor/ceiling heating systems is approximately equal to 1.0, and ventilation effectiveness of displacement ventilation system combined with floor/ceiling heating systems ranges from 1.0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor.......0 to 1.2. The floor/ceiling heating systems combined with mixing ventilation system have more uniform indoor air distribution but smaller ventilation effectiveness compared with the floor/ceiling heating systems combined with displacement ventilation system. With regard to the building heat loss...

  14. Sustainability assessment of a lightweight biomimetic ceiling structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An intensive and continuous debate centres on the question of whether biomimetics has a specific potential to contribute to sustainability. In the context of a case study, the objective of this paper is to contribute to this debate by presenting the first systematic approach to assess the sustainability of a complex biomimetic product. The object of inquiry is a lecture hall's ribbed slab. Based on criteria suggested by the Association of German Engineers (VDI), it has been verified that the slab has been correctly defined as biomimetic. Moreover, a systematic comparative product sustainability assessment has been carefully carried out. For purposes of comparison, estimated static calculations have been performed for conceivable current state-of-the-art lightweight ceiling structures. Alternative options are a hollow article slab and a pre-stressed flat slab. Besides a detailed benefit analysis and a discussion of social effects, their costs have also been compared. A particularly detailed life cycle assessment on the respective environmental impacts has also been performed. Results show that the biomimetic ribbed slab built in the 1960s is able to keep up with the current state-of-the-art lightweight solutions in terms of sustainability. These promising results encourage a systematic search for a broad range of sustainable biomimetic solutions. (paper)

  15. Deposit Rate Ceilings as a Tool of Prudential Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Krajewski

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present one of prudential regulation instruments in an environment that favors to engage in moral hazard behavior. The last decades proved that there is a link between financial liberalization and banking crises. In order to avoid crises and prevent banks engaging in gambling behavior, the system of prudential regulations has been implemented. The emphasis has been placed on the use of capital requirements, typically using the BIS standard developed in the Basel Accord.As the excessive reliance on capital requirements can become costly for the banks and lead to loose their franchise value and undermine incentives for prudent investing. The instrument that can create the franchise value, i.e. earning profits in the current period and in the future, is a policy of deposit rate controls. In the paper was also revealed why the policy of setting interest rate ceiling on deposits had not achieved its intended objectives, especially in the view of the fail of the Regulation Q policy.

  16. Modeling of a hydronic ceiling system and its environment as energetic auditing tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia); University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory Campus du Sart Tilman - Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    As a part of a commissioning study, the chilled ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the chilled ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a transient thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the hydronic panels as a transient-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped transient model of the building. The behavior of the hydronic ceiling system and the interactions with its environment (walls, ventilated facade, internal loads and ventilation system) has been experimentally and numerically evaluated. Commissioning test results show that the influence of surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the facade, is considerable. Then, it is clear that the hydronic ceiling system must be evaluated together with its designed environment and not as a separate HVAC equipment. (author)

  17. Field Study of Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation Performance in a Landscape Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska-Tejsen, Daria; Wolsing, Marie; Grysbæk, Malene;

    2016-01-01

    between supply and exhaust and great air change rates, while the same design parameters caused risk of draught in many points in the case with mixing ventilation. Good mixing in the occupied zone in case of both systems resulted in only small vertical temperature gradients. The results from the study......Performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation with regard to thermal comfort and limits of the cooling capacity of the system was studied in a 97 m2-landscape office. Seven operation scenarios were tested: two for mixing ventilation with ceiling mounted fan coils and five with diffuse ceiling...... allow extrapolating the design chart q-ΔT for diffuse ceiling ventilation systems for higher ventilation flow rates....

  18. Unknown construction. Historical thermal protection - ceilings and floors; Unbekannter Aufbau. Historischer Waermeschutz - Decken und Boeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke-Henning, Werner [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    In principle, the construction and the structure of ceilings and floors hardly changed in the history of building over many centuries. From the antiquity up to the Middle Ages, timber beams and solid vaults in different variants spanned the floors. For approximately 150 years, due to new materials such as steel and concrete a variety developed with a great benefit to thermal protection. The contribution under consideration reports on superstructures under old timber floorings and behind stucco ceilings.

  19. MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATION IN SPECIAL ELEVATOR CAR ENGINEERING AND CONCEPT DESIGN FOR FIXING OF HEAVY LOWERED CEILINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Hiep

    2014-01-01

    The thesis objectives comprise of two major parts; one is to present design guidelines for friendlier maintenance in elevator cars, the other is to intro-duce concept designs of fixing mechanism of the lowered ceiling in special elevator car. KONE Industrial Ltd. is the commissioning organization of the dissertation. The obtained results are expected to improve main-tainability in the design of the elevator car; on the other hand, new fixing solutions of the ceiling can meet requirements of ...

  20. Development of LED Ceiling Light%LED天花灯的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光熙; 朱月华; 杨宝东

    2011-01-01

    介绍LED天花灯的结构组成,通过对其主要配件进行测试和分析,提出如何提高LED天花灯性能的建议。%This article introduces the structure of LED ceiling light,and presents some suggestions for improving the performance of LED ceiling light based on the testing and analyses.

  1. WOMEN, GLASS CEILING, AND PROFESSIONALIZATION IN FAMILY SMEs: A MISSED LINK

    OpenAIRE

    LUCREZIA SONGINI; LUCA GNAN

    2009-01-01

    Literature and practical evidence on the glass ceiling have showed that women's presence in ownership does not ensure that they can significantly influence firm decisional processes. Similarly women's presence in governance roles does not entail glass ceiling removal, even in family firms, which are expected to be a more favorable context.Moreover, literature on women's role in family firms has focused mostly on women's expectations, values, and objectives, on the decision-making processes le...

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CEILING RADIANT COOLING SYSTEM IN COMPOSITE CLIMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anuj [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT), Jaipur, India; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Radiant cooling systems are proving to be an energy efficient solution due to higher thermal capacity of cooling fluid especially for the buildings that require individual zone controls and where the latent loads are moderate. The Conventional air conditioners work at very low temperature i.e.5-8 c (refrigerant evaporator inlet) while the radiant cooling systems, also referred as high temperature cooling system, work at high temperatures i.e. 14-18 c. The radiant cooling systems can maintain lower MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature) as ceiling panels maintain uniform temperature gradient inside room and provide higher human comfort. The radiant cooling systems are relatively new systems and their operation and energy savings potential are not quantified for a large number of buildings and operational parameters. Moreover, there are only limited numbers of whole building simulation studies have been carried out for these systems to have a full confidence in the capability of modelling tools to simulate these systems and predict the impact of various operating parameters. Theoretically, savings achieve due to higher temperature set point of chilled water, which reduces chiller-running time. However, conventional air conditioner runs continuously to maintain requisite temperature. In this paper, experimental study for performance evaluation of radiant cooling system carried out on system installed at Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur. This paper quantifies the energy savings opportunities and effective temperature by radiant cooling system at different chilled water flow rates and temperature range. The data collected/ analysed through experimental study will used for calibration and validation of system model of building prepared in building performance simulation software. This validated model used for exploring optimized combinations of key parameters for composite climate. These optimized combinations will used in formulation of radiant cooling system

  3. 2D and 3D GPR imaging of structural ceilings in historic and existing constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Camilla

    2014-05-01

    GPR applications in civil engineering are to date quite diversified. With respect to civil constructions and monumental buildings, detection of voids, cavities, layering in structural elements, variation of geometry, of moisture content, of materials, areas of decay, defects, cracks have been reported in timber, concrete and masonry elements. Nonetheless, many more fields of investigation remain unexplored. This contribution gives an account of a variety of examples of structural ceilings investigation by GPR radar in reflection mode, either as 2D or 3D data acquisition and visualisation. Ceilings have a pre-eminent role in buildings as they contribute to a good structural behaviour of the construction. Primarily, the following functions can be listed for ceilings: a) they carry vertical dead and live loads on floors and distribute such loads to the vertical walls; b) they oppose to external horizontal forces such as wind loads and earthquakes helping to transfer such forces from the loaded element to the other walls; c) they contribute to create the box skeleton and behaviour of a building, connecting the different load bearing walls and reducing the slenderness and flexural instability of such walls. Therefore, knowing how ceilings are made in specific buildings is of paramount importance for architects and structural engineers. According to the type of building and age of construction, ceilings may present very different solutions and materials. Moreover, in existing constructions, ceilings may have been substituted, modified or strengthened due to material decay or to change of use of the building. These alterations may often go unrecorded in technical documentation or technical drawings may be unavailable. In many cases, the position, orientation and number of the load carrying elements in ceilings may be hidden or not be in sight, due for example to the presence of false ceilings or to technical plants. GPR radar can constitute a very useful tool for

  4. Glass Ceiling in the Workplace: An Analysis within the Stated-owned Enterprises and Multi-national Enterprises in China

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Mengxi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, although the increasingly number of women has gained leadership positions, the glass ceiling phenomenon still exists in China, especially in multi-national enterprise. In brief, the road to the upper rungs for female is still challenging and difficult. Due to the nature of the enterprises, the performance of glass ceiling is different. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss different performance and influence of glass ceiling in the context of the multi-national enterprises (MN...

  5. Morphology and reaction force of toes of geckos freely moving on ceilings and walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The 3-dimensional interactions between toes of a gecko and substrates (ceilings or walls) were measured when it moves on ceilings or walls by using a 3-dimensional force measuring array,and the correspondent morphology of the gecko toes was recorded by a high speed camera.The study aims to understand the relationship between adhesive and shear forces generated by the toes of the gecko and the locomotion behavior when it walks on walls and ceilings.Results showed that shear force is along the toe-only 12.6° and 3.1° away from the toe for wall-climbing and ceiling-crawling,respectively while the adhesion is big enough to balance the body weight and moment.The shear forces generated by the first and the fifth toes are in opposite directions;this redundant force increases the reliability of adhesion and stability of locomotion.The support angles of toes are equal approximately for ceiling-crawling and wall-climbing.The study greatly inspires the design of a gecko-like robot.

  6. Effect of natural ventilation and wind direction on the thermal performance of a building ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Aziz Ali, Ali [Banha Univ. (Egypt). Shoubra Faculty of Engineering; Nabil Milad, Guirguis; Mahmoud Aly, Hassan [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2008-07-01

    Natural ventilation is rapidly becoming a significant part in the design strategy of buildings in situations where electricity is scare or non-existent and saving energy becomes highly important. The aim of present work is to reduce the ceiling temperature by natural ventilation through different opening locations (one window in the front facade and the other window in the rear wall) with sill height ratios of 0.27, 0.36, 0.45, 0.54, and 0.63. Wind tunnel and smoke tunnel were used to investigate the effect of opening locations on the temperature and heat transfer coefficient of a ceiling of a naturally-ventilated room. Here, the ANSYS CFD software was used to determine the flow characteristics in the ventilated room with different opening locations and wind direction. Better flow pattern and heat transfer from the heated ceiling are observed when the front and rear openings are located nearest to the ceiling and center, respectively. An experimental correlation was obtained to predict the influence of sill opening height ratio of front and rear walls on the average heat transfer coefficient ratio of ceiling (h{sub av} / h{sub o}) where (h{sub o}) is the heat transfer coefficient in case of no wind. (orig.)

  7. Prototype Design and Experimental Test of a Rotorcraft Capable of Adhering to and Moving on the Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunaga Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the prototype design and evaluation of a novel rotorcraft that can adhere to and move on the ceiling. It has four propellers for flying like conventional rotorcraft. In addition, a specialized guard frame and two active wheels are attached on its body frame for adhering to and moving on the ceiling. The propellers create negative pressure in the guard frame that acts as a suction cup for generating adhesion force. The active wheels are used for moving on the ceiling face. Experiments are carried out to show the feasibility of flying in the air, adhering to, and moving on the ceiling.

  8. Performance analysis of a new design of office diffuse ceiling ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Hviid, Christian Anker; Yang, Honglu

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to document and analyse performance of a new design of diffuse ceiling ventilation system in a typical office room. A full scale measurement is carried out in a climate chamber with an office setup at the Technical University of Denmark. Indoor air temperatures, air speeds, wall...... in an efficient way. The draught risk is found to be insignificant by both experimental and theoretical investigations. A design chart based on "flow element" method is created for the diffuse ceiling ventilation system by calculations with the validated CFD model. The design chart serves as a guideline...... for design and dimension of the investigated diffuse ceiling terminals as an air distribution system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  9. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyukdoo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide added information about the environment. This geometric information is measured with an upward-looking ceiling camera and is used as a constraint in Kalman filtering. The performance of the proposed ceiling-view (CV SLAM is demonstrated through simulations and experiments. The proposed method performs localization and mapping more accurately than those methods that use the two types of landmarks without taking into account their relative geometries.

  10. Final report development of a regional nitrogen ceiling; Eindrapportage ontwikkeling regionaal stikstofplafond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleeker, A.; Hensen, A. [ECN Environment and Energy Engineering, Petten (Netherlands); Rougoor, C. [Centrum voor Landbouw en Milieu CLM, Culemborg (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    The development of a methodology in which integrated nitrogen ceilings can be studied on a regional level is described. Next to the agricultural sector, also other sectors are taken into consideration (traffic, industry, etc.) with respect to the development of the nitrogen ceiling methodology. The study consists of two parts: the feasibility of a nitrogen ceiling system and the actual development of such a system [Dutch] Deze rapportage beschrijft de ontwikkeling van een methodiek waarbij integrale stikstofplafonds op gebiedsniveau kunnen worden bestudeerd. Dit onderzoek beschouwt, naast landbouw, ook andere sectoren (verkeer, industrie, etc.) voor het ontwikkelen van de stikstofplafond methodiek. Het onderzoek bestaat uit twee onderdelen: bestuderen van de haalbaarheid van een stikstofplafond systematiek en het feitelijke ontwikkelen van een dergelijke systematiek.

  11. Effect of façade systems on the performance of cooling ceilings: In situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an innovative façade system designed to increase the thermal comfort inside an office room and to enhance the cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. A series of measurements is conducted in an existing office building with different façade systems (i.e., a combination of glazing and shading. An innovative façade system is developed based on this intensive set of measurements. The new system enhances the thermal comfort and cooling capacity of the suspended cooling ceiling. The main usage of the new system is the refurbishment and improvement of existing façade systems.

  12. What Do We Know about Glass Ceiling Effects? A Taxonomy and Critical Review to Inform Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of "glass ceiling effects" has emerged in social science research in general and higher education in particular over the past 20 years. These studies have described the impediments that women and people of color encounter in their quest for senior-level positions (e.g., CEOs) in society as glass ceiling effects. Literature, both…

  13. 26 CFR 1.501(h)-3 - Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in... § 1.501(h)-3 Lobbying or grass roots expenditures normally in excess of ceiling amount. (a) Scope... amount or normally makes grass roots expenditures in excess of its grass roots ceiling amount....

  14. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES FROM WATER-DAMAGED CEILING TILE MATERIAL FOLLOWING INCUBATION ON BLOOD AGAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of ceiling tiles with high levels of bacteria exhibited cytotoxic activities on a HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Ceiling tiles containing low levels of bacterial colonization did not show cytotoxic activities on the HEP-2 tissue culture assay. Using a spread plate procedure ...

  15. Consequences of ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms. A tentative analysis of cost effects for EU member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To safeguard that domestic actions will be taken to meet commitments, the Kyoto Protocol suggests that domestic action should be the main means for reaching the reduction commitments. Imposing ceilings on the purchase of emission reductions is one of the ways to limit the net use of Kyoto mechanisms. Several kinds of ceilings have been suggested. This analysis gives some insight into the cost consequences for EU Member States that result from different types of ceilings for Kyoto mechanisms. The impacts of ceilings can be very large but the precise impact is difficult to estimate due to uncertainties about the price of emission reductions and the price elasticity of the supply of emission reduction. Consequently, decisions on ceilings on the use of Kyoto mechanisms need to be taken with great care. 7 refs

  16. Experimental study of diffuse ceiling ventilation coupled with a thermally activated building construction in an office room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    boundary conditions, considering different weather conditions, internal heat loads, TABS activation modes and with/without diffuse ceiling. The measurement results indicate that the diffuse ceiling plays a beneficial role improving thermal comfort in the occupied zone. However, the diffuse ceiling has......This paper presents and analyses the performance of an integrated system with diffuse ceiling ventilation and a thermally activated building construction. A full-scale experiment is carried out in a hot box with an office setup. The performance of the integrated system is evaluated under different...... the opposite effect on energy performance when TABS is activated in heating or cooling mode. Finally, the air temperature distribution in the plenum and the surface temperature distribution of the diffuse ceiling point out that the air does not perfectly mix in the plenum, the air is not evenly distributed...

  17. Perceptions of Women in Management: A Thematic Analysis of Razing the Glass Ceiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Mindy S.; Schneider, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances that women have made in organizations over the past century, women continue to be underrepresented in upper management positions. Based on a review of literature, six issues that women face when encountering the glass ceiling were examined. The goal of the current study involved having women who have succeeded at breaking the…

  18. A SysML Test Model and Test Suite for the ETCS Ceiling Speed Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Cécile; Peleska, Jan; Schulze, Uwe;

    2014-01-01

    In this technical report a detailed model description of a train control system application is given. The application consists of the ceiling speed monitoring (CSM) function for the European Vital Computer which is the main onboard controller for trains conforming to the European Train Control Sy...

  19. Beyond the Glass Ceiling : The Glass Cliff and Its Lessons for Organizational Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruckmueller, Susanne; Ryan, Michelle K.; Rink, Floor; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2014-01-01

    It has been almost 30 years since the metaphor of the glass ceiling was coined to describe the often subtle, but very real, barriers that women face as they try to climb the organizational hierarchy. Here we review evidence for a relatively new form of gender discriminationcaptured by the metaphor o

  20. Integrated Solution in an Office Room with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew;

    2015-01-01

    -scale experiments in a climate chamber. The experimental results indicate that diffuse ceiling can significantly improve thermal comfort in the occupied zone, by reducing draught risk and vertical temperature gradient. The linear function between pressure drop and air change rate points out that the air flow...

  1. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...

  2. Experimental investigations of heat transfer in thermo active building systems in combination with suspended ceilings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Maria Alonso; Hviid, Christian Anker; Weitzmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Thermo Active Building Systems (TABS), described as radiant heating or cooling systems with pipes embedded in the building structure, represent a sustainable alternative to replace conventional systems by using source temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of suspended ceiling in office...

  3. Is a Widening Gender Wage Gap Necessarily Caused by a Glass Ceiling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContrary to what is generally assumed, the gender wage gap and the glass ceiling may not necessarily be positively related. An exploratory analysis of aggregate public service personnel data for Uganda shows that the gender wage gap is small at the middle level of management, whereas it

  4. The relationship between glass ceiling and power distance as a cultural variable by a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naide Jahangirov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glass ceiling symbolizes a variety of barriers and obstacles that arise from gender inequality at business life. With this mind, culture influences gender dynamics. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the glass ceiling and the power distance as a cultural variable within organizations. Gender variable is taken as a moderator variable in relationship between the concepts. In addition to conventional correlation analysis, we employed a new method to investigate this relationship in detail. The survey data were obtained from 109 people working at a research center which operated as a part of the non-profit private university in Ankara, Turkey. The relationship between the variables was revealed by a new method which was developed as an addition to the correlation in survey. The analysis revealed that the female staff perceived the glass ceiling and the power distance more intensely than the male staff. In addition, the medium level relation was determined between the power distance and the glass ceiling perception among female staff.

  5. 78 FR 62494 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...'' (Framework Document), with a public comment period running through April 29, 2013. 78 FR 16443. The Framework... on the Framework Document until June 14, 2013. 78 FR 25626. During the Framework Document comment... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling...

  6. Experimental Study of an Integrated System with Diffuse Ceiling Ventilation and Thermally Activated Building Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chen; Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per;

    . And the thermal comfort is analyzed by draught rate vertical temperature gradient and radiant temperature asymmetry. Finally the effect of plenum and diffuse ceiling is discussed. This report mainly focuses on the experiment results and discussions. Therefore, some details about the measurement are not presented...

  7. Study of insulator sleeve and ceiling effect in Mather type plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron emission from a small Mather-type Plasma Focus facility is studied. Specifically, the effects of insulator sleeve length and a ''ceiling'' introduced in front of the central electrode on the neutron yield and on the fluence anisotropy are investigated. 3 refs, 5 figs

  8. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  9. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  10. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  11. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8% of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9% had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431 and 55.7% (127/228 of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508. The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2% or window screens (75.5%. Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake.

  12. Low temperature ceiling heater of element construction. Niedertemperatur-Deckenheizung in Elementbauweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treinies, N.

    1980-03-13

    The purpose of the invention is to create a ceiling heater, which can manage with as low a temperature of the heat medium as possible, so that it will match the use of solar collectors and heat pumps, where the emission of heat upwards is to be kept as small as possible, and where a smooth underside of the ceiling without gaps is to be achieved. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the individual elements consists of a lower flat through metal plate, a hard foam core and a top through cover sheet forming a sandwich, and that the hard foam core has cut-outs corresponding to the shape of the heating duct on the side towards the lower metal plate. (HWJ).

  13. The analysis of glass ceiling phenomenon in the promotion of women’s abilities in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Soleymanpour Omran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute almost half of the workforce of a society and there has been considerable increase in women employment rate in recent years. However, their promotion to management positions has not been very tangible. Gender inequalities in the workplace especially in the domain of management have resulted in the lack of efficient use of potential capacities of women. Even though the previous research demonstrates that women are not less ambitious than men, wrong beliefs which attribute management to men make a kind of invisible barrier, known as glass ceiling, which prevents women’s promotion to top organizational positions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reasons for the lack of promotion of women to top management levels in the society. It was conducted with a descriptive analytic method through the review of the related literature and emphasis on the concept of glass ceiling to present practical solutions to solve the problem.

  14. Numerical Prediction of Airflow in a Room with Ceiling-Mounted Obstacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svidt, Kjeld

    In ventilated rooms the air inlet device is often placed close to the ceiling. The air inlet will form a wall jet or a reattached wall jet. The wall jet may be disturbed by ceilingmounted obstacles such as light fittings or ceiling beams which, in some cases, can cause the air jet to be deflected...... velocity profiles agree very well with experimental results. Thereafter the critical height of an obstacle which deflects the air jet is examined....... into the occupied zone. In this paper numerical prediction of two-dimensional airflow in a room with ceilingmounted obstacles is compared with the experimental results from the literature. The first part of the paper deals with velocity profiles in a room with non- deflected flow, where it is found that calculated...

  15. Sector Differences in Glass Ceiling in Sweden -Is It Tied to Occupational Segregation?

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Gülay

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores sector differences in how the gender wage gap varies across the wage distribution and the role of occupational segregation in explaining this variation for Sweden. Results indicate that the phenomenon known as the glass ceiling, i.e. larger gender wage differentials at the high end of the wage distribution is stronger in the public sector than the private. This difference is found to be due to occupational segregation and, to a large extent, pre-market educational choices....

  16. An Efficient Ceiling-view SLAM Using Relational Constraints Between Landmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Hyukdoo Choi; Ryunseok Kim; Euntai Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new indoor ‘simultaneous localization and mapping’ (SLAM) technique based on an upward-looking ceiling camera. Adapted from our previous work [17], the proposed method employs sparsely-distributed line and point landmarks in an indoor environment to aid with data association and reduce extended Kalman filter computation as compared with earlier techniques. Further, the proposed method exploits geometric relationships between the two types of landmarks to provide ad...

  17. Counting the Number of Site Swap Juggling Patterns with Respect to Particular Ceilings

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Site swap is a mathematical notation used by jugglers to communicate, create and study complex juggling patterns. Determining the number of possible site swap juggling patterns with respect to certain limiting parameters such as number of balls etc., is a problem that has been much studied and solved by many mathematicians. However, when the patterns have a throw height restriction (ceiling) the problem becomes difficult and is in general still open. In this article we derive some formulae fo...

  18. Debt and Deficit Ceilings, and Sustainability of Fiscal Policies: An Intertemporal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Uctum, Merih; Michael R. Wickens

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the likely consequences for the sustainability of fiscal policy of pursuing goals that rely on restrictive ceilings on deficits and debt. We provide a formal theoretical framework for analyzing the sustainability of fiscal policy based on the government intertemporal budget constraint and derive conditions that determine whether a given fiscal stance is sustainable. This framework generalizes the existing literature in several important respects. We allow for time-va...

  19. Experimental evaluation of a solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system is developed and tested. • The cooling and heating capacities and performance of the system are evaluated. • Its coefficient of performance could be comparable to those of conventional AC systems with ZT value of 2. • Typical application issues including condensation risk, coupling with a PV system, etc., are discussed. - Abstract: A novel solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling combined with displacement ventilation system (STCC-DV) is proposed and investigated in this paper. In STCC-DV system, thermoelectric modules are employed as heating source instead of conventional hydronic pipe, and the combined system dehumidifies the fresh air using a thermoelectric dehumidified system. Both the cooled ceiling and dehumidified ventilation system are powered by PV system. At this stage of our study, we are developing a solar thermoelectric cooled ceiling (STCC) system by using commercially TE technologies. The experiments have been done in a test room using radiant panels whose dimension is 1800 × 600 mm. The results show that the total heat flux and COP of the panel are strongly influenced by operating voltage, ambient temperature and indoor temperature. The total heat flux of the STCC system in cooling mode is higher than 60 W/m2 and the system COP can reaches 0.9 under operating voltage 5 V. In heating mode, the total heat flux of the STCC system under operating voltage 4 V is higher than 110 W/m2 and the COP of the system can reaches 1.9. This simply and environmentally friendly system is promising and worthwhile being applied to for low carbon buildings climate control

  20. Performance of personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling in an office room: inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    In a simulated two persons’ office room inhaled air quality and contaminant distribution provided with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling, mixing ventilation only, chilled ceiling with mixing ventilation and chilled ceiling with mixing and personalized ventilation was studied...... people (exhaled air, bioeffluents) and building materials (wall painting). Personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling ensured highest air quality at the workstation under all conditions. Pollutant concentration in the occupied zone away from the workstations did not differ substantially....... Breathing thermal manikins were used to resemble two occupants at workstations. Room air temperature was kept at 26ºC and 28°C. Personalized ventilation supplied air at 25°C. Supplied total flow rate ranged from 26 to 82 L/s. Heat gains of 66-72 W/m2 were simulated. Tracer gases simulated pollution from...

  1. Glass Ceiling Converted Into Glass Transparency: A Study On The Factors Making Women Executives Successful In The Indian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva, Dr Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Economic reforms in the Indian economy along with gradual opening up of a conservative society to a modern society preceded breaking the glass ceiling or conversion Glass ceiling into a Glass Transparency in the Indian Banking Sector. This is backed by a recent study of 240 top Indian companies by EMA Partners, the global executive-search firm, which says more than a half of India's women chief executives are accounted for by the banking and financial services industry. This paper studie...

  2. Dropped Ceiling

    OpenAIRE

    Tabet, Rayyane

    2012-01-01

    On December 2nd 1950 the first drop of Saudi oil arrived to Lebanon via the newly constructed Trans-Arabian Pipeline, the world's longest pipeline and the largest American private investment in a foreign land. The 30inch wide structure which spanned 1213 kilometers passing through Saudi Arabia, Jordan, and Syria to end in Lebanon had required 3 years of planning and surveying, 2 years of installation, the fabrication of 256,000 tons of steel tubes, the employment of 30,000 workers, the ratifi...

  3. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling.

  4. Is there still a glass ceiling for women in academic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Ying; Kaufman, Joyce; Simeone, Diane M; Chen, Herbert; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2011-04-01

    Despite the dramatically increased entry of women into general surgery and surgical subspecialties, traditionally male-dominated fields, there remains a gross under-representation of women in the leadership positions of these departments. Women begin their careers with fewer academic resources and tend to progress through the ranks slower than men. Female surgeons also receive significantly lower salaries than their male counterparts and are more vulnerable to discrimination, both obvious and covert. Although some argue that female surgeons tend to choose their families over careers, studies have actually shown that women are as eager as men to assume leadership positions, are equally qualified for these positions as men, and are as good as men at leadership tasks.Three major constraints contribute to the glass-ceiling phenomenon: traditional gender roles, manifestations of sexism in the medical environment, and lack of effective mentors. Gender roles contribute to unconscious assumptions that have little to do with actual knowledge and abilities of an individuals and they negatively influence decision-making when it comes to promotions. Sexism has many forms, from subtle to explicit forms, and some studies show that far more women report being discriminately against than do men. There is a lack of same-sex mentors and role models for women in academic surgery, thereby isolating female academicians further. This review summarizes the manifestation of the glass-ceiling phenomenon, identifies some causes of these inequalities, and proposes different strategies for continuing the advancement of women in academic surgery and to shatter the glass ceiling. PMID:21475000

  5. Use of perforated acoustic panels as supply air diffusers in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Ahsan; Kazemi, Seyed Hossein; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi;

    manufacturing perforated acoustic panels for the last 13 years. The panels can be used not only in applications related to acoustics but also as low pressure drop supply air diffusers, particularly in diffuse ceiling ventilation systems. The present study verifies on a theoretically level the performance......Ventilation is needed for diluting and removing the contaminants, odour and excess heat from the building interior. It is important that the inhabitants perceive the ventilated spaces as comfortable. Therefore, the supply air should reach all parts of the occupied zones. Troldtekt has been...

  6. Social impact of air pollution abatement. Societal cost benefit analysis of possible National Emission Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008, the European Commission will launch new proposals for revision of the NEC guideline (2001/81/EG) in which new emission ceilings are proposed for the year 2020. In order to determine which stand the Netherlands should take during the negotiations, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs (also on behalf of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality) asked CE Delft and Ecorys to conduct a societal cost benefit analysis in collaboration with the Environmental Assessment Agency. This report describes the results of the analysis of two alternative NEC targets for 2020. [mk

  7. Field evaluation of performance of radiant heating/cooling ceiling panel system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo;

    2015-01-01

    heating/coolingceiling panel system is used. However, no standard exists for the in situ performance evaluation of radiantheating/cooling ceiling systems; furthermore, no published database is available for comparison. Thus,this study aims to not only clarify the system performance but also to share our...... experience and our resultsfor them to serve as a reference for other similar projects. Here, the system performance in relation toits heating/cooling capacity and thermal comfort has been evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient fromwater to room was 3.7 W/(m2K) and 4.8 W/(m2K) for heating and cooling cases...

  8. Building America Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    One of BA-PIRC's longtime Habitat for Humanity partners, S.E. Volusia CO (SEVHFH), was interested in building a home to the new Challenge Home standards. SEVHFH routinely builds ENERGY STAR V3.1 homes. The only modification to their design needed to comply with the Challenge Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights above 8 feet to accommodate a fur-down chase SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase.

  9. Bellholes: Ceiling Cavities Eroded By Bats in Caves of the Neotropical Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T.

    2014-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of symmetrical, vertical, bullet-shaped cavities known as bellholes are present in the ceilings of caves restricted to the tropical Americas. Most have circular diameters (rarely influenced by joints or bedding) of at least 30 cm, and may be several meters in height. They are often paired with bellbasins (shallow depressions located vertically beneath them that contain guano produced by bats). Members of the species Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican Fruit Bat) are almost exclusive users of these roosts. Brown streaks flowing down the sides of the bellholes and centimeters-thick rinds of the basins below are largely apatite minerals produced by the reaction of the host limestone with phosphoric acids in the guano.Many bellholes have developed in speleothem in the cave ceilings, disproving early theories that they are the result of solution by phreatic currents in flooded caves. A. jamaicensis roosts singly or in harem groups of 2-14 that commonly cluster in the bellholes and it is likely that these social habits of this species focus corrosion resulting from the transfer of feces to rock (producing altered rock then removed by claws) to create discretely-spaced upward-growing cavities. Fossil evidence from Jamaica supports an arrival there from the mainland in the past 12,000 years, suggesting bellholes and bellbasins are geologically recent features in the Caribbean islands. Their locations (not all cave passages have bellholes) can provide information on the hydrological history or microclimate of a cave, due to the absence of both bellholes and bats in some specific situations, e.g. where physical barriers exist such as sumps, small airspaces above streams or through rock collapses, or with increasing distance from an entrance.Smaller circular, increasingly-indented ceiling cavities demonstrate a sequence of bellhole development. Small (23 cm diameter, 9 cm high), circular, streaked cavities in a limestone drainage tunnel constructed in 1927 in

  10. An acoustical analysis of a room with a concave dome ceiling element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Sentagi S.

    2001-05-01

    Concave surfaces are often considered detrimental in room acoustics, especially because of the impact they have on the distribution of sound energy. This paper explores certain acoustical characteristics and anomalies found in spaces below concave dome ceiling elements. The architectural design of the Darusshollah mosque in East Java, Indonesia is used as a case study with specific spatial and functional concerns. Investigations of the mosque have been conducted through both a 1:12 scale model and a computer model that utilizes ray tracing and image source methods. Analysis techniques are discussed. Results are presented and compared to provide useful insights into the acoustics of such distinctive environments.

  11. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco;

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions...... of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation...

  12. The Spanish gasoline market: From ceiling regulation to open market pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the evolution of the Spanish gasoline market from the abolition of the state oil monopoly (January 1993) to complete liberalization (October 1998). With the restructuring of the Spanish oil sector during the 1980s and early 1990s, a highly concentrated oligopoly emerged in the automotive fuels market. A system of price ceilings replaced the state administered prices in July 1990. Since then, new domestic and foreign operators have entered the market, particularly along the coast, near import terminals. Prices went up and then declined. These developments can be explained by an interplay of factors such as: the gradual decline in co-operation among the Spanish firms; the loss of market share of the largest of these, Repsol; the entry of independent operators and supermarkets; and the impact of the ceiling price system. By mid-1998 this system was abolished as the government considered it an impediment to further market liberalization. However, some crucial barriers to the entry of new suppliers remain

  13. Geomorphometric analysis of cave ceiling channels mapped with 3-D terrestrial laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Michal; Hochmuth, Zdenko; Kaňuk, Ján; Hofierka, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    The change of hydrological conditions during the evolution of caves in carbonate rocks often results in a complex subterranean geomorphology, which comprises specific landforms such as ceiling channels, anastomosing half tubes, or speleothems organized vertically in different levels. Studying such complex environments traditionally requires tedious mapping; however, this is being replaced with terrestrial laser scanning technology. Laser scanning overcomes the problem of reaching high ceilings, providing new options to map underground landscapes with unprecedented level of detail and accuracy. The acquired point cloud can be handled conveniently with dedicated software, but applying traditional geomorphometry to analyse the cave surface is limited. This is because geomorphometry has been focused on parameterization and analysis of surficial terrain. The theoretical and methodological concept has been based on two-dimensional (2-D) scalar fields, which are sufficient for most cases of the surficial terrain. The terrain surface is modelled with a bivariate function of altitude (elevation) and represented by a raster digital elevation model. However, the cave is a 3-D entity; therefore, a different approach is required for geomorphometric analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits of high-resolution cave mapping and 3-D modelling to better understand the palaeohydrography of the Domica cave in Slovakia. This methodological approach adopted traditional geomorphometric methods in a unique manner and also new methods used in 3-D computer graphics, which can be applied to study other 3-D geomorphological forms.

  14. Impact of the disease: acceptability, ceiling and floor effects and reliability of an instrument on heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simey de Lima Lopes Rodrigues

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acceptability, ceiling/floor effects, and the reliability of the instrument for measuring the Impact of the Disease on the Daily Life of Patients with Valvular Disease (IDCV when applied to 135 patients with heart failure (HF. Acceptability was evaluated by the percentage of unanswered items and by the proportion of patients who responded to all items; the ceiling/floor effects by the percentage of patients who scored in the top of 10% best and worst results of the scale, respectively. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient and stability of the measure (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC. All patients responded to all items. Ceiling/floor effects evidenced were of moderate magnitude. The Cronbach's alpha was satisfactory for the majority of the domains and ICC> 0.90 in all the domains. The IDCV proved to be an easy to understand questionnaire, with evidence of reliability in patients with HF.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix V to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Ceiling Fan Light Kits V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. V Appendix V to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling...

  16. Characterization of the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor Sacristhi of Seville's Cathedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrios, J.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we expose the technics used to characterize the materials of the ceiling that covers the Mayor sacristy of Seville's Cathedral and the causes of the loosening of mortar and stone fragments, we also expose some ways to overcome this fact.

    En este artículo se da cuenta de los estudios realizados y técnicas empleadas para determinar las características de los materiales (que se han seleccionado de la cúpula de la Sacristía Mayor de la Santa Iglesia Catedral de Sevilla, así como de las causas que han producido el desprendimiento de fragmentos de mortero y piedras. Por último, se proponen una serie de medidas para solucionar este problema

  17. The White ceiling heuristic and the underestimation of Asian-American income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris C Martin

    Full Text Available The belief that ethnic majorities dominate ethnic minorities informs research on intergroup processes. This belief can lead to the social heuristic that the ethnic majority sets an upper limit that minority groups cannot surpass, but this possibility has not received much attention. In three studies of perceived income, we examined how this heuristic, which we term the White ceiling heuristic leads people to inaccurately estimate the income of a minority group that surpasses the majority. We found that Asian Americans, whose median income has surpassed White median income for nearly three decades, are still perceived as making less than Whites, with the least accurate estimations being made by people who strongly believe that Whites are privileged. In contrast, income estimates for other minorities were fairly accurate. Thus, perceptions of minorities are shaped both by stereotype content and a heuristic.

  18. Peak and ceiling effects in final-product analysis of mastoidectomy performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, N; Konge, L; Cayé-Thomasen, P;

    2015-01-01

    -two participants completed a single session of self-directed practice of the mastoidectomy procedure in a virtual reality simulator. Participants were randomised for additional simulator-integrated tutoring. Performances were assessed at 10-minute intervals using final-product analysis. RESULTS: In all, 45.5 per......BACKGROUND: Virtual reality surgical simulation of mastoidectomy is a promising training tool for novices. Final-product analysis for assessing novice mastoidectomy performance could be limited by a peak or ceiling effect. These may be countered by simulator-integrated tutoring. METHODS: Twenty...... instruction is important when using final-product analysis to assess novice mastoidectomy performance. Improved real-time feedback and tutoring could address the limitations of final product based assessment....

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Raised Ceiling Interior Duct System, New Smyrna, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Builder S.E. Volusia County Habitat for Humanity (SEVHFH) was interested in constructing a home to the new U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Zero Energy Ready Home standards. SEVHFH partners with DOE team Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction on Habitat for Humanity homes and routinely builds to ENERGY STAR V3.1. The only modification to the design needed to comply with the Zero Energy Ready Home criteria was the interior duct requirement. Unwilling to incur the added costs of a foam roof deck or wall heights that exceed 8 ft to accommodate a fur-down chase, SEVHFH opted to build a fur-up or raised ceiling chase. This case study describes the project.

  20. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-05-17

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5-10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate.

  1. Physiological constraints to climate warming in fish follow principles of plastic floors and concrete ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandblom, Erik; Clark, Timothy D.; Gräns, Albin; Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Odelström, Anne; Adill, Anders; Aho, Teija; Jutfelt, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the resilience of aquatic ectothermic animals to climate warming has been hindered by the absence of experimental systems experiencing warming across relevant timescales (for example, decades). Here, we examine European perch (Perca fluviatilis, L.) from the Biotest enclosure, a unique coastal ecosystem that maintains natural thermal fluctuations but has been warmed by 5–10 °C by a nuclear power plant for over three decades. We show that Biotest perch grow faster and display thermally compensated resting cardiorespiratory functions compared with reference perch living at natural temperatures in adjacent waters. However, maximum cardiorespiratory capacities and heat tolerance limits exhibit limited or no thermal compensation when compared with acutely heated reference perch. We propose that while basal energy requirements and resting cardiorespiratory functions (floors) are thermally plastic, maximum capacities and upper critical heat limits (ceilings) are much less flexible and thus will limit the adaptive capacity of fishes in a warming climate. PMID:27186890

  2. Does the Glass Ceiling Exist? A Longitudinal Study of Women’s Progress on French Corporate Boards

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Dang; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Linh-Chi Vo

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we conduct a longitudinal study of women’s progress on French corporate boards of directors. We particularly focus on the extent to which women directors have circumvented the glass ceiling. Using a sample of SBF 120 companies over a 10

  3. Experimental investigation of cooling performance of a novel HVAC system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •An experimental investigation of cooling performance of a combined HVAC system is carried out. •Cooling performance of TABS with and without the influence of diffuse ceiling is analyzed. •Radiant and convective heat transfer coefficients of TABS cooling are studied. •Cooling components...

  4. Comparison of the Performance of Chilled Beam with Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply: Impact of Heat Load Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Kosonen, Risto;

    2013-01-01

    The impact of heat load strength and positioning on the indoor environment generated by diffuse ceiling air supply and chilled beam with radial swirl jet was studied and compared. An office room with two persons and a meeting room with six persons were simulated in a test room (4.5 x 3.95 x 3.5 m3...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix U to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption... Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Ceiling Fans 1. Scope... significant digits as the previous step. Round the final energy consumption value to the nearest whole...

  6. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  7. Zenithal ceiling tubes, a peculiar karst corrosion form in Carlsbad Caverns (New Mexico, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaforra, José Maria; de Waele, Jo

    2010-05-01

    Carlsbad Caverns is a world renown show cave located in the Guadalupe Mountains (Chihuahuan desert, New Mexico) and managed by the United States National Park Service. The cave is hosted in the Permian Capitan Reef limestones that border the Delaware basin. It consists of elongated passages connecting wide rooms that extend to a depth of almost 300 m beneath the natural cave entrance, almost 200 m below the floor of nearby Walnut Canyon. As most caves of the Guadalupe mountains it has formed by rising hydrogen sulphide deriving from underlying oil and gas deposits, producing sulphuric acid by mixing with fresh water which corroded the limestone into unusually large chambers. This H2SO4 speleogenesis has produced gypsum that is present under various forms. Carlsbad Caverns has been widely studied by generations of cave scientists, and research has especially focalised on speleothems, mineralogy, speleogenesis, cave fauna and, mostly in the last decennia, microbiology. This has resulted in a large number of publications in many scientific journals, making Carlsbad Caverns one of the best studied caves of the world. During a trip to the Hall of the White Giant, in the squeezing crawlways that connect the main Corridor to the Sand Passage, several cylindrical vertical upward developing holes were observed on the ceiling at several heights. They have a circular cross-section with diameters of 1 to some centimetres and taper out towards their upper end. Their walls are smooth and their edges sharp. Their length can reach several decimetres. Sometimes gypsum can be found inside. They often occur randomly distributed in groups and their development is not necessarily controlled by fractures or other bedrock structures. These holes are similar in shape to the bellholes described from many tropical caves, but are much smaller. They also look like the holes described by Stanton (1986) from caves in the Mendip Hills. This author believed they formed by activity of snails (they

  8. Exergy analysis in a space with ceiling shield; Analisis exegetico en un espacio con techo escudo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laboratorio de Energia Solar, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    The Solar Laboratory of Energy (LES) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) was designed to be comfortable in spite of the extreme climate where it was built. One of the novel characteristics was the shield type ceiling used in cubicles. In order to compare the effect that had had with respect to the environmental conditions, one had to resort to an exergy analysis, since exergy is a measurement of the capacity of the energy to carry out a work. As a first system the data of the national meteorological system as initial conditions were used. The comparative system used as initial conditions the temperature and relative humidity measurements obtained in 1992 in a cubicle of the LES. Both systems were taken as open. The final conditions were settled at 25 Celsius degrees and 50% of relative humidity in a first case and variables (with respect to the perimeter a comfort zone) in a second case. The saving obtained was of 69% and 33% respectively. Although it is not possible to determine what percentage corresponds to the exclusive saving of the ceiling shield, we see that the cover all altogether, presents a significant exergy saving in respect to modifying the environmental conditions directly. [Spanish] El Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LES) de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) fue disenado para ser confortable a pesar del clima extremoso donde fue construido. Una de las caracteristicas novedosas fue el uso de techo tipo escudo en cubiculo. Para comparar el efecto que se tuvo respecto a las condiciones ambientales, se recurrio a un analisis exergetico, ya que la exergia es una medida de la capacidad de la energia para realizar un trabajo. Como un primer sistema se utilizaron los datos del sistema meteorologico nacional como condiciones iniciales. El sistema comparativo utilizo como condiciones iniciales las mediciones de temperatura y humedad relativas obtenidas en 1992 en un cubiculo del LES. Ambos sistemas fueron tomados como abiertos

  9. Influence of a Cooled Ceiling on Indoor Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room Examined by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    The influence of a cooled ceiling on the air quality in a displacement ventilated room is examined by means of CFD. The objective of the study is to examine how the flow field in a displacement ventilated room is influenced when a cooled ceiling removes a major part of the total heat I9ad......, and in particular to examine the effect on the contaminant distribution and the indoor air quality. The simulations shovy that the inclusion of a cooled ceiling has a significant impact on the flow field but only a minor influence on the personal exposure in this study...

  10. Breaking through the glass ceiling: women in executive leadership positions--Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lynn C; Reiss, Patricia L

    2004-01-01

    Women have had their share of difficulties climbing the corporate ladder in their chosen professional roles. Excellent role models exist for nurses to look up to as role models for leadership and executive level positions. Nurses and women must strive to achieve their goals of attaining executive/management level positions in their respective organizations. The glass ceiling still exists; however, women are slowly eroding that glass barrier and reaching their professional goals. In reviewing the struggles that men in nursing have encountered in a predominantly female profession, one realizes that stereotypical attitudes do cross gender lines. The authors conclude that executive level positions need to be opened more to women, just as the nursing profession must be more welcoming to men. The profession of nursing will only become stronger with gender diversity. Women encounter barriers when aspiring to executive level positions. In the next issue of SCI Nursing, the authors will report on what the evidence says about women in leadership roles, and the challenges they have and will continue to face.

  11. Kinetic and equilibrium studies of cesium adsorption on ceiling tiles from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Muhammed Yusuf [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Noakhali Science and Technology University (Bangladesh); Volchek, Konstantin, E-mail: Konstantin.Volchek@ec.gc.ca [Emergencies Science and Technology Section, Environment Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Kuang, Wenxing [SAIC Canada, 335 River Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); Tezel, F. Handan [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    A series of experiments were performed to quantify the adsorption of cesium on ceiling tiles as a representative of urban construction materials. Adsorption was carried out from solutions to mimic wet environmental conditions. Non-radioactive cesium chloride was used as a surrogate of the radioactive {sup 137}Cs. The experiments were performed in the range of initial cesium concentrations of 0.114-23.9 mg L{sup -1} at room temperature (21 deg. C) around three weeks. Solution samples were taken after set periods of time and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The quantity of adsorbed Cs was calculated by mass balance as a function of time. Two kinetic and three equilibrium models were employed to interpret the test results. Determination of kinetic parameters for adsorption was carried out using the first-order reaction model and the intra-particle diffusion model. Adsorption equilibrium was studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and three-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. A satisfactory correlation between the experimental and the predicted values was observed.

  12. Privacy-Preserved Behavior Analysis and Fall Detection by an Infrared Ceiling Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineichi Kudo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An infrared ceiling sensor network system is reported in this study to realize behavior analysis and fall detection of a single person in the home environment. The sensors output multiple binary sequences from which we know the existence/non-existence of persons under the sensors. The short duration averages of the binary responses are shown to be able to be regarded as pixel values of a top-view camera, but more advantageous in the sense of preserving privacy. Using the “pixel values” as features, support vector machine classifiers succeeded in recognizing eight activities (walking, reading, etc. performed by five subjects at an average recognition rate of 80.65%. In addition, we proposed a martingale framework for detecting falls in this system. The experimental results showed that we attained the best performance of 95.14% (F1 value, the FAR of 7.5% and the FRR of 2.0%. This accuracy is not sufficient in general but surprisingly high with such low-level information. In summary, it is shown that this system has the potential to be used in the home environment to provide personalized services and to detect abnormalities of elders who live alone.

  13. Pride and prejudice beyond the glass ceiling: Brazilian female executives´ psychological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Tanure

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n39p210This paper intends to relate characteristics of female executive psychological type with their male colleagues in corporations operating in Brazil (CEOs, VPs/directors and top managers. The theoretical framework explores the glass ceiling and the prejudices faced by female executives. It was developed a mixed qualitative-quantitative method. In the quantitative part we interviewed 743 men and 222 women from 344 corporations. We applied also the questionnaire MBTI to 430 of these executives. In the qualitative part we held focus groups with 227 individuals and 104 semi-structured interviews. The most active psychological MBTI type found was the ESTJ, both to men and women. The dominant characteristics in this type is more rational, logical and less emotional. Prejudices are huge: women need to work harder to show that they are as competent as men. They also live the society's pressure in relation to the roles as mother and wife.

  14. New design options with gypsum-based cooling ceilings; Neue Gestaltungsmoeglichkeiten mit Gipskuehldecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringmann, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Sulzer administrative building at Winterthur, Switzerland, was constructed in 1928/'29 by the architect Lebrecht Voelkli. It was now modernized by the Zuerich architects, Marianne Burkhalter and Christian Sumi. The technical facilities, with a traditional heating system and modern air conditioning, was planned and constructed by Axima. As new elements, there are gypsum-based cooling ceilings which have the advantages of easy integration in the building design, high economic efficiency, and user-friendliness. The emphasis during modernisation was on architectural aspects, i.e. modern interior design, colour schemes, acoustics and flexible use of rooms. [German] 1928/29 erstellte der Architekt Lebrecht Voelkli einen Neubau fuer die Sulzer-Konzernleitung in Winterthur (Schweiz) in Gestalt eines neoklassischen Wuerfels mit vier oberirdischen Geschossen. Dessen komplette Sanierung realisierten die Zuercher Architekten Marianne Burkhalter und Christian Sumi. Die von Axima geplante und ausgefuehrte Gebaeudetechnik mit traditioneller Heizung und modernen Luftaufbereitungsanlagen weist als Novum neu konzipierte Gipskuehldecken auf. Sie erfuellen die Architektenansprueche in Bezug auf unauffaellige Integration, Wirtschaftlichkeit und Benutzerfreundlichkeit, denn im Vordergrund standen Forderungen nach moderner Innenraumgestaltung, akzentuierter Farbgebung, guter Akustik und flexibler Flaechennutzung. (orig.)

  15. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  16. Radiant Ceiling Panels Combined with Localized Methods for Improved Thermal Comfort of Both Patient and Medical Staff in Patient Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Sakura; Barova, Mariya; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov;

    2012-01-01

    The objectives were to identify whether ceiling installed radiant heating panels can provide thermal comfort to the occupants in a patient room, and to determine a method for optimal thermal environment to both patient and medical staff simultaneously. The experiments were performed in a climate...... mattress were used to provide local heating for the patient. The effects of the methods were identified by comparing the manikin based equivalent temperatures. The optimal thermal comfort level for both patient and medical staff would obtained when two conventional cotton blankets were used with extra...... chamber resembling a single-bed patient room under convective air conditioning alone or combined with the ceiling installed radiant heating panels. Two thermal manikins simulated a patient lying in the bed and a doctor standing next to the patient. Conventional cotton blanket, electric blanket, electric...

  17. Experimental study on the dynamic performance of a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Lei, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    Highlights • Dynamic experiments are performed to study energy performance of a new HVAC system. • Designed control strategies show good utilization of natural ventilation cooling. • TABS work well with the diffuse ceiling in the dynamic measurements. • No local thermal comfort problem is found...... even in the extreme winter case. • Designed control strategies can be used in the future application of this system....

  18. Development and evaluation of a ceiling ventilation system enhanced by solar photovoltaic thermal collectors and phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel ceiling ventilation system enhanced by PVT and PCMs was proposed. • PCM was used to increase the local thermal mass and to serve as a storage unit. • The proposed system can enhance indoor thermal comfort in winter and summer. - Abstract: This paper presents the development and performance evaluation of a novel ceiling ventilation system integrated with solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors and phase change materials (PCMs). The PVT collectors are used to generate electricity and provide low grade heating and cooling energy for buildings by using winter daytime solar radiation and summer night-time sky radiative cooling, respectively. The PCM is integrated into the building ceiling as a part of the ceiling insulation and at the same time, as a centralized thermal energy storage to temporally store low grade energy collected from the PVT collectors. The performance of the proposed system was numerically evaluated based on a Solar Decathlon house using TRNSYS. The results showed that, in winter conditions, the proposed PVT–PCM integrated ventilation system can significantly improve the indoor thermal comfort of passive buildings without using air-conditioning systems with a maximum air temperature rise of 23.1 °C from the PVT collectors. Compared with the system using PCM but without using PVT collectors, the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the kitchen, dining room and living room of the case building studied using the proposed system improved from almost zero to 0.9823 while the coefficient of thermal comfort enhancement in the study room improved from 0.0060 to 0.9921. In summer conditions, the proposed system can also enhance indoor thermal comfort through night-time sky radiative cooling

  19. Air pollution in surrounding environment of Sasa tailing dam – ambient air, plant dust and ceiling dust

    OpenAIRE

    Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar; Golomeov, Blagoj; Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Danevski, Tome; Fidancev, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The current and recent activities in the lead-zinc Sasa mine or copper Bucim mine and flotation of galena and sphalerite or chalcopyrite, producing metals for market, are reason for possible troubles from tailing dam-pond and surrounding river, ambient air and plant or ceiling dust. This appearance is significant for the surrounding environment, but legislative and ecological law directive limited the quantity of these. In this paper will be present results of investigations from plant ...

  20. Modelling of cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems: Influences on indoor environment and energy consumption. Doctoral thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, J.

    1994-06-14

    The contents presented in this thesis consist of four principal parts: (1) the critical review of turbulence CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques and their application in building air flow study, and the experimental evaluation of the widely used k-epsilon turbulence model for in-room air flow situations; (2) the development of a thermodynamic mathematical model for cooled-ceiling air-conditioning systems, and the enhancement of an existing computer code ACCURACY, and the experimental validation of the convective parameters involved in the models; (3) the combined use of building dynamic simulation and CFD technique for the investigation of thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness performance of three typical air-conditioning systems, the air-panel type cooled-ceiling (ACC) system, and the water-panel type cooled ceiling (CC) system; and (4) the use of the dynamic model coupled with air-handling-unit (AHU) and primary equipment models to simulate the annual energy consumption of CC systems and all-air systems and to estimate thermal performances of some passive cooling schemes, especially the evaporative free-cooling scheme. The review of the state-of-the-art of turbulence modeling shows that the k-epsilon turbulence model still remains the most-widely used engineering model.

  1. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C.; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  2. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set. PMID:27070607

  3. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rituerto, Alejandro; Andreasson, Henrik; Murillo, Ana C; Lilienthal, Achim; Guerrero, José Jesús

    2016-04-07

    Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW) or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1) tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2) geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  4. Building an Enhanced Vocabulary of the Robot Environment with a Ceiling Pointing Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rituerto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are of great help for automatic monitoring tasks in different environments. One of the first tasks that needs to be addressed when creating these kinds of robotic systems is modeling the robot environment. This work proposes a pipeline to build an enhanced visual model of a robot environment indoors. Vision based recognition approaches frequently use quantized feature spaces, commonly known as Bag of Words (BoW or vocabulary representations. A drawback using standard BoW approaches is that semantic information is not considered as a criteria to create the visual words. To solve this challenging task, this paper studies how to leverage the standard vocabulary construction process to obtain a more meaningful visual vocabulary of the robot work environment using image sequences. We take advantage of spatio-temporal constraints and prior knowledge about the position of the camera. The key contribution of our work is the definition of a new pipeline to create a model of the environment. This pipeline incorporates (1 tracking information to the process of vocabulary construction and (2 geometric cues to the appearance descriptors. Motivated by long term robotic applications, such as the aforementioned monitoring tasks, we focus on a configuration where the robot camera points to the ceiling, which captures more stable regions of the environment. The experimental validation shows how our vocabulary models the environment in more detail than standard vocabulary approaches, without loss of recognition performance. We show different robotic tasks that could benefit of the use of our visual vocabulary approach, such as place recognition or object discovery. For this validation, we use our publicly available data-set.

  5. Performance of radiant cooling ceiling combined with personalized ventilation in an office room: identification of thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    were performed in a test room arranged as an office with 2 workstations and 2 seating occupants resembled by thermal manikins. Heat gain of 66-72 W/m2 was simulated in the room (occupants, computers, lighting, solar gain). The air temperature in the chamber was maintained at 26°C and 28°C. Personalized...... ventilation supplied air at non-isothermal condition with temperature of 25°C. Results showed that the compared methods generated almost the same thermal environment in the occupied zone. However at the workstations the personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling provided more cooling and decreased...

  6. Human perception of indoor environment generated by chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation or localised chilled beam under cooling mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nygaard, Linette; Uth, Simon C.;

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with 24 subjects were performed to study and compare the human perception of the indoor environment under summer conditions generated by a chilled ceiling combined with overhead mixing ventilation and localised chilled beam. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (4....../s during the 20 min period of physical activity, when the occupant was not at the desk with the localised chilled beam, resulting in increase of the air temperature in the room. Subjects used questionnaires to answer on thermal sensation and acceptability, perceived air quality, air movement and SBS...

  7. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives

  8. Coupling ant colony and the degraded ceiling algorithm for the redundancy allocation problem of series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redundancy allocation problem (RAP) is a well known NP-hard problem which involves the selection of elements and redundancy levels to maximize system reliability given various system-level constraints. As telecommunications and internet protocol networks, manufacturing and power systems are becoming more and more complex, while requiring short developments schedules and very high reliability, it is becoming increasingly important to develop efficient solutions to the RAP. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to solve this reliability optimization problem. The idea of a heuristic approach design is inspired from the ant colony meta-heuristic optimization method and the degraded ceiling local search technique. Our hybridization of the ant colony meta-heuristic with the degraded ceiling performs well and is competitive with the best-known heuristics for redundancy allocation. Numerical results for the 33 test problems from previous research are reported and compared. The solutions found by our approach are all better than or are in par with the well-known best solutions

  9. Investigation of the Thermal Insulation Properties of Selected Ceiling Materials used in Makurdi Metropolis (Benue StateNigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa, F. Newton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the thermal insulation properties of three selected materials namely: Plaster of Paris (P.o.P, Plywood and Isorel (Masonite used as ceiling boards in Makurdi, Benue state-Nigeria have been investigated. The selection of these insulation materials is based upon their predominant usage as padding materials in the tropical Makurdi metropolis. To achieve this, the steady-state method using Lee-Charton’s apparatus was adopted to analyze the thermal conductivities of the chosen materials. The results obtained show that, P.o.P exhibits the best insulation property followed by Plywood then Isorel ceiling board with thermal conductivities of 0.1185w/mk, 0.1768w/mk and 0.4498w/mk respectively. Their corresponding thermal resistivities are 8.4388mk/w, 5.6561mk/w and 2.2232mk/w. From the results, P.o.P is recommended for its best insulation property. The research therefore provides a guide to intending builders and civil Engineers for selecting of housing insulation materials in Makurdi metropolis as well as other humid zones of tropical Africa.

  10. Investigation of wall and ceiling coatings with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the WAK processing building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plant WAK shut down in 1991. The operative deconstruction started in 1995. The wall and ceiling coatings of the buildings were investigated with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB was used in technical facilities due to their thermal and chemical resistance and low conductivity. During the construction of WAK PCB containing coatings were used. Waste materials with PCB contents above a limit of 50 mg/kg are hazardous materials. For the waste disposal the wastes have to be tested with respect to the PCB content. Scrape tests have shown that 67% of the samples have PCB contents above the limit. Core hole drilling samples showed that the PCB content decreases with depth. Further depth profile analyses are necessary to determine the coating thickness to be removed.

  11. Energy Performance of a Novel System Combining Natural Ventilation with Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao

    saving potential and the steady-state and dynamic energy performance of this system. The presented work utilizes building simulation method to investigate the energy saving potential of this novel system. Afterwards, an experimental set-up is built in the laboratory to simulate a real office environment......As a response to new stringent energy policies in the building sector, office buildings have become well-insulated and highly-airtight, resulting in an increasing cooling need in both summer and winter. This study proposes a novel system combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet...... and thermally activated building systems (TABS) for cooling and ventilation in future Danish office buildings. The new solution would have the special potential of using natural ventilation all year round even in the extremely cold seasons without any draught risk. The main focuses of this study are the energy...

  12. Evaluation of Coating Removal and Aggressive Surface Removal Surface Technologies Applied to Concrete Walls, Brick Walls, and Concrete Ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to test and evaluate innovative and commercially available technologies for the surface decontamination of walls and ceilings. This investigation supports the DOE's objectives of reducing risks to human health and the environment through its restoration projects at FEMP and MEMP. This project was performed at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU), where one innovative and four commercially available decontamination technologies were evaluated under standard, non-nuclear testing conditions. The performance data generated by this project will assist DOE site managers in the selection of the safest, most efficient, and most cost-effective decontamination technologies to accomplish their remediation objectives.

  13. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The functional independence measure (FIM is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI.

  14. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-7T - Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to allocate State ceiling to certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). 1.103(n)-7T Section 1.103(n)-7T Internal Revenue... certain facilities for local furnishing of electricity (temporary). (a) Election—(1) In general....

  15. Did it really happen? Memory, history and myth in Eugenia Tsoulis´ Between the ceiling and the sky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Ribas Segura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available World War II, the Nazi occupation and several dictatorships forced many Greek men and women into migration. In 1952 Greece signed an agreement on assisted migration to Australia and more than “250 000 Greek and Cypriot migrants from Greece (1952-74, Rumania (1952-8, Egypt and the Middle East (1952-2 [sic], Cyprus (1974-84 and other politically turbulent countries of Eastern Europe and Latin America” moved to Australia (Tamis, Anastasios M. The Greeks in Australia, 2005: 47. The lives of those migrants changed radically as they left home behind. Some of them, or their children, wrote fictional texts explaining some of their experiences. An example of this is Eugenia Tsoulis´ Behind the Ceiling and the Sky (1998, where the main characters live their lives between present and past and between memories and myths, on the one hand, and facts and the lifeworld that surround them, on the other. This paper will analyse this novel and the sometimes blurred boundaries between memory, history and myth.

  16. Evaluation of Various Retrofitting Concepts of Building Envelope for Offices Equipped with Large Radiant Ceiling Panels by Dynamic Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve significant savings in energy and an improved level of thermal comfort in retrofitted existing buildings, specific retrofitting concepts that combine new technologies and design need to be developed and implemented. Large radiant surfaces systems are now among the most promising future technologies to be used both in retrofitted and in new low-energy buildings. These kinds of systems have been the topic of several studies dealing with thermal comfort and energy utilization, but some specific issues concerning their possible use in various concepts for retrofitting are still poorly understood. In the present paper, some results of dynamic simulations, with the transient system simulation tool (TRNSYS model, of the retrofitted offices equipped with radiant ceiling panels are presented and thoroughly analysed. Based on a precise comparison of the results of these simulations with actual measurements in the offices, certain input data for the model were added, so that the model was consequently validated. The model was then applied to the evaluation of various concepts of building envelopes for office retrofitting. By means of dynamic simulations of indoor environment it was possible to determine the benefits and limitations of individual retrofitting concepts. Some specific parameters, which are relevant to these concepts, were also identified.

  17. Prediction of CO Concentration and Maximum Smoke Temperature beneath Ceiling in Tunnel Fire with Different Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gannouni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a tunnel fire, the production of smoke and toxic gases remains the principal prejudicial factors to users. The heat is not considered as a major direct danger to users since temperatures up to man level do not reach tenable situations that after a relatively long time except near the fire source. However, the temperatures under ceiling can exceed the thresholds conditions and can thus cause structural collapse of infrastructure. This paper presents a numerical analysis of smoke hazard in tunnel fires with different aspect ratio by large eddy simulation. Results show that the CO concentration increases as the aspect ratio decreases and decreases with the longitudinal ventilation velocity. CFD predicted maximum smoke temperatures are compared to the calculated values using the model of Li et al. and then compared with those given by the empirical equation proposed by kurioka et al. A reasonable good agreement has been obtained. The backlayering length decreases as the ventilation velocity increases and this decrease fell into good exponential decay. The dimensionless interface height and the region of bad visibility increases with the aspect ratio of the tunnel cross-sectional geometry.

  18. Numerical evaluation of inclined ceiling diffuser on ‎buoyancy and airflow patterns in an enclosed space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan GhoshMoulic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The effectiveness of an air-conditioning system depends on the airflow pattern inside the room. Expansions in the air conditioning systems by increasing air conditioning capacity or increasing the number of inlets were not an efficient way to achieve comfortable environment. The ideal cooling arrangement usually comes from minimizing the temperature of the air in the mixing zone and then removing the mixed air through the outlet. In the present study, the effect of inlet-outlet configuration on the airflow patterns in a room equipped with a ceiling diffuser was studied. The variation in the direction of incoming air from inlet port was analyzed. A comparison of the various cases showed that the inclination at inlet could be an essential part for the optimum configuration, as the temperature distribution in the occupied zone had least variation. The velocity distribution was almost uniform in most of the occupied zone.

  19. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  20. 辐射吊顶防结露控制系统探讨%Inquiry on control system of radiant suspended ceiling for protecting condensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海龙; 王厚华

    2011-01-01

    Radiant suspended ceiling is common terminal form to deal with sensible heat in temperature and humidity independent control airconditioning system. In light of radiant suspended ceiling condensation issue, it analyzes the work principle and design points of condensation resistance controlling system, and voint out problems in the operation, so as to guide practice.%辐射吊顶是温湿度独立控制空调系统中处理显热的常用末端形式,针对辐射吊顶结露问题,分析了防结露控制系统的工作原理及设计的要点,并指出在实际运行中应注意的问题,以指导工作实践。

  1. Ceiling-mounted personalized ventilation system integrated with a secondary air distribution system - a human response study in hot and humid climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, Yang; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of thermal comfort and indoor air quality with personalized ventilation (PV) systems have been demonstrated in recent studies. One of the barriers for wide spread acceptance by architects and HVAC designers has been attributed to challenges and constraints faced in the integration of...... PV systems with the work station. A newly developed ceiling-mounted PV system addresses these challenges and provides a practical solution while retaining much of the apparent benefits of PV systems. Assessments of thermal environment, air movement, and air quality for ceiling-mounted PV system were...... performed with tropically acclimatized subjects in a Field Environmental Chamber. Thirty-two subjects performed normal office work and could choose to be exposed to four different PV airflow rates (4, 8, 12, and 16 L/s), thus offering themselves a reasonable degree of individual control. Ambient...

  2. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei; Dehnadi Moghadam; Khodadadi; Rahmatpour

    2015-01-01

    Background The functional independence measure (FIM) is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent va...

  3. Breaking the Glass Ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Women play an important role in legislative work and the administration of other state and social affairs snowflakes were dancing in Beijing. Several women, dressed in colorful clothes, appeared overly jovial for the wintry weather. They were women deputies on their way to the Third Session of

  4. On the mean value problem of the Smarandache Ceil function%关于Smarandache Ceil函数的一类均值问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕二兵

    2013-01-01

    The mean value distribution problem of Smarandache Ceil function and product of prime divisor function U(n) is studied.By using the analytic methods,an asymptotic formula of (Sk (n)-U(n))2 is given,with k≥2,n is any natural number.%研究了Smarandache Ceil函数与素因子积函数U(n)的均方值的分布问题.利用解析方法给出了(Sk (n)-U(n))2的一个有趣的渐近公式,其中k≥2,n为自然数.

  5. Participação Popular em Saúde: Um Estudo Sobre o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrecinda Rocha PINA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão da participação popular para o exercício do controle social do Sistema Único de Saúde é especialmente importante para o debate da política de saúde no Brasil e, conforme estabelecido na Lei 8142 de 1990, essa participação deve ser realizada por meio dos conselhos e conferências de saúde. O presente artigo estuda a participação popular em saúde no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, problematizando em torno do exercício do controle social exercido pelos conselheiros do respectivo colegiado. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo geral entender como se dá a Participação Social no Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia na gestão 2010-2011, buscando especificamente entender sua dinâmica de funcionamento. Partindo de uma abordagem metodológica qualiquantitativa, utilizamos como procedimento a análise documental, com levantamento de dados relativos à dinâmica de suas reuniões. Depreende-se do estudo realizado a participação expressiva dos segmentos integrantes. A grande maioria dos assuntos pautados foi proposta, especialmente, pelo segmento gestor. Entretanto, os itens em discussão revelam que os interesses dos usuários e trabalhadores permeavam com mais frequência os debates. Por fim, conclui-se que, em um contexto geral, o Conselho Regional de Saúde de Ceilândia é um fórum político legítimo e atuante, com atuação decisiva nas deliberações das ações e serviços de saúde a nível local. ABSTRACT The issue of popular participation in the exercise of social control Health System is especially important for the health policy debate in Brazil and, as stated in the Law 8142/1990, this participation must be done through the advice and health conferences. This paper studies popular participation in health in the Regional Health Ceilândia, Distrito Federal, questioning around the exercise of social control exercised by the directors of the respective collegiate. This research aimed

  6. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Naoki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kubota, Yoshitaka, E-mail: kubota-cbu@umin.ac.jp [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kosaka, Kentarou; Akita, Shinsuke; Sasahara, Yoshitarou; Kira, Tomoe [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Kuroda, Masayuki [Center for Advanced Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan); Bujo, Hideaki [Department of Clinical-Laboratory and Experimental-Research Medicine, Toho University, Sakura Medical Center, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba, #285-8741 (Japan); Satoh, Kaneshige [Department of Plastic Surgery, Chiba University, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-city, Chiba, #260-8677 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings.

  7. Low-dose radiation pretreatment improves survival of human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) under hypoxia via HIF-1 alpha and MMP-2 induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poor survival is a major problem of adipocyte transplantation. We previously reported that VEGF and MMPs secreted from transplanted adipocytes are essential for angiogenesis and adipogenesis. Pretreatment with low-dose (5 Gy) radiation (LDR) increased VEGF, MMP-2, and HIF-1 alpha mRNA expression in human ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (hccdPAs). Gene expression after LDR differed between adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and hccdPAs. Pretreatment with LDR improved the survival of hccdPAs under hypoxia, which is inevitable in the early stages after transplantation. Upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 after LDR in hccdPAs is mediated by HIF-1 alpha expression. Our results suggest that pretreatment with LDR may improve adipocyte graft survival in a clinical setting through upregulation of VEGF and MMP-2 via HIF-1 alpha. - Highlights: • Ceiling culture-derived proliferative adipocytes (ccdPAs) react to radiation. • Low-dose radiation (LDR) pretreatment improves survival of ccdPAs under hypoxia. • Gene expression after LDR differs between ccdPAs and adipose-derived stem cells. • LDR-induced increase in MMP-2 and VEGF is dependent on HIF-1 alpha induction. • LDR pretreatment may improve the adipocyte graft survival rate in clinical settings

  8. Improvement of psychometric properties of a scale measuring inpatient satisfaction with care: a better response rate and a reduction of the ceiling effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombrail Pierre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to solve two problems of an already validated scale measuring inpatient opinion on care: 1 a high non-response rate for some items due to the "not applicable" response option and 2 a skewed score distribution with high ceiling effect. Methods The EQS-H scale ("échelle de qualité des soins en hospitalisation" comprised 26 items and 2 sub-scales of 13 items each, 'quality of medical information' (MI and 'relationships with staff and daily routine' (RS. Three studies were conducted: a first mono-centre study (n = 552, response rate = 83.4%, self-completion of the scale the day before discharge to construct a shorter version of the scale without the items with high non-response rate and maintaining those useful to ensure good internal validity (construct, convergent and divergent and reliability; a second mono-centre study (n = 1246, response rate = 77.9%, self-completion of the scale before discharge to confirm psychometric properties of the new version; a third multi-centre national study (n = 886, response rate 41.7%, self-completion at home 15 days after discharge to test a new response pattern in order to reduce ceiling effect. Results Six items having a non-response rate >20% were deleted, increasing rates of exhaustive response to all items from 15% to 48%. Factorial analysis supported the evidence for removing 4 more items to ensure good internal validity and reliability of the new version. These good results (initial variance explained: 43%; Cronbach's α: 0.80 (MI and 0.81 (RS were confirmed by the second study. The new response format produced a normalisation of the 2 scores with a large decrease in ceiling effect (25% to 4% for MI subscale and 61% to 8% for RS. Psychometric properties of the final version were excellent: the 2 subscales (8 items each explained 66% of the variance in principal component analysis, Cronbach's α were respectively 0.92 (MI and 0.93 (RS. Conclusion The new version of

  9. Ideal: mechanical ventilation plus thermally active ceilings. ABC curve simulation; Ideal: mechanische Lueftung plus TAD. ABC-Bogen-Simulation und Modellversuch bestaetigen Planung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-09-01

    During hot summer periods thermally active ceilings ('TADs') - also referred to as 'building component coolings' can only inadequately cool rooms to comfortable temperatures. Only in combination with mechanical ventilation are comfortable, stable temperature and air distribution conditions guaranteed. This is substantiated by a study conducted at the space air laboratory of Rud. Otto Meyer, of Hamburg. (orig.) [German] Waehrend der heissen Sommerphase kann die thermisch aktive Decke (TAD) - oder auch Bauteilkuehlung genannt - nur unzulaenglich die Raeume auf behagliche Temperaturen herunterkuehlen. Erst die Kombination mit einer mechanischen Lueftung garantiert komfortable stabile Zustaende sowohl in der Temperatur- als auch in der Luftverteilung. Das belegt eine Studie im Raumlufttechnischen Labor der Firma Rud. Otto Meyer in Hamburg. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic structural analysis concerning integrity assessment of a reactor cavity ceiling of type VVER-1000 due to postulated failure of the reactor pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisert, P.; Bachmann, P.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the activities concerning the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP) in Middle- and East Europe the behaviour of the reactor cavity bottom ceiling of a NPP of type WER-1000 stressed by loads of postulated failure of the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV-LH) caused by an assumed core melt accident has been investigated. The investigations are performed in the framework of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) and include the effects of small leaks in the RPV-LH caused by molten material as well as the total separation of the RPV-LH. The corresponding thermal and mechanical loads are based on results of thermal hydraulic investigations. (orig.)

  11. The vocational training of occupational therapists and the Undergraduate Course at the University of Brasília, Ceilândia College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Giovana Furlan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Health training has been discussed in the educational field, guiding curriculum changes for undergraduate courses according to the current public policies, mainly the National Health System and the new Curriculum Guidelines. Professional formation based on the active pursuit of knowledge, ensuring integrality and humanization of health care, is objectified. In this perspective, this article presents a literature review on the scientific production related to health training, specifically the training of occupational therapists, and examines how the political pedagogical project of the occupational therapy undergraduate course of the University of Brasília – Ceilândia College (UnB-FCE contemplates and prioritizes vocational training guided by current trends. We found 14 scientific articles addressing the reformulation of the curricula of undergraduate courses, favoring interdisciplinarity and practical activities in social infrastructure. The teaching practice and the student body posture interfere in the educational process, with the challenge of developing communicative, affective and relational skills in contrast with the current teaching model. The undergraduate program in occupational therapy of UnB-FCE is recent, and it aims at vocational training under the new proposed model. It is organized in relation to the fields of professional practice and human functionality, and it prioritizes the local community development through teaching, research, and extension projects associated with the health services of the Federal District.

  12. 限制性价格管制、经济福利和基本药物制度的帕累托改进%Ceiling Price, Economic Welfare and Pareto Improvement of Essential Drug System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾洪波; 刘玮玮

    2011-01-01

    新一轮医药卫生体制改革对基本药物实施限制性价格管制措施.在完全竞争市场条件下政府对基本药物的限制性价格管制,把部分生产者剩余,转化为消费者剩余,导致了经济福利的净损失.现实世界中对基本药物实施限制性价格管制,是为了应对一定程度的基本药物市场失灵和政府对基本药物消费者剩余的评价高于对生产者剩余的评价.限制性价格管制对降低基本药物价格和增加其有效需求起到了积极作用,同时也凸显出基本药物供给短缺压力和加强公共财政责任的必要性.在实施限制性价格管制的前提下,基本药物制度应该在不断总结试点经验的基础上实施帕累托改进.%Ceiling price regulating measure to essential drugs has been implemented in the new round health system reform. Under the perfect competition market, the ceiling price of government regulating measure to essential drugs will transfer the part producer surplus to consumer surplus, leading to the net loss of economic welfare. The reasons that implementing the ceiling price to essential drugs in the real world are on the one side to response the market failure of essential drugs caused by some market monopoly, information asymmetry and positive externality, and on the other side to give consumer surplus of essential drugs the higher evaluation than to give producer surplus of essential drags. Ceiling price played the positive role to decrease the price of essential drugs and to increase the effective demand, and to stand out the shortage pressure of essential drags supply and the necessity to strengthen the public financial responsibility. Under the condition of ceiling price, essential drug system should implement the Pareto improvement based on summing up the pilot experience.

  13. Breaking Public Relations' Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests that public relations practitioners, especially women practitioners, ought to incorporate program research into daily practice. Considers the shift in public relations from a male-majority to female-majority and the challenges which this shift poses for all public relations practitioners and educators. (MS)

  14. New airborne pathogen transport model for upper-room UVGI spaces conditioned by chilled ceiling and mixed displacement ventilation: Enhancing air quality and energy performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of bacteria transport is developed in CC/DV conditioned spaces with UVGI. • The model identifies buoyant, partially mixed, and fully mixed transport zones. • The predicted bacteria concentration agreed well with CFD results. • The higher the supply flow rate, the more restrictive is return air mixing ratio. • Upper-room UVGI results in higher return mixing and 33% in energy savings. - Abstract: The maximum allowable return air ratio in chilled ceiling (CC) and mixed displacement ventilation (DV) system for good air quality is regulated by acceptable levels of CO2 concentration not to exceed 700 ppm and airborne bacterial count to satisfy World Health Organization (WHO) requirement for bacterial count not to exceed 500 CFU/m3. Since the CC/DV system relies on buoyancy effects for driving the contaminated air upwards, infectious particles will recirculate in the upper zone allowing effective utilization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to clean return air. The aim of this work is to develop a new airborne bacteria transport plume-multi-layer zonal model at low computational cost to predict bacteria concentration distribution in mixed CC/DV conditioned room without and with upper-room UVGI installed. The results of the simplified model were compared with layer-averaged concentration predictions of a detailed and experimentally-validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The comparison showed good agreement between bacteria transport model results and CFD predictions of room air bacteria concentration with maximum error of ±10.4 CFU/m3 in exhaust air. The simplified model captured the vertical bacteria concentration distribution in room air as well as the locking effect of highest concentration happening at the stratification level. The developed bacteria transport model was used in a case study to determine the return air mixing ratio that minimizes energy consumption and maintains acceptable IAQ with

  15. 基于辐射供冷的太阳能吸收式空调试验研究%Investigation of solar absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李悦; 翟晓强; 尹亚领; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    对基于辐射供玲的太阳能吸收式空调系统进行了试验.该系统采用96 m2的U型管式真空管太阳能集热器驱动额定制冷量为8 kW的吸收式制冷机组,吸收式制冷机产生的冷冻水被输送到辐射吊顶中,为50 m2的实验室提供夏季空调.吸收式制冷机运行在度季晴朗天气时,平均制冷量为4.5 kW.辅助独立除湿机组与辐射吊顶联合运行.试验房间的热舒适指标PMV为-0.29~0.32,可满足热舒适要求.%Experiments were carried out to study a solar powered absorption cooling system based on cooling ceiling. The 96 m2 U-type vacuum tube collectors were employed to drive the absorption chiller with nominal refrigeration capacity of 8 kW. The chilled water from the absorption chiller was delivered to cooling ceiling, providing cooling capacity to the 50 m2 test room. Under sunshiny weather conditions, the average cooling output was 4.5 kW. An independent dehumidification unit was installed to work together with cooling ceiling. The PMV inside the test room ranged from -0.29 to 0.32, which met the indoor thermal comfort.

  16. 基于MATLAB的仿壁虎机器人天花板粘附运动仿真%Locomotion Simulation of Gecko Robot Moving on the Ceiling Based on MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建敏; 俞志伟; 戴振东

    2011-01-01

    Geckos have the dry adhesive feet that can provide the Vander Waals force, but it is quite difficult for gecko robot to move on the ceiling. Dynamic model of gecko robot is created with MATLAB/SimMechanic. A elastic damping model of the directional adhesive material on robot's foot is built. The crawling behavior of the robot on the ceiling is simulated with planned gait. The experiment results show that the robot can move we expected and the main perturbation in locomotion is induced by the change of alternation between the foot' s stance period and swing period. It provides references for the future experiment of gecko robot moving on the ceiling.%壁虎脚掌具有“范德华力”的干粘附特性,而实现仿壁虎机器人在负表面(如天花板)运动具有极高的难度,基于MATLAB/SimMechanic建立了仿壁虎机器人动力学模型.采用变弹性阻尼模型构建粘附力模型,模拟脚掌的粘附力各向异性.利用规划的负表面步态进行天花板粘附运动仿真,仿真表明仿壁虎机器人能按照预定的步态实现天花板的粘附运动,而天花板的非稳定性扰动来自脚掌粘附支撑相和脱附摆动相的交替处,为未来仿壁虎机器人天花板爬行实验提供仿真参考数据.

  17. 地铁车站隧道轨顶排热风口设置形式研究%Study on the Arrangement of the Ceiling Exhaust Air Outlets of Subway Station Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝盛

    2011-01-01

    Heat extraction in subway tunnels is important in system design. Different heat extractions have important effects on the air temperature field in the tunnel. This paper numerically analyzed the effects of the different ceiling exhaust outlets and the layout of the condensers of the train on the air temperature field of the tunnel. The results is a good reference for the optimal design of the ceiling exhaust outlets of the subway station tunnel.%车站隧道排热是系统设计时需要考虑的重要问题。不同排热方式对隧道内的温度分布有重要影响。本文通过数值模拟,计算分析了在不同排热风口形式、列车顶部冷凝器布置对车站隧道温度的影响。模拟计算结果可为车站隧道轨顶排热风口的优化设计提供重要参考。

  18. Calculation of illuminance distribution and its coefficient of variation in infinitely long interior with luminous surface ceiling by Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulation ni yoru tenjomen kogen wo motsu mugencho shitsunal no shodo bunpu to hendo keisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, M. (The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan))

    1991-01-15

    Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was applied to the estimation of illuminance distribution in infinitely long interiors which had visual obstructions and luminous surface ceilings, and its coefficient of variation (percentage of standard deviation to average value) was studied. The illuminance distributions obtained by MCS were compared with those calculated by theoretical equations hased on teh contour integration method, and the conservation law of photon bundles was also investigated. As a result, it was concluded that MCS results of direct illuminance distributions agree with those obtained by contour integration method in infinitely long concave interiors which have luminous surface ceilings of various shapes and four visual obstructions. The coefficient of variation varies noteworthily when visual obstructions are located in asymmetrical positions. The uniformity in illuminance distributions is improved by transparent visual obstructions. The conservation law of photon bundles holds well in the concave interiors with transparent visual obstructions. Therefore, it seems that MCS technique for illuminance calculation is a very powerful tool in infinite long concave interior spaces. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  19. 中国存款准备金率理论上限测算及应用研究——基于货币政策使用空间的视角%The Measurement and Practical Research of the Theoretical Ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios of China: From the Perspective of the Space for Monetary Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高谦; 何蓉

    2012-01-01

    在货币紧缩过程中,使用准备金率工具关键在于把握好尺度,降低政策超调风险,为此必须研究存款准备金率上限。本文依据国民经济收入流量循环模型,在分析货币经济中“漏出”问题解决方式和货币控制的基础上,以存款准备金率来统一度量货币政策空间,建立起一个分析框架,得出一个基于宏观调控考虑的、用以衡量货币政策空间的存款准备金率理论上限公式,测算了1993年以来各年的上限值,并结合货币政策使用力度进行实证研究。研究结论为,存款准备金率理论上限客观存在,在引入菲利普斯曲线之后,发现在经济处于不同状态、各种因素持续变动时,准备金率理论上限是动态变化的。对准备金率理论上限与货币政策力度的格兰杰因果关系检验表明,从宏观调控层面看,准备金率理论上限能够为货币当局把握政策方向和政策力度提供数量化依据,从而可以降低“超调”、“硬着陆”的风险。%In the period of monetary tightening, the key in using the tool of Reserve Requirement Ratios is to grasp a proper scale so as to reduce the risk of overshooting. Hence, it is essential to study the ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. On the basis of Circular Flow of Income Model of national economy, this paper analyses the solutions of the withdraw and monetary control in monetary economy, which lay the foundation for this paper' s theoretical framework, where Reserve Requirement Ratios is used as the uniform measure of the space for monetary policy. This theoretical framework gets a formula to calculate the theoretical ceiling of Reserve Requirement Ratios. The formula takes macroeconomic controls into consideration and can be used to measure the space for monetary policy. The ceilings of Reserve Requirement Ratios since 1993 are clear according to this formula. Empirical research on the ceilings, combining

  20. Using Humor to Crack the Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    1994-01-01

    Assistant vice president for academic personnel at public university took notes on incidents that caused participants to laugh during meetings of academic managers between 1988 and 1993. Recorded percentages of males and females in attendance, who conducted meeting, and who initiated laughter. Found differences in how men and women used humor to…

  1. Ruutel appeals for compromise on rent ceilings

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    President Arnold Rüütel kohtus Kadriorus üüri piirmäärade alase avaliku diskussiooni osapooltega ning kutsus neid otsima kõiki rahuldavat varianti. Presidenti nõustava õigusekspertide komisjoni esindaja professor Arno Allmann tutvustas omandireformi eesmärke ja reformi reguleerivate seaduste koostoimet kehtivas õigusloomes

  2. The Ivory Ceiling of Service Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Joya; Lundquist, Jennifer Hickes; Holmes, Elissa; Agiomavritis, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    How does a successful associate professor with a distinguished publication record, a visible leadership role among women scientists on campus, and prestigious grant funding for interdisciplinary initiatives in graduate and undergraduate training as well as research feel about seeking promotion to full professor? In the course of the authors'…

  3. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghitulete Andrada

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: their transformation into the most dynamic factor and, in this context, the more and more active presence of women in management positions in SMEs. In Romania, The National Agency for SMEs has implemented for the first time a promotion program for entrepreneurship among women managers of the SMEs sector. The program enjoyed a great success and resulted in a big impact in the business community. The program stimulates the growth of women entrepreneur within the business community, the development of the skill and entrepreneur spirit among women and efficient use of the human capital formed by potential women entrepreneur, improving the economical performances of existing enterprises, led by women through the growth of the training of their employees. Other aims are equal access to the knowledge based economy, experience sharing among business women, establishing partnerships and encouraging the will to represent personal interests in the civil society.

  4. BREAKING THE GLASS CEILING - FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Ghitulete Andrada; Muscalu Emanoil; Todericiu Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Specialists claim that the only certitude of the XXIst century is change, as these decades have been marked by the fastest and most spectacular changes in the history of human kind. Dfficult to forecast, the transformations that took place can be found in all areas: technical, economic, social, IT, educational, cultural and political. One of the most important, but insufficiently captured and considered changes is represented by the situation of the SMEs in the front line of the development: ...

  5. 对我国房地产实行最高限价理论分析和政策建议%Theoretical Analysis and Policy Recommendations for the Implementation of the Current Ceiling of Real Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建元

    2011-01-01

    China's real estate market with its special needs can use additional speculative balance model to analyze, characterized by a slope of greater demand, speculative strong. This incomplete market, the implementation of the general fiscal and monetary policies are not effective, it is the reason why China had no significant effect of real estate regulation and control of deep - seated this year, and the implementation of administrative price ceiling is both effective and not hurt measures of economic vitality. Empirical analysis shows that China is a typical speculative real estate market, not only to implement the limit, but also supporting the adjustment of fiscal and monetary policy, limit the profits of developers, local government and other measures to limit the price of land in order to achieve the desired effect.%我国房地产市场具有其特殊性,可以用附加投机性需求的均衡模型分析,特点是需求斜率较大,投机色彩浓厚。对这种不完全的市场,实施一般性的财政和货币政策难以产生效果,这是我国房地产调控效果不显著的深层次原因,而对我国房地产市场实施最高限价,则是既有效又不伤及我国经济活力的有效措施。实证分析表明,我国房地产属于典型的投机性市场,不但要实施限价,还要配套实施调整财。政金融政策、对开发商限定利润、对地方政府限定土地出让价格等措施,才能达到应有的效果。

  6. 用于外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚补充节能的轻质石膏砂浆%Lightweight gypsum plaster used on exterior wall, party wall and ceiling for additional energy conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶蓓红; 施嘉霖; 谈晓青; 曹禹

    2011-01-01

    轻质石膏砂浆作为粉刷石膏的一个新品种,主要用于墙面的找平层,同时对外墙内侧、分户墙及顶棚具有补充节能的作用.配制时宜选择表面玻化率高、密度小的玻化微珠作为轻骨料,其掺量为石膏量的20%~35%;当采用膨胀珍珠岩作为轻骨料时,其掺量为石膏量的15%~25%;纤维素醚掺量一般为石膏量的0.2%~0.4%;引气剂的掺量为粉料总量的0.6%~1.2%.按m(石膏):m(玻化微珠):m(纤维素醚):m(引气剂):m (SC缓凝剂)=770.0:215.0:4.1:5.0:2.3制备的轻质石膏砂浆导热系数为0.12 W/(m·K),通过计算,采用20 mm厚轻质石膏砂浆代替传统水泥砂浆,对200 mm厚混凝土隔墙进行双面抹灰后,保温效果提高38%.%As a new species of plaster, lightweight gypsum plaster is mainly used for wall leveling layer,meanwhile it has additional energy conservation effect when applied on the inside surface of external wall,party wall and ceiling. During preparation,glass beads with high surface vitrify rate and low density are selected as lightweight aggregate,and its dosage is 20%~35% of the gypsum amount;when expanded perlite is as lightweight aggregate,its dosage is 15%~25% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of cellulose ether is generally 0.22%~0.4% of the gypsum amount;the dosage of air-entraining agent (AEA) is 0.6%~1.2% of the total powder quantity. When m (gypsum) ∶m (glass beads) ∶m (cellulose ethers) ∶m (AEA) ∶m (SC retarder) =770.0∶215.0∶4.1∶5,0∶2.3, the prepared lightweight gypsum plaster has thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/(m·K). The calculation results show that the insulating effect will be increased by 38% if 20 mm-thick this type of plaster instead of the ordinary cement mortar is applied on both sides of the 200 mm-thick concrete wall.

  7. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in France under the Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution and the European directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR and NEC, March 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report supplies emissions data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and by the directive on national emission ceilings (NEC). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM10 and PM2.5), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). Parties to the Convention have to report emissions of these substances annually. Since the edition of march 2010, results are reported in the format UNECE/NFR in accordance with the new specifications set out in the guidelines (ECE/EB.AIR/97 adopted in December 2008) defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The results are presented at the national level of aggregation with the NFR nomenclature using 6 sectors and 109 sub-sectors. Conversely, the nomenclature used in the national inventory system to conduct inventories is the CORINAIR/ SNAP 97c nomenclature. A table of correspondence NFR/SNAP 97c is included in this report (cf. annex 10). For the entire period (going back as far as 1980) concerning each substance, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge and possible changes in methodology. Emission trends between the reference year and 2009 show a decline for most substances: - a very sharp decrease (at least 50%) for hexachlorobenzene (99%), lead (98%), dioxins and furans (95%), chromium (94%), zinc (92%), sulphur oxides (90%), cadmium

  8. New Construction Technology of Large Span Eggshell Shaped and Cornice Planed Ceiling in Xinzheng International Airport Terminal T2%新郑国际机场T2航站楼大跨度蛋壳形鱼鳞面吊顶新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Eggshell shaped and hyperboloid grid frame structure roof is designed for Xinzheng International Airport terminal T2 with large span and space reversible cornice planed ceiling indoors in the main building area. It can flip over along the roof, taking self⁃diagonal as the axis to meet the requirement of the indoor natural lighting. In addition, with the green energy⁃saving, environmental protecting and novel form, it is the first domestic innovation in China. This large⁃area surface modeling of ceiling system is complex and difficult to build. The rotating unit has 28 kinds of angle from 7°~38°. Through optimization of the designs,3D modeling, strict measurement and calculation, using bolting connection technology and professional customization of turning shaft for regulating the angle, it gains the cornice planed impression effect. With the characteristics of firm structure, resisting seismic and wind, convenient to install and dismantle, the whole system can adjust to the deformation of the grid roof, greatly shorten the construction period and keep the project costs down.%新郑国际机场T2航站楼主楼屋面为蛋壳形双曲面网架结构,主楼区域室内为大跨度高大空间可翻转式鱼鳞面大吊顶,以自身对角线为轴沿屋面进行转动以满足室内自然采光的要求,绿色节能环保,形式新颖,为国内首创。吊顶系统曲面造型复杂,面积大、施工难度高,旋转单元有7°~38°共28种角度。通过设计方案优化、三维模拟以及严格的测量计算,采用螺栓栓接工艺,通过专业定制翻转轴调节角度以达到鱼鳞面观感效果,整套系统结构牢固,抗震、抗风及安装、拆卸方便,能适应网架屋面变形,较大地缩短施工工期,降低工程成本。

  9. 施工工艺的漫游动画表现设计构思--以轻钢龙骨石膏板吊顶施工工艺为例%A Design Conception of Roaming Animation Performance in Construction Technology:Taking Light Steel Ceiling with Plasterboard as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施文超; 单珍

    2014-01-01

    漫游动画在建筑装饰行业的发展和施工工艺表现形式的多样化,是施工工艺的漫游动画表现研究的前提。以轻钢龙骨石膏板吊顶工艺的构思设计为例,一套完整的施工工艺漫游动画表现设计构思,可通过一个包含流线图和画面规划设计两大主要内容的漫游动画构思表格完成。%The development and diversification of roaming animation in architectural decoration industry has been the pre-condition of the roaming animation research in the construction technology. Taking the Light Steel Ceiling with Plasterboard as an example,a whole process of design conception of the roaming animation in construction technology could be per-formed by a flow chart and a frame design written in a table.

  10. The Ceiling to Coproduction in University-Industry Research Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Angela; Parker, Rachel; Cox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into government attempts at bridging the divide between theory and practice through university-industry research collaboration modelled under engaged scholarship. The findings are based on data sourced from interviews with 47 academic and industry project leaders from 23 large-scale research…

  11. Shattering the Lavender Ceiling: Sexual Minorities in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Musolf, Michael

    2012-02-01

    I will discuss some of the challenges experienced by sexual minorities in physics, from both a personal and broader perspective. I will also comment on the opportunities for the field to become more inclusive, supportive, and scientifically stronger by addressing these challenges.

  12. Key players must help shatter the glass ceiling, say experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, P

    1991-10-01

    Women are continuing to move up through the management pipeline in hospitals across the country; but is top management prepared? Although many women are aiming for the highest levels in management, a recent survey of female and male health care executives indicates that critical changes must be made by top management and boards of hospitals before those women can continue to advance accordingly. Meanwhile, women's experience as senior executives has been quite different from men's, the survey also shows.

  13. Female Perceptions On Employment Equity: Is The Glass Ceiling Cracking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsi Van Zyl

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess if there were any perceptual differences between gender groups regarding employment equity practices. A sample of 4729 participants from different companies and industries completed the Employment Equity Questionnaire. Results from an ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but only a small portion of the variance was explained by perceptual differences on employment equity practices. The instrument thus possesses some discriminant validity. Further analyses on an item level indicated that there were significant differences between gender groups, but these differences were not attributable to gender stereotypes. Specific employment equity practices were identified that need closer attention from management’s side to address gender discrimination. OpsommingDie primêre doelwit van hierdie studie was om vas te stel of daar enige perseptuele verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan ten opsigte van werkgelykheidspraktyke. ’n Steekproef van 4729 deelnemers uit verskillende ondernemings en bedrywe het die Employment Equity Questionnaire voltooi. Die resultate van ’n ANOVA het aangedui dat daar beduidende verskille tussen geslagsgroepe bestaan, maar dat slegs ’n klein gedeelte van die variansie aan perseptuele verskille ten opsigte van werksgelykheidspraktyke toegeskryf kan word. Die instrument beskik dus ook ’n mate van diskriminante geldigheid. Verdere ontledings op itemvlak het aangedui dat daar betekenisvolle verskille tussen geslagsgroepe is, maar dat hierdie verskille nie aan geslagstereotipes toegeskryf kan word nie. Spesifieke werkgelykheidspraktyke is geïdentifiseer wat nadere aandag deur die bestuurskader verdien om geslagsdiskriminasie aan te spreek.

  14. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.

  15. 46 CFR 391.2 - Ceiling on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... fishing vessels, charters for commercial fishing, and insurance or indemnity net proceeds relating to the loss of income attributable to such agreement vessels. (c) Revenues from the rental lease, or use by... agreement vessel. (4) Net operating and capital loss deductions. The taxable income of a party...

  16. 26 CFR 3.2 - Ceiling on deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fishing vessels, charters for commercial fishing, and insurance or indemnity net proceeds relating to the loss of income attributable to such agreement vessels. (c) Revenues from the rental, lease, or use by... agreement vessel. (4) Net operating and capital loss deductions. The taxable income of a party...

  17. The Cracked Glass Ceiling: Equal Work but Unequal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela R.; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of gender equity in universities continues to warrant attention. Globally, universities have much work ahead of them if they are to redress the gender imbalance in senior positions and remuneration rates. To examine this issue, multiple sources of evidence were used to observe teaching and research workload of academic staff…

  18. Glass Ceilings and Bottomless Pits: Women's Work, Women's Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilly, Chris; Albelda, Randy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews economic trends (marriage rate, growing labor market, manufacturing decline, and poverty) and contradictions in policy (family values vs. valuing families, opportunity vs. obligation to work, having a job vs. living wage). Outlines eight policy approaches in child care, job creation, minimum wage, housing, social safety net,…

  19. Ceiling effect of online user interests for the movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Lu; Hu, Zhao-Long; Song, Wen-Jun; Hou, Lei; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-05-01

    Online users' collective interests play an important role for analyzing the online social networks and personalized recommendations. In this paper, we introduce the information entropy to measure the diversity of the user interests. We empirically analyze the information entropy of the objects selected by the users with the same degree in both the MovieLens and Netflix datasets. The results show that as the user degree increases, the entropy increases from the lowest value at first to the highest value and then begins to fall, which indicates that the interests of the small-degree and large-degree users are more centralized, while the interests of normal users are more diverse. Furthermore, a null model is proposed to compare with the empirical results. In a null model, we keep the number of users and objects as well as the user degrees unchangeable, but the selection behaviors are totally random in both datasets. Results show that the diversity of the majority of users in the real datasets is higher than that the random case, with the exception of the diversity of only a fraction of small-degree users. That may because new users just like popular objects, while with the increase of the user experiences, they quickly become users of broad interests. Therefore, small-degree users' interests are much easier to predict than the other users', which may shed some light for the cold-start problem.

  20. Karriere, Alltag und Partnerschaft. Strukturen und Implikationen des glass ceiling Book cover Career, Daily Life, and Partnership: Structures and Implications of the Glass Ceiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Rudolph

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In dem Buch werden zum einen die strukturellen Rahmenbedingungen beleuchtet, mit denen Frauen in Führungspositionen konfrontiert sind, zum anderen ihre Lebensumstände dargestellt – jeweils im Vergleich zu ihren männlichen Kollegen. Im Hinblick auf die dokumentierten durchgängigen Differenzen zuungunsten von Frauen werden politische Gestaltungsvorschläge skizziert.This book illuminates the structural and external factors confronting women in executive positions and examines their living conditions in comparison to their male colleagues. The book sketches concepts for political change with respect to the continuing differences that have been documented as harming women.

  1. Inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in France under the Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution and the European directive on national emission ceilings (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR and NEC, March 2011; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontaliere a longue distance et de la directive Europeenne relative aux plafonds d'emissions nationaux (NEC) - CEE-NU/NFR et NEC, mars 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathias, Etienne; Chang, Jean-Pierre; Fontelle, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Nadine; Jacquier, Guillaume; Andre, Jean-Marc; Joya, Romain; Deflorenne, Emmanuel; Martinet, Yann; Druart, Ariane; Nicco, Laetitia; Gavel, Antoine; Prouteau, Emilie; Gueguen, Celine; Serveau, Laetitia; Jabot, Julien; Vincent, Julien

    2011-03-15

    This report supplies emissions data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), under the aegis of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and by the directive on national emission ceilings (NEC). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB). Parties to the Convention have to report emissions of these substances annually. Since the edition of march 2010, results are reported in the format UNECE/NFR in accordance with the new specifications set out in the guidelines (ECE/EB.AIR/97 adopted in December 2008) defined by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The results are presented at the national level of aggregation with the NFR nomenclature using 6 sectors and 109 sub-sectors. Conversely, the nomenclature used in the national inventory system to conduct inventories is the CORINAIR/ SNAP 97c nomenclature. A table of correspondence NFR/SNAP 97c is included in this report (cf. annex 10). For the entire period (going back as far as 1980) concerning each substance, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge and possible changes in methodology. Emission trends between the reference year and 2009 show a decline for most substances: - a very sharp decrease (at least 50%) for hexachlorobenzene (99%), lead (98%), dioxins and furans (95%), chromium (94%), zinc (92

  2. Glass slippers and glass ceilings: A positive analysis of gender inequality and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Jafarey, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the combined effect of marriage and gender wage discrimination on female education and labour market participation. Given wage discrimination, marriage increases the proportion of time women spend in housework, biasing their education downwards. The bias is not just relative to men, but also relative to single women and is discontinuous in the gender wage gap. Furthermore, consensual marriages might restrict female labour force participation and education more than non-cons...

  3. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-01-01

    The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-...

  4. Plant science and agricultural productivity: why are we hitting the yield ceiling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bossoreille de Ribou, Stève; Douam, Florian; Hamant, Olivier; Frohlich, Michael W; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2013-09-01

    Trends in conventional plant breeding and in biotechnology research are analyzed with a focus on production and productivity of individual organisms. Our growing understanding of the productive/adaptive potential of (crop) plants is a prerequisite to increasing this potential and also its expression under environmental constraints. This review concentrates on growth rate, ribosome activity, and photosynthetic rate to link these key cellular processes to plant productivity. Examples of how they may be integrated in heterosis, organ growth control, and responses to abiotic stresses are presented. The yield components in rice are presented as a model. The ultimate goal of research programs, that concentrate on yield and productivity and integrating the panoply of systems biology tools, is to achieve "low input, high output" agriculture, i.e. shifting from a conventional "productivist" agriculture to an efficient sustainable agriculture. This is of critical, strategic importance, because the extent to which we, both locally and globally, secure and manage the long-term productive potential of plant resources will determine the future of humanity.

  5. Management of organizational communication in The Netherlands: glass ceiling and encroachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. van Ruler; R. de Lange

    2003-01-01

    In the practical and theoretical literature a new field is apparently emerging, focusing on the co-ordination and steering of all marketing communications, public relations, and internal communications at a strategic level known as Management of (Organizational/Corporate) Communication. These variou

  6. The Glass Ceiling: Examining the Advancement of Women in the Domain of Athletic Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galloway, Brittany J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The “glass ceiling” is a metaphor for examining gender disparities between men and women within the workplace. Such disparities are particularly visible in athletic administration. This literature review evaluates specific leadership characteristics and their relationship to gender stereotyping in Sport Management. Because athletic administration is a male dominated domain, there appears to be discrimination against women, creating a gender gap that prevents the advancement of women into top-level managerial positions.

  7. Simulation Study of Discharging PCM Ceiling Panels through Night - time Radiative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdakis, Eleftherios; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Grossule, F.;

    2016-01-01

    demand. In the present simulation study, the coupling of nighttime radiative cooling with PCM for cooling an office room was investigated. For cooling water through nighttime radiative cooling two types of solar panels were utilized, an unglazed solar collector and photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels...... provided by the PV/T panels was 43 W/m2 for Copenhagen, while for Milan and Athens it was 36 W/m2 and 34 W/m2, respectively. The cooling power of the unglazed solar collector was negligible. Finally, the total electricity produced in Copenhagen for the simulated period was 371 kWh, while for Milan...... and increase use of renewable energy sources. The aim is that by 2020 all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings. A solution that could contribute to this is the combination of photovoltaic panels for the production of electricity and phase change material (PCM) for the reduction of peak cooling...

  8. Speech recognition materials and ceiling effects: considerations for cochlear implant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, René H; Shallop, Jon K; Peterson, Anna Mary

    2008-01-01

    Cochlear implant recipients have demonstrated remarkable increases in speech perception since US FDA approval was granted in 1984. Improved performance is due to a number of factors including improved cochlear implant technology, evolving speech coding strategies, and individuals with increasingly more residual hearing receiving implants. Despite this evolution, the same recommendations for pre- and postimplant speech recognition testing have been in place for over 10 years in the United States. To determine whether new recommendations are warranted, speech perception performance was assessed for 156 adult, postlingually deafened implant recipients as well as 50 hearing aid users on monosyllabic word recognition (CNC) and sentence recognition in quiet (HINT and AzBio sentences) and in noise (BKB-SIN). Results demonstrated that for HINT sentences in quiet, 28% of the subjects tested achieved maximum performance of 100% correct and that scores did not agree well with monosyllables (CNC) or sentence recognition in noise (BKB-SIN). For a more difficult sentence recognition material (AzBio), only 0.7% of the subjects achieved 100% performance and scores were in much better agreement with monosyllables and sentence recognition in noise. These results suggest that more difficult materials are needed to assess speech perception performance of postimplant patients - and perhaps also for determining implant candidacy. PMID:18212519

  9. Melting the Plastic Ceiling: Overcoming Obstacles to Foster Leadership in Women Plastic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda K; Preminger, Aviva; Slezak, Sheri; Phillips, Linda G; Johnson, Debra J

    2016-09-01

    The underrepresentation of women leaders in plastic surgery echoes a phenomenon throughout society. The importance of female leadership is presented, and barriers to gender equality in plastic surgery, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are discussed. Strategies for fostering women in leadership on an individual level and for the specialty of plastic surgery are presented. PMID:27556609

  10. To shatter the glass ceiling in healthcare management: who supports affirmative action and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Peter A; Mattis, Mary C

    2003-11-01

    We examined the findings of a recent national survey of healthcare executives that showed 90% of women but only 53% of men favoured efforts to increase the proportion of women in senior healthcare management positions. Using the theories of relative deprivation and social identity, we tested hypotheses to suggest the background, work characteristics and attitudes about existing discriminatory practices in their own organizations that correlate with respondents' views about affirmative action for women. Some support is evidenced for the two theories and explanations are suggested to account for apparent anomalies.

  11. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the articles defining th

  12. An assessment of the EU proposal for ceilings on the use of Kyoto flexibility mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, ZhongXiang

    2000-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol is the first international environmental agreement that sets legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets and timetables for Annex I countries. It incorporates emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism. Because each of the Articles defining the three flexibility mechanisms carries wording that the use of the mechanism must be supplemental to domestic actions, the supplementarity provisions have been the focus of the international climat...

  13. Hitting our Heads on the Glass Ceiling: Women and Leadership in Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ruhaini Dzuhayatin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins by describing the present situation at the madrasah level in areas that participate in LAPIS-ELOIS activities and identifies the personal, cultural, and religious factors that contribute to women's under-representation in leadership and decision-making roles. Women's participation in leadership and decision making in Islamic universities involved in LAPIS-PGMI is discussed using data from consortium institutions. The range of factors contributing to the imbalance are discussed before turning to the policy issues that continue to contribute to gender disparity in leadership and decision making. The paper concludes by identifying some directions for action.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v17i2.460

  14. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Women's Collaborative Leadership Style as a Model for Theological Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions. The reality, however, is that while women are slightly more than 50% of the population, they are underrepresented in leadership. Fewer than 10% of chief executive officers in theological education are women. Traditional roles in…

  15. The gender pay gap in top corporate jobs in Denmark - glass ceilings, sticky floors or both?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar; Verner, Mette

    2011-01-01

    , ambitions, abilities etc. Research limitations/implications: Our study does not claim to identify causal links between top executive compensation and individual or firm specific background characteristics. Practical implications: , the extension of the family-friendly schemes may have had negative boomerang......Purpose: This study analyses the gender pay gap among CEOs, VPs and potential top executives. We estimate how much of the gap which is explained by differences in individual characteristics and how much can be explained by firm characteristics and discriminatory processes. Design......: For VP and potential top executives, the estimated gap increased during the period 1996-2005 while for the small and selected group of CEOs, the corrected gender gap slightly decreased. Further, for this group we find that controlling for unobserved individual characteristics the estimated gender...

  16. Women in Leadership in Higher Education: Leadership Styles and the "Glass Ceiling"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rebecka

    2013-01-01

    Women in upper-level leadership positions in higher education are underrepresented. This study examined the predominant leadership styles of women who have achieved upper-level leadership positions in higher education explored intentional changes in their leadership styles. Primarily, the study sought to determine if these leaders had similar…

  17. Chipping Away at the Glass Ceiling: Gender Spillovers in Corporate Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Matsa; Amalia R. Miller

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role of women helping women in corporate America. Using a merged panel of directors and executives for large U.S. corporations between 1997 and 2009, the authors find a positive association between the female share of the board of directors in the previous year and the female share among current top executives. The relationship's timing suggests that causality runs from boards to managers and not the reverse. This pattern of women helping women at the highest levels of...

  18. Prediction of Indoor Airflow Patterns in Livestock Buildings Ventilated through a Diffuse Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, L.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Morsing, S.

    2004-01-01

    The airflow conditions in an experimental pig housing unit are examined both experimentally and numerically (simulation) with particular focus on the airflow conditions in the occupational zone of the animals. Two heating setups are used, and the temperature is measured in a horizontal profile at...

  19. Breaking through the central tolerance ceiling to unleash anticancer immune responses

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Maureen A.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Central thymic tolerance mechanisms create a formidable barrier against the generation of self-reactive T cells. While preventing autoimmunity, this barrier also limits an effective antitumor immunological response. We recently reported that anti-RANKL blocking antibody breaches this central tolerance barrier, thus increasing the repertoire of melanoma reactive T cells. Thus, central tolerance blockade may be an effective therapeutic strategy to enhance anticancer immunity.

  20. Evaluation of progress under the EU National Emission Ceilings Directive. Progress towards EU air quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report was to assess to what extent the NEC Directive's environmental and health objectives concerning acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone exposure for the year 2010 have been achieved. The main basis for the assessment is the emission inventory data officially reported by Member States. The analysis was conducted by using the same scientific methods of 2001 (original knowledge) and 2010 (present knowledge) that support European air pollution abatement policies. The original knowledge consisted of modelling concentrations and exposure using the older Lagrangian EMEP model (utilising a 150 x 150 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of grid-average S and N depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, together with the 1998 European critical load database for assessing the risk of acidification and eutrophication). The assessment performed on the basis of present knowledge used the current Eulerian EMEP model on a 50 x 50 km{sup 2} grid for the computation of ecosystem-specific depositions and ground-level ozone concentrations, in combination with the 2008 European critical loads database. When assessing progress using original knowledge, the NEC Directive's interim environmental acidification objective has been met in almost all grid cells, while the eutrophication objective - provided in a footnote within the NEC Directive and which was formulated on the European Union area as a whole - has been met both for the EU-15 and the EU-27 regions as a whole. If, in contrast, the eutrophication objective had been required to be met in individual grid cells (as for acidification) or in individual Member States, it would be exceeded in many grid cells and in 11 Member States. While acidification has been markedly reduced, eutrophication is now recognised as a major environmental problem in Europe, especially in the context of its potential adverse impacts on biodiversity. An assessment using present knowledge indicates that neither the acidification nor eutrophication objective have been met. The health- and vegetation-related interim environmental ozone objectives have been achieved using present knowledge, across most of the EU.27 area. For forests, however, the objective of no exceedance of the critical limit has been violated in most Member States. This analysis also shows that model results are more optimistic than the observations about the achieved reductions in ozone concentrations between 1990 and 2010. (LN)

  1. Reinforcing the glass ceiling: The consequences of hostile sexism for female managerial candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Masser, Barbara; Abrams, Dominic

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has established that benevolent sexism is related to the negative evaluation of women who violate specific norms for behavior. Research has yet to document the causal impact of hostile sexism on evaluations of individual targets. Correlational evidence and ambivalent sexism theory led us to predict that hostile sexism would be associated with negative evaluations of a female candidate for a masculine-typed occupational role. Participants completed the ASI (P. ...

  2. Performance of Chilled Beam with Radial Swirl Jet and Diffuse Ceiling Air Supply in Heating Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertheussen, Bård; Mustakallio, Panu; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2013-01-01

    ). The room air temperature was kept at 21 °C. Tracer gas was used to simulate pollution from floor and desk. The experimental conditions comprised: 1) night time without heat sources in the room; the room air conditioning system was used to heat up the room; 2) heat load generated by an occupant (simulated...

  3. Validation of a numerical model of acoustic ceiling combined with TABS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Thermally-Active Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient and economical cooling and heating solution for commercial buildings. However, acoustic comfort is often jeopardized in such buildings, due to the thermal requirements of the system. More knowledge is required to under...

  4. Efficiency as a foraging currency in animals attaining a gain below the energetic ceiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous research has found that efficiency, or, more precisely, the foraging gain ratio (FGR), is a valid currency in foraging theory when (1) there is a limit to the energy that can be assimilated by the forager and (2) a forager is trying to meet an energy requirement. The FGR is b/ (c — cr), whe

  5. The Performance of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet and other Room Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jakubowska, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses different room air distribution systems, and describes a design chart which can be used for the evaluation of variables as air quality, air velocity and temperature gradient as a function of flow rate and temperature difference in the supply system. The design chart can also be...

  6. Performance of low pressure mechanical ventilation concept with diffuse ceiling inlet for renovation of school classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren; Svendsen, Svend

    at a pilot project at Vallensbæk primary school, where a system is installed in two classrooms used by the 6th grade. The system is designed with an oversized air handling unit and duct system to reduce the pressure loss and thus fan power required to operate the system. The supply air to the rooms....../4 of the maximum requirement in the Danish building code. This result in a yearly fan power consumption of 4.0 kWh/m2, included a primary energy factor of 2.5. The results show that the indoor environment is improved to an acceptable level with little energy use, making the concept applicable for implementation...

  7. Breaking the ‘class’ ceiling?: social mobility into Britain's elite occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel; Miles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use the unusually large sample size of the Great British Class Survey to compare rates of social mobility into different elite occupations. We find a distinction between ‘traditional’ professions, such as law, medicine and finance, which are dominated by the children of higher managers and professionals, and technical or emerging high-status occupations, particularly those related to IT, that appear to recruit more widely. Second, we find that even when the upwardly mobile ar...

  8. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  9. Clearance capacity of the atmosphere: the reason that the number of haze days reaches a ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Xu, Hua

    2016-04-01

    China has experienced rapid development in the past 30 years but, alongside and associated with this growth, increased levels of pollution too. However, despite the continued increase in emissions of haze-forming aerosols in the twenty-first century, the annual number of haze days in some megacities has not risen in tandem. Various mechanisms have been proposed for "city dimming", but the cause of the hiatus remains unclear. We found that the number of haze days in Taiyuan experienced a sharp increase during 1980-1998, with a growth rate 51.6 days/10a, and then exhibited fluctuating variation around a stable high level from 1998 to 2014, while at the same time the average visibility during haze days started to decrease. We present a novel method to explain the long-term variation in the number of haze days via a temporal-piecewise function of human activities and atmospheric cleaning processes: the number of haze days increases with the level of human activity before reaching the upper limit and then remains at a high level due to the restriction of a relatively stable number of strong cleaning days.

  10. Mothers´ quest for Job Protection: Building the nest of breaking the gall ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    DANIEL FERNANDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found that temporary contracts delay marriage and fertility in Spain. Using newly released administrative data we have studied the motivations behind the fertility delay that is associated with job protection. We have found that during the first five years after the birth of the first child, mothers in protected jobs were promoted less and their wages grew less (16 per cent) compared to those of mothers that had a fixed-term contract at the time of childbirth. The poor a...

  11. The Lavender Ceiling atop the Global Closet: Human Resource Development and Lesbian Expatriates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This literature review will examine international assignments as career development opportunities and uncover multiple issues and considerations with respect to lesbians and international assignments. There is a clear interest in the fields of management and human resource management in the privileges, challenges, and opportunities of…

  12. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... to the docket Web page can be found at: www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR%252BN%252BO... light kits in the CFR at 10 CFR 430.32(s). 70 FR 60407, 60413. An additional final rule technical... sockets other than medium-screw base or pin-based fluorescent lamps in the CFR. 72 FR 1270. In a...

  13. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings : towards an ecology of physiological restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-01

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative term

  14. Descriptive Statistics for Modern Test Score Distributions: Skewness, Kurtosis, Discreteness, and Ceiling Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Andrew D.; Yu, Carol C.

    2015-01-01

    Many statistical analyses benefit from the assumption that unconditional or conditional distributions are continuous and normal. More than 50 years ago in this journal, Lord and Cook chronicled departures from normality in educational tests, and Micerri similarly showed that the normality assumption is met rarely in educational and psychological…

  15. Induction of Chromosomal Aberrations by Propoxur in Mouse Bone Marrow Ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. C. AGRAWAL

    1999-01-01

    Propoxur is a widely used dithiocarbamate insecticide. In this study, the clastogenic effect of propoxur has been evaluated using chromosomal aberration assay in mouse bone marrow cells. Singlei. p. administration of propoxur, at 25 nag/kg b.wt., a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and 12.5mg/kg b.wt (50% of MTD) have significantly induced different types of aberrations after 24 h of treatment. The aberrations were dose and time dependent and reached a maximum after 24 h of exposure. The sresult suggest a genotoxic potential of propoxur.

  16. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings: towards an ecology of physiological restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T.

    2011-01-01

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative term

  17. 42 CFR 413.40 - Ceiling on the rate of increase in hospital inpatient costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... change in accounting cycle, as specified in § 413.24(f)(3). (c) Costs subject to the ceiling—(1... average hourly earnings for hospital workers: (A) The rate of increase in the average hourly wage in the... increase in the national average hourly earnings for hospital workers). (B) The rate of increase in...

  18. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of healing. We can note also the left humerus of a middle aged man with a healed fracture at the distal end (photo 5, a fibula with a healed fracture (photo 5 and a talus with osteochondritis dissecans. Some bones exhibited markers of periostitis that could have been caused by trauma, infection or physical stress. Apart from diseases and traumas, anomalies of bone growth were present in osteological finds. For instance a sacrum with sacralization can be identified. Some adults and children had open suture between frontal cranial bones (metopic suture; sutura metopica, these bones usually knit at the age of 2–4 years.The analysed bones belonged to adults and children in all age groups, representing osteological material typical for an ordinary and peacetime cemetery.

  19. The measurement of change in functional ability: dealing with attrition and the floor/ceiling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Avlund, Kirsten; Due, Pernille;

    2006-01-01

    of the dead to deal with the attrition problem. Fifty percent had no change in functional ability, 37% had declined and 13% improved. Models including the dead showed more functional decline with increasing age but this was not the case when the dead were excluded. Functional change was not related to sex......, functional ability at baseline, relative wealth, social network, self-rated health, and life-satisfaction. Inclusion of the dead in statistical models for the study of change in functional ability reduced the attrition problem. A logistic model for paired observations of functional ability at two points......The purpose was to describe four-year change in functional ability among older persons and the relationship to sex, age, and other background factors. The baseline study, performed in 1986, is based on a random sample of older persons (n=1261). Follow-up data were collected four-years later (n=912...

  20. Mejora de las condiciones de habitabilidad y del cambio climático a partir de ecotechos extensivos. Estudio de caso: barrio La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Improving the housing conditions and climate change on the basis on extensive eco-ceilings. Case study: La Isla neighborhood, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca Melhoramento das condições de habitabilidade e mudança climática a partir de ecotetos extensivos. Estudo de caso: Bairro La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Forero Cortés

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El cambio climático generado por la expansión del área urbana incide en el aumento de temperatura por las propiedades térmicas de los materiales de construcción. La escasez de áreas verdes (que aumenta las superficies impermeables provoca desequilibrios climáticos que deterioran la calidad habitacional en el interior de la vivienda. En este sentido, este artículo se propone estimar y comparar la atenuación térmica y la captura de CO2 en viviendas de interés prioritario ubicadas en Altos de Cazucá, que utilizaron cultivos de hortalizas como ecotechos. El diseño experimental requirió desarrollos tecnológicos como un sistema de riego que optimiza el agua de precipitación y contenedores independientes para el sustrato y las plantas. Los cultivos están divididos en: 1 lechuga y rábano; 2 cebolla larga, cilantro y lechuga, y 3 espinaca y perejil.Se estudió también una vivienda testigo sin ecotecho. Luego, se cuantificaron las variables térmicas dentro de la vivienda y el carbono capturado. Los resultados son una atenuación térmica del techo (4 °C y del ambiente (3 °C, un aumento de la humedad relativa del 10% y un total de CO2capturado de 16,1 kg, 38,6 kg y 8,3 kg, anualmente. Climate change generated by the expansion of the urban area affects the temperature rise by the thermal properties of the materials of construction. The shortage of green areas (which increases impervious surfaces causes climatic imbalances that diminish quality within the housing. In this sense, this paper aims to estimate and compare the thermal attenuation and CO2 capture in priority interest housing located in Altos de Cazucá, who used eco ceilings as vegetable crops. The experimental design required technological developments such as an irrigation system that optimizes the rushing water and separate containers for the substrate and plants. Crops are divided into: 1 lettuce and radish, 2 green onions, coriander and lettuce, and 3 Spinach and parsley

  1. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Simulations of Diffuse Ceiling Inlet for Ventilation and Cooling of Densely Occupied Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    on gypsum boards with airtight connectionswas created utilizing the full potential of diffuse layer without undesirable crack flow reported by otherauthors. The measured values were used to validate the detailed Large Eddy Simulation model of testroom created in CFD software with aim to evaluate an indoor...

  2. Visual Impression of Lighting from a Window and a Ceiling: a Comparison between the Compound Lighting and the Uniform Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sangpil; Ishida, Taiichiro; Iguchi, Masayuki; Iwai, Wataru

    The purpose of this study is to understand the change of impression by comparing the uniformity lighting with the compound lighting. The experiment is carried out with the two scaled-models that were supposed to be an office space. One is lit by the uniform lighting and the other by the compound lighting. Subjects were asked to evaluate the point of difference by semantic differential rating on their overall impression after comparing with two rooms. The results showed that the impressions of compound lighting were more positive score than that of uniformity lighting on the items of ‘dim-bright’, ‘dislike-like’, ‘artificial-natural’ and ‘closed-open’, and that there was no significant difference in impressions between two spaces on other items.

  3. Cracking the Lavender Ceiling: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Student Affairs Professionals and Their Personal Perspectives on Career Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James Capshaw

    2013-01-01

    In higher education, the people working in student affairs are as diverse as the students who are served by these professionals. Those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are often faced with challenges to moving up the career ladder. Many who seek senior-level administrative positions, such as director, dean of students, vice president or…

  4. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies.

  5. Floors and ceilings. Insulating with PUR rigid foam. 2. ed.; Fussboden und Decke. Daemmen mit PUR-Hartschaum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    Ecobalances for building insulation PUR rigid foam is presented. These include the whole life of the PUR material, from raw materials, expense of rigid foam production and of laminated foam plates, and fuel conservation as well recycling or energetic exploitation of post-user PUR foams.

  6. Breaking the Stained Glass Ceiling: Collaborative Leadership Theory as a Model for Women in Theological Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the prevailing notions within American culture is the idea that women are prevalent in leadership positions within business, politics, and higher education. The reality, however, is that while women make up slightly more than 50% of the population, we are under-represented in these institutions. There are fewer than 20 female CEOs of the…

  7. Learning about Bones at a Science Museum: Examining the Alternate Hypotheses of Ceiling Effect and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Groups of children at a science museum were pre- and post-assessed with a type of concept map, known as personal meaning maps, to determine what new understandings, if any, they were gaining from participation in a series of structured hands-on activities about bones and the process of bones healing. Close examination was made regarding whether…

  8. Breaking the glass ceiling: structural, cultural, and organizational barriers preventing women from achieving senior and executive positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Merida L

    2013-01-01

    The business case for gender diversity in senior and executive positions is compelling. Studies show that companies that have the best records for promoting women outstrip their competition on every measure of profitability. Yet women disproportionately are failing to attain high-level positions. Reviewing current data on women in the workplace, findings of studies on the relationship between gender diversity in senior management and company performance, and the literature on gender behavioral differences and the workplace, this article explores the possible reasons for the persistent wage and gender gap between women and men in senior leadership positions and discusses possible remedies. PMID:23346029

  9. Bayesian fusion of ceiling mounted camera and laser range finder on a mobile robot for people detection and localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hu; G. Englebienne; B.J.A. Kröse

    2012-01-01

    Robust people detection and localization is a prerequisite for many applications where service robots interact with humans. Future robots will not be stand-alone any more but will operate in smart environments that are equipped with sensor systems for context awareness and activity recognition. This

  10. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  11. Effect of the substrate on the results of the fire tests of thin layers of floor, wall, and ceiling coverings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). Fire Technology Lab.

    1992-12-31

    In the fire tests of many building materials a thin sheet of the sample is mounted on a thicker substrate. The thermal properties of the substrate could have a considerable effect on the heating of a thin slab. This changes the ignition time, burning rate and other measured quantities, and could influence the conclusions from the fire test. Results from a simple linearized heat conduction model are reviewed and used to delineate regions in terms of Fourier and Biot numbers where that effect should be considered while designing fire tests for thin samples. The effective heat transfer coefficient is determined by an asymptotic approach device here. Experimental evidence supports this linearized theory for steel plates on wooden substrates. CEN/TC127/WG1 has proposed standard substrates for the fire tests of surface products. These substrates should represent and cover well common usage. These theoretical and experimental results are used to make a new proposal for standard substrates for CEN/TC127/WG1.

  12. Effects of cloned tumstatin-related and angiogenesis-inhibitory peptides on proliferation and apoptosis of endothelial ceils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-mei; ZHANG Ying-mei; FU Song-bin; LIU Xing-han; FU Xue; YU Yan; ZHANG Zhi-yi

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumstatin is a recently developed endogenous vascular endothelial growth inhibitor that can be applied as an anti-angiogenesis and antineoplastic agent.The study aimed to design and synthesize the small molecular angiogenesis inhibition-related peptide (peptide 21),to replicate the structural and functional features of the active zone of angiogenesis inhibition using tumstatin and to prove that synthesized peptide 21 has a similar activity:specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis like tumstatin.Methods Peptide 21 was designed and synthesized using biological engineering technology.To determine its biological action,the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line ECV304,the human ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3 and the mouse embryo-derived NIH3T3 fibroblasts were used in in vitro experiments to determine the effect of peptide 21 on proliferation of the three cell lines using the MTT test and growth curves.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry (FCM) were applied to analyze the peptide 21-induced apoptosis of the three cell lines qualitatively and quantitatively.In animal experiments,tumor models in nude mice subcutaneously grafted with SKOV-3 were used to observe the effects of peptide 21 on tumor weight,size and microvessel density (MVD).To initially investigate the role of peptide 21,the effect of peptide 21 on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) by tumor tissue was semi-quantitatively analyzed.Results The in vitro MTT test and growth curves all indicated that cloned peptide 21 could specifically inhibit ECV304 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (P <0.01);TEM and FCM showed that peptide 21 could specifically induce ECV304 apoptosis (P <0.01).Results of in vivo experiments showed that tumors in the peptide 21 group grew more slowly.The weight and size of the tumors after 21 days of treatment were smaller than those in the control group (P <0.05),with a mean tumor inhibition rate of 67.86%;MVD of the tumor tissue in the peptide 21 group was significantly lower than in the control group (P<0.05);the number of cells positive for VEGF in the peptide 21 group was significantly fewer than in the control group (P <0.01).Conclusions Similar to the activity of tumstatin in specifically inhibiting tumor angiogenesis,peptide 21 may specifically inhibit tumor endothelial cell proliferation and induce their apoptosis,thereby suppressing tumor angiogenesis and indirectly inhibit the growth,infiltration and metastasis of tumors.Peptide 21 may exert its effect through down-regulating the VEGF expression of tumor cells and vascular endothelial cells.

  13. Effects of Multiglycoside of Tripterygium Wilfordii (GTW) on Spermatogenic Ceils and Enzymatic Activities in Male Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田健; 周孝瑚

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe consecutively the morphology of testis and epididymis and the changes of enzymatic activities of AKP, ACP, 3β-HSD and LDH-C4 in male rats treated with GTW 30 to 80 days. In addition, male antifertility effect and its possible reversibility were also observed. The results showed that GTW is a potential testicular toxicant in the animals. It can cause damage of the sperm cells with close relation to the treated time and dosage, Sloughing of sperm cells and many multinucleated giant cells in the seminiferous tubules were found on day 40 and 50 after the treatment. The tubules were hyperatrophic and the sperm cells were almost absent at the end of the study(80 days), No obvious morphological alteration was observed in the epididymal epithelial tissue, But changes of quality and number df the spermatozoa in epididymides were found prior to those of testes. Reduced number and abnormal cauda sperm were observed 30 days after the treatment, The ACP activity of Sertoli cells increased slightly, whereas the activities of ACP and LDH-C4 decreased gradually as the treated time prolonged. The 3β-HSD of Leydig cells was changed or subtle by m-phase or treatment and dramatically decreased at the end of treatment, The infertility caused by GTW was reversible 8 weeks after cessation of the treatment.

  14. A New Look through the Glass Ceiling: Where Are the Women? The Status of Women in Management in Ten Selected Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingell, John D.; Maloney, Carolyn B.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) analyzed Current Population Survey (CPS) data for 1995-2000 to assess the situation of women managers in 10 industries that employ over 70 percent of women workers. Despite a sense of continued progress toward gender equality in the workplace, in the 10 industries employing 71 percent of United States (US) women…

  15. Measurement, control and energy illusions. Conventional active ceiling induction convectors; Meet-, regel- en energie-illusies. Aan de hand van traditionele actieve plafondinductieconvectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, H. [Orange Climate Group OCG Autarkis, Holten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Attention is paid to the revised standard NEN-EN 15251 (Indoor environmental input parameters for design and assessment of energy performance of buildings addressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting and acoustics) [Dutch] Aandacht wordt besteed aan de herziene norm NEN-EN 15251 (Binnenmilieu gerelateerde input parameters voor ontwerp en beoordeling van energieprestatie van gebouwen voor de kwaliteit van binnenlucht, het thermisch comfort, de verlichting en akoestiek)

  16. Is there a metallicity ceiling to form carbon stars? - A novel technique reveals a scarcity of C stars in the inner M31 disk

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, M L; Marigo, P; Williams, B F; Aringer, B; Nowotny, W; Rosenfield, P; Dorman, C E; Guhathakurta, P; Dalcanton, J J; Melbourne, J L; Olsen, K A G; Weisz, D R

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguishing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we find a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the findings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We find only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C/M = (3.3(+20,-0.1))x10^-4) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is ...

  17. Green Cushioning Material Applied in Ceiling Light Packaging%环保型缓冲材料在吸顶灯包装设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴若梅; 李敏; 肖颖喆

    2006-01-01

    对纸浆模塑和瓦楞纸板的吸顶灯缓冲包装进行了分析比较,通过物流过程模拟,分别对两种包装方案做了跌落试验.并从环保、降低成本以及保护产品的角度出发,采用纸浆模塑对吸顶灯的包装进行了改进设计,其包装方案经过试验测评证明是可行的,成功的.

  18. An Improved Prediction Model for the Impact Sound Level of Lightweight Floors: Introducing Decoupled Floor-Ceiling and Beam-Plate Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosharrof, Mohammad Sazzad; Brunskog, Jonas; Ljunggren, Fredrik;

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the complex acoustic behaviour of lightweight building structures both experimental and theoretical approaches are necessary. Within the theoretical approach developing theoretical models is of great importance. The aim here is to further develop an existing method to predict...

  19. 13 CFR 107.855 - Interest rate ceiling and limitations on fees charged to Small Businesses (“Cost of Money”).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing... section applies to all Loans and Debt Securities. As required by § 107.800(b), you must include as...

  20. Safe ducts through walls and ceilings. Fire protection, acoustic insulation and thermal insulation of pipe ducts; Sicher durch Wand und Decke. Brand-, Schall- und Waermeschutz von Rohrleitungsdurchfuehrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanel, B.; Mai, H.J. [Missel, Fellbach/Stuttgart (Germany)

    2004-01-01

    Fire protection of technical facilities can be difficult and costly. The contribution shows how multiple, mixed installations may reduce the cost. (orig.) [German] Um Brandschutz-Anforderungen bei haustechnischen Installationen einzuhalten, muessen oftmals knifflige und damit kostspielige Probleme geloest werden. Der nachfolgende Beitrag beschreibt Moeglichkeiten, die eine mehrfache, aber dennoch brandschutztechnisch sichere Mischinstallation ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  1. Is There a Metallicity Ceiling to Form Carbon Stars? - A Novel Technique Reveals a Scarcity of C-Stars in the Inner M31 Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Girardi, L.; Marigo, P.; Williams, B. F.; Aringer, B.; Nowotny, W.; Rosenfield, P.; Dorman, C. E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Melbourne, J. L.; Olsen, K. A. G.; Weisz, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    We use medium-band near-infrared (NIR) Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 photometry with model NIR spectra of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to develop a new tool for efficiently distinguish- ing carbon-rich (C-type) AGB stars from oxygen-rich (M-type) AGB stars in galaxies at the edge of and outside the Local Group. We present the results of a test of this method on a region of the inner disk of M31, where we nd a surprising lack of C stars, contrary to the ndings of previous C star searches in other regions of M31. We nd only 1 candidate C star (plus up to 6 additional, less certain C stars candidates), resulting in an extremely low ratio of C to M stars (C=M = (3.3(sup +20)(sub - 0.1) x 10(sup -4)) that is 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than other C/M estimates in M31. The low C/M ratio is likely due to the high metallicity in this region which impedes stars from achieving C/O > 1 in their atmospheres. These observations provide stringent constraints to evolutionary models of metal-rich AGB stars and suggest that there is a metallicity threshold above which M stars are unable to make the transition to C stars, dramatically affecting AGB mass loss and dust production and, consequently, the observed global properties of metal-rich galaxies.

  2. Machismo and the Glass Ceiling: A Comparative Cultural Study on the Role of Gender in the Presidential Elections of Hillary Clinton and Michelle Bachelet

    OpenAIRE

    Woodring, Kayla

    2011-01-01

    During her bid for president, Hillary Clinton was often questioned about allegations of sexism in media coverage surrounding her campaign. She once responded: "It's been deeply offensive to millions of women. I believe this campaign has been a groundbreaker in a lot of ways. But it certainly has been challenging given some of the attitudes in the press.” Were media mentalities and reporting really as biased toward Clinton’s gender as has been asserted? This study seeks to answer not only that...

  3. Authority, subjectivity and power: data devolution at a primary care unit in Guariroba (Ceilândia/Federal District/Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Soraya

    2015-09-01

    Devolution, restitution or sharing can mean, within other possibilities, to offer products to participants of a research or an extension project. Far from a new practice in Anthropology, returning results is still unusual, little organized and valued. This paper presents and discusses a devolution experience by an extension project in Anthropology that was developed in a primary care unit in the outskirts of Distrito Federal (Brazil). Local reactions were very different from what was expected by the project's staff, but still permitted dialogue with the health professionals and, more important, deepened our knowledge about work relations in this health institution. Even though IRB approval has been granted, negotiations about starting and continuing academic projects have to be negotiated continuously. Subjectivity, power and authority permeate any anthropological initiative from its beginning and much after it supposedly has been concluded.

  4. The Selection of Wallpanel & Ceiling in Cleanroom Construction%洁净手术室墙、顶建材的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣

    2007-01-01

    介绍常用于洁净手术室墙体和屋顶的建筑材料,包括各种不同的金属和非金属材料的特性要求;比较各种材料的施工安装方法,用户可根据实际需求进行合理的选择.

  5. Performance and Thermal Comfort of Chilled Ceiling System in Heating Mode%冷却顶板系统的供热性能及热舒适效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田喆; 王硕; 朱能; 张诚

    2010-01-01

    冷却顶板供热可能对人员整体和局部热舒适产生影响.通过搭建全尺寸冷却顶板实验系统,以Fanger热舒适模型和ASHRAE 55-2004等标准为依据,对冷却顸板供热房间的热环境和热舒适效果进行了全面测评,着重分析了供热量与局部热不舒适之间的关系和变化规律.研究表明,冷却顶板供热可以满足相关标准对整体热舒适的要求,但由于垂直温差和辐射不对称温度的作用,供热量超过限定值时会引起局部热不舒适,建议冷却顶板供热量不宜超过117 W/m2.

  6. Study on the Preparation and Performance of Microwave-absorbing Ceilings for Electromagnetic Protection%具有电磁防护功能的吸波吊顶制备及性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊豪; 庄喆; 何晓川; 段玉平

    2013-01-01

    制备了以矿棉板、石膏板和PVC板为吊顶面板,吊顶腔体厚度分别为6 mm和3 mm的吸波吊顶,研究了吊顶面板材质和吊顶腔体厚度对吊顶吸波性能的影响.结果表明:面板为矿棉板和截面多孔的PVC板吸波性能明显好于石膏板和截面孔径大的PVC板,前两者吸波性能在1.7~18 GHz范围内均优于-10 dB,这种差异主要来自于面板对电磁波的透射性能以及多孔结构对吸波性能的影响.在一定范围内,吊顶腔体厚度越厚,吊顶吸波性能越好.

  7. Cost-benefit analysis of stricter emission ceilings for air pollutants. National evaluation for the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol; Kosten en baten van strengere emissieplafonds voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nationale evaluatie voor de herziening van het Gothenburg Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeets, W.

    2012-06-15

    The Netherlands experiences high benefits of strict European emission targets for air pollutants. The Dutch live longer and are healthier because of extra emission reductions. In addition, damage to nature decreases. This emerges from a cost-benefit analysis of a number of possible variants for tightening emission targets by 2020 in the context of the revision of the Gothenburg Protocol [Dutch] Nederland ondervindt hoge baten van strenge Europese emissiedoelen voor luchtverontreinigende stoffen. Nederlanders leven langer en gezonder door extra emissiereducties. Daarnaast neemt de schade aan de natuur af. Dit blijkt uit een kosten-batenanalyse van een aantal mogelijke varianten voor aanscherping van emissiedoelen per 2020 in het kader van de herziening van het Gothenburg protocol.

  8. 放宽经常项目账户限额提高企业外汇自主权%Relaxed Restriction on Balance Ceiling of Foreign Exchange Account under Current Account Enlarges the Decision-Making Power of Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱奇; 董英

    2005-01-01

    8月2日.国家外汇管理局发布《关于放宽境内机构保留经常项目外汇收入有关问题的通知》,将境内机构经常项目外汇账户可保留现汇的比例.由现行的30%或50%调高到50%或80%。

  9. Breakthrough of Hidden Champion's Ceiling from View of "Ansoff Matrix"%从“安索夫矩阵”看隐形冠军天花板的突破

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚林

    2012-01-01

    隐形冠军企业在成立初期凭借精准的市场定位和高度专业化在某一细分市场中占有绝对的优势地位.但随着行业竞争的加剧,市场透明度的提高,产品生命周期的缩短,隐形冠军生存发展空间受到压制.依据“安索夫矩阵”的多元化思想,隐形冠军凭借自身核心能力,选择市场前景广阔的行业,执行行业跨度小的相关多元化战略,才能实现成功突围.

  10. Research on Capillary Radiant Ceiling Cooling System Couplingwith Air Conditioning System%毛细管网吊顶辐射空调与新风耦合的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志浩; 金梧凤; 刘艳超

    2013-01-01

    对毛细管网结构研发及供冷性能进行测试,并应用 Fluent数值模拟,对毛细管辐射供冷末端与置换通风和贴附射流两种通风方式加以耦合,通过实验验证了其模拟模型对该实验系统具有相关适用性,并应用了该相关模型。结果表明:两种不同的送风方式下,房间的三度均能满足舒适性要求,当热湿负荷突然增加时,如不采取相应的响应动作,毛细管辐射板表面将会有结露现象发生,置换通风较为严重,相同的新风条件下,贴附射流的通风方式,对于消除辐射板结露效果明显。%Thisarticle tests the capillary net cooling performanceand usesFluent softwareto establish the corre-sponding numerical calculation modelbycombining the terminal capillary radiant cooling with displacement ventilation andwall attachment jet .The results show that under the two kinds of different air distribution modes ,three degrees of temperature ,humidity and relative humidity parameters all can satisfy the require-ments of comfort .When heat and moisture load suddenly increases ,capillary radiation plate surface dewing phenomenon will happen without taking the action accordingly and displacement ventilation is more serious . Besides ,under the same air condition ,it is obvious to eliminate the dew formationattaching with a jet ventila-tion way .

  11. 西门子Artis Zee Ceiling数字减影血管造影机性能分析及故障维修%Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting of Siemens Artis Zee Ceiling Digital Suboraction Angiography System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓虎

    2016-01-01

    本文对西门子Artis zee系列数字减影血管造影(DSA)机的系统设计、操作界面、安全防护及图像处理等方面的优势和特点进行了分析,并对典型的维修案例进行了介绍。

  12. 银行承兑汇票:定价管制、利率传导与市场波动%Banker's Acceptance:Price Ceiling,Interest Rate Influence and Market Fluctuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓青

    2009-01-01

    在货币市场利率和管制性贷款利率的利差波动的情况下,银票成为企业替代贷款、进行利差套利的主要工具,其结果就是银票功能融资化、银票市场波动性大.实现银票市场的平稳发展,一方面要逐步放松银票的管制性定价,赋予商业银行银票定价权,加快商业信用评级市场发展;另一方面要组合实施货币政策工具,合理管理利率体系.

  13. 试析中国女性职业发展中的"玻璃天花板效应"%"Glass Ceiling Effect" Analysis on the Gender Inequality in Female Employment Domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张营

    2009-01-01

    玻璃天花板作为当前社会客观存在的现象,阻碍了女性职业发展的道路,这不仅与社会现代化不相符,更不利于社会和谐.要突破玻璃天花板的阻隔,需要女性自身、企业和政府的共同努力:女性自身需克服弱点,发挥出自身优势;企业应更新观念;政府要制定相应的促进性别平等发展的政策法规.

  14. Rotating shielded crane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, John C.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating, radiation shielded crane system for use in a high radiation test cell, comprises a radiation shielding wall, a cylindrical ceiling made of radiation shielding material and a rotatable crane disposed above the ceiling. The ceiling rests on an annular ledge intergrally attached to the inner surface of the shielding wall. Removable plugs in the ceiling provide access for the crane from the top of the ceiling into the test cell. A seal is provided at the interface between the inner surface of the shielding wall and the ceiling.

  15. Aiming high but keeping costs low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Steve; Nicholls, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Steve Hough, national sales manager, CEP Claddings, and Andrew Nicholls, sales director, CEP Ceilings, explain how modern cladding and ceiling materials can enhance the appearance of modern hospital buildings while offering practical, cost-saving, and environmental advantages. PMID:20446486

  16. 48 CFR 16.205-2 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pricing period should be at least 12 months. (b) The contract may provide for a ceiling price based on evaluation of the uncertainties involved in performance and their possible cost impact. This ceiling...

  17. ¿Techos de cristal y escaleras resbaladizas?: Desigualdades de género y estrategias de cambio en SESPAS Glass ceiling and slippery stairs?: Gender inequalities and strategies for change in the Spanish Society of Public Health and Health Services Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Colomer Revuelta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades científicas, como en otros espacios públicos, la presencia de las mujeres en la toma de decisiones es menor que la de los varones. Describimos la situación en la Sociedad Española de Salud Pública y Administración Sanitaria (SESPAS donde, a pesar de existir un 40% de socias, las mujeres han estado escasamente representadas en los puestos donde se toman las decisiones y en los de reconocimiento profesional. Se explica el proceso de cambio que se ha impulsado en los últimos años y algunos de los efectos de las acciones emprendidas. Visualizar las desigualdades de género existentes provocó el debate y el interés por la acción. Se ha establecido un grupo de trabajo de género y salud pública. En los dos últimos años se han incorporado más mujeres a los puestos de poder y de reconocimiento profesional en SESPAS.In scientific societies, as in other social fields, women's participation in decision making is lower than that of men. We describe the situation in SESPAS (Spanish Society of Public Helath and Health Services Administration where, despite representing a 40% of its members, very few women have been in positions in which decisions are taken or in those of professional recognition. The process of change implemented during recent years and some of the effects of the actions taken are presented. Making the existing inequalities known has generated debate and interest in the intervention. A gender and public health working group was set up. In the last two years more women have been prometed to more senior positions in SESPAS.

  18. Pérez, Pablo. La inserción ocupacional de los jóvenes en un contexto de desempleo masivo. El caso argentino entre 1995 y 2003 : Editorial Miño y Dávila, CEIL-PIETTE/ Trabajo y Sociedad, Buenos Aires, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Adamini, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Con una formación de economista, Pérez se desvía en este trabajo de la mirada más clásica de su formación para permitirse articular con perspectivas propias de la sociología y la educación. El autor señala que es la complejidad del problema de estudio la que le exige una mirada multidimensional. Desde esta mirada holística tiende puentes entre un estudio macroeconómico de las reformas ocurridas en Argentina en el periodo de estudio con preguntas acerca de los condicionamientos educacionale...

  19. The use of high induction air dispersion tubing for fresh air supply in high-ceiling factories or buildings; Utilisation des tubes de dispersion d'air a haute induction en situation d'apport d'air neuf ou autre dans les usines ou batiments en hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, A. [Nad Klima, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    This article described a new air distribution system that was installed at the Transcontinental printing plant in Boucherville, Quebec to replace an inefficient system that required 8 coolers, 11 ventilators, 10 pumps and 4 air cooled condensers. The new NAD tube system operates on the principle of air injection, whereby a jet of air emerging from a nozzle creates a zone of depression to move large masses of air in any desired direction via small airflow jets. The objective of the retrofit was to reduce maintenance and HVAC energy costs and to resolve the problems of negative pressure in the building. With the new NAD tube system, all the equipment is grouped into one room. Exothermic cycles are used to heat or cool the air in the building for free using absorption coolers. The high induction air dispersing tube has several nozzles calibrated by software to move air at a very high speed. This creates turbulence to facilitate air exchange. The system has operated successfully, even on very cold days of -28 degrees C, without any condensation in the tube. The NAD tube system provides increased comfort for employees and does not require the use of fans. The payback period is 3.2 years without funding or 2.4 years with funding. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  20. Effect of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NPRL2 on the biological characteristics of human gastric cancer ceils%重组质粒pEGFP-N1-NPRL2对人胃癌细胞生物学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡在敏; 王川; 季文; 刘波; 蔡璨; 姜政

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体对SGC-7901胃癌细胞体外增殖、细胞周期、凋亡、侵袭及迁移的影响.方法:构建pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体,并进行酶切及测序鉴定.脂质体介导转染入SGC-7901胃癌细胞,应用荧光显微镜、RT-PCR、Western blot法检测NPRL2的基因及蛋白水平情况,CCK8法检测细胞增殖的变化,流式细胞仪分析细胞周期和凋亡率的变化,Transwell实验检测NPRL2对细胞迁移及侵袭能力的影响.结果:成功构建了pEGFP-N1-NPRL2真核表达载体.重组质粒转染SGC-7901细胞后,通过荧光显微镜观察到绿色荧光的表达,RT-PCR和Westernblot法检测到NPRL2 mRNA及蛋白的表达,CCK8法检测发现NPRL2能够明显抑制肿瘤细胞增殖(P<0.05),细胞周期分析显示NPRL2使细胞停在G0 ~ G1期(P<0.05),细胞凋亡结果显示NPRL2能抑制细胞凋亡(P<0.05),TransweU侵袭和迁移实验显示NPRL2使细胞侵袭迁移能力均降低(P<0.05).结论:NPRL2可抑制肿瘤细胞的增殖、周期、侵袭及迁移,并促进凋亡.%AIM: To investigate the effect of eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 on the proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion and migration of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells in vitro. METHODS; The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 was constructed and confirmed by enzyme digestion and sequencing analysis. Then, it was transfected into SGC-7901 cells via the liposome. The expression of NPRL2 mRNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR, fluorescent microscopy and Western blotting, respectively. The proliferation of SGC-7901 was tested by CCK8, the cell cycle and apoptosis rate by flow cytometry and the effects of NPRL2 on the cell invasion and migration by Transwell (Boyden Chamber) assay. RESULTS; The eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-Nl-NPRL2 was constructed successfully and transfected into SGC-7901 cells. The expression of green fluorescent protein was observed using a fluorescence microscope and both mRNA and protein of NPRL2 was detectable by RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. CCK8 revealed that the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells were significantly inhibited by NPRU (P<0.05). Flow cytometry indicated that the cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase (P<0.05) and cell apoptosis was evidently inhibited (P<0.05). Transwell chamber experiments showed that the abilities of both invasion and migration of the cells decreased by NPRL2 ( P < 0. 05). CONCLUSION: The NPRL3 inhibits the proliferation of human gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells, arrests cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, decreases the abilities of invasion and migration and promotes apoptosis.

  1. Cam Tavan Sendromu ve Kadınların Üst Düzey Yönetici Pozisyonuna Yükselmelerindeki Engeller: Balıkesir İli Örneği(Glass Ceiling Syndrome and the Obstacles Facing Women’s Advancement to Senior Management Positions: Evidence From Balikesir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip ÖRÜCÜ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Examining the reasons why women’s presentation in senior management levels and strategically important positions is lower compared to men constitutes the aim of this study. Conducting a literature survey, the concept of “Glass Ceiling” has been explained and the obstacles confronting women in preferment to senior management positions have been presented depending on the related studies held in Turkey and other countries. In the application part of the study, under the light of the findings from the literature, a survey covering 200 employees, of whom 103 male and 97 female, has been conducted in order to find out about the opinions of employees in Balıkesir on the obstacles in question. The findings have revealed that the limited horizon of leadership and managerial capability, excessive familial responsibilities, and the “queen bee” syndrome are the main obstacles that hamper women in the progress towards senior level managerial positions.

  2. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus me-diate the adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial ceils%SLE患者外周血单一核细胞介导T淋巴细胞对血管内皮细胞黏附的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骥; 储以微; 李明

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨活动期SLE患者外周血单一核细胞(PBMC)是否介导了T淋巴细胞对血管内皮细胞的黏附.方法 体外培养人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC),活动期SLE PBMC培养上清液预刺激48 h,通过RT-PCR检测PBMC培养上清液诱导HUVEC黏附分子的表达;划痕实验检测PBMC培养上清液诱导内皮细胞运动迁移能力的改变;HUVEC与T细胞共培养,研究PBMC培养上清液预刺激是否影响T细胞对HUVEC的黏附.结果 HUVEC经过活动期SLE PBMC培养上清刺激后,内皮细胞黏附分子ICAM-1mRNA,VCAM-1 mRNA和E-钙黏蛋白mRNA表达明显增加,而IL-17抗体能明显抑制黏附分子的表达.黏附分子表达增加介导了内皮细胞运动能力增加,介导T细胞对内皮细胞的黏附,而IL-17中和抗体能抑制T细胞对内皮细胞的黏附和抑制内皮细胞的运动迁移.结论 活动期SLE PBMC培养上清液可以通过诱导血管内皮细胞黏附分子表达,黏附T细胞,介导狼疮血管炎的发生.%Objective To observe whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) can induce the adhesion of T lymphocytes to endothelial cells. Methods Sera and PBMCs were obtained from patients with active SLE and normal human controls. PBMCs were cultivated and culture supematants were harvested. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro with or without the presence of the sera or culture super-natants of PBMCs. Some cells were pretreated with the antibody to IL-17 before the treatment with the sera or supematants. After another 48-hour culture, RT-PCR and real-time PCR were used to detect the mRNA expressions of adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion moleeule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-cadherin in HUVECs, wound healing assay to estimate the motility of HUVECs. Additionally, T lymphocytes were added to HUVECs 48 hours after stimulation with the sera or supematants, the adhering of T lymphocytes to HUVECs was observed by microscopy. Results After stimulation with supematants of PBMCs from patients with active SLE, the mRNA expressions of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-cadherin were significantly increased in HUVEC, while the increase could be inhibited by the antibody to IL-17. The elevation of adhesion molecule expression subsequently promoted the motility of HUVEC, mediated the adhesion of T lymphocytes to HUVEC, and the antibody to IL-17 could suppress the adhesion of T lymphocytes and motility of HUVEC. Conclusion The culture supematants of PBMCs from patients with active SLE can induce the expression of vascular cell adherin molecules and promote the adherin of T lymphocytes, which may in turn mediate the development of lupus vasculitis.

  3. Protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T ceils from vitiligo patients%茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳杰; 吴纪龙; 周妙妮; 付丽芳; 许爱娥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the protective effects of tea polyphenols against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells from vitiligo patients.Methods Skin tissue was resected from the margin of vitiligo lesions followed by the isolation and culture of CD8+ T lymphocytes,and from the normal skin of vitiligo patients followed by the isolation and culture of melanocytes.Flow cytometry was carried out to evaluate the purity of CD8+ T cells.The melanocytes were cocultured with the CD8 + T cells at different ratios followed by the evaluation of killing effect of CD8+ T cells.Various concentrations (200 and 400 μg/ml) of tea polyphenols were added into the co-culture system of CD8+ T cells and melanocytes at a ratio of 5 ∶ 1 followed by an additional culture of 48 hours.Then,flow cytometry was performed to detect the apoptosis in melanocytes in the coculture system.Results CD8+ T lymphocytes were successfully obtained from the marginal area of vitiligo lesions with a purity of more than 90%,which highly expressed the antigens CD137 and CD69.The coculture with CD8+ T cells markedly accelerated the apoptosis in melanocytes,while the accelerative effect was inhibited by tea polyphenols of 200 and 400 μg/ml.Conclusions The CD8+ T cells infiltrating the edge of vitiligo lesions display a potential destructive effect on autologous melanocytes from vitiligo patients,and tea polyphenols have a protective effect against the destruction of melanocytes by CD8+ T cells.%目的 探讨茶多酚对CD8+T细胞杀伤白癜风患者黑素细胞的保护作用.方法 取白癜风患者白斑边缘处皮片组织,培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,细胞纯度用流式细胞仪进行鉴定,通过和黑素细胞共培养验证其针对黑素细胞的杀伤作用.将不同浓度茶多酚加入CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养的体系,用流式细胞仪检测黑素细胞的凋亡.结果 取白癜风皮损边缘表皮组织中成功培养CD8+T淋巴细胞,纯度达90%以上,高表达活化抗原CD137和CD69.CD8+T细胞和黑素细胞共培养后,可明显诱导黑素细胞凋亡.200 μg/ml和400 μg/ml浓度茶多酚处理均可以降低黑素细胞的凋亡率.结论 白癜风皮损边缘组织来源的CD8+T细胞对白癜风患者黑素细胞有明显杀伤作用.茶多酚对抗CD8+T细胞杀伤黑素细胞,从而对黑素细胞有一定的保护作用.

  4. 乌司他丁对糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤的影响:离体实验%Effect of ulinastatin on oxidative stress injury to myocardial ceils in diabetic rats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳惠碧; 屠伟峰; 苏玲; 陈茜; 郄文斌

    2015-01-01

    目的 评价乌司他丁对糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤的影响.方法 H9c2细胞株,于DMEM培养基培养至对数生长期时,分别接种于96孔板(细胞密度1×104个/ml,200μl/孔)或6孔板(细胞密度1×105个/ml,2ml/孔)中,采用随机数字表法,将培养孔分为4组(n=18):正常对照组(C组)、高糖组(HG组)、高糖+氧化应激组(HG+OS组)和乌司他丁+高糖+氧化应激组(U+HG+OS组).HG组以高糖DMEM培养基(糖浓度25.O mmol/L)孵育细胞48 h,HG+OS组和U+HG+OS组以高糖DMEM培养基孵育24 h时加入500 μmol/L H2O2继续孵育24 h;U+HG+OS组高糖DMEM培养基中加入400 U/ml乌司他丁.收集细胞,测定细胞活力、细胞凋亡情况、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量,收集细胞培养液上清,测定乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性.结果 与C组比较,其它3组细胞活力和SOD活性降低,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性升高(P<0.05);与HG组比较,HG+OS组和U+HG+OS组细胞活力和SOD活性降低,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性升高(P<0.05);与HG+OS组比较,U+HG+OS组细胞活力和SOD活性升高,细胞凋亡率、MDA含量及LDH活性降低(P<0.05).结论 乌司他丁可减轻糖尿病大鼠心肌细胞氧化应激损伤,其机制与抑制细胞凋亡有关.%Objective To evaluate the effect of ulinastatin on oxidative stress injury to myocardial cells in diabetic rats in vitro.Methods The H9c2 cells were cultured in DMEM culture medium and the cells at the logarithmic growth phase were seeded in 96-well plates (density 1 × 104 cells/ml,200 μl/well) or in 6-well plates (density 1× 105 cells/m1,2 ml/well).The cells were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=18 each) using a random number table:normal control group (group C),high-glucose group (group HG),high-glucose + oxidative stress group (group HG+OS),ulinastatin +high-glucose+oxidative stress group (group U+HG+OS).The cells were cultured in high-glucose DMEM culture medium (25.0 mmol/L) for 48 h in group HG.After the cells were cultured in high-glucose DMEM culture medium for 24 h,H2O2 with the final concentration of 500 μmol/L was added to the high-glucose culture medium,and the cells were continuously cultured for 24 h in HG+OS and U+HG+OS groups.In group U+HG+OS,ulinastatin 400 U/ml was added to the high-glucose culture medium.The cells were collected for determination of cell viability,H9c2 apoptosis,activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and contents of malonadehyde (MDA).Apoptosis rate was calculated.The cell culture supernatant was collected for detection of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity.Results Compared with group C,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly decreased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were increased in the other groups.Compared with HG group,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly decreased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were increased in HG+OS and U+HG+OS groups.Compared with group HG+OS,the cell viability and SOD activity were significantly increased,and the apoptosis rate,MDA content and LDH activity were decreased in group U + HG+ OS.Conclusion Ulinastatin can mitigate oxidative stress injury to myocardial cells in diabetic rats,and inhibited cell apoptosis is involved in the mechanism.

  5. 敦煌壁画中的经架——兼议莫高窟第156窟前室室顶南侧壁画题材%The Sutra Stand in the Dunhuang Murals and the Subject Matter of the Southern Ceiling Mural of Cave 156

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊叶

    2011-01-01

    In some murals of the Dunhuang Grottoes, eminent monks or laymen are shown reading or preaching sutras from a small shelf-like stand. This stand has not come to the attention of earlier studies. Based on her analysis of sutras, Dunhuang documents and murals, and a the collections of the Shoso-in in Japan, the author suggests this object should be called a "sutra stand," and discusses its use and development. Based on this research, she also looked through all the different scenes and motifs of the sutra stand in the Mogao Grottoes. This study is valuable for judging the age and motif of Dunhuang murals.%一经架考辨 在敦煌莫高窟的一些表现高僧或俗人读经、讲经的壁画中,佛经有时被安置在一个架子形的小件器物上。此种器具应当称为经架,在前贤的研究中尚未对其有所关注。 《全唐诗》第554卷载有唐人项斯的一首五言律诗《寄坐夏僧》:“坐夏日偏长,知师在律堂。多因束带热,更忆剃头凉。苔色侵经架,松阴到簟床。

  6. Evaluation of Acoustic parameters of Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Vodopija, Janko; Fajt, Sinisa; Krhen, Miljenko

    2010-01-01

    National audience The purpose of this paper is to give an evaluation of subjective and objective acoustic parameters in two architecturally different churches in Zagreb, Croatia. These churches have completely different architectural parameters due to different style, shape and volume. The influence of high vaulted ceiling in one church is compared to the lower flat ceiling of the other. The influence of large high ceiling lateral aisles and the lateral galleries to both binaural and monau...

  7. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  8. 14 CFR 331.17 - How will the Department verify and audit claims under this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF... Department of Justice. If an audit is necessary, a ceiling amount reached, and the audit does not support...

  9. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi Yaghin, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    of the FJS (ICC? 0.79). We found a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's? = 0.96). The ceiling effect for the FJS was 16%, as compared to 37% for the OKS. Interpretation - The FJS showed good construct validity and test-retest reliability. It had a lower ceiling effect than the OKS. The FJS appears...

  10. Drug: D07697 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AZIDES C03BX Other low-ceiling diuretics C03BX03 Cicletanine D07697 Cicletanine h...ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03B LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, EXCL. THI

  11. Debts and Downgrades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of the context of the U.S. debt ceiling debate helps put the crisis into perspective The months-long debt ceiling debate in the United States has affected the global financial market,and its impact may further spread to the real economy and even change

  12. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: njfonseca@doct.ulg.ac.b [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, AA 97 Pereira (Colombia); Cuevas, Cristian [Universidad de Concepcion, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica, Casilla 160c Concepcion (Chile)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  13. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser......The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...

  14. Testing and thermal modeling of radiant panels systems as commissioning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a study performed to develop a thermal modeling of radiant panels systems to be used in situ, as diagnosis tool in commissioning processes to determine the main operating conditions of the system in cooling or heating mode. The model considers the radiant panels as a finned heat exchanger in dry regime. By using as inputs the ceiling and room dimensions, the radiant ceiling material properties and the measurements of air and water mass flow rates and temperatures, the model is able to calculate the radiant ceiling capacity, ceiling surface average temperature, water exhaust temperature and resultant temperature as a comfort indicator. The modeling proposed considers combined convection, perforation effect and a detailed radiative heat exchange method for radiant ceiling systems. An example of each system considered in this study is shown, illustrating the validation of the model. A sensitive analysis of the model is performed.

  15. Is There a ‘Glass Ceiling’ for Female Managers in Singapore Organizations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Dimovski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an overview of glass-ceiling type barriers inorganizations based on the perceptions of a sample of Singaporemid-level women managers. Previous studies indicated the existenceof a glass ceiling in organizations and presented strategicrecommendations with regard to what corporations could do toremove or reduce the glass ceiling. This study investigates howwomen in middle management perceive their career advancementopportunities and what they consider their organizations tobe doing to support their advancement. Glass ceiling and informalstructures in the organizations will be analyzed from the aspectsof corporate climate, corporate practices, and corporate culture.The relevant questions are derived from the model developed byBergman and Hallberg (2002. This study aims to answer whetherthere is a glass ceiling present in Singapore companies. The studybegins with an introduction of the concept of a glass ceiling thatprevents women from advancing, and then continues with previousstudies on corporate climate, corporate practices and corporateculture, and data analysis of samples from Singapore organizations.The findings show that women middle managers inSingapore organizations face a glass ceiling in their working environmentwhich, for example, inhibits the promotion of femalemanagers, and entails a barrier to the career development opportunitiesof women presents that women do not have enough organizationalsupport, including networking, mentoring, and familyfriendly initiatives.

  16. Immunology Mechanism of CD4+ CD25 T Regulatory Cells Acting on Effector T Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGNing-han; WUHong-fei; WUJun; ZHANGWei; SUIYuan-gen; HEHou-guang; ZHANGChun-lei; ZHENGJun-song

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To detect the inhibiting co-stimulating molecule CTLA4 and cytokines secreted by Treg cells, and explore the immunology mechanism of T regulatory cells acting on effector T cells in co-cultured system(CCS) and separating-cultured system(SCS). Methods: Detecting the percentage of CTLA4 and CD28 expressed on the Treg ceils and effector T ceils, and then adding Treg cells to mixed lymphocyte reaction(MLR) system in CCS and TransWeil Milliceil-PCF SCS, at the same time, adding or not adding anti-IL-10 or anti-TGF.II1 to the reacting systems, examining the inhibitory capacity of Treg ceils exerting on the MLR. Results: Compared with effector T cells, Treg cells expressed higher level CTLA4 and secreted much more IL-10 and TGF-β(P<0.01). The inhibitory capacity of Treg cells co-cultured with effector T ceils is much stronger than that in separating cultured group(P<0.01). Moreover, the inhibiting rate of Treg ceils exerting on effector T ceils through secretin_g IL-10 was more powerful than that through secreting TGF-β1 (P<0.01). Coaclusion: Both ceil-to-ceil contact and cytokines secretion mechanisms are involved in CD4+ CD25+ Treg ceils operating function. However, the former is more important. Intresfingly, we for the first time pointfound that IL-10 plays more powerful roles than TGF-β1 in the cytokines secretion mechanism.

  17. An Overview of Normative Documents on Taxation Issues for October-November 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Lyudmila Anisimova

    2012-01-01

    The law on the federal budget for 2013 and the planning period 2014–2015 was approved by the RF State Duma in the third reading on 23 November 2012[1]. The domestic debt ceiling is set at the level of 10% GDP, the foreign debt ceiling – at about Rb 2.1 trillion. There figures are above the budget liquidity ceiling recommended by international organizations (10%). We believe this index to be very important, because it describes the ratio between the size of expenditure on debt servicing and re...

  18. Research or Carbon Capture and Storage – How to limit climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Kollenbach, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of the 2° C climate target and the implicitly imposed ceiling on CO2 have been analyzed in several studies. We use an endogenous rowth model with a ceiling and a carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology to study the effect of the ceiling on the allocation of limited funds for R&D, CCS and capital accumulation. It turns out that the advantagenousness of CCS investments rise with the CO2 stock. If the gains of CCS, in terms of lower energy costs, outweigh the gains of R&D an...

  19. Microbiological study of the dripping waters in Altamira cave (Santillana del Mar, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiz, L; Groth, I; Gonzalez, I; Saiz-Jimenez, C

    1999-05-01

    The culturable microbial populations in dripping waters from Altamira cave were studied and compared with those of the ceiling rock. Water communities have low proportions of gram-positive bacteria, and are mainly composed of gram-negative rods and cocci (Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae), while those of ceiling rocks are mainly Streptomyces spp. The community differences are probably related to environmental cave conditions: high humidity, relatively low and stable temperature, water pH close to neutrality and nature of the organic matter. All these factors seem to favor colonization and long-term growth of actinomycetes over other heterotrophic bacteria on ceiling rocks. PMID:10353807

  20. Starting at the Top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explains why the ceiling systems that schools choose are as important to creating a constructive learning environment as any other finishing material and furnishing. Some effective wall system strategies are also highlighted. (GR)

  1. Mesothelioma - malignant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk factor. Asbestos was once commonly found in insulation, ceiling and roofing vinyls, cement, and automotive brake ... MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla ...

  2. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali

    2009-01-01

    unit-gain compensation ceil and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor.Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  3. Numerical simulation of the effects of hanging sound absorbers on TABS cooling performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rage, Nils; Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    capacity coefficient of the ceiling deck. The influence of different ceiling coverage ratios (0-30-45-60 and 80%) as well as the influence of the distance at which the absorbers are placed is studied by numerical simulations using a new, specially-developed TRNSYS Type. Tests were performed in a test room...... simulating a two-person office of 20 m2, with a typical cooling load of 42 W/m2. The results show that covering 60% of the ceiling surface with sound absorbers hanging at 300 mm from the ceiling active deck is expected to reduce the cooling capacity coefficient of TABS by 15.8%. This drops to 25...

  4. DME Prosthetics Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics-Orthotics, and Supplies Fee Schedule. The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure...

  5. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  6. 49 CFR 1.23 - Spheres of primary responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities within the Department and operation of the Department's Crisis Management Center. (q) Office of...; congressional affairs; communications and coordination with Federal, State and local governments, industry and...; delegations of authority; personnel ceiling control; management studies; personnel management; acquisition...

  7. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a HVAC system for a field lab. The design integrated mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, low impulse vertical ventilation, personalized ventilation, natural ventilation, hybrid ventilation, active chilled beams, radiant ceiling and floor, and heat...

  8. 48 CFR 1316.601-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.601-70 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.216-77, Ceiling Price, in all time-and-materials contracts....

  9. 47 CFR 15.503 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... imaging system. This category of equipment does not include products such as “stud locators” that are... as a wall or a ceiling. This category of equipment may include products such as “stud locators”...

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the French version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) in hip osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Parratte, S; Gossec, L;

    2010-01-01

    for total hip replacement (THR) (surgery group). The psychometric properties assessed were feasibility: percentage of responses, floor and ceiling effects; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha; construct validity by evaluating correlations with the Lequesne's index and the visual analogic scale (VAS...

  11. High Bay Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory is a specially constructed facility with elevated (37 feet) ceilings and an overhead catwalk, and which is dedicated to research efforts in reducing...

  12. Bias and Systematic Change in the Parameter Estimates of Macro-Level Diffusion Models

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Van den Bulte; Lilien, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    Studies estimating the Bass model and other macro-level diffusion models with an unknown ceiling feature three curious empirical regularities: (i) the estimated ceiling is often close to the cumulative number of adopters in the last observation period, (ii) the estimated coefficient of social contagion or imitation tends to decrease as one adds later observations to the data set, and (iii) the estimated coefficient of social contagion or imitation tends to decrease systematically as the estim...

  13. Developmental Networks, Black Feminist Thought, and Black Women Federal Senior Executives: A Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Easley, Brian Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Private and public sector organizations have become increasingly interested in promoting diversity. Due to barriers attributed to race and gender, women and minorities often find it hard to break through the glass ceiling. Mentoring is a tool to assist with breaking through the glass ceiling. This interest has led to extensive growth in mentoring research and the design of a more expanded concept, developmental networks. Little empirical research informs our understanding of B...

  14. Financing Hierarchy, Financial Market Constraints, Leverage and Investment Financing in a Low-Income Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Omotunde E G

    1992-01-01

    A debt-service constraint and co-financing requirement for outside equity financing are incorporated into a financing hierarchy framework in which firms behave as if they prefer inside to outside financing and debt to equity when they use outside financing. The constraints place both a floor and a ceiling on the ratios of debt to outside financing and a ceiling on the ration of outside equity to outside finance. If creditors and outside investor act in concert, under certain conditions, they ...

  15. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 2. Modelling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Steven D. Sandbach and Gregory F. Lane-Serff

    2011-01-01

    A new mathematical model for buoyancy-driven ventilation [Sandbach SD, Lane-Serif GF. Transient buoyancy-driven ventilation: Part 1. Modelling advection. Building and Environment, 2011] is modified to include heat transfer at the boundaries. Heat transfers at the ceiling and floor are included, using Newton's law of cooling to model convective heat transfer between the air and the solid boundaries, Fourier's law to model conductive heat transfer through the floor and ceiling, and a linear ver...

  16. Optimal balance of efficacy and tolerability of oral triptans and telcagepant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2011-01-01

    -called ceiling effect; and none of the oral triptans, even in high doses, are as effective as subcutaneous sumatriptan, In contrast, AEs increases with increasing dose without a ceiling effect. The optimal dose for the triptans is mainly determined by tolerability. Telcagepant has an excellent tolerability...... and can be used in migraine patients with cardiovascular co-morbidity. Based on the literature the triptans and telcagepant are rated in a table for efficacy and tolerability....

  17. Dynamic Thermal Modeling of a Radiant Panel System and its Environment for Commissioning: Application to a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor; Bertagnolio, Stéphane

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a commissioning study, the cooling ceiling system of a large commercial building located in Belgium is evaluated. A representative office has been instrumented and data on the cooling ceiling system operating in real conditions have been collected. The simulation of the whole system is performed by means of a dynamic thermal model of the building and its HVAC system. The model considers the radiant panels as a dynamic-state finned heat exchanger connected to a simplified lumped d...

  18. Mejora de las condiciones de habitabilidad y del cambio climático a partir de ecotechos extensivos. Estudio de caso: barrio La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca
    Improving the housing conditions and climate change on the basis on extensive eco-ceilings. Case study: La Isla neighborhood, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca
    Melhoramento das condições de habitabilidade e mudança climática a partir de ecotetos extensivos. Estudo de caso: Bairro La Isla, Altos de Cazucá, Soacha, Cundinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Forero Cortés; Carlos Alfonso Devia Castillo

    2011-01-01

    El cambio climático generado por la expansión del área urbana incide en el aumento de temperatura por las propiedades térmicas de los materiales de construcción. La escasez de áreas verdes (que aumenta las superficies impermeables) provoca desequilibrios climáticos que deterioran la calidad habitacional en el interior de la vivienda. En este sentido, este artículo se propone estimar y comparar la atenuación térmica y la captura de CO2 en viviendas de interés prioritario ubicadas en Altos de C...

  19. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  20. The public sector on the PETROBRAS performance: analysis using ratings; A importancia do setor publico brasileiro na performance da PETROBRAS: analise usando ratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial]. E-mails: rosebone@ind.ufrj.br; rosebone@terra.com.br

    2006-07-01

    Rating agencies have strong influence on the international financial market for both public and private debt. Host countries also have due influence on local enterprises, by means of the macro economic policy. In the case of default of sovereign debt or capital controls, domestic firms may have serious difficulties in meeting their obligations in foreign currency. This explained the so called sovereign ceiling to the corporate ratings. This explicit ceiling has been abandoned by the main rating agencies, as some corporations may have more means to meet their debt than sovereigns. Oil companies are a good example. This paper aims to explain the variables that help explain the Brazilian sovereign ratings and PETROBRAS ratings, using the ordered logit method, with emphasis on the factors that influenced the piercing of the severing ceiling by PETROBRAS in 2001. (author)

  1. Symmetry or asymmetry -- Comfort is the question. (A study of the second floor of the west office wing of the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.F.; Gaba, P.; Kowitanupong, C.

    1999-07-01

    This article explores the effects of an asymmetric distribution of building components, and their relation to human comfort. The studied building was the Water Pollution Control Laboratory in Portland, Oregon. This project, designed by the Miller/Hull Partnership, provides the perfect conditions to do such a study since it has very different ceiling heights within the same space, and an asymmetric distribution of the fenestration as well. Findings show that: (a) Variable ceiling heights affect the quantity of daylight received, and also affect the quality and distribution of electric light; (b) An asymmetric distribution of the fenestration creates very different conditions in both the luminous and thermal environments; and (c) The design of lighting and HVAC systems must take into consideration variations in ceiling height and the position of the fenestration into the space.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the radiation dose received from photons passing over and through shielding walls in a PET/CT suite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Lotte S; Cormack, John

    2010-01-01

    emissions, the dose from scatter over the barrier at waist height is relatively small but may have to be taken into account if the design dose limit is low. Shielding from floor to ceiling is probably not warranted in most instances for PET gamma emissions; in PET/CT installations, however, a thinner layer...... of shielding may need to extend to the ceiling of the imaging room to limit x-ray scatter over the wall from the CT unit.......Given that the financial cost of shielding PET/CT suites can be substantial, it has become increasingly important to be able to accurately assess the thickness of shielding required for barriers and whether it is necessary to extend such shielding all the way to the ceiling. The overall shielding...

  3. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Nestor Fonseca [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure. (author)

  4. Experimental study of hydronic panels system and its environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor, E-mail: nestorfonseca5@hotmail.co [University of Liege Belgium, Thermodynamics Laboratory, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49 - P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica (Colombia)

    2011-01-15

    An experimental analysis of hydronic cooling or heating ceiling panels coupled to the building is present in this investigation as a part of the commissioning study of this system. Two test chambers are adapted in a way to reproduce the interaction of the system to the building (windows, internal thermal loads distribution, building structure and ventilation). A series of experimental tests were performed in which the main objective is to observe the influence of parameters such as the water mass flow rate, supply water temperature, thermal load distribution, window and ventilation system effects on the hydronic ceiling capacity and comfort conditions. Test results show that the influence of asymmetric surfaces temperatures inside the room, especially the window effect is not negligible. Then, it is clear that the cooling hydronic ceiling must be evaluated coupled to the building systems and structure.

  5. A GROWTH INHIBITOR SECRETED FROM CULTURED RABBIT SMOOTHMUSCLE CELLS IS DISTINCT FROM TGF-β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether the growth inhibitor in conditioned medium from cultured rabbit arte rial cells is distinct from TGF-β. Methods Rabbit aortic smooth muscle ceils were grown from explained segments of the aorta. Conditioned medium from cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle ceils and anti-TGF-β were employed in this study. Smooth muscle cell proliferation was measured by XTT detection (Boehringer Mannheim). Results Acidified conditioned medium from smooth muscle ceils had significantly stronger effects of growth inhibition than controls, and anti-TGF-β did not affect the growth inhibitory effect of conditioned medium from cultured rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells. Conclusion The growth inhibiting substance in conditioned medium from cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells is distinct from TGF-β.

  6. Bubble-induced cave collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshika Girihagama

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom among cave divers is that submerged caves in aquifers, such as in Florida or the Yucatan, are unstable due to their ever-growing size from limestone dissolution in water. Cave divers occasionally noted partial cave collapses occurring while they were in the cave, attributing this to their unintentional (and frowned upon physical contact with the cave walls or the aforementioned "natural" instability of the cave. Here, we suggest that these cave collapses do not necessarily result from cave instability or contacts with walls, but rather from divers bubbles rising to the ceiling and reducing the buoyancy acting on isolated ceiling rocks. Using familiar theories for the strength of flat and arched (un-cracked beams, we first show that the flat ceiling of a submerged limestone cave can have a horizontal expanse of 63 meters. This is much broader than that of most submerged Florida caves (~ 10 m. Similarly, we show that an arched cave roof can have a still larger expanse of 240 meters, again implying that Florida caves are structurally stable. Using familiar bubble dynamics, fluid dynamics of bubble-induced flows, and accustomed diving practices, we show that a group of 1-3 divers submerged below a loosely connected ceiling rock will quickly trigger it to fall causing a "collapse". We then present a set of qualitative laboratory experiments illustrating such a collapse in a circular laboratory cave (i.e., a cave with a circular cross section, with concave and convex ceilings. In these experiments, a metal ball represented the rock (attached to the cave ceiling with a magnet, and the bubbles were produced using a syringe located at the cave floor.

  7. The market equilibrium of OPEC's pricing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At least twice a year, oil ministers of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) meet in Vienna or Geneva to adjust the group's output ceiling to eliminate discrepancies between the market price and the target price. If the market imbalances are persistent, then the target price is also adjusted. Often, OPEC's members differ in their assessment of future market demand for their oil and, thus, present different views on the need to adjust the output celing and the target price. During periods of downward pressures on oil prices, the high absorbers of capital (i.e., oil revenues) prefer a speedy downward adjustment to the celing, while the low absorbers are slow to react. However, in the event of tightening markets, the low absorbers usually respond by exceeding their quotas before agreeing on a ceiling adjustment. Therefore, OPEC nations have different desirable speeds of adjustment. This paper specifies and examines the stability of OPEC's pricing mechanism. It presents a strategy which would enable the organization to achieve a target price-based market equilibrium with increased rapidity through the appropriate manipulation of the speed of output ceiling adjustment. This strategy is applied using data on market and target prices, actual output, and output ceilings for the first quarter of 1991. The main finding is that, given the target price, OPEC's equilibrium market demand is significantly lower than the assigned output ceiling. Production should have been reduced by at least 3 million barrels a day for OPEC to realize the $21 per barrel target price in the first quarter of 1991. Seasonal factors can cause slight variations in this output but would not bring out compatibility between the target price and the output ceiling within a reasonable period of time unless OPEC follows an activist policy of output adjustment. 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Projection Models 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Birr-Pedersen, K.; Mikkelsen, M. H;

    to achieve the emission ceilings given in the Gothenburg Protocol and the EU directive on national emission ceilings in 2010. In addition to the basis scenario, 8 emission reduction scenarios for different sectors have been analysed in order to estimate the emission saving potential and financial and welfare-economic......Models for projection of SO2-, NOx-, NMVOC- and NH3-emissions to the atmosphere have been developed and the Danish emissions have been projected until 2010 from a basis scenario including all implemented and planned measures. The projections of the four pollutants indicate that it may be difficult...

  9. 梦无止境%THIS IS A DREAM THAT NEVER ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Athena Aguirre

    2007-01-01

    @@ I woke up to a cold and empty room full of nothing but wood and artistic drawings of people I didn't know. The room was gigantic, the ceilings must have been 150 feet up.There was a chandelier (树枝形的装饰灯) over my head that looked massive and heavy, the only window in the room went from the floor up half way towards the ceiling. It had a balcony (阳台) the size of the bathroom which was also extremely gigantic.

  10. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  11. Thermal environment in simulated offices with convective and radiant cooling systems under cooling (summer) mode of operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustakallio, Panu; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Kostov, Kalin;

    2016-01-01

    The thermal environment in a double office room and in a six-person meeting room obtained with chilled beam (CB), chilled beam with radiant panel (CBR), chilled ceiling with ceiling installed mixing ventilation (CCMV) and four desk partition-mounted local radiant cooling panels with mixing...... ventilation (MVRC) under summer (cooling) condition was compared. MVRC system was measured only for the office room case. CB provided convective cooling while the remaining three systems (CBR, CCMV and MVRC) provided combined radiant and convective cooling. Solar radiation, office equipment, lighting...

  12. INHIBITION OF SPONTANEOUS APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵志敏; 江明; 吴炅; 余黎民; 韩企夏; 张延璆; 沈镇宙

    1996-01-01

    Breast tumorigenesis proceeds through an accumulation of specific genetic alteration. Breast malignant transformation is dependent on not only the rate of cell production but also on apoptcsis,a genetically prograined process of autonomous ceil death. We investigated whether breast tumorigenesis involved an altered susceptibility to apoptosis and proliferation by examining normal breast epithelium and breast cancer sampies. We found there is a great inhibition of spontaneous apoptosis in breast cancer ceils compared with normal breast epithelium. The inhibition of apoptosis in breast cancer may contribute to neoplastic transformation.

  13. Beginnings

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Casey Tyler

    1999-01-01

    abstractThis book is a beginning. It begins to explore three conditions. First is the idea of the boundary - not simply the boundary as something that fixes limits, but as something that defines the spatial qualities of architecture. For example, a space that has four opaque walls, a dark floor and a heavy ceiling will feel like a closed cell. But what if the ceiling doesn't quite complete the boundary of the box, and instead it pulls away from the walls to let in traces of daylight. T...

  14. The intelligibility of interrupted speech depends upon its uninterrupted intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoint, Marine; Green, Tim; Rosen, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Recognition of sentences containing periodic, 5-Hz, silent interruptions of differing duty cycles was assessed for three types of processed speech. Processing conditions employed different combinations of spectral resolution and the availability of fundamental frequency (F0) information, chosen to yield similar, below-ceiling performance for uninterrupted speech. Performance declined with decreasing duty cycle similarly for each processing condition, suggesting that, at least for certain forms of speech processing and interruption rates, performance with interrupted speech may reflect that obtained with uninterrupted speech. This highlights the difficulty in interpreting differences in interrupted speech performance across conditions for which uninterrupted performance is at ceiling. PMID:25324110

  15. Patoka Nature Center: a direct gain, passive solar building in southern Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller Moore, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Nature Center is a 3200 sq. ft. public building presently under construction and scheduled for completion in May 1979. The building's design includes an A-frame type roof with the south 1530 sq. ft. 60/sup 0/ roof slope double glazed with movable Beadwall insulation. This slope is fabricated using standard greenhouse components to form the Beadwall envelope. A commercially available acoustical tile, (with mirror-finish aluminized polyester film), is used on the north ceiling slope to reflect insolation to the thermal floor mass, minimizing diffuse ceiling reflection back through the south glass. Interior partitions formed by rows of fiberglass provide additional insolation thermal storage.

  16. Comparing a phased combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method with other simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Brunskog, Jonas; Jeong, Cheol-Ho;

    2015-01-01

    and diffuse reflections when simulating the acoustics of small rooms with non-diffuse sound fields, since scattering from walls add to the diffuseness in the room. This room type is often seen in class rooms and offices, as they are often small rectangular rooms with most of the absorption placed...... on the ceiling. Here, PARISM is used for comparisons with other simulation tools and measurements. An empty, rectangular room with a suspended absorbing ceiling is used for the comparisons. It was found that including the phase information in simulations increases the spatial standard deviation, even if only...

  17. BAYBURT DAĞÇATI KÖYÜ CAMİİ VE ÇEŞMESİ / Bayburt Dağçatı Village Mosque and the Fountain

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Haldun

    2014-01-01

    Da ğçatı Village mosque is one of the mosques of the Ottoman period that has the traditional features. It was built in 1806 at the beginning of XIX. century. It is one of the examples in the country of the traditional wooden architecture. The ceiling of the mosque that has a square planned wooden ceiling rests on the walls on all sides. The mosque has a great importance due to the features of the hand-drown ornament at the indoor. The flowers and branches, “C” and “S” shaped ornaments, symbol...

  18. Credit trading and the danger of institutional lock-in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the ways the Kyoto Protocol offers to the industrialized countries to reduce the costs of achieving their greenhouse gas emission targets is emission trading. There are different types of emissions trading: permit trading under emissions ceilings (also known as allowance trading) is more efficient and effective than credit trading without emissions ceilings (also known as performance standard rate trading). Nevertheless, certain officials and politicians are tempted to opt for the last option. In this article a new argument is used to warn them that opting for credit trading can result in an institutional lock-in from which it will be difficult for future policy makers to escape

  19. Softness, Polynomial Boundedness and Amplitudes' Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the connection between infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors of scattering amplitudes of massless channels by exploiting dispersion relations and positivity bounds. Given forward scattering amplitudes which scale as $\\mathcal{A}(s)\\sim s^M$ in the IR ($s\\to0$) and could be embedded into UV completions satisfying unitarity, analyticity, crossing symmetry and polynomial boundedness $|\\mathcal{A}(s)|< c\\, |s|^N$ ($|s|\\to\\infty$), with $M$ and $N$ integers, we show that the inequality $2\\ceil*{\\frac{N}{2}}\\ge M \\ge 0$ must hold, where $\\ceil*{x}$ is the smallest integer greater than or equal to $x$.

  20. Optimal timing of carbon sequestration policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lafforgue, Gilles; MOREAUX Michel

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the most promising abatement options to curb CO2 emissions of the energy sector. Usually, in models where the atmospheric carbon stock is constrained to not exceed a given ceiling and under constant average costs, it is never optimal to deploy CCS before the time at which this ceiling is reached. In this paper, we show that, when the CCS technology is submitted to decreasing returns to scale, abatement activities must begin earlier, i.e. before the c...

  1. A short assessment of health literacy (SAHL) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pander Maat, Henk; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Leenaars, Karlijn EF; Fransen, Mirjam P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: An earlier attempt to adapt the REALM (Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine) word recognition test to Dutch was not entirely successful due to ceiling effects. In contrast to REALM, the Short Assessment of Health Literacy (SAHL) assesses both word recognition and compreh

  2. Cracked but Not Broken: The Continued Gender Gap in Senior Administrative Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written about the glass ceiling and pay differentials in higher and further education (HE, FE) for women academics (McTavish and Miller 2009, Rees 2007) but very little about discrepancies for women "professional managers" within UK higher education. Professional managers as a term needs to be defined as universities call their…

  3. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... State housing credit ceiling, or volume cap, described in paragraph (b) of this section. The authority... section. Upon apportionment of the State housing credit volume cap, each State or local housing credit... enacted on or before October 22, 1986, the date of enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, shall be...

  4. Probabilistic approach to long range planning of manpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejk, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Publication presents a total long range planning model for project oriented organizations. The total model consists of planning systems which originate - /1/ at the project level and consolidate into an overall plan, and /2/ from a budetary ceiling and allocate to the individual projects. Analysis of /1/ and /2/ is provided for management decision making.

  5. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Habitat for Humanity South Sarasota County, Nokomis, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The builder won an Affordable Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards for this super-insulated home that features a 5.5-inch-thick layer of open-cell spray foam on the inside of the attic ceiling, providing an R-20-insulated, cool, conditioned space for the home’s high-efficiency SEER 15 heat pumps.

  6. 14 CFR 27.49 - Performance at minimum operating speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance at minimum operating speed. 27... minimum operating speed. (a) For helicopters— (1) The hovering ceiling must be determined over the ranges... climb at the minimum operating speed must be determined over the ranges of weight, altitude,...

  7. 现在完成进行时阅读园地

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩萍

    2005-01-01

    Mr and Mrs Banks have been having a lot of problems in their apartment recently. For several weeks their bedroom ceiling has been leaking,their fridge hasn' t been working, and the paint in their hallway has been peeling. In addition, they have been taking cold showers since last week because their water heater hasn't been working,

  8. 俚语和成语.让你走出英语学习的黑暗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Burke

    2007-01-01

    We don't use that much slang…or do we?  When I was working out at the gym with a French friend of mine, Pascale, a friend of his came up and enthusiastically inquired, "What's up?"Pascale paused a moment, took a step backward and looked up, checking out the ceiling.……

  9. 俚语和成语.让你走出英语学习的黑暗%Without Slang and ldioms,Students are in the Dark!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Burke

    2007-01-01

    @@ We don't use that much slang…or do we? When I was working out at the gym with a French friend of mine, Pascale, a friend of his came up and enthusiastically inquired, "What's up?"Pascale paused a moment, took a step backward and looked up, checking out the ceiling.

  10. The impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages, and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    -friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression...

  11. A new chalcone from the aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xu; Xiang Min Wang; Xing Wei; Jing Yuan Li; Ke Liu

    2009-01-01

    A new flavonoid with chalcone skeleton was isolated from the dried aerial roots of Ficus microcarpa.The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral methods including ID and 2D NMR.The new compound showed weak inhibitory effect on nitric oxide production and cytotoxicity against K562 and PC3 ceils.

  12. Monastic Musings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco; Little

    2015-01-01

    My eyes kept being drawn to the cartoon cutout characters on the bobbing bus ceiling. Mickey Mouse and Pluto werepasted in between metallic paper roses, hearts and butterflies. It all seemed incongruous hovering over an eclectic collection of rural pas- sengers, jabbering in a jarring dialect, crammed into a bus chugging its way into the mountains high above Xining.

  13. New Engineering Principles in Atrium Smoke Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valkvist, Morten Birk Sabroe

    A typical atrium smoke management setup was divided into characteristic flow regions; axisymmetric plume, ceiling jet/approach flow, rotation region and spill plume. A grid convergence study was conducted on each of the flow regions in order to determine the non-dimensional grid resolution requir...

  14. Architectural Design and the Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan;

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects of ceiling height and perceived enclosure—defined as perceived visual and locomotive permeability—on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architectural design. Furthermore, to gain traction on the mechanisms driving the observed effects, we employed func...

  15. Cross Infection in Hospital Wards with Downward Ventilation - Different Locations of Return Openings without and with Partitions between Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Buus, Morten;

    2009-01-01

    A two-bed hospital ward with one standing healthcare assistant and a ceiling-mounted low-impulse semicircular inlet diffuser is simulated in a full-scale room. Tracer gas is used for simulating gaseous contaminants, and the concentration is measured at different air change rates and different pos...

  16. 48 CFR 16.603-2 - Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal, required certified cost or pricing data and data other than certified cost or pricing data; and... based on price competition, the contracting officer shall include an overall price ceiling in the letter... funds before definitization. However, it shall not exceed 50 percent of the estimated cost of...

  17. Performing an action one cannot do

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    of a routine in which a physiotherapist assists a client living with acquired brain injury to perform an activity the client cannot perform for herself: turning from lying face-down to facing the ceiling. The analysis highlights the situated multimodal and embodied practices of scaffolding whereby both parties...

  18. Naised teaduses = Women in research / Aavo Heinlo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Heinlo, Aavo

    2006-01-01

    Naiste osa teadus- ja arendustegevuses. Naised ja mehed akadeemilise karjääri tüüpilistel astmetel Euroopa Liidus ja Eestis. Naiste karjäär ja klaaslae indeks (Glass Ceiling Index), sooline palgalõhe. Tabelid, diagrammid

  19. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  20. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  1. Nutrient-specific compensatory feeding in a mammalian carnivore, the mink, Neovison vison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Simpson, Stephen J; Nielsen, Vivi H;

    2014-01-01

    occurred for all the three macronutrients, including carbohydrate, which is particularly interesting as carbohydrate is not a major macronutrient for obligate carnivores in nature. However, there was also a ceiling to carbohydrate intake, as has been demonstrated previously in domestic cats. The results...

  2. 76 FR 7864 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... target rate ceilings (provided for by Section 1886(b) of the Social Security Act). State survey agencies... research on displays, labels, and explanatory language to insure that the website is understood by viewers... Collection Request: New Collection; Title of Information Collection: MMIS APD Template for Use by States...

  3. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... ceiling for STS loans, provided FCUs made the loans within the requirements of the rule. 75 FR 2447 (May 5... help reduce the chance of a borrower defaulting on an STS loan. While the final rule imposes a minimum... of Management and Budget. Executive Order 13132 Executive Order 13132 encourages...

  4. 45 CFR 1628.4 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedures. (a) Within 30 days of the submission to LSC of its annual audited financial statements, a recipient may request a waiver of the 10% ceiling on LSC fund balances. The request shall specify: (1) The LSC fund balance as reported in the recipient's annual audited financial statements; (2) The...

  5. 48 CFR 52.216-7 - Allowable Cost and Payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... written understanding setting forth the final indirect cost rates. The understanding shall specify (i) the... special terms and the applicable rates. The understanding shall not change any monetary ceiling,...

  6. A Homey Place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Warm autumn sunlight slanted into the Globe Café of Mercure Wanshang Beijing hotel through its floor-to-ceiling windows. Sitting at a table overlooking a large garden, Mary Goh, the hotel’s general manager, talked about her hotel.

  7. CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment hall, a huge cathedral-like structure 100 metres below ground, is another mind-blowing feat of civil engineering. Its construction involved the use of ground-breaking technology, such as the system for suspending the ceiling put in place during the excavation work.

  8. Cross-border electricity market effects due to price caps in an emission trading system: An agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Chappin, E.J.L.; De Vries, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The recent low CO2 prices in the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) have triggered a discussion whether the EU ETS needs to be adjusted. We study the effects of CO2 price floors and a price ceiling on the dynamic investment pathway of two interlinked electricity markets (loosely based o

  9. Psychometric properties of two questionnaires in the context of total wrist arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H; Merser, Søren

    2014-01-01

    evaluated the Patient-rated Wrist Evaluation. RESULTS: Internal consistency and reproducibility were very high (Cronbach's alpha 0.96/0.97; Spearman's rho 0.90/ 0.91; intraclass coefficient 0.91/0.92), and there were no floor or ceiling effects. The responsiveness of the QuickDASH was high (standardised...

  10. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  11. 国外暖通空调实用文献摘要选编

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦慧敏

    2009-01-01

    泰国利用屋顶太阳能烟囱效应的冷却吊顶实验和数据解析[a①],Utilization of cool ceiling with roof solar chimney in Thailand: The experimental and numerical analysis. Renew Energy(英国)34[1]623-633(2009);

  12. The Attentional Blink Is Not Affected by Backward Masking of T2, T2-Mask SOA, or Level of T2 Impoverishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannati, Ali; Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification of the second of two targets (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). This "attentional blink" (AB) is thought to arise from a delay in T2 processing during which T2 is vulnerable to masking. Conventional studies have measured T2 accuracy which is constrained by the 100% ceiling. We avoided this problem by using…

  13. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    data from a national database in which HoNOSCA is scored before and after therapy in order to show the treatment effect. We constructed a modified score to correct for the potential bias due to RTM, and used Generalized Linear Models analysis to adjust for the ceiling and floor effect. Our study showed...

  14. Shadow Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2012-01-01

    A bunny rabbit playfully hops across the wall. Then hands realign and fingers shift to make a hawk soar toward the ceiling. Most children have enjoyed the delightful experience of playing with shadow puppets. The authors build on this natural curiosity to help students link shadows to complex astronomical concepts such as seasons. The…

  15. Topology optimization for acoustic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a method to control acoustic properties in a room with topology optimization is presented. It is shown how the squared sound pressure amplitude in a certain part of a room can be minimized by distribution of material in a design domain along the ceiling in 2D and 3D. Nice 0-1 designs...

  16. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (85th, Miami, Florida, August 5-8, 2002). Commission on the Status of Women Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    The Commission on the Status of Women Division of the proceedings contains the following 6 papers: "Relationship Content in Four Men's and Women's Magazines" (Alexis Zachary and Bryan Denham); "Mind the Gender Gap: Gender Differences in Motivation to Contribute Online Content" (Cindy Royal); "Peering through the Glass Ceiling of the Boys' Club:…

  17. High-throughput amplicon sequencing reveals distinct communities within a corroding concrete sewer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayford, Barry I; Dennis, Paul G; Keller, Jurg; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2012-10-01

    Microbially induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is an important problem in sewers. Here, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to characterize MICC communities. Microbial community composition differed between wall- and ceiling-associated MICC layers. Acidithiobacillus spp. were present at low abundances, and the communities were dominated by other sulfur-oxidizing-associated lineages.

  18. Participation by women in developmental, social, cognitive, and general psychology: A context for interpreting trends in behavior analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Frances K; Parks, Craig D

    2002-01-01

    We examined participation by women in journals devoted to social, developmental, cognitive, and general psychology. Authorship and first authorship by women increased from 1978 to 1997 for most journals. Participation by women on the editorial staff did not keep pace with their increased authorship for social and developmental psychology. Based on these trends, women's participation decreased with increases in the selectivity of the position for social and developmental psychology (a glass ceiling). The development of a glass ceiling suggests that the contributions of men and women are not always treated equally (gender inequity). Because a similar glass ceiling was reported for journals in behavior analysis (McSweeney, Donahoe, & Swindell, 2000; McSweeney & Swindell, 1998), the causes of this inequity appear to be relatively widespread. The failure to find a glass ceiling for general and cognitive psychology suggests that the inequity might be reduced by subtle pressure for diversity in editorial positions and by adopting actions that encourage women to pursue research positions.

  19. Investigation of the buoyancy affected airflow patterns in the enclosure subjected at the different wall temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, Brajesh; Moulic, S.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2007-08-15

    In air-conditioning systems, conditioned warm/cold air is supplied to the room depending upon winter/summer. This air should be properly distributed into the room so that there are neither draft conditions nor stagnant zones. In this investigation air circulation and temperature distribution in a room have been studied for a particular location of air inlet and outlet on opposite walls. Two-dimensional, steady, laminar, incompressible flow has been considered. Navier-Stokes equation and energy equations in two-dimensional rectangular Cartesian co-ordinates have been numerically solved using control volume method. Boussinesq's approximation has been used for buoyancy force. The cold primary air enters the room near the ceiling. The flow attaches with the ceiling due to Coanda effect. It moves along the ceiling and comes down along the opposite wall to go out for small values of Gr. For larger values of Gr, it moves along the ceiling for some distance and then stoops downwards, attaches with the floor and then goes out. As Reynolds number increases, the point of attachment on floor moves away from the inlet. As the buoyancy increases the flow attaches with floor earlier. Two circulation zones are observed due to entrainment. The intensity of circulation increases with Reynolds number and Grashof number and temperature becomes more uniform. (author)

  20. 76 FR 29183 - Exclusion of Orphan Drugs for Certain Covered Entities Under 340B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... drugs. Sec. 10.3 Definitions. Ceiling price means the maximum statutory price established under section... 1992,'' enacted section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) ``Limitation on Prices of Drugs... the statute and must agree to charge a price that will not exceed the amount determined under...

  1. 48 CFR 3046.790-2 - Definitions (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions (USCG). 3046... Definitions (USCG). As used in this part: At no additional cost to the Government means without an increase in price for firm-fixed-price contracts, without an increase in target or ceiling price for fixed...

  2. 48 CFR 52.216-5 - Price Redetermination-Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed any ceiling price included in the contract. (b) Definition. Costs, as used in this clause, means... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price Redetermination....216-5 Price Redetermination—Prospective. As prescribed in 16.205-4, insert the following clause:...

  3. 48 CFR 1246.101-70 - Additional definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or ceiling price for fixed price incentive contracts (see (FAR) 48 CFR 46.707), or at no increase in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional definitions... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE General 1246.101-70 Additional definitions. At no additional cost...

  4. Does monetary unification lead to excessive debt accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1995-01-01

    If discretionary monetary policy implies an inflation bias, monetary unification boosts the accumulation of public debt. The additional debt accumulation is welfare reducing only if governments are sufficiently myopic. In the presence of myopic governments, debt ceilings play a useful role in avoidi

  5. Description and validation of a combination of acoustical radiosity and the image source method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2014-01-01

    furthermore describes how a pressure impulse response is obtained from the energy based radios- ity model. Validation of the image source model with real-valued boundary conditions is done by comparison with the analytical Green’s function in an enclosure. The full model is compared with measurements done in...... a rectangular room with a highly absorbing ceilings...

  6. Feeding the world in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G; Toenniessen, G

    1999-12-01

    The gains in food production provided by the Green Revolution have reached their ceiling while world population continues to rise. To ensure that the world's poorest people do not still go hungry in the twenty-first century, advances in plant biotechnology must be deployed for their benefit by a strong public-sector agricultural research effort. PMID:10591226

  7. Enumeration versus Multiple Object Tracking: The Case of Action Video Game Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C. S.; Bavelier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that action video game play enhances subjects' ability in two tasks thought to indicate the number of items that can be apprehended. Using an enumeration task, in which participants have to determine the number of quickly flashed squares, accuracy measures showed a near ceiling performance for low numerosities and a sharp drop…

  8. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas;

    2014-01-01

    both specular and diffuse reflections with complex-valued acoustical descriptions of the surfaces. In this paper the PARISM model is used to simulate a rectangular room with most of the absorption located in the ceiling. This room configuration is typical for classroom conditions. The simulations...... measures which are important for evaluation of the acoustics in classrooms....

  9. Global payment for health services as a solution in the financial crisis in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, Guus J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In these financial difficult years many European governments used global ceilings to control costs of health services. Two scenarios are thinkable. The first is that all individual providers get a budget for their own costs: general practitioners, specialists, hospitals, nursing homes and mental hea

  10. Why Lash Yourself to the Mast?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobe Suenson, Emil; Nedergaard, Peter; Christiansen, Peter Munk

    2016-01-01

    The article examines the adoption of the Danish 2012 “Budget Law.” The law added spending ceilings, economic sanctions and mandatory balanced budgets. The law was passed to address the lack of cost control in Danish municipalities and asymmetrical preferences concerning public expenditures and can...... Parliament to pass the Budget Law....

  11. Economic feasibility of maximising daylighting of a standard office building with efficient electric lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontoynont, Marc; Ramananarivo, Karine; Soreze, Thierry Silvio Claude;

    2016-01-01

    costs and is typical of the French market. We have compared scenarios that entail moving service spaces to the periphery, increasing ceiling height and adding light wells of various shapes. These special features increased the proportion of the indoor area with sufficient daylight by up to 40......' well-being, safety in case of an electrical black-out, and rental and resell value....

  12. Coordinate Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Rena Descartes was a mathematician who lived in France in the 17th century.While lying in bed one cold day he looked up and saw a fly crawling along the ceiling as shown in He wanted to work out a way of describing where the fly was.

  13. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  14. A modified critical velocity for road tunnel fire smoke management with dedicated smoke extraction configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-10-01

    It is concluded that the smoke extraction performance is similar whether using ceiling dampers or vertical wall-mounted dampers for smoke capture to maintain tunnel tenability. However, tunnel gradients play a major role on the modified critical velocity for a nominated design fire and the required smoke extraction rate.

  15. Leading the Way: 25 Women Making a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When it comes to leadership, women are now taking on long overdue roles. This article presents 25 dynamic women in the world of higher education and beyond. They lead some of the most demanding and consequential organizations and programs on the planet. No longer sitting on the decision-making sidelines, they have shattered the glass ceiling and,…

  16. An Atrium that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Energy use is lowered in a new dormitory at Montclair State College (New Jersey). A five-story covered atrium reduces the exterior wall area, and inverted venetian blinds hung between the double glazed south windows reflect solar energy up to the concrete ceiling where it is stored until night. (Author/MLF)

  17. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  18. Cuts endanger more services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-06-01

    WHEN BARNSLEY council put out its tender for the 0-19 service last autumn, it laid down strict criteria. A ceiling of £4.8 million a year was put on any bids for the service, which incorporates school nursing teams and health visitors. That represented a cut of more than £1 million on the existing contract. PMID:27266736

  19. Evidence for Deductive Reasoning in Blocking of Causal Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C.J.; Lovibond, P.F.; Condoleon, M.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that pre-training of additivity (the outcome of two causal cues is larger than one causal cue) greatly enhances blocking. This manipulation could work by removing a ceiling effect on the outcome, as proposed by Cheng (1997). Alternatively, it could remove the logical ambiguity associated with blocking under…

  20. Achieving Zero Net Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Unemployment in the United States can only be made worse by continued high levels of legal immigration. Especially serious is the threat from Latin America. We must help developing countries halt their population growth and impose a ceiling of 100,000 a year for total immigration to the United States. (RM)

  1. Drug: D00657 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available al (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] C CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C03 DIURETICS C03A LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, THIAZIDES C03AA Thiazides, pla...in C03AA05 Polythiazide D00657 Polythiazide (JAN/USAN/IN

  2. 26 CFR 1.103(n)-5T - Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any bribe, gift, gratuity, or direct or indirect contribution to any political campaign. With respect... willfully making an allocation in consideration of any bribe, gift, gratuity, or direct or indirect... allocation of any portion of the State ceiling in consideration of any bribe, gift, gratuity, or direct...

  3. De loonkloof tussen mannen en vrouwen: Een review van het onderzoek in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Tijdens; M. van Klaveren

    2011-01-01

    This article examines 20 studies on the remuneration of men and women in the Netherlands, where the influence of nine groups of factors was viewed: human capital, industry, job classification, job level, glass ceiling, firm size, working hours, gender-composition of occupation, and family building a

  4. United States - The Downgrade Scenario

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Semmens; David Mann; Ned Rumpeltin; Jennifer Kusuma; Callum Henderson

    2011-01-01

    @@ Summary The US debt-ceiling negotiations in Washington are showing little progress as the 2 August deadline approaches.Based on the latest proposals under discussion, the chances of a debt-ceiling hike which also incorporates USD 4trn worth of deficit cuts over the next decade are slim.This is important, as it means that S&P is likely to downgrade the US sovereign rating from AAA to AA, even if the debt ceiling is raised.Note that in an interview with Dow Jones, one of S&P's credit analysts said that to avoid a downgrade, the US needs to agree to reduce the fiscal deficit by over USD 4tm over the next ten years.This is what S&P sees as the required amount to prevent the total government debt-to-GDP ratio from rising.Therefore, a debt-ceiling deal with deficit cuts falling short of this could mean a downgrade by at least one of the three key rating agencies.

  5. Wonderful Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  6. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  7. 29 CFR 1990.151 - Model standard pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequences of the substitutes.) (ii) Ceiling limit (if appropriate). Within (insert appropriate time period..., smoking products are not present or used, and cosmetics are not applied (except that these activities may... for Occupational Safety and Health under the provisions of 30 CFR part 11. (3) Respirator program....

  8. Removing Welding Fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lloyd J.; Hall, Vandel L.

    1987-01-01

    Portable exhaust duct for machining and welding shops removes oil mist, dust, smoke, and fumes. Duct used with shop exhaust system, inlets of which placed at various convenient locations in shop floor. Flanged connector on underside of wheeled base links flexible tube to exhaust system under floor. Made especially for welding in room with low ceiling.

  9. Hispanic Women: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos-Sasscer, Ruth

    This paper addresses the status of Hispanic women in the United States and the challenges facing Hispanic women in society. The paper is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) "From a Melting Pot to a Salad Bowl"; (3) "Adobe Walls and Glass Ceilings"; (4) "Signs of Improvement"; (5) "Diversity is 'In'"; (6) "The Need to Manage…

  10. 24 CFR 5.703 - Physical condition standards for HUD housing that is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... domestic water, electrical system, elevators, emergency power, fire protection, HVAC, and sanitary system... applicable), ceiling, doors, electrical systems, floors, hot water heater, HVAC (where individual units are.... (2) Where applicable, the dwelling unit must have hot and cold running water, including an...

  11. 24 CFR 902.23 - Physical condition standards for public housing-decent, safe, and sanitary housing in good repair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... water, electrical system, elevators, emergency power, fire protection, HVAC, and sanitary system. Each..., call-for-aid, ceiling, doors, electrical systems, floors, hot water heater, HVAC (where individual... good repair. (ii) Where applicable, the dwelling unit must have hot and cold running water,...

  12. Housekeeping. An Approach to Housekeeping Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotel and Catering Industry Training Board, Wembley (England).

    This booklet examines the training required by staff employed in housekeeping departments in the hotel and catering industry. It details specifications of particular tasks--baths/cloakrooms; service pantries and utility rooms; beds; furniture/fittings; floors/walls and ceilings; carpets/upholstery/soft furnishings; linen handling; linen room work;…

  13. Footprints on Ammonia Concentrations from Environmental Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ellermann, Thomas; Hertel, Ole;

    2008-01-01

    Releases of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere contribute significantly to the desposition of nitrogen to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is the background for the national NH3 emission ceilings in Europe. However, in some countries the national legislation aims not only to meet theese...

  14. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chusak, Jared Daiber, Ramesh Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD, four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a an all-air overhead system, (b a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling, (c an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation, and (d a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room. Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  15. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In a warm environment, air movement with elevated velocity is a well-known cooling strategy. The local air movement is typically generated by cooling fans (e.g., ceiling fan, table fans, etc.). Appearance, power input, and price are the main parameters considered today when purchasing cooling fan...

  16. Cracking the Vault: Generation and analysis of a MVP knockout mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Mossink (Marieke)

    2003-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In 1986 a novel, large-sized ribonucleoprotein complex was first described. The barrel-shaped structures were initially detected in preparations of clathrin-coated vesicles from rat liver and because they showed a morphology that resembled the vaulted ceilings in cathed

  17. Psychometric Characteristics Associated with Changes on the Passage Comprehension Test of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Gerald; Simpson, Robert

    Forty adolescent subjects with behavior problems at home or at school were administered the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18, and included 25 males and 15 females. The Passage Comprehension Test for each subject was rescored using three different ceiling criteria: (1) five errors in six consecutive responses,…

  18. Radiant Professionals Alliance guidelines 2010

    CERN Document Server

    IAPMO

    2010-01-01

    RPA Guidelines for the Design and Installation of Radiant Panel Heating and Snow/Ice Melt Systems. Intended for reference use by code officials, designers and installers. Deals with both hydronic and electric floor, wall and limited ceiling applications. Includes sample schematics and industry recommendations.

  19. Predicting and auralizing acoustics in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge

    2005-01-01

    Although classrooms have fairly simple geometries, this type of room is known to cause problems when trying to predict their acoustics using room acoustics computer modeling. Some typical features from a room acoustics point of view are: Parallel walls, low ceilings (the rooms are flat), uneven...

  20. Theoretical Framework of A Computational Model of Auditory Memory for Music Emotion Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caetano, Marcelo; Wiering, Frans

    2014-01-01

    The bag of frames (BOF) approach commonly used in music emotion recognition (MER) has several limitations. The semantic gap is believed to be responsible for the glass ceiling on the performance of BOF MER systems. However, there are hardly any alternative proposals to address it. In this article, w

  1. Drug: D10271 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10271 Mixture, Drug Amiloride hydrochloride - hydrochlorothiazide mixt; Amiloride ...hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide (TN) Amiloride hydrochloride [DR:D00649], Hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D003... COMBINATION C03EA Low-ceiling diuretics and potassium-sparing agents C03EA01 Hydrochlorothiazide and potass...ium-sparing agents D10271 Amiloride hydrochloride - hydrochlorothiazide mixt PubChem: 163312302 ...

  2. Machine devices in mul-purpose theater%多功能剧场的机械装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁良忠

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, it mainly introduces thecharacteristics of multi - purpose theater and machineswhich used in multi - purpose theater. Moving walls,moving ceiling, adjustable sound - absorbing devices,sound reflecting shell, adjustable floor of auditorium,seating machines are typical devices in multi - purposetheater.

  3. 软骨样副脊索瘤(附病例报告)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚庆端; 王敏; 李培峰; 曲美婷

    2004-01-01

    To study the clinical pathological characteristics and differentiation diagnosis of the chondroid parachordoma from primary tumors or metastatic to ulna, femur and radius. Methods Three cases of primary chondroid parachordoma of the ulma, femur and radius were studied by histopathological observation and immunohisto chemical staining and by pathological consultation. Results The histological features of tumor were composed of two the chordoma ceils subtotal and the chondrosareoma ceils of small - portio. The tumor was arranged vary in sizes of lobular and brink of lobular were seplum small girder of chondroid, or the tissue fiber. The tumor cells were distributed sheet, trabecula with or island -like in the intralobular, and the tumor ceils were vary in size and the karyon heterotypic were no patent and the cytoplasm of rich shows large vacuole. The chondroidosarcomas intra - lobular were viewed ceils both nucleus and uninuclear of chondrolacunae and the stroma were hyaling cartilage with or blennoid in the mesenchyma, and that picture of typical chondrosarcoma. EMA, CK, Vimentin, S - 100 protein, NSE with immunohistochemical method (ABC) staining were positive and Desmin, CD34 negative in the all of tumor cells. The chondroid parachodoma was diagnosed in the pathological read- section- conference and consulation. Conclusion Primary ulna, femur and radius chondroid parachordoma is a rare in rate of neoplasm and is diagnosed diflqculdy. Immunohistochemical method would be helpful to diagnosis.

  4. Synergie Klimaat- en NOx-beleid: Een kostenevaluatie tot 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets WLM; Hoen A; Wijngaart RA van den; LED

    2005-01-01

    The acquisition of relative cheap CO2 emission rights from foreign countries may mean missing synergistic side-effects on the domestic emissions of air-polluting substances. Extra costs will be necessary if the emission ceilings for NOx, SO2, and NMVOS are to be realised. These factors have, to date

  5. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  6. Snooki, Whale Sperm, and Google: The Unfortunate Extinction Of Librarians When They Are Needed Most

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaux DelGuidice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available “Google can bring you back 100,000 answers. A librarian can bring you back the right one.” — Neil Gaiman The night before I was scheduled to return to work after summer vacation I was lying in bed, staring at the ceiling trying to quiet my thoughts and reset my body into work mode. Unfortunately I [...

  7. Increasing energy efficiency of HVAC systems of buildings using phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chusak, Lee; Daiber, Jared; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), four different cooling systems used in contemporary office environments are modeled to compare energy consumption and thermal comfort levels. Incorporating convection and radiation technologies, full-scale models of an office room compare energy efficiency of (a) an all-air overhead system, (b) a combined all-air overhead and hydronic radiant system (chilled ceiling), (c) an all-air raised floor system (displacement ventilation), and (d) a combined displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling. The computational domain for each model consists of one temperature varying wall (simulating the temperature of the exterior wall of the building during a 24-hour period) and adiabatic conditions for the remaining walls, floor, and ceiling (simulating interior walls of the room). Two sets of computations are conducted. The first set considers a glass window and plastic shade configuration for the exterior wall. The second set of computations includes a phase change material layer between the glass window and the plastic shade. Results show substantial energy savings can be accrued using the displacement ventilation and especially the displacement ventilation with a chilled ceiling over the conventional overhead mixing ventilation system. The results also show that the addition of a PCM layer to the exterior wall can significantly decrease the cooling energy requirements.

  8. Romanian Fiscal Policy in Perspective of Admittance in EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Mitrica

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper analizes the convergence between Romanian and European fiscal policy in terms of three issues: the fiscal revenues percentage of GDP, the structure of public revenues and the public budget deficit (under the constrait of 3% of GDP. The analysis reveals small differences for the first and second issues and an important opportunity cost for the ceiling of deficit.

  9. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT T.TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    @@ Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situations. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is" being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language.

  10. Teaching Graduate Non-English Majors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT; T.; TUOHEY

    2010-01-01

    Foreigners teaching English in China routinely find themselves in odd situa-tions. One of the oddest, at least for the newcomer, is being thrust into a room packed ceiling-to-floor with every major under the sun, except English, and being expected to make said group conversant in the missing language. Even at a glance, this setup is screwy for

  11. Staircase and Fractional Part Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram, Meirav; Dagan, Miriam; Ioshpe, Michael; Satianov, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The staircase and fractional part functions are basic examples of real functions. They can be applied in several parts of mathematics, such as analysis, number theory, formulas for primes, and so on; in computer programming, the floor and ceiling functions are provided by a significant number of programming languages--they have some basic uses in…

  12. Measuring Individual Differences in Sensitivities to Basic Emotions in Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu; Hoshino, Takahiro; Shigemasu, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of individual differences in facial expression recognition is normally required to address two major issues: (1) high agreement level (ceiling effect) and (2) differential difficulty levels across emotions. We propose a new assessment method designed to quantify individual differences in the recognition of the six basic emotions,…

  13. Financing Development Through Future-Flow Securitization

    OpenAIRE

    Ratha, Dilip

    2002-01-01

    Securitization of future hard currency receivables, that is, converting them into tradable securities, can allow developing country borrowers with good credit to overcome sovereign credit ceilings, and raise financing in international capital markets. The note examines the case of PEMEX, Mexico's state-owned oil and gas company, which in 1998 issued oil export-backed securities that receiv...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Manz, H.;

    2010-01-01

    is the heat transfer at the internal room surfaces. Increased convection is expected due to high air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. In order to improve the predictability, heat transfer during night...

  15. Sonoma House: Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Weitzel, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; Dakin, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles which promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  16. Sonoma House. Monitoring of the First U.S. Passive House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The Sonoma Deep Retrofit is a single-story deep retrofit project in the marine climate of Sonoma, California. The design was guided by Passive House principles that promote the use of very high levels of wall, ceiling, and floor insulation along with tight envelope construction to maintain a comfortable indoor environment with little or no need for conventional heating or cooling.

  17. The "Reading the Mind in the Voice" Test-Revised: A Study of Complex Emotion Recognition in Adults with and Without Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Hill, Jacqueline J.; Rutherford, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study reports a revised version of the "Reading the Mind in the Voice" (RMV) task. The original task (Rutherford et al., (2002), "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32," 189-194) suffered from ceiling effects and limited sensitivity. To improve that, the task was shortened and two more foils were added to each of the remaining…

  18. The Razor’s Edge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei; Xinyu

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. economy faces deeper problems, though immediate danger subsided As if watching a replay of the fight over the U.S. national debt ceiling in 2011, the crisis billed as the "fiscal cliff" ended up with a last-minute compromise between thetwo major political parties of the United States.

  19. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Southeast Volusia Habitat for Humanity, Edgewater, FL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This home garnered an award in the Affordable Builder category of the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards, and features 2x4 walls with fiberglass batt inside plus R-3 rigid foam on the exterior, ENERGY STAR lighting, appliances, and ceiling fans, a solar water heater, an energy recovery ventilation, and a high efficiency heat pump.

  20. 77 FR 37793 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ...-124-AD; Amendment 39-17099; AD 2012-12-19] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain the Boeing Company Model 777-200, -200LR, and -300ER... ceiling support structure of Section 41, in airplanes incorporating the overhead space utilization...

  1. Effect of insulator sleeve length on neutron emission in a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron emission from a small Mather-type plasma focus facility operated by a single 32 μF, 15 kV capacitor is studied. Specifically, the effects of insulator sleeve length and a ''ceiling'' introduced in front of the central electrode on the neutron yield and on the fluence anisotropy are investigated. (orig.)

  2. 是electric fire还是electrical fire?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周斌

    2000-01-01

    高中一年级1B教材中,有这样一个句子:Perhaps it was started by an electrical fire in the ceiling of one of the offices.有不少同学误把electric与electrical当成同义词,其实它们的含义是不相同的。

  3. Adaptation of the Monetary Choice Questionnaire to accommodate extreme monetary discounting in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Sheri L; Hobkirk, Andréa L; Ye, Daniel G; Meade, Christina S

    2015-12-01

    Delay discounting, which refers to the phenomenon that rewards decrease in subjective value as the delay associated with their receipt increases, is a paradigm that has been used extensively in substance abuse research to understand impulsive decision making. One common measure to assess delay discounting is the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) developed by Kirby, Petry, and Bickel (1999). While the MCQ has great utility because of its simplicity and brief administration time, it is possible that the MCQ produces a ceiling effect in estimating delay discounting parameters in highly impulsive individuals. In the present study, we adapted the MCQ to attempt to address this ceiling effect by extending the original scale with 9 items, and we then compared scores on the original MCQ with the extended MCQ in a sample of active cocaine users. The ceiling effect, while observed in the original MCQ scores for over a quarter of the sample, was largely eliminated with the extended scale. Highly impulsive participants, whose scores on the extended scale exceeded the highest possible score on the original scale, had higher levels of sensation seeking compared to other participants, but not trait impulsivity. The extended MCQ may be useful in populations with high rates of impulsivity, where the original measure may underestimate discounting rates due to a ceiling effect. PMID:26191820

  4. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 440 - Standards for Weatherization Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Fire Prevention Association. Waste Heat Recovery Devices Desuperheater/water heaters ARI 1 470-1987..., Ceilings, Attics, and Roofs Insulation—organic fiber—conformance to Interim Safety Standard in 16 CFR part... flammability requirements given for cellulose insulation in 16 CFR part 1209; Enclosed...

  5. Quality of life in endometriosis: evaluation of the Dutch-version Endometriosis Health Profile-30 (EHP-30)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, T.J. van de; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Kluivers, K.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch version of the Endometriosis Health Profile-30 (EHP-30) showed a high return rate and data completeness, low floor and ceiling effects, as well as good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. The questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for the measure

  6. Locomotor Experience Affects Self and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Ichiro; Anderson, David I.; Campos, Joseph J.; Witherington, David; Frankel, Carl B.; Lejeune, Laure; Barbu-Roth, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of locomotor experience on visual proprioception in 8-month-old infants. "Visual proprioception" refers to the sense of self-motion induced in a static person by patterns of optic flow. A moving room apparatus permitted displacement of an entire enclosure (except for the floor) or the side walls and ceiling. In…

  7. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  8. Safeguards against Takeover after Volkswagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article analyses the significance of the European Court's decision on the effects of the rules on the free movement of capital on the takeover safeguards in Volkswagen AG for restrictions on the right to vote, ownership ceilings, division into A and B share classes, increased majority...

  9. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs...

  10. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Carpentry. Course: Rough-In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Lyle

    One of two individualized courses included in a carpentry curriculum, this course includes those skills and knowledge related to and included in the carpentry tasks of structure framing and forming. The course is comprised of four units: (1) Excavation Layout--Concrete and Forms, (2) Floor and Wall Framing, (3) Ceiling Framing, and (4) Roof. Each…

  11. A new cytotoxic caged polyprenylated xanthone from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li Wang; Zhan Lin Li; Yong Peng Xu; Xiao Qiu Liu; Yue Hu Pei; Yong Kui Jing; Hui Ming Hua

    2008-01-01

    A new caged polyprenylated xanthone,gambogic aldehyde(1),was isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR data.In addition.the antiproliferative ability of compound 1 was determined in mouse leukemia P388 and P388/ADR ceils.

  12. Empirical evaluation of a practical indoor mobile robot navigation method using hybrid maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong;

    2010-01-01

    about partial areas. The global topological map is used to indicate the connectivity of the ‘places-of-interests’ in the environment and the interconnectivity of the local maps. Visual tags on the ceiling to be detected by the robot provide valuable information and contribute to reliable localization...

  13. Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Aerosols among Three Manikins in a Full-Scale Test Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, Rasmus Lund;

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on occupants’ exposure of aerosols exhaled by one susceptible in a full-scale test room. Three breathing thermal manikins are standing in the middle of room and both the process in the microenvironment and in the macroenvironment are considered. A diffusive ceiling has been ins...

  14. An Economic Analysis of the External Constraints on Reform of the Higher Education Admissions System in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jinfeng

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of an economic analysis of the intertwined role of the educational opportunities market and the educational products market, I believe that the unified entrance exam system currently in effect in China has, in reality, assumed the role of maintaining a price ceiling for opportunities in higher education. If we abolish the…

  15. The Portable Art Gallery: Fostering Student Ownership and Meaningful Artmaking through Exhibiting Student Artwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Jethro

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how High School Visual Arts Teacher Jethro Gillespie built a portable art gallery for his students--essentially an 8-foot cube made from plywood and lightweight boards that can be assembled with bolts and taken apart in sections. The ceiling pieces of the gallery have track lights, the interior walls have been painted gray,…

  16. Global Jobs%全球招聘新闻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A postdoctoral position is sought to study the ceils nuclear architecture in development, ageing and disease. The focus of the research will centre on how mutations within the lamins and other nuclear envelope proteins result in disease, including muscular dystrophy, cardiac conduction defects, lipodystrophy and ageing.

  17. Temperature Distribution in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The vertical temperature gradient is normally given as a linear temperature distribution between a minimum temperature close to the floor and a maximum temperature close to the ceiling. The minimum temperature can either be a constant fraction of a load dependent difference or it can be connected...

  18. User Experience on Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    What do a pink door, reading glasses, a website, and a Beetle Kill Pine ceiling have in common? Yes, readers will find them all in this collection of great design in libraries. But the reason they're featured is their important commonality: they were intentionally and thoughtfully placed in a library to meet people's needs or otherwise engage…

  19. Effects of folic acid on in vitro astrocytic differentiation of neural stem cells from neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xumei Zhang; Guowei Huang; Zhihong Tian; Guanglei Wang; Dalin Ren

    2009-01-01

    ary acidic protein/BrdU-positive ceils (P<0.05), and significantly decreased Ngn1 protein expression (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Folic acid promotes astrocytic differentiation of NSCs, which might be related to downregulation of Ngnl protein expression.

  20. 46 CFR 390.4 - Description of the agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS UNDER PUBLIC LAW 91-469 CAPITAL... or leased, and the allowable percentage of the depreciation ceiling, if any, available for deposit purposes by the party. See § 390.7 (relating to deposits) for allowable depreciation in the case of...

  1. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  2. Comparison of radiant and convective cooling of office room: effect of workstation layout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Rezgals, Lauris;

    2014-01-01

    The impact of heat source location (room layout) on the thermal environment generated in a double office room with four cooling ventilation systems - overhead ventilation, chilled ceiling with overhead ventilation, active chilled beam and active chilled beam with radiant panels was measured...

  3. 28 CFR 66.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  4. 13 CFR 143.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  5. 21 CFR 1403.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  6. 29 CFR 1470.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will... suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own...

  7. 15 CFR 24.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will... suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own...

  8. 36 CFR 1207.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will... suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own...

  9. 45 CFR 2541.360 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will... suitable; and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own...

  10. 43 CFR 12.76 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will... suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own...

  11. 44 CFR 13.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., selection of contract type, contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10... other contract is suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the...

  12. 10 CFR 600.236 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations... the basis for the contract price. (10) Grantees and subgrantees will use time and material type... includes a ceiling price that the contractor exceeds at its own risk. (11) Grantees and subgrantees...

  13. 24 CFR 85.36 - Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1368), Executive Order 11738, and Environmental Protection Agency regulations..., selection of contract type, contractor selection or rejection, and the basis for the contract price. (10... other contract is suitable, and (ii) If the contract includes a ceiling price that the...

  14. Student Perceptions of the Use and Educational Value of Technology at the STCC Starr County Campus: Implications for Technology Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Texas Community Coll., McAllen. Office of Institutional Research and Effectiveness.

    This is a report on the fall 2001 student survey conducted by South Texas Community College (STCC) to measure the amount of use and perceived educational value of seven types of educational technology: (1) overhead projector; (2) television/VCR; (3) ceiling mounted data projector; (4) DVD/CD-ROM; (5) document camera; (6) smart board; and (7)…

  15. Extraction of 3D Information from Circular Array Measurements for Auralization with Wave Field Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Diemer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of wave field synthesis (WFS systems is that they can reproduce sound sources and secondary (mirror image sources with natural spaciousness in a horizontal plane, and thus perform satisfactory 2D auralization of an enclosed space, based on multitrace impulse response data measured or simulated along a 2D microphone array. However, waves propagating with a nonzero elevation angle are also reproduced in the horizontal plane, which is neither physically nor perceptually correct. In most listening environments to be auralized, the floor is highly absorptive since it is covered with upholstered seats, occupied during performances by a well-dressed audience. A first-order ceiling reflection, reaching the floor directly or via a wall, will be severely damped and will not play a significant role in the room response anymore. This means that a spatially correct WFS reproduction of first-order ceiling reflections, by means of a loudspeaker array at the ceiling of the auralization reproduction room, is necessary and probably sufficient to create the desired 3D spatial perception. To determine the driving signals for the loudspeakers in the ceiling array, it is necessary to identify the relevant ceiling reflection(s in the multichannel impulse response data and separate those events from the data set. Two methods are examined to identify, separate, and reproduce the relevant reflections: application of the Radon transform, and decomposition of the data into cylindrical harmonics. Application to synthesized and measured data shows that both methods in principle are able to identify, separate, and reproduce the relevant events.

  16. The quadratic relationship between difficulty of intelligence test items and their correlations with working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz eSmoleń

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid intelligence (Gf is a crucial cognitive ability that involves abstract reasoning in order to solve novel problems. Recent research demonstrated that Gf strongly depends on the individual effectiveness of working memory (WM. We investigated a popular claim that if the storage capacity underlay the WM-Gf correlation, then such a correlation should increase with an increasing number of items or rules (load in a Gf test. As often no such link is observed, on that basis the storage-capacity account is rejected, and alternative accounts of Gf (e.g., related to executive control or processing speed are proposed. Using both analytical inference and numerical simulations, we demonstrated that the load-dependent change in correlation is primarily a function of the amount of floor/ceiling effect for particular items. Thus, the item-wise WM correlation of a Gf test depends on its overall difficulty, and the difficulty distribution across its items. When the early test items yield huge ceiling, but the late items do not approach floor, that correlation will increase throughout the test. If the early items locate themselves between ceiling and floor, but the late items approach floor, the respective correlation will decrease. For a hallmark Gf test, the Raven test, whose items span from ceiling to floor, the quadratic relationship is expected, and it was shown empirically using a large sample and two types of WMC tasks. In consequence, no changes in correlation due to varying WM/Gf load, or lack of them, can yield an argument for or against any theory of WM/Gf. Moreover, as the mathematical properties of the correlation formula make it relatively immune to ceiling/floor effects for overall moderate correlations, only minor changes (if any in the WM-Gf correlation should be expected for many psychological tests.

  17. New Developments of Smarter Education:From Flipped Classroom to Smart Classroom and Smart Learning Space%智慧教育新发展:从翻转课堂到智慧课堂及智慧学习空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝智庭

    2016-01-01

    本文首先梳理了智慧教育的源起背景、基本内涵、研究框架和实践定向,分析了翻转课堂应用实践的五大智慧亮点,指出翻转课堂的“效果天花板”和“认知天花板”。为了克服翻转课堂的不足,文章还提出了向智慧课堂转变的实用方法。最后,文章从五个角度论述了作为智慧课堂外延的智慧学习空间的设计思路。%This paper firstly reviewed the origins, backgrounds, connotation, research framework and practice orienta-tion of Smarter Education. It analyzed the five smart“bright spots” in the application and practice of Flipped Classro-oms, and pointed out the“ceiling of effect” and“ceiling of cognition” of Flipped Classrooms. These five smart bright spots are “self-paced learning and student-centered thinking”,“the man-machine’ s reasonable division of labor and bilateral complementary advantages”, “adopting blended learning and optimizing learning strategies”, “focu-sing on interpersonal collaboration and developing collective wisdom”, and “leadershipsˊ agile decision making and the courage and prudence of innovation”. In order to overcome the shortcomings of a Flipped Classroom ( i. e. the ceiling effect and the ceiling of cognition) , this paper also put forward a practical method to transform it to a Smart Classroom. To break through the ceiling of effect, we can use novel methods to improve the quality of learning re-sources and make interactive digital textbooks. To break through the ceiling of cognition, we also proposed some useful methods, such as optimizing teaching ecosystem, evidence-based evaluation and precision teaching, taking creation-driven leaning, creating smart leaning ecosystem, shifting teachers’ tasks from teaching and learning to teaching and practicing, and promoting the informationization teaching ability of teachers. Finally, we discussed the design philos-ophy of Smart Learning Space which is the

  18. Risk of Cross-Infection in a Hospital Ward with Downward Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Li, Yuguo; Buus, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    A two-bed hospital ward with one standing healthcare person and a ceiling-mounted lowimpulse semicircular inlet diffuser is simulated in a full-scale room. Tracer gas is used for simulating gaseous contaminants, and the concentration is measured at different air change rates and different postures...... of the patients. A textile partition between the beds, which is typical in a hospital ward, is used for protection of the patients in some of the experiments. Three different layouts of return openings are tested. One layout with one opening at the ceiling, another with four openings at the wall opposite...... to the inlet diffuser, and one with a high location of these four openings. The downward recirculating flow is on average parallel with the partition, and in most cases the partition does not decrease cross-infection. A high location of the four return openings decreases the risk of cross-infection....

  19. Numerical Investigation of Subsonic Flow through an Aggressive Flat Bottom Diffuser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mati, Nicholas Alexander

    Airflow through an aggressive, constant pressure gradient, flat-bottomed 2D diffuser is simulated with the compressible version of the stabilized, implicit finite element code PHASTA. The freestream Mach number of fluid entering the diffuser is held at a value of M=0.7 with a PI feedback loop. For a quasi 1D flow, the expansion ratio of AAIP / AInlet = 2.33 produces a Mach number of 0.25 by the end of the diffuser or Aerodynamics Interface Plane (AIP). However, the compact geometry and high targeted pressure gradient of dp/dx=162 kPa/m result in massive asymmetric separation off of the curved ceiling. Wall suction is applied to the ceiling, floor, and corners of the duct as a flow control surrogate while the geometry is iterated to better achieve the targeted pressure gradient. The separation dynamics are then studied in greater detail with both URANS and DDES simulations.

  20. Involvement of CFTR in Uterine Bicarbonate Secretion and the Fertilizing Capacity of Sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXiao,Fei; ZhouChen-Xi; ShiQi-Xian; YuanYu-Ying; YuMei-Kuen; LouisChukwuemekaAjonuma

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFFR)is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells,mutations of which are responsible for the hallmark defective chloride secretion observed in cystic fibrosis(CF).Although CFTR has been implicated in bicarbonate secretion,its ability to directly mediate bicarbonate secretion of any physiological significance has not been shown.We demonstrate here that endometriaI epithelial ceils possess a CFTR-mediated bicarbonate transport mechanism.Co-culture of sperm with endometrial ceils treated with antisense oligonucleotide against CFTR,or with bicarbonate secretion-defective CF epithelial cells,resulted in lower sperm capacitation and egg-fertilizing ability.These results are consistent with a critical role of CFTR in controlling uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm,providing a link between defective CFTR and lower female fertility in CF.

  1. Influence of the ventilation system on thermal comfort of the chilled panel system in heating mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Zhe; Ding, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Yin, Xinglei; Wang, Menglei [Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    In heating mode, fresh air is still essential for a chilled panel system in order to ensure the indoor air quality. In this paper, a chilled ceiling panel system was designed and built in a typical office room. The thermal environment and thermal comfort in the room were fully measured and evaluated by using the Fanger's PMV-PPD model and the standard of ISO 7730 respectively, when room was heated in two modes, one of which is the chilled panel heating mode and the other of which is the combined heating mode of chilled panel and supply air. The research results indicate that in the combined mode, ceiling ventilation improves the general thermal comfort and reduces the risk of local discomfort. Under the condition of same general thermal comfort, the heating supply upper limit of chilled panel can be increased by 12.3% because of air mixing effect caused by introduction of air ventilation. (author)

  2. Development of mechanical ventilation system with low energy consumption for renovation of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkildsen, Søren

    III reports on an investigation into the performance of diffuse ceiling ventilation in a school classroom. The investigation included tracer gas, air velocity and temperature measurements and showed perfect mixing of the air in the room without any discomfort issues. The diffuse ceiling ventilation...... of natural and hybrid ventilation systems is intended to reduce the energy consumption for ventilation, specifically the power consumption of fans in mechanical systems, but these alternative systems have other flaws, e.g. higher ventilation heat loss. Meanwhile, little has been done to improve......’s, and the objective was to provide comfort ventilation all year round and avoid overheating through increased ventilation and night cooling. This would mean that only one system needs to be installed and mechanical cooling is unnecessary. The potential to reduce pressure losses was examined for the main constituting...

  3. Experimental Study of Tunnel Fire with Natural Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhong-yuan; LEI Bo; CHEN Peng-Yun

    2009-01-01

    The 1/15 reduced-scale experiments using Froude scaling were designed to study the effect on the smoke control efficiency for subway tunnel fires with natural ventilation mode.The propane gas fires with heat release rate 11.48 kW was used,which corresponds to the heat release rate 10 MW in the full-scale tunnel.The temperature distributions under the ceiling were measured by K-type thermocouples to investigate smoke move-ment,and the velocity of smoke in shafts was measured by hot-wire anemometer to obtain the smoke extract amount of ventilation shafts.The results show that the smoke temperature under the ceiling varies with the lon-gitudinal different distance from fire Source.The results also show that the smoke temperature distributions and the smoke control efficiency in tunnel vary with the space between ventilation shafts and vary with the area and the height of ventilation shaft.

  4. Experimental study on CO2/CO of typical lining materials in full-scale fire test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG HePing; WAN YuTian

    2007-01-01

    Lining materials are widely used in buildings to cover walls and ceilings. Combustible linings may produce a potential high fire hazard in buildings. Once ignited, it propagates fire and accelerates the enclosure fire growth. Two types of lining materials were studied during the tests: blook board and plywood. The test was conducted in an ISO 9705 room, where linings were mounted on walls without the ceiling. By changing the heat output of the burner, the ventilation, etc., the concentrations of CO2/CO of different lining materials were researched. The effect of test conditions on the production of CO2/CO of different lining materials was investigated, and useful experimental data were provided for the further development of numerical modeling to simulate enclosure fire growth lined with combustible materials.

  5. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne;

    2014-01-01

    .96 in the two samples. A ceiling effect was found in all items of both samples. Conclusions: This study indicates that the SATS may be reliably administered for telephone interviews among adult PWC and scooter users, and give information about aspects of the service delivery process for quality development......Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs...... (PWCs) or powered scooters (scooters). Method: Test–retest design, two telephone interviews 7–18 days apart of 40 informants, with mean age of 67.5 (SD 13.09) years in the Danish; and 54 informants with mean age of 55.6 (SD 12.09) years in the Finnish sample. Results: The intra-class correlation...

  6. An online algorithm for generating fractal hash chains applied to digital chains of custody

    CERN Document Server

    Bradford, Phillip G

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an online algorithm for generating Jakobsson's fractal hash chains. Our new algorithm compliments Jakobsson's fractal hash chain algorithm for preimage traversal since his algorithm assumes the entire hash chain is precomputed and a particular list of Ceiling(log n) hash elements or pebbles are saved. Our online algorithm for hash chain traversal incrementally generates a hash chain of n hash elements without knowledge of n before it starts. For any n, our algorithm stores only the Ceiling(log n) pebbles which are precisely the inputs for Jakobsson's amortized hash chain preimage traversal algorithm. This compact representation is useful to generate, traverse, and store a number of large digital hash chains on a small and constrained device. We also give an application using both Jakobsson's and our new algorithm applied to digital chains of custody for validating dynamically changing forensics data.

  7. Pumping fluids in microfluidic systems using the elastic deformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Douglas B; Siegel, Adam C; Lee, Andrew; George, Alexander H; Whitesides, George M

    2007-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for storing and pumping fluids that provide a useful capability for microfluidic devices. It uses microfluidic screw valves to isolate fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microcompartments, in which the pressure of the liquid is stored in the elastic deformation of the walls and ceiling of the compartments. Fluids can be stored under pressure in these structures for months. When the valves are opened, the walls and ceiling push the fluid out of the compartments into microfluidic channels. The system has five useful characteristics: (i) it is made using soft lithographic techniques; (ii) it allows multiple reagents to be preloaded in devices and stored under pressure without any additional user intervention; (iii) it makes it possible to meter out fluids in devices, and to control rates of flow of fluids; (iv) it prevents the user from exposure to potentially toxic reagents; and (v) it is hand-operated and does not require additional equipment or resources. PMID:18030408

  8. Reliability and Validity Testing of a Danish Translated Version of Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) v 1.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Ane; Carreon, Leah Y.; Hansen, Karen Hoejmark;

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Objective To develop a psychometrically reliable and valid Danish version of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ). Summary of Background Data The SAQ was developed as a disease-specific measure of quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis...... administered to 78 AIS patients two weeks apart. Baseline and follow-up scores were compared. Cronbach's α and intraclass correlations were used to determine reliability. Correlation of SAQ domains with SRS-22R domains was calculated. Discriminative properties were compared by computing effect size...... and standardized response mean. Results Fifty-one patients returned both the baseline and follow-up questionnaires, with an average age 16 ± 3 years and 40.8 ± 28.8 days between baseline and follow-up. There were no floor or ceiling effects for SAQ Appearance. There was a low floor effect and moderate ceiling...

  9. CHIS - Annual adjustment of benefits and fixed contributions

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    As foreseen by the CHIS Rules, an annual adjustment is applied to: ceilings for certain benefits contributions for voluntary membership as well as supplementary contributions for spouses/partners. Benefits The ceilings have been maintained at the level of 2009. The full list of benefits is available on the CHIS Website.   Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on reference salary II is now 975 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntary affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this rate (487 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntary affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. A rate of 390 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and temporarily basis.   Supplementary contributions From 1st January 2010 the supplementary contribution for the spouse or registered partner of a staff member, fellow or pensioner is as follow...

  10. Experimental study of the heat transfers and passive cooling potential of a ventilated plenum designed for uniform air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Lessing, Julian

    2016-01-01

    suspended ceiling to uniformly distribute the supply air to the occupied zone. This, in effect, increases the thermal mass of the room because the upper slab of the room no longer is isolated from the occupied zone. In this study, the cooling potential of a diffuse ceiling ventilation system....... The established heat transfer coefficient is used for analysis of the cooling performance of the system in dynamic building simulation program which showed that during peak summer days, the scenario with ventilated plenum would exhibit temperatures in the occupied zone approx. 1-1.5 °C lower than the baseline...... with unventilated plenum. In conclusion this study disclosed the mean heat transfer of the plenum with an inlet jet of approx. 1.2-0.4 m/s and temperature differences of 0.5-4.5 °C and showed that ventilation supply through the plenum can be used to augment the night cooling potential....

  11. Timbral aspects of reproduced sound in small rooms. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Søren

    1995-01-01

    speech. The results have shown that the first-order floor and ceiling reflections are likely to individually contribute to the timbre of reproduced speech. For a noise signal, additional reflections from the left sidewall will contribute individually. The level of the reverberant field has been found to......, has been simulated using an electroacoustic setup. The model included the direct sound, 17 individual reflections, and the reverberant field. The threshold of detection and just-noticeable differences for an increase in level were measured for individual reflections using eight subjects for noise and...... have an effect on the contribution of the individual reflections. An increase in the level of individual reflections are most likely to be audible for the first-order floor and ceiling reflections, and certain reflections from the sidewalls....

  12. DURABILITY OF MIXED MORTAR LINING CONTAINING DREGS-GRITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Zanella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The improper disposal of industrial waste and exploitation of natural resources has resulted in the scarcity of river sand and environmental degradation, such as river erosions and pollution. This study aimed to assess the durability of mixed mortar lining walls and ceilings, containing 0 (default, 10 and 20% of dregs-grits compounds-waste of the pulp industry-in substitution with river sand. This was done with tests that simulated both natural and artificial conditions: Direct solar incidence (testing ultraviolet radiation, attack by spraying solution (salt spray test, natural warming of the walls and ceilings incidence by indirect solar (thermal degradation and residential fires (thermogravimetric test, in compliance with both national and/or international standards. The grout containing dregs-grits compounds showed similarity to standard (0% for testing thermal degradability, thermogravimetric and ultraviolet radiation, but shows significantly less durability when exposed to salty environments.

  13. Question-order Effects in the Domains of Language and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peta-Kaye Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of question-order on respondents’ choices is well-studied and well established, but these effects are not always present and are sometimes contradictory. The question of whether prior involvement in an issue alters the question-order effect also exists. We examined the effect of question-order, or context, on the stated values of participants by exploiting the saliency effect through the use of framing questions. Although our results showed some influence of question order, we encountered a ceiling effect. Our ceiling may have been caused by the same factor observed by Rimal and Real (2005: high-involvement mitigates question-order effect. Nevertheless, for those interested in educational campaigns, studying how context influences an individual’s values and preferences is a subject worthy of further pursuit.

  14. Point clouds segmentation as base for as-built BIM creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, H.; Landes, T.; Grussenmeyer, P.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a three steps segmentation approach is proposed in order to create 3D models from point clouds acquired by TLS inside buildings. The three scales of segmentation are floors, rooms and planes composing the rooms. First, floor segmentation is performed based on analysis of point distribution along Z axis. Then, for each floor, room segmentation is achieved considering a slice of point cloud at ceiling level. Finally, planes are segmented for each room, and planes corresponding to ceilings and floors are identified. Results of each step are analysed and potential improvements are proposed. Based on segmented point clouds, the creation of as-built BIM is considered in a future work section. Not only the classification of planes into several categories is proposed, but the potential use of point clouds acquired outside buildings is also considered.

  15. Influence of impedance phase angle on sound pressures and reverberation times in a rectangular room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Lee, Doheon; Santurette, Sébastien;

    2014-01-01

    In most room acoustic predictions, phase shift on reflection has been overlooked. This study aims to quantify the effects of the surface impedance phase angle of the boundary surfaces on room acoustic conditions. As a preliminary attempt, a medium-sized rectangular room is simulated by a phased......, but with an absorptive ceiling are investigated. The zero phase angle, which has commonly been assumed in practice, is regarded as reference and differences in the sound pressure level and early decay time from the reference are quantified. As expected, larger differences in the room acoustic parameters are found......-uniform settings, the change in the impedance phase angle of the ceiling does not affect the acoustic conditions significantly....

  16. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard;

    2014-01-01

    with a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier directly...... cloth has very little impact. The measured water vapour resistance for specimens with acrylic paint was the highest, these were measured to be up to approximately 3·109 Pa·m 2 ·s/kg which is considerably less than 50·109 Pa·m2·s/kg as recommended for a vapour barrier. Therefore, two layers of ordinary...... acrylic paint on glass felt or glass fibre cloth cannot be used instead of a vapour barrier....

  17. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M;

    2009-01-01

    questionnaire (OAKHQOL). The patients were given a second KOOS or HOOS questionnaire to complete and return by mail 2 weeks later. Feasibility was assessed by calculating the percentage of missing items and the floor and ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using the intra-class correlation......-articular hyaluronic acid injection, using standardized response mean (SRM) and effect-size (ES). RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients with knee OA and 50 hip OA patients were included. The KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS scores were obtained for all patients as there were no missing items. Neither a floor nor a ceiling effect......-PS are reliable, valid, and responsive questionnaires for capturing functional disability in people with knee and hip OA....

  18. Intrastate and interstate supply markets under the Natural Gas Policy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, M.; O' Neill, R.; Shambaugh, P.; Trapmann, W.

    1981-10-01

    This report examines the interstate and intrastate markets in a historical perspective, particularly as they relate to the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978. Specifically, the intrastate market at the time of NGPA enactment is examined with respect to sales quantities, prices, rollover contracts, and price escalation clauses. Also, a comparison of the pipeline purchasing behavior in the interstate and intrastate markets since NGPA enactment is included. Using the information currently available, this study reaches five general conclusions: (1) There will be a significant difference in the price ceilings for old gas in the interstate and intrastate markets. All old interstate gas is governed by just and reasonable prices under the Natural Gas Act. Old intrastate gas has higher price ceilings and with the indefinite clauses, should experience faster price growth. (2) In 1985 old interstate gas, which remains under controls indefinitely, will remain at low prices.

  19. Epoxy injection repairs to concrete in 225-B Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollert, F.R.

    1996-09-19

    In 1982, the damaged anchor areas (67 total) in the Operating Gallery and cold manipulator shop ceiling reinforced concrete slabs were epoxy injection repaired by Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL), Portland Cement Association. The through depth vertical cracks (10 total) in the ceiling slabs in the galleries and manipulator shops were sealed and structurally repaired using epoxy injection procedures. The details of the epoxy reRair are reported. Sonic nondestructive (NDT) testing before and after the epoxy injection repairs were made by CTL to confirm that the repairs are structurally effective. CTL recommended to expedite the installation of lateral bracing for the manipulator monorail in order to avoid re-darnage to the repaired anchor areas.

  20. Analysis of vertical ground loop heat exchangers applied to buildings in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Underwood, Chris; Spitler, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The work presented here deals with the design and performance of ground-source heat pumps and ground-sink cooling systems using vertical borehole arrays for commercial applications in the UK. Heating and cooling energy demands for a range of building and HVAC plant options are obtained by thermal modelling applied to four HVAC plant options: space heating only; heating with chilled ceilings; fan coil units and constant volume all-air plant. Ground loop designs are conducted for each system op...